N A D I R E G O K M E N
S K E T C H B O O K
IDEAS FOR HOW TO ALTER/ DEVELOP THE PREVIOUS PROJECT:
Using the steel
as a flat form
and build plaster
walls around it to
create the 3-dimentionality.
A TIMELINE OF TRACE:
Using the need to cast the metal in sections. Using what works well with the process- casting ceramic
in sections. I could attached the metal to surfaces- for example to this drainpipe- in smaller
sections. The metal could then be removed one section per week, and then cast in clay, these
equal sections will then be representative of varying durations of time in the same place.
Instead of trying to compare location and time, the trace will be soley representative of time.
I was unsure my original plan to explore different
forms would work. Modelling solidified what i had
thought. The shapes are too difficult to build moulds
around. How can I utilise for its strenghts rather
than pushing it and exposing its weaknesses?
Thinking about how I can incorporate the ceramics into the intial mark
making stage. Instead of just using it as a secondary material to record
what has already been captured.
The intial idea came as a combination of reading that you shouldn’t build
with Core-Ten near a marble or porcelain because of the stains that appear.
I began to think about how i could fuse porcelain and steel together,
and allow these stains to appear, leaving the objects to exist outside.
At the moment the process of rust printing onto clay- copies what is already there. What
about if I could use this technique to reveal what can’t be seen. By casting the inside of an
object the ceramic could expose the rust that appears inside the shape.
Initially prompted from looking at arrangments of pipes - the running of water inside these
pipes- what marks can’t you see?
As ceramic shrinks I thought the clay would fall out of the shape when drying- the process
was interesting but again alot of refinement is needed so this is something I will hopefully
develop another time
I began making the porcelain form, with the intention to cut steel to slot
into the slits and curve round. I didnt continue with this idea as i realised
this wasnt the time to start something completely new. But I’m still
interested in developing this idea.
Beauty is on the inside. utilising the technique to reveal what cant be seen. Initally it was about
the overlooked marks, but what about if its about the marks that cannot be seen.
Here I fixed the metal to the exterior of the drain but what if I could removed a part of the drain
and capture the marks that are made inside.
INITIAL TEST: POURING SLIP INSIDE STEEL
The tubes are secured in place using clay with the bases touching the glass. The tops had dried so I
moved the tubes from the glass and the clay began to leak out. Next time I should use plaster bases
so that the bottoms dry. The top drys quickly stopping the rest of the inside from drying. Can i heat
the exterior so the clay makes a wall quicker? Also if the tops and bottoms are dry the tubes can be
moved and heated more evenly.
I waited for the bottom to completely dry before moving- I was then able to pour
some of the excess clay out- I think as the rod was bigger tha the cyclindrical tube this
was able to happen. I sat the metal on the radiator to completely dry. First I pushed the
clay out, some parts were stuck so i knocked the metal- which caused the rest to crack.
The texture of the clay is very rough, interesting as it is the same clay as the tubes yet
they came out smooth and porcleain like. This came out more like stone.
The tube of clay from
the top of the metal cyclinder
came out solid
whilst the 2 other pieces
came out with thinner
walls. Different levels
of drying through the
tube, how can I cause
the drying to be more
I placed the tubes on plaster blocks so the bottom drys and the clay wont seep out of the bottom. I also heated the
outside of metal using a hot air gun before pouring the clay. The plaster bottoms meant the clay dried on both ends
so I was able to tip the tubes on there side and lie them on the radiator to speed up the drying. The tube of clay could
be pushed out of the steel tube and the rusted surface transferred. There were little grooves inside the tube causing
slight tearing to the clay as it was pushed out. I was only able to get the clay out of one of the tubes, the other couldn’t
be pushed out. This tube was slightly thinner, and potentially had some grooves in it. A larger tube with more heat
could be more successful, with potential to create a hollow shape.
FEEDBACK from previous project.
- Final piece: too many inconsistencies.
- Problematic process with clay
What do I actually want to make?
I want to continue using this process. Although it can be problematic I find it intriguing.
This has been a process lead project. I was most interested by the process I had been
developing, but also by the abiltity the metal had to capture the marks made on surfaces
that could be moved over (walked/driven/cycled). I changed the forms of the metal
and the abiltity for them to capture human movement to experiment the technique in
3D. I was pushing the technique for its weaknesses not for its strengths and using steel
that had just captured the movment of water, caused by the weather.
The process is most successful when the steels surface is heavily rusted. Although I
found the series of metal sheets that had been located to document locations effect to
the surface accrued, for the process of transferring to work well these pieces need to
have a rusted surface. Rather than using the steel to document location, i will use the
steel to capture the marks. Influenced by the way I frame decaying surfaces and collections
of materials, the ceramic works I want to create are not just objects but images.
Existing on the wall, I am elevating the mundane, utilising the process to change our
reaction to these overlooked surfaces. Like canvases the ceramics appear as paintings/
pieces of art.
“too many inconsistencies”
- By working from a flat form and building the walls in plaster, the clay can be poured
in and the rust transferred from a flat form. This is a combination of my intial flat tests
and the 3D form, the same problems of warping and cracking may occur but these are
problems that can hopefully be solved with more ease after the knowledge learnt from
the previous project.
Therefore the intention is less to document the marks accrued in varied locations, but
to specifically pick locations Rather than it be about location, its about the surfaces and
environment and how they will effect the surface.
Just as the new
to 2D forms.
Bivar Segurado,D. (2009) Wall Pieces. A. & C.
Just as i was thinking about
the forms- more like canvases,
a 3Dimensional canvas.
Using plaster bats to build walls
around a flat piece of rusted steel.
One small crack appeared, using
Buff Earthenware/Stoneware slip.
The difference in wall thicknesses
in the form is due to difference in
the thicknesses of the plaster bats.
Using semi porcelain slip from uni. A large crack appeared as the clay dried. This could
either be due to the clay type or that the supports didn’t allow enough shrinkage. When fired
the crack warped. I quite like the way the crack has sunken- although I would like to resolve
the cracking problem.
The slip is left insdie for 2 hours
before the excess is syringed out.
Top: Semi Porcelain, Bottom: Buff Earthenware/Stoneware
Both fired to 1280 Degrees
Buff Eartneware/Stoneware should be fired to 1250 to stop bloating
Steel sheets after clay has been applied and removed.
I think the orange background really brings out the orange in the forms.
INCREASING SIZE- A3 SHEET:
Using semi porcelain slip to cast an A3 size sheet of steel.
Walls forming- left for 2 hours.
Supports were potentially too rigid- evidenced in cracking right by the point the support was in place.
The piece completely cracked.
I sanded the warped edges down so they can stand upright.
I lifted the metal and sat it on wooden supports above a radiator and by the
window. Intended to speed up the drying time this could have also added to
The pieces warped in the kiln, they can be arranged together or stand alone.
PLATES BEFORE AND AFTER PRINTING
RESOLUTION OF CRACKING: ADDING PAPER PULP TO SLIP
RESOLUTION OF CRACKING: ADDING GROG TO SLIP/ NO SUPPORTS
On the bottom left is an image of a cast on a cyclindrical piece of steel using paper pulp mixed
with slip. The addition of the paper allows the clay to dry more slowly and adds support to the
clay. It stopped the cracking from occuring in this form, however i didn’t like how the paper
caused the walls to thin and warp more drastically.
To reduce this warping and thinning of the walls I tried adding the pulp to the slip once the
excess clay had been syringed out. A large crack appeared across the surface when drying. The
walls with no paper and previously being next to plaster dried much quicker than the base, potentially
causing the crack to appear across the surface.
Amount of grog to slip
0.022gr per ml
2.2g per 100ml
No cracking occured- I intentionally didnt use supports to elimante that from
effecting the cracking. Lots of warping occured as the clay dried- this is something
I need to develop.
Once I have syrnged the slip i lifted the metal and clay and suspended them on
some wooden supports so air could get all aroud the piece. It took 2 days to lift up
from the mould
Inspired me to
think about the
depth of the wall
pieces. How by altering
of the forms
and the surface
area of the print,
more and less
attention can be
made to the detail
of the work.
With a small
surface area of
although less area
can be seen will
be given to this
area? Will the
the notion of the
Morris, T. (2018) New wave clay: ceramic design, art and architecture. Frame: Amsterdam.
Although working completely differently- in using the form as a base to allow the glaze to exploit it.
I see similarities with the form and composition of my own work
Change the forms from just square?
Morris, T. (2018) New wave clay: ceramic design, art and architecture. Frame: Amsterdam.
Embracing the imperfections caused by the nature of clay.
Saw a similarity between the composition and a drawing i had done trying to communicate
a vision of seeing a collection of forms.
Begin to think about the dimensions of the work, the difference in surface area of rusted
surface and the depths from the wall.
TESTING WITH DEPTH
RESOLUTION OF WARPING IN THE KILN:
Testing with different depths and widths of forms. Here i have grinded the
warped clay down to lessen the visibiltiy of the warping,
I was having problems with further warping in the kiln. The forms were warping
both outwards and inwards. I packed the shapes with alumina on the inside
and outside. This has resolved the issue.
Images taken after the firing with alumina. Images taken by Dave- the
warping has been stopped- successful way of stopping warping in the kiln.
Making plaster bats of the same width, to stop the walls from being different
thicknesses. I sand blasted a sheet of glass to sand the plaster on as the metal
cottles are slightly bowed, causing the plaster bats to have a slight curve. I could
make my own cottles out of plastic or a coated wood to eliminate the need for
this stage as it is time consuming and not as accurate as it could be.
Resolutions for cracking and warping:
-Grog and slip ratio
-Use of alumina in the kiln
To Do: Use a softer support to stop warpage when drying, one that won’t
cause cracks when drying
White Stoneware slip- I had intended to fire this clay to reduction to hopefully
produce a pale grey clay. I used the same ratio of grog to slip as with the Buff
Earthenware/Stoneware. The clay cracked when drying so further testing is
needed to decifer the amount of grog that is needed to stop the cracking from
Morris, T. (2018) New wave clay: ceramic design, art and architecture. Frame: Amsterdam.
These ceramic structures by Bruce Rowe inspired me to think about how i can vary the shapes in
my work. Instead of bending the metal forms I can use the metal sheets flat and create shapes with
the plaster moulds that can sit on the flat steel sheets.
I created a cyclinder mould in plaster- that
could be placed ontop of the steel. The walls
formed in just 30 minutes- faster than any of
the rectangle forms. The mould had just come
from the dryer and is a solid shape- with consistent
width walls. Therefore the wall thickness
was very consistent. The clay had seeped
and caused a slight vaccum so i had to pry the
plaster off by poking a knife underneath. It
took 1.5 days to completely dry and lift off..
0.22gr per ml
With the blank forms in my last project there was this comparison of smooth and textured surface.
With these new forms the comparison is still made but combined in one object. The smooth
plain clay sides and a textured face
Intended to be hung on the wall. The form sits on a screw that is fixed to the wall.
Initial drawings using
Thinking about the
potential for forms to be
freestanding aswell as on
the wall. Increasing the
height of the forms
Stainless steel 0.7mm
I cut a selection of sizes with the
hope to be able to tape them to
surfaces at some point in the
future- so that they are ready if i
get to complete the work.
2 x 297x420mm
2 x 210x297mm
2 x 130x297mm
1 x 150x297mm
1 x 110x420mm
Found whilst walking- stumps that have similarities to my cylindrical form.
PAPER RUST PRINTING:
Collecting some scrap pieces of rusted metal
on a walk- (this piece was a bit too big to
Using a solution made of water and vinegar to dampen the rust and paper and lay on water
colour paper. The paper needs to remain moist- so I placed a sheet of acetate ontop- to keep
in the moisture but also so i could place books ontop to apply pressure to the paper and rust.
Taping areas of the paper to act as a mask. So the rust would just print in areas. The paper
was a much thiner paper. Again this was put under the books with acetate on top.
These prints were very unsuccessful- even after
being left for 3 days.
The intention was to use this technique to print
shapes that would be the surface of paper models
of my final forms. I would need more rusted
objects that were flat and thick water colour
paper to improve this technique of rust printing
Much more successful print- the object was quite heavy and relativley flat- so no books were
placed on top. I just regularly watered the paper and object.
LEARNING HOW TO DRAW 3 D OBJECTS ON ILLUSTRATOR
Testing with heights of the objects and the possibilities
to be free standing.
Experimenting with different depths, how will this be viewed from different
angles? It woud be good for the objects to be at different distances from the
wall so that you can view the whole shape and also this comparison of textured
clay and smooth clay.
STORY BOARD OF SHAPES
COMPOSITION TESTS FROM 2D TO 3D
Composition ideas from different views- think
about how far each piece will stick out from the
wall and how this will be viewed at different
DRAWING AND MODEL PLANNING
I like the way the forms fit together. I like
the circular shapes but I think that they
don’t go with the other shapes as well.
Through having physical objects I discovered
that the forms shouldnt have more
depth than surface. It should be more about
the surface than the edges.
Using different depths to allow many
perspectives to be viewed.
I like the spacing between the shapes- almost as if the shapes is
being pulled and split.
Space between, or further apart? or a
I like the way the semi circle suggests it would fit next to the form to the left of it
TALLEST ONE 35CM
How many forms? Does an even number make
them too exclusivley in pairs?
FINAL COMPOSITION DRAWING DEVELOPMENT
Deciding whether they should be a collection of 6 as
then they fit together to make a whole piece. But I
prefer the collection being an odd number. I think its
not necessary that they fit together, its enough that
they give the illusion/ suggest. I would also have to
make the objects wider so that the final bottom right
piece is the same fits whilst being at the same height
as the pieces on the right.
made with the
shapes of my ceramic
forms the potential
to screen print
LEARNING TO DRAW IN PERSPECTIVE USING ILLUSTRATOR
Collection as 6 and 5
The orange backgrounds for these objects
really bring out the orange in the ceramic
itself- it made me think about the possibility
to include colour into the display.
Inspired by the orange
backgrounds of the images
on the previous pages-
these are just ideas
of how colour could be
incorporated into the
display. Although the
making of these objects is
being delayed hopefully
this time will allow fresh
eyes to the project and
some exciting developments/
i PREFER THE COLLECTION AS A 5
PROCESS OF MAKING: the same process
applies as with the cylindrical form
on page 46.
Place mould over metal sheet,
and fill gaps with clay. Pour
slip into the mould and leave
until desired wall thickness
has formed. Then syringe out
the excess clay from the centre.
Use a pin tool to allow
the same thickness of clay at
the bottom as the sides. Leave
mould in place until the walls
are dry and have shrunk in
size. Allowing the mould to be
pulled away. Its at this point
that I need to experiment with
supports to stop warping- if
this is a problem at this stage
(there was no problem of this
with the cyclindrical form. But
more warping could happen
with more linear forms.
Once the mould has been lifted
off, allow the clay to completely
dry. The clay should lift
off when dry but if a vacuum
forms due to clay seeping under
the mould, then use a thin
tool to pry the clay up.
Grind the non surfaced side
of the clay using the grindingbench
and water to get an even
When firing pack the forms
with alumina from the inside
and outside. Fire to 1250 if
using Buff Earthenware/Stoneware
slip, I would also like to
test firing White Stoneware
slip to Reduction to get a pale
DESIRED SIZES WHEN FIRED:
6cm depth 5cm depth 6cm depth 5cm depth 4cm depth
Volume: (314 x 6)
= 2,167cm 3
Volume: (279.2 25x 5)
= 1,605.5cm 3
Volume: (142.5 x 6)
= 983.25cm 3
Volume: (187.5 x 5)
= 1,078cm 3
Volume: (240 x 4)
= 1,104cm 3
Cost of clay: £3.89 per litre
£3.82 £4.19 £4.29
Working out volume of clay needed to fill moulds
(adding 15% volume to allow for shrinkage)
FINAL COMPOSITION/ SECTIONS
The clay forms are placed on rods that will be screwed into
the wall, so the objects appear to be floating
An idea of scale
275 260 230 245 245
Clay £3.89 per litre (Potclays)
Alumina £46.46 per 10KG (Potclays)
Steel Sheets 10p per 100mm2 (MMU)
Firing costs: either energy or per rental
- Energy costs £9-13 per firing
- Rental £10-17 per piece (based on prices from Glass centre Sunderland £30-£50
per day rental)
- studio space after uni
3 days for pouring and drying/ finishing edges
2 days for bisque fire
2 days for firing to stoneware (1250 degrees when using Buff Earthenware/Stoneware
(potential to fire straight to 1250 degrees, but would need to test this)
Price of largest: £275
Cost breakdown :
£235.62 to cover time
15% material 85% making time