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Art Simplified (2023)

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<strong>Art</strong> simplified<br />

A short guide to the Introduction to <strong>Art</strong><br />

by students at Eastlake High School


Learning outside


the box<br />

Greetings from Eastlake High School<br />

This zine is dedicated to introduce the world of art, we as a class <strong>Art</strong> 104 came together and made a<br />

book that goes into depth about the different aspects of <strong>Art</strong>. Different ideas are implied to explain the<br />

wide variation of expressions. <strong>Art</strong> can be seen in everything, nothing is discr of expressions. <strong>Art</strong> can be<br />

seen in everything, nothing is discriminated.iminated.


Connecting the


Why a zine?<br />

dots<br />

Zines are much easier to create and use because they allow<br />

individuals to express themselves freely and independently<br />

without acquiring the same level of resources as traditional<br />

magazines. A zine is a self-published, small-circulation<br />

magazine that covers various topics like art, music, or<br />

personal stories.<br />

A Brief History on Zines?


A Message from the Instructor<br />

Making the impossible<br />

Through creating this zine, my hope is that you can approach learning outside-the-box, and that if you decide to go<br />

to college you take part of your own education by asking questions about how you learn. The purpose of the zine<br />

was open your mind to different ways of learning.<br />

This zine is about community. Its about understanding each others needs and providing a web of support. To be<br />

honest about what we need from the class, how it aligns with personal goals, and to help each other through the<br />

steps. Through your participation you help to reduce the workload and increase learning.<br />

The function of the zine is to give everyone a fair chance to learn and pass the class, because learning shouldn’t be<br />

about who is better or worse, its about why learning is relevant to life. Some of you may or may not be artist in the<br />

future, but through this class, when you see a work of art you think of something you learned from this class.<br />

I have deep gratitude to the students of ART104 Introduction to <strong>Art</strong> at Eastlake High School. Thank you for<br />

reminding me just how difficult it can be to be in high school and why I continue to fight for the education you<br />

deserve. I believe that learning should be centered around the individual and see this zine as proof of that success.<br />

With Respect, Rizz


This Zine was produced with the support of<br />

Lois Fichner-Rathus’ textbook Understanding <strong>Art</strong><br />

possible<br />

together<br />

Jalicia Franco<br />

Karlie Guardado<br />

Alexa Hernandez<br />

Jeffrey Hobson<br />

Sophia Johnson<br />

Alex Kim<br />

Savannah King<br />

Ammar Mahsud<br />

Kendrick Manlap<br />

Miguel Martinez<br />

Dominic Peralta<br />

Dianalyn Rabago<br />

Katya Rosales<br />

Karly Rust<br />

Soraya Sandoval<br />

Rylan Scharman<br />

Kyelin Alexis Straukas<br />

Natalie Tscherch<br />

Ivy Vo<br />

Jana Yacoub<br />

Eric Yang<br />

Mateo Zaldivar


What does learning look like to you?<br />

R-E-S-P-E-C-T<br />

find out what


ART104 Community Agreements<br />

A community agreement is how we decide to build a safe space for learning<br />

it means to you<br />

When someone is speaking the other person listens<br />

Give everyone a chance to participate<br />

Remaining silent during presentations or quizzes, unless a discussion is encouraged<br />

Maintain positivity in class<br />

Treating others with respect<br />

Be respectful<br />

Personal attacks such as name calling or abuse shouldn’t be tolerated<br />

Judgment free of everyone's responses<br />

Taking a 10 minute break every class to allow people to refocus<br />

Respecting others privacy<br />

Display focus<br />

Be open-minded to everyone’s different viewpoints<br />

Be respectful and pay attention to your fellow classmates and teacher<br />

Respecting other classmate’s boundaries on various topics/subjects<br />

Do not be judgmental towards classmates questions in class discussions<br />

Taking breaks during class to refocus<br />

Be open to what you could learn from other students in the class<br />

Be accountable for your actions


Table of Contents


UNDERSTANDING ART<br />

FORM:<br />

Refers to the totality of a composition or design<br />

the arrangement or organization of all of its<br />

visual elements<br />

Provides substance to a SUBJECT or idea<br />

Utilizes visual strategies and pictorial devices to<br />

express and communicate<br />

Form represents the how and what of any<br />

presented art<br />

STYLE:<br />

Distinctive mode of expression<br />

based on how an artist controls<br />

their own mediums and techniques<br />

MEDIUMS AND TECHNIQUES:<br />

A MEDIUM is any physical substance<br />

utilized by an artist<br />

TECHNIQUES are specific methods in which<br />

mediums are handled<br />

CONTENT:<br />

Refers to a work’s array of intangible<br />

aspects: the emotional, intellectual,<br />

psychological, symbolic elements<br />

Represents the “why” in a work of art<br />

Architecture is rich in content in the<br />

materials and technical means used<br />

Content can imply the matter of a<br />

SUBJECT<br />

ICONOGRAPHY:<br />

The study of themes and symbolsfigures<br />

and images<br />

VISUAL ELEMENS AND<br />

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN:<br />

Line, Shape, Value, Color, Texture, Space,<br />

Time and Motion<br />

Unity, Variety, Emphasis, Focal Point,<br />

Balance, Rhythm, Proportion<br />

SUBJECT:<br />

The subject is the what of a work of art—people, places, things, themes, processes, events, ideas.<br />

It’s recognizable/reflects some sort of visual experience.<br />

Specific categories of subjects are called GENRES.<br />

GENRES include religious or mythological subjects, historical subjects, portraiture, still life,<br />

landscape, nonobjective art, and more.<br />

A SUBJECT is much more than a recognizable representation of a tangible thing.<br />

Chapter 1: Understanding <strong>Art</strong><br />

Chapter notes by: Natalie Tscherch


UNDERSTANDING ART<br />

ABSTRACTION:<br />

Defined as art that does not imitate or clearly<br />

represent visible reality<br />

The complete opposite of realism<br />

NONOBJECTIVE ART:<br />

Does not begin with objects in the visible world<br />

The artist creates compositions from the elements of art—<br />

line, shape, color, texture, and so on<br />

REALISM:<br />

Refers to the replication—through artistic means<br />

—of people and things as they are seen by the eye<br />

or really thought to be, without idealization,<br />

without distortion<br />

Can cater to realistic interpretations of humans<br />

and nature<br />

EXPRESSIONISM:<br />

A style that reflects a subjective, “inner world”—<br />

a style that conveys the psychological and<br />

emotional state of the artist<br />

Uses the distortion and exaggeration of form,<br />

color, brushwork, texture, and other elements<br />

Chapter 1: Understanding <strong>Art</strong><br />

Chapter notes by: Natalie Tscherch<br />

An image of Kandinsky's “Composition VII”,<br />

encompassing the vital principles of design and his<br />

ability to create conceptual art without a tangible<br />

object fabricated by the artist.


Value- the value of a color is<br />

determined by the amount of<br />

light reflected by the color.<br />

Value can help in evoking a<br />

certain mood or feeling.<br />

Value Contrast: refers to<br />

the degrees of difference<br />

between shades of grays<br />

(the darkness and<br />

lightness of a piece).<br />

High Contrast→ darker<br />

blacks and brighter whites<br />

Low Contrast → middle<br />

grays<br />

Low-Key V High Key Values-<br />

The key value of an art piece<br />

can suggest mood. <strong>Art</strong> pieces<br />

with a low-key value range<br />

move towards black which<br />

creates a somber or relaxing,<br />

dark or moody sensation. <strong>Art</strong><br />

pieces with high-key value<br />

ranges that move toward white<br />

on the contrast scale are<br />

perceived as uplifting and<br />

stimulating, light and dreamy.<br />

Light and Color<br />

Chiaroscuro- is the<br />

distribution of light and<br />

dark in a piece. It is a<br />

technique that helps<br />

create 3-D objects.<br />

Tenebrism- a technique<br />

that emphasizes the<br />

effects of chiaroscuro.<br />

Darkness becomes the<br />

dominating feature of the<br />

image.<br />

Highlight-When<br />

lighting is the<br />

harshest<br />

The twelve-point wheel—a<br />

method of orga-nizing color<br />

relationships<br />

Three primary<br />

pigment colors—red,<br />

blue, and yellow from<br />

which all colors can be<br />

derived<br />

HUE- Simply defined, hue<br />

is pure, unadulterated<br />

color<br />

adding white produces<br />

tints<br />

Mixing gray with a color<br />

can create a variety of<br />

tones.<br />

Intensity and saturationare<br />

synonymous terms that<br />

describe the brightness<br />

or dullness of a color.<br />

Color Schemes-<br />

Planned combinations<br />

of color<br />

Complementary<br />

color schemesare<br />

based on colors<br />

that are across from<br />

one another on the<br />

color wheel—colors that<br />

“tug” equally at the eye<br />

COLOR-<br />

The brain interprets different light waves of of<br />

varying lengths as different colors<br />

Color is an expressive tool, emotional<br />

association of color.<br />

Red is rage, blue is sad, white is fright, etc.<br />

Created by: Karlie Guardado


LINE and Shape<br />

LINE<br />

An infinite amount of lines exist,<br />

while literally or theoretically. Such<br />

as the line of sight, dotted lines,<br />

physical lines, any moving point<br />

from one point to another. Lines<br />

can be curved, used to add texture<br />

and depth to a painting<br />

SHAPE<br />

Contains an area of composition,<br />

it being recognized by<br />

associations. These shapes can<br />

be natural, abstract, geometric or<br />

made to be unrecognizable.<br />

Shapes are made of compositions<br />

of lines.<br />

Elizabeth Catlett, Sharecropper (1968). Usage of<br />

lines as shading and depth.<br />

Measures & Quality of Line<br />

Can be any size, length, width, thickness, any point<br />

of direction<br />

Actual, Implied Psychological<br />

Lines<br />

Lines can be physically present, implied, a sense of<br />

movement within the piece. They can express<br />

emotion depending of the stroke of line. Lines are<br />

psychological, having a invisible linear path in<br />

order to create connections within a piece<br />

Directionality of Line<br />

Vertical, horizontal, diagonal, sometimes defy<br />

gravity<br />

Outline and Contour Line<br />

A concrete boundary, and a percieved line that gives the illusion<br />

of the painting being 3D<br />

Line value and Shape<br />

pes of shading such as cross-hatching- lines crossed, stippling- several<br />

dots, hatching- spaced parallel lines.<br />

Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (1907.<br />

Usage of lines, abstract and geometric shapes.<br />

I. M. Pei, Pyramid at the Louvre, Paris, France. The<br />

usage of geometric shapes in arcitecture.<br />

Form<br />

Generally used to describe 3D shapes, texture,<br />

design, balance ,rhythm<br />

Volume & Mass<br />

The containment, the amount of space. The bulk<br />

of the shape<br />

Geometric<br />

Shapes generally seen in mathematics, such as:<br />

triangles, rectangles<br />

Organic<br />

Shapes that are seen in nature, natural curves and<br />

edges, natural curves and edges<br />

Non objective, Abstract and<br />

Shapelessness<br />

Make no reference to reality, no exact association<br />

Positive and Negative Shapes, Figure and Ground<br />

Refers to the figure and the area that surrounds the figure. Creates a dynamic and a<br />

focal point within the piece.<br />

Shape as Icon<br />

Some shapes are so influential that they carry immediate associations, such as<br />

logos, objects, products and even public figures. Public figures facial features are<br />

simplified to recognizable shapes.


TEXTURE AND PATTERN<br />

TEXTURE<br />

Texture derives from Latin for<br />

“weaving”<br />

Texture describes the surface character<br />

of woven fabrics and other materials as<br />

experienced primarily through the<br />

sense of touch<br />

<strong>Art</strong>ists create illusion of texture in twodimensional<br />

art forms such as drawing<br />

or painting<br />

Texture is described as actual or visual<br />

PATTERN<br />

Pattern is design based on the<br />

repetition or grouping of elements such<br />

as line, shape, color, or texture<br />

A pattern on a flat surface may be<br />

enriched by contrasts in visual texture<br />

Texture can be used in concert with<br />

pattern to make an art piece more<br />

visually appealing<br />

Actual Texture<br />

Actual texture is actually related to the<br />

materials used to create the work<br />

Your fingertips register sensations: rough,<br />

smooth, sharp, hard, or soft, which all<br />

describe actual texture<br />

Chapter 4: Texture & Pattern<br />

Chapter notes by Dominic Peralta<br />

Visual Texture<br />

Visual texture is the illusion of an actual<br />

texture<br />

The illusion can be so convincing that it is<br />

tempting to reach out and touch the work<br />

to reconcile that which the eyes see with<br />

what the brain knows<br />

Invented texture is a version of visual<br />

texture that makes no reference to visible<br />

reality


Over<br />

Lapping<br />

Chapter 5: “Space, Time & Motion”<br />

Chapter notes by Ammar Mahsud<br />

Space Time & Motion<br />

Actual Space:<br />

Space is considered an important element of art<br />

Freestanding Sculpture: A sculpture one can walk around and it takes up three<br />

dimensional space<br />

Creating The Illusion Of Space:<br />

Actual space refers to the dimension in which we live and move<br />

Implied Space/Pictorial Space: Illusionistic space of a two dimensional<br />

composition<br />

-> Such is created through the use of artist’s devices. Ex) relative size,<br />

overlapping, transparency, perspective, vertical positioning<br />

Relative Size:<br />

Ex) The farther an object is from your eyes, the smaller it appears<br />

<strong>Art</strong>ists use it to vary size of objects<br />

-> Can highlight importance of certain objects as compared to others<br />

Overlapping:<br />

Relative size and Overlapping work hand in hand<br />

Useful if there is not enough space (can show the limited space)<br />

Also useful if there isn’t much space between the objects in a piece of art<br />

Used frequently in still life compositions, and to show relationships between<br />

objects<br />

Location:<br />

Location(Vertical Positioning) is used to signify depth<br />

Different from other devices, relies on viewers perception<br />

Atmospheric Perspective:<br />

Atmospheric perspective(aerial perspective) is a technique to illustrate<br />

depth, but incorporates different gradients, saturations, and interplay of<br />

colors<br />

<strong>Art</strong>ists will create depth in such a way, by altering the texture of objects<br />

depending on how close they are<br />

One-Point Perspective:<br />

System that allows artist to display three-dimensional world onto a twodimensional<br />

surface<br />

This is done by accurately representing the size of objects in the depth of the<br />

receding space


Linear Perspective:<br />

Formal system used by artists to convey three-dimensional objects in two dimensional space<br />

The goal is to recrate the same perceptions as that in a three dimensional space by viewing through a vantage point<br />

As objects recede from the viewers vision, and eventually vanish, the point they reach is the vanishing point<br />

Horizon: Imaginary line where the earth and sky meet<br />

Two-Point Perspective:<br />

Used to represent the recession of an object that are seen from an angle<br />

Optical and Conceptual Representation:<br />

Optical Representation: Representation of figures and objects from a singular vantage point<br />

Conceptual Representation: Distinctive characteristics of figures and objects as viewed from many different<br />

perspectives<br />

Combination of these different perspectives and other perspectives is called a composite view or twisted perspective<br />

Multiple Perspectives:<br />

The use of multiple perspectives can create a fuller and more complete visual of an impression of art, as compared to<br />

a narrow view<br />

Such thoughts were a part of the Futurist Movement ( Futurists thought that the subject of their work was less<br />

important than the “dynamic sensation” of their work”<br />

Time and Motion:<br />

Futurists moved this incorporation of Time and Motion<br />

They focused on the incorporation of motion in art<br />

Their work represents an exaggeration of motion in art<br />

Actual Motion:<br />

<strong>Art</strong>ists incorporate such motion to make static images convert into active images<br />

This has been termed to modern day kinetic art, dealing with motion<br />

Multiplication of Images and Blurred Lines:<br />

Rapid movement creates a sense of Blurriness<br />

Such blurring outlines creates an illusion of motion<br />

Such can be recreated by creating multiple exposures of a picture<br />

Implied Motion:<br />

In art, implied motion in a figure can be suggested by the tensing of muscles<br />

It may also suggest that a change in the position or location of elements is occurring.<br />

Optical Sensation:<br />

Optical sensations are created by repetition of line and shape and the manipulation of high-contrast values and<br />

complementary colors<br />

Implied Time:<br />

Motion occurs over time, so they are both related<br />

Implied time is the portrayal of the passage or duration of time


Principles of Design:<br />

Composition- The act of organizing the visual elements to effect a<br />

desired aesthetic in a work of art<br />

Unity- Is a oneness or wholeness. A work of art exhibits unity when its<br />

parts seem necessary to the composition as a whole and can be<br />

suggested with similar elements such as grids, shapes, and colors.<br />

The line Is a common way of unifying the components or elements of a<br />

composition or to lead the viewer's eyes along a visual<br />

Unity with Variety:<br />

When work has a strong sense of unity that is interrupted by other<br />

elements that diverge from the predominant compositional scheme, we<br />

say it exhibits Variety with Unity.<br />

<strong>Art</strong>ists often use a variety with unity, eitherr instinctively or in a<br />

conscious effort to stimulate interest and amplify the complexity of a<br />

work.<br />

Variety draws out the relationships that unify the composition.<br />

Disunity is akin to sensory overload or, put another way, compositional<br />

chaos.<br />

ARTISTS USE FOCAL points and emphasis to draw attention to specific<br />

parts of a composition to reinforce certain themes or to create visual<br />

impact.<br />

These tools to create emphasis include focal points, isolation,<br />

placement, and contrasts between static and dynamic elements and<br />

between straight and curving lines.<br />

Balance creates a sense of stability. <strong>Art</strong>ists may choose imbalance over<br />

balance or chaotic, disruptive rhythms in their compositions to<br />

penetrate the viewer’s comfort zone, to challenge the conventional and<br />

predictable,<br />

or to convey a certain message. Symmetry refers to the similarity<br />

of form or arrangement on either side of a dividing line or plane, or to<br />

the correspondence of parts in size, shape, and position.<br />

Balance<br />

contrast<br />

Types of Rhythm:<br />

Rhythm in the arts is created by repetition,<br />

and repetitive patterns convey a sense of<br />

movement.<br />

An alternating rhythm occurs when different elements<br />

in a work of art or architecture are repeated in a regular,<br />

predictable order<br />

progressive rhythm, in which the rhythm of elements of a work of art such<br />

as shape, texture, or color change slightly as they move, or progress,<br />

toward a defined point in the composition.<br />

Scale refers to the size of a work or a form in relation/compared to the<br />

average size of a human being.<br />

describes the size of objects in relation to others like them or to things<br />

around them.<br />

Proportion is the relationship of size between various components within<br />

one whole object.<br />

example could be the proportion of the eyes, nose, and mouth inside a<br />

face.<br />

Golden rules:<br />

The Golden Mean requires that a small part of a work should relate to a<br />

larger part of the work, just as a larger part relates to the whole.<br />

A Golden Rectangle can be created from any square mathematically—that<br />

is, by adding a rectangle whose longer side is 1.6180 times the length of<br />

the shorter side.<br />

The root five rectangle length of the rectangle is 2.236 (the square root of<br />

5) times the width of the rectangle.<br />

For the Greeks, the Golden Rectangle and Root Five Rectangle represented<br />

the most pleasing dimensions and proportions of a rectangle; they became<br />

the basis for many temple designs<br />

repetition<br />

& rhythm<br />

unity


Painting<br />

The primary aspect of painting is applying<br />

liquid material to a surface with an<br />

implement<br />

liquid material-pigment<br />

implement-brush<br />

surface- two dimensional<br />

-almost no limits<br />

Componets of Paint<br />

-Liquid coverted to solid when applied to<br />

surface<br />

-Must be combined with a binding agent or<br />

vehicle in its powdered form<br />

-vehicles can be wax, plaster, egg yolk, oil, or<br />

water<br />

-the pliability and fluency of the paint<br />

depends on the medium<br />

-the medium is a liquid material such as water<br />

or turpentine<br />

Types of<br />

Painting<br />

PALEOLITHIC: 30,000 years ago, created<br />

with black pigment and red ocher, painted of<br />

papyrus and linen<br />

GOLDEN AGE/RENISSANCE: murals, wood<br />

panels, more affordable to produce, can be<br />

bought by masses.<br />

FRESCO: painting on a platter, Buon/True<br />

fresco is on damp lime plaster, pigments are<br />

mixed with only water, lime of the plaster<br />

wall acts as a vehicle, as the wall dries the<br />

painted image becomes permanent. Fresco<br />

secco is a less permanent method where the<br />

pigments are combined with a vehicle of<br />

glue to affix color to dry wall.<br />

ENCAUSTIC: mixture of ground pigments<br />

and wax, applied to a prepared surface like a<br />

carving, sculpture, wall<br />

TEMPERA: popular for centuries, use dates<br />

back to Greeks and romans, exclusive<br />

technique for medieval time period, no<br />

longer used in 1300's due to introduction of<br />

oil painting, ground pigments mixed with a<br />

vehicle of egg yolk back then but now refers<br />

to pigment combined with emulsions of milk,<br />

different types of glues and gums, or the sap<br />

from trees, extremely durable, dries quickly<br />

so hard to blend, precise brushwork, brilliant<br />

colors<br />

OIL PAINT: powdered pigments combined<br />

with a linseed oil vehicle and turpentine<br />

medium, popular, broad capability, slowdrying,<br />

applied with an array of brushes and<br />

knives, rich colors.<br />

ACRYLIC: pigment and plastic vehicle that<br />

can be thinned with water, vehicle dries<br />

colorlessly so the pigment is brilliant, can be<br />

used on a variety of surfaces<br />

WATERCOLOR & GOUACHE: vehicle and<br />

medium are water, tempera and fresca<br />

included, aquarelle (tranparent films of<br />

paint paint applied to white surface),<br />

appeared in 15th century, layering obscures<br />

underlayers of color, cannot rework/correct,<br />

fresh and delicate, gouache is watercolor of<br />

vehicle and an opaque ingredient<br />

Paint structure and<br />

technique<br />

LONG DRYING TIME (oil): more time to<br />

rework imperfections, and blend things,<br />

apply glazes, rework surfaces,<br />

DRIES QUICKLY (acrylic): artist must<br />

work rapidly, once the paint is dry it<br />

cannot be reworked, distinct but not<br />

subject to color blending.<br />

SPRAY PAINT: contemporary graffiti<br />

artists, complexity of the work and the<br />

social atmosphere from which it is<br />

derived may not be common<br />

knowledge, many consider it defecation<br />

of property rather than art, some<br />

graffiti artists end up working in<br />

galleries, diffuse spray technique that<br />

adds dimensionality to an array of<br />

otherwise flat objects.<br />

MIXED MEDIA: Contemporary painters<br />

have in many cases combined<br />

traditional painting techniques with<br />

other materials, or they have painted<br />

on nontraditional supports, stretching<br />

the definition of what has usually been<br />

considered painting, to incorporate<br />

pieces of newsprint, wallpaper, labels<br />

from wine bottles, and oilcloth into<br />

their paintings. These works were<br />

called papiers collés and have come to<br />

be called collages.


Drawing<br />

drawing is the<br />

result of running<br />

an implement<br />

over a surface and<br />

leaving some<br />

trace, some<br />

maker’s mark<br />

<strong>Art</strong>ists Sketch<br />

Sketchbook serves as a way<br />

for artists to “note<br />

everything”<br />

Sketches are a more<br />

concrete notion of what the<br />

final product will look like<br />

Chapter 7 - Drawing<br />

Chapter notes by<br />

Jeffrey Hobson<br />

Different forms of drawing<br />

throughout the years<br />

(Charcoal, Paper napkins, and<br />

gunpowder ignited by a fuse)<br />

Many artists enjoy the sheer<br />

spontaneity of drawing,<br />

tracing a pencil or piece of<br />

chalk across a sheet of paper<br />

to capture directly their<br />

thoughts<br />

Types of Drawings<br />

monochromatic<br />

or color, scant<br />

traces or fully<br />

executed works,<br />

thumbnail<br />

sketches or fullscale<br />

mock-ups<br />

used to transfer<br />

images to walls,<br />

ceilings, or large<br />

canvases<br />

Dry mediums include metal point, pencil, charcoal, chalk, pastel,<br />

and wax crayon<br />

Metalpoint (Used in the Middle Ages, dragging a silver-tipped<br />

implement over a surface that has been coated with a base layer<br />

The pencil can produce a wide range of effects (can create thin<br />

and light strokes, thick and dark strokes, shading, and more)<br />

Charcoal (Used by Stone Age ancestors, crumbly piece of burnt<br />

wood or bone, smudged or rubbed to create a hazy effect)<br />

Colored Pencils (Consist of wax-like cores with pigment, create<br />

strokes like a pencil but with pigment)<br />

Chalk, Pastel, and Crayon (Chalk and pastel consist of pigment<br />

and a binder, Wax crayons, like pastels, combine ground<br />

pigment with a binder)<br />

Fluid Mediums<br />

Pen and Ink (metal nib, slipped into a wooden stylus and dipped<br />

into a well of ink, drawings are essentially linear, although the<br />

nature of the lines can vary considerably according to the qualities<br />

of the instrument)<br />

Brush and Ink (quality of line in brush-and-ink drawing will depend<br />

on whether the brush is bristle or nylon, thin or thick, pointed or<br />

flat tipped, characteristics of the drawing surface, such as texture<br />

or absorbency, will affect the look and feel of the completed<br />

drawing<br />

Cartoons<br />

Originally, cartoons<br />

were full-scale<br />

preliminary drawings<br />

done on paper<br />

Modern cartoons rely<br />

on caricature, the<br />

flagrant exaggeration<br />

and distortion of<br />

natural features and<br />

have long been<br />

vehicles for social<br />

commentary,<br />

consciousness raising,<br />

and political activism<br />

Alternate <strong>Art</strong> Styles<br />

Cai Guo-Qiang is<br />

renowned for his<br />

works of ephemeral<br />

art, a contemporary<br />

genre best described<br />

as transitory and<br />

impermanent<br />

Mia Pearlman’s<br />

complex, threedimensional,<br />

cutpaper<br />

drawings begin<br />

with shapes rendered<br />

in India ink


Printmaking<br />

There are four main types:<br />

Goal: to quickly reproduce works of art, making them<br />

accessible for the general public to view and study!<br />

3) Lithography - the technique of applying crayon, nitric<br />

acid, and water to a stone slab for ink to attract/repel into<br />

an image, which is then printed onto paper.<br />

1) Relief - a matrix is carved, with an image left on the raised sections.<br />

As ink is applied, it only covers the raised portion, making an image<br />

which can then be transferred to paper.<br />

2) Intaglio - the opposite of relief printmaking; ink seeps into the<br />

grooves of a metal matrix and forced onto paper with the use of<br />

immense pressure, usually from a printing press.<br />

4) Serigraphy - the use of silk mesh to push ink onto an image.<br />

additionally there is monotype, or the use of the original<br />

print/design which is rubbed onto another page<br />

and Graphic Design<br />

Common elements of<br />

graphic design include:<br />

Layout: a method of organizing ideas which is aesthetically<br />

pleasing and easy to digest (an example of this is this zine!).<br />

Typography: a method of writing and designing letters;<br />

includes manipulating their size, font, color, etc.<br />

(Relief Printmaking)<br />

(Serigraphy)<br />

Goal: to communicate ideas through<br />

different types of writing, images,<br />

and symbols!<br />

Logo: a design which easily identifies a company or group,<br />

favoring simplicity and memorability over everything.<br />

Chapter 9, Printmaking and Graphic Design<br />

Chapter notes by Kendrick Manlapaz


Film: A thin sheet of protective and photosensitive<br />

layers. The active layers contain small,<br />

photosensitive particles that are able to be treated<br />

and eventually converted into images.<br />

Portraits: Though similar in premise, the<br />

portrait from a camera had equalized social<br />

classes, allowing the capture of one’s self or<br />

family to be expanded just from paintings.<br />

Photojournalism:<br />

The method of<br />

documenting<br />

events through the<br />

capturing of<br />

images and scenes<br />

during such events<br />

STANLEY KUBRIK, Full Metal Jacket (1987)<br />

Photography: Derived<br />

from Greek, meaning “to<br />

write with light”<br />

Digital <strong>Art</strong>s: The creation of<br />

images and art pieces with the<br />

assistance of computers. This<br />

digital media can range from<br />

websites to video games. These<br />

programs can imitate physical art<br />

of all kinds.<br />

STANLEY KUBRIK, 2001, a Space Odessey (1968)<br />

Video: The capture of multiple images in a specific<br />

manner in order to create a moving picture. With<br />

video, sights and sounds are both digitized.<br />

FRANCIS FORD CAPOLLA, The Godfather (1972)<br />

HIDETAKA MIYAZAKI, Elden Ring (2022)


Sculpture, Installation and Site-Spec<br />

Carving<br />

Considered the most demanding type of sculpture<br />

because the sculptor must have a clear<br />

conception of the final product.<br />

Carving: the sculptor begins with a block of<br />

material and cuts segments off until they reach<br />

their preferred form.<br />

The material chosen like stone and wood greatly<br />

influences the mechanics of the carving process<br />

and determines the final product.<br />

site-spec<br />

Works produces in or for one location and<br />

in not to be relocated<br />

Modeling<br />

Shaping pliable material into a three-dimensional<br />

form.<br />

Unlike carving the artist may work and rework the<br />

material until the desired form is achieved.<br />

Sculpture<br />

Not all sculptures are three-dimensional<br />

There are 2 types of sculptures<br />

Relief sculpture<br />

free-standing sculptures/ sculpture-in-the-round<br />

Relief sculpture: figures or images project to varying<br />

degrees from a two-dimensional plane.<br />

Free-standing sculpture: is not connected to a twodimensional<br />

surface usually carved, cast or<br />

assembled.<br />

Sculptures are made with two basic processes<br />

Subtractive process: material is removed from the<br />

original mass to define the figure.<br />

Additive process: material is added or built up to<br />

achieve the desired shape.<br />

Installation<br />

Can be temporary or permanent<br />

Can also be site specific to transform the<br />

perception of a gallery<br />

An artistic medium of 3-D works<br />

Chapter 11 Sculpture, Installation, Site Spec<br />

Chapter notes by Miguel Martinez


Craft <strong>Art</strong>s<br />

Ceramics<br />

Ceramics refers to the art or process of making<br />

object out of baked clay.<br />

Ceramics includes many objects that range from<br />

the familiar pots and bowls of pottery, to clay<br />

sculptures, to building bricks and the extremely<br />

hard tiles that protect the surface of the space<br />

shuttles from the intense heat of atmospheric<br />

reentry.<br />

Textile <strong>Art</strong>s<br />

Textile arts are arts and crafts in which fibers are<br />

used to make functional or decorative objects or<br />

works of art.<br />

Glazing<br />

Pottery is glazed for functional and artistic<br />

reasons.<br />

Glazing appears on clay bricks that date<br />

back to a third-tenth-century BCE temple<br />

in Iran, and both the ancient Egyptian and<br />

Mesopotamian river cultures<br />

Types of Ceramics<br />

Earthenware is pottery made from<br />

slightly porous clay<br />

Terra-cotta, hard-baked red clay that<br />

has been fired at higher temperatures<br />

Stoneware is usually gray or brown—<br />

owing to impurities in its clay and<br />

vitreous or semivitreous. It is used for<br />

cookware, dinnerware, and much<br />

ceramic sculpture.<br />

Porcelain is hard, nonporous, and<br />

usually white or gray in color.<br />

Weaving<br />

Weaving was well known to the ancient<br />

Egyptians and Mesopotamians, although<br />

some examples date back to the Stone Age.<br />

Basket Weaving- animal or vegetable fibers<br />

are woven into baskets or other containers.<br />

Basket weaving is, like ceramics and textiles,<br />

an ancient craft, but because natural<br />

materials disintegrate,<br />

Glass<br />

Glass, like ceramics, has a long history<br />

and has been used to create fine art and<br />

functional objects.<br />

Wood<br />

Earthenware<br />

porcelain<br />

Wood, however, has only to be<br />

cut and carved to form a<br />

functional object.<br />

Chapter 12:Mateo Zaldivar


Cast-Iron Architecture:<br />

In the 19th century, prefabricated iron<br />

revolutionized architecture, enabling<br />

iconic structures like the Eiffel Tower<br />

Shell Architecture:<br />

Shell structures, using materials like<br />

concrete, wood, steel, aluminum, and<br />

plastics<br />

Green Buildings:<br />

Green buildings prioritize energy efficiency.<br />

Urban Design:<br />

Urban design, inspired by historical models<br />

like Roman planning and grid-based layouts<br />

as seen in Washington, D.C.<br />

A<br />

R<br />

C<br />

H<br />

I<br />

T<br />

E<br />

C<br />

T<br />

U<br />

E<br />

U<br />

R<br />

B<br />

A<br />

N<br />

D<br />

E<br />

S<br />

I<br />

G<br />

N<br />

Early Humans and<br />

Shelter:<br />

Early humans initially sought natural<br />

shelters in caves and tree canopies.<br />

<strong>Art</strong> and Science:<br />

Architecture involves visionary<br />

designers collaborating with engineers,<br />

builders, and interior designers.<br />

Stone Architecture:<br />

Stone served as a nearly indestructible<br />

material.<br />

Wood Architecture:<br />

Wood's versatility and abundance make<br />

it ideal for structural elements and<br />

facades.<br />

Chapter 13 Architecture<br />

Chapter notes by Dianalyn Rabago


<strong>Art</strong> of the<br />

Ancient<br />

World


Stone Age Characteristics and Development:<br />

The Stone Age is often associated with primitive survival needs like food,<br />

shelter, and reproduction.<br />

Prehistoric humans in the Stone Age exhibited intelligence and reflection,<br />

practiced religious rituals, and created art objects.<br />

Archaeological Discoveries in France and Spain:<br />

Archaeological exploration in France and Spain has revealed shelters, tools,<br />

and a significant number of sculptures and paintings, depicting humans and<br />

animals.<br />

a connection between religion, life, and art.<br />

Prehistoric <strong>Art</strong> Phases:<br />

Prehistoric art is divided into three Stone Age periods: Paleolithic, Mesolithic,<br />

and Neolithic.( 30,000 BCE to 2000 BCE)<br />

Stone Age art includes cave paintings, stone, ivory, and bone sculptures,<br />

primarily depicting animals. There is limited surviving architecture.<br />

The Cycladic Culture<br />

This culture thrived during the Early Bronze Age, from roughly 3000 to 2000<br />

BCE.<br />

Cycladic art includes small marble figurines of women and male musicians.<br />

The purpose of the small female figures is open to interpretation, with some<br />

suggesting they represent goddesses or fertility.<br />

These figurines are often found in tombs, suggesting a possible funerary<br />

function.<br />

Minoan Civilization and Crete<br />

Crete was rich in painting, sculpture, and elaborate architecture.<br />

The civilization is known as Minoan, named after King Minos.<br />

Crete's advanced culture influenced stories like that of the Minotaur.<br />

The Middle Minoan period saw the construction of great palaces, such as the<br />

one at Knossos.<br />

The Minoans developed a form of writing called Linear A and created refined<br />

art and artifacts.<br />

During the Late Minoan period, the palaces, including Knossos, were rebuilt.<br />

Paleolithic <strong>Art</strong>:<br />

People retreated into caves for warmth and began creating art in these<br />

protective environments (Because of the Ice Age).<br />

Notable cave paintings were discovered in northern Spain and southwestern<br />

France.<br />

The Hall of Bulls in Lascaux, France, is an example of Stone Age painting,<br />

featuring realistic images of horses, bulls, and reindeer.<br />

The artists used various techniques to create the illusion of three-dimensional<br />

forms and achieve a convincing likeness of animals. These techniques included<br />

outlining, coloring, and foreshortening.<br />

Egyptian <strong>Art</strong> and Religion:<br />

There are three distinctive aspects of Egyptian art: its connection to religion,<br />

association with death, and the use of strict conventionalism for a sense of<br />

permanence.<br />

Architecture:<br />

The Great Pyramids at Giza were constructed as monumental tombs for<br />

pharaohs in the Old Kingdom.<br />

The pyramids were massive structures made of limestone blocks.


Three Periods of Egyptian <strong>Art</strong>:<br />

3 period: the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom.<br />

<strong>Art</strong> styles evolved from the Old to the New Kingdom with few variations.<br />

Old Kingdom:<br />

Egyptian religion in the Old Kingdom was closely tied to the afterlife.<br />

Large-scale tomb sculptures were common, adorned with everyday objects<br />

and scenes from earthly life.<br />

Sculpture in the Old Kingdom:<br />

Old Kingdom sculpture followed specific stylistic conventions, body parts<br />

were shown from the front.<br />

The figures tended to be flat, and foreshortening wasn't used.<br />

Naturalism was rare; artists adhered to inherited conventions for thousands<br />

of years.<br />

Middle Kingdom:<br />

The Middle Kingdom faced political challenges, but under King Mentuhotep,<br />

art flourished once again.<br />

New Kingdom:<br />

The New Kingdom marked a period of expansion, increased wealth, and<br />

stability.<br />

Mortuary temples were introduced, which served as places for worship<br />

during life and after death.<br />

Aryan Invasion and Influence<br />

Around the time of the New Kingdom in Egypt, Aryans invaded the Indus<br />

Valley and conquered the Sindh region.<br />

They introduced the Sanskrit language and instituted the caste system,<br />

which persisted in India until the modern era.<br />

Shang Dynasty Bronze Casting<br />

The Shang Dynasty in ancient China developed a sophisticated bronze<br />

casting technique.<br />

They used piece molds for casting, pouring molten bronze into these molds.<br />

After casting, the individual bronze pieces were assembled into a cohesive<br />

whole.<br />

Shang royal tombs, like those in Egypt and Mesopotamia, contained<br />

precious bronze objects.


Classical <strong>Art</strong>: Greece, Rome, and<br />

Early Judeo-Christian World<br />

Ancient Greek art, spanning from the 8th to the 4th century BCE, prominently featured the idealized<br />

representation of the human form, often depicted with a focus on balance, harmony, and proportion. Greek art<br />

drew inspiration from mythology, showcasing gods and mythological narratives, while also incorporating elements<br />

of naturalism and realism. Architectural excellence was a hallmark, with the development of column orders and<br />

symmetrical designs. Geometric patterns adorned pottery and decorative arts, while contrapposto added lifelike<br />

dynamism to sculpture. Themes celebrating civic life, politics, and cultural ideals were prevalent, and Greek art was<br />

deeply intertwined with the philosophy and intellectual pursuits of the time, embodying enduring values of beauty,<br />

order, and proportion.<br />

Geometric Period (circa 900-700 BCE): Characterized by<br />

the Geometric style of pottery decoration, with abstract,<br />

geometric patterns and shapes. Sculpture was limited, often<br />

represented by simple terracotta figurines. Architecturally,<br />

early temples had wooden or thatch roofs.<br />

Classical Period (circa 480-323 BCE):<br />

Vase painting reached a peak of sophistication, showcasing<br />

mythological scenes and daily life. Sculpture achieved<br />

naturalism, with the development of contrapposto and a<br />

focus on idealized human forms like the Doryphoros by<br />

Polykleitos. Architecturally, the Parthenon in Athens<br />

epitomized the classical order, emphasizing symmetry,<br />

proportion, and precision in design.<br />

Archaic Period (circa 700-480 BCE):<br />

Vase painting continued with the adoption of more<br />

narrative scenes, and sculptures became increasingly<br />

stylized but still rigidly frontal. Architectural styles evolved<br />

to include the Doric and Ionic orders, with temples made of<br />

stone, demonstrating an early understanding of proportion<br />

and harmony.<br />

Hellenistic Period (circa 323-30 BCE):<br />

Vase painting continued but with greater emotional and realistic<br />

depth. Sculpture became more dynamic and emotionally<br />

expressive, often depicting dramatic scenes and a wider range<br />

of subjects. Architectural innovations included the Corinthian<br />

order and experimentation with curved forms.<br />

The Romans drew inspiration from Greek styles, particularly in their adoption of Greek architectural orders and sculpture techniques. The Etruscans,<br />

who predated the Romans in Italy, influenced Roman architecture and city planning. Etruscan temples and arches were adopted by the Romans,<br />

contributing to their architectural vocabulary. Overall, Greek and Etruscan art and architecture laid the foundation for Roman artistic expression,<br />

incorporating elements of idealized forms, symmetry, and monumental design, which became hallmarks of Roman art and architecture in the<br />

subsequent eras.<br />

✦ . + . ✦ . + . ✦


The age of faith<br />

in the 1200s, Islam was in its Golden Age, Christianity<br />

was in the High Middle Ages, and it had been<br />

“light” comes from a single God, and all are built<br />

Jews believe that God, whom the ancient Hebrews<br />

called Yahweh, spoke directly to Abraham and to<br />

tions as his “chosen people.<br />

” Christians believe that<br />

the same God spoke to Jesus at his baptism, calling<br />

the same God, whom they call Allah, revealed their<br />

years of the Roman Empire, exploring Jewish and<br />

early Christian sites of worship in the far-flung gargathering<br />

spaces for ritual during the Christian<br />

emperor Constantine’s commitment to Christianship<br />

in the city of Rome—the western capital of the<br />

tius in 312 ce, he said he saw a cross of light in the sky,<br />

diers to mark their shields with a Christian symbol and,<br />

he owed this victory to the Christian God.<br />

tions from Europe and from the Near and Middle East<br />

brought with them Christian and Islamic beliefs.<br />

Christians believe that Jesus is the Son of God and<br />

At first a Jewish sect, Christianity flourished<br />

over its early centuries and became the dominant<br />

religion in the Roman Empire by the fourth century.<br />

Today there are some two billion Christians, almost one-<br />

Christianity teaches that Jesus led a virtuous life,<br />

Christians believe that Jesus<br />

Most Christians believe that Jesus will return one day—<br />

impact the ways in which Jesus was depicted in art, as<br />

ing his life from birth in a simple manger, through the<br />

In Dura-Europos, Early Christians secretly worshiped in<br />

that the Christians and all others should have liberty<br />

began to build churches, many of which were erected on<br />

Roman architecture.<br />

other hand, is that the Roman Emperor Constantine was<br />

Among the many churches Constantine helped create<br />

Peter was believed to have been buried<br />

the expansive basilican-plan church no longer exists.<br />

present-day St.<br />

Peter’s Basilica<br />

during the Renaissance and Baroque periods.<br />

The plan of Old St.<br />

Peter’s looks to the past and to<br />

its parts, reflects those of Roman basilicas.<br />

chapter 16: The age of faith<br />

Chapter notes by Alexa Hernandez


The Renaissance<br />

lslam, like Judaism and Christianity, is a monotheistic is seen by Muslims as the final prophet in the Abrahamic Muslims see<br />

Abraham, Moses, and Jesus Islam, removed the idols of Arabian tribal gods housed in largest religion, after Christianity, with nearly<br />

one and a but was eventually pushed back by Christians. Middle Ages, Christians also fought Muslims to reclaim A follower of Islam<br />

is called a Muslim, which is the past participle of Islam, mean- church was divided between Christians and Muslims. 24), shows the<br />

system of arches that spans the A series of vaults, supported by heavier piers, There is no grand open space as in the Western<br />

cathedral; rather, air and light flow as mosques and other Islamic structures have traditionally been decorated with finely detailed<br />

mosaics, as seen in A mihbrab is a niche in the wall facing Mecca archy in Islam that is found in many Christian religions. The leader<br />

of gatherings for worship, called the imam, stands on a pulpit in the mosque, the spiritual capital of Islam.<br />

the golden age of Islam<br />

has beencalled for centuries, from 750 ce to 1258 ce citrus fruits were imported from China, and rice,<br />

During the early part of the Golden Age, the Abbasid When built it was the largest mosque in the world.<br />

was a simple building, 800 feet long and 520 feet wide,covered<br />

in part by a wooden roof, with a great open court was drawn in about the middle of the Golden<br />

Golden Age potters were turning out simple, elegantly from eleventh- or twelfth-century Iran<br />

The Golden Age was brought to an end by the Mongol invasion, but the Mongols who remained in Islamic lands<br />

converted to Islam over the following century in 1453, who had the building converted into a mosque.<br />

The cathedrals bells, altar, and religious figures were Muslim conflict over the building. and palace, was built by<br />

Islamic Islamic architectural elements as well reminiscent of those found in ancient Roman villas.<br />

Gothic <strong>Art</strong><br />

<strong>Art</strong> andarchitecture of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries is called Gothic.<br />

The term Gothic originated amongble for the style of this period In their desire for verticality<br />

, Gothic cathedrals sought to characterized by pointed arches, pinnacles and columns, and dauntingly high walls supported at least<br />

in part from exterior flying 14 reveals the structure of a French used on cathedral façades.<br />

Gothic architects could build huge clerestory windows and fill by a pointed arch..<br />

Gothic cathedral, the roof and walls sideways and then downward. the walls need not bear the weight of the roof, they can be<br />

punctuated with windows, allowing light to stream ered an Early Gothic building, its plan resembles those of Romanesque churches.<br />

hapter 16: The age of faith<br />

hapter notes by<br />

Alexa Hernandez


The Renaissance<br />

The word Renaissance is a French word meaning rebirth and it was a period of significant historical, social, and economic<br />

events. It started in 1492 when Michelangelo was rendering human features from blocks of marble. Then in 1564 Shakespeare<br />

was born and Michelangelo died. These two were the maker dates of the Renaissance. Around the 14th-16th centuries when<br />

the revitalization of the Greek philosophy of humanism, in which human dignity, ideas, and capabilities are of central<br />

importance<br />

Northern artist remained more religious<br />

Used the “trick-the-eye” technique to portray mystical religious phenomena in realistic manner<br />

Manuscript illumination: Complicated imagery was reduced to a minute scale<br />

15th century artists tried to reconcile religious subjects with scenes and objects from everyday life<br />

Fifteenth-Century Northern Paintings<br />

These qualities, and a keen observation of the human<br />

response to the environment or in this case the merrymaking<br />

bring to mind Michelangelo’s assessment of northern<br />

painting as obsessed with representation of the real world<br />

through the painstaking rendition of its everyday objects<br />

and occurrences.<br />

In any event, we are visually and psychologically coaxed into<br />

viewing this most atypical Annunciation<br />

Northern artist’s striking realism and fidelity to detail,<br />

offering us exact records of the facial features.<br />

Northern Renaissance painting is not confined to the region<br />

of Flanders, and some of the most emotionally striking work<br />

of this period was created by German artists. Their work<br />

contains less symbolism and less detail than that of Flemish<br />

artists, but their message is often more powerful.


The Renaissance in Italy<br />

Florence and Rome witnessed a resurgence of Classicism as Roman ruins were excavated in<br />

ancient sites, hillsides, and people’s backyards.<br />

The Italian Renaissance took root and flourished most successfully in Florence. The<br />

development of this city’s painting, sculpture, and architecture parallels that of the<br />

Renaissance in all of Italy. Throughout the Renaissance, as Florence went, so went the<br />

country<br />

The Early Renaissance painters shared most of the stylistic concerns of the sculptors.<br />

However, included in their attempts at realism was the added difficulty of projecting a<br />

naturalistic sense of three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface. In addition to<br />

copying from nature and Classical models, these painters developed rules of perspective to<br />

depict images in the round on flat walls, panels, and canvases.<br />

During the latter years of the fifteenth century, we come upon an artistic personality whose<br />

style is somewhat in opposition to the prevailing trends. Since the time of Giotto, painters<br />

had relied on chiaroscuro, or the contrast of light and shade to create a sense of roundness<br />

and mass in their figures and objects, in an effort to render a realistic impression of threedimensional<br />

forms in space.<br />

Mannerism<br />

During the Renaissance, the rule of the day was to observe and emulate nature. Toward<br />

the end of the Renaissance and before the beginning of the seventeenth century, this<br />

rule was suspended for a while, during a period of art that historians have named<br />

Mannerism.<br />

Several characteristics separate Mannerist art from the art of the Renaissance and the<br />

Baroque periods: distortion and elongation of figures; flattened, almost twodimensional<br />

space; lack of a defined focal point; and the use of discordant pastel hues.<br />

The weightlessness, distortion, and ambiguity of space create an almost otherworldly<br />

feeling in the composition, a world in which objects and people do not come under an<br />

earthly gravitational force. The artist accepts this “strangeness” and makes no<br />

apologies for it to the viewer. The ambiguities are taken in stride.<br />

The artists from the second half of the sixteenth century through the beginning of the<br />

seventeenth century all broke away from the Renaissance tradition in one way or<br />

another.<br />

The High and Late Renaissance witnessed artists of intense originality who provide a<br />

fascinating transition between the grand Renaissance and the dynamic Baroque.<br />

Chapter The Renaissance<br />

Chapter notes by Sophia<br />

Johnson


Baroque Era in Italy<br />

From 1600 to 1750 (came after Renaissance)<br />

Age of genius<br />

Continued classicism and naturalism from the<br />

Renaissance<br />

Colorful, ornate, painterly, and dynamic style<br />

was born<br />

“Baroque” - “Barroco” (Portuguese); means<br />

“irregularly shaped pearl”<br />

This era was born in Rome partly from the<br />

spread of Protestantism from the<br />

Reformation<br />

The post-Renaissance was most alive in Italy<br />

because of religion, politics, and patronage<br />

St. Peters<br />

Expansion / renovation of St. Peter’s<br />

Cathedral: expresses ideals of Renaissance,<br />

hallmark of Baroque style<br />

Gianlorenzo Bernini used baroque art<br />

characteristics for St. Peters such as implied<br />

motion, a different way of looking at space,<br />

and the concept of time<br />

Tenebrism; means “dark manner” and it is<br />

when a painting has a small and<br />

concentrated light source, cause a theatrical<br />

effect<br />

Baroque Era Outside Italy<br />

Spain:<br />

Spain was one of the richest European countries during Baroque, due to the New<br />

World, and it heavily supported the arts<br />

France:<br />

Baroque happened during the reign of Louis XIV who was referred to as the “Sun<br />

King” and soon became the center of the art world rather than Rome<br />

The French king preferred Classicism and formed art academies to abide by this<br />

England:<br />

England’s Common Law and Parliament greatly affected Baroque in its country<br />

Flanders:<br />

Dutch artists painted everyday life like Bruegel while Flemish artists painted<br />

religious and mythological paintings like Italy and Spain.<br />

Holland:<br />

<strong>Art</strong> consisted more of secular models by the Protestant mandate for humans to not<br />

create false idols<br />

Much of the art was realism and included landscapes, genre paintings, and still lifes<br />

Chapter 18 The Baroque Era<br />

Chapter notes by Karly Rust<br />

Census at Bethlehem<br />

Pieter Bruegel


Jean-Honore Fragonard (1732 - 1806)<br />

The Rococo<br />

This is a style within the Baroque<br />

Era that began shortly after the<br />

18th century<br />

I was further from Classical styles<br />

and emphasizes on the ornate,<br />

sweetness, gaiety, and light of art<br />

It is a refinement of Baroque that<br />

later adopted a more frivolous<br />

aspect in its subjects (rich nobles),<br />

palette (pastels), and brushwork<br />

(delicate)<br />

The Enlightenment<br />

The Rococo style reflected<br />

Enlightenment ideas that<br />

rejected religion and promoted<br />

science<br />

Japan:<br />

Prince Toshihito liked the country villa whose<br />

style would spread throughout Japan<br />

This style has a relaxed look with its water<br />

and greenery<br />

One of the finest representatives of the Rococo<br />

style with his painting of “Happy Accidents of the<br />

Swing”<br />

This painting with its lush greens and delicate colors<br />

was a mask for how horrible life was<br />

Demonstrates use of the pastel palettes with the<br />

pinks and greens and the effects of the brushwork<br />

on the trees that comes from the Rococo<br />

The Wider World<br />

It has a message of peace and nature, not<br />

power<br />

China:<br />

Manchuria established the Qing<br />

Dynasty under the ruling of Kangxi<br />

Brought in European arts and<br />

developed more complex glazing<br />

techniques<br />

Chapter 18 The Baroque Era<br />

Chapter notes by Karly Rust<br />

India:<br />

When the Mughal supremacy came<br />

forth, South India remained Hindu<br />

The Nayak Dynasty created<br />

gopuras, which were elaborate<br />

temples


Chapter 19: The Modern Era<br />

Neoclassical Painting:<br />

Two prominent Neoclassical painters discussed in the passage are Jacques-Louis David and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. Jacques-Louis David, known for his<br />

political involvement during the French Revolution, created works like "The Oath of the Horatii," which portrayed historical events to promote French patriotism.<br />

Ingres, on the other hand, emphasized sensuous yet classically inspired compositions characterized by the balance between linearity and sensuality.<br />

Neoclassical Architecture:<br />

This popular building<br />

design is still seen today<br />

while using columns<br />

Neoclassicism also influenced architectural design in France, England, and the United States. Neoclassical architecture is characterized by the use of classical<br />

elements like columns, pediments, and marble facades. In the United States, notable examples include the design of Washington, D.C., with its focus on<br />

Classical monuments, and buildings like the U.S. Supreme Court and the White House, where Neoclassical features are prominently displayed.<br />

Neoclassical Sculpture:<br />

Neoclassical principles were embraced by sculptors like Antonio Canova, who was renowned for<br />

creating sculptures with a blend of realism and idealism. For instance, his portrayal of Pauline<br />

Borghese as Venus reflects Classical Greek prototypes and the aesthetic ideals of the Neoclassical era.<br />

Chapter 19: The Modern Era<br />

Chapter Notes by Kyelin Straukas<br />

Sleeping Cupid by Bertel Thorvaldsen in<br />

1827 is an example of popular sculptures<br />

that were created during the Neoclassical<br />

era


Impressionism:<br />

-The word Impressionism suggests a lack of realism, and realistic representation was the standard of the day.<br />

-The Impressionist artists had common philosophies about painting, although their styles differed widely.<br />

-They advocated painting outdoors and chose to render subjects found in nature.<br />

-They studied the dramatic effects of atmosphere and light on people and objects and, through a varied palette, attempted to duplicate these effects<br />

on canvas<br />

-Impressionist artists had common philosophies about painting, although their styles differed widely.<br />

This is a good example of impressionism<br />

because it shows objects in nature<br />

meanwhile using a variety of colors and<br />

lights to create a unique visual<br />

Neoclassicism vs. Romanticism:<br />

-Neoclassicism contrasted with Romanticism, another major art movement of the 19th century.<br />

-While Neoclassical artists aimed for clarity and order, Romantic artists focused on subjective emotions and intuition, often<br />

using vibrant colors and bold brushwork<br />

-The two styles represented differing approaches to art during the same historical period.<br />

-Neoclassicism emphasized restraint of emotion, purity of form, and subjects that inspired morality, whereas Romantic art<br />

sought extremes of emotion enhanced by virtuoso brushwork and a brilliant palette.<br />

Starry Night by Vincent Van Gogh Painted in 1889<br />

Realism:<br />

-Many modern artists chose to depict subjects that are more evident in everyday life.<br />

-Instead of using pigment merely as a tool to provide an illusion of three-dimensional reality, they<br />

emphasized the two-dimensionality of the canvas and asserted the painting process itself.<br />

-One artist was Honore Daumier and he used dark outlines and exaggerating features and gestures.<br />

Chapter 19: The Modern Era<br />

Chapter Notes by Kyelin Straukas<br />

Christina’s World by Andrew Wyeth painted in<br />

1948 and it shows a more plain field with a girl<br />

that stands out. It creates a visual reality that<br />

she is lonely


20th century ART<br />

The Fauves<br />

Color and brushwork chosen based on their emotive qualities<br />

★ ★<br />

Rejected impressionism<br />

Defining subjects: Nudes, still lifes and landscapes<br />

An aggressive art approach (harsh and vigorous brush strokes)<br />

Expressionism<br />

A distortion of nature, opposed to its imitation<br />

What is the goal of expressionism?<br />

As it is expressed in its name: to achieve a desired emotional effect/ showcase inner feelings<br />

Fauves fall into this category - as well as artists such as Van Gogh + Gaugin<br />

Significant movements in expressionism - The Bridge, The Blue Rider, New Objectivity<br />

➟ These movements were rejections against impressionism and realism.<br />

➟ The bridge: Rejected the “socially acceptable” art forms. (Ernst Ludwig, Wassily Kandinsky)<br />

➟ The blue rider: Emotionally charged art and shackled itself from the reality<br />

Cubism<br />

Abandonment of scientific perspective<br />

Picasso is the driving force behind cubism<br />

Georges Braque followed Picasso/ driving force behind analytical cubism<br />

The Harlem Renaissance<br />

Cultural movement in the heart of Harlem<br />

African American writers, intellectuals, artists and musicians became a group that produced American<br />

work --> this contributed to the movement as a whole<br />

Notable artists - Hale Woodruff, Sargent Johnson, Augusta Savage, Romare Bearden. Aaron Douglas<br />

and Jacob Warren<br />

The armory show<br />

Occured from 1908 - 1917, Steiglitz brought hundreds of exhibition from leading American artists<br />

and Europeans<br />

It was scandalous, bold, modern and It raised a few eyebrows. It was greatly impactful in the era of<br />

modern art.<br />

Charles Demuth was an American artistswho explored peak abstraction art, inspired by the armory<br />

show.<br />

<strong>Art</strong> of the Harlem Renaissance<br />

Jacob Lawrence (1958)<br />

“The Scream” during the era of Expressionism<br />

Evard Munch (1893)<br />

“Weeping woman”: Cubism<br />

Pablo Picasso (1937)


Early Twentieth century abstraction in Europe<br />

Rise of new dynamic schools: Constructivism and De Stijl. It was dedicated to pure<br />

abstraction and non objective art<br />

How does Non objective<br />

☆⋆。<br />

differ from Cubism?<br />

A total lack of representational elements compared to Futurism and Cubism<br />

Visual reality is the point of departure<br />

Kadinsky is recognized as the first painter of<br />

°‧★<br />

pure abstraction<br />

Logical outgrowth of Analytical Cubism<br />

Fantasy<br />

<strong>Art</strong>ists begin to depict their supernatural fantasies and personal world of dreams rather than<br />

achieving surrealism as a noble goal<br />

Fantastic art - Beginning in 1900, artists began to explore fanciful imagery and working in<br />

styles that varied as much as their imagination<br />

Paul Klee created whimsical, yet subtly sardonic art. He rejected representational elements in<br />

art and instead, turned to ethnographic and childrens art<br />

Dada<br />

During WWI, this international movement of art began<br />

It responded to the absurdity of war and the insanity of the world<br />

Dadaists declared that art was stupid and must be destroyed, yet it was ironic b/c they<br />

created art.<br />

Surrealism<br />

Began as a literary movement after WWI<br />

Surrealism: aimed to display the true function of thought through art<br />

Illusionistic surrealism - Irrational content, absurd juxtapositions and metamorpheses of the<br />

dream state in a highly illustionistic manner<br />

Figurative art in the U.S<br />

Figurative art - <strong>Art</strong> that cotains strong references to people and objects in the real world<br />

Grant Wood and Edward Hopper were notable artists working in the depression era and WWI<br />

The persistence of memory: Salvador Dali (1931)<br />

During the era of Surrealism<br />

Mona Lisa interpretation during Dada movement<br />

Marcel Duchamp (1919)<br />

Chapter 20: The Twentieth century (The Early Years)<br />

Alex Kim<br />

“Carnival of Vanity” Jofhra Bosschart (1959)<br />

During the fantastical era of art


Abstract Expressionism<br />

Abstract Expressionism emerged from geometric abstraction of Cubism, the<br />

Automatist processes of Surrealism, and other influences of religion like<br />

Buddhism and psychoanalysis throughout New York City<br />

With gestural brushtrokes, nonobjective imagery and fields of intense color,<br />

many of the canvases are large and evelop the viewer into the work of art itself<br />

Many of the lines reference Asian art through their brushstrokes<br />

Assemblage<br />

Referred to works that are<br />

constructed from found objects.<br />

Assemblage can be made from rods,<br />

bars, fabric, wire and even thread<br />

There can be multiple interpretations<br />

and designs to these art forms itself<br />

as they are made up of different<br />

materials<br />

Pop <strong>Art</strong><br />

Pop art refers to the universal images of “popular<br />

culture” that can be seen in common areas , which<br />

helps challenge conceptions of various art styles<br />

Pop <strong>Art</strong> intentionally depicts mundane and matter-of<br />

fact types of interpretations of the art itself, thus, being<br />

very objective<br />

Figurative <strong>Art</strong><br />

Figurative art, or another form of<br />

abstract art, sought to find different<br />

interpretations of history, through raw<br />

and expressionistically distorted forms of<br />

reality<br />

Using various objects, figurative art can<br />

be made through a canvas or through<br />

textured physical pieces that can be<br />

abstracted into various styles<br />

Photorealism<br />

Photorealism represents a new<br />

endeavor to depict objects and<br />

topics with sharp, photographic<br />

precision; very realistic<br />

It also overlaps with various styles<br />

of Pop <strong>Art</strong>, making both art styles<br />

more modernized<br />

Chapter 21 The Twentieth Century: Postwar to Postmodern<br />

Chapter notes by Ivy Vo<br />

Minimalism<br />

Minimalistic artists sought to reduce their<br />

ideas to their simplest forms, using<br />

geometric shapes or progressions with<br />

minimal amounts of formal elements


Performance <strong>Art</strong><br />

Emerged through<br />

conceptualism, performance<br />

art privileged actions over<br />

objects themselves, often for<br />

audience participation over<br />

passive spectatorship<br />

Most performance art is either<br />

photographed or digitally<br />

recorded, scripted or featuring<br />

elaborate staging<br />

Conceptual <strong>Art</strong><br />

Conceptual art, was merely<br />

the visible embodiment of<br />

what existed in the artists’<br />

mind<br />

Conceptual art was purely on<br />

perception, wanting to<br />

eliminate emotionalism,<br />

exclusivity, and egocentricity<br />

New Image Painting<br />

New Image Painting is the<br />

reconciliation of disparate<br />

styles of abstraction and<br />

representation, using the main<br />

image as the base and using<br />

abstract shapes and different<br />

colors and textures throughout<br />

the piece to make a chaotic but<br />

elegantly balanced piece<br />

Neo-Expressionism<br />

Trying to develop a style that was viewed<br />

worldwide as highly original and influential,<br />

artists tried to find an alternative to painting<br />

in the early 1980s, by painting “about<br />

nothing”, portraying bitter ironies and angsts<br />

of their generation<br />

The Family (John Gruen, Jane<br />

Wilson, and Julia)<br />

Gay Liberation (George Segal)<br />

Throughout the 1960s, Goerge Segal, a renowned Pop <strong>Art</strong> sculptor, contextualized ordinary symbols of life,<br />

especially though his gay liberation and gay rights installation in Christopher Park, New York, in order to<br />

shed a light on the various Stonewall riots in Greenwich Village, in which members of the gay community<br />

were involved with protests against a raid by Manhattan police. Along with that, Alice Neel, a artist that<br />

draws more towards the photorealism trend, picked more of an insiders look in the functionality of society<br />

through the lens of gender stereotypes found in families, having a harsh, yet constant style that conveys the<br />

subtle, but noticable conflict in gender roles found out in society and personal life.


Insurrection! (Kara Walker)<br />

Kara Walker, an African-American woman, has experienced numerous<br />

forms of discrimination and racism throughout her life based on the<br />

color of skin. and because of that, produced much of her art in a<br />

dichotomous palette. Working with life-sized paper cutouts to call<br />

attention to the brutal race relations in the United States, Walker’s<br />

typically black figures pasted onto a white gallery wall, echoes the<br />

stereotyping that prevents people of one background from seeing<br />

other people of other backgrounds with different views and<br />

perspectives of the world, influencing the amount of race and<br />

ethnicity seen throughout society and how individuals interact and<br />

indulge in such cultures and variety.


Globalization<br />

ART NOW<br />

Globalization created a world where cultures are no longer distant from one another<br />

The internet and television created instant communication of images<br />

<strong>Art</strong> from different cultures influence others from around the globe<br />

Hybridity- the mixing of traditions of different culture to create new blends and new connections<br />

Appropriation- the use of another artist’s work as a basis for one’s own (sometimes the new work<br />

built on or changed the one appropriated<br />

Postcolonialism- aspects of globalization in the arts are a reaction to the retreat of the European<br />

empires that ruled much of the world through the middle of the twentieth century. Ex: former<br />

colonies in the Americas, Africa, Middle East, etc<br />

Japan<br />

Ishiro Honda’s “Godzilla”- the film portrays Japan’s<br />

fears about weapons of mass destruction following<br />

WWII<br />

Akira Yamaguchi’s “Votive Tablet of a Horse”-<br />

portrays sacred white horses, believed to be divine<br />

symbols, with motorcycle parts.<br />

Subodh Gupta, “Silk Route” (2007)<br />

India and Pakistan<br />

Ishiro Honda, “Godzilla” (1954)<br />

China<br />

Wang Gongxin, “Our Sky Is Falling In” (2007)<br />

Subodh Gupta’s “Silk Route”- emphasizes India’s key historic and<br />

contemporary role while illustrating the current state of India’s society.<br />

The art work refers to the Silk Road. The artwork includes stacks of silvery<br />

bowls and utensils that move along a mechanized track to symbolize the<br />

new era of globalization.<br />

Shahzia Sikander’s “Perilous Order”- casts light on past and present<br />

challenges faced by women and gays in the Islamic world. The painting<br />

alludes to the contrast between liberal Hindu sexuality and the strict rules<br />

During communist era all art were about hard work and service<br />

the contemporary is no longer pro government<br />

Wang Gongxin’s “Our Sky Is Falling In”- his art focuses on the anxieties experienced<br />

by ordinary Chinese people due to the rapid industrialization. The art portrays an<br />

everyday family scene that is disrupted by the collapsing ceiling showing the<br />

helplessness of individuals in a world or modernization.<br />

Luo Brother’s “Welcome to the World Famous Brand”- the artwork displays themes<br />

of the East meeting the Big Mac from the West. It shows the convergence of<br />

consumerism and globalization.<br />

against it in the Muslim world.


Korea<br />

Do Ho Suh’s “Fallen Star 1/5”-<br />

portrays a Korean house that<br />

fell into an apartment from<br />

Rhode Island. It demonstrates<br />

the feeling of a stranger<br />

Do Ho Suh, “Fallen Star 1/5” (2008-2011)<br />

dropped into a strange land.<br />

The Middle East<br />

Mona Hatoum’s “Shift”- the painting portrays a map of the world<br />

divided into shifting segments to demonstrate the seismic activity as<br />

if the world suffers from earthquakes.<br />

Adi Nes’ “Untitled”- the artwork recreates The Last Supper with<br />

soldiers. It symbolizes the discrepancy between the dream of Israel<br />

and certain social realities of contemporary Israel.<br />

Akram Zaatari’s “Letter to a Refusing Pilot”- the artwork represents a<br />

real life event of a Israli pilot refusing to follow orders to bomb a<br />

hospital/school. It demonstrates the pilot challenging military<br />

authority.<br />

Africa<br />

Romuald Hazoumé’s “Bagdad City”- the<br />

artwork is a ceremonial mask that was made<br />

from a jerrry can in order to reveal the<br />

exploitation of Africa’s resources and<br />

economic enslavement of Africans.<br />

Wangechi Mutu’s “Mask”- the artwork is a<br />

contemporary print model and African objects<br />

put together. It symbolizes the sexualization<br />

and neglect of African women by oppressive Romuald Hazoumé, “Bagdad City” (1992)<br />

men. Women are suffering from stereotypes.<br />

The Americas<br />

Alexandre Arrechea’s “Elementos Arquitectónicos”- the<br />

artwork portrays a laborer holding a stack of white bricks<br />

that covers his face. The white bricks on the man’s flesh<br />

demonstrates the worker’s struggles in a classes society.<br />

It shows that there is no beginning or end to his task.<br />

Miguel Luciano’s “Plantano Pride”- it shows a Puerto<br />

Rican adolescent boy with a banana chain. The boy’s<br />

chain shows America’s rap culture and American<br />

materialism, while the banana on the chain shows Puerto<br />

Rico’s cash crop. It reveals the political, economic, and<br />

cultural subjugation.<br />

Alexandre Arrechea, “Elementos<br />

Arquitectónicos” (2006)<br />

Adi Nes, “Untitled” (1999)<br />

Compare and Contrast<br />

Masks play an essential role in the rituals of sub-Saharan and West Africa. They have spiritual or religious meanings.<br />

In the 20th century they were collected by Europeans and were used by modern artists such as Pablo Picasso to<br />

create artworks like the “Head of a Sleeping Woman”. He mimicked the features of the African masks. Other artists<br />

like Faith Ringgols and Willie Cole use the mask as a reference to create their artworks.<br />

Chapter 22- <strong>Art</strong> Now: A Global<br />

Perspective<br />

Chapter Notes by Eric Yang

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