01-nadire-gokmen-sketchbook

skeetchbookcollective

N A D I R E G O K M E N

S K E T C H B O O K


IDEAS FOR HOW TO ALTER/ DEVELOP THE PREVIOUS PROJECT:

Using the steel

as a flat form

and build plaster

walls around it to

create the 3-dimentionality.

.

A TIMELINE OF TRACE:

Using the need to cast the metal in sections. Using what works well with the process- casting ceramic

in sections. I could attached the metal to surfaces- for example to this drainpipe- in smaller

sections. The metal could then be removed one section per week, and then cast in clay, these

equal sections will then be representative of varying durations of time in the same place.

Instead of trying to compare location and time, the trace will be soley representative of time.

week intervals.



I was unsure my original plan to explore different

forms would work. Modelling solidified what i had

thought. The shapes are too difficult to build moulds

around. How can I utilise for its strenghts rather

than pushing it and exposing its weaknesses?



Thinking about how I can incorporate the ceramics into the intial mark

making stage. Instead of just using it as a secondary material to record

what has already been captured.

The intial idea came as a combination of reading that you shouldn’t build

with Core-Ten near a marble or porcelain because of the stains that appear.

I began to think about how i could fuse porcelain and steel together,

and allow these stains to appear, leaving the objects to exist outside.

At the moment the process of rust printing onto clay- copies what is already there. What

about if I could use this technique to reveal what can’t be seen. By casting the inside of an

object the ceramic could expose the rust that appears inside the shape.

Initially prompted from looking at arrangments of pipes - the running of water inside these

pipes- what marks can’t you see?

As ceramic shrinks I thought the clay would fall out of the shape when drying- the process

was interesting but again alot of refinement is needed so this is something I will hopefully

develop another time

I began making the porcelain form, with the intention to cut steel to slot

into the slits and curve round. I didnt continue with this idea as i realised

this wasnt the time to start something completely new. But I’m still

interested in developing this idea.

Beauty is on the inside. utilising the technique to reveal what cant be seen. Initally it was about

the overlooked marks, but what about if its about the marks that cannot be seen.

Here I fixed the metal to the exterior of the drain but what if I could removed a part of the drain

and capture the marks that are made inside.



INITIAL TEST: POURING SLIP INSIDE STEEL

The tubes are secured in place using clay with the bases touching the glass. The tops had dried so I

moved the tubes from the glass and the clay began to leak out. Next time I should use plaster bases

so that the bottoms dry. The top drys quickly stopping the rest of the inside from drying. Can i heat

the exterior so the clay makes a wall quicker? Also if the tops and bottoms are dry the tubes can be

moved and heated more evenly.

I waited for the bottom to completely dry before moving- I was then able to pour

some of the excess clay out- I think as the rod was bigger tha the cyclindrical tube this

was able to happen. I sat the metal on the radiator to completely dry. First I pushed the

clay out, some parts were stuck so i knocked the metal- which caused the rest to crack.

The texture of the clay is very rough, interesting as it is the same clay as the tubes yet

they came out smooth and porcleain like. This came out more like stone.



The tube of clay from

the top of the metal cyclinder

came out solid

whilst the 2 other pieces

came out with thinner

walls. Different levels

of drying through the

tube, how can I cause

the drying to be more

equal?

I placed the tubes on plaster blocks so the bottom drys and the clay wont seep out of the bottom. I also heated the

outside of metal using a hot air gun before pouring the clay. The plaster bottoms meant the clay dried on both ends

so I was able to tip the tubes on there side and lie them on the radiator to speed up the drying. The tube of clay could

be pushed out of the steel tube and the rusted surface transferred. There were little grooves inside the tube causing

slight tearing to the clay as it was pushed out. I was only able to get the clay out of one of the tubes, the other couldn’t

be pushed out. This tube was slightly thinner, and potentially had some grooves in it. A larger tube with more heat

could be more successful, with potential to create a hollow shape.





NEW DIRECTION:

FEEDBACK from previous project.

- Final piece: too many inconsistencies.

- Problematic process with clay

What do I actually want to make?

I want to continue using this process. Although it can be problematic I find it intriguing.

This has been a process lead project. I was most interested by the process I had been

developing, but also by the abiltity the metal had to capture the marks made on surfaces

that could be moved over (walked/driven/cycled). I changed the forms of the metal

and the abiltity for them to capture human movement to experiment the technique in

3D. I was pushing the technique for its weaknesses not for its strengths and using steel

that had just captured the movment of water, caused by the weather.

The process is most successful when the steels surface is heavily rusted. Although I

found the series of metal sheets that had been located to document locations effect to

the surface accrued, for the process of transferring to work well these pieces need to

have a rusted surface. Rather than using the steel to document location, i will use the

steel to capture the marks. Influenced by the way I frame decaying surfaces and collections

of materials, the ceramic works I want to create are not just objects but images.

Existing on the wall, I am elevating the mundane, utilising the process to change our

reaction to these overlooked surfaces. Like canvases the ceramics appear as paintings/

pieces of art.

“too many inconsistencies”

- By working from a flat form and building the walls in plaster, the clay can be poured

in and the rust transferred from a flat form. This is a combination of my intial flat tests

and the 3D form, the same problems of warping and cracking may occur but these are

problems that can hopefully be solved with more ease after the knowledge learnt from

the previous project.

Therefore the intention is less to document the marks accrued in varied locations, but

to specifically pick locations Rather than it be about location, its about the surfaces and

environment and how they will effect the surface.



Just as the new

technique doesbringing

3

dimentionalilty

to 2D forms.

Bivar Segurado,D. (2009) Wall Pieces. A. & C.

Black: London.

Just as i was thinking about

the forms- more like canvases,

a 3Dimensional canvas.



INITIAL TEST:

Using plaster bats to build walls

around a flat piece of rusted steel.

One small crack appeared, using

Buff Earthenware/Stoneware slip.

The difference in wall thicknesses

in the form is due to difference in

the thicknesses of the plaster bats.

Using semi porcelain slip from uni. A large crack appeared as the clay dried. This could

either be due to the clay type or that the supports didn’t allow enough shrinkage. When fired

the crack warped. I quite like the way the crack has sunken- although I would like to resolve

the cracking problem.

The slip is left insdie for 2 hours

before the excess is syringed out.



Top: Semi Porcelain, Bottom: Buff Earthenware/Stoneware

Both fired to 1280 Degrees

Buff Eartneware/Stoneware should be fired to 1250 to stop bloating

Steel sheets after clay has been applied and removed.



I think the orange background really brings out the orange in the forms.





INCREASING SIZE- A3 SHEET:

Using semi porcelain slip to cast an A3 size sheet of steel.

Walls forming- left for 2 hours.



Supports were potentially too rigid- evidenced in cracking right by the point the support was in place.

The piece completely cracked.

I sanded the warped edges down so they can stand upright.

I lifted the metal and sat it on wooden supports above a radiator and by the

window. Intended to speed up the drying time this could have also added to

the cracking.



The pieces warped in the kiln, they can be arranged together or stand alone.





PLATES BEFORE AND AFTER PRINTING



RESOLUTION OF CRACKING: ADDING PAPER PULP TO SLIP

RESOLUTION OF CRACKING: ADDING GROG TO SLIP/ NO SUPPORTS

On the bottom left is an image of a cast on a cyclindrical piece of steel using paper pulp mixed

with slip. The addition of the paper allows the clay to dry more slowly and adds support to the

clay. It stopped the cracking from occuring in this form, however i didn’t like how the paper

caused the walls to thin and warp more drastically.

To reduce this warping and thinning of the walls I tried adding the pulp to the slip once the

excess clay had been syringed out. A large crack appeared across the surface when drying. The

walls with no paper and previously being next to plaster dried much quicker than the base, potentially

causing the crack to appear across the surface.

Amount of grog to slip

0.022gr per ml

2.2g per 100ml

No cracking occured- I intentionally didnt use supports to elimante that from

effecting the cracking. Lots of warping occured as the clay dried- this is something

I need to develop.

Once I have syrnged the slip i lifted the metal and clay and suspended them on

some wooden supports so air could get all aroud the piece. It took 2 days to lift up

from the mould



Inspired me to

think about the

depth of the wall

pieces. How by altering

the dimensions

of the forms

and the surface

area of the print,

more and less

attention can be

made to the detail

of the work.

With a small

surface area of

printed surface,

although less area

can be seen will

more attention

be given to this

area? Will the

subtly emphasise

the notion of the

Morris, T. (2018) New wave clay: ceramic design, art and architecture. Frame: Amsterdam.

Although working completely differently- in using the form as a base to allow the glaze to exploit it.

I see similarities with the form and composition of my own work



Change the forms from just square?

Morris, T. (2018) New wave clay: ceramic design, art and architecture. Frame: Amsterdam.

Embracing the imperfections caused by the nature of clay.

Saw a similarity between the composition and a drawing i had done trying to communicate

a vision of seeing a collection of forms.

Begin to think about the dimensions of the work, the difference in surface area of rusted

surface and the depths from the wall.



TESTING WITH DEPTH

RESOLUTION OF WARPING IN THE KILN:

Testing with different depths and widths of forms. Here i have grinded the

warped clay down to lessen the visibiltiy of the warping,

I was having problems with further warping in the kiln. The forms were warping

both outwards and inwards. I packed the shapes with alumina on the inside

and outside. This has resolved the issue.



Images taken after the firing with alumina. Images taken by Dave- the

warping has been stopped- successful way of stopping warping in the kiln.

Making plaster bats of the same width, to stop the walls from being different

thicknesses. I sand blasted a sheet of glass to sand the plaster on as the metal

cottles are slightly bowed, causing the plaster bats to have a slight curve. I could

make my own cottles out of plastic or a coated wood to eliminate the need for

this stage as it is time consuming and not as accurate as it could be.

Resolutions for cracking and warping:

-Grog and slip ratio

-Use of alumina in the kiln

To Do: Use a softer support to stop warpage when drying, one that won’t

cause cracks when drying



White Stoneware slip- I had intended to fire this clay to reduction to hopefully

produce a pale grey clay. I used the same ratio of grog to slip as with the Buff

Earthenware/Stoneware. The clay cracked when drying so further testing is

needed to decifer the amount of grog that is needed to stop the cracking from

occuring.



Morris, T. (2018) New wave clay: ceramic design, art and architecture. Frame: Amsterdam.

These ceramic structures by Bruce Rowe inspired me to think about how i can vary the shapes in

my work. Instead of bending the metal forms I can use the metal sheets flat and create shapes with

the plaster moulds that can sit on the flat steel sheets.

https://www.brucerowestudio.com/structures-i



SHAPE:

I created a cyclinder mould in plaster- that

could be placed ontop of the steel. The walls

formed in just 30 minutes- faster than any of

the rectangle forms. The mould had just come

from the dryer and is a solid shape- with consistent

width walls. Therefore the wall thickness

was very consistent. The clay had seeped

and caused a slight vaccum so i had to pry the

plaster off by poking a knife underneath. It

took 1.5 days to completely dry and lift off..

White Stoneware

Clay

0.22gr per ml

(Fine Grog)





With the blank forms in my last project there was this comparison of smooth and textured surface.

With these new forms the comparison is still made but combined in one object. The smooth

plain clay sides and a textured face

Intended to be hung on the wall. The form sits on a screw that is fixed to the wall.



Initial drawings using

InDesign:

Thinking about the

potential for forms to be

freestanding aswell as on

the wall. Increasing the

height of the forms

Stainless steel 0.7mm

I cut a selection of sizes with the

hope to be able to tape them to

surfaces at some point in the

future- so that they are ready if i

get to complete the work.

2 x 297x420mm

2 x 210x297mm

2 x 130x297mm

1 x 150x297mm

1 x 110x420mm



Found whilst walking- stumps that have similarities to my cylindrical form.



PAPER RUST PRINTING:

Collecting some scrap pieces of rusted metal

on a walk- (this piece was a bit too big to

collect).

Using a solution made of water and vinegar to dampen the rust and paper and lay on water

colour paper. The paper needs to remain moist- so I placed a sheet of acetate ontop- to keep

in the moisture but also so i could place books ontop to apply pressure to the paper and rust.

Taping areas of the paper to act as a mask. So the rust would just print in areas. The paper

was a much thiner paper. Again this was put under the books with acetate on top.



These prints were very unsuccessful- even after

being left for 3 days.

The intention was to use this technique to print

shapes that would be the surface of paper models

of my final forms. I would need more rusted

objects that were flat and thick water colour

paper to improve this technique of rust printing

on paper.

Much more successful print- the object was quite heavy and relativley flat- so no books were

placed on top. I just regularly watered the paper and object.



LEARNING HOW TO DRAW 3 D OBJECTS ON ILLUSTRATOR





Testing with heights of the objects and the possibilities

to be free standing.



Experimenting with different depths, how will this be viewed from different

angles? It woud be good for the objects to be at different distances from the

wall so that you can view the whole shape and also this comparison of textured

clay and smooth clay.



STORY BOARD OF SHAPES



ADDING SURFACE



COMPOSITION TESTS FROM 2D TO 3D





COMPOSITION IDEAS









Composition ideas from different views- think

about how far each piece will stick out from the

wall and how this will be viewed at different

angles.





DRAWING AND MODEL PLANNING







PAPER MODELING



I like the way the forms fit together. I like

the circular shapes but I think that they

don’t go with the other shapes as well.

Through having physical objects I discovered

that the forms shouldnt have more

depth than surface. It should be more about

the surface than the edges.



Using different depths to allow many

perspectives to be viewed.

I like the spacing between the shapes- almost as if the shapes is

being pulled and split.



Space between, or further apart? or a

combination?

I like the way the semi circle suggests it would fit next to the form to the left of it



TALLEST ONE 35CM

SMALLEST 28.5CM-

How many forms? Does an even number make

them too exclusivley in pairs?



FINAL COMPOSITION DRAWING DEVELOPMENT

Deciding whether they should be a collection of 6 as

then they fit together to make a whole piece. But I

prefer the collection being an odd number. I think its

not necessary that they fit together, its enough that

they give the illusion/ suggest. I would also have to

make the objects wider so that the final bottom right

piece is the same fits whilst being at the same height

as the pieces on the right.



Exploring layering

different compositions

made with the

shapes of my ceramic

forms the potential

to screen print

this sections?







LEARNING TO DRAW IN PERSPECTIVE USING ILLUSTRATOR



Collection as 6 and 5





The orange backgrounds for these objects

really bring out the orange in the ceramic

itself- it made me think about the possibility

to include colour into the display.

Inspired by the orange

backgrounds of the images

on the previous pages-

these are just ideas

of how colour could be

incorporated into the

display. Although the

making of these objects is

being delayed hopefully

this time will allow fresh

eyes to the project and

some exciting developments/

adaptations.





i PREFER THE COLLECTION AS A 5



PROCESS OF MAKING: the same process

applies as with the cylindrical form

on page 46.

Place mould over metal sheet,

and fill gaps with clay. Pour

slip into the mould and leave

until desired wall thickness

has formed. Then syringe out

the excess clay from the centre.

Use a pin tool to allow

the same thickness of clay at

the bottom as the sides. Leave

mould in place until the walls

are dry and have shrunk in

size. Allowing the mould to be

pulled away. Its at this point

that I need to experiment with

supports to stop warping- if

this is a problem at this stage

(there was no problem of this

with the cyclindrical form. But

more warping could happen

with more linear forms.

MOULDS

Once the mould has been lifted

off, allow the clay to completely

dry. The clay should lift

off when dry but if a vacuum

forms due to clay seeping under

the mould, then use a thin

tool to pry the clay up.

Grind the non surfaced side

of the clay using the grindingbench

and water to get an even

edge.

When firing pack the forms

with alumina from the inside

and outside. Fire to 1250 if

using Buff Earthenware/Stoneware

slip, I would also like to

test firing White Stoneware

slip to Reduction to get a pale

grey clay.







DESIRED SIZES WHEN FIRED:

8cm

10.2cm

5cm

7cm

7.5cm

35cm

20cm

28.5cm

28.5cm

28.5cm

20.5cm

28.5cm

7.5cm

6.5cm

7.5cm

4cm

11cm

11.5cm

6cm depth 5cm depth 6cm depth 5cm depth 4cm depth

Volume: (314 x 6)

= 1,884

+ 15%

= 2,167cm 3

Volume: (279.2 25x 5)

=1,396.125

+ 15%

= 1,605.5cm 3

Volume: (142.5 x 6)

= 855

+ 15%

= 983.25cm 3

Volume: (187.5 x 5)

= 937.5

+ 15%

= 1,078cm 3

Volume: (240 x 4)

= 960

+ 15%

= 1,104cm 3

Cost of clay: £3.89 per litre

£8.43 £6.24

£3.82 £4.19 £4.29

Working out volume of clay needed to fill moulds

(adding 15% volume to allow for shrinkage)



FINAL COMPOSITION/ SECTIONS





FIXING

The clay forms are placed on rods that will be screwed into

the wall, so the objects appear to be floating

An idea of scale



275 260 230 245 245

Material Costs:

Clay £3.89 per litre (Potclays)

Alumina £46.46 per 10KG (Potclays)

Steel Sheets 10p per 100mm2 (MMU)

Firing costs: either energy or per rental

- Energy costs £9-13 per firing

- Rental £10-17 per piece (based on prices from Glass centre Sunderland £30-£50

per day rental)

- studio space after uni

Time:

3 days for pouring and drying/ finishing edges

2 days for bisque fire

2 days for firing to stoneware (1250 degrees when using Buff Earthenware/Stoneware

Slip)

(potential to fire straight to 1250 degrees, but would need to test this)

Price of largest: £275

Cost breakdown :

8.45 (clay)

4.63 (steel)

9.3 (alumina)

17 (firing)

£39.38 materials

£235.62 to cover time

15% material 85% making time


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