Natural Resources

Man has to be dependent on natural resources despite all the scientific inventions,Natural resources are the basis of national income

Man has to be dependent on natural resources despite all the scientific inventions,Natural resources are the basis of national income


Create successful ePaper yourself

Turn your PDF publications into a flip-book with our unique Google optimized e-Paper software.

<strong>Natural</strong> resources are useful raw materials that we get from the Earth. They occur naturally,<br />

which means that humans cannot make natural resources. Instead, we use and modify natural<br />

resources in ways that are beneficial to us. (The materials used in human-made objects are<br />

natural resources.) Some examples of natural resources and the ways we can use them are<br />

listed in the table below.<br />

Air<br />

Animals<br />

Coal<br />

Minerals<br />

<strong>Natural</strong> Gas<br />

Oil<br />

Plants<br />

Sunlight<br />

Water<br />

Wind energy, tires<br />

Foods (milk, cheese, steak, bacon) and<br />

clothing (wool sweater, silk shirt, leather belt)<br />

Electricity<br />

Coins, wire, steel, aluminum cans, jewelry<br />

Electricity, heating<br />

Electricity, fuel for cars and airplanes, plastic<br />

Wood, paper, cotton clothing, fruits, vegetables<br />

Solar power, photosynthesis<br />

Hydroelectric energy, drinking, cleaning<br />

Classification of <strong>Natural</strong> <strong>Resources</strong><br />

There are different ways to classify natural resources, including where they come from and if<br />

they are renewable or not.<br />

Biotic and Abiotic <strong>Natural</strong> <strong>Resources</strong><br />

If natural resources come from living things or organic materials, then they are considered<br />

biotic resources. Biotic resources include plants, animals, and fossil fuels. The three fossil<br />

fuels are coal, oil, and natural gas. Fossil fuels are classified as biotic resources because they<br />

were formed from the decay of organic matter over millions of years.<br />

On the other hand, abiotic resources originate from nonliving and inorganic materials. For<br />

example, air, sunlight, and water are abiotic natural resources. Minerals (gold, copper, iron,<br />

diamonds) are also considered abiotic.

Renewable and Nonrenewable <strong>Natural</strong> <strong>Resources</strong><br />

Renewable resources are those that can be replenished during our lifetime, such as sunlight,<br />

wind, water, plants, and animals. The rate at which renewable resources are replenished may<br />

differ. For example, we will never run out of sun and wind in our lifetime because the Earth<br />

constantly supplies these resources.<br />

Main natural resourses are as follows<br />

Air resourses<br />

The Air <strong>Resources</strong> Division is responsible for achieving and maintaining air quality in New<br />

Hampshire that is protective of public health and our natural environment. ARD is committed to<br />

promoting cost-effective, sensible strategies and control measures to address the many<br />

complex and inter-related air quality issues facing the state. These issues include, but are not<br />

limited to, ground-level ozone, small particle pollution, regional haze (visibility), mercury<br />

contamination, climate change, acid deposition, and air toxics. The components of New<br />

Hampshire's Air Quality Program are designed to respond to the many complex air quality<br />

issues through such tools as local, regional and national collaborations, data gathering,<br />

analysis, and control efforts.<br />

ARD regulates and limits air emissions from a variety of stationary sources within New<br />

Hampshire through a Statewide Permitting Program. The permitting program ensures that new<br />

and existing sources of air pollution abide by a wide range of state and federal air pollution<br />

control regulations. The Compliance Program is responsible for ensuring that entities in New<br />

Hampshire are in compliance with all air pollution laws, rules and permits. Major activities of the<br />

compliance program include on-site inspections, compliance assistance, compliance stack<br />

testing, asbestos management and licensing, compiling air emission inventories, and<br />

enforcement. The Air Toxics Control Program is designed to promote public health by<br />

controlling and regulating releases of toxic air pollutants to the ambient air, thus reducing human<br />

exposure to these toxic chemicals. The Atmospheric Science and Analysis Program simulates<br />

the flow of air pollution in the atmosphere and is used to predict health and environmental<br />

impacts of air pollution from in-state and upwind sources.<br />

ARD operates a network of Air Quality Monitoring Stations throughout the state to measure<br />

meteorological parameters and levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon<br />

monoxide, small particle pollution, and other pollutants of concern in the outdoor (ambient) air.<br />

ARD uses monitoring and meteorological data, in conjunction with regional modeling results, to<br />

forecast daily air quality conditions and issue air quality action days to the public as appropriate.

The Energy/Climate Change Program supports efforts to: reduce energy use and mitigate the<br />

causes of climate change through energy efficiency and lower carbon energy alternatives<br />

including renewable energy sources; and increase the resiliency of the state’s natural and built<br />

environment to impacts of climate change. The staff oversee market-based efforts, such as<br />

emission trading programs, to reduce a range of emissions, including greenhouse gases. Staff<br />

provide technical support to legislators and assist municipal decision makers gain access to<br />

data and technical assistance to be prepared for the impacts of a changing climate. ARD staff<br />

work with other organizations across the state to deliver educational workshops on energy<br />

efficiency and climate change preparedness.<br />

The Mobile Sources Program is engaged in a number of strategies and control programs to<br />

reduce air pollution from mobile sources (e.g., cars, trucks and buses). Many activities are<br />

related to regulatory programs, such as vehicle inspection/maintenance programs and land<br />

use/transportation planning. The mobile source program also includes numerous voluntary,<br />

collaborative pollution prevention initiatives, such as the Granite State Clean Cities Coalition,<br />

the Granite State Clean Cars Program, and clean school bus idling campaign.<br />

The Environmental Health Program within ARD protects public health and the quality of life in<br />

New Hampshire by investigating, preventing and reducing impacts that may result from<br />

exposures to chemical contaminants in the environment. Through data analysis, health risk<br />

assessment and health education the public is kept aware of human health risks associated with<br />

exposure to toxic chemicals.

Animal resourses<br />

In biomedical research, experimental animals have taken on enormous importance as models<br />

for elucidating and predicting behavior, health, and disease or for information regarding basic<br />

biologic processes. In most areas of research, there is an increasing recognition that constant,<br />

dependable experimental conditions are essential in order to obtain reproducible and reliable<br />

information. Most investigators are aware of the need for a research system with as few<br />

variables as possible, but oftentimes the experimental animal is not considered.<br />

In a living organism, there are two basic sources of variation — genetic and environmental.<br />

Accurately defined, standardized, and properly housed laboratory animals are needed in order<br />

to accomplish meaningful biomedical research. Use of animals harboring overt or latent<br />

diseases, housed in crowded, unsanitary conditions, or maintained in an environment which<br />

results in abnormal behavioral and physiological responses certainly compromises and brings<br />

into question the validity of research accomplished.<br />

Also, there is concern for the comfort and well-being of the experimental animals themselves. It<br />

is unacceptable to subject them to needless suffering or deprivation. Scientific, legal, and ethical<br />

considerations have prompted standards that are becoming increasingly comprehensive and<br />

rigorous for the handling, care, and use of experimental animals.<br />

Coal resources<br />

Coal is a fossil fuel of sedimentary origin that has formed by coalification of vegetation over<br />

millions of years. Black coal consists of the higher rank anthracite, bituminous and subbituminous<br />

coals. The lower rank brown coal is sometimes known as lignite. In Australia coal

deposits occur in all States and the Northern Territory and range from 15 million to 225 million<br />

years old.<br />

Coal is primarily used as a fuel to generate electricity and in Australia is used to produce about<br />

80% of the nation's electricity requirements. A special type of coal used to produce coke for the<br />

steel making process and by-products of coke-making include coal tar, ammonia, lights oils and<br />

coal gas. Coal is used in cement manufacturing, food processing, paper manufacturing and<br />

alumina refineries.<br />

Minerals resources<br />

These are the natural resources which cannot be renewed. They are present in the organisms<br />

as an organic and inorganic molecule and ions. The calcium, phosphorous, sodium, chlorine<br />

and sulphur are the major minerals in the animals. The minor minerals in the animals are iron,<br />

copper, cobalt, zinc, fluorine and selenium. The minerals in the plants are divided into the macro<br />

and micro nutrients. The macro nutrients consist of calcium, magnesium, sulphur and iron. The

micro nutrients consist of manganese, cobalt, zinc and chlorine. The minerals are present<br />

everywhere in the world. Their distribution varies from one country to the other. They are nonequal<br />

in the distribution. India is rich in coal, manganese, iron, chromites and mica. It is deficient<br />

in the gold, silver, nickel etc. In the North America there is an abundance of molybdenum but it<br />

is deficient in the tin, manganese. However these deficient metals are found in abundance in the<br />

Indonesia and Malaysia. The gold and uranium occurs in good abundance at the South Africa<br />

but it has a deficiency of silver and iron. The most common fertilizers in India are the NPK. India<br />

depends on the other countries for its supply. Our country is in deficiency of the petroleum and<br />

electrical energy. The raw material is also deficient. New projects are undertaken to explore the<br />

new opportunities of energy. If we move at the present rate most of the important metals will last<br />

only in this century. However, some of them like manganese, aluminum, cobalt, iron and<br />

chromium can work till 2500 A.D. The minerals must be conserved and should be recycled<br />

regularly. They must be used as a raw material where there is a major need. They must be<br />

explored regularly. They must be substituted and new techniques must be used to prevent its<br />

loss.<br />

Water resourses

Water resources include surface waters (i.e., coastal bays, lakes, rivers, and streams) and<br />

groundwater. These water resources may be used for drinking water, industrial processes,<br />

agriculture, and irrigation. Water resources also provide opportunities for recreation, such as<br />

fishing, boating and swimming. Tribes also use water resources to support and maintain<br />

traditional cultural practices and ceremonies.

Hooray! Your file is uploaded and ready to be published.

Saved successfully!

Ooh no, something went wrong!