03.01.2014 Views

Ελένη Παπαγαρουφάλη* Η ΣΥΝΕΝΤΕΥΞΗ ΩΣ ΣΩΜΑΤΙΚΗ ...

Ελένη Παπαγαρουφάλη* Η ΣΥΝΕΝΤΕΥΞΗ ΩΣ ΣΩΜΑΤΙΚΗ ...

Ελένη Παπαγαρουφάλη* Η ΣΥΝΕΝΤΕΥΞΗ ΩΣ ΣΩΜΑΤΙΚΗ ...

SHOW MORE
SHOW LESS

Create successful ePaper yourself

Turn your PDF publications into a flip-book with our unique Google optimized e-Paper software.

EappleÈı. KÔÈÓ. EÚ¢ÓÒÓ, 107, 2002, 29-46

∂ϤÓË ·apple·Á·ÚÔ˘Ê¿ÏË*

∏ À¡∂¡∆∂À•∏ ø øª∞∆π∫∏ ∂π∫√π¡ø¡π∞

∆ø¡ À¡√ªπ§∏∆ø¡ ∫∞π √§§ø¡ ∞§§ø¡

EPI§HæH

ÔÏÏÔ› ·ÓıÚˆappleÔÏfiÁÔÈ ‰È·¯ˆÚ›˙Ô˘Ó ÙË «ÁψÛÛÈ΋-Û˘Ì‚ÔÏÈ΋» ·Ó·apple·Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË ÌÈ·˜

ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›·˜ ·applefi ÙËÓ «appleÚ·ÁÌ·ÙÈο ‚Ȉ̤ÓË» ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›·. ÙÔ ¿ÚıÚÔ ·˘Ùfi ·ÓÙÈÎÚÔ‡ˆ

ÙËÓ ÔÓÙÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ‰È·ÊÔÚ¿ ÌÂٷ͇ «ÁÏÒÛÛ·˜» Î·È «ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›·˜» ˘appleÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·˜ fiÙÈ

Î·È Ë ÁÏÒÛÛ· Â›Ó·È appleÚ·ÎÙÈ΋ ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›· ‹ habitus. K·Ù¿ Û˘Ó¤appleÂÈ·, ÔÈ ·ÊËÁ‹ÛÂȘ appleÔ˘

Û˘Ó·ÏÏ¿ÛÛÔ˘Ì Û ÌÈ· Û˘Ó¤ÓÙ¢ÍË-Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏ›· Â›Ó·È appleÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈο Î·È ¯ÚÔÓÈο ÂappleË-

Ú·Ṳ̂Ó˜ ۈ̷ÙÈΤ˜ appleÚԉȷı¤ÛÂȘ ‹ appleÚ·ÎÙÈΤ˜. ŸÙ·Ó Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏÔ‡ÌÂ, ‚ÈÒÓÔ˘Ì ÙȘ

Û¯¤ÛÂȘ appleÔ˘ ›¯·ÌÂ, ¤¯Ô˘ÌÂ Î·È ı¤ÏÔ˘Ì ӷ ¤¯Ô˘Ì Ì appleÚ·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎÔ‡˜ Î·È Ê·ÓÙ·ÛÙÈ-

ÎÔ‡˜ ¿ÏÏÔ˘˜, Î·È ÔÈ Ôappleԛ˜ Â›Ó·È ˘apple‡ı˘Ó˜ ÁÈ· ÙȘ «ÏÂÎÙÈΤ˜ ¯ÂÈÚÔÓƠ̂˜» Ì·˜,

ηٿ ÙË Û˘Ó¤ÓÙ¢ÍË. °È’ ·˘Ùfi Î·È ÙÔ ÓfiËÌ· Ù˘ Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏ›·˜ ‰Â ‚Ú›ÛÎÂÙ·È appleÔÙ¤ ÂÍ

ÔÏÔÎÏ‹ÚÔ˘ ÛÙË Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏ›· ηı·˘Ù‹Ó. ªÂ ¿ÏÏ· ÏfiÁÈ·, Ë Û˘Ó¤ÓÙ¢ÍË ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ¤Ó·

›‰Ô˜ apple·ÚÔÓÙÈ΋˜ ·ÏÏËÏÔ-·Ó·apple·Ú¿ÛÙ·Û˘ ‹ ·ÏÏËÏÔ-apple·Ú·Ù‹ÚËÛ˘ ÙˆÓ Û˘ÓÔ-

ÌÈÏÔ‡ÓÙˆÓ ·ÏÏ¿ appleÔÏ˘·ÈÛıËÙËÚȷ΋ Î·È Û˘Ó·ÈÛıËÌ·ÙÈ΋ ÂÌappleÏÔ΋ ÛÙÔÓ ÎfiÛÌÔ.

∏ °§ø∞ ø HABITUS

∆· ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ¯ÚfiÓÈ·, ·ÚÎÂÙÔ› ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔ› ·ÓıÚˆappleÔÏfiÁÔÈ, ÛÙËÓ appleÚÔÛapple¿-

ıÂÈ¿ ÙÔ˘˜ Ó· ˘appleÂÚ‚Ô‡Ó ÙË ÛÙ·ÙÈ΋ ·Ê·ÈÚÂÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· Ù˘ ‰ÔÌÈÛÙÈ΋˜ ·ÓıÚˆappleÔÏÔÁ›·˜,

¤‰ˆÛ·Ó ȉȷ›ÙÂÚË ¤ÌÊ·ÛË ÛÙËÓ ·ÊËÁËÌ·ÙÈ΋ ηٷÛ΢‹ Ù˘

ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋˜ appleÚ·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜. √ Bruner Ì¿˜ ϤÂÈ fiÙÈ ÔÈ ·ÊËÁ‹ÛÂȘ ÈÛÙÔ-

ÚÈÒÓ ‰ÂÓ ·ÓÙ·Ó·ÎÏÔ‡Ó Ô‡Ù ·appleÏÒ˜ Û¯ÔÏÈ¿˙Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ appleÚ·ÁÌ·ÙÈ-

ÎfiÙËÙ·, ·ÏÏ¿ ÙËÓ Î·Ù·Û΢¿˙Ô˘Ó, ηٿ ÙË ‰È¿ÚÎÂÈ· Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈÌ¤ÓˆÓ ·ÊË-

* KÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ·ÓıÚˆappleÔÏfiÁÔ˜, Eapple›ÎÔ˘ÚË K·ıËÁ‹ÙÚÈ· ÛÙÔ TÌ‹Ì· KÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋˜ AÓıÚˆappleÔ-

ÏÔÁ›·˜ ÙÔ˘ ·ÓÂappleÈÛÙËÌ›Ô˘ AÈÁ·›Ô˘.


30

∂§∂¡∏ ∞∞°∞ƒ√Àº∞§∏

ÁËÌ·ÙÈÎÒÓ appleÚ¿ÍÂˆÓ appleÔ˘ ÂappleÈÙÂÏÔ‡ÓÙ·È ·applefi ¿ÙÔÌ· ÌÂ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ÓË ÎÔÈÓˆ-

ÓÈ΋ ı¤ÛË, ÛÂ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ÓÔ ¯ÚÔÓÈÎfi Î·È appleÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎfi appleÏ·›ÛÈÔ. 1 øÛÙfiÛÔ,

Ûapple‡‰ÂÈ Ó· ‰È¢ÎÚÈÓ›ÛÂÈ fiÙÈ «... fï˜ ‰ÂÓ appleÚ¤appleÂÈ Ó· Û˘Á¯¤Ô˘Ì ¤Ó· ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜

Ì ÙËÓ ·Ê‹ÁËÛ‹ ÙÔ˘». 2 ·›ÚÓÔÓÙ·˜ ÁÈ· apple·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ· ÙȘ «‚ÈÔ-ÈÛÙÔڛ˜»,

˘appleÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ fiÙÈ ·˘Ù¤˜ ÔÈ ·ÊËÁ‹ÛÂȘ Â›Ó·È ·Ó·apple·Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ ‚›ˆÓ Î·È fi¯È Ë

˙ˆ‹ fiappleˆ˜ ÙË ‚ÈÒÓÔ˘Ì ÛÙËÓ appleÚ·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·, ‰ÈfiÙÈ Ë ˙ˆ‹ appleÔ˘ ‚ÈÒÓÔ˘ÌÂ

·appleÔÙÂÏÂ›Ù·È ·applefi ÂÈÎfiÓ˜, ·ÈÛı‹Ì·Ù·, Û˘Ó·ÈÛı‹Ì·Ù·, ÂappleÈı˘Ì›Â˜, ÛΤ„ÂȘ

Î·È ÓÔ‹Ì·Ù· «ÁÓˆÛÙ¿ ÌfiÓÔ ÛÙÔ ¿ÙÔÌÔ appleÔ˘ Ù· ˙ÂÈ», ÂÓÒ Ë ˙ˆ‹ «appleÔ˘ ·ÊË-

Áԇ̷ÛÙÂ... Â›Ó·È ÌÈ· ÈÛÙÔÚ›· ÂappleËÚ·Ṳ̂ÓË ·applefi ÙȘ [Âapple›ÎÙËÙ˜] ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜

·ÊËÁËÌ·ÙÈΤ˜ Û˘Ì‚¿ÛÂȘ, ·applefi ÙÔ ·ÎÚÔ·Ù‹ÚÈÔ Î·È ·applefi ÙÔ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎfi appleÏ·›-

ÛÈÔ». 3 ∂Ó ÔÏ›ÁÔȘ, ηٿ ÙÔÓ Bruner Î·È appleÔÏÏÔ‡˜ ¿ÏÏÔ˘˜ ·ÓıÚˆappleÔÏfiÁÔ˘˜, 4

ÌÈÏÒÓÙ·˜ ‹ Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏÒÓÙ·˜ ÁÈ· Ù· ˘appleÔÎÂÈÌÂÓÈο Ì·˜ ‚ÈÒÌ·Ù·, «¯¿ÓÔ˘Ì»

¤Ó· appleÔχ appleÈÔ «¿ÌÂÛÔ» Î·È «appleÏÔ‡ÛÈÔ», 5 appleÈÔ «‚·ÛÈÎfi» Î·È «appleÈÔ ·˘ıÂÓÙÈ-

Îfi» 6 ˘ÏÈÎfi, ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ÙËÓ «ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›·» ‹ Î·È «ÙȘ appleÚ·ÁÌ·ÙÈΤ˜ appleÚ¿ÍÂȘ...

fiappleˆ˜ ÙȘ ۈ̷ÙÈΤ˜ ÎÈÓ‹ÛÂȘ Î·È ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ». 7 ªÈ· Ù¤ÙÔÈ· apple·Ú·‰Ô¯‹ fï˜

ÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ fiÙÈ Ë ÁÏÒÛÛ· ¤¯ÂÈ ÌÈ· ¯ÚÔÓÈ΋ Î·È ÔÓÙÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ‰È·ÊÔÚ¿ ·applefi ÙËÓ

ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›· appleÔ˘ ·Ó·apple·ÚÈÛÙ¿: ¤appleÂÙ·È Ù˘ ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›·˜ ηÈ, ·ÓÙ›ıÂÙ· appleÚÔ˜ ·˘Ù‹,

‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È «ÛˆÌ·ÙÈ΋» ‹ «·ÈÛıËÙËÚȷ΋», 8 ·ÏÏ¿ Û¯ÂÙ›˙ÂÙ·È Ì ÙÔ ÓÔ˘, ÙË

ÛΤ„Ë, ÙË Û˘Ó›‰ËÛË. 9 ªÂ ¿ÏÏ· ÏfiÁÈ·, Â›Ó·È ÏÔÁÈ΋, ÁÚ·ÌÌÈ΋, Î·È ·appleÔχ-

Ùˆ˜ ηıÔÚÈṲ̂ÓË ·applefi ÙȘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜ Û˘Ì‚¿ÛÂȘ, ÁÈ’ ·˘Ùfi appleÔχ appleÈÔ «Î·Ù·-

Û΢·Ṳ̂ÓË», appleÈÔ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋-Û˘ÏÏÔÁÈ΋ Î·È appleÈÔ Û˘Ì‚ÔÏÈ΋-·Ó·apple·Ú·ÛÙ·-

ÙÈ΋ ·applefi ÙËÓ appleÚˆÙÔÁÂÓ‹, appleÚÔÛˆappleÈ΋, «‚·ıÈ¿ ̤¯ÚÈ Ù· ÛˆıÈο» ÂÌappleÂÈ-

Ú›·. 10 °È· ÙÔ˘˜ apple·Ú·apple¿Óˆ ÏfiÁÔ˘˜, fï˜, Ë ÁÏÒÛÛ·/ÏfiÁÔ˜ ıˆÚÂ›Ù·È ·Ó·-

1. Bruner, 1984, Û. 5.

2. Ÿapple.apple., Û. 6., ¤ÌÊ·ÛË ‰È΋ ÌÔ˘.

3. Ÿapple.apple., Û. 7, ¤ÌÊ·ÛË ‰È΋ ÌÔ˘.

4. ÙÔ ›‰ÈÔ Ì‹ÎÔ˜ ·̷ÙÔ˜ ÎÈÓÔ‡ÓÙ·È fiÛÔÈ ·Ûapple¿˙ÔÓÙ·È ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ıˆڛ· appleÔ˘ ‰È·-

¯ˆÚ›˙ÂÈ ÙËÓ È‰ÈˆÙÈ΋ ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›· ·applefi ÙÔ ‰ËÌfiÛÈÔ ÓfiËÌ· (apple.¯., Geertz, 1973, 1983) ηıÒ˜ ηÈ

ÙË ÛËÌÂȈÙÈ΋ ıˆڛ· appleÔ˘ ‚Ú›ÛÎÂÈ ÙÔ ÓfiËÌ· Û ·ÊËÚË̤ӷ ÛËÌ›·, ۇ̂ÔÏ· Î·È appleÚÔÙ¿ÛÂȘ

(Âapple’ ·˘ÙÔ‡, ‚Ï.White, 1992, Û. 40).

5. Kvale, 1996, ÛÛ. 50, 54.

6. Wikan, 1991, Û. 300.

7. Bourdieu, 1977, Û. 117-118.

8. Okely, 1994, Û. 45.

9. ÷ڷÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈÎfi apple·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ· Ù˘ Ù·‡ÙÈÛ˘ Ù˘ ÁÏÒÛÛ·˜ Ì ÙÔ ÓÔ˘, ÙË ÛΤ„Ë Î·È ÙË

Û˘Ó›‰ËÛË ·appleÔÙÂÏ› Ô Û˘ÏÏÔÁÈÎfi˜ ÙfiÌÔ˜ ÙˆÓ Foster Î·È Brandes (1980), ·ÏÏ¿ ‚Ï. Î·È ÙÔÓ

ÊÚÔ¸‰È·Ófi ·ÓıÚˆappleÔÏfiÁÔ Bateson (1972), ηıÒ˜ Î·È ÙÔ˘˜ Bourdieu, 1977Ø Comaroff, 1985Ø

Tambiah, 1990, ·Ó¿ÌÂÛ· Û ¿ÏÏÔ˘˜.

10. Okely, 1994, fiapple.apple..


∏ À¡∂¡∆∂À•∏ ø øª∞∆π∫∏ ∂π∫√π¡ø¡π∞ ∆ø¡ À¡√ªπ§∏∆ø¡

31

Áη›Ô ̤ÛÔÓ ·Ó·apple·Ú¿ÛÙ·Û˘ Î·È «ÂappleÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜» ÌÂϤÙ˘ Ù˘ ¿ÚÚËÙ˘

ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›·˜11 Î·È Û˘Á¯ÚfiÓˆ˜ ÙÔ Ì¤ÛÔÓ ¤ÎÊÚ·Û˘ ÙÔ appleϤÔÓ «‰È·ÛÙÚ‚ψÙÈ-

Îfi», 12 «appleÂÚÈÔÚÈÛÙÈÎfi», 13 «ÂappleÈΛӉ˘ÓÔ» 14 Î·È «Î·Ù·ÛÙÚÔÊÈÎfi». 15

•ÂÎÈÓÒÓÙ·˜ ÙËÓ ¤ÚÂ˘Ó¿ ÌÔ˘ ÁÈ· ÙÔ˘˜ «¢ˆÚËÙ¤˜ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÓ ‹ ÛÒÌ·ÙÔ˜

ÌÂÙ¿ ı¿Ó·ÙÔÓ», Ì˘‹ıËη ÛÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ıˆڛ· Ù˘ «ÂÓۈ̿وÛ˘» ηÈ

·Ó·Î¿Ï˘„· ÙÚfiappleÔ˘˜ Ó· ·apple·ÏÏ·ÁÒ ·applefi ÙË ˙ÔÊÂÚ‹ ÂÈÎfiÓ· ÙÔ˘ «¯¿ÛÌ·ÙÔ˜»

appleÔ˘ ˘appleÔÙ›ıÂÙ·È fiÙÈ ˘apple¿Ú¯ÂÈ –Î·È ¿Ú· appleÚ¤appleÂÈ Ó· Î·Ï˘Êı›– ·Ó¿ÌÂÛ· ÛÙËÓ

«appleÂÚÈÁÚ·ÊÈ΋ ÁÏÒÛÛ· Î·È ÙËÓ appleÚ¿ÍË appleÔ˘ appleÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÂÙ·È ÏÂÎÙÈο» 16 ‹ ·Ó¿-

ÌÂÛ· ÛÙË «ÁÏÒÛÛ· Î·È ÙËÓ ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›·». 17 ∞ÎÔÏÔ‡ıËÛ· ÌÈ· appleÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈ΋-

Ê·ÈÓÔÌÂÓÔÏÔÁÈ΋ appleÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË appleÔ˘ appleÚÔÛapple·ı› Ó· Û˘ÓÂÓÒÛÂÈ ÙËÓ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· Ù˘

ۈ̷ÙÈ΋˜ appleÚfiÛÏ˄˘, ÙÔ˘ Ê·ÈÓÔÌÂÓÔÏfiÁÔ˘ Merleau-Ponty, Î·È ·˘Ù‹Ó

Ù˘ ۈ̷ÙÈ΋˜ appleÚ·ÎÙÈ΋˜, ÙÔ˘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÔÏfiÁÔ˘ Bourdieu. 18 ‡Ìʈӷ ÌÂ

·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ appleÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË, ÙÔ ÏÂÁfiÌÂÓÔ «ÛÒÌ·» ‰Â ‰È·¯ˆÚ›˙ÂÙ·È ·applefi ÙÔ ÏÂÁfi-

ÌÂÓÔ «appleÓ‡̷»/«ÓÔ˘» Ô‡Ù ·appleÔÙÂÏ› ÂÍ·Ú¯‹˜ «·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ» Ù˘ ÓÔËÙÈ΋˜

Ì·˜ ·ÓÙ›Ï˄˘. ÙË ı¤ÛË ÙÔ˘˜ ˘apple¿Ú¯ÂÈ Ô ÛˆÌ·ÙÈο appleÚÔÛÏ·Ì‚¿ÓˆÓ ·˘Ùfi˜

ˆ˜ fiÏÔÓ, appleÔ˘ ‰Ú· ÂÍ·Ú¯‹˜ Î·È Û˘Ó¯Ҙ «Ì¤Û· ÛÙÔÓ ÎfiÛÌÔ»Ø Â›Ó·È, ‰ËÏ·‰‹,

ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο ÂappleËÚ·Ṳ̂ÓÔ˜, ÂappleËÚ·˙fiÌÂÓÔ˜, ÂappleËÚ¿˙ˆÓ. M ¿ÏÏ· ÏfiÁÈ·,

·ÓÙÈÏ·Ì‚·ÓfiÌ·ÛÙÂ Î·È ‰ÚÔ‡ÌÂ Û˘Ó¯Ҙ Ì fiϘ ÙȘ appleÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈο ÂappleËÚ·-

Ṳ̂Ó˜ ·ÈÛı‹ÛÂȘ Î·È Û˘Ó·ÈÛı‹Ì·Ù·. ∫·È ÔÈ appleϤÔÓ «ÓÔËÙÈΤ˜» Î·È «·ÙÔÌÈ-

Τ˜» appleÚ·ÎÙÈΤ˜, fiappleˆ˜ Ë Ê·ÓÙ·Û›·, Ë ÌÓ‹ÌË, Ë ‰È·›ÛıËÛË, Â›Ó·È ÊÙÈ·Á̤Ó˜

Î·È ÊÙÈ¿¯ÓÔÓÙ·È ·applefi ÙȘ ·ÈÛı‹ÛÂȘ Î·È ÌÂ Û˘Ó·ÈÛı‹Ì·Ù· appleÔ˘ ÌÔÈÚ·Ûًη-

Ì ÛÙȘ Û¯¤ÛÂȘ Ì·˜ Ì ¿ÏÏÔ˘˜ ÛÙÔ apple·ÚÂÏıfiÓ, ÌÔÈÚ·˙fiÌ·ÛÙ ‹ ‰Â ÌÔÈÚ·˙fi-

Ì·ÛÙ ÛÙÔ apple·ÚfiÓ Î·È appleÔ˘ ÂappleÈı˘ÌÔ‡ÌÂ/ۯ‰ȿ˙Ô˘Ì ‹ ‰ÂÓ ÂappleÈı˘ÌÔ‡ÌÂ/Û¯Â-

‰È¿˙Ô˘Ì ӷ ÌÔÈÚ·ÛÙԇ̠ÛÙÔ Ì¤ÏÏÔÓ. µ¿ÛÂÈ ·˘ÙÒÓ, Î·È Ë ÁÏÒÛÛ· (ˆ˜

Û‡ÛÙËÌ· ÛËÌ›ˆÓ ‹ Û˘Ì‚fiψÓ, ˆ˜ ÏfiÁÔ˜, ‰È¿ÏÔÁÔ˜, ÌÔÓfiÏÔÁÔ˜, ·Ê‹ÁËÛË

11. Bourdieu, 1977, Û. 120.

12. Okely, 1994, Û. 62.

13. Jackson, 1994, Û. 220.

14. Bloch, 1991, Û. 183.

15. Bourdieu, 1977, Û. 117. øÛÙfiÛÔ, Ô Bourdieu ıˆÚ› ÙË ÁÏÒÛÛ· ÙÔ˘ ÛÒÌ·ÙÔ˜, ÙËÓ

ÔappleÔ›· Ù·˘Ù›˙ÂÈ Ì ÙÔ habitus, «·Û‡ÁÎÚÈÙ· appleÈÔ ‰ÈÊÔÚÔ‡ÌÂÓË Î·È appleÈÔ appleÚÔηıÔÚÈṲ̂ÓË ·applefi ÙȘ

appleϤÔÓ appleÚÔηıÔÚÈṲ̂Ó˜ ¯Ú‹ÛÂȘ Ù˘ ηÓÔÓÈ΋˜ ÁÏÒÛÛ·˜» (1977, Û. 120). ·Ú¿ ÙË ¯ÚËÛÈ-

ÌfiÙËÙ· Ù˘ apple·Ú·Ù‹ÚËÛ‹˜ ÙÔ˘ (ηıfiÙÈ Ë ÁÏÒÛÛ· ÙÔ˘ ÛÒÌ·ÙÔ˜ ıˆÚÂ›Ù·È Û˘Ó‹ıˆ˜ appleÈÔ

‰ËψÙÈ΋ ·applefi ÙË ÏÂÎÙÈ΋ ÁÏÒÛÛ·), Ô Bourdieu ·appleÏÒ˜ ·Ó·apple·Ú¿ÁÂÈ ÙÔ ‰È·¯ˆÚÈÛÌfi Ù˘ ÁÏÒÛ-

Û·˜ ·applefi ÙËÓ ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›·.

16. Diaz de Rada Î·È Cruces, 1994, Û. 109, ¤ÌÊ·ÛË ‰È΋ ÌÔ˘.

17. Kirmayer, 1992, Û. 335, ¤ÌÊ·ÛË ‰È΋ ÌÔ˘.

18. µÏ. Û¯ÂÙÈο, ΢ڛˆ˜, Csordas, 1990, 1993, 1994 a, b, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È Crossley, 1995, ηÈ

Kirmayer, 1992.


32

∂§∂¡∏ ∞∞°∞ƒ√Àº∞§∏

Î.Ïapple.) ‰ÂÓ ·appleÔÙÂÏ› ·appleÏÒ˜ ÌÈ· «ÓÔËÙÈ΋» ηٷÛ΢‹ appleÔ˘ ¤ÛÙˆ ηٷÛ΢¿-

˙ÂÙ·È ÛÙËÓ appleÚ¿ÍË appleÔ˘ ÂappleÈÙÂÏÂ›Ù·È ·applefi «ÓÔ‹ÌÔÓ·» ·ÏÏ¿ «·ÛÒÌ·Ù·» ‰ÚÒ-

ÓÙ· ˘appleÔΛÌÂÓ·. ∏ ›‰È· Ë ÁÏÒÛÛ· Â›Ó·È ÌÈ· ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο ÂappleËÚ·Ṳ̂ÓË

«ÏÂÎÙÈ΋ ¯ÂÈÚÔÓÔÌ›·», «ÌÈ· ·applefi ÙȘ appleÔÏϤ˜ ‰˘Ó·Ù¤˜ ¯Ú‹ÛÂȘ [‹ ÁÏÒÛÛ˜]

ÙÔ˘ ÛÒÌ·Ùfi˜ Ì·˜», 19 Â›Ó·È ÌfiÓÔ Ì›· ·applefi ÙȘ appleÔÏϤ˜, ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈΤ˜ «ÂÌappleÂÈ-

ڛ˜» 20 appleÔ˘ ˙Ô‡ÌÂ Û˘Ó¯Ҙ ̤۷ ÛÙÔÓ ÌË ÁÚ·ÌÌÈÎfi ¯ÚfiÓÔ.

∂¿Ó, ηْ ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ appleÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË, ÙfiÛÔ Ë ˙ˆ‹ appleÔ˘ ‚ÈÒÓÔ˘Ì fiÛÔ Î·È Ë

·Ê‹ÁËÛ‹ Ì·˜ ÁÈ’ ·˘Ù‹ Â›Ó·È «ÂÌappleÂÈڛ˜», ÙfiÙ ÙÈ Â›Ó·È ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›·; 21 ∫·Ù¿

ÙÔÓ Csordas, ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ÌÈ· Û˘Á¯ÚÔÓÈ΋ ÛÙÈÁÌ‹ ÙÔ˘ ÂıÓÔÁÚ·ÊÈÎÔ‡ apple·Úfi-

ÓÙÔ˜, ·ÏÏ¿ ÌÈ· «ÈÛÙÔÚÈο/¯ÚÔÓÈο ÂappleËÚ·˙fiÌÂÓË [appleÔÏ˘-]·ÈÛıËÙËÚȷ΋

[Î·È Û˘ÁÎÈÓËÛȷ΋] apple·ÚÔ˘Û›· Î·È ÂÌappleÏÔ΋ [ÛÙÔÓ ÎfiÛÌÔ]», Ë ÔappleÔ›· Á›ÓÂÙ·È

Û˘Ó‹ıˆ˜ ·ÈÛıËÙ‹ ˆ˜ ·‰È·ÌÂÛÔÏ¿‚ËÙË, ÁÈ’ ·˘Ùfi ¿ÌÂÛË ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ·Û·Ê‹˜,

ηıfiÙÈ Û˘Ó›ÛÙ·Ù·È «Û ¤Ó· ÚÂappleÂÚÙfiÚÈÔ appleÚÔ-·ÓÙÈÎÂÈÌÂÓÈÎÒÓ [fi¯È fï˜

appleÚÔÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÒÓ] ÓÔËÌ¿ÙˆÓ». 22 ªÂ ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ ¤ÓÓÔÈ·, ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›· Â›Ó·È Î·È

·˘Ùfi appleÔ˘ Ô Bourdieu ÔÓÔÌ¿˙ÂÈ habitus ‹ ¤ıÔ˜: ∆Ô ÈÛÙÔÚÈο Î·È ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔ-

ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈο ÂappleËÚ·Ṳ̂ÓÔ Û‡ÛÙËÌ· ÛÙ·ıÂÚÒÓ, ÌÂÙ·ı¤ÛÈÌˆÓ ‰È·ı¤ÛˆÓ, 23

19. Csordas, 1990, Û. 25, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È Das, 1998, Û. 185.

20. Csordas, 1994·, Û. 245.

21. ˘Ó‹ıˆ˜, Ë ¤ÓÓÔÈ· «ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›·» ‹ «‚›ˆÌ·» ‰ÂÓ ÔÚ›˙ÂÙ·È ·applefi ÙÔ˘˜ ·ÓıÚˆappleÔÏfiÁÔ˘˜,

‰ÈfiÙÈ Ë ÛËÌ·Û›· Ù˘ ıˆÚÂ›Ù·È ‰Â‰Ô̤ÓË (Âapple’ ·˘ÙÔ‡, ‚Ï. Abrahams, 1986). ¿ÓÙˆ˜, ÚËÙ¿ ‹

¿ÚÚËÙ·, Ë «ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›·» apple·Ú·apple¤ÌappleÂÈ Û fiÏ· fiÛ· ˙ÂÈ ÙÔ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎfi ¿ÙÔÌÔ, ηٿ ÙȘ ηıËÌÂÚÈÓ¤˜

ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜ appleÚ¿ÍÂȘ ÙÔ˘, Ì ¤Ó·Ó fï˜ ·˘ıfiÚÌËÙÔ, ¿ÌÂÛÔ, Ï›ÁÔ-appleÔχ appleÚÔÛˆappleÈÎfi ÙÚfiappleÔ.

°ÂÓÈο, Ë ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›· Ù·˘Ù›˙ÂÙ·È Ì ÙËÓ ˘appleÔÙÈı¤ÌÂÓË ˘ÏÈÎfiÙËÙ· Ù˘ ·appleÙ‹˜ appleÚ¿Í˘ ‹ ηÈ

¯Ú‹Û˘ (ÛÙËÓ appleÂÚ›appleÙˆÛË Ù˘ ÁÏÒÛÛ·˜ ˆ˜ ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›·˜, ‚Ï., apple.¯., Das, 1998), ÁÈ’ ·˘Ùfi Î·È appleÔÏ-

Ϥ˜ ÊÔÚ¤˜ Û˘Óԉ‡ÂÙ·È ·applefi ÙÔ Âapple›ıÂÙÔ «appleÚ·ÁÌ·ÙÈ΋ [ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›·]» ÁÈ· Ó· ÂappleÈÙ·ı› Ë ˘ÏÈÎfi-

ÙËÙ¿ Ù˘ Î·È fi¯È ÁÈ· Ó· ·ÓÙÈapple·Ú·ÙÂı› Û ÌÈ· «ÌË-appleÚ·ÁÌ·ÙÈ΋» ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›· – ·Ó Î·È ÌappleÔÚ›

Ó· ·ÓÙÈapple·Ú·‚ÏËı› Û ÌÈ· ÏÈÁfiÙÂÚÔ appleÚ·ÁÌ·ÙÈ΋ appleÚ¿ÍË, ÙËÓ ·Ê‹ÁËÛË Ù˘ ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›·˜.

22. Csordas, 1994b, Û. 10.

23. ∫·Ù¿ ÙÔÓ Bourdieu, ÔÈ «‰È·ı¤ÛÂȘ» appleÔ˘ Û˘ÓÈÛÙÔ‡Ó ÙÔ habitus ‹ ¤ıÔ˜ Â›Ó·È ¿ÚÚËÙ˜

ÁÓÒÛÂȘ ‹ ‰ÂÍÈfiÙËÙ˜ «ÓÔËÙÈÎÔ‡» Î·È «ÛˆÌ·ÙÈÎÔ‡», ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ÎÈÓ·ÈÛıËÙÈÎÔ‡ ¯·Ú·ÎÙ‹Ú·, appleÔ˘

¤¯Ô˘Ó ·appleÔÎÙËı› ‹ ÂÓۈ̷وı› Ì ÙË Ì›ÌËÛË Î·È ¿ÏÏÔ˘˜ ·ÈÛıËÙËÚÈ·ÎÔ‡˜ Ì˯·ÓÈÛÌÔ‡˜ ηÈ

¤¯Ô˘Ó ηٷϋÍÂÈ Û «ÙÚfiappleÔ˘˜ ˙ˆ‹˜, ÂıÈÛÌÔ‡˜ (΢ڛˆ˜ ۈ̷ÙÈÎÔ‡˜) Î·È Î˘Ú›ˆ˜ Û appleÚÔ-

‰È·ı¤ÛÂȘ, Ù¿ÛÂȘ, ÎÏ›ÛÂȘ ‹ ÚÔapple¤˜» (1977, Û. 22, ¤ÌÊ·ÛË ÛÙÔ appleÚˆÙfiÙ˘appleÔ). °È· apple·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·,

Ë «·›ÛıËÛË Ù˘ ÙÈÌ‹˜» ÛÙÔ˘˜ ∫·‚‡ÏÈÔ˘˜ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ÌÈ· ·ÊËÚË̤ÓË «·Ú¯‹» ‹ «Î·ÓfiÓ·˜» appleÔ˘

·ÎÔÏÔ˘ıÔ‡Ó ·ÏÏ¿ ÌÈ· ÂÓۈ̷و̤ÓË, ηıfiÙÈ Î·ÏÏÈÂÚÁË̤ÓË ·applefi Ù· apple·È‰Èο ¯ÚfiÓÈ·,

appleÚԉȿıÂÛË appleÔ˘ οÓÂÈ Ù· ¿ÚÚÂÓ· ̤ÏË Ù˘ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤Ó˘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜ Ó· Ù›ÓÔ˘Ó Ó· ÂÓÂÚÁÔ‡Ó

·ÓÙ·ÁˆÓÈÛÙÈο ÎÈ ·˘Ùfi ̤۷ ·applefi ¿appleÂÈÚ˜ ÂappleÈÓÔ‹ÛÂȘ appleÔ˘ ‰Â Û¯ÂÙ›˙ÔÓÙ·È Ì ÙȘ ÛÙÂÚÂfiÙ˘apple˜

·Ó·ÌÂÓfiÌÂÓ˜ ÙÂÏÂÙÔ˘ÚÁÈΤ˜ appleÚ¿ÍÂȘ (fiapple.apple., Û. 15). Ú¤appleÂÈ Ó· ÛËÌÂȈı› fiÙÈ appleÔÏϤ˜

ÊÔÚ¤˜ Ô Bourdieu ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔappleÔÈ› ·ÓÙ› ÙÔ˘ habitus ÙËÓ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· «ÓÔËÙÈο Û¯‹Ì·Ù·», Ù· ÔappleÔ›·

‰ÂÓ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ηÌÈ¿ Û¯¤ÛË Ì ηÓfiÓ˜, Ù‡appleÔ˘˜, ÌÔÓ٤Ϸ. ∞ÓÙ›ıÂÙ·, ÂÓÒ Â›Ó·È «ÂÍ·ÈÚÂÙÈο ·Î·-

ıfiÚÈÛÙ· ÛÙËÓ ÂÊ·ÚÌÔÁ‹ ÙÔ˘˜» (fiapple.apple.), fiappleˆ˜, ÁÈ· apple·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·, ÔÈ appleÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎÔ› ‰È·¯ˆÚÈÛÌÔ›


∏ À¡∂¡∆∂À•∏ ø øª∞∆π∫∏ ∂π∫√π¡ø¡π∞ ∆ø¡ À¡√ªπ§∏∆ø¡

33

ÙÔ ÔappleÔ›Ô, appleÂÚÈÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÔÓÙ·˜ apple·ÚÂÏıÔ‡Û˜ ÂÌappleÂÈڛ˜, ‰È·ÙËÚÂ›Ù·È ÛÙÔ

apple·ÚfiÓ Î·È Ù›ÓÂÈ Ó· ‰È·ÈˆÓ›˙ÂÙ·È ÛÙÔ Ì¤ÏÏÔÓ ˆ˜ Ì‹ÙÚ· ÙˆÓ appleÚÔÛÏ‹„ˆÓ,

ÂÎÙÈÌ‹ÛˆÓ, appleڿ͈Ó, Û˘Ó·ÈÛıËÌ¿ÙˆÓ Î·È ÛΤ„ÂÒÓ Ì·˜, Î·È ÙÔ ÔappleÔ›Ô

Û˘ÓÙÂÏ› ÛÙËÓ Âapple›Ù¢ÍË ¿appleÂÈÚˆÓ ÂÓÂÚÁÂÈÒÓ, ¯¿ÚË Û ·Ó·ÏÔÁÈΤ˜ ÌÂÙ·ı¤-

ÛÂȘ Û¯ËÌ¿ÙˆÓ appleÔ˘ ÂappleÈÙÚ¤appleÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ Âapple›Ï˘ÛË apple·ÚfiÌÔÈ· ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁË̤ӈÓ

appleÚÔ‚ÏËÌ¿ÙˆÓ, ηıÒ˜ Î·È ¯¿ÚË ÛÙȘ ·‰È¿ÎÔapple˜ Âapple·ÓÔÚıÒÛÂȘ ÙˆÓ ·appleÔÙÂ-

ÏÂÛÌ¿ÙˆÓ ÙˆÓ ÂappleÈχÛˆÓ. 24

 ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË fï˜ Ì ÙÔÓ Bourdieu appleÔ˘ ‰È·¯ˆÚ›˙ÂÈ ÚËÙ¿ ÙÔ ¤ıÔ˜ ·applefi

ÙÔÓ ÏfiÁÔ, ÙȘ ϤÍÂȘ Î·È ÙË Û˘Ó›‰ËÛË, 25 ÂÌ›˜ ‚ϤappleÔ˘Ì ÙËÓ ›‰È· ÙË ÁÏÒÛ-

Û· (ʈÓÔÏÔÁÈο, Û˘ÓÙ·ÎÙÈο, ÛËÌ·ÛÈÔÏÔÁÈο) ˆ˜ habitus ‹ «ÛˆÌ·ÙÈ΋

appleÚԉȿıÂÛË» 26 ‹ «ÛˆÌ·ÙÈ΋ appleÚ·ÎÙÈ΋» 27 : ˆ˜ ÂÓۈ̷و̤ÓË, appleÔÏ˘·ÈÛıË-

ÙËÚȷ΋ Î·È Û˘Ó·ÈÛıËÌ·ÙÈ΋ ÁÓÒÛË ‹ ‰ÂÍÈfiÙËÙ· appleÔ˘ ¤¯ÂÈ ÊÙÈ·¯Ù› ηÈ

ÊÙÈ¿¯ÓÔ˘ÌÂ Î·È ÌÔÈÚ·˙fiÌ·ÛÙ Ì ¿ÏÏÔ˘˜ ›Ù ·Û˘Ó›‰ËÙ·, fiÙ·Ó (ÓÔÌ›˙Ô˘-

Ì fiÙÈ) ΢ÚÈÔÏÂÎÙԇ̠̠«ÓÂÎÚ¤˜ ÌÂÙ·ÊÔÚ¤˜», 28 Ì ÏÂÎÙÈΤ˜ ÂÈÎfiÓ˜ ηÈ

ÂӉ›ÎÙ˜, Î·È ‰Â ÓÈÒıÔ˘Ì ÙËÓ ·Ó¿ÁÎË ÂappleÂÍËÁ‹ÛˆÓ, ›ÙÂ Û˘ÓÂȉËÙ¿, 29

·ÚÛÂÓÈÎfi/ıËÏ˘Îfi, ·Ó·ÙÔÏ‹/‰‡ÛË, ̤ÏÏÔÓ/apple·ÚÂÏıfiÓ, apple¿Óˆ/οو, ‰ÂÍÈ¿/·ÚÈÛÙÂÚ¿, ÔÚÁ·ÓÒ-

ÓÔ˘Ó Î·È Û˘ÛÙËÌ·ÙÔappleÔÈÔ‡Ó (fiapple.apple., Û. 8) ÙȘ «ÌË ÂÌappleÚfiıÂÙ˜ ÂÊ¢ڤÛÂȘ ÙˆÓ appleÚÔۯ‰ȷ-

ÛÌ¤ÓˆÓ ·˘ÙÔۯ‰ȷÛÌÒÓ» Ì·˜ (fiapple.apple.,. Û. 7, ¤ÌÊ·ÛË ÛÙÔ appleÚˆÙfiÙ˘appleÔ). (°È· ÙË ¯ÚËÛÈÌfiÙËÙ·

ÙˆÓ ÓÔËÙÈÎÒÓ ‹ ÁÓˆÛÙÈÎÒÓ Û¯ËÌ¿ÙˆÓ ÛÙËÓ ·ÓıÚˆappleÔÏÔÁ›· Î·È Û ۯ¤ÛË Ì ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋

ÌÓ‹ÌË, ‚Ï., apple.¯., Bloch, 1991, Î·È Schrauf, 1997. ∂apple›Û˘, ÁÈ· ÌÈ· ı·˘Ì¿ÛÈ· Û‡ÓÔ„Ë ÙÔ˘ ı¤Ì·-

ÙÔ˜ ·˘ÙÔ‡ ÛÙ· ÂÏÏËÓÈο, ‚Ï. ·Ú·‰¤ÏÏ˘, 1999).

24. Bourdieu, 1977, ÛÛ. 82-83 Î·È 93-94, ‰È΋ ÌÔ˘ ÌÂÙ¿ÊÚ·ÛË.

25. √ Bourdieu Ù·˘Ù›˙ÂÈ ÙÔ habitus Ì ÙËÓ «appleÚ·ÎÙÈ΋ ηٿÎÙËÛË», apple.¯. ÂÓfi˜ appleÔÈ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜,

‰ËÏ·‰‹ Ì ÙËÓ ·Û˘Ó›‰ËÙË Î·È ÂÍ ·ÎÔ‹˜ ÌfiÓÔÓ ÂÍÔÈΛˆÛË-ÂÎÌ¿ıËÛË ÙÔ˘ appleÔÈ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜, Î·È ÙË

‰È·ÎÚ›ÓÂÈ ·applefi ÙË «Û˘Ì‚ÔÏÈ΋ ηٿÎÙËÛË» –ÙÔ˘ appleÔÈ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜– ÙËÓ ÔappleÔ›· Ù·˘Ù›˙ÂÈ Ì ÙË

«Û˘ÓÂȉËÙ‹ ·Ó·ÁÓÒÚÈÛË Î·È ÙË ÏÂÎÙÈ΋ ¤ÎÊÚ·Û‹» ÙÔ˘ (1977, Û. 88, ¤ÌÊ·ÛË ‰È΋ ÌÔ˘). ÙËÓ

appleÚÒÙË appleÂÚ›appleÙˆÛË Ì·ı·›ÓÔ˘Ì ¯ˆÚ›˜ Ó· ¤¯Ô˘Ì ÙËÓ ·›ÛıËÛË fiÙÈ Ì·ı·›ÓÔ˘ÌÂ Î·È fiÙÈ ¯ÂÈ-

ÚÈ˙fiÌ·ÛÙ ÙÔÓ ¤Ó· ‹ ÙÔÓ ¿ÏÏÔ Ù‡appleÔ: ÂÛˆÙÂÚÈ·ԢÌ ÙÔ Ú˘ıÌfi, ÙË ÌÂψ‰›· Î·È ÙÔ ÓfiËÌ·

Û˘Á¯ÚfiÓˆ˜, ¯ˆÚ›˜ Ó· Ù· appleÚÔÛ¤¯Ô˘Ì Âapple›Ùˉ˜ (fiapple.apple.). ªÂ ¿ÏÏ· ÏfiÁÈ·, ÙÔ habitus ÙÔ˘

Bourdieu Â›Ó·È ¿ÚÚËÙÔ (‹ ÌË Û˘Ì‚ÔÏÈÎfi) Î·È ·Û˘Ó›‰ËÙÔ, ÂÓÒ Ë Ú‹ÛË appleÚÔ¸appleÔı¤ÙÂÈ Û˘ÓÂȉËÙ‹

appleÚÔÛÔ¯‹. ÙÔ ¿ÚıÚÔ ·˘Ùfi ˘appleÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÙ·È fiÙÈ Î·È Ë Û˘ÓÂȉËÙ‹ appleÚÔÛÂÎÙÈ΋ ÔÌÈÏ›·, ·ÎfiÌË Î·È

Ô ÏÂÎÙÈÎfi˜ ·˘ÙÔۯ‰ȷÛÌfi˜, Â›Ó·È habitus, ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ηٷÛ΢¿˙ÂÙ·È Î·È ÂÊ·ÚÌfi˙ÂÙ·È ÛÙË ‚¿ÛË

ÁÂÓÈÎÒÓ Î·È ·appleÚÔÛ‰ÈfiÚÈÛÙˆÓ, ·ÏÏ¿ ηıÔ‰ËÁËÙÈÎÒÓ ÚËÙÒÓ Î·È ¿ÚÚËÙˆÓ, appleÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎÒÓ Û¯Ë-

Ì¿ÙˆÓ (‚Ï. Î·È ÛËÌ. 23, ηıÒ˜ Î·È ÛËÌ. 34, apple·Ú·Î¿Ùˆ).

26. Kirmayer, 1992, Û. 343.

27. Diaz de Rada Î·È Cruces, 1994, Û. 101.

28. Kirmayer, 1992, Û. 332.

29. ÃÚËÛÈÌÔappleÔÈÒ ÙËÓ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· Ù˘ Û˘ÓÂȉËÙ‹˜ ÏÂÎÙÈ΋˜ appleÚ·ÎÙÈ΋˜ fi¯È Ì ÙËÓ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· Ù˘

ÏÔÁÈ΋˜ «Û·Ê‹ÓÂÈ·˜» (apple.¯., Bourdieu, 1977, Û. 94Ø Comaroff, 1985, Û. 5), ÂappleÂȉ‹, ‰‹ıÂÓ, Ë

ÏÂÎÙÈ΋ ÁÏÒÛÛ· ·appleÔÙÂÏ› ÙÔ Î·Ù’ ÂÍÔ¯‹Ó ̤ÛÔÓ apple·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ Û˘ÓÂȉËÙÒÓ ‰ËÏÒÛÂˆÓ Î·È ÓÔË-

Ì¿ÙˆÓ, ·ÏÏ¿ Ì ÙË Ê·ÈÓÔÌÂÓÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· Ù˘ appleÚfiıÂÛ˘/ÛÎÔappleÈÌfiÙËÙ·˜ ÙÔ˘ Csordas


34

∂§∂¡∏ ∞∞°∞ƒ√Àº∞§∏

fiÙ·Ó ÙËÓ ·ÓÙÈÎÂÈÌÂÓÔappleÔÈÔ‡ÌÂ, ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ÂappleÈÓÔÔ‡ÌÂ Î·È ÂappleÈÙÂÏԇ̠Ӥ˜

ÌÂÙ·ÊÔÚ¤˜, ÓÂÔÏÔÁÈÛÌÔ‡˜, Ê·ÈÓÔÌÂÓÈο appleÚˆÙfiÁÓˆÚ˜ appleÚ·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ˜,

ÂÊfiÛÔÓ ‚¤‚·È· ÔÈ Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏÔ‡ÓÙ˜ ›̷ÛÙ apple·ÚfiÌÔÈ· appleÚԉȷÙÂıÂÈ̤ÓÔÈ Ó·

ÙÔ Î¿ÓÔ˘ÌÂ, ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ÌÔÈÚ·˙fiÌ·ÛÙ apple·ÚfiÌÔÈ· ۈ̷ÙÈ΋ ÁÓÒÛË ‹ ÂÌappleÂÈڛ˜.

∞Ó fi¯È, ÓÈÒıÔ˘ÌÂ Î·È Ï¤Ì fiÙÈ ÌÈÏ¿Ì ¿ÏÏË ÁÏÒÛÛ·. 30

∏ À¡∂¡∆∂À•∏ ø øª∞∆π∫√ ∆ƒ√√ ƒ√√Ã∏

‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙËÓ appleÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈ΋-Ê·ÈÓÔÌÂÓÔÏÔÁÈ΋ appleÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË appleÔ˘ appleÚÔÙ›ÓÂ-

Ù·È Â‰Ò, Ë Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏ›· appleÔ˘ ‰È·Ì›‚ÂÙ·È, ÁÈ· apple·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·, Û ÌÈ· Û˘Ó¤ÓÙ¢ÍË,

Â›Ó·È ¤Ó·˜ «ÛˆÌ·ÙÈÎfi˜ ÙÚfiappleÔ˜ appleÚÔÛÔ¯‹˜», ÌÈ· appleÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈο ÂappleÂÍÂÚÁ·Ṳ̂-

ÓË ÌÔÚÊ‹ appleÚÔÛÔ¯‹˜ Ì ÙÔ ÛÒÌ· Ì·˜ Î·È appleÚÔ˜ ÙÔ ÛÒÌ· ÙÔ ‰ÈÎfi Ì·˜ ηÈ

·˘ÙÒÓ appleÔ˘ Ì·˜ appleÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔ˘Ó Ì ÙË Ê˘ÛÈ΋ ‹ ÌË apple·ÚÔ˘Û›· ÙÔ˘˜. 31 ∞˘Ùfi

ÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ ‰‡Ô appleÚ¿ÁÌ·Ù·. ÚÒÙÔÓ, fiÙÈ ÙÔ ÓfiËÌ· ηٷÛ΢¿˙ÂÙ·È ÌfiÓÔ ‰È˘appleÔÎÂÈÌÂÓÈο

Î·È apple¿ÓÙ· ̤ۈ appleÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈο ÂappleÂÍÂÚÁ·ÛÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÛˆÌ·ÙÈÎÒÓ,

ÏÂÎÙÈÎÒÓ Î·È ÌË, appleÚԉȷı¤ÛˆÓ. ¢Â‡ÙÂÚÔÓ, fiÙÈ, ÂappleÂȉ‹ ÙÔ ÏÂÁfiÌÂÓÔ ÛÒÌ·

Â›Ó·È «apple¿ÓÙ· Î·È ÂÍ·Ú¯‹˜» ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο ÂappleËÚ·Ṳ̂ÓÔ, ÙÔ Ó· appleÚÔÛ¤ÍÂȘ ÌÈ·

ÏÂÎÙÈ΋ ‹ ¿ÏÏË ¯ÂÈÚÔÓÔÌ›· ‰ÂÓ ÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ fiÙÈ ÙËÓ apple·Ú·ÙËÚ›˜ Û·Ó Ó· ‹Ù·Ó

¤Ó· ͯˆÚÈÛÙfi ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ, ·ÏÏ¿ fiÙÈ ÛÙÚ¤ÊÂÛ·È appleÚÔ˜ ÙËÓ Î·Ù¿ÛÙ·Û‹ Ù˘

̤۷ ÛÙÔÓ ÎfiÛÌÔ, fiÙÈ ‰ËÏ·‰‹ appleÚÔÛ¤¯ÂȘ ‹ apple·Ú·ÙËÚ›˜ Î·È ÂÈο˙ÂȘ ÙÔ ‰È˘appleÔÎÂÈÌÂÓÈÎfi

appleÏ·›ÛÈÔ appleÔ˘ apple·Ú‹Á·Á ·˘Ù‹ ÙË ¯ÂÈÚÔÓÔÌ›·. ªÂ ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ

¤ÓÓÔÈ·, ÁÈ· apple·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·, Ë ÔappleÙÈ΋ appleÚÔÛÔ¯‹ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ·appleÏÒ˜ ÌÈ· ÁÓˆÛÙÈ΋

ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· ‹ ¤Ó· ·ÛÒÌ·ÙÔ ·ÛÙÚ·appleÈ·›Ô ‚ϤÌÌ· ·ÏÏ¿ ÌÈ· appleÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈο ÂappleÂ-

ÍÂÚÁ·Ṳ̂ÓË ÛˆÌ·ÙÈ΋ ÂÌappleÏÔ΋ Û ÎfiÛÌÔ˘˜ ÛÙÔ˘˜ ÔappleÔ›Ô˘˜ ›̷ÛÙ ϛÁÔ

ˆ˜ appleÔχ ‹ Î·È Î·ıfiÏÔ˘ ÂıÈṲ̂ÓÔÈ. 32 ‡Ìʈӷ ÏÔÈapplefiÓ Ì ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ appleÚÔ-

Û¤ÁÁÈÛË appleÔ˘ ‰ÂÓ ‰È·ÎÚ›ÓÂÈ ÙË ÁÏÒÛÛ·/ÓÔ˘ ·applefi ÙÔ ÛÒÌ·, Ù· ÏÂÁfiÌÂÓ·

(1994a, Û. 380) Î·È ÙÔ˘ Bourdieu: ·˘Ù‹˜ appleÔ˘ ÌappleÔÚ› Î·È Ó· ÍÂÎÈÓ¿ÂÈ ˆ˜ ÂÌappleÚfiıÂÙË/ÛÎfiappleÈ-

ÌË ·ÏÏ¿ appleÔ˘ ˘appleÔÛÎÂÏ›˙ÂÙ·È ÂÓ Ì¤ÚÂÈ ·applefi ÙËÓ «·ÓÙÈÎÂÈÌÂÓÈ΋ appleÚfiıÂÛË» appleÔ˘ Â›Ó·È ÂÓÛˆ-

̷و̤ÓË ÛÙ· ÏfiÁÈ·-habitus ÙÔ˘ ÔÌÈÏËÙ‹. µÏ., Âapple›Û˘, ÙÔÓ White appleÔ˘ ˘appleÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ fiÙÈ «ÙÔ

ΛÓËÙÚÔ ‰ÂÓ appleÚ¤appleÂÈ Ó· Ù·˘Ù›˙ÂÙ·È Ì ÙË Û˘ÓÂȉËÙ‹ ÛÎÔappleÈÌfiÙËÙ·» (1992, Û. 28).

30. ∆Ô fiÙÈ ‰ÂÓ ·ÏÏËÏÔ-ηٷϷ‚·ÈÓfiÌ·ÛÙ Û ÌÈ· Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏ›· ‰ÂÓ ÔÊ›ÏÂÙ·È ÛÙËÓ ·Ê·È-

ÚÂÙÈ΋ (appleÚ·ÁÌÔappleÔÈËÙÈ΋/·ÓÙÈÎÂÈÌÂÓÔappleÔÈËÙÈ΋) ʇÛË Ù˘ ÁÏÒÛÛ·˜ ·˘Ù‹˜ ηı·˘Ù‹Ó, Ô‡Ù ÛÙÔÓ

«appleÏÔ‡ÙÔ» Ù˘ ÂÛÒÙÂÚ˘ ·ÙÔÌÈ΋˜ ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›·˜, appleÔ˘ ‰ÂÓ ÌappleÔÚ› Ó· ·appleÔ‰Ôı›, ηıfiÏÔ˘ ‹

Âapple·ÚÎÒ˜, «Ì ÏfiÁÈ·», ·ÏÏ¿ ÛÙËÓ ¤ÏÏÂÈ„Ë ÎÔÈÓÒÓ ÂÌappleÂÈÚÈÒÓ, ÎÔÈÓ‹˜ ۈ̷ÙÈ΋˜ ÁÓÒÛ˘. £·

ÌappleÔÚÔ‡Û·Ì ӷ οÓÔ˘Ì ¤ÚˆÙ· ‹ Ó· apple·Ï‡ԢÌÂ Î·È Ó· ÌËÓ «Ù· ‚Ú›ÛÎÔ˘Ì» ÁÈ· ÙÔÓ ›‰ÈÔ

ÏfiÁÔ: ÁÈ·Ù› ‰ÂÓ ¤¯Ô˘Ì ÎÔÈÓ¤˜ ÂÌappleÂÈڛ˜ ‹ ‰ÂÓ ¤¯Ô˘Ì ·ÎfiÌË ÊÙÈ¿ÍÂÈ ÎÔÈÓ¤˜ ÂÌappleÂÈڛ˜/ÎÔÈÓ‹

ۈ̷ÙÈ΋ ÁÓÒÛË.

31. µÏ. Csordas, 1993, Û. 138-139.

32. Ÿapple.apple..


∏ À¡∂¡∆∂À•∏ ø øª∞∆π∫∏ ∂π∫√π¡ø¡π∞ ∆ø¡ À¡√ªπ§∏∆ø¡

35

«apple·Ú·ÁψÛÛÈο Ù¯ӿÛÌ·Ù·» 33 ‰ÂÓ ÌÂÛÔÏ·‚Ô‡Ó ÁÈ· Ó· ÂappleÈÙ¢¯ı› Ë Û˘-

ÁÎÈÓËÛȷ΋ appleÏÂ˘Ú¿ Ù˘ ‰ËψÙÈ΋˜ ·Ï‹ıÂÈ·˜, ·ÏÏ¿ Â›Ó·È Ë ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο ÂappleË-

Ú·Ṳ̂ÓË ·ÈÛıËÙËÚȷ΋-Û˘Ó·ÈÛıËÌ·ÙÈ΋ ˘Ê‹ Ù˘ ÁψÛÛÈ΋˜ ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›·˜

·˘Ù‹˜ ηı·˘Ù‹Ó: ÌÈÏ¿Ì Ì ϤÍÂȘ appleÔ˘ Â›Ó·È ÔÈ ›‰È˜ ۈ̷ÙÈΤ˜ appleÚԉȷı¤-

ÛÂȘ Î·È fi¯È οÙÔappleÙÚ· ۈ̷ÙÈÎÒÓ ‰È·ı¤ÛÂˆÓ ÛÙ· ÔappleÔ›· «appleÚÔÛÙ›ıÂÓÙ·È»

Ù· Û˘Ó·ÈÛı‹Ì·Ù·. 34 ∞applefi ÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË, ÂappleÂȉ‹, ηْ ·˘Ù‹Ó ÙËÓ appleÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË, ÙÔ

ÏÂÁfiÌÂÓÔ ˘appleÔÎÂÈÌÂÓÈÎfi/·ÙÔÌÈÎfi Â›Ó·È ÂÍ·Ú¯‹˜ Î·È apple¿ÓÙ· ‰È˘appleÔÎÂÈÌÂÓÈÎfi,

Û¯ÂÛÈ·Îfi, ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎfi, Ë Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏ›· Á›ÓÂÙ·È ¤Ó·˜ Ê·ÈÓÔÌÂÓÈο ÌfiÓÔÓ ÔÚ·-

Ùfi˜, ·appleÙfi˜, Û˘Á¯ÚÔÓÈÎfi˜ Î·È Û˘ÌÊÚ·ÛÙÈÎfi˜ ÙfiappleÔ˜ ηٷÛ΢‹˜ ÓÔËÌ¿ÙˆÓ,

ηıfiÙÈ apple¤Ú· ·applefi ÙÔ˘˜ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ÓÔ˘˜ Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏËÙ¤˜ Î·È Ì¤Ûˆ ÙˆÓ ÏÂÎÙÈ-

ÎÒÓ ¯ÂÈÚÔÓÔÌÈÒÓ ÙÔ˘˜ Û˘ÌÌÂÙ¤¯Ô˘Ó appleÔÏÏÔ› ¿ÏÏÔÈ Ê˘ÛÈο ·applefiÓÙ˜, ÓÂÎÚÔ›

Î·È ˙ˆÓÙ·ÓÔ› ‹ Ê·ÓÙ·ÛÙÈÎÔ› Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏËÙ¤˜. ªÂ ¿ÏÏ· ÏfiÁÈ·, Ù· appleÂÚ›ÊËÌ·

«Û˘ÌÊÚ·˙fiÌÂÓ·», ›Ù appleÚÔ¸apple¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó ÙÔ˘ ‰È·ÏfiÁÔ˘ ›Ù ηٷÛ΢¿˙ÔÓÙ·È

·applefi ·˘ÙfiÓ, 35 Â›Ó·È appleÈÔ appleÔÏ˘appleÚfiÛˆapple· Î·È ÏÈÁfiÙÂÚÔ ·appleÙ¿ ·apple’ fiÛÔ ÓÔÌ›-

˙Ô˘ÌÂ, Ù· ‰Â ÓÔ‹Ì·Ù· appleÔ˘ ηٷÛ΢¿˙ÔÓÙ·È Â›Ó·È appleÈÔ appleÔÏ˘ÊˆÓÈο ηÈ

‰È¿Ûapple·ÚÙ· ¯ˆÚÔ¯ÚÔÓÈο, ·apple’ fiÛÔ ı¤ÏÔ˘Ì ӷ appleÈÛÙ‡ԢÌÂ. 36 √È Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏË-

33. ∫·Ù¿ ÙÔ˘˜ Foster Î·È Brandes, «…∏ Û˘ÁΛÓËÛË, ÙÔ Î›ÓËÙÚÔ, Ë ‰È¿ıÂÛË ‰È·appleÂÚÓÔ‡Ó

ÙË ÁÏÒÛÛ· Î·È ÂappleËÚ¿˙Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ ÂÚÌËÓ›· ÙÔ˘ ‰ËψÙÈÎÔ‡ ÌËӇ̷ÙÔ˜ ̤ۈ apple·Ú·-ÁψÛÛÈÎÒÓ

Ù¯ӷÛÌ¿ÙˆÓ, fiappleˆ˜ Ô ÙfiÓÔ˜ Ù˘ ʈӋ˜, Ë ¤ÓÙ·ÛË Ì ÙËÓ ÔappleÔ›· ÂÎʤÚÔÓÙ·È ÔÈ Û˘ÏÏ·‚¤˜, Ô

Ú˘ıÌfi˜ Ì ÙÔÓ ÔappleÔ›Ô ÔÈ ÏÂÎÙÈΤ˜ ÂÓfiÙËÙ˜ ÙÔappleÔıÂÙÔ‡ÓÙ·È ÛÙÔ ¯ˆÚfi¯ÚÔÓÔ Î·È [ÔÈ ÂappleÈÏÂÎÙÈÎÔ›

¯ÂÈÚÈÛÌÔ› ÙˆÓ Ï¤ÍÂˆÓ Î·È ÙˆÓ ÊÚ¿ÛˆÓ]. ŒÙÛÈ, Ô ÔÌÈÏËÙ‹˜ apple·ÚÂÌ‚¿ÏÏÂÈ ÙÔÓ ›‰ÈÔ ÙÔ˘ ÙÔÓ

·˘Ùfi Î·È Ù· Û˘Ó·ÈÛı‹Ì·Ù¿ ÙÔ˘ ÁÈ· Ù· ÁÂÁÔÓfiÙ· ÛÙÔ ÓfiËÌ· ÙÔ˘ ÌËӇ̷ÙÔ˜ appleÔ˘ ÛÙ¤ÏÓÂÈ»

(1980, Û. 4).

34. ÙË ‰È·appleÏÔ΋ ÁÏÒÛÛ·˜ Î·È ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›·˜ ¿ÏÏÔÈ ·ÓıÚˆappleÔÏfiÁÔÈ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ‰ÒÛÂÈ ¤ÌÊ·ÛË

΢ڛˆ˜ ‹ ÌfiÓÔ ÛÙ· Û˘Ó·ÈÛı‹Ì·Ù· (apple.¯., White, 1992Ø Lutz Î·È Abu-Lughod, 1990) Î·È ¿ÏÏÔÈ

΢ڛˆ˜ ÛÙȘ ·ÈÛı‹ÛÂȘ (apple.¯., Csordas, 1983, 1994a). §ÈÁfiÙÂÚÔÈ Â›Ó·È ·˘ÙÔ› appleÔ˘ ¤¯Ô˘Ó

‰ÒÛÂÈ ¤ÌÊ·ÛË Î·È ÛÙ· ‰‡Ô (apple.¯., Jenkins Î·È Valiente, 1994). °ÂÓÈο ÔÈ ·ÓıÚˆappleÔÏfiÁÔÈ appleÔ˘

¤¯Ô˘Ó ·Û¯ÔÏËı› Î·È Ì ÙË ÁÏÒÛÛ· ‰ÂÓ ‰¤¯ÔÓÙ·È ÙË ‰È¿ÎÚÈÛË ·Ó¿ÌÂÛ· Û appleÚÔ- ‹ apple·Ú·-ÁψÛ-

ÛÈο Î·È Â͈-ÁψÛÛÈο Ù¯ӿÛÌ·Ù· (‚Ï., apple.¯., Diaz de Randa Î·È Cruces, 1994, Û. 114, ηÈ

Jackson, 1994).

35. O ∆ÛÈÙÛÈapple‹˜ ÂappleÈÎÚ›ÓÂÈ ÙÔ˘˜ ıÂÙÈÎÈÛÙ¤˜ appleÔ˘ ‚ϤappleÔ˘Ó ÙÔ Û˘ÌÊÚ·˙fiÌÂÓÔ «ˆ˜ Â͈ÁÂ-

Ó¤˜ ÙÔ˘ apple·Ú·ÁfiÌÂÓÔ˘ ÏfiÁÔ˘ appleÔ˘ ÙÔÓ Û˘ÌappleÏËÚÒÓÂÈ» Î·È fi¯È ˆ˜ apple·Ú·ÁfiÌÂÓÔ Î·È ÌÂÙ·Û¯Ë-

Ì·ÙÈ˙fiÌÂÓÔ ·applefi ÙË ÁψÛÛÈ΋-ÂappleÈÎÔÈÓˆÓȷ΋ apple·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ (1998, Û. 83).

36.  apple·ÚfiÌÔÈÔ Û˘Ìapple¤Ú·ÛÌ· ÌappleÔÚ› ηÓ›˜ Ó· Êı¿ÛÂÈ Ì¤Û· ·applefi ÙË Ìapple·¯ÙÈÓÈ΋ ıˆڛ·

Ù˘ ÂÁÁÂÓÔ‡˜ ‰È·ÏÔÁÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜ Ù˘ ÁÏÒÛÛ·˜ Î·È Ù˘ appleÔÏ˘ÊˆÓÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜ ÙˆÓ Ï¤ÍˆÓ: «¢ÂÓ

˘apple¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó Ô˘‰¤ÙÂÚ˜ ϤÍÂȘ… ŸÏ˜ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÙË Á‡ÛË ÂÓfi˜ Âapple·ÁÁ¤ÏÌ·ÙÔ˜, ÂÓfi˜ ›‰Ô˘˜, ÌÈ·˜

Ù¿Û˘, ÌÈ·˜ ÔÌ¿‰·˜, ÌÈ·˜ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤Ó˘ ÂÚÁ·Û›·˜, ÂÓfi˜ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ÓÔ˘ appleÚÔÛÒappleÔ˘, ÌÈ·˜

ÁÂÓÈ¿˜, ÌÈ·˜ ËÏÈÎȷ΋˜ ÔÌ¿‰·˜… ∫¿ı ϤÍË ¤¯ÂÈ ÙË Á‡ÛË ÙˆÓ Û˘ÌÊÚ·˙fiÌÂÓˆÓ ÛÙ· ÔappleÔ›·

¤¯ÂÈ ˙‹ÛÂÈ ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ˙ˆ‹ Ù˘» (Bakhitin, 1981, Û. 293). øÛÙfiÛÔ, ı· appleÚ¤appleÂÈ Ó· ÙÔÓÈÛı›

fiÙÈ «ÔÈ ÊˆÓ¤˜ appleÔ˘ appleÂÚÈÎÏ›ÂÈ Ë Ï¤ÍË Ì¤Û· ÛÙÔ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎfi Û˘ÌÊÚ·˙fiÌÂÓÔ ¯Ú‹Û˘ Ù˘» (∆ÛÈ-


36

∂§∂¡∏ ∞∞°∞ƒ√Àº∞§∏

Ù¤˜ Û˘ÌÌÂÙ¤¯Ô˘Ó Ô Î·ı¤Ó·˜ Ì ÙȘ ‰ÈΤ˜ ÙÔ˘ appleÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈο ÂappleËÚ·Ṳ̂Ó˜

ÂÈÎfiÓ˜, ÂӉ›ÎÙ˜ Î·È Û‡Ì‚ÔÏ· appleÔ˘ ‰ÂÓ ·Ó·apple·ÚÈÛÙÔ‡Ó ÂÛÒÙÂÚ˜ ȉ¤Â˜

ȉˆÌ¤Ó˜ Ì ÙÔ Ì¿ÙÈ ÙÔ˘ ÓÔ˘, ·ÏÏ¿ Û˘ÓÈÛÙÔ‡Ó ·ÈÛıËÙËÚȷΤ˜-Û˘Ó·ÈÛıËÌ·-

ÙÈΤ˜ ÂÎÙÈÌ‹ÛÂȘ, Û¯fiÏÈ·, ·Ó·ıˆڋÛÂȘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÒÓ Î·È appleÔÏÈÙÈÎÒÓ Û¯¤ÛÂ-

ˆÓ appleÔ˘ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ‚ÈÒÛÂÈ, ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ÌÔÈÚ·Ûı›, ÛÙÔ apple·ÚÂÏıfiÓ Î·È ÙÔ apple·ÚfiÓ, ‹

Î·È appleÔ˘ ı¤ÏÔ˘Ó ‹ ‰Â ı¤ÏÔ˘Ó Ó· ‚ÈÒÛÔ˘Ó-ÌÔÈÚ·ÛıÔ‡Ó ÛÙÔ Ì¤ÏÏÔÓ, Ì ˘apple·Ú-

ÎÙÔ‡˜ ‹ Ê·ÓÙ·ÛÙÈÎÔ‡˜, ÂÓÛÒÌ·ÙÔ˘˜ ‹ Ê·ÈÓÔÌÂÓÈο ·ÛÒÌ·ÙÔ˘˜ ¿ÏÏÔ˘˜ –

‰ËÏ·‰‹ Ì appleÚfiÛˆapple·, appleÚ¿ÁÌ·Ù·, ıÂÛÌÔ‡˜. √È ¿appleÂÈÚ˜ ÌÂÙ·ÊÔÚ¤˜ Âapple› ÌÂÙ·-

ÊÔÚÒÓ, ÌÂÙˆÓ˘Ì›Â˜ Âapple› ÌÂÙˆÓ˘ÌÈÒÓ, apple·ÚÔÌÔÈÒÛÂȘ Âapple› apple·ÚÔÌÔÈÒÛˆÓ

Á‡Úˆ ·applefi ¤Ó· ı¤Ì· ‰ÂÓ Û˘ÁηχappleÙÔ˘Ó, ·ÏÏÔÈÒÓÔ˘Ó, ·ÎÈÓËÙÔappleÔÈÔ‡Ó

ÂÌappleÂÈڛ˜, ·ÏÏ¿ fiÓÙ·˜ Ù· ›‰È· ·˘Ù¿ ·ÏÏËÁÔÚÈο Û¯‹Ì·Ù· ÂÌappleÂÈڛ˜ ‹ Ûˆ-

Ì·ÙÈΤ˜ appleÚԉȷı¤ÛÂȘ ·appleÔηχappleÙÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ ÈÛÙÔÚÈÎfiÙËÙ·, Ú¢ÛÙfiÙËÙ·, apple·-

ÚÔ‰ÈÎfiÙËÙ· Î·È ÌÂÚÈÎfiÙËÙ· Ù˘ ÏÂÎÙÈ΋˜ ‰È·ÏÔÁÈ΋˜ ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›·˜ – fiappleˆ˜ ηÈ

οı ¿ÏÏ˘ ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›·˜.

°È· apple·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·, appleÔÏÏÔ› ÌÂÏÏÔÓÙÈÎÔ› ‰ˆÚËÙ¤˜ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÓ, «appleÏ·ÈÛȈ̤-

ÓÔÈ» ·applefi ÙË Û˘Ó¤ÓÙ¢ÍË appleÔ˘ ÙÔ˘˜ «¤ÛÙËÛ·», ·Ó·ÁοÛÙËÎ·Ó Ó· ÂappleÈÛÙÚ·-

Ù‡ÛÔ˘Ó ÙÔ ·applefiıÂÌ· ÙˆÓ appleÚÔ·ÓÙÈÎÂÈÌÂÓÈÎÒÓ ÓÔËÌ¿ÙˆÓ ‹ habitus ÙÔ˘˜ ÁÈ·

Ó· ÌÔ˘ appleÂÚÈÁÚ¿„Ô˘Ó «Ì ÏfiÁÈ·» appleÒ˜ ÓÈÒıÔ˘Ó –‹ «‚ϤappleÔ˘Ó»– ÙÔ ÛÒÌ·

ÙÔ˘˜ Û ۯ¤ÛË Ì ÙÔ ÌÂÏÏÔÓÙÈÎfi ÙÔ˘˜ Û¯¤‰ÈÔ Ó· ‰ˆÚ›ÛÔ˘Ó ¤Ó· ̤ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ˘:

«∂›Ó·È ÙÔ ˘ÏÈÎfi Î¿Ï˘ÌÌ· Ù˘ „˘¯‹˜ appleÔ˘ Â›Ì·È ÂÁÒ, οÙÈ Û·Ó Ó·fi˜, Û·Ó

ÎÔ˘Ù›... Â›Ó·È Ô ÊÔÚ¤·˜ Ù˘ „˘¯‹˜ ÌÔ˘, Ë ÂÈÎfiÓ· Ù˘ apple¿Óˆ ÛÙË ÁË... Â›Ó·È ÙÔ

Ûapple›ÙÈ ÌÔ˘ ÎÈ ·Ó ÙÔ ‰ÒÛˆ ÛÙÔ ·Ó·ÙÔÌÂ›Ô [ˆ˜ ‰ˆÚ¿ ÔÏfiÎÏËÚÔ˘ ÙÔ˘ ÛÒÌ·-

ÙÔ˜] ı· Â›Ó·È Û·Ó Ó· ÍÂappleÔ˘Ï¿ˆ Ù· ¤appleÈappleÏ¿ ÌÔ˘… ·Ó ηÈ, ηο Ù· „¤Ì·Ù·,

ͤڈ fiÙÈ fiÙ·Ó appleÂı¿Óˆ... ÙÈ Ûapple›ÙÈ Î·È ÙÈ ¤appleÈappleÏ·… £·’ Ó·È ¤Ó· Ù›appleÔÙ· appleÔ˘

‰ÂÓ ·Í›˙ÂÈ fiÏ· ·˘Ù¿ Ù· ¤ÍÔ‰· Îˉ›·˜ Î.Ïapple… ∞ÏÏ¿, Ó·, ¤ÙÛÈ ÁÈ· Ó· ˘apple¿Ú-

¯ÂÈ Î¿ÙÈ ·applefi ̤ӷ Î·È Ó· appleËÁ·›ÓÔ˘Ó Ó· ÙÔ ‚ϤappleÔ˘Ó, Ó· ÙÔ˘ ÌÈÏÔ‡Ó...». ¢Â

ÌÔ˘ ‰›ÓÂÙ·È ÔÚÈÛÙÈÎfi˜ ÔÚÈÛÌfi˜ (ÙÔ˘ ÛÒÌ·ÙÔ˜) Î·È ÁÈ’ ·˘Ùfi ·Ó·Áο˙ÔÌ·È

Ó· ·appleԉ¯ıÒ fiϘ ·˘Ù¤˜ ÙȘ ÌÂÙ·ÊÔÚ¤˜ Î·È ÙȘ apple·ÚÔÌÔÈÒÛÂȘ. Ÿappleˆ˜ appleÔχ

fiÌÔÚÊ· ϤÓ ÔÈ Jenkins Î·È Valiente, Û ÌÈ· Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏ›·, «Ë ·ÏÏËÁÔÚÈ΋

ΛÓËÛË... ·applefi ÙÔ appleÚÔ·ÓÙÈÎÂÈÌÂÓÈÎfi ÛÙÔ ÂÍ·ÓÙÈÎÂÈÌÂÓÔappleÔÈË̤ÓÔ ‰ÂÓ ¤¯ÂÈ ÙË

ÌÔÚÊ‹ ÙÔ˘ ¤Ó·- appleÚÔ˜-¤Ó·», ·ÏÏ¿ ÙËÓ ÂÈÎfiÓ· Ù˘ ÂÎΛÓËÛ˘ «·applefi ÙËÓ appleÚÔ·-

ÓÙÈÎÂÈÌÂÓÈ΋ ·appleÚÔÛ‰ÈÔÚÈÛÙ›· Û ¤Ó· ·ÓÂÍ¿ÓÙÏËÙÔ ÚÂappleÂÚÙfiÚÈÔ [ÏÂÎÙÈÎÒÓ

Î·È ¿ÏψÓ] ·ÏÏËÁÔÚÈÒÓ». 37 ∞˘Ùfi˜ Ô ÌÂÙ·ÌÔÓÙ¤ÚÓÔ˜ ¯·Ú·ÎÙ‹Ú·˜ Ù˘ ÁËÁÂ-

ÙÛÈapple‹˜, 1998, Û. 132) ÌappleÔÚ› Ó· appleÚÔ¤Ú¯ÔÓÙ·È fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ ·applefi ÙÔ apple·ÚÂÏıfiÓ, «ÙËÓ appleÚfiÙÂÚË

¯Ú‹ÛË Ù˘ [Ϥ͢]» (fiapple.apple., Û. 133), ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ·applefi ÙÔ Ì¤ÏÏÔÓ, ·˘Ùfi appleÔ˘ ÌappleÔÚ› Ó· ˘ÏÔappleÔÈËı›

ÎÈ ·˘Ùfi appleÔ˘ ‰ÂÓ ¤¯ÂÈ Î·Ì›· Ù¤ÙÔÈ· appleÈı·ÓfiÙËÙ·, ÁÈ·Ù› Â›Ó·È Ê·ÓÙ·ÛÙÈÎfi.

37. Jenkins Î·È Valiente, 1994, Û. 170.


∏ À¡∂¡∆∂À•∏ ø øª∞∆π∫∏ ∂π∫√π¡ø¡π∞ ∆ø¡ À¡√ªπ§∏∆ø¡

37

ÓÔ‡˜ ÂÍ‹ÁËÛ˘ ·Ó·Áο˙ÂÈ Î·È Â̤ӷ, ÙËÓ ÂÚ¢ӋÙÚÈ·, Ó· Á›Óˆ ÌÂÙ·ÌÔÓÙ¤Ú-

Ó· Î·È Ó· ·Ê‹Ûˆ ÙȘ «¤ÓÓÔȘ - ÎÏÂȉȿ» ÛÙËÓ applefiÚÙ· ÌÔ˘!

øÛÙfiÛÔ, ÓÈÒıˆ appleÔχ ÌappleÂÚ‰Â̤ÓË Ì ÙËÓ ÂÈÎfiÓ· ÂÓfi˜ ÛÒÌ·ÙÔ˜ (·˘ÙÔ‡

appleÔ˘ ÁÓˆÚ›˙ˆ Î·È ÂÁÒ!) appleÔ˘ Â›Ó·È (ÙÒÚ·) ‹ ı· ‹Ù·Ó (ÌÂÙ¿ ı¿Ó·ÙÔÓ)

«Ûapple›ÙÈ», Î·È ı· Â›Ó·È (ÌÂÙ¿ ı¿Ó·ÙÔÓ) «Ù›appleÔÙ·» ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È «Î¿ÙÈ ·applefi Â̤ӷ».

¢ÂÓ ÌÔ˘ Â›Ó·È ¿ÁÓˆÛÙ˜ ·˘Ù¤˜ ÔÈ «·applefi„ÂȘ» –˙ˆ ÛÙËÓ ›‰È· ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›· ÌÂ

ÙÔ˘˜ Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏËÙ¤˜ ÌÔ˘– ·ÏÏ¿ Ô‡ÙÂ Î·È ÁÓˆÛÙ¤˜ – ‰ÂÓ ÓÈÒıˆ/‚Ϥappleˆ ¤ÙÛÈ ÙÔ

ÛÒÌ· ÌÔ˘ ÙÒÚ· Ô‡Ù ÌÂÙ¿ ı¿Ó·ÙÔÓ. Ôχ ÁÚ‹ÁÔÚ· Ìapple·›Óˆ ÛÙÔÓ appleÂÈÚ·ÛÌfi

Ó· ‚¿Ïˆ ÌÈ· Ù¿ÍË «Ì ÙÔ ÓÔ˘ ÌÔ˘» ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ıÒÓÙ·˜ ÙËÓ ÎÏ·ÛÈ΋ Ô‰fi: Ó·

·appleÔÌÔÓÒÛˆ Î·È Ó· ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›Ûˆ ÙȘ «¤ÓÓÔȘ» ·˘Ù¤˜ «·ÓÙÈÊ·ÙÈΤ˜» ηÈ

Ó· ÙȘ ·ÓÙÈÛ͈ٛ ·Ó¿ ˙‡ÁË ÁÈ· Ó· ÙȘ Û˘Ó‰¤Ûˆ Ì ‚·ı‡ÙÂÚ˜, ÎÂÓÙÚÈÎfiÙÂ-

Ú˜, ·ÏËı¤ÛÙÂÚ˜ ¤ÓÓÔȘ Ù˘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜ appleÔ˘ ˙Ô‡ÌÂ. ∏ appleÔÚ›· Ù˘ Û˘ÓÔÌÈ-

Ï›·˜ fï˜ ‰ÂÓ ÌÔ˘ ÙÔ ÂappleÈÙÚ¤appleÂÈ ÙÂÏÈο. ˘ÓÂȉËÙÔappleÔÈÒ fiÙÈ ÔÈ Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏËÙ¤˜

ÌÔ˘, ÌÈÏÒÓÙ·˜, «Ìapple·ÈÓÔ‚Á·›ÓÔ˘Ó» Û apple·ÚÂÏıÔ‡Û˜, apple·ÚÔÓÙÈΤ˜ Î·È ÌÂÏÏÔ-

ÓÙÈΤ˜ Û¯¤ÛÂȘ, ¯ÒÚÔ˘˜, ηٷÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ (ÁÂÓÈο ÁÓˆÛÙ¤˜ Û’ Â̤ӷ ÂappleÂȉ‹ ˙ˆ

ÛÙËÓ ›‰È· ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·) ηÈ, ·Ó·ÏfiÁˆ˜ Ì ÙÔ appleÒ˜ ÙȘ ‚ÈÒÓÔ˘Ó ‹ Û˘Ó·ÈÛı¿ÓÔ-

ÓÙ·È, ‚ϤappleÔ˘Ó ‹ ÓÈÒıÔ˘Ó Î·È ÙÔ ÛÒÌ· ÙÔ˘˜ ›ÙÂ Û·Ó Ûapple›ÙÈ, ›ÙÂ Û·Ó Ù›appleÔÙ·

Î.Ô.Î.. ŒÙÛÈ, fiÙ·Ó ÌÈÏ¿Ó ıÂÙÈο ÁÈ· ÙË ıÚËÛΛ· ÛÙËÓ ÔappleÔ›· appleÈÛÙ‡ԢÓ

–ÛÙÔ ¯ÚÈÛÙÈ·ÓÈÛÌfi Î·È Û ¿ÏϘ ·Ó·ÙÔÏÈΤ˜ ıÚËÛΛ˜–, ϤÓ ÙÔ ÛÒÌ·

ÙÔ˘˜ «Ûapple›ÙÈ», «Ó·fi», «ÊÔÚ¤· Ù˘ „˘¯‹˜» ÙÔ˘˜. ŸÙ·Ó ÂappleÈÎÚ›ÓÔ˘Ó ÙȘ

appleÔÏ˘¤Íԉ˜ ÙÂÏÂÙ¤˜ appleÔ˘ «ÂappleÈ‚¿ÏÏÂÈ Ë √Úıfi‰ÔÍË ∂ÎÎÏËÛ›·» Î·È appleÔ˘

«ÂÎÌÂÙ·ÏχÔÓÙ·È Ù· ÁÚ·Ê›· ÎˉÂÈÒÓ», ÙÔ ÛÒÌ· ÙÔ˘˜ Á›ÓÂÙ·È «Ù›appleÔÙ·».

ŸÙ·Ó ÌÈÏ¿Ó ÁÈ· ÙÔ ıÂÛÌfi Ù˘ ‰ˆÚ¿˜, ÙÔ ÛÒÌ· Ù·˘Ù›˙ÂÙ·È Ì ÙË «ÊÏfiÁ·»

appleÔ˘ ÌÂÙ·Ï·Ìapple·‰Â‡ÂÙ·È ÛÙÔ ˙ˆÓÙ·Ófi Ï‹appleÙË. ŸÙ·Ó ÂappleÈÎÚ›ÓÔ˘Ó ÙÔ ÂÌapplefiÚÈÔ

ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÓ, ÙÔ ÛÒÌ· Á›ÓÂÙ·È «Û¿Úη [·applefi ÙË Û¿Úη ÌÔ˘]». ŸÙ·Ó Ê·ÓÙ¿˙Ô-

ÓÙ·È applefiÛÔ Ï˘appleË̤ÓÔÈ ı· Â›Ó·È ÔÈ Û˘ÁÁÂÓ›˜ ÙÔ˘˜ fiÙ·Ó appleÂı¿ÓÔ˘Ó, ÙÔ ÓÂÎÚfi

ÛÒÌ· ÙÔ˘˜ ÌÂÙ·ÙÚ¤appleÂÙ·È Û «Î¿ÙÈ ·applefi ̤ӷ». ŸÙ·Ó ÌÈÏ¿Ó Ì ÂÓıÔ˘ÛÈ·-

ÛÌfi ÁÈ· Ù· Û¯¤‰È¿ ÙÔ˘˜ Ó· ˙ËÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ó Ó· ÙÔ˘˜ ·appleÔÙÂÊÚÒÛÔ˘Ó, ÙfiÙ ÙÔ ÛÒÌ·

Á›ÓÂÙ·È «·Èı¤Ú·˜»! Èڛ˜ Ó· apple·Ú·ÌÂÏÒ ÙÔ apple·ÚÔÓÙÈÎfi appleÏ·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ Û˘Ó¤-

ÓÙ¢Í˘ Î·È ÙÔ˘˜ appleÂÚÈÔÚÈÛÌÔ‡˜ appleÔ˘ ÂappleÈ‚¿ÏÏÂÈ ˆ˜ appleÚÔ˜ ÙÔ ÙÈ Ï¤ÁÂÙ·È Î·È

ÙÔ appleÒ˜ ϤÁÔÓÙ·È ·˘Ù¿ appleÔ˘ ϤÁÔÓÙ·È, ·Ê‹ÓÔÌ·È Î·È Û ÂÈηۛ˜ appleÔ˘ appleÚÔ-

ηÏÔ‡Ó ÔÈ «ÏÂÎÙÈΤ˜ ¯ÂÈÚÔÓƠ̂˜» ‹ ÙÔ ÁψÛÛÈÎfi habitus ÙˆÓ Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏÈÙÒÓ

ÌÔ˘. ŒÙÛÈ, ÂÓÒ ·˘ÙÔ› ÌÔ˘ ÂÍËÁÔ‡Ó appleÒ˜ ÓÈÒıÔ˘Ó «ÙÔ ÛÒÌ·» ÙÔ˘˜ Î·È ÂÓÒ

ÂÁÒ «‰È·ÊˆÓÒ» Ì·˙› ÙÔ˘˜, ÛȈappleËÚ¿ Î·È ÌË, Û˘Á¯ÚfiÓˆ˜ ‚ÈÒÓˆ ÙȘ ¢ڇÙÂ-

Ú˜ ÎÔÈÓ¤˜ ÂÌappleÂÈڛ˜ ÌÔ˘ Ì ·˘ÙÔ‡˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ·ÓıÚÒappleÔ˘˜ ÙȘ «ÁÂÓÈο ÁÓˆÛÙ¤˜

Û ̤ӷ ÁÈ·Ù› ˙ˆ ÛÙËÓ ›‰È· ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·». ∂ÓÒ ·˘ÙÔ› Ê·ÈÓÔÌÂÓÈο ÂappleÈÎÂÓÙÚÒ-

ÓÔÓÙ·È ÛÙÔ ı¤Ì· Ì·˜, ÂÁÒ ÙÔ ·appleÔÎÂÓÙÚÒÓˆ Î·È ·appleÔÎÂÓÙÚÒÓÔÌ·È.

ª¤Û· ·applefi ÌÈ· Ù¤ÙÔÈ· ÔappleÙÈ΋, Ë Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏ›·-Û˘Ó¤ÓÙ¢ÍË Á›ÓÂÙ·È ÌÈ·

appleÔχappleÏÔÎË ·ÏÏ¿ Û˘Á¯ÚfiÓˆ˜ ·appleÂÏ¢ıÂÚˆÙÈ΋ ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›· ÁÈ· ÙÔ Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏËÙ‹-


38

∂§∂¡∏ ∞∞°∞ƒ√Àº∞§∏

ÂÚ¢ÓËÙ‹. ∫·Ù’ ·Ú¯¿˜, ·appleÔηχappleÙÂÙ·È Ô ¯ÚÔÓÈÎfi˜, ¿Ú· ¯ˆÚÔ¯ÚÔÓÈο ‰È¿-

Ûapple·ÚÙÔ˜, Î·È Ô Û¯ÂÛÈ·Îfi˜, ¿Ú· appleÔÏ˘appleÚfiÛˆappleÔ˜ Î·È ÂappleÔ̤ӈ˜ ÌË Û˘ÓÙÂÙ·Á-

̤ÓÔ˜, ¯·Ú·ÎÙ‹Ú·˜ Ù˘ ÁψÛÛÈ΋˜ Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏ›·˜. ∫·Ù¿ Û˘Ó¤appleÂÈ·, ÎÏÔÓ›˙ÂÙ·È

Ë ˘appleÂÚ‚ÔÏÈ΋ ÂÌappleÈÛÙÔÛ‡ÓË appleÔ˘ ›¯Â ‰Â›ÍÂÈ Ô Û˘ÓÂÓÙ¢ÎÙ‹˜-·ÓıÚˆappleÔÏfiÁÔ˜

(Î·È Ô ·ÓıÚˆappleÔÁψÛÛÔÏfiÁÔ˜) ÛÙËÓ ˘appleÔÙÈı¤ÌÂÓË ˘ÏÈÎfiÙËÙ· Ù˘ ÁÏÒÛÛ·˜-

ˆ˜-«appleÚ¿Í˘», ÙˆÓ «Î·Ù¿ appleÂÚ›ÛÙ·ÛË Û˘ÌÊÚ·˙Ô̤ӈӻ Î·È ÙÔ˘ «appleÏ·ÈÛ›Ô˘»

Ù˘ ÏÂÎÙÈ΋˜ «ÂappleÈÙ¤ÏÂÛ˘», Ì ÛÎÔapplefi ÙÔÓ appleÔÏ˘applefiıËÙÔ ÂÓÙÔappleÈÛÌfi Î·È ÙË

Û˘ÁΤÓÙÚˆÛË «ÔÚ·ÙÒÓ» Î·È «·appleÙÒÓ», Î·È «¿ÌÂÛˆÓ» Î·È «ÎÂÓÙÚÈÎÒÓ»

ÛËÌ·ÛÈÒÓ. 38 ∞appleÂÏ¢ıÂڈ̤ÓÔ˜ ·applefi ÙÔ Êfi‚Ô fiÙÈ ·Ó ‰ÂÓ ÂÓÙÔapple›ÛÂÈ/ÂappleÈÛËÌ¿-

ÓÂÈ fiÏ· Ù· ‰˘Ó·Ù¿ ÓÔ‹Ì·Ù· Â‰Ò Î·È ÙÒÚ·, ı· ¯¿ÛÂÈ ÙËÓ ÂappleÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ÙÔ˘

Ù·˘ÙfiÙËÙ·, Ô ÂÚ¢ÓËÙ‹˜ ÂappleÈÙÚ¤appleÂÈ ÛÙÔÓ Â·˘Ùfi ÙÔ˘ Ó· ÂÎÙÂı› ÛÙÔÓ ¿ÏÏÔ

·ÏÏ¿ Î·È Ó· ηÏapple¿ÛÂÈ Ì ÙË Ê·ÓÙ·Û›· ÙÔ˘ Î·È ‰È·ÈÛıËÙÈο Û ÏÈÁfiÙÂÚÔ

appleÚÔÛ‰ÈÔÚ›ÛÈÌ· Î·È Â˘Ú‡ÙÂÚ· appleÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈο Û¯‹Ì·Ù· ‹ ÔÚ›˙ÔÓÙ˜, 39 appleÔ˘

Û˘Ó‹ıˆ˜ apple·Ú·ÌÂÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·È – ·ÊÔ‡ appleÚÔËÁÔ˘Ì¤Óˆ˜ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛıÔ‡Ó ˆ˜

«ÂıÓÔ„˘¯ÔÏÔÁ›·» ‹ «·˘Ùfi¯ıˆÓ ÁψÛÛÈ΋ ‰È·›ÛıËÛË», 40 ˆ˜ «ÂÓ‰fiÌ˘¯Ë

Û¯¤ÛË» 41 ‹ «·Û˘Ó›‰ËÙ˜ Î·È ·˘ÙfiÌ·Ù˜ Ó‡ÍÂȘ», 42 ˆ˜ «Ì˘ÛÙËÚÈÒ‰ÂȘ ÂÓ-

Û·ÚÎÒÛÂȘ» 43 ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ˆ˜ ‚·ıÈ¿ «ÚÈ˙ˆÌ¤Ó˜… ȉÂÔÏÔÁÈΤ˜ ·Ú¯¤˜». 44 ’

38. ∫·Ù¿ ÙË ÁÓÒÌË ÌÔ˘, Ë appleÚfiıÂÛË appleÔÏÏÒÓ ·ÓıÚˆappleÔÁψÛÛÔÏfiÁˆÓ Ó· apple¿Ó apple¤Ú·

·applefi ÙË ‰ËψÙÈÎÔ-·Ó·ÊÔÚÈ΋ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· Ù˘ ÁÏÒÛÛ·˜ ¤¯ÂÈ Ô‰ËÁ‹ÛÂÈ Û ÌÈ· ˘appleÂÚ‚ÔÏÈ΋ ¤ÌÊ·-

ÛË ÛÙË Ê·ÈÓÔÌÂÓÈο ¿ÌÂÛË ÛËÌ·Û›· Ù˘ «ÏÂÎÙÈ΋˜ appleÚ¿Í˘» Î·È ÙˆÓ ÌË ÏÂÎÙÈÎÒÓ «Û˘Ì-

ÊÚ·˙Ô̤ӈӻ, Ì ·appleÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· Ó· ÂÎÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÔÓÙ·È Î·È Ù· ‰‡Ô ˆ˜ ¯ˆÚÔ¯ÚÔÓÈο «Î·ıËÌÂÚÈÓ¿»,

apple·ÚÔÓÙÈο, Âapple› ÙfiappleÔ˘ ηٷÓÔ‹ÛÈÌ·, ÌË apple·Ú·appleÏ·ÓËÙÈο. ∆· «ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο Û˘ÌÊÚ·˙fiÌÂÓ·»

ÂÍ·ÛÊ·Ï›˙Ô˘Ó ÛÙÔÓ ÂÚ¢ÓËÙ‹ ÙÔ Û›ÁÔ˘ÚÔ ÂÓÙÔappleÈÛÌfi ÎÂÓÙÚÈÎÒÓ ÛËÌ·ÛÈÒÓ ÙˆÓ ÂÎʈÓËÌ¿-

ÙˆÓ Î·È ·˘Ùfi˜ apple·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿˙ÂÙ·È Î˘Ú›·Ú¯Ô˜ ÙÔ˘ ˘ÏÈÎÔ‡ ÙÔ˘, ·ÊÔ‡ ·ÎfiÌË Î·È Ë appleÔÏ˘ÊˆÓÈ-

ÎfiÙËÙ· Ù˘ οı Ϥ͢ Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· ÌappleÔÚ› Ó· ÂÓÙÔappleÈÛı› ÛÙÔ apple·ÚÔÓÙÈÎfi ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎfi Û˘Ì-

ÊÚ·˙fiÌÂÓÔ Ù˘ ¯Ú‹Û˘ Ù˘. ∂›Ó·È appleÈı·ÓfiÓ ·˘Ù‹ Ë Ù¿ÛË Ó· ÔÊ›ÏÂÙ·È ÛÙÔ fiÙÈ Ë ·ÓıÚˆappleÔ-

ÁψÛÛÔÏÔÁ›· ÌÂÏÂÙ¿ «ÙÔ ›‰ÈÔ ÙÔ ÁψÛÛÈÎfi appleÚÔ˚fiÓ», fiappleˆ˜ ÛˆÛÙ¿ ÂappleÈÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ Ô ∆ÛÈÙÛÈapple‹˜

(fiapple.apple., Û. 118) Î·È fi¯È ÙË ÁÏÒÛÛ·/ÏfiÁÔ ÁÂÓÈο, apple.¯. ˆ˜ Ì˯·ÓÈÛÌfi ·appleÔÎÏÂÈÛÌÔ‡ ‹ ˆ˜

Û˘Ì‚ÔÏÈÎfi ÎÂÊ¿Ï·ÈÔ. øÛÙfiÛÔ, Â›Ó·È Û›ÁÔ˘ÚÔ fiÙÈ ¤¯ÂÈ ˘appleÂÚÙÔÓÈÛı› Ë «·ÌÂÛfiÙËÙ·» Ù˘ «appleÚ¿-

͢» Î·È Ù˘ «¯Ú‹Û˘» Ù˘ ÁÏÒÛÛ·˜ Î·È ¿Ú· Ë appleÂappleÔ›ıËÛË fiÙÈ ÙÔ ÓfiËÌ· ÌÈ·˜ ‰È·ÏÔÁÈ΋˜

Û˘Ó·ÏÏ·Á‹˜ ‚Ú›ÛÎÂÙ·È ÛÙË Û˘Ó·ÏÏ·Á‹ ·˘Ù‹ ηı·˘Ù‹Ó – οÙÈ appleÔ˘ ·ÓÙÈ‚·›ÓÂÈ ÛÙË ıˆڛ· Ù˘

appleÚ·ÎÙÈ΋˜.

39. √ «·appleÚÔÛ‰ÈfiÚÈÛÙÔ˜ ÔÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·˜» Â›Ó·È fiÚÔ˜ appleÔ˘ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔappleÔÈ› Ô Ê·ÈÓÔÌÂÓÔÏfiÁÔ˜

Merleau-Ponty (1962, Û. 30) Î·È appleÔ˘ ÌappleÔÚ› οÏÏÈÛÙ· Ó· Ù·˘ÙÈÛÙ› Ì ÙÔ habitus ÙÔ˘

Bourdieu (Âapple’ ·˘ÙÔ‡, ‚Ï. Papagaroufali, 1999) ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È Ù· «Û¯‹Ì·Ù·» (‚Ï. ÛËÌ. 28 Î·È 34).

40. Koven, 1998, ÛÛ. 423, 422,

41. Das, 1998, Û. 185, ‰È΋ ÌÔ˘ ¤ÌÊ·ÛË.

42. Gal, 1989, Û. 352, ‰È΋ ÌÔ˘ ¤ÌÊ·ÛË.

43. Diaz de Rada Î·È Cruces, 1996, Û. 103, ‰È΋ ÌÔ˘ ¤ÌÊ·ÛË.

44. ∆ÛÈÙÛÈapple‹˜, 1998, Û. 64, ‰È΋ ÌÔ˘ ¤ÌÊ·ÛË.


∏ À¡∂¡∆∂À•∏ ø øª∞∆π∫∏ ∂π∫√π¡ø¡π∞ ∆ø¡ À¡√ªπ§∏∆ø¡

39

·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ appleÂÚ›appleÙˆÛË, Ô ÂÚ¢ÓËÙ‹˜-Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏËÙ‹˜ Â›Ó·È appleϤÔÓ appleÚÔÂÙÔÈÌ·Ṳ̂-

ÓÔ˜ Ó· ·appleԉ¯ı› ÙË ÛËÌ·ÛÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ·‚‚·ÈfiÙËÙ· Î·È ·appleÚÔÛ‰ÈÔÚÈÛÙ›·, Ù·

ÂÚˆÙËÌ·ÙÈο Î·È ÙȘ ÂÎÎÚÂÌfiÙËÙ˜, ˆ˜ ·Ó·applefiÛapple·ÛÙÔ Ì¤ÚÔ˜ Ù˘ ‰È·ÏÔÁÈ-

΋˜ ¤ÚÂ˘Ó¿˜ ÙÔ˘, fi¯È fï˜ ÂappleÂȉ‹ Ë ÁÏÒÛÛ· Â›Ó·È ÊÙˆ¯‹ Î·È «·Î›ÓËÙË» ÛÂ

Û‡ÁÎÚÈÛË Ì ÙËÓ appleÚ·ÁÌ·ÙÈ΋, «ÎÈÓÔ‡ÌÂÓË» ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›·, 45 ·ÏÏ¿ ÂappleÂȉ‹ Î·È Ë

ÁÏÒÛÛ· Â›Ó·È ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›· appleÔ˘ ‚ÈÒÓÂÙ·È ‰È¿Ûapple·ÚÙ· ̤۷ ÛÙÔÓ appleÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈο

ÂappleËÚ·Ṳ̂ÓÔ ¯ˆÚfi¯ÚÔÓÔ. ∂appleÔ̤ӈ˜, ‰ÂÓ ·ÓËÛ˘¯Â› fiÙÈ ı· «¯¿ÛÂÈ» ˘ÏÈÎfi,

Âapple› ÙfiappleÔ˘ ‹ ·ÚÁfiÙÂÚ· Ì ÙËÓ ·appleÔÌ·ÁÓËÙÔÊÒÓËÛË, 46 ‰ÈfiÙÈ ÁÓˆÚ›˙ÂÈ fiÙÈ

·˘Ùfi appleÔ˘ οÓÂÈ Î·Ù¿ ÙË Û˘Ó¤ÓÙ¢ÍË Â›Ó·È ‹‰Ë ÌÂÚÈÎfi Î·È apple·ÚÔ‰ÈÎfi. Ÿappleˆ˜

fiÙ·Ó ‚ÈÒÓÔ˘Ì οÙÈ ÌË ÏÂÎÙÈο Û˘Ì‚·›ÓÂÈ ·ÓÂappleÈÛÙÚÂappleÙ› Î·È ‰ÂÓ ÌappleÔÚÔ‡ÌÂ

Ó· ÙÔ ·Ó·‚ÈÒÛÔ˘Ì ˆ˜ ·ÎÚÈ‚Ò˜ ›‰ÈÔ, ¤ÙÛÈ Î·È fiÙ·Ó ÌÈÏ¿Ì ÁÈ· οÙÈ appleÔ˘

˙‹Û·Ì ‰ÂÓ ÌappleÔÚԇ̠ӷ ÙÔ ·Ó·apple·Ú·ÛÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ·ÎÚÈ‚Ò˜. ŸÏ˜ ·˘Ù¤˜ ÔÈ

ÂÌappleÂÈڛ˜ ‰È·Ê¤ÚÔ˘Ó ¯ÚÔÓÈο Î·È fi¯È ÔÓÙÔÏÔÁÈο. Ÿappleˆ˜ appleÔχ fiÌÔÚÊ·

ϤÂÈ Ô Ricoeur, «‰ÂÓ ¤¯Ô˘Ì ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈΤ˜ ÂΉԯ¤˜ ÈÛÙÔÚÈÒÓ ·ÏÏ¿ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂ-

ÙÈΤ˜ ÂΉԯ¤˜ ÙÔ˘ ¯ÚfiÓÔ˘, ÔÈ Ôappleԛ˜ ÊÙÈ¿¯ÓÔÓÙ·È ·applefi ÙȘ ÈÛÙÔڛ˜ appleÔ˘

‚ÈÒÓÔ˘Ì», 47 – Ì·˙› Ì ¿ÏÏÔ˘˜, ÏÂÎÙÈο Î·È ÌË ÏÂÎÙÈο!

À¡√ªπ§ø¡∆∞ ª∂ ∆√À ¢À¡∏∆π∫√À ¢øƒ∏∆∂ ∫∞π

√§§√À ∞§§√À

∏ ∫·ÙÂÚ›Ó· ÌÔ‡ ϤÂÈ fiÙÈ ·appleÔÊ¿ÛÈÛ ӷ Á›ÓÂÈ ‰ˆÚ‹ÙÚÈ· ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÓ ÎÈ fi¯È

ÛÒÌ·ÙÔ˜ (ÛÙÔ ·Ó·ÙÔÌ›Ô) ÁÈ·Ù› «Í¤ÚÂÈ Î·Ï¿ ÙË Ì¿Ó· Ù˘»: ÏÈappleÔı˘Ì¿ÂÈ ÛÙË

ı¤· ÙÔ˘ appleÙÒÌ·ÙÔ˜ (ÌÔ˘ ·ÊËÁÂ›Ù·È appleÒ˜ ÏÈappleÔı‡ÌËÛ fiÙ·Ó appleÚÈÓ ÌÂÚÈο ¯Úfi-

ÓÈ· apple¤ı·ÓÂ Ë ÁÈ·ÁÈ¿ Ù˘ Î·È Ô Û·ÏÔ˜ Ù˘) Î·È ·Ë‰È¿˙ÂÈ Ì ÙË Ì˘ÚÔ˘‰È¿

ÙÔ˘ ˆÌÔ‡ ÎÚ¤·ÙÔ˜ (‰ÂÓ ·ÓÙ¤¯ÂÈ ÙËÓ «ÎÚ·ٛϷ» ÙÔ˘ ÎÚÂÔappleˆÏ›Ԣ Î·È ÛÙ¤Ï-

ÓÂÈ ¿ÏÏÔ˘˜ Ó· Ù˘ „ˆÓ›˙Ô˘Ó ÎÚ¤·˜). ∂appleÔ̤ӈ˜, ‰Â ı· ’ıÂÏ ӷ ÙËÓ Î¿ÓÂÈ

Ó· ÙË ‰ÂÈ/Ì˘Ú›ÛÂÈ ¤ÙÛÈ fiÙ·Ó ·˘Ù‹ appleÂı¿ÓÂÈ (Î·È apple¿ÂÈ ÛÙÔ ·Ó·ÙÔÌ›Ô). ∂‰Ò

¤¯ÂÈ ‹‰Ë ·Ú¯›ÛÂÈ ÙÔ ¯¿Ô˜. ∏ ›‰È· Ë ∫·ÙÂÚ›Ó· ϤÂÈ fiÙÈ ‰ÂÓ ·ÈÛı¿ÓÂÙ·È ÙÔ

›‰ÈÔ ˆ˜ appleÚÔ˜ Ù· appleÙÒÌ·Ù· (·Ó Î·È ‰ÂÓ ¤¯ÂÈ ‰ÂÈ appleÔÙ¤ ·ÓıÚÒappleÈÓÔ appleÙÒÌ·!)

Ô‡Ù ˆ˜ appleÚÔ˜ ÙË Ì˘ÚÔ˘‰È¿ ÙÔ˘ ÎÚ¤·ÙÔ˜. ∂ÁÒ ı˘Ì¿Ì·È applefiÛÔ Ì ·Ë‰È¿˙ÂÈ Ë

ÎÚ·ٛϷ ÙÔ˘ „˘Á›Ԣ ÙÔ˘ ÎÚÂÔappleÒÏË Î·È ÓÔÌ›˙ˆ fiÙÈ Î·Ù·ÓÔÒ/Û˘Ó·ÈÛı¿-

ÓÔÌ·È Ì¤Û˜-¿ÎÚ˜ ÙË ÛÙ¿ÛË Ù˘ Ì¿Ó·˜ Ù˘ ∫·ÙÂÚ›Ó·˜. ˘Ó¯›˙ÔÓÙ·˜, Ë

∫·ÙÂÚ›Ó· ÌÔ‡ ϤÂÈ fiÙÈ ı· appleÚÔÙÈÌÔ‡Û ӷ ÙËÓ Î¿„Ô˘Ó apple·Ú¿ Ó· ÙË ı¿„Ô˘Ó,

ÁÈ·Ù› «·apple¯ı¿ÓÂÙ·È ÙË Ì˘ÚÔ˘‰È¿ ÙÔ˘ ˘ÁÚÔ‡ ¯ÒÌ·ÙÔ˜», ÙËÓ «appleÂÈÚ¿˙ÂÈ ÙÔ

45. µÏ., apple.¯., ∆ÛÈÙÛÈapple‹, 1998, Û. 119-120.

46. µÏ. ∆ÛÈÙÛÈapple‹, fiapple.apple., Î·È Kvale, 1996, Û. 50.

47. ∞ӷʤÚÂÙ·È ÛÙÔÓ Mitchell, 1981, Û. πÃ.


40

∂§∂¡∏ ∞∞°∞ƒ√Àº∞§∏

ÏÈ‚¿ÓÈ», «ÊÔ‚¿Ù·È Ù· Û·ÚÎÔ‚fiÚ· ÛÎÔ˘Ï‹ÎÈ·», «Û˘ÁÎÈÓÂ›Ù·È Ì ٷ ÎÏ¿Ì·-

Ù·» Î·È ÙËÓ «ÂÎÓ¢ڛ˙Ô˘Ó Ù· ÌÔÈÚÔÏfiÁÈ· ÙˆÓ apple·apple¿‰ˆÓ»! ˘ÓÂȉËÙÔappleÔÈÒ

fiÙÈ, ÂÓÒ ‰Â Ì’ ¤¯ÂÈ ·apple·Û¯ÔÏ‹ÛÂÈ appleÔÙ¤ Ô ı¿Ó·Ùfi˜ ÌÔ˘ Î·È ÙÔ ÙÈ ı· Û˘Ì‚Â›

ÛÙËÓ Ù·Ê‹ ÌÔ˘, ‰Â ı· ’ıÂÏ· appleÔÙ¤ Ó· Î·Ò ‹ Ó· ο„ˆ ÙÔ˘˜ ÁÔÓ›˜ ÌÔ˘, fiappleˆ˜

ÌÔ˘ ›apple·Ó Î·È ¿ÏÏÔÈ ‰ˆÚËÙ¤˜. ∞Ó·ÙÚȯȿ˙ˆ ÛÙË ÌÓ‹ÌË ÙÔ˘ η̤ÓÔ˘ appleÔ‰ÈÔ‡

ÙÔ˘, ÓÂÎÚÔ‡ Û‹ÌÂÚ·, apple·Ù¤Ú· ÌÔ˘ Î·È ÙÔ˘ ‹¯Ô˘ ÙÔ˘ „·ÏȉÈÔ‡ Ì ÙÔ ÔappleÔ›Ô Ô

ÁÈ·ÙÚfi˜ ÙÔ‡ ¤ÎÔ‚Â ÙÔ Î·Ì¤ÓÔ ÎÚ¤·˜ οı ÊÔÚ¿ appleÔ˘ ÂÚ¯fiÙ·Ó ÛÙÔ Ûapple›ÙÈ Ì·˜.

§¤ˆ ÛÙËÓ ∫·ÙÂÚ›Ó· fiÙÈ ÂÁÒ ‰ÂÓ ı· ÌappleÔÚÔ‡Û· appleÔÙ¤ Ó· Î·Ò Î·È, Û˘ÁÎÈÓË-

̤ÓË, Ù˘ ·ÊËÁÔ‡Ì·È ÙËÓ ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›· ÌÔ˘, ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔappleÔÈÒÓÙ·˜ ‰È¿ÊÔÚ˜ ÌÂÙ·-

ÊÔÚ¤˜ Î·È ÂÈÎfiÓ˜ (η̤ÓÔ ÎÚ¤·˜ ÛÙËÓ Î·ÙÛ·ÚfiÏ·, η̤ӷ ÎÔÚÌÈ¿ ÛÙËÓ

ÙËÏÂfiÚ·ÛË) ÁÈ· Ó· Ù˘ ÙË ÌÂٷʤڈ fiÛÔ appleÈÔ «Î˘ÚÈÔÏÂÎÙÈο» Á›ÓÂÙ·È. ∂ÓÒ

Ë ∫·ÙÂÚ›Ó· Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ Î·Ù·ÓÔ›/Û˘Ó·ÈÛı¿ÓÂÙ·È ÙÈ Ù˘ Ϥˆ, Û˘Á¯ÚfiÓˆ˜ appleÚÔ-

Ûapple·ı› Ó· Ì apple›ÛÂÈ «applefiÛÔ ˆÚ·›· ı· Â›Ó·È Ë Î·‡ÛË [ÌÔ˘/Ì·˜]» (ÙÔ ¤¯ÂÈ ‰ÂÈ

ÛÙÔÓ ÎÈÓËÌ·ÙÔÁÚ¿ÊÔ!), ·Ó Î·È «Ô‡Ù ÏfiÁÔ˜», fiappleˆ˜ ÂÁÒ Î·È ·˘Ù‹, ÙÔ˘˜

ÁÔÓ›˜ Ù˘ appleÚÔÙÈÌ¿ Ó· ÙÔ˘˜ ı¿„ÂÈ (·ÓÙ› ο„ÂÈ) ÁÈ· Ó· ÌappleÔÚ› Ó· appleËÁ·›ÓÂÈ

«Ó· ÙÔ˘˜ ‚ϤappleÂÈ Î·È Ó· ÙÔ˘˜ ÌÈÏ¿ÂÈ» fiappleÔÙ ÙÔ ÂappleÈı˘Ì›! ªÔ˘ ·appleÔηχappleÙÂÈ

fiÙÈ «Ë ȉ¤· Ù˘ η‡Û˘ Ù‹˜ ¤¯ÂÈ Î·Úʈı› ÁÈ· Ù· ηϿ» (ۯ‰ȿ˙ÂÈ Ó·

οÓÂÈ ‰È·ı‹ÎË fiappleÔ˘ Ó· ˙ËÙ¿ÂÈ ·applefi ÙÔ˘˜ Û˘ÁÁÂÓ›˜ Ù˘, ·ÊÔ‡ Ù˘ apple¿ÚÔ˘Ó

Ù· fiÚÁ·Ó·, Ó· ÌÂٷʤÚÔ˘Ó ÙÔ ÓÂÎÚfi ÛÒÌ· Ù˘ ÛÙÔ Â͈ÙÂÚÈÎfi Î·È Ó· ÙÔ

·appleÔÙÂÊÚÒÛÔ˘Ó), ·ÊfiÙÔ˘ ¿Ú¯ÈÛ ӷ Û˘ÌÌÂÙ¤¯ÂÈ ÂÓÂÚÁ¿ Û ÌÈ· ΛÓËÛË

ÈÓ‰Ô˘˚ÛÙÈÎÔ‡ appleÚÔÛ·Ó·ÙÔÏÈÛÌÔ‡: ·ÛÎÂ›Ù·È ÛÙÔ ‰È·ÏÔÁÈÛÌfi, «appleÈÛÙ‡ÂÈ ÛÙË

ÌÂÙÂÓÛ¿ÚΈÛË» Î·È «¤¯ÂÈ ·Ú¯›ÛÂÈ Ó· ‚ϤappleÂÈ ·ÏÏÈÒ˜ appleÈ· ÙÔ ÛÒÌ· [Ù˘]».

«Ò˜ ·ÏÏÈÒ˜»;

ªˆÚ¤, ¤¯Ô˘Ì appleÔÏÏ¿ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈο ÛÒÌ·Ù·... ‰ËÏ·‰‹, ÂÌ›˜ ϤÌÂ

«ÛÒÌ·» Î·È ÙÈ ‚ϤappleÔ˘ÌÂ; ∆Ë Û¿Úη appleÔ˘ appleÈ¿ÓÔ˘ÌÂ... ŸÌˆ˜, Û˘Á¯ÚfiÓˆ˜, ÁÈ·

appleÔχ ÎfiÛÌÔ, ˘apple¿Ú¯ÂÈ ÙÔ ¤Ì„˘¯Ô ÛÒÌ·, ÙÔ ·ÛÙÚÈÎfi ÛÒÌ·, ÙÔ ıÂ›Ô ÛÒÌ·...

¢ËÏ·‰‹, ‰ÂÓ ˘apple¿Ú¯ÂÈ ÌfiÓÔ ÙÔ ÛÒÌ· appleÔ˘ ‚ϤappleÔ˘Ì ÂÌ›˜. ∂Ì›˜ ‚ϤappleÔ˘ÌÂ

·˘Ùfi ÁÈ·Ù› ÙÔ ¤¯Ô˘Ì ̿ıÂÈ, ÙÔ ¤¯Ô˘ÌÂ Û˘ÓËı›ÛÂÈ ¤ÙÛÈ, ·ÏÏ¿ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ÌfiÓÔ

·˘Ùfi. ¿Ú [ÁÈ· apple·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·] ÙÔ˘˜ ÁÈfiÁÎÈ. ŸÛÔ appleÈÔ appleÔχ ·Ó‚·›ÓÔ˘Ó Ù·

Âapple›apple‰· Û˘Ó›‰ËÛ˘ Ì ÙÔ ‰È·ÏÔÁÈÛÌfi ÙfiÛÔ appleÈÔ appleÔχ Êı¿ÓÔ˘Ó Û ¤Ó·

ÛËÌÂ›Ô appleÔ˘ ÙÔ ÛÒÌ· ÙÔ˘˜ ‰ÂÓ ˘apple¿Ú¯ÂÈ! ∆Ú¤ÊÔÓÙ·È Ì’ ¤Ó· ÌappleÈÛÎfiÙÔ ÙÔ

¯ÚfiÓÔ ÁÈ·Ù› ¤¯Ô˘Ó ˘appleÂڂ› ÙÔ ÛÒÌ· appleÔ˘ ϤÌ ÂÌ›˜, ‰ËÏ·‰‹, ÙÔ ˘ÏÈÎfi, ÙÔ

Û·ÚÎÈÎfi ÛÒÌ·, Î·È ·˘ÙÔ› appleÈ¿ÓÔ˘Ó ¿ÏÏ· Âapple›apple‰·...

∂ÓÒ «appleÚÔÛ¤¯ˆ» Ù· ÏfiÁÈ· Ù˘ ∫·ÙÂÚ›Ó·˜, ·applefi ÙË ÌÈ· appleÏÂ˘Ú¿, ‰ÂÓ ÌÔ˘

ϤÓ ٛappleÔÙ·: ÌÔ˘ Â›Ó·È ¿ÁÓˆÛÙ· Û·Ó ÛˆÌ·ÙÈΤ˜ appleÚ·ÎÙÈΤ˜ ‹ ‰È·ı¤ÛÂȘ,

Û·Ó habitus. ∞applefi ÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË, ‰ÂÓ ÌÔ˘ Â›Ó·È Î·È ÙÂÏ›ˆ˜ ¿ÁÓˆÛÙ·: Û˘Ó·Ó·-

ÛÙÚ¤ÊÔÌ·È ÎfiÛÌÔ appleÔ˘ ·ÎÔ‡ˆ fiÙÈ Î¿ÓÔ˘Ó yoga ‹ apple¿Ó ÛÙËÓ πÓ‰›·, ¤¯ˆ ‰È·-

‚¿ÛÂÈ ÁÈ’ ·˘Ù¿, Ù· ¤¯ˆ ‰ÂÈ ÎÈ ÂÁÒ ÛÙÔÓ ÎÈÓËÌ·ÙÔÁÚ¿ÊÔ Î·È ÛÙËÓ ÙËÏÂfiÚ·-

ÛË, Ì’ ·Ú¤ÛÂÈ Ó’ ·ÁÔÚ¿˙ˆ ÈÓ‰Èο ÚÔ‡¯· Î·È Í¤Úˆ appleÒ˜ Ì˘Ú›˙Ô˘Ó ÂΛӷ Ù·


∏ À¡∂¡∆∂À•∏ ø øª∞∆π∫∏ ∂π∫√π¡ø¡π∞ ∆ø¡ À¡√ªπ§∏∆ø¡

41

ÏÂappleÙ¿ ÎÂÚÈ¿ appleÔ˘ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔappleÔÈÔ‡Ó ÔÈ «ÈÓ‰Ô˘ÈÛÙ¤˜» Û ÈÂÚ¤˜ ÛÙÈÁ̤˜! ∂ÓÒ

ÏÔÈapplefiÓ ‰È·ÊÔÚÔappleÔÈÔ‡Ì·È –·Ó fi¯È ‰È·ÊˆÓÒ– Û ۯ¤ÛË Ì ÙËÓ ∫·ÙÂÚ›Ó·,

Û˘Á¯ÚfiÓˆ˜ ÍÂÎÈÓÒ ¤Ó· Ì·ÎÚ‡ Ù·Í›‰È appleÚÔ˜ Ì·ÎÚÈÓÔ‡˜ ÔÚ›˙ÔÓÙ˜ ̤۷ ·applefi

ÂΛÓÔ ÙÔ «ÂÌ›˜» Î·È ÙÔ «Û·ÚÎÈÎfi ÛÒÌ·». ∞˘Ù¤˜ ÔÈ Û˘Ó¯›˜ Ó‡ÍÂȘ, ηٿ

ÙË ‰È¿ÚÎÂÈ· Ù˘ Û˘Ó¤ÓÙ¢Í˘, ÁÈ· ÙÔ ÛÒÌ· Ì·˜ Î·È ÙÔ ÛÒÌ· ÙˆÓ ‰ÈÎÒÓ Ì·˜

Û·Ó «ÎÚ¤·˜» Î·È «Û¿Úη» Ì οÓÔ˘Ó Ó· ‰È·ÈÛı·ÓıÒ/ηٷÓÔ‹Ûˆ fiÙÈ Â›Ì·È

ÎÈ ÂÁÒ Ì¤Û· ÛÙÔ «ÂÌ›˜» appleÔ˘ «‚ϤappleÔ˘Ì ÙÔ ÛÒÌ· Û·Ó Û¿Úη appleÔ˘ appleÈ¿ÓÔ˘-

Ì» – ∂Ì›˜ ÔÈ ŒÏÏËÓ˜; √È √Úıfi‰ÔÍÔÈ ÃÚÈÛÙÈ·ÓÔ›; ∂Ì›˜ appleÔ˘ ÏfiÁˆ ÁÂ-

ÓÈ¿˜ «appleÂÚ¿Û·Ì» ·applefi ÙÔ Î·Ù˯ËÙÈÎfi Î·È ÌÂÙ·Ï¿‚·Ì ÙÔ ∞›Ì· Î·È ÙÔ ÒÌ·

ÙÔ˘ ÃÚÈÛÙÔ‡; ∂Ì›˜ appleÔ˘ ÎÈ ·Ó ·ÎfiÌ· ‰ËÏÒÓÔ˘Ì ¿ıÂÔÈ appleËÁ·›ÓÔ˘Ì ÛÙËÓ

∆·Ê‹ Î·È ÙËÓ ∞Ó¿ÛÙ·ÛË ÙÔ˘ ∂ÓÛ·ÚΈ̤ÓÔ˘ £ÂÔ‡; ∞˘ÙÔÌ¿Ùˆ˜ Û˘ÌÌÂÙ¤¯ˆ

·ÈÛıËÙËÚȷο Î·È Û˘Ó·ÈÛıËÌ·ÙÈο Û apple·ÚÂÏıfiÓÙ·, apple·ÚfiÓÙ·, ̤ÏÏÔÓÙ·

ۈ̷ÙÈο appleÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙ·-Û˘ÓÔÌÈϛ˜ Ù˘ ∫·ÙÂÚ›Ó·˜ Î·È ‰ÈΤ˜ ÌÔ˘ ÌÂ

«¿ÏÏÔ˘˜», Î·È Ê·ÓÙ¿˙ÔÌ·È applefiÛÔ Î·È appleÒ˜ Û˘Ó¤‚·Ï·Ó Î·È Û˘Ì‚¿ÏÏÔ˘Ó ÛÙËÓ

ηٷÛ΢‹ ÙÔ˘ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ÓÔ˘ appleÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙÔ˜-Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏ›·˜ Ì·˜ Î·È ÙˆÓ

Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÁψÛÛÈÎÒÓ Î·È «apple·Ú·ÁψÛÛÈÎÒÓ» appleÚ·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ – ·Ú¯›˙ˆ

Î·È Û˘ÓÂȉËÙÔappleÔÈÒ, ÁÈ· appleÚÒÙË ÊÔÚ¿, applefiÛÔ Û·ÚÎÈÎfi˜ Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ apple·Ú¿ appleÓ¢-

Ì·ÙÈÎfi˜ Â›Ó·È Ô ¯ÚÈÛÙÈ·ÓÈÎfi˜ ÔÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·˜ ÛÙÔÓ ÔappleÔ›Ô Ì¿ı·Ì ӷ ˙Ô‡ÌÂ! 48

∆Ô ›‰ÈÔ Î¿ÓÂÈ Î·È Ë ∫·ÙÂÚ›Ó·. ¢ÂÓ ÂÎappleÏ‹ÛÛÔÌ·È –Û ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË appleÚÔ˜ ·˘Ù‹Ó–

fiÙ·Ó ÛÙË Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ· Ù˘ Û˘˙‹ÙËÛ‹˜ Ì·˜ ‚Á·›ÓÔ˘Ó «·ÏËıÈÓ¿» appleÔÏÏ¿ ·applefi

·˘Ù¿ appleÔ˘ ¤¯Ô˘Ì ‰È·ÈÛı·Óı› Î·È Ê·ÓÙ·Ûı› Ë ÌÈ· ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË. ∏ ‰È·›-

ÛıËÛË Î·È Ë Ê·ÓÙ·Û›· Â›Ó·È ÛˆÌ·ÙÈ΋ ÁÓÒÛË. ªÂ ÙËÓ ∫·ÙÂÚ›Ó·, fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ

Ù˘¯·›ÓÂÈ Ó· ¤¯Ô˘Ì apple·ÚfiÌÔÈÔ habitus ÙÔ ÔappleÔ›Ô ·ÓÙÈÎÂÈÌÂÓÔappleÔÈԇ̠ηٿ

¤Ó· Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ÓÔ ÙÚfiappleÔ ÂappleÂȉ‹ ›̷ÛÙ ̷˙› ÂΛÓË ÙËÓ ÒÚ·, ·ÏÏ¿ Û˘Á-

¯ÚfiÓˆ˜ ·appleÔÎÙԇ̷̠˙› ÌÈ· Û˘ÛÛˆÚ¢ÙÈ΋ ÎÔÈÓ‹ ۈ̷ÙÈ΋ ÁÓÒÛË Î·ıÒ˜

appleÚÔ¯ˆÚԇ̠ÙË ÏÂÎÙÈ΋ Î·È ¿ÏÏË ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›· Ù˘ Û˘Ó¤ÓÙ¢Í˘. 49 ªÂ ¿ÏÏ·

ÏfiÁÈ·, ‰Â ‚ϤappleÔ˘Ì ·appleÏÒ˜ Ë ÌÈ· ÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË Ì ٷ Ì¿ÙÈ· ÙÔ˘ ·ÛÒÌ·ÙÔ˘ ÓÔ˘

48. °È· ÙÔÓ ÙÚfiappleÔ Ì ÙÔÓ ÔappleÔ›Ô Û ÌÈ· Û˘Ó¤ÓÙ¢ÍË-Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏ›· «ÔÈ ÏÂÎÙÈΤ˜ Ó‡ÍÂȘ ÂÓÂÚ-

ÁÔappleÔÈÔ‡Ó ÁÓˆÛÙÈο Û¯‹Ì·Ù· Î·È appleÚÔÛˆappleÈΤ˜ ·Ó·ÌÓ‹ÛÂȘ Û¯ÂÙÈΤ˜ Ì ·˘Ù¿ Ù· Û¯‹Ì·Ù·» (‹

ÔÚ›˙ÔÓÙ˜ ‹ habitus), ‚Ï. Schrauf, 1997, Û. 443. °È· ÙÔÓ «Û·ÚÎÈÎfi ÔÚ›˙ÔÓÙ· ‹ habitus» appleÔ˘

·Ó·Î¿Ï˘„· ̤ۈ ÙˆÓ Û˘ÓÂÓÙ‡ÍÂˆÓ Ì ÙÔ˘˜ ‰ˆÚËÙ¤˜ Î·È appleÔ˘ ÂappleȂ‚·›ˆÛ· ÂÎ ÙˆÓ ˘ÛÙ¤ÚˆÓ,

̤۷ ·applefi ÙËÓ ·ÓıÚˆappleÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ‚È‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›·, ‚Ï. Papagaroufali, 1999.

49. °È· Ó· Û˘Ì‚Â› ·˘Ùfi ÛÙÔÓ appleÂÚÈÔÚÈṲ̂ÓÔ ¯ÚfiÓÔ ÌÈ·˜ ‹ ¤ÛÙˆ appleÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚˆÓ Û˘ÓÂ-

ÓÙ‡ÍÂˆÓ Ì ¤Ó· ¿ÙÔÌÔ, appleÚÔ¸appleÔÙ›ıÂÙ·È ÌÈ· Ï›ÁÔ ˆ˜ appleÔχ ÎÔÈÓ‹ ÁÏÒÛÛ·-habitus ·Ó¿ÌÂÛ·

ÛÙÔÓ Û˘ÓÂÓÙ¢ÎÙ‹ Î·È ÙÔÓ Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏËÙ‹, Ë ÔappleÔ›· fï˜ ÌappleÔÚ› Î·È Ó· ·appleÔÎÙËı› ̤ۈ Ù˘

Ì·ÎÚÔ¯ÚfiÓÈ·˜ Û˘ÌÌÂÙÔ¯È΋˜ apple·Ú·Ù‹ÚËÛ˘ (‚Ï. Bloch, 1991). ªÂ ¿ÏÏ· ÏfiÁÈ·, ‰ÂÓ ·ÚΛ Ë

ÏÂÍÈÏÔÁÈ΋ Î·È ÁÚ·ÌÌ·ÙÈÎÔ-Û˘ÓÙ·ÎÙÈ΋ ÈηÓfiÙËÙ· ÙÔ˘ Û˘ÓÂÓÙ¢ÎÙ‹ Û ÌÈ· ÁÏÒÛÛ· (Âapple’

·˘ÙÔ‡, ‚Ï. Î·È ∆ÛÈÙÛÈapple‹, 1998, ΢ڛˆ˜ ÛÛ. 35 Î·È 146). °È· apple·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·, Ë Koven, fiÙ·Ó ÌÂϤ-

ÙËÛ ÙË ÁψÛÛÈ΋ ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›· ÙÔ˘ «Â·˘ÙÔ‡» Û ÎÔapple¤Ï˜ appleÔ˘ ÁÂÓÓ‹ıËÎ·Ó ‹ ηٿÁÔÓÙ·Ó ·applefi ÙËÓ


42

∂§∂¡∏ ∞∞°∞ƒ√Àº∞§∏

Ì·˜ ·ÏÏ¿ ·ÏÏËÏÔ-ÂÌappleÏÂÎfiÌ·ÛÙ Ì appleÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈο ÂappleÂÍÂÚÁ·Ṳ̂ÓÔ˘˜ ۈ̷ÙÈ-

ÎÔ‡˜ ÙÚfiappleÔ˘˜ appleÚÔÛÔ¯‹˜ Î·È Ì·ı·›ÓÔ˘Ì ̤Û˜-¿ÎÚ˜ ÁÈ· ÙÔÓ ÎfiÛÌÔ appleÔ˘

‚ÈÒÓÔ˘ÌÂ Î·È appleÔ˘ ¤ÊÙÈ·Í ÙȘ ÏÂÎÙÈΤ˜ Î·È ÌË ¯ÂÈÚÔÓƠ̂˜ Ì·˜. ÈÁ¿-ÛÈÁ¿

Ì·ı·›ÓÔ˘Ì ӷ ÌÈÏ¿Ì ÙËÓ ›‰È· ÁÏÒÛÛ· ηÈ, ¤ÛÙˆ appleÚfiÛηÈÚ·, Ó· ·appleÔÏ·Ì-

‚¿ÓÔ˘Ì ÙË Ì·Á›· Ù˘ Ê·ÈÓÔÌÂÓÈο ·ÓÂÍ¿ÚÙËÙ˘ ·applefi Û˘ÌÊÚ·˙fiÌÂÓ·,

·ÛÒÌ·Ù˘, ‰È·ÓÔËÙÈ΋˜ «Î˘ÚÈÔÏÂÍ›·˜».

∆È Â›Ó·È ÏÔÈapplefiÓ Ù· ÏfiÁÈ· appleÔ˘ ϤÌÂ Ô ¤Ó·˜ ÛÙÔÓ ¿ÏÏÔÓ Û ÌÈ· Û˘ÓÔÌÈ-

Ï›·-Û˘Ó¤ÓÙ¢ÍË; ∂›Ó·È, fiappleˆ˜ ˘appleÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÙ·È, ·ÓÂapple·ÚΛ˜ Î·È apple·Ú·appleÔÈËÙÈ-

Τ˜ ·Ó·apple·Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ appleÚ·ÁÌ·ÙÈο ‚ÈˆÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÂÌappleÂÈÚÈÒÓ – Î·È fi¯È ÂÌappleÂÈڛ˜

appleÔ˘ ‚ÈÒÓÔ˘Ì ÛÙËÓ appleÚ·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·; ∞Ó Ó·È, appleÒ˜ ÌappleÔÚ› Ë ÁÏÒÛÛ· Ó·

·Ó·apple·Ú·ÛÙ‹ÛÂÈ Î·È Ó· apple·Ú·appleÔÈ‹ÛÂÈ ÂÌappleÂÈڛ˜ appleÔ˘ ‰ÂÓ ¤¯Ô˘Ó appleÚ·ÁÌ·ÙÈο

‚Ȉı› ·ÏÏ¿ appleÔ˘ ˘appleÔÙ›ıÂÙ·È fiÙÈ ı· ‚ȈıÔ‡Ó ÛÙÔ Ì¤ÏÏÔÓ – ·Ó Î·È ‰ÂÓ

¤¯Ô˘Ó η̛· Ù¤ÙÔÈ· appleÈı·ÓfiÙËÙ·; ŸÙ·Ó Ë ‰˘ÓËÙÈ΋ ‰ˆÚ‹ÙÚÈ· ÌÈÏ¿ÂÈ ÁÈ· ÙÔ

Êfi‚Ô appleÔ˘ (Ê·ÓÙ¿˙ÂÙ·È fiÙÈ) ı· ÓÈÒıÂÈ Ì¤Û· ÛÙÔ ÛÎÔ˘ÏËÎÈ·Ṳ̂ÓÔ Ù¿ÊÔ Ù˘,

ÙÔÓ ·Ó·apple·ÚÈÛÙ¿ ·ÓÂapple·ÚÎÒ˜ ‹ ÙÔÓ ‚ÈÒÓÂÈ Âapple·ÚÎÒ˜; ‡Ìʈӷ Ì ٷ fiÛ·

˘appleÔÛÙ‹ÚÈÍ· Û’ ·˘Ùfi ÙÔ ¿ÚıÚÔ, Û˘Ì‚·›ÓÂÈ ÙÔ ‰Â‡ÙÂÚÔ. ∏ ÊÚ¿ÛË Ù˘ ∫·ÙÂÚ›-

Ó·˜ – «¢Â ı¤Ïˆ Ó· ı·ÊÙÒ, ı¤Ïˆ Ó· ηÒ, ÁÈ·Ù› ÊÔ‚¿Ì·È Ù· ÛÎÔ˘Ï‹ÎÈ·» –

Â›Ó·È ÌÈ· ۈ̷ÙÈ΋ appleÚ·ÎÙÈ΋ ‹ ÏÂÎÙÈ΋ ¯ÂÈÚÔÓÔÌ›·, 50 ÙËÓ ÔappleÔ›· ÁÓˆÚ›-

˙ÂÈ/‚ÈÒÓÂÈ/ÌÔÈÚ¿˙ÂÙ·È ÁÂÓÈο Î·È ·appleÚÔÛ‰ÈfiÚÈÛÙ· Ì ¿ÏÏÔ˘˜, Û˘˙ÒÓÙ·˜ ÛÙË

Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ÓË ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·, 51 Î·È appleÈÔ ÂȉÈο Î·È Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ӷ Ì·˙› ÌÔ˘, ÛÙÔ

‚·ıÌfi appleÔ˘ ‰È·ÈÛı¿ÓÂÙ·È fiÙÈ ÙË ÓÈÒıˆ/ηٷÓÔÒ ˆ˜ ̤ÏÔ˜ Ù˘ ›‰È·˜ ÎÔÈÓˆ-

Ó›·˜ Î·È ¿Ú· Ù˘ ÂappleȂ‚·ÈÒÓˆ, ÂÓ Ì¤ÚÂÈ ÙÔ˘Ï¿¯ÈÛÙÔÓ, ÙËÓ appleÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈ΋

˘ÏÈÎfiÙËÙ· ÙÔ˘ Êfi‚Ô˘ Ù˘ (Ó· ÙË Ê¿Ó ٷ ÛÎÔ˘Ï‹ÎÈ·), Ù˘ ·apple¤¯ıÂÈ¿˜ Ù˘

(appleÚÔ˜ ÙÔ «Î·ÙÂÛÙË̤ÓÔ») Î·È Ù˘ ÂappleÈı˘Ì›·˜ Ù˘ (Ó· ·appleÔÙÂÊÚˆı› ·ÓÙ› Ó·

Ù·Ê›) 52 . ÙÔ appleÏ·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏ›·˜ Ì·˜, ·˘Ù‹ Ë ÊÚ¿ÛË-ۈ̷ÙÈ΋ appleÚ·-

ÎÙÈ΋ ı· ÌappleÔÚÔ‡Û ӷ ȉˆı› Î·È Û· ÌÈ· «ÛÙÚ·ÙËÁÈ΋ appleÔ˘ ‰Â Û˘ÓÈÛÙ¿ ÙÔ

appleÚÔ˚fiÓ ÌÈ·˜ ÁÓ‹ÛÈ·˜ ÛÙÚ·ÙËÁÈ΋˜ appleÚfiıÂÛ˘»: 53 §¤ÁÔÓÙ·˜ Ù· ÏfiÁÈ· appleÔ˘

ÔÚÙÔÁ·Ï›· Î·È appleÔ˘ ˙Ô˘Ó ÛÙË °·ÏÏ›·, ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔappleÔ›ËÛ ‰›ÁψÛÛ˜ ÁËÁÂÓ›˜ Û˘ÓÂÓÙ‡ÎÙÚȘ,

apple·ÚfiÏÔ appleÔ˘ Î·È Ë ›‰È· ÁÓˆÚ›˙ÂÈ ÙËÓ appleÔÚÙÔÁ·ÏÈ΋ Î·È ÙË Á·ÏÏÈ΋ ÁÏÒÛÛ· (Koven, 1998).

50. £· ÌappleÔÚÔ‡Û ӷ Ì·˜ appleÂÈ ÙÔ ›‰ÈÔ appleÚ¿ÁÌ· Ì ÙË ÁÏÒÛÛ· ÙˆÓ ÎˆÊ·Ï¿ÏˆÓ ‹ ¿ÏÏË

appleÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈ΋ ÌÔÚÊ‹ apple·ÓÙƠ̷̂˜.

51. ∑ÒÓÙ·˜ Û ÌÈ· ÔÚıfi‰ÔÍË ¯ÚÈÛÙÈ·ÓÈ΋ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·, ¤¯ÂÈ ·ÎÔ‡ÛÂÈ, ·Ó Î·È ‰ÂÓ ¤¯ÂÈ Ë ›‰È·

‰ÂÈ, ÁÈ· ÙȘ ÂÎٷʤ˜ ÓÂÎÚÒÓ appleÔ˘ Ù· ÛÒÌ·Ù¿ ÙÔ˘˜ ‰ÂÓ ¤¯Ô˘Ó appleÏ‹Úˆ˜ ·appleÔÛ˘ÓÙÂı› Î·È appleÔ˘ Ê·›-

ÓÔÓÙ·È «appleÒ˜ Ù· ¤¯Ô˘Ó Ê¿ÂÈ Ù· ÛÎÔ˘Ï‹ÎÈ·». ˘Á¯ÚfiÓˆ˜, ¤¯ÂÈ ÂÎÙÂı› Û appleÚfiÛÊ·Ù˜ Û˘˙ËÙ‹ÛÂȘ

˘appleÔÛÙËÚÈÎÙÒÓ Ù˘ ·appleÔÙ¤ÊÚˆÛ˘ ÙˆÓ ÓÂÎÚÒÓ Î·È ÛÙȘ ·ÓÙÈÚÚ‹ÛÂȘ Ù˘ ÂÎÎÏËÛ›·˜ Î.Ïapple..

52. ŸÓÙ·˜ ̤ÏÔ˜ ·˘Ù‹˜ Ù˘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜ Î·È Û˘Ì̤ÙÔ¯Ô˜ ÙˆÓ ›‰ÈˆÓ ·ÎÔ˘ÛÌ¿ÙˆÓ Î·È ÂÈÎfi-

ÓˆÓ, ÌappleÔÚÒ Ó· ηٷÓÔ‹Ûˆ ·˘Ù¿ appleÔ˘ ϤÂÈ ·ÏÏ¿ ÌfiÓÔ «ÂÓ Ì¤ÚÂÈ», ‰ÈfiÙÈ ‰Â Û˘ÌÌÂÚ›˙ÔÌ·È ÙÔÓ

›‰ÈÔ –Ê·ÓÙ·ÛÙÈÎfi– Êfi‚Ô.

53. Bourdieu, 1977, Û. 73.


∏ À¡∂¡∆∂À•∏ ø øª∞∆π∫∏ ∂π∫√π¡ø¡π∞ ∆ø¡ À¡√ªπ§∏∆ø¡

43

ϤÂÈ, Ë ∫·ÙÂÚ›Ó· ‚ÈÒÓÂÈ ¤Ó· ΛÓËÙÚÔ ‹ Û¯¤‰ÈÔ, ÙÔ ÔappleÔ›Ô ¤¯ÂÈ ÂÌappleÓ¢Ûı›

Î·È (·˘ÙÔ)ۯ‰ȿÛÂÈ ·applefi ·ÓÙÈÎÚÔ˘fiÌÂÓ˜ ·ÈÛıËÙËÚȷΤ˜ Î·È Û˘Ó·ÈÛıËÌ·-

ÙÈΤ˜ Û¯¤ÛÂȘ Ù˘ Ì ˙ˆÓÙ·ÓÔ‡˜ Î·È ÓÂÎÚÔ‡˜, Ê·ÓÙ·ÛÙÈÎÔ‡˜ Î·È ·ÏËıÈ-

ÓÔ‡˜, ÂÓÛÒÌ·ÙÔ˘˜ ‹ Ê·ÈÓÔÌÂÓÈο ·ÛÒÌ·ÙÔ˘˜ ¿ÏÏÔ˘˜, Î·È ÙÔ ÔappleÔ›Ô, Ì ÙËÓ

¤ÓÙ·ÛË appleÔ˘ Ì·˜ ÙÔ ÂÎÊÚ¿˙ÂÈ, 54 Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È ‹‰Ë Ó· ÙÔ ‚ÈÒÓÂÈ ˆ˜ ˘ÏÔappleÔÈ‹ÛÈÌÔ

Î·È ÁÈ’ ·˘Ùfi Î·È Ó· appleÚÔÛapple·ı› Ó· Ì·˜ apple›ÛÂÈ ÁÈ· Ù· appleÚÔÙÂÚ‹Ì·Ù¿ ÙÔ˘.

ŸÌˆ˜ fiÛÔ ¯ˆÚÔ¯ÚÔÓÈο ‰È¿Ûapple·ÚÙË (ηıfiÙÈ Û¯ÂÛȷ΋) Â›Ó·È Ë appleÚԤϢÛË

·˘ÙÔ‡ ÙÔ˘ «Û¯Â‰›Ô˘» ¿ÏÏÔ ÙfiÛÔ ‰È¿Ûapple·ÚÙË Î·È ·‚¤‚·ÈË (ηıfiÙÈ Û¯ÂÛȷ΋)

Â›Ó·È Î·È Ë ¤Î‚·Û‹ ÙÔ˘: Ë ∫·ÙÂÚ›Ó· ÌappleÔÚ› ·‡ÚÈÔ Ó· οÓÂÈ ¿ÏÏ· ·applefi ·˘Ù¿

appleÔ˘ ϤÂÈ Û’ Â̤ӷ Û‹ÌÂÚ· Ì ÙfiÛË ÛÈÁÔ˘ÚÈ¿ (ÌappleÔÚ› Ó· οÓÂÈ ‰È·ı‹ÎË appleÔ˘

Ó· ϤÂÈ fiÙÈ, Û appleÂÚ›appleÙˆÛË appleÔ˘ ηıÈÂÚˆı› Ë Î·‡ÛË ÛÙËÓ ∂ÏÏ¿‰·, ÙÔ ‰ÈÎfi

Ù˘ ÙÔ ÛÒÌ· ı¤ÏÂÈ Ó· ÙÔ ı¿„Ô˘Ó ÎÈ fi¯È Ó· ÙÔ Î¿„Ô˘Ó). ∫·Ù¿ ÙÔÓ ›‰ÈÔ

ÙÚfiappleÔ, ÌappleÔÚ› ÎÈ ÂÁÒ ÙÂÏÈο Ó· οӈ ¿ÏÏ· ·applefi ·˘Ù¿ appleÔ˘ Ù˘ Ϥˆ ÎÈ ·˜ Ù·

‚ÈÒÓˆ –¯ˆÚ›˜ Ó· Ù¿ ’¯ˆ ۯ‰ȿÛÂÈ– Ì ÙfiÛË ‚‚·ÈfiÙËÙ· (ÌappleÔÚ› Ó· ˙ËÙ‹-

Ûˆ Ó· ÌÂ ·appleÔÙÂÊÚÒÛÔ˘Ó ·ÓÙ› Ó· ·Ê‹Ûˆ Ó· ÌÂ ı¿„Ô˘Ó).

∂¿Ó Â›Ó·È ¤ÙÛÈ Ù· appleÚ¿ÁÌ·Ù· –Î·È Î¿appleˆ˜ ¤ÙÛÈ Â›Ó·È– ÙfiÙÂ, ÂÁÒ, ˆ˜ Û˘ÓÂ-

ÓÙ‡ÎÙÚÈ·-ÂÚ¢ӋÙÚÈ·, ÙÈ Ï¤ˆ fiÙÈ Î¿Óˆ Û˘ÏϤÁÔÓÙ·˜ ÏfiÁÈ· «‰˘ÓËÙÈÎÒÓ»

–fi¯È appleÚ·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎÒÓ– ‰ˆÚËÙÒÓ, Î·È Ì¿ÏÈÛÙ· ̤ۈ Û˘ÓÂÓÙ‡ÍÂˆÓ ÌfiÓÔ Î·È

fi¯È Î·È Ì¤Ûˆ Ù˘ ÂappleÈÙfiappleÈ·˜ Û˘ÌÌÂÙÔ¯È΋˜ apple·Ú·Ù‹ÚËÛ˘ fiappleÔ˘ ı· ÌappleÔÚÔ‡-

Û· Ó· «‚Ϥappleˆ» Î·È Ó· ÂϤÁ¯ˆ Ù˘¯fiÓ ·ÓÙÈÊ·ÙÈΤ˜ appleÚ¿ÍÂȘ ÙÔ˘˜; 55 ∞Ó

̤¯ÚÈ ÙÒÚ· ¤¯ˆ ·Ó·appleÙ‡ÍÂÈ Âapple·ÚÎÒ˜ ÙË ı¤ÛË ÌÔ˘, ı· appleÚ¤appleÂÈ Ó· ¤¯ÂÈ Á›ÓÂÈ

ηٷÓÔËÙfi ÙÔ ÂÍ‹˜: ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›˙ˆ Ù· ÏfiÁÈ· ÙˆÓ Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏËÙÒÓ ÌÔ˘ Û·Ó fiϘ

ÙȘ ¿ÏϘ «¯ÂÈÚÔÓƠ̂˜» appleÔ˘ ı· «¤‚ÏÂapple·» ÛÙÔ ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÈÎfi apple‰›Ô ˆ˜ ÂıÓÔ-

ÁÚ¿ÊÔ˜. ¢ËÏ·‰‹ ‰ÂÓ ÙÔ˘˜ ·appleÔ‰›‰ˆ η̛· ÂappleÈappleϤÔÓ ‹ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈ΋ ȉÈfiÙË-

Ù· ÂappleÂȉ‹ Â›Ó·È «ÏÂÎÙÈΤ˜ ¯ÂÈÚÔÓƠ̂˜» Î·È fi¯È ¿ÏϘ. ªÂ ¿ÏÏ· ÏfiÁÈ·, ‰ÂÓ

ÙȘ ‚Ϥappleˆ ˆ˜ appleÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ «È‰ÂÔÏÔÁÈΤ˜», ¿Ú· «·appleÔ-˚ÛÙÔÚÈÎÔappleÔÈËÙÈΤ˜»

Î·È ÂappleÔ̤ӈ˜ appleÈÔ apple·Ú·appleÏ·ÓËÙÈΤ˜ Î·È ·ÓÙÈÊ·ÙÈΤ˜ appleÚÔ˜ ÙȘ «‚Ȉ̤Ó˜» ‹

ÙȘ «ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜» ÂÌappleÂÈڛ˜ ÙˆÓ ÔÌÈÏÔ‡ÓÙˆÓ. 56 £ÂˆÚÒ fiÙÈ ÔÈ ÏÂÎÙÈΤ˜ ¯ÂÈ-

ÚÔÓƠ̂˜ ÙÔ˘ ÔÌÈÏÔ‡ÓÙÔ˜, fiappleˆ˜ fiϘ ÔÈ ¿ÏϘ appleÚ·ÎÙÈΤ˜ ÙÔ˘, ÂappleÈÙÂÏÔ‡Ó

·˘Ùfi appleÔ˘ ‰ËÏÒÓÔ˘Ó, ·ÏÏ¿ ·˘Ùfi appleÔ˘ ‰ËÏÒÓÔ˘Ó Â›Ó·È ·applefi ÙËÓ ·Ú¯‹ ˆ˜ ÙÔ

Ù¤ÏÔ˜ Û¯¤ÛÂȘ Î·È ¿Ú· ¤¯ÂÈ appleÔÏ˘appleÚfiÛˆappleÔ Î·È ¯ˆÚÔ¯ÚÔÓÈο ‰È¿Ûapple·ÚÙÔ

54. ∏ ∫·ÙÂÚ›Ó· ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔappleÔ›ËÛ ‰‡Ô Û˘Ó¯fiÌÂÓ˜ ÊÔÚ¤˜ ÙÔ «ı¤Ïˆ» ÁÈ· Ó· ÂappleÈÙ›ÓÂÈ ÙË

ÛËÌ·Û›· Ù˘ ÂappleÈı˘Ì›·˜ Ù˘ Î·È ÙËÓ È‰ÂÔÏÔÁÈ΋ Ù˘ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË ÛÙÔ ÂÎÎÏËÛÈ·ÛÙÈÎfi ηÙÂÛÙË̤ÓÔ.

°È· ÙËÓ È‰ÂÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ÛËÌ·Û›· Ù˘ «Âapple·Ó¿Ï˄˘» ‹ «˙¢Á·ÚÒÌ·ÙÔ˜», ‚Ï. ∆ÛÈÙÛÈapple‹, 1998, Û. 116.

55. ∏ ¤ÚÂ˘Ó¿ ÌÔ˘ ‚·Û›ÛÙËΠÛÂ Û˘ÓÂÓÙ‡ÍÂȘ, ‰ÈfiÙÈ ÔÈ ˘appleÔ„‹ÊÈÔÈ ‰ˆÚËÙ¤˜ ·appleÔÙÂÏÔ‡Ó

ÌÈ· ηÙËÁÔÚ›· Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ, apple·Ú¿ ÔÌ¿‰· ‹ ÎÔÈÓfiÙËÙ· appleÔÏÈÙÒÓ Ì ÎÔÈÓ‹, appleÚÔÛÈÙ‹ Î·È apple·Ú·ÙË-

Ú‹ÛÈÌË, ‰Ú¿ÛË.

56. °È· ÌÈ· Ù¤ÙÔÈ· ı¤ÛË, ‚Ï., apple.¯., ∆ÛÈÙÛÈapple‹, 1998, Û. 117-120.


44

∂§∂¡∏ ∞∞°∞ƒ√Àº∞§∏

apple·ÚÂÏıfiÓ, ÌÂÚÈÎfi apple·ÚÔÓÙÈÎfi ÓfiËÌ· Î·È ·‚¤‚·ÈÔ Ì¤ÏÏÔÓ. ∆Ô «¤ÁÈÓ· ‰ˆÚ‹-

ÙÚÈ· ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÓ ÁÈ·Ù›...» ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÙÔ «ı¤Ïˆ Ó· ηһ Ù˘ ∫·ÙÂÚ›Ó·˜ ÂÍ·ÚÙ‹-

ıËηÓ, ÂÍ·ÚÙÒÓÙ·È Î·È ı· ÂÍ·ÚÙÒÓÙ·È Û˘Ó¯Ҙ ·applefi ÙÔ appleÒ˜ Û˘Ó·ÈÛı¿ÓÂ-

Ù·È/ÂÚÌËÓ‡ÂÈ ÙȘ Û¯¤ÛÂȘ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜ appleÔ˘ ¤¯ÂÈ ÂÓۈ̷ÙÒÛÂÈ Î·È appleÔ˘ ‚ÈÒ-

ÓÂÈ/ÌÔÈÚ¿˙ÂÙ·È Ì appleÚfiÛˆapple· Î·È ıÂÛÌÔ‡˜, Ê·ÓÙ·ÛÙÈο Î·È appleÚ·ÁÌ·ÙÈο,

̤۷ ÛÙÔ ¯ÚfiÓÔ. 57 ªÂ ¿ÏÏ· ÏfiÁÈ·, Ë ∫·ÙÂÚ›Ó· ‰ÂÓ ˙ÂÈ ÌfiÓË Ù˘ ·˘ÙfiÓ ÙÔÓ

ÎfiÛÌÔ Ô‡Ù ·appleÔÊ·Û›˙ÂÈ ‹ ÂappleÈı˘Ì› ·applefi ÌfiÓË Ù˘. ∆Ô «ı¤Ïˆ Ó· ηһ ‰ÂÓ

Â›Ó·È ·appleÏÒ˜ Ë ÂÎÊÔÚ¿ ÌÈ·˜ «appleÚÔÛˆappleÈ΋˜» ÂappleÈı˘Ì›·˜ ‹ ۯ‰›Ô˘ Ù˘. ∂›Ó·È

ÌÈ· ۈ̷ÙÈ΋ appleÚԉȿıÂÛË appleÔ˘ ¤¯ÂÈ Î·ÏÏÈÂÚÁËı› ·ÎÔ‡ÁÔÓÙ·˜ ÙȘ appleÚfiÛÊ·-

Ù˜ appleÂÚ› ·appleÔÙÂÊÚÒÛˆ˜ Û˘˙ËÙ‹ÛÂȘ appleÔ˘ Á›ÓÔÓÙ·È ÛÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›· appleÔ˘ ˙ÂÈ,

Û˘ÌÌÂÙ¤¯ÔÓÙ·˜ ÛÙËÓ ÈÓ‰Ô˘ÈÛÙÈÎÔ‡ appleÚÔÛ·Ó·ÙÔÏÈÛÌÔ‡ ΛÓËÛË, Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏÒ-

ÓÙ·˜ Ì ¿ÙÔÌ· appleÔ˘ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ·appleÔÊ·Û›ÛÂÈ Ó· ·appleÔÙÂÊÚˆıÔ‡Ó ÛÙÔ Â͈ÙÂÚÈÎfi

Î.Ô.Î.. ˘Á¯ÚfiÓˆ˜, Â›Ó·È ÌÈ· Âapple›ÎÏËÛË appleÚÔ˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ¿ÏÏÔ˘˜ –apple.¯., Â̤ӷ,

ÙÔ˘˜ ÁÔÓ›˜ Ù˘, ÙËÓ √Úıfi‰ÔÍË ∂ÎÎÏËÛ›· appleÔ˘ ·ÚÓÂ›Ù·È ÙËÓ ·appleÔÙ¤ÊÚˆÛË–

Ó· Û˘Ó·ÈÓ¤ÛÔ˘Ó appleÚÔ˜ ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ Î·Ù‡ı˘ÓÛË. ∆Ô ·Ó ı· οÓÂÈ ÙË ‰È·ı‹ÎË ÁÈ·

Ó· ˙ËÙ‹ÛÂÈ ÙËÓ Î·‡ÛË Ù˘ ÂÍ·ÚÙ¿Ù·È ·applefi ÙÔ ·Ó ‰È·ÈÛı·Óı› fiÙÈ ‰›ÓÂÙ·È ‹

fi¯È Ë Û˘Ó·›ÓÂÛË Î·È ·applefi ÙÔ appleÒ˜ ı· Û˘Ó·ÈÛı·Óı›/ÂÚÌËÓ‡ÛÂÈ ÙËÓ ¿ÚÓËÛË ‹

ÙËÓ Î·Ù¿Ê·ÛË. ¢Â ı· ÂÎappleÏ·ÁÒ ·Ó Ì¿ıˆ fiÙÈ Ë ∫·ÙÂÚ›Ó·, ÙËÓ Âapple·‡ÚÈÔ Ù˘

Û˘Ó¤ÓÙ¢͋˜ Ì·˜, ·Ó·Î¿ÏÂÛ ÙË ‰‹ÏˆÛ‹ Ù˘ ˆ˜ ‰ˆÚ‹ÙÚÈ·˜ ‹ Î·È fiÙÈ ·Ó·›-

ÚÂÛ ÙËÓ ÂappleÈı˘Ì›· Ù˘ Ó· η›. ∂ÎappleÏ‹ÍÂȘ ·˘ÙÔ‡ ÙÔ˘ ›‰Ô˘˜ Â›Ó·È ·Ó·applefi-

Ê¢ÎÙ˜ fiÙ·Ó ÔÈ ÁψÛÛÈΤ˜ ÂÎÊÔÚ¤˜ appleÚÔÛÂÁÁ›˙ÔÓÙ·È Û·Ó ÂÌappleÂÈڛ˜ appleÔ˘

‚ÈÒÓÔÓÙ·È Ì ¿ÏÏÔ˘˜ Û˘Ó¯Ҙ ̤۷ ÛÙÔÓ ÌË ÁÚ·ÌÌÈÎfi ¯ÚfiÓÔ, Î·È fi¯È Û·Ó

·Ó·apple·Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ appleÚÔËÁÔ‡ÌÂÓˆÓ ·ÙÔÌÈÎÒÓ ÂÌappleÂÈÚÈÒÓ. ∫·È ÁÈ· Ó· ÙÔ appleˆ

οappleˆ˜ ·ÏÏÈÒ˜, ÙÔ Î¿„ÈÌÔ ÙÔ˘ apple·Ù¤Ú· ÌÔ˘ appleÔ˘ «‚›ˆÓ·» Âapple› ‰‡Ô ¯ÚfiÓÈ·

fiÙ·Ó ‹ÌÔ˘Ó ÌÈÎÚ‹, Ë ÌÓ›· ÙÔ˘ ‚ÈÒÌ·ÙÔ˜ ·˘ÙÔ‡ ηٿ ÙË ‰›ˆÚË Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏ›·

ÌÔ˘ Ì ÙËÓ ∫·ÙÂÚ›Ó· (Î·È ÂÌ̤ۈ˜ Ì ÙË ÌËÙ¤Ú· Ù˘, ÙË ÁÈ·ÁÈ¿ Ù˘, ÙÔ

Û·ÏÔ Ù˘, ÙÔ˘˜ ÈÓ‰Ô˘ÈÛÙ¤˜ Ê›ÏÔ˘˜ Ù˘ Î·È appleÔÏÏÔ‡˜ ¿ÏÏÔ˘˜) ηÈ, Ù¤ÏÔ˜, Ë

ÌÓ›· ÂΛӢ Ù˘ Û˘Ó¤ÓÙ¢Í˘ Â‰Ò Û˘ÓÈÛÙÔ‡Ó ÙÚÂȘ ‹ Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ ÂηÙfiÓ ÙÚÂȘ

‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈΤ˜ ̤۷ ÛÙÔ ¯ÚfiÓÔ ÂÌappleÂÈڛ˜ ‹ ‚ÈÒÌ·Ù· – ÂÍ›ÛÔ˘ ‚Ȉ̷ÙÈΤ˜

Î·È ÂappleËÚ·Ṳ̂Ó˜ ·applefi ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜ Û˘Ì‚¿ÛÂȘ. ∫·Ì›· ‰ÂÓ ·Ó·apple·ÚÈÛÙ¿ ÙËÓ

¿ÏÏË, Û η̛· ‰ÂÓ Â›¯· «appleÏËÚ¤ÛÙÂÚË Û˘Ó›‰ËÛË» ·applefi ÌÈ· ¿ÏÏË. ·ÚfiÏÔ

appleÔ˘ ˘appleÔÙ›ıÂÙ·È fiÙÈ Â›Ó·È «‰ÈΤ˜ ÌÔ˘», fiϘ ÛÙËÚ›¯ÙËÎ·Ó ÂÍ›ÛÔ˘ Û ·˘Ùfi

appleÔ˘ Ô Bruner ÔÓÔÌ¿˙ÂÈ «Ó‡ÍÂȘ Î·È ˘appleÔı¤ÛÂȘ», ÁÈ·Ù› «Ô ·˘Ùfi˜ appleÔ˘

57. √ Lyons, ÌÈÏÒÓÙ·˜ ÁÈ· ÙË ÛËÌ·ÛÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ·appleÚÔÛ‰ÈÔÚÈÛÙ›· ÙˆÓ ÏÂÍËÌ¿ÙˆÓ, ÙÔÓ›˙ÂÈ

fiÙÈ ·ÎfiÌ· Î·È Ë ÛËÌ·Û›· ÙˆÓ ÁÚ·ÌÌ·ÙÈÎÒÓ Î·ÙËÁÔÚÈÒÓ ÙÔ˘ ¯ÚfiÓÔ˘ (appleÔ˘ appleÚÔÛ‰ÈÔÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·È

apple·Ú·‰ÔÛȷο Ì ÙÔ˘˜ fiÚÔ˘˜ «·fiÚÈÛÙÔ˜», «ÂÓÂÛÙÒÙ·˜» Î·È «Ì¤ÏÏÔÓÙ·˜») Â›Ó·È ÌfiÓÔ Ê·È-

ÓÔÌÂÓÈο appleÚÔÛ‰ÈÔÚ›ÛÈÌË, ηıfiÙÈ ÂÍ·ÚÙ¿Ù·È ÌÔӛ̈˜ ·applefi Ù· ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο Û˘ÌÊÚ·˙fiÌÂÓ· –

ÙÔ˘˜ ÚfiÏÔ˘˜ Î·È ÙȘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜ Û¯¤ÛÂȘ ÙˆÓ ÔÌÈÏÔ‡ÓÙˆÓ (1992, Û. 184).


∏ À¡∂¡∆∂À•∏ ø øª∞∆π∫∏ ∂π∫√π¡ø¡π∞ ∆ø¡ À¡√ªπ§∏∆ø¡

45

apple·ÚÂÌ‚¿ÏÏÂÙ·È ÛÙÔ ÓfiËÌ·» ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È appleÔÙ¤ ÌfiÓÔ˜ ÙÔ˘Ø Î·È Ë appleϤÔÓ appleÚÔÛˆappleÈ΋

Î·È ÛȈappleËÚ‹ ÂÌappleÂÈÚ›· ‚ÈÒÓÂÙ·È Ì¤Û· ÛÙÔÓ ÎfiÛÌÔ, ÌappleÚÔÛÙ¿ ÛÂ Ê˘ÛÈ-

ο ·applefiÓÙ· –apple·ÚÂÏıfiÓÙ·, apple·ÚfiÓÙ·, ÌÂÏÏÔÓÙÈο– ·ÎÚÔ·Ù‹ÚÈ·.

µπµ§π√°ƒ∞ºπ∞

Abrahams Roger, 1986, «Ordinary and Extraordinary Experience», ÛÙÔ V. Turner, E. Bruner

(ÂappleÈÌ.), The Anthropology of Experience, Urbana and Chicago, University of Illinois Press,

Û. 45-72.

Bakhtin Mikhail, 1981, The Dialogic Imagination, Austin, University of Texas Press.

Bateson Gregory, 1972, Steps to an Ecology of Mind, London, Intertext Books.

Bloch Maurice, 1991, «Language, Anthropology and Cognitive Science», Man (N.S.), Ù‡¯. 26,

Û. 183-198.

Bourdieu Pierre, 1977, Outline of a Theory of Practice, Cambridge, University Press.

Bruner Edward (ÂappleÈÌ.), 1984, Text, Play and Story: The Construction and Reconstruction of

Self and Society, Prospect Hights, III, Waveland Press.

Comaroff Jean, 1985, Body of Power, Spirit of Resistance, Chicago and London, Chicago Univ.

Press.

Crossley Nick, 1995, «Merleau-Ponty, the Elusive Body and Camal Sociology», Body and

Society, Ù‡¯. 1(I), Û. 43-63.

Csordas Thomas, 1990, «Embodiment as a Paradigm for Anthropology», Ethos, Ù‡¯. 18, Û. 5-45.

—, 1993, «Somatic Modes of Attention», Cultural Anthropology, Ù¯. 8, Û. 135-156.

—, 1994a, The Sacred Self: A Cultural Phenomenology of Charismatic Healing, Berkeley,

University of California Press.

—, 1994b (ÂappleÈÌ.), Embodiment and Experience, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Das Veena, 1998, «Wittgenstein and Anthropology», Annual Review of Anthropology, Ù‡¯.

27, Û. 171-195.

Diaz de Rada Angel Î·È F. Cruces, 1994, «The Mysteries of Incarnation», ÛÙÔ H. Hastrup, P.

Hervick (ÂappleÈÌ.), Social Experience and Anthropological Knowledge, London and New

York, Routledge, Û. 101-120.

Foster Le Cron Mary Î·È S.H. Brandes (ÂappleÈÌ.), 1980, Symbol as Sense: New Approaches to the

Analysis of Meaning, New York, Academic Press.

Geertz Clifford, 1973, The Interpretation of Cultures, New York, Basic Books.

—, 1983, «From the Native’s Point of View: On the Nature of Anthropological Understanding»,

ÛÙÔ Clifford Geertz, Local Knowledge: Further Essays in Interpretive Anthropology, New

York, Basic Books, Û. 55-70.

Gal S., 1989, «Language and Political Economy», Annual Review of Anthropology, Ù‡¯. 18, Û.

345-367.

Jackson Jean, 1994, «Chronic Pain and the Tension between the Body as Subject and Object»,

ÛÙÔ T. Csordas (ÂappleÈÌ.), Embodiment and Experience, Cambridge, Cambridge University

Press, Û. 201-228.


46

∂§∂¡∏ ∞∞°∞ƒ√Àº∞§∏

Jenkins Janis Î·È M. Valiente, 1994, «Bodily Transactions of the Passions: El Calor among

Salvadoran Women Refugees», ÛÙÔ T. Csordas (ÂappleÈÌ.), Embodiment and Experience,

Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, Û. 163-182.

Kirmayer Laurence, 1992, «The Body’s Instistence on Meaning: Metaphor as Presentation

and Representation in Illness Experience», Medical Anthropology Quarterly, Ù‡¯. 6(4),

Û. 323-346.

Koven Michele, 1998, «Two Languages in the Self/The Self in Two Languages», Ethos, Ù‡¯.

26(4), Û. 410-455.

Kvale Seinar, 1996, Interviews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing,

Thousand Oaks/London/New Delhi, SAGE Publications.

Lutz Catherine A. Î·È L. Abu-Lughod (ÂappleÈÌ.), 1990, Language and the Politics of Emotion,

Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Lyons John, 1995, ∂ÈÛ·ÁˆÁ‹ ÛÙË °ÏˆÛÛÔÏÔÁ›·, ∞ı‹Ó·, ·Ù¿Î˘.

Merleau-Ponty Maurice, 1962, Phenomenology of Perception, London, Routledge.

Mitchell Thomas, 1981, On Narrative, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press.

Okely Jutith, 1994, «Vicarious and Sensory Knowledge of Chronology and Change: Ageing in

Rural France», ÛÙÔ ∫. Hastrup, P. Hervik (ÂappleÈÌ.), Social Experience and Anthropological

Knowledge, London, New York, Routledge, Û. 45-64.

Papagaroufali Eleni, 1999, «Donation of Human Organs or Bodies After Death: A Cultural

Phenomenology of “Flesh” in the Greek Context», Ethos, Ù‡¯. 27, Û. 283-314.

·Ú·‰¤ÏÏ˘ £Âfi‰ˆÚÔ˜, 1999, «∞ÓıÚˆappleÔÏÔÁ›· Ù˘ ÌÓ‹Ì˘», ÛÙÔ ƒ. ªappleÂÓ‚ÂÓ›ÛÙÂ, £. ·Ú·-

‰¤ÏÏ˘ (ÂappleÈÌ.), ¢È·‰ÚÔ̤˜ Î·È ∆fiappleÔÈ Ù˘ ªÓ‹Ì˘, ∞ı‹Ó·, ∞ÏÂÍ¿Ó‰ÚÂÈ·, Û. 27-58.

Schrauf Robert, 1997, «Costalero Quiero Ser! Autobiographical Memory and the Oral Life

Story of a Holy Week Brother in Southern Spain», Ethos, Ù‡¯. 25, Û. 428-454.

Tambiah Stanley, 1990, Magic Science, Religion, and the Scope of Rationality, Cambridge,

Cambridge University Press.

∆ÛÈÙÛÈapple‹˜ §Ô˘Î¿˜, 1998, ∂ÈÛ·ÁˆÁ‹ ÛÙËÓ ∞ÓıÚˆappleÔÏÔÁ›· Ù˘ °ÏÒÛÛ·˜, ∞ı‹Ó·, Gutenberg.

White Geoffrey, 1992, «Ethnopsychology», ÛÙÔ Theodore Schwartz, G.M. White Î·È C.A. Lutz

(ÂappleÈÌ.), New Directions in Psychological Anthropology, Cambridge, Cambridge University

Press, Û. 21-46.

Wikan Uni, 1991, «Toward an Experience-near Anthropology», Cultural Anthropology, Ù‡¯. 6,

Û. 285-305.

Hooray! Your file is uploaded and ready to be published.

Saved successfully!

Ooh no, something went wrong!