Winston Churchill

Winston Churchill

Winston Churchill


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NO. 59 • SPRING 1988 • ISSN 0882-3715

Published quarterly by The International Churchill Society and The Rt. Hon. Sir Winston Spencer Churchill Society of B.C.


What Did Churchill Think of Australia? 7

Great Destiny, Sacred Memories

by Winston S. Churchill

What Does Australia Think of Churchill? 9

Fair Dinkum Hero or Pommie Pollie?

by George Richard \

Churchill and Menzies: Partners or Rivals? 10

A Review of "Menzies and Churchill At War"

by H. Ashley Redburn, OBE

Video: "The Last Bastion" 13

Australia, Churchill and the War

by John G. Plumpton

Churchill Collector's Handbook


Section 3 (Revised): ICS Membership 1988

AnzacPhilatley 16

Aussies, Kiwis, Newfoundlanders Remembered

by Dalton Newfield

Paintings: Banff's Bunkers 18

An Amusing Catalogue Correction

by Derek Lukin Johnston

Alistair Cooke, Gov. Sununu to Address ICS Convention ... 19

Bretton Woods, NH, August 27-28th

Churchill in Stamps, Part 16 22

Ireland, Defeat and Chartwell

Francis Neilson: The First Revisionist 24

The Case Against W.S.C. and "The Hinge of Fate"

by Stanley E. Smith

Wartime Postcards 25

by Lloyd L. Thomas


Thoughts and Adventures/3 International Datelines/4 Churchilliana/12

Inside the Journals/15 About Books/20 Churchill

Trivia/21 Action This Day/26 Letters/28 Ads/30 Q&A/30


Front cover design from the Australian flag by the editor. Back cover

reprinted from National Geographic, February 1988 page 188, by kind permission

of National Geographic, copyright 1988.


Editor. Richard M. Langworth (tel. 603-746-4433 days)

Post Office Box 385, Contoocook, New Hampshire 03229 USA

Senior Editors: John G. Plumpton (tel. 416-497-5349 eves)

130 Collingsbrook Blvd, Agincourt, Ontario, Canada M1W 1M7

H. Ashley Redburn, OBE (tel. 0705) 479575

7 Auriol Dr., Bedhampton, Hampshire PO9 3LR, England

Cuttings Editor: John Frost (tel. 01-440-3159)

8 Monks Ave, New Barnet, Herts., EN5 1D8, England


George Richard, 7 Channel Hwy, Taroona, Tasmania, Australia 7006

Stanley E. Smith, 155 Monument St., Concord, Mass. 01742 USA

Derek L. Johnston, Box 33859 Stn D, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6J 4L6

Produced by Dragonwyck Publishing Inc.


A non-profit association of scholars, historians, philatelists, collectors

and bibliophiles, the Society was founded in 1968 to promote interest in

and knowledge of the life and thought of Sir Winston Churchill, and to

preserve his memory. ICS is a certified charitable organisation under the

laws of Canada and the United States, is Affiliate #49 of the American

Philatelic Society, and is a study unit of the American Topical Association.

Finest Hour subscriptions are included in a membership fee, which

offer several levels of support in four different currencies. Membership applications

and changes of address welcomed at the business office listed on

page 3. Editorial correspondence: PO Box 385, Contoocook, NH 03229

USA. Permission to mail at non-profit rates granted by the United States

Postal Service. Produced by Dragonwyck Publishing Inc. Copyright ©

1988. All rights reserved.


Founded in 1979, the Society works to ensure that Sir Winston's ideals

and achievements are never forgotten by succeeding generations. All

members of the B.C. Branch are automatic ICS members, while ICS

membership is optional to members of the Edmonton and Calgary

Branches. Activities include banquets for outstanding people connected

with aspects of Sir Winston's career; public speaking and debating competitions

for High School students, scholarships in Honours History, and

other activities.


The Lady Soames, DBE


The Marquess of Bath

YousufKarsh, OC

Winston S. Churchill, MP

The Duke of Marlborough, DL, JP

Martin Gilbert, MA

Sir John Martin, KCMG, CB, CVO

Grace Hamblin, OBE Anthony Montague Browne, CBE, DrC

Robert Hardy, CBE

The Lady Soames, DBE

James Calhoun Humes

Hon. Caspar W. Weinberger, KBE

Mary Coyne Jackman, BA, D.Litt.S.

In Memoriam:

The Baroness Clementine Spencer-Churchill of Chartwell, 1977

Randolph S. Churchill, 1968 Harold Macmillan, Lord Stockton, 1986

The Earl Mountbatten of Burma, 1979 W. Averell Harriman, 1986

Dalton Newfield, 1982 The Lord Soames, 1987

Oscar Nemon, 1985 Sir John Colville, 1987


~ ^


= ex-officio

Australia: William R. Galvin, Peter M. Jenkins*

Canada: George E. Temple, Ronald W. Downey, Celwyn P. Ball,

Murray W. Milne, Mark R. Steven*, John G. Plumpton*

New Zealand: Barry Collins United Kingdom: Colin Spencer,

Geoffrey J. Wheeler, Richard G. G. Haslam-Hopwood*

United States: Derek Brownleader, Wm. C. Ives, Wallace H. Johnson,

George A. Lewis, Donald S. Carmichael, Sue Hefner*, David Sampson


Winston S. Churchill, MP

Wallace H. Johnson

Richard M. Langworth

The Duke of Marlborough, DL, JP

Anthony Montague Brown, CBE, DFC

Hon. Bob Packwood, USS

Wendy Russell Reves

The Lady Soames, DBE

Amb. Paul H. Robinson, Jr.

William R. Schulz



Australia: Peter M. Jenkins, (03) 700.1277

8 Regnans Av., Endeavour Hills, Vic. 3802

Canada: Celwyn P. Ball, (506) 386-8722

1079 Coverdale Rd RR2, Moncton, NB E1C 8J6

New Zealand: R. Barry Collins

3/1445 Great North Rd., Waterview, Auckland 7

United Kingdom: Geoffrey J. Wheeler, (07356) 3485

88A Franklin Av, Tadley, Hants RG26 6EU

United States; Derek Brownleader, (504) 292-3313

1847 Stonewood Dr., Baton Rouge, La. 70816

Chairman of the Board: Wallace H. Johnson

1650 Farnam St., Omaha, Neb. 68102 USA

Telephone (402) 346-6000

Vice Chairman: Geoffrey J. Wheeler

88A Franklin Av, Tadley, Hants RG26 6EU

Vice Chairman /Canadian Afrs: George Temple

20 Burbank Dr, Willowdale, Ont. M2K 1M8

Executive Director: Richard M. Langworth

Putney House, Hopkinton, N.H. 03229 USA

Telephone (603) 746-4433


Mark R. Steven, President

1900-1055 W. Georgia Street

Vancouver, BC, Canada V6E 4J2


Canada/New Brunswick: Celwyn P. Ball

1079 Coverdale Rd., RR2, Moncton NB E1C 8J6

UK/London; Richard Haslam-Hopwood

Flat 1, 20 Pembridge Cres. London Wll 3DS

Telephone (01) 229-4918

Canada/Other Club of Toronto:

Murray Milne

30 Dunvegan Dr, Richmond Hill, ON L4C 6K1

USA/Chicago: Amb. Paul H. Robinson Jr.

135 S. LaSalle St, Chicago, IL 60603

William C. Ives

8300 Sears Tower, Chicago, IL 60606

USA/Connecticut: Harvey William Greisman

93 Richard PI, Fairfield, CT 06430

USA/Nashville: Richard H. Knight, Jr.

H.C.A., 1 Park Plaza, Nashville, TN 37203

USA/New England: Jon Richardson

47 Old Farm Road, Bedford, NH 03102

USA/Northern Ohio: William Truax

25 Easton La, Chagrin Falls, OH 44022

USA/North Texas: David A. Sampson

5603 Honey Locust Tr, Arlington, TX 76017

USA/San Francisco: Edwin Donaldson-Clarke

PO Box 639, Menlo Park, CA 94026


Commemorative Covers: David Marcus

221 Pewter La, Silver Spring, MD 20904

General Treasurer: George A. Lewis

268 Canterbury Rd, Westfield, NJ 07790 USA

ICS Stores: Sue Ellen Truax

25 Easton La, Chagrin Falls, OH 44022


FIFTEEN issues ago we produced a "Canada Number," and we are

pleased now to salute our Australian members in their Bicentennial

Year with an Aussie counterpart. (NZ, UK and USA are not forgotten,

but still to come.) Like FH 44, this special issue is built around

Churchill's relations with and remarks about one of the great

branches of the English-Speaking community. We trust you will find

the result to be a "fair dinkum" edition of Finest Hour.

For quite some time we have had Ashley Redburn's compelling

review of Churchill and Menzies At War, but we have been saving it for

this issue for obvious reasons. We don't believe that Sir Robert

Menzies would be entirely pleased with this book's rendering of his

wartime role, especially from an Australian

Usher — but we shall leave

our readers. We have

ton Newfield's excelview"

of the Anzacs

published in Finest

well worth recordately

too, John

tracts, "From the

Han material; John also revideo

on the subject of

Sir Winston's opinions

his writings and speeches.

author and pubthat

decision to

had the late Dallent

"philatelic resince

it was first

Hour 21/22; it is

ing here. Appropri-

Plumpton's column of ex-

Journals," covers Austraviews

a new Australian

WSC. We have culled

about Australia out of

while from Tasmania,

contributing editor George Richard offers us some Australian opinions

about the Great Man.

Churchill's warm regard for Australia took two forms: the bravery

and sacrifice of Australians in the two great wars, and the unlimited

potential of the island continent. He would certainly remind us of

both today. In the Eighties, the world is perhaps more aware then ever

of Aussie accomplishment — be it the winning (temporarily!) of the

America's Cup, the powerful impact of the Australian film industry,

or the worldwide journalistic enterprise of Rupert Murdock. A

dynamic and optimistic society has sprung up down under. Its advances,

even since his death, would undoubtedly impress him. Among

the great English-speaking democracies, Australia is one of the most

diverse — only half her present population is of British stock — and

yet she possesses a sense of community and purpose that is the envy of

many. Problems? Of course there have been problems, as there are for

us all. But Australia demonstrates profoundly that her common shareholding

in the English language, law and literature is a matchless advantage

in difficult and baffling times.

Churchill would also remind us of the role played by Australia in

the two great cataclysms of this century, and impress upon us her

strategic importance, particularly now, among the prosperous nations

of the Pacific rim. How he might phrase it we are not sure, but

probably it would go something like this: should her kith and kin

ever stand in need, they may count, as twice before in his lifetime,

on that great and beneficent nation under the Southern Cross.



Issue 58, page 9, first footnote:

GCMG means Grand Cross of the

Order St. Michael (not "St. Mary")

and St. George; our apologies. See also

Lady Soames' letter, page 29.



the ubiquitous "Victory Bells" has

turned up down under, where a

member writes to ask about its


Churchills at Blenheim: Karin Churchill, Mrs.

Winston G. Churchill, Cdr. Winston G. Churchill

(US Coast Guard London office) & Peter Churchill,

1CS Blenheim meeting, Sept. '87. BILL BEATTY



LONDON, OCT. 14 - Actor Simon Ward,

45, emerged from hospital after a

delicate head operation to remove a

blood clot from his brain, following a

mysterious injury October 3rd while

returning to his home in Hampstead.

Ward, who shot to fame with the title

role in "Young Winston" 15 years ago,

had been appearing in the play "Portraits"

at the Savoy Theatre — where

he promptly returned for the last three

performances. Ward's memory of what

happened is completely blank, but he

appears to have been injured by an


Two points of special interest to us:

every news item on the incident led by

identifying Ward as "the former Young

Winston" — proof positive that playing

Churchill guarantees permanent fame.

Secondly, the 15-year-older Mr. Ward

retains an uncanny resemblance to

WSC. At 45 he now looks like Churchill

during the Great War. A photo of

Ward in hospital, where his hair was

partly shaved for the operation, could

be the First Lord of the Admiralty of

1914 brought back to life.

All of which renews our hope that

some enterprising producer will

dramatize the memorable Churchill of

World War I on film or television —

starring Mr. Ward, of course.

significance. Designed by Conrad A.

Parlanti, who also did the large bronze

eagle crowning the Royal Air Force

Memorial on the Victoria Embankment

in London, the bell portrays relief

busts of Churchill, Roosevelt and

Stalin, with a "V" cast into the handle.

Perhaps most interesting, the first bells

were cast from metal recovered from

Luftwaffe aircraft shot down over Britain.

More recently, Victory Bells in finer

metal have been produced to aid the

RAF Benevolent Fund, at whose early

dinners as much as £1200 was paid for

them in auctions. Bells may still be

available. Write the Secretary, RAF

Benevolent Fund, 67 Portland Place,

London WIN 4AR, a registered British



LONDON, SEPTEMBER - Caroline Kennedy,

daughter of the late President,

has co-authored "An Affair of State"

(Cape, £12.95), about the 1963 Profumo

scandal which almost brought

down the Macmillan Government. As

reported in FH 55, Profumo was "seeing"

a society call-girl, Christine Keeler,

who was also "seeing" the Soviet naval

attache. (Contrary to our article, Macmillan

did not resign over this, but quit

later because of ill health.)

What all this has to do with Churchill

is precisely nothing, except that

Kennedy et al allege that the highsociety

osteopath and bon vivant

Stephen Ward — who also "saw" Miss

Keeler, introduced her to Profumo and

committed suicide later, when (per

Kennedy) the Government "went

after" Ward as a scapegoat — was

Churchill's osteopath. Some desultory

doctor-patient conversation has come

out of this, all rather droll — and

typically Churchillian.

When Ward was first called to treat

Sir Winston, Lady C warned him not

to be bullied. He found WSC in bed,

smoking a huge cigar. Churchill's first

remark: "I suppose you'll tell me to give

up these." (Ward didn't.)

Trying to make small talk, Ward said

he had treated Gandhi. "Ah," said

Churchill, "and did you twist his neck

too?" Ward said he had. "Evidently a

case of too little too late," WSC replied.

Then he asked Ward, "When you twist

my head like that, what would you do

if it came off in your hands?" Ready for

him, Ward said, "I'd go and practise in

Moscow — after such a thing, I'd be

very welcome!" "Don't be too sure,"

said Sir Winston, "Mr. Stalin was quite

a friend of mine."

Ward said his 12 Churchill treatments

were "a battle of wills." As with

Moran, WSC wanted to know what

was being done and why, in Lindemanese,

layman's language. But Lady

C's advice stood Ward in good stead

and they got on well. WSC even tried

to get Ward, an excellent portrait

sketch artist, to take up oil painting. "It

lasts forever," Sir Winston said.

Evidently Ward's neck-twisting didn't.



NEW YORK, DEC. 18TH - With "Winnie"

opening to packed houses in Manchester

and London, Hugh Whitemore's

"Breaking the Code" is a dim

reflection on Broadway, starring British

actor Derek Jacobi ("I Claudius") as

Alan Turing, the mathematical genius

who did the job at Bletchley. Turing, a

discreet but unapologetic homosexual,

had been honored by the King and proclaimed

a hero by Sir Winston Churchill

— but after being convicted of

what the British penal code then called

"gross indecency," and given probation

provided he take estrogen injections to

"alter his nature," he took his own life.

As you might gather from all this,

and from what we've been able to glean

from the reviews, this play is more

about the tribulations of '50s gays than

it is about WW2 and the unsung heroes

at Bletchley. Go to London and take in



... we wish people would stop using it.

None of his friends called him that, and

though it was a popular honorific

among the men on the street, we suspect

he secretly abhored it. On the

other hand, friend and foe alike called

him "Winston." ICS caught a packet

from THE NEW REPUBLIC for "overfamiliarity"

in the use of that name (see

last issue). What was good enough for

friends, enemies and the press is good

enough for us.

elected to Parliament in 1946 and remained

a member of the N.Z. House

of Representatives until his retirement

in 1975. From 1960 onward, Sir John

served in the highest positions of state,

as deputy prime minister, attorney

general, leader of the opposition and,

in 1972, as prime minister. He was

made a Privy Councillor in 1966, a

Companion of Honour in 1973, and

Knight Grand Cross of the Order of

the British Empire in 1974.

Sir John is one of the gentlemen of

New Zealand politics, always maintaining

the highest political standards, the

soul of fairness and courtesy, well liked

on both sides of the aisle. I will always

remember his comment in Parliament,

or just outside it, when the news of his

knighthood came through: "I am very

glad my wife is now officially a 'Lady.'

She always was, as far as I am concerned."



LONDON, SEPT. 15TH - As Queen Victoria

used to lean on the old Duke of Wellington,

the present Queen relied a lot

on WSC. There was, for example, the

time an American admiral nicked a

gold teaspoon at Buckingham Palace.

He was seen, but no-one wanted to

tackle the VIP. According to a new

book, WSC decided on direct action.

Tucking a similar gold spoon into his

top pocket so that it showed, Sir

Winston sauntered up to the thief.

"We've been spotted," he whispered.

"We'll have to put them back."


25th Anniversary of Sir

Winston's Hon. US Citizenship

Our 30th commemorative cover was

postmarked in Washington on 9 April

and sent to members on the automatic

covers list. If you wish to be placed on

our list for future covers, send me your

name and address. There is no charge

to ICS members.

Recipients will notice a double

postmark, which occurred when the

Washington philatelic counter

mistakenly routed our specially cancelled

covers through the regular mail.

If you wish your cover replaced by an

unaddressed copy with a single postmark,

send it to me together with one

dollar (Can/Aus/USA) or 50p in

British stamps. This offer is strictly

limited because only 50 unaddressed

covers remain — the smallest quantity

of a properly cancelled ICS cover in

many years.

Kay Murphy Halle, the prime mover

in Churchill's honorary citizenship,

graciously signed 25 (single-cancel)

covers for the Society. These are

available in exchange for a minimum

donation of $5 (Aus/Can/USA) or

£ 2 Vi (UK), one per member please.

All cover orders, exchanges and correspondence

should be sent to me at

221 Pewter Lane, Silver Spring MD

20904 USA. — Dave Marcus





is honoured to count former New

Zealand Prime Minister Sir John Marshall

among its members. Following his

graduation with a Master of Laws in

1935, Sir John became a barrister.

When the war broke out he enlisted as

a private, gained a commission and

rose to the rank of major, serving in the

Solomon Islands and in Italy. He was



LONDON, JAN. IOTH - Last year a sheet of

paper culled from a typist's wastebasket

(Churchill dictation describing his

family's eye-witness view of the flying

bomb that demolished Wellington Barracks

in 1944) sold at Sotheby's for

more than £1000. We can see some

point in collecting autograph letters. A

continued overleaf

Kay Murphy Halle


sheet of typescript with a few red squiggles

on it baffles us — as, we think, it

would WSC.

The latest objet d 'art in these rarified

climes is a Royal Doulton limited edition

Churchill toby mug — a fair

likeness, admittedly, so rare that even

R.D. do not have a copy, said to be going

for about £7,500.


DALLAS, 1986 - Better late than never, we

publish a Churchillism quoted two

years ago by the Prince of Wales, at the

Churchill Prize dinner for Ross Perot.

This originated with HRH's uncle, the

late Earl Mountbatten, former Patron

of the Churchill Society.

Inspecting a Home Guard unit,

Churchill asked a relatively youthful

member if he would rather be in the

thick of the action instead of stuck at

home. "No sir," replied the man, "I like

being at home and I love my wife." The

PM snapped back, "I like cigars, but I

do take them out of my mouth from

time to time."


LONDON, FEB. 26 - ICS Honorary

Member, former US Secretary of

Defense Caspar Weinberger, received

an honorary knighthood from the

Queen — Knight Grand Cross of the

Order of the British Empire — in

recognition of his outstanding support

of Great Britain in the 1982 Falklands

battle. It is one of only threescore

knighthoods bestowed over the years

on American citizens. Asked by the (asusual-well

briefed) press if he was now

to be called "Sir Cap," the Secretary

responded, "Good Lord no," explaining

that the "Sir" is not part of the

honor when given to foreigners (and

that the US Constitution "has some

strong things to say" about titles).

Our hon. member therefore adds

KBE to his name. No one is more deserving,

and the Society adds its heartfelt

congratulations to the many

Mr. Weinberger has already received.



"We remember Sir Winston Churchill

with gratitude, admiration and affection

... for his writings, which have

taken their place among the great

works of our language, and which will

be read so long as history is read; for his

command of the spoken word; for his

hatred of hypocrisy and humbug; for

his direction of the war and his implacable

will to overcome all difficulties

and dangers; for his inspiration and

leadership; for being the right man in

the right place at the right time."

ABOVE: THe Churchill Society's traditional Bladon wreathlaying. L-to-R: The Hon. Nicholas

Soames, MP; Richard Haslam-Hopwood; John Smith; Geoffrey J. Wheeler; Peter Mclver;

His Grace the Duke of Marlborough; Keith Hatch; Christine Wheeler, Lady Onslow,

Mrs. Lainchbury, Lord Charles Sf>encer-Churchill; M.J. Lainchbury.

Jane and Caspar Weinberger




House Joint Resolution 526 (right),

introduced by Rep. Judd Gregg (R-NH),

designates 27 November to 3 December

as "National Sir Winston Churchill

Recognition Week" — a bill Mr. Gregg

has kindly sponsored on our behalf.

Senator Bob Packwood (R-Ore.) has

also promised to introduce a Senate


The Congress traditionally acts on

such bills only if sufficient grassroots

support is demonstrated. That can only

come from you: please write your congressman

today (address: House of

Representatives, Washington DC

20515), urging him or her to support

HJ526, using all the arguments at your

command. (See "We Remember,"


Our next issue will provide sample

letters and more information on the

Senate bill — but please don't wait:

This needs your help to succeed.

Dill CONllllHRN

an Sum.iin

II. J. RES. 526


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grimliug |>[ Im -nry nliznisliin In Kir Wiiislnn ('Inn. lull I.)

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lint iiiinlrrn wurlil: Ni.lv, lliiTclurr, Ixt it


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7 Krrvo Riit-li wi-rk willi nlil'ni|irinli! cnn'innniitB nml ni-livilirfi.


What Did Churchill Think

of Australia?

Great Destiny, Sacred Memories

ENGLISH convicts had long been transported to

America, but since the War of Independence the

Government had nowhere to send them . . . Why not send

them to the new continent? The younger Pitt's administration

shrank from colonial ventures after the disasters in

North America, but delay was deemed impossible, and in

January 1788 717 convicts were anchored in Botany Bay.

The full migratory wave of free settlers did not reach

Australia till the 1820s. Even the future Commonwealth's

name was not yet determined. "New Holland" and other

titles were bestowed upon it. Attracted by the discovery of

rich pasture in the hinterland of New South Wales, Englishspeaking

emigrants began to trickle into the empty subcontinent

and rapidly transformed the character and life of

the early communities. The population changed from about

15,000 convicts and 21,000 free settlers in 1828 to 27,000

convicts and over 100,000 free settlers in 1841.

The increase of population, trade and revenue made it imperative

to reform the makeshift constitutions of 1850. Between

1855 and 1859 two-chamber Parliaments, elected by

popular vote and with Ministers responsible to the Lower

House, were introduced in all the antipodean states except

Western Australia, where self-government came later.

Great changes were still to unroll, and Australia as we

now know it was born in 1901 by the association of the colonies

in a Commonwealth, with a new capital at Canberra.

Federation came late and slowly to the southern continent,

for the lively, various, widely separated settlements cherished

their own self-rule. No threat or pressure had yet arisen

from Asia to the north which would generate an overriding

sense of unity. This was to come. Even today most of the

Australian population dwells in settlements founded in the

19th century. The heart of the country, over a million

square miles in extent, has attracted delvers after metals and

ranchers of cattle, but it remains largely uninhabited. The

silence of the bush and the loneliness of the desert are only

disturbed by the passing of some transcontinental express,

the whirr of a boomerang, or the drone of a pilotless missile.


& & &

We regard the effort which the Australian Commonwealth

is making as heroic, and we will leave nothing

undone to make it a complete success.


& & &

The [Gallipoli] armies are like men fighting on a high and


narrow scaffold above the surface of the earth. To step back

means not merely defeat, but destruction. That is why I

have always, in speaking of this, dwelt upon the immense

importance of every yard of ground, or every furlong that is

gained by the heroic courage of our soliders and of our

superb Australian fellow citizens. (Cheers.)


While we sit here the fighting line of the British Army,

with the Australian and Canadian Armies included in it, is

holding nearly 40 of the finest divisions of the German Army

on its front, and every moment a stream of killed and

wounded is passing from the fighting line to the rear. The

Australians are in contact with the enemy. What we have

above all things is the feeling that behind the fighting line

there is a resolute, intense, sagacious, driving power, which

by every means, social, political, military, naval, will be carrying

our cause forward to victory. (Cheers.) It is because we

have seen in the guest of this evening [Australian Prime

Minister W.M. Hughes] a man who has a seeing eye, a

dauntless heart, and a daring hand.


Mr. McPherson is the Chancellor of the Exchequer of

Victoria, Australia, and is much more fortunate than a succession

of British Chancellors of the Exchequer: he has not

had to impose any additional taxation!


The great naval fortress at Singapore is rapidly nearing

completion. We have no wish to menace any country in the

world. Singapore is as far from Japan as Southampton from

New York, but Singapore's base is a stepping-stone that

Great Britain can use in any great crisis to go to the aid of

Australia and New Zealand. And she will go to their aid so

long as breath is in her body.

Prime Minister Lyons was called to the summit of

Australian affairs at the worst possible moment. People here

underrated the rigour of the depression upon Australia, but

Mr. Lyons for six years has presided over the destinies of a

vast continent. After difficult and intricate political operations,

he has secured a steady Government and has

transformed Australia into a state of dignity and security.



Australia's 26 January se-tenant strip designed

by Sue Passmore of Australia Post

marks arrival of the First Fleet in Botany

Bay. BELOW LEFT: Britain's version of the

21 June Australia-UK joint issue, designed

by Garry Emery and portraying early

settler, Parliament buildings, cricketer W.G.

Grace, Shakespeare/John Lennon/Sydney

opera house/harbour bridge, BELOW: The

26 January Australia/USA joint issue, the

whimsical dancing koala and eagle designed

by Keryn Christos of Australia Post.

Austiahan Bicentenary 1788-1988

Joint issue with the USA




Churchill on Australia

Australian troops are bearing with great distinction much

of the brunt of the fighting in the Middle East, and it must

be very painful to Australians to be told that we are only

making a three-quarter effort here at home to put proper

weapons in their hands.



What Does Australia Think

of Churchill?

Fair Dinkum Hero Or Pommie Pollie?


PERHAPS the best way to start this article is to translate

the title. "Fair dinkum" is a popular expression around


reliable." A "Pommie" is anyone from England (the origin

of the word is uncertain, but one theory is that it goes back

to the days of "Transportation," when the prisoners being

sent to Australian penal colonies were referred to as

"Prisoners of Old Mother England"). "Pollies" are simply


To ascertain how Churchill is viewed by Australians today

is not all that easy, principally because it is not easy to

find many people with more than an extremely sketchy idea

of Sir Winston's life and works. Afficionados excepted,

those with some familiarity with Churchill fall into two

categories: those old enough to have memories of the Second

World War (or earlier); and those of the younger

brigade whose studies have included history, or at least 20th

century history.

Australian-born Sydney Low's New Statesman cartoon of

1 May 1926 captures a WSC.not often portrayed in Low's leftwing

parodies. (Republished in Low's Lions and Lambs, 1928).

Among the former, some will refer critically to his Dardanelles

involvement. But if asked the reason for their attitude,

they will be hard put to rationalize their feelings. In

most cases it could almost be classified as unquestioning acceptance

of handed-down prejudice, Churchill being easy to

slot into the necessary role of scapegoat.

Rightly or wrongly — and of course I believe wrongly —

there exists in Australia a belief that the terrible slaughter of

the Anzacs could have been reduced or avoided had Churchill

not been directly involved. Such believers, if questioned

as to their opinion of WSC as prime minister in the Second

World War, are likely to praise his oratory but allege

that his treatment of Anzac troops in North Africa left

something to be desired.

In this instance also, the scapegoat brigade would appear

to have something to answer for. Yet to many Australians —

particularly those who spent the war years at home — it was

the United States rather than Britain that saved them from

Japanese invasion. And indeed that is largely the case. At

the risk of oversimplification, we could say that to many

Australians there were two wars: Britain against Germany

and the United States against Japan. Because of that view, a

much greater interest in and knowledge of U.S. than British

politicians was evinced by many here.

The youth of Australia, especially if they have attended

University, generally adopt a more objective view of the two

World Wars than their more senior countrymen. Having

had access to more recent books and essays than most, they

are less censorious of the Dardanelles and North Africa.

Yet, I fear, they are also less laudatory of Churchill's wartime

speech-making, considering it more or less rhetoric, its

full effect on listeners not being appreciated. Perhaps that is

inevitable, since the full impact could only be appreciated at

the time. As with the older group, the feeling too is that the

U.S.A. and Roosevelt were more significant to Australia

than Great Britain and Churchill.

To the Australian, then, was Churchfll a fair dinkum

hero or indeed simply another Pommie pollie?

The majority of Australians would, alas, answer, "don't

know"! The thinking minority (again excluding "buffs")

would, I feel, come down in favour of the fair dinkum hero,

a bloke who did a grand job — for the Pommies.

The dinky di (native born) Australian is by nature broadminded

and tolerant. To him or her, I believe Churchill is

thought of as an historical figure, one who never visited Australia

but who nevertheless made a very considerable contribution

to the folklore of the nation. He is admired as one

who "gave it a go," something guaranteed to generate

warmth among locals. There is still lingering suspicion that

WSC may not always have done the right thing by Australia

(q.v. David Day's Menzies and Churchill at War, reviewed

herein). But in general Sir Winston is certainly not looked

upon as just another Pommie pollie. Which, considering the

Aussie opinion of homo politicus, is altogether just as well. •



" most recently illustrated by David Irving's muck-raker

Churchill's War (FH #57, page 5), the subject of

Winston Churchill is of unending fascination to those with

a stomach for hypocrisy and an ignorance of the politician

— Adam Smith's "insidious or crafty animal whose counsels

are directed by the momentary fluctuation of affairs." For

those beset with such prejudices, the Churchill Saga is one

of Devious Devils, Diaries and Daggers. With the greatest

respect to our colleagues down under, and in somewhat apposite

mood for this Australian Number, we must observe

that a lot of this sort of material has lately emanated from

Australia. Irving's book is the latest such. David Day's

272-page Menzies and Churchill At War is the previous example.

Still, Australians may take heart. As Sir Winston is

alleged to have told Ribbentrop, when the German Ambassador

reminded him that this time Germany had Italy

on her side — perhaps it's just your turn.

As I read Menzies and Churchill at War, I mused that some

day Shakespeare's mantle may drape an English dramatist

who will write Winston Churchill after the fashion of Julius

Caesar. As in the latter, Act II Scene III will open: "Enter

Brendan Bracken, reading a paper: Churchill, beware of

Menzies; take heed of Cecil King; come not near Beaverbrook;

trust not 'Chips' Channon; mark well Cadogan;

Lloyd George loves thee not; thou hast wronged Hankey;

thy spirit hath offended Cripps; thy long tenure puts Eden

out of joint; yon Attlee has a lean and hungry look. There is

but one mind in all these men, and it is bent against thee. If

thou be'st not immortal, look about you: security gives way

to conspiracy."

It is an intriguing story Mr. Day puts before us, but I am

not sure if he expects us to believe it, or that he has overmuch

credence in it himself. It is in essence that Robert

Menzies, Prime Minister of Australia, was fearful that Churchill

was prepared to sacrifice the British Empire, in which

Menzies believed passionately (but which to him meant the

white self-governing Dominions), to secure American help

— to sell out the Empire to America.

*Menzies and Churchill At War, by David Day, Angus & Robertson,

Publishers, N.S.W., Australia and London, 5Vi x 8 3 /4, 272

pages, illustrated, list price $20. Available to 1CS members postpaid

for $17, C/A$23 or £10 from Churchillbooks, Burrage Road, Contoocook,

New Hampshire 03229 USA.

Churchill and Menzies:

Partners or Rivals?

'Churchill, beware of Menzies; take heed of Cecil King;

come not near Beaverbrook; trust not Chips Channon;

mark well Cadogan; Lloyd George loves thee not;

yon Attlee has a lean and hungry look ..."



Second, Churchill's strategy in support of total victory

was wrong. Instead, Menzies believed it would be necessary

to negotiate peace with Germany, and this could best be

done through the replacement of Churchill as Prime

Minister by ... Menzies himself!

When Russia and Japan entered the war, appeasement

became impossible, but the prospect of replacing Churchill

did not recede. How could a man of Menzies' intelligence

believe one could do a deal with Hitler which would endure

— after the experience of Czechoslovakia, Austria, Poland,

Holland and Belgium? Or that the British people likewise

would now sup with the Nazi Devil? That they would

discard Churchill the indomitable, the inspirer, for an Antipodean

politician who did not command united support

even in his own country?

Of course the handsome, commanding figure of Menzies

was cheered and welcomed in Britain. So were Smuts, the

ex-enemy, and Wendell Willkie, the unknown Yank.

Naturally Mr. Day is writing about a Dominion politician in

the early, uncertain stages of a career which showed promise,

but was as yet immature. The naivete and vacillation

of Menzies show through these pages; our author is not talking

of the international statesman of prestige and authority

which Menzies eventually — and deservedly — became.

"What irresponsible rubbish these Antipodeans talk," confided

Cadogan to his Diary, after a meeting between "Rab"

Butler, Menzies, Shedden and Bruce to discuss the Far East.

Mr. Day writes at times as if his revelations of anti-

Churchill moves are novel. They are not: for many years

diaries, papers, histories and memoirs have revealed dissentient

voices throughout the war, and dark discussions —

one cannot call them plots — took place in clubs, in Commons,

and wherever two or three were gathered together to

fight the war with talk.

What is new is the name of Menzies as a serious contender

for the post of Premier. The book names names — the

regicides, the king-makers, the princes-in-waiting, the

talkers and gossips, the malcontents. What in the end does

this furor amount to? Which mouse had the courage to bell

the cat? Who had the ability to take Churchill's place as an

equal, let alone a superior? Who was capable of waging war

outrance, as Churchill was doing, with the simplicity of

Clemenceau's "Je fais la guerre"?

"1 CT1T^T^TI7

Menzies and Churchill. . .

I do not find Mr. Day's reasons for Churchill and Menzies

"concealing their conflict" very convincing, nor do I share

his view that the threat of Menzies to seize the Premiership

was a very serious one, and I cannot believe Churchill

regarded it as such. Mr. Day gives no weight to the constitutional

issues involved, to the attitudes of both the Conservative

and Labour Parties, nor to the reactions of people like

Eden and other legitimate contenders for the succession. He

has made much of the PreSs and of the observations of

politicians. But why is it that, apart from the alleged silence

of the two principals, one finds no hint of this matter in the

writings or diaries of Eden, Macmillan, Nicolson, Cadogan,

Hankey, Beaverbrook, and James Stuart (Conservative

chief whip from January 1940 through the Coalition government)

— or in Martin Gilbert's official biography of Churchill?

No doubt writers like Mr. Day, and Mr. Irving, would

answer this by claiming a "conspiracy of silence."

I am not certain that the portrait of Menzies and the account

of his aspirations would have the approbation and

approval of Menzies, were he alive today. It is significant

that Menzies' Afternoon Light, published after Churchill's

death, deals specifically with the events of 1939-41 yet makes

no mention of this bid to oust Churchill. Nor is there

reference to an inadequate P.M. in the long and moving

tribute to Churchill in that book.

It cannot all be because "old men forget" discreetly.

Menzies was always too candid and outspoken for concealment

of such an important matter. It would be monstrous

to suggest that Menzies would be so devious and


Some years ago, while in the Scottish Highlands, I sought

in a craft shop a wooden mould for decorating pats of

butter, and requested one with a rose motif. Fiercely the

bearded owner demanded, "Whit fer ye want a rose? Whit's

wrang wi' a thustlel" If this book is to be believed, Robert

Menzies sought vainly the thorny rose of the British

Premiership in World War II. George VI never summoned

him to the Palace to commission him to head the Government,

but Elizabeth II did make him a Knight of the Thistle.

The rose was illusory; the thistle at least was real. One goes

to Downing Street, not Fleet Street, for Prime Ministers. D

"A great voice rolling around the world; a great spirit informing

the voice; a great courage warming the listeners' ears and

causing their hearts to throb; a wonderful feeling that we were all

at the gates of destiny. For my generation, these need no

memorial. But for my grandchildren, they need to be recorded.

For if, as 1 hope and believe, they live and work in a free country,

they will owe their freedom and their enjoyable industry to one

man above all; the great man who expressed the genius of his

mind and the indomitable courage of his heart through the power

of speech unrivalled for a hundred years. Let the clever critics

come on; let them explain Winston's 'errors' and, by implication,

show how much wiser the;y would have been."



Lapel Badges


I am not entirely satisfied with the

photography here, but there were problems

in doing it at all, and I hope that these interesting

items will reproduce reasonably

well. All six badges have fasteners for use on

lapels. The Chartwell badge is still available.

"SEND FOR CHURCHILL" was made for the 1951

General Election. The round badge at right

shows army and navy -flags and the RAF

roundel; this and the centre example with

WSC in the "V" were wartime productions.

The locomotive on left shows the "Winston

Churchill" steamer in Southern Railway

colour and number prior to the change to

British Railway, whilst the righthand is of

the Romney, Hythe and Dymchurch

Railway. (We welcome more photos of such

artifacts. — Ed.)


Video: "The Last Bastion"

Australia, Churchill and the War



Australia Production, 160 MINUTES



For those who like their history with

a little more drama than the usual

histories and biographies, there is a

wealth of video available to enjoy in

their own homes. One of the better

productions is The Last Bastion, a

rather long but thoroughly engrossing

account of Australia and her wars.

Note the use of the plural because

this is really the account of several major

battles that took place from 1939

to 1945: the Allies vs. the Axis;

Australia vs. Britain; Menzies vs. Churchill;

Menzies vs. Curtin; Curtin vs.

Churchill; Australia vs. America; and

MacArthur vs. Blarney.

The story opens with an effective juxtaposition

of dramatic episodes with

real war footage. Prime Minister Robert

Menzies announces that because Britain

is at war, so is Australia. The

domestic split is early apparent when

Labour members argue that Australian

troops should not be sent to Europe.

The Government replies that no

guarantee can be given concerning the

destination of the troops and that

Japan's intentions are critical.

Australia, of course, wanted Britain's

guarantee that Singapore would be

defended because it saw that base as

crucial to its own security. The lack of

British concern in these early months is

illustrated in Anthony Eden's remark

about the Japanese: "They can't even

make a watch that works." Later, the

Australians were to be assured by the

British that the Japanese warplanes

were "technically inferior."

Others in Australia advised that one

Japanese aircraft carrier and one army

division could take Australia in three

days. This threat was strong pressure to

keep the troops at home despite Britain's

plight. But Prime Minister Robert

Menzies believed that "if Britain falls,

the Empire falls," and he wanted an

Imperial War Council to include all

Dominion Prime Ministers. Their

place, he said, was in London, and he

set out to ensure that his views prevailed

on the Churchill Government.

On the way he visited Australian

troops in the Middle East and was informed

that they were treated like reinforcements

for the British army.

Copyright by C.S.HAMMOND &CO..N.Y

100° A B 120° C D 140° Itongtud. F


No Imperial War Cabinet was

formed, but Menzies did sit on the

British War Cabinet for a short time in

1941. Although there is no evidence

here of the fight for power portrayed by

David Day in Menses and Churchill At

War, the relations between the two

leaders were stormy to say the least.


When Menzies accused the British

Prime Minister of leading Australian

troops into impossible situations

without sufficient support, Churchill

asked: "What would you have me do —

surrender?" "No," stormed Menzies.

"Just listen to voices other than your

own." But in The Grand Alliance, Churchill

claimed that Menzies' visit had

been most valuable. "He had sat

through two critical months with the

War Cabinet, and had shared many of

our most difficult decisions. He had not

been satisfied either with the organisation

of the cabinet or with my exercise

of such wide powers in the conduct of

the war. . . . Although my disagreements

with him were serious, our

relations had been most friendly."

Menzies was also having problems at

home "with a Brutus or two." He

returned to ask the Labour leader, John

Curtin, to join him in a National

Government. When his own party

withdrew its support, on the grounds

that he had been absent for so long and

had sold out to Churchill, he resigned

and Curtin became Prime Minister until

his own death just before the peace.

Churchill was able to commisserate

with Menzies because of the similarities

in the political fates. After Menzies'

resignation Churchill wrote him that "I

went through a similar experience

when I was removed from the Admiralty

at a moment when I could have

given the Anzacs a fair chance of victory

at the Dardanelles."

The battles between Curtin and

Churchill were primarily strategic

although an amusing incident showed

other differences. When Churchill

asked for background material on Curtin

he was told that he had been jailed

for opposing conscription in World

War I, had an alcohol problem and was

of Irish background. Churchill replied:

"If that wasn't enough, he's a socialist!"

Later in The Hinge of Fate, Churchill

makes the following comments about

his relationship with Curtin: "Our

discussions about the relief of the

Australian troops in Tobruk had not

been agreeable. Later in the war, in

easier times, when he came to England

and we all got to know him well, there

was general respect and liking for this

eminent and striking Australian personality,

and I personally formed with

him a friendship which, alas, was cut

short by his untimely death."

In his worst moments, Churchill was

quite caustic about the Australians. He

blamed them for the failure to sweep

the Dardanelles at Gallipoli and commented

that "you can't breed a decent

race from convicts and Irishmen." One

would hope the producers of this film

were exercising considerable artistic

license in these scenes.

To Curtin and his supporters, Churchill's

Government treated the Australians

as merely appendages. ("As far as

Churchill is concerned the Empire ends

at India but if he betrays Australia,

history will indict him.") They were

constantly told that if Singapore were

to fall, the British would abandon the

Mediterranean and come to their aid.

Menzies seemed to accept this promise

more than any others. Most of the

Labour members and a good share of

Menzies' colleagues took it for the

empty promise it was. Given the

strategic importance that the British attached

to the Mediterranean, there was

little likelihood that it would ever happen.

In any event, Australia did not

have the resources to hold out until the

British assistance arrived. Besides,

Churchill reassured everyone that

"Singapore cannot possibly fall."

But it did, and the British were

unable to do anything about it. Britain

no longer ruled the Pacific waves if it

also wanted to keep a fleet on the

Atlantic and Indian Oceans and the

Mediterranean Sea. So the Australians

publicly turned to America for support.

Menzies thought that this was going at

their heritage with an axe. Churchill

said they could go to hell. Roosevelt

was just as angry. He thought that a

public speech by Curtin to the effect

that Australia's destiny was in the

hands of America smacked of panic

and disloyalty.

Needless to say, the Australians were

very distressed by the American policy

to put Europe first. But their view of

things changed somewhat when the

American General Douglas Mac-

Arthur was put in command of

Southwest Asia and sent to Australia.

The brawl between Curtin and Churchill

was over. There would be no

brawl between Curtin and MacArthur.

Although MacArthur was every bit as

determined and obstinate as Churchill,

he was on the scene and able to convince

Curtin that this absolute control

was necessary to fight the war with


The last part of the film dramatizes

the efforts of MacArthur to rally his

forces in the defence of Australia and

the preparation for a return to the

Phillippines. The main rivalry here was

between MacArthur and General

Blarney, the Australian Army Commander.

MacArthur informed his own

officers that he had not brought them

from Corregidor "to take orders from a

bunch of colonial hicks." Curtin took

MacArthur's side to the extent that all

communication between Australian

political and military officials had to go

through the American commander.

Blarney's retort was that Curtin had

just silenced his last Australian voice.

The Australian military saw themselves

in a "back-seat" at best in their relationship

with the Americans.

The view we get of Winston Churchill

in this film is one of a leader

desperately trying to establish priorities

and marshall all the resources of the

Empire in support of those priorities.

Hitler was the enemy and nothing must

interfere with the plans for his defeat.

Not all allies within Britain, the Empire

or the United States agreed with him,

but he believed it his duty to prevail.

Because he was at the centre of power,

he was also the focal point for everyone

who wanted to influence policy. But as

he told the Australian envoy in one

scene: "You can't kick me around. I'm

not kickable."

Churchill also had trouble, notwithstanding

his patronizing views of

the Empire, understanding Australia's

"whining." Her fears were just that —

fears. Britain's travails were real, the

bombing was real. Furthermore, the

bombing was on London and other

central cities, not in British equivalents

to outback areas like Darwin. Churchill

believed that Britain had suffered

greatly relative to her allies. When

he told Anthony Eden that he wept

openly when he thought of the boys in

the airforce who had been sacrificed, he

had to be reminded by Eden that many

of those boys were Australian.

Their great ally, Franklin Roosevelt,

is seen in full support throughout the

story. He knew that war with Japan

was coming and he knew that Australia

was in danger. But he accepted Churchill's

arguments for making Germany

the primary enemy and refused to be


distracted from that policy despite

numerous entreaties from Australian


It was a master stroke by Roosevelt

to send MacArthur to Australia, although

it was interesting to see the

President phoning the Australian

Prime Minister to tell him that the

General was already in his country.

Nevertheless, MacArthur was just what

the Australians needed, and in the

end he was probably worth as much to

them as the British divisions and battleships

that never appeared. Curtin

welcomed the assignment of MacArthur

because he was sure that the

Americans never would have sent their

top general if they had thought that

Australia was going under. He did not

know that Roosevelt partially saw the

appointment as an opportunity for

MacArthur to fulfill his need to be a


Despite Australian fears, Churchill

and Roosevelt were right. Australia

could be saved only if Japan was

defeated, and that event had to be

preceded by the defeat of Germany.

Churchill had to sacrifice part of the

Empire to accomplish it. But no part of

the Empire paid nearly the price that

Britain herself did. To reverse Menzies'

comment: If Britain was saved, the Empire

was saved — although in quite a

different form.

Timothy West is a very plausible

Churchill, as he was in other productions

like Churchill and the Generals.

Robert Vaughan plays an improbable

MacArthur. I'm afraid I still see him

more as Napoleon (Solo, in The Man

From U.N.C.L.E.y. The actors who play

Menzies, Curtin, Anthony Eden,

General Marshall and Roosevelt portray

them credibly and generally look

like them, but why do they have

George Marshall sporting a moustache?

The choice of the supporting characters

in the story is also interesting. Churchill's

only adviser is Anthony Eden;

military men like Ismay or Brooke have

no dialogue. Roosevelt has only Marshall

and King, no civilians like

Hopkins or Rosenman.

The Last Bastion is an excellent introduction

to domestic Australian

politics and that country's role in

the war. Despite the inevitable license

taken regarding some personal conversations,

it is good history and entertaining

drama. What better team could we

ever have (unless it was Churchill and




P.G. Edwards, "S.M. Bruce, R.G. Menzies

and Australia's War Aims and Peace

Aims, 1939-1940," Historical Studies

(University of Melbourne), Vol. 17, No.

66, April 1976: 1-14.

During the period of the so-called

"Phoney War" there was considerable

discussion between Britain and the

Dominions over what they were fighting

for. References to this controversy

are almost totally absent from Churchill's

memoirs. The key Australian

participants in this debate were S.M.

Bruce, the High Commissioner to Britain

and Prime Minister R.G. Menzies.

"War Aims" refers to the conditions

upon which a government will successfully

conclude hostilities. "Peace

Aims" includes a view of what sort of

world should be created after the war.

The Australians were anxious to respond

to Hitler's peace initiative of 6

October and feared that Germany was

winning the propaganda battle — particularly

in Australia and the United

States. Chamberlain's response was

seen as lame and uninspiring. Menzies

cabled Chamberlain with the suggestion

that "we are not aiming really at

victory but rather looking beyond it to

a laying of the foundation of a better

international system." Chamberlain

misunderstood. He thought Australia

and the other Dominions believed, as

he did, that the commitment to war was

reversible and an acceptable settlement

with Hitler was possible. They did not

share his optimism.

On the other hand, the Australians

did not agree with the French, and the

British as represented by Winston

Churchill, who wanted a post-war

world essentially similar to the pre-war

world but with Germany defeated,

disarmed and perhaps dismembered.

Bruce had vehemently informed Churchill

that world opinion would not permit

a vindictive peace settlement aimed

at subjecting and destroying Germany.

All the Dominions wanted to avoid

another Versailles peace.

Although Menzies and Bruce were in

agreement, there was some dissent

within the Australian Cabinet. The

Minutes merely state that the proposals

"did not meet with general agreement."

When United States Undersecretary

of State Sumner Welles visited the warring

capitals on a fact-finding tour in

February 1940, Bruce informed him

that Australia and the other Dominions

were even more resolute than in

1914. He also advised Welles that the

only way to avert disaster was to have

President Roosevelt put forward revolutionary

proposals for a new political

and economic order in the world.

The debate over peace aims ended

with the German Blitzkrieg in May,

1940, and the accession of Churchill to

Prime Minister ended any doubts about

the resolution of the British leadership.

Bruce told Menzies that full support

from the United States was now critical

and that German propaganda after the

expected fall of France must be


Bruce persisted for some months in

trying to persuade Churchill of the

value of a statement of peace aims in

terms that must have seemed

dangerously socialistic to the British

Prime Minister. But the question of the

defense and survival of the British Isles

very quickly became the primary war

aim for all. Nevertheless, the

Australians were more than pleased

with the concepts that emerged in the

Atlantic Charter, on which Roosevelt

and Churchill agreed in August 1941.

As the turning-point in the war passed

in 1943, the Australians now had to

plan for a more just and egalitarian

society at home, and consideration was

being given to the organization which

would inevitably replace the League of


The Australians, particularly Bruce,

had been caught in a paradox in advocating

their views. They wanted to

appeal to German and neutral public

opinion, but they also wanted to

galvanize and inspire British and Allied


public opinion. The Churchillian

resolution and rhetoric required for

one had the opposite effect on the

other. For their part, the British

thought that the Dominion High Commissioners,

again particularly Bruce,

were undependable busybodies with

not enough to do.

D.S.C. Sissons, "Australian War Policy

1939-1945," Historical Studies, (University

of Melbourne), Vol. 17, No. 69, October

1977: 489-505.

Only two of the belligerents of World

War II were at war longer than

Australia. Few suffered less. Australia's

contribution in absolute terms was

small, but it was enough to make a

discernible impact on the shape of the

war. Australia's political and military

leaders in 1939-1945 were confronted

with numerous problems whose intrinsic

intellectual difficulty was out of all

proportion to the meagre military

resources the nation commanded. So it

is not really surprising that Australia's

war policy had its shortcomings.

Australia was completely ignored in the

planning of the air offensive over

Europe, the most costly single campaign,

in terms of lives lost, in which it

was involved. In early 1942, at the time

of greatest need, the Australian

homeland was almost bereft of effective

defence forces. From August 1942 until

January 1944 Australia's army played a

vital role in helping an Allied commander

achieve his ambitions, but this

help was not publicly recognized by

that commander, General Douglas

MacArthur. In the last year of the war

Australia made its maximum military

effort in the field, but this was in campaigns

which were completely useless,


While fighting beside Britain against

Germany and Italy, Australia almost

completely surrendered strategic control

over her own forces to Britain. In

the war in the Pacific the key decisions

concerning Australia were made in

Tokyo, Washington and to a lesser extent

London. In particular, there was

Japan's decision not to conquer Australia;

America's decision to hold

Australia and use it as a base for a

counter-offensive; and Britain's series

of decisions about the Malayan campaign.

Australia produced no wartime figure

of the stature of Churchill or

Roosevelt. Robert Menzies had a

mediocre record as Prime Minister until

he lost power in 1941. The greatest

figure was Prime Minister John Curtin

whose most notable skill was softening

animosities on the home front.

The decisions to involve Australian

troops in the disastrous landing in

Greece, the fiasco in Crete, the losses at

Tobruk and the successful invasion of

Syria were made by British leaders with

little consultation with Australia,

although Menzies was in London and

asking Churchill some very probing


The seven months following the attack

on Pearl Harbour saw the most

frenzied period of decision-making involving

Australia. The failure to hold

Singapore made evident Britain's inability

to defend Australia. Churchill

and Curtin engaged in a major battle

over whether the Australian 7th Division

should go home or go to Rangoon.

If Churchill's wishes had prevailed the

Australians would have reached

Rangoon just in time either to be captured

by the Japanese, or to take part in

the disorganized retreat to India.

Australian Official Histories conclude

that on a comparative population

basis the Australian performance was

very good compared to the allies.

Without the Anzacs there may have

been no Greek or Crete campaigns,

and they certainly kept the British from

collapsing in the Middle East at

Tobruk. They also played a crucial role

Australians, never represented, could at least count

on frequency of meetings between their chief allies:

this one, at Quebec on 18 August 1943, was the sixth

of 11 (counting Cairo twice at either end of Teheran)

between FDR and WSC. Standing, L-R: Gen.

"Hap" Arnold; Sir Charles Portal, RAF; Gen. Sir

Alan Brooke; Adm. Emest }. King, USN; Sir John

Dill; Gen. George C. Marshall; Admiral Pound,

RN; Adm. Leahy, UShl. Seated at left is Prime

Minister Mackenzie King of Canada.

at El Alamein.

In the Pacific, Japan was defeated by

the submarine campaign which sank

her merchant marine and by Nimitz's

Central Pacific drive which brought

Japan within the range of American

bombers. One might even argue that

Australia lengthened the war by helping

MacArthur to divert resources from

the vital Central Pacific theatre, but it

should be remembered that a significant

proportion of the American submarine

campaign was fought from

bases in Australia.

Australia was unable to retain control

of its own warriors. It was also profoundly

influenced by a pre-war

strategy which depended on Singapore

as central to Australia's security. It

wasn't, but its fall led to an excessive

reliance upon American aid and to excessive

willingness to let MacArthur

determine strategy in the Southwest

Pacific Area. But how can a small nation

have much say in determining the

strategy of a coalition in which its partner

is some hundred times stronger? •



Section 3: Directory to the International Churchill Society

With Members of Record as of June 1988

For the personal use oflCS members, branches and chapters.

Publication of complete addresses is prohibited by Article VI of the Society By-laws, in order to assure the privacy of our members.

However, any individual member may request a partial list, covering all other members in his or her local area, for personal contact or

for the purpose of organizing a chapter. To receive such lists, please contact your membership office in any of the five countries listed in

the Directory on page 3 of each Finest Hour. We do hope this list of current members will remind you of the increasing number of

neighbors who share your interest, and prompt you to contact them in the near future.



Campbell/ Pater Buchanan Canberra/ Churchill Menorinl Trust

Balman/ Roy Fidge

Belmore So/ John Wegner

Bui-wood/ W.J. Tnggert

Cammeray/ Norma Bartley

Cremorne/ Paul Jacobs

Dubho/ Ralph Dormn

Fnlrllght/ Greg Marusic

Brisbane/Andrew Hnrwood,

Harvey D. Humphreys


Forestvie/ Peter Clouaton

Greenwich/ H. A. Wilson

Hone Bush/ R. J. McCluakle

Ki Hartley Ills/ John Meyers

Lugarno/ Douglas Mears

Monterey/ R. R. Henydon

Nnmbucca Hds/ Roy Morant

Neutral Bay/ Susan Kennedy


Fairfield/ Yvonne Campbell

Margate/ C.A. Lcbeanft


Taroona/ George Richard

Pngewood/ Arthur Baxter

Roue Bny/ Philip Strasser

Strathfield/ E.J. Britton

Sydney/ W. R. Calvin

Ultimo/ S. Laurie

Haterton/ Henry Gamble


Jack Addison

Yorkeys Knob/

Daphne NielBon


Blarkhurn So/ Churchill Fellows Assn Oak Park/ Kevin Bliss

Endeavour Hills/ Peter M. Jenkins South Ynrra/ John Blliott

The Basin/ George Hill


Lynwood/ Ray Perry


South Yunderup/ J.E.J. Arscott

Note: Incomplete owing to ongoing renewals; Canada total approx. 350.

K. M. Bredin

Peter C. Bnwdon

Chris Bell

G. Rwart Brown

J. J. Boulton

Arthur Cload

A. F. Collins

D. H. Fleck

Lome Gunlcir

Harvey Hebb

Knye Adams

Philip C. Barter

Frank Battershill

W. J. Borrie

Robert Brown

Robert B.J. Burns

Hubert 0. Chapman

John V. Clyne

J.Stuart Clynn

William Y.Crawford

Ernest D. Danny

Douglas R. Day

John D'Knth

David Devlne

Julian S. Diamond

Jean Lieon Doise

Pierre Doise


Peter Burgener John C. Haryett

J. R. Collins W. A. Howard

Tim Finnls

G. J. Mnier

Lt John Grodsinski Fred C. Mannix

Stanley C. Waters

Harry Hole

R. K. Hole

R. Hurlburt

George H. Lambert

Dnvld T. Leaker

S. A. MacTnggart

Lamont/ J. K. Hutson


A. T. Hurray

James Newby

Kenneth C. Pals

J. G. Peterson

D. V. Reynolds

W. H. Ross, CD

The President, Air Force Club


St. Albert/ Maj.W.A. West


R. T. Du Moulin Soul Kohn

M. Donald Raaton Thomas R. Ladner

William EBB ton Michael M. Lambert

Thomas C. Eddie Les M. Little

John Flowerdrw A. E. MacDonnld

Dennis Forrlstel Larry T. Macauley

Rrx B. Forteacue James D. Maw

W.D.H. Gardiner Douglaa Mclnnes

David G. Goold Andrew F.L.Milligan

David A. Graham D. E. Norman

Ralph -Harding David Odhama

D. R. Hildreth H.A.D. Oliver,QC

Harold T. Hope Ronald Penhall

D.Lukin Johnston Norman F. Rigby

G. D. HettyIs Michael R. Shields

Barry Kirkham Lome Sinclair

W. C. Koerner Gordon T.Southam

Fred A. McKlnnon

II. S. Patterson

William P. Taylor

W. H. Tye

WllTred Sadler

J. Siegenberg

Derek Spitz

W.J.S. Sunley

Keith F. Wakefield

H. T. Williams

Leslie A. Strike

Lionel S. Such

Stan Szary

Allan D. Thackray

R. W. Underhill


Public Library

Richard Vogel

Michael A. Walker

Michael V. Webster

C.S. White

John Williams

J.E. Wilson

Stanley R. Winfield

Harold M. Wright

Bryan E. Yiruah

Charles Young

Robin J.Abercrombie

George A. Adams

H.P. Bell-Irving

Frank Bernnrd

William G. Brown

Murray Cmneron

J. Chutter

C.A. Decosson

Franklin Bit ings

Edward C.Rowdrn Green

P. D. P. Holmes

Dr. A. H. Lane

Abbtsfrd/ Michael Brear

Rurnnby/ Fred Gingell

Campbell R/ Rob Patten

Coquitlam/ Roy Flaxman,

Ivor Kellett

Duncan/ George Maggs

Frdrktn/ Laurence Wall

Gngetown/ John R. Moore

Mnrlene Allan

Derek Brown

O.K. Campbell

W.W. Cherry

Agincourt/ J. Plimpton

Ajax/ Philip A. Wynne

Barrie/ Craig J.Neil


Christina Fletcher

Brampton/ Jos. Fullan

Brnntford/ Wm. Sempie

Cambridge/ John H.Paull

Don Mills/ Wm.N. Clark,

Judith Mattlngley

Etobicoke/Colin Wackett

Goderich/ Carl Anderson

Grimaby/ D. W.McClellui

Guelph/ M.C. Shonfield

Beaconafield/ Bruce Willia

Montreal/ Alain Herbert


Ronald W.Downey Donald Lennkail

Normnn H. Faiers Clayton Lehman

John Fnrrell Frank McNulty

George Fluter W.T. Money

John Goodger John D.Montgomery

Jnmes D. Kadlec John Newbuiy

Wnrnett Kennedy W. F. Ramsey

S.J. Kernnghnn F. A. Robertson


William B. Morrison

Hon. John Douglas Reynolds

Ron Cynewulf Robbins

His Honour Gov. Bob Rogers


Duncan/ A.A.M.Stewart

Landley/ George Brown

Maple Ridge/ W.A. Heard


Stanley Freestone

N.Westmnstr/ Jos.Raphael


Winnipeg/ David T. Anderson


Moncton/ Celwyn P. Ball

Rivervlew/ Louis Ouigley


St.Johns/ James H. Steele


Halifax/ Leonard A. Kit:

David R.L. Rolfe

Anthony Scammell

Harold Short

Mark R. Steven

Ian Ward

Ian Whitelaw

Harry Wood

(list incomplete)

Mra.H.T. Southwood

Paul Thomaa

Leone Trubkln

Clifford Whitehead

N.Westmnatr/ Arthur Lien

Ocean Park/ Hugh A.M.Clee

Pt. Coqultlam/Frank Smyth

Surrey/ Jes.T.B. Quayle

White Rock/Leonard Taylor

(B.C. list incomplete)

Sackville/ Vaughn Alward

St.John/ Tim Horgan


David Currie Frederick L.R.Jnckman Douglas McLeod

John G. Edison QC Mary C. Jackman Norman M.Rogers

Robert S. Gillan Margaret LnChapelle Michael Wilson

Bruce Head 1 HIT, Rrnest J. Llittle F.B.Watt




Markham/ David llencher

Mississsuga/ B.R.Moorehouse

II, John Ronson,

Bernard F. Webber

Nepean/ Rolf R. Meier

Ottawa/ Yousuf Harsh,0C

Peterborgh/John Stewart

Pickerint/ H.J. Vear

Port Hope/ J.A. Dure

Renfrew/ Paul Gary

Richmond Hill/ Don Me-

Vicar, Murray M.Milne


Kensington/ Archibald H. Johnstone

Scarborough/ S.H. Glssser,

J.D.Peacock, Winston

. Churchill Coll. Institute

St.Cathrins/Shenns Patterson


Sherbrook/ Pierre Gagne

Westmount/ Alex Bernstein,


Reglnn/ W. Alward, M.C. Shumiatcher

Strathroy/David S. Ferguson

Thornhill/ Garnet R. Barber

Unionvllle/ Arthur Wootton

Uxbridge/ Ronald J. Tindley

Willowdale/ G.W. Churton,

Nell Rarle, John Piddington,

George B. Temple

Woodstock/ Mary Alexander

(Ontario liat incomplete,

advise if omitted)

fonald I. Cohen

Editor'* not*: f/e are working from shortened mniling labels and apologist* in

advance for abbreviations, initials and inadvertent omissions of titles. If

your name does not appear on this list please notify the editor. -FML




Combe Down/ Edmund Murray

Nnilsey/ Sydney Bennett


Maidenhead/ Keith llntch

Thotchnn/ A. Million


Chievoley/ The Hon. Celia S.Perkina Gt.Mlsaindcn/ Kathleen Hill, MBB

at.Mlanlnden/ Sir Richard Hill, Bt, MRB Mar low/ John Evans


Correlli Barnett



S. N. Sabharwal


Nantwich/ Jenn Pearson


Budc/ H.M. Boettinger


Sherborne/ Peter Coomba

Wimborne/ D.G.Andrews, Nancy Ward


Bexhill/ Proresaor P.S. Gardner Heratmonceaux/ D.B.Pugh

Canvey 2s/ Bill Wood Loughton/ John B. Harvey Ramaden Hth/ C.A.Spencer

Hornchurch/ X. Friend Maldon/ Frank Rendell Rayleigh/ A.H. Benham

Loughton/ G.B.Forbes

Southcnd/ Jane H.Qoaling

Woodford Green/ Donald L. Forbes, CBR.JP.FCA; Ralph Trenayne Prout, MBB

Aldershot/ H.J. White,

Fred Hambrook

Bnsingatoke/ Geo.Steib,

Georfrey J. Wheeler


Penarth/ L.H.Williaan Swansea/ Eric R. Jones


Cheltenham/ Roy Faiers,

Mrs J.R.Williama

Bishops Storlford/ David Thos/aa

Beckonham/ Mrs M.J. Kay

Broadstairs/ R.B.Brenner

Bromley/ Mr/Mra K. Joyce

Dartford/ G.E. Skinner

Kdenbridge/ B.A. Rodway

Fawhan/ WH. Charnley

Graveaend/ A. Ridgera

Orpington/ C.C. Brown

Blackburn/ Owen Terry

Ashby de la Zoucli/

M.J. Lainchbury

The Lord Airlie

Janes Arbuthnot

James Bell

Mr/Mrs H.L. Bell

Jonathan Chadwick

Cdr Winston G.Churchill

Barbara Cooper

R.A.C. Du Vivier, CBB

Martin Gilbert, KA

C. S. Sodden

Richard Has 1am-Hopwood

gnrield/ Ronald A.Smith

Harrow School

Blceeter/ R.W.J. Price

Boars Hill/ P.Churchill

Henley/ Robt Hardy, CBR

Hinkaey HI11/a. Cooper

Oxford/ J.A.Chalmers,

VADM Sir Peter Gretton,


Chepstow/ K.O. Tufft


Bedhmptn/ H.A.Redburn OBR

Hayling Is/ Wa.P.Kyrea,

Wilfred t. Perkins

N.Baddesley/ D.F.Payne,FRNS


N.Barnet/ John Frost


Sevenoaka/ Mrs M. Green

Shoreham/ David J. Porter

So.Darent/ B.W. Brazier

Tonbridge Wells/

Peter Griffiths, FCA;

Viscount De L'lsle.VG KG

Welling/ LCDR F.W.J.Strong


Blackpool/ P.M. Walah



Lt Col R.E.H. Ward, MC.TD


Bourne/ T. Hollingshead


Richard Hough

Neil Hughe.-Onslow

Michael Kellon

Denis Kelly

Gordon E.H. Maggs

David B. Mayou

Anthony Montague

Browne, CBR, DFC

Stta Palmer

John Pearson

Howard Pedraza


Northolt/ Valance A. Woodcock

Uxbridge/ P.H. Pond-Jones

Stockbridge/ The Lady

Margaret Colville

Vernham Dean/

Peregrine S. Churchill

Tring/ Robt A.Fincher


Jean Broome;

Winston S.Churchill,


Orace Hamblin, OBB;

Maj. Alan Taylor-Smith

Weatgate/ Chris. Downs

W.Wickham/ J.H.Walker

Burscough/ B.W. Savage


Marian Spicer, MBE

C. R. Perioli

D. Piggott

Anthony Rota

Richard 8. B. Sawyer

Sidney L. Shipton

B. 0. Slattery

The Lady Soamea, DBE

Jamea Thomaa

Mark Weber

John Wenzel

Jeffrey Young, JP

Wembley Park/

Ira H. Levy


Broughton/ D. Bolsover Silverstone/ Gerald Lovell

Glasgow/ Dr. Cecil Tobia

hldlow/ Mathew 0. Reea


Stafford/ A.T. Ooodyer

Carrickfergua/ Jack Darrah


Oxford/ Dr.K. Lumsden,

The Dowager Countess

of On.low, MBB;

Dame Felicity H. Peake

Wantage/ Renry R. Crooks

Watlington/ Sir John

Martin, KCMG, CB, CVO

Bramley/ Michael Wybrow Limpsrield/ Hia Honour

Cidihna/ Jalmn II.dx Sola Judge Michael Cook

(l..,li.l.liu(/ Allhur fllmiin ftniub-ral rail/ B.I.. Davla

Kenley/ Mr/Mra J.L.Reed Thorpe/ Richard McGiath


Arthur G. Cork

Marcua R. Niner

Wood. tock-B 1 enhelm/

Hia Grace The Duke

of Marlborough, DL,JP


Argyll/Strachur/ Sir Fitzroy Maclean, Bt

Taunton/ L.J. Blackwell, Tony Ellard


Ipawich/ Brenda M.Lakey, Norman Rogara

Thames Dltton/

fl.R.Cl.C. Tickler

Win I Inglinm/ L. L.TlHimna

WonrealerPk/Mi-Mrs A.Martin

UM1TID IINuDOM, cont'd.


Arumlel/ Thomna Cawte Brighton/ P.F. Kinna

B.Grinatend/ D. A. Merritt, M. Wellealey-Wesley


S.Shields/ Jla Harria


Nuneaton/ Peter Mclver, Solihull/ Roy Thompson,

R. W. Tebbett Dale Weber


Coventry/ P.H. Squire Haleaowen/ O.W. Lawley

Lendsl/ G.R. Burn

Richmond/ J.B.Morris


Warminater/ The Marquees of Bath


Sheffield/ M.A. Olbba,

Miss G. Reichl


George Rhodes

Address not received: Wing Commander D.S.G. Jackson



Birmingham/ Eugene Rutlcdge, Ben fl. McDaniel, Frank C. Marshall, Alex V.Davies

Fairhope/ Craig Dahle

Anchorage/ Ja

Chandler/ Zoyd R.Luce

Glendale/ Wm. E.Eubank


Bendell, Michael Hagood, Stuart C. Hall


Phoenix/ Stephen W.Pogaon,

R.C.Wilaon, Warren Sherk

Batesville/ John Norman Harkey

CALIFORNIA (by postal coda)

9000 Los Angeles/ Alphonzo Bell,

Winston L. Farrar, Lovina Grunden,

Ira E. Kaplan, Coleman W. Morton,

Henry Sakato

90266 Manhattan Beach/ Allon J. Ouigley

90402 Santa Monica/ Stanley M. Briggs

9060- Whlttier/

John T. McLaughlin, Curt J. Zoller

90731 San Pedro/ Jamea Benedict

91011 Flintridge/ Allen P. Webb

9110- Paaadena/ Dr.William L.

Ingram, Robert P. Haatinga

91316 Rncino/ T. W. McGarry,

John C. Woods

91320 Nrwbury Park/ Thomaa McClintock

91326 Northridge/ BruceI.. Bogstsd

°.13fi2 Thousand Oaks/ Roleiie Dinsdale

9IOT1 Woodland HI 11K/ RugeneI,. Larson

91711 Clnrvmont/ Jnlm R. Butterworth,

Hnrry V. Jaffa, Dougtaa A. Jeffrey,

Daniel C. Palm

91786 Upland/ David T. Anderson

91R01 Alhambra/ Frank A. Meyer

92009 La Costa/ Jay A. Piper

92037 La Jolla/ Robert Q. Sullivan

92077 Spring Valley/ Joaeph R. Ott

9210- San Diego/ A.H. MacPhail,

Weat R. Kennerly

9226- Palm Springs/ J. Ray Corliss,

Carol F. McCoy

92270 Rancho Mirage/ Derek Ashton

92345 Hewaperia/ Joseph W. Kirachbaum

92381 Sun City/ W. Glen Browne

92632 Fullerton/ William M. Fine

S2646 Huntingdon Beach/ Robt T.Castrey

92660 Newport Beach/ Jay Carlisle,

Brooks Hoar, Thomaa H. Nielaon

Clarence & Celia S. Turner

92662 Balboa Island/ Virginia D. Badham,

Julia C. Woods

92668 Orange/ Sandra K. Samia


Aurora/ Kenneth S.Coors Colo.Spga/ Dan Griawold

Boulder/ Roger Cichorz Denver/ James D. Arundel


06074 S.Windsor/ Kevin F. Rcnnie

06255 N.Groavenordale/ Richard Carretto

06281 Woodstock/ Richard F. Potter

06340 Qroton/ John McCaffery

06355 Mystic/ William 0. Rockwood

06378 Stonginton/ David C. Rika

06410 Cheshire/ Albert J. Sherman

06430 Fairfleld/ R.P. Fltzpatrick,

Harvey W. Oreisman

06457 Mlddletown/ William Manchester

06460 Milfort/ Van Hendrickson

Amb.Sir Anthony Ackland

Willis C. Armstrong

Ward B. Chamberlin

Hon. Jim Courier, USHR

Harry W. Crocker III

Richard M. Rdelman

Kay Murphy Halle

D. C. - MnilMTOD

Pamela C. llnrriman

Cdr. Jacob L. Johnson

Norwood H. Keeney

Steven J. Lambakis

Brenan R. Nieraan

Hon. Sam Numt, USS

Christopher Nyce

Scottsdale/Wm. R. Schulz

Tucson/ Henry Mandelbaum

Little Rock/ Donald J. Kelly

92670 Placentin/ David Freeman

92680 Tu»tin/ Oloria Arrington

92714 Irving/ Frank A. Beaz

9310- Santa Barbara/ Mortimer Andron,

Leo D. Flakloff, Jamea H. Hurley,

J. Tim Terry

93940 Monterey/ Tom Dudley

93944 Prealdio/ Timothy Rives

94010 Hillsborough/ Mrs. Robert L.

Hammett, Hubert I. Ziman

94026 Menlo Park/ R. Donaldaon-Clarke

94040 Mt.View/ Michael J. Altenburger

94063 Redwood City/ Noreen R. Will

94070 San Carlos/ Michael C. Perkina

941— San Franciaco/ Philip W. Harah,

Victor B. Levit, Sen.Milton Marks,

Matthew 8. Lo.:kary, Clnud I. Schmld

94507 Alnmo/ Kenneth Barker

91523 I'leaannt. Hill/ John Mnrann

94539 Fremont/ Carl M. Kalhorn

94R46 Castro Valley/ Mnnard B. Pont,

Michael J. Schneiders

94563 Orinda/ Ernest H. Ruehl

94591 Valleso/ Roberta M. Lopez

94598 Walnut Creek/ James 8. Ryan

94920 Tiburon/ Marl 0. Barna

94949 Larkspur/ Joseph Behn

94960 San Anaelmo/ Merry Nesa

95005 Ben Lomond/ Virgina E. Vogel

95008 Campbell/ Steven A. Goodman

96014 Cupertino/ Mary Lou M. Whalen

95070 Ian 0. Beswich

95240 Lodl/ Eloiae Hunnell,

Betty Newrield

95405 Santa Roaa/ Albert A.Laferriere

958— Sacramento/ Robert Bell,

John T.Hay, Eleanor Dalton-Newfield

William R. Saracino, George Shulaky

Timothy A. Ziebell

95949 Grass Valley/ Myron M.McElwaine

Denver/ Walter R. Foltt

Parker/ Robt W. Hatch II

postal cod*)

06475 Old Saybrook/ William R. Davia

06492 Walllngford/ Gordon S. Cohen

06497 Stratford/ Jack Hughes

06604 Brideport/ Violet Sclalla

06759 lltchfield/ Aaa B. Hall

06820 Dorian/ Christopher P. McClancy

06877 Ridgefleld/ Howard B. Walzer

06883 Weston/ Jeffrey Satinover

06897 Wilton/ Sven Rrik Nielsen

06902 Stamford/ John M. Maffatt

Judith Plunkett

Charlea W. Snyder

Andrew Sullivan

C. C. Tharp

Hon. Caapar W. Weinberger

Michael White

George F. Will



Newark/ Raymond A. Callahan

FLORDA (by postal coda)

31018 Daytonn Beach/ Dcbra HcOulre 333— Ft. Lauderdnle/ John D. Blooai,

32082 Pnte Vedra Bch/ Paul Z. Fletcher Jamea B. Perry, Henry W. Ryan, Jr.

32201 Jackaonville/ Steven A. Werber 33328 Davie/ Christopher Adams

32B05 Pensacola/ Darrell Hoi ley

3340- Palm Beach/ Herbert P. Benn,

32748 Leesburg/ Margaret L. Lewis

D.M. King, Bdwina Sandya

32807 Orlando/ William P. Johnson 336— Tampa/ Drake B. Basaatt,

32937 Satellite Beach/ John C. Nelson B.L. Thurman, Robert R. Vawter, Jr.

33009 Hallandale/ Milton Schustermen 33701 St. Petersburg/ Thomas Montalbo

33062 Fompano Beach/ Maria C. Bowers 33809 Lakeland/ George H. Riddle

33124 Coral Gables/ Oeo. Colin Mello 3442- Saraaota/ Thomas Brooka,

331— Miami/ Sidney Altneu, Hoy E.Black, John F. Hawkridge

Donald B. Hathorn, Michael Ferae 346— Clearwater/ Luis Ballina,

33140 Miami Beach/ Maureen Blum

M. M. Pique

33317 Plantation/ Harold R. Smith 34951 Ft. Pierce/ Holla Ross


Atlanta/ Mary Jane Brock, George R. Roawell/ Ian H. Campbell

Oreiff, David Handley, Thomas Hughes, Savannah/ Samuel A. Cann

Alfred M. Marahall

Stone Mountain/ Russell T. Griffin

Marietta/ Robert D. Green

Tucker/ Jeffrey B. Morriaon

60015 Deerfleld/ Harry R. Clamor,

Donald C. Johnaon, George Mitchell

60062 Northbrook/ Randye A. Kogan

60067 Inverneaa/ F.W. Channer

60076 Skokie/ Paul Kaplan

601 IB DeKalb/ Larry Arnhart

60191 Hooddale/ Anthony Cichanik

6030- Oak Park/ David Druckman,

Donald R.Markey, Michael J.Ralaton,

Robert M. Tagler

Horace B. Barks

Dorothy M. Boyden

James T. Barry III

Patricia Anne Barton

Jane Crowley

Mark S. Grimsich

Fred J. Harris


Mililani/ Cdr. Lawrence M. Xryske

ILLINOIS (postal coda ordsr)


Harry J. Hart

William C. Ives

Philip J. Lyons

Karen Meister

Patrick I.. Moore

Ambassador Paul Heron

Robinson, Jr.

60430 Homewood/ Les Hinick

60466 Park Foreat/ Oscar Lundy

60540 Naperville/ Jeffrey M. Boggan,

Mark F. Griffith

61103 Rock ford/ Loren M. Smith

61350 Bloomington/ Dennis Ludwig

61821 Champaign/ Richard A. Baylor

62221 Belleville/ Chria J. Krisinger

62246 Greenville/ Tom Shea

62301 Quincy/ Ray Louis Orban

Andrew M. Rosenfield

Anthony M. Ryerson

Jay Schmidt

Herbert B. Sollitt

Garrison A. Southard

Gardner-H. Stern


Holmes Bmpaon

Koason/ Matthew Tordoff



Sandra Dvoraky

Minneapolis/ Todd Ronnei

Minnetonka/ Dennla Burke

Rochester/ Lloyd A. Wells

St.Paul/ Betty A. Gorham


Ocean Springa/ Curtis L. Newcombe Taylorsville/ Larry E. Clark

Pass Christian/ William C. Kidd Vicksburg/ Bobby D. Robinson

Columbia/ A.J. Nash

Farmington/ Opal Wright

Fulton/ Jane Fllnk,

Warren Hoi Iran,

Russell Jones,

John B. Marshall



Michnel W. Manners

Kansas City/ T.C.Beckett

LeesSummit/ C.V.Anderson

Maryville/ RIM Kunkel

Mubcrly/ Dr.Will Fleming

St.Louis/ Maria S.Becker,

Byron C. Herbert, Ruth

Waldron Hill, Jim Nietmann,

Wm. R. Piper,

F. Carl Schumacher

St.Peters/To* Gettemeyer

NEBRASKA Bellevue/ Tom Schafer Omaha/ Wallace H. Johnaon

Bedford/ Jon Richardson

Contoocook/ Michael P.8.

Harriet H. Langworth

07023 Fanwood/ Mary Beth Nleozwlecki

07024 Fort Lee/ Gerald B. Lechter

07039 Livingston/ James Lynch,

Ronald I. Parker, Douglas G. Tarr

07052 W.Orange/ Betty Lechter

07070 Rutherford/ Anthony Lancia

07078 Short Hills/ Dominic F. Aaorosa

07090 Westfield/ Barton F. Bischoff,

George A. Lewis

07104 Newark/ Rev. Francis R. Seymour

07110 Nutley/ Gilbert H. lies

07023 Roselle/ Joseph T. Myaak Jr.

07410 Fair Lawn/ Manfred Weidhorn

07631 Englewood/ Richard A. Leech

07876 Succaaunna/ Richard L. Valero

07901 Summit/ Allen Dresdner

Alnmogordo/ Courtney Crenshaw

Kevin D. Smith

Albuquerque/ Larry Fricke

NEVADA Las Vegas/ Harold Armstrong


Hanover/ Don Carmichael Hopkinton/ Frank Wardley

Henniker/ Ian W.Morrison Nashua/ Michael Pollitt

Hopkinton/ R.M.Langworth Newbury/ Chas B. Sandeen

NSW JBKSET (postal cod* ordar)

07920 Basking Ridge/ Charles Menagh

07924 Bernardaville/ Paul Biba

07940 Madison/ Russell J. Chriatensen,

Victor Paul Harris

07945 Mendham/ Shirley J. Stake

08033 Haddonfield/ Ralph D. Eastwick

08034 Cherry Hill/ Harry Adey

08501 Allentown/ Yvonne M. Henry

08534 Pennington/ Russell H. Mullen

08540 Princeton/ Peter Brennan

08611 Trenton/ Michael MacNicoll

08807 Bridgewater/ Richard C. Bvana

08812 Dunellen/ William Benwell

08901 New Brunswick/ Voorhees E.Dunn Jr

08904 Highland Park/ Herman L.Breitkopf


Albuquerque/ Stephen Gregg

Gallup/ Charles E. Current

Laa Crucee/ John H. Reynolds


Dyer/ Maurice W.Nymeyer LaPorte/ Brvin Pritchett Liberty/ Judge James

Indpls/Russell K.Oberholtzer Merrillvllle/Donald M.Short S. Shepard

la.City/ Douglas Russell

Oelwein/ Stephen McCarthy

Baldwin City/ Hal E.Wert

Iola/ Clyde W. Toland


Sioux City/ E.J.Vornbrock

W.Branch/ George H. Nash


Hutchinson/ Peter M.

MacDonald, Tom Sherman

W.Des Moines/

Dewey Vukovich

Manhatten/ Robin Higham

Topeka/ Jay W. Watson

Raymond C. Albano

Brie A. Anderson

Solomon Bogard

Arthur Braver

Benjamin M. Cardoso

Chnrles L. Carrick •

Michael J. Close

Pat S. Conti

Michael V. Daly

Robert Dudley


Ruth K. Emery

Roger Fesenella

Doreen Goddard

David F. Haylea *

James H. Heineman

Norman Q. Hickman

Glenn Horowitz

Norman W. Jenulis

Robert Kinmi

Mordecai J. Lechter

Alfred J. Lurie

Arnold D. Mansdorf

Ronald S. Melnyk

Angelina M. Painter

F. Higginson Philp

Lucy P. Poaik

Edwin F. Russell

Barry Singer

Peter J. Travera

Peter J. Wynne

BowltigGrn/ Jas.C.Barnett

Danvlle/ David B. Wilaon

Henderaon/ Rita Q. Bryan

Lexington/ Robert A. Clay

Baton Rouge/ Derek

Brownleader, Siegfried

Friedmnnn, Lowell

Hoover, O.J.Williams


James M. Caldwell,

Jamea L. Hill,

Paul B. Mullett

Prospect/ Chas. H.Buddeke

Shelbyvle/ Margaret Cowan

Villa Hills/ T.F.Sullivan

Wilder/ Ronald Brennan


Harahan/ John B.Dunlap Jr New Orleans/ HBM Consul

Lafayette/ Barbara Oater James J. Coleman

Metairie/ Toby W. Lewla Lee H. Schleainger

New Orleans/ HBM Consul Shreveport/ J.L. Frost


Camden/ William B. Cannell Peaka Island/ Donald Wilder

Baltimore/ Wm.H. Gorman,

Frederick Himes,

Joseph R. Wenderoth


Hon. Jack Kemp, USHR

Hon. Bob Packwood, USS


Brookvle/ Jerry O'Conor

ChevyChaae/ Jaa. U. De-

Francis, R.B. Hartland

Colmbia/Robt M. Sprinkle

Hanvr/ Merton Pritchett

Fotomnc/Herbert Goldberg

Rckvle/Barrie Cillberti


Althea H. Whitney

Silver Spring/

Max Lechter,

David Marcue

MASSACHUSETTS (poatal coda ordar)

01076 S.Hadley/ Jon Lovett Douat

02061 Norwell/ Richard A. Leahy

01201 Pittsfield/ Winaton O. Roulier 02067 Sharon/ Donald H. Carvin

01267 Williamstown/ Dorothy Reinke 0210- Boston/ Lewis P. Cabot,

01342 Deerfield/ Alan Fraker

Joshua J. Vernaglia

01364 Orange/ Robert Leach

02138 Cambridge/ Graham T.Allison Jr

01543 Rutland/ Douglas Marden

02144 Somerville/ Harold Ancell

01742 Concord/ Robert 0. Bowen,

02168 Waban/ Kenneth Dreyer

G. Brie Jackson, Stanley B. Smith 02169 Quincy/ Richard Roberts

01776 Sudbury/ John P. Nixon Jr. 02173 Lexington/ Gerald J. McCue

01810 Andover/ Michael W. Morris 02181 Wellesley Hills/ Howard L.

01833 Georgetown/ Paul S. King

Churchill, Dr Francis G Holfort

01944 Manchester/ Eric Brickson

02192 Needham/ Victor C. Hood

01945 Marblehead/ Gary S. Bisenhower, 02324 Bridgewater/ Gustaf E. Newcomb

Brie K. Smith

02642 Basthnm/ Ian Altchison


AnnArbr/ Michael P.Malley Clsrkaton/ Thos.Ooldner

Milton G. Mutchnick Detroit/ Gary J.Bonine

Birmngham/ Alec D. Rogera Grosse Pointe Park/

Blooafield Hills/

Edward W. Fitzgerald

Daniel L. Treacy

Dwayne W. Lawrence

William H. Winatanley

LinclnPk/ MaryJo Peterson

Marquette/ Clair Hollerup

Okemos/ Douglas Marsh

Rochster/ Betty Arscott,

Suzanne A. Sittig

Trenton/ Calvin F.Voegtle


10536 Katonah/ Richard L. Flaher 11787

10549 Mt. Kisco/ Bruce D. Kennedy 11946

10594 Thornwood/ Bdward Veprovsky 12188

10601 White Plains/ Tohy Helingmann 12870

10708 Bronxvllle/ Paul L. Meaders, 13317

William W. Moore 13346

11024 Klnga Point/ Don Baron 14075

11030 Manhasset/ John J. McCartney 14170

11545 Glen Head/ William T. Murray 14209

11666 Mertrlck/ Ira L. Gerahenaon 14221

11576 Roslyn/ Harold Schwinger 14222

11577 Roslyn Hts/ Stephen M. Saravay 14467

11581 Valley Stream/ M.W. Wellington 14512

11704 W. Babylon/ Michael C.Sherwood 14580

11772 Patchogue/ Edith M. Menegus 14624

Chapel Hill/ Larry Goldberg,

Helen Palmatier,

Robert L. Roazell

Charlotte/ Arthur Capper,

Dr.George L. Gaunt,

Eric Karnea, Delia R.

Paterson, James A.Pope

43023 Granville/ Lawrence L.Clark Jr

43324 Huntsville/ Janes R.Dinkel

44022 Chagrin Falls/ William J.Truax

44041 Geneva/ Dr Jessie M.Hutchinson

44072 Novelty/ Jay Nenefee

44089 Vermilion/ Gala Snmpliner

41107 Lakewood/ Alyce L. Auat

4411- Cleveland/ Bruce Akers,

Thomas A. Aldrich, Phillip Knaack,

William McVey, Fred J. Rumplik


Concord/ Roy B. Newaom

Durham/ W. J. Petera


Mary L. Cunningham

Mebane/ Wm. Thos. Long

Raleigh/ L.Lloyd Jabobs,

Otis V. Jones Jr.

OHIO (postal cods ordar)

cod. order)

Smithtown/ Arthur Kunz

Hampton Bays/ R.W. Churchill

Waterford/ Garry F. Douglas

Schroon Lake/ Gregory N. Builard

Canohoharie/ Stephen A. Becker

Hamilton/ Elizabeth A. Weed

Hamburg/ Barbara Brendes

West Falls/ Glen R. Weeks

Buffalo/ Donald S. Carmichael

Williamsvile/ Madhukar A.Shanbhag

Buffalo/ Richard Tobe

Henrietta/ William B. Beatty

Naples/ Robert E. Oilman

Webster/ David MacOregor

Rochester/ William Farmborough

Roaman/ Wa.J. Cathey III

Sunset Beach/

George Williams


Stephen A. Mills,

Dr. Jamea R. Scalea

44130 MiddleburgHta/ J.Eric Heyworth

44313 Akron/ Reese taylor

44514 Poland/ William Cochran

44820 Bucyrua/ J. K. Kurtz

452— Cincinnati/ Michael A. Berk,

Thos. Brinkman Jr..Monte Dale Witte

45365 Sidney/ Linn's Stamp News

45805 Lima/ Sue M. Hefner

45810 Ada/ Prof. Alfred B. Cohoe


Edmond/ Wm. T. Dever Morris/ Barbara Kinzer Okemah/ Jonathan Wallace

Hailyvle/Mlchael Studebaker Muskogee/ Robin W.Adair Ok.City/ Kenneth J.Eylar

Albany/ Stamp Collector

Ashland/ Robin Lawson

Eugene/ Robert L. Brown

Eugene/ Robin Steussy

L.Oswego/ Jeff Gudman,

C. R. Snowden

McMlnnville/ June B.Tim

Portland/ Wm. D. Schaub

Talent/ Lawrence Montello

Veneta/ Joe Cannon


15065 Natrons Hta./ Norman R. Hnsh

152— Pittsburgh/ Peter N. Flocos,

Dr.I.W.Goldfarb, Mary 0. Reisler,

Sfmuel B. Shapiro

15632 Export/ Kenneth R. fitch

16507 Brie/ Forrest C. Mlschler

16801 State College/ Am.Phil.Society

17022 Elicabethtown/ Lily B. Grimm

17105 Harrisburg/ Britlah Heritage

17363 Stewartatwn/ Reginald B.Geaaill

17368 Wrightsvle/ Ronald C. Kohr, Jr.

17815 Bloomsburg/ Curtis H. Vickera

18042 Enston/ Richard A. Rampulla

18054 Green Lane/ John A. Utz

18644 Wyoming/ George H. Trewern

pmno RICO

Mayaguez/ James B. McCandleaa

Columbia/ Ellene Haimond

Ft.Jackan/ Dave Lounsbury

Pierre/ Pntricin Si

37064 Franklin/ William Da Priest,

Ronnld S. Ligon

37115 Madison/ Dennia Johnson

37133 Murfreeaboro/ J.D. Marshall

372— Naahville/ Donald Bathrick Jr,

Dudley C.Fort, Richard R.Knight,

Oacar B.Hofstetter,

Calvin R. Pastors (continued )

Henry R. Altick, OR,MR

Barl J. Behnke, Jr.

Ralph D. Churchill

Henry C. Coke

Charles T. Frazler

Joaeph L. Goldatein

mmsTLVUlIA (postal cad* order)

18704 Kingston/ Marc L. Holtzman

19008 Broo.aH/ Phyllis Ruoff

19038 Olenaide/ Craig De Bernardin

19041 Haverford/ Thorns C. Deas, Jr.,

Bdwin Rothmnn

19050 Lanadowne/ John F. Baesch

19087 Radnor/ Daniel J. Lenehan

19096 Wynewood/ Gilbert R. Pettibone

191— Philadelphia/ Paul Blanchard,

Robert DePue Brown, Marc R. Heas,

James C. Humes, Michael J. Sheehan,

Bernard Wojciechowski

19301 Paoli/ Jania Calvo

19341 Bxton/ Richard H. Durham

19342 Glen Mills/ Donald J. Kasper


Greenvle/ David Plowden,

Dr. Marvin J. Short


Pawtucket/ Benton H. Rosen

Hilton Head/ John Samel

Spartanburg/ AMOS Workman


ide Sioux Falls/ Roas S. Fenn

(postal coda order)

372-Nashville cont'd/ Carl Pastors,

Brian T. Sinclair-Whitely,

Marion F. Thomaa, John B. Thoaiaon


Barbara B. R. Hegel

Michael W. Huddleston

Tex Lezar

G. C. McGill

William P. Murchison

Jack W. Mynett

37355 Manchester/ Walter D. Colwell

37388 tullahoaa/ Roy B. Broster, Jr.

37405 Chattanooga/ William H. Bowman

37760 Jefferaon City/ Robert T. Wilson

38344 Huntingdon/ Steve Williams

Barl L. Nicholson

William H. Nicholson

Elmer E. Smalling

Tim Timmina

Richard P. townsend

TIKAS (post il coda order)

75062 Irving/ James H. Field

76902 San Angelo/ William A. Buche,

75075 Piano/ Charlotte Kurilecz

J. Willie Johnson

75104 Cedar Hill/ Beverly Grogan 770— Houston/ Merrill 0. Culver,

75115 DeSoto/ Emeat Gower

Thomas R. Kain, J. Leonard Irving,

75601 Longvlew/ William J. Frltts Doris B. Leifeste, William W. Walker,

7601- Arlington/ Norma Burks,

David W. Yeary

Bonnie J. Burson, Richard M. Flatt, 77375 Tomball/ Don W. Scott

Guy B. Garner, David T. Hill, 77546 Friendswood/ Brian Hardy

Burvin Hines, Arthur C. lowing, 77549 Missouri City/ Gerald M. Reed

David A. Sampson,

77710 Beaumont/ Robert C. Jeffrey

Gregory C. Schadt, Randy Stevenson 78228 San Antonio/ Guy Rudea

76051 Grapevine/ Gordon M. Nettleton 78403 Corpua Christi/ Bdwin A. Durham

761- Fort Worth/ Richad D. Steed, 78501 McAllen/Ray Moore, C.Davia Rankin

Stephen P.Christie, Robert S.Travis 787— Austin/ J. Bruce Bennett,

76255 Nocona/ Jack A. McGaughey

D. R. Bustion


Salt Lake City/ Robert S. Campbell, Jr.

Falls/ Duane Whitehead

Alexandria/ Wm.T. Spencer,

Michael M. Stanio

Annandale/ Robt Rosenblatt

Arlington/ Marcla F. Rachy

Bellevue/ W.F.Robinson Jr

Bothell/ R.G.Chamberlain,

Bdwnrd L. Moore

White River Junction/ Douglas R. Symmes


Arlngtn/ Wm. Thornberry Fairfax/ Hillel Samisch

Bluemont/ Peter K. Monk Harriaonburg/Roger Ford

Crewe/ Larry Williamson Lexington/Adorn T.Pantaze

Fairfax/ Stephen Kappea Vienna/ Geo.Griffenhagen


Kent/ Jeffrey P. Davis


Tommle Lou Cochrane

Kirkland/ Kirby Wilbur

Seattle/ Alexis Alvey

Vancouver/ Carl F. Koch


Charleston/ Marston Becker Spencer/ Fred H. Hardman

Parkersburg/ Robert Reilley Weirton/ J. T. Thosipson

Welch/ David H. Corcoran

Beloit/ Janet Eaaland

Cedarburg/ Glenn F. Jonas

Deforest/ Alan J. Harvey

B.Claire/Max P.Schoenfeld


BAHAMAS Blruthera,

Hatchet Bay/ Russell W. Wiley;

Nassau/ Michael Lloyd

COSTA RICA San Jose/ Marvin Soiaaln

DENMARK Havdrup/ Rans Nydam Buch

Copenhagen/ Per Cock-Clausen

DU.ANTILLRS St.Martin/ Chris Coombs

FRANCE Epernay/ Christian Pol-Roger

Lyon/ Laurent Benchemoun

Roquebrune.Cap Martin/ Wendy Reves

GERMANY W.Berlin/ Michael Segal

GREECE Athens/ Nicholas 0. Xoutsos

ISRABL Menashe/ Hillel Schnapa;

Rishon Le-Zion/ Shmuel Rotem

ITALY Cremona/ Luca Del Monte


Madison/ Lnmont C.Colucci

Milwaukee/ Wm. P. Straub

New Berlin/ Don Arnston,

John J. Merek

Silver Lake/

Paul Konlcek

Wisconsin Rapids/

Henry W. Bennett

JAMAICA Kingston/ H. Aubrey Fraser

NEW ZEALAND Auckland/ R.Barry Collins;

Wadebridge/ The Rt. Hon.

Sir John Marshall, GBB, CH, PC

SINGAPORE/ Leonard Sebastian

SOUTH AFRICA Cape Town/ P.V.Milla,

W.B. Symes; Crsighill/ J.R. Loudon;

Houghton/ Dr. L. Stein;

Port EHzsbeth/ Elisabeth Layton Nel;

Rondebosch/ J. 0. Coull

SPAIN Malaga/ Ronald I. Golding

SWBDBN Oavle/ Sture Wennerberg;

Varberg/ Per Starefors, Olof Svanberg

SWITZERLAND Zurich/ Dr.R.J.Schneebeli,

Schewiz. Winaton Churchill Sliftung



Established by the International Churchill Society in 1985, the Foundation

serves to nature continued access, by students, scholars and libraries, to all

worka by and about Sir Winston Churchill. The Foundation has set five goals:

1. Encouraging republication of out-of-print books by Churchill. (By 1988,

at least eight long-out-of-print works had been planned for reissue.)

2. Encouraging publication of crucial works about Churchill. (By 1988, the

Foundation had raised the full cost of ten 1940-65 "Companion Volumea" of the

Official Biography, previously unscheduled, with Martin Gilbert as editor.)

3. Creating a bequest department by which fine Churchill book collectiona

may be channeled to needy libraries and universities per donors' Instructions.

4. An "electronic edition" of all Churchill written and spoken words, using

CD Rom technology, for instant indexing and referral. (Project now underway.)

5. Publishing important monographa, speeches and studies. (Three were published

through 1987, two more are to follow during 1988.)

Contributions to the Churchill Literary Foundation are tax-deductible by

Canadian and American citizens. For further information contnet the Executive

Director, Churchill Literary Foundation, Box 385, Contoocook NH 03229 USA.


The Board of Directors of the Society awards honorary memberships to persons

who have made a eignificant contribution to the life of Sir Winston

Churchill, to the study of his career, or to the Society. Twenty-two Honorary

Members have been named aince 1968:

The Marqueaa of Bath

The Baroneaa Clementine Spencer-Churchill of Chartwell*

Randolph S. Churchill, M.B.E.*

Winaton S. Churchill, M.P.

Sir John Colvilie, C.B., C.V.O.t

Hurt in Gilbert, M.A.

Grace Hamblin, O.B.S.

Robert Hardy, C.B.F.

Governor the Honorable W. Averell Harriman*

Jamea Calhoun Humea

Mnry Coyne JacJman, B.A., B.litt.S.

Yousuf Karah, O. C.

The Duke of Marlborough, D.L., J.P.

Sir John Martin, K.C.M.G., C.B., C.V.O.

Anthony Montague Brotme, C.B.E., D.F.C.

The Sari Mountbatten of Burma, K.G., P.C., G.C.V.O., B.S.O.t

Oacar ftemon *

Dal ton Newfleld*

The Rt. Hon. The Lord Soamea, O.C.M.O., O.C.V.O., C.H., C.B.E.*

The Lady Soomea, D.B.B,

The Rt. Hon. The Barl of Stockton, O.M.*

The Hon. Caspar W. Weinberger, K.B.E.



Since 1971 ICS haa named two Honorary Membera as Patrons of the Society.

While never trying to define too closely this role, we send Board correspondence

to and regular conault our Patron, on all aspects of Society policy;

The Rarl Mountbatten of Burma (1971-1979)

The Lady Soamea (1986-date)


The Board of Directors have authorized the Blenheim Award aa a special

recognition of those individuals who have notably contributed to the International

Churchill Society, either by service aa an officer, director or

editor, or by dignifying Society meetings by their presence as guest speakera.

The Blenheim Award conaiata of a gold plated Churchill commemorative coin

mounted in a suitably inscribed black lucite plinthe. The recipients since the

Award was implemented in 1982, in the order received, are:

The lady Soamea, B.B.S. (1983)

Sir John Colvilie, C.B., C.V.O. (1983)

Richard M. langtmrth (1984)

Martin I Suaie Gilbert (198S)

Winaton S. Churchill, M.P. (1985)

Anthony Montague Brome, C.S.S., D.F.C. (1985)

The Hon. Caaper W. Weinberger (1985)

William Manchester (1986)

Robert Hardy, C.B.S. (1987)


Named in honor of the memory of Emery Reves—whose Cooperation Publishing

Company syndicated Sir Winston Churchill's srticles before the Second World

War, and waa responsible for publication of THE SECOND WORLD WAR and other

works outside Britain after the war—the Revea Award was first presented at

the Dallas International Convention in 1987. Consisting of an Oacar Neuron

"Alvastone" bust of Churchill mounted on a plinthe with a auitably engraved

plaque, the Revea Award ia given periodically to authors who exhibit superior

work in writing about Churchill's life and times, and/or applying Sir

Wlnaton's thought to contemporary policy of the Bnglish-Speaking democracies.

The firat Emery Reves Award waa presented by Mrs. Wendy Russell Reves

personally at Dallas to the Honorsble James Courter, USHR, for his book,



Fulton, Mo., USA: Churchill Memorial * library, October 1982

London, England: The Weatmoreland Rote], May 1983

Toronto, Ont., Canada: The King Jamea, November 1984

Boaton, Maaa. USA: The Parker Houae, November 1985

Vancouver, BC, Canada: ffarbouraide Holiday Inn, October 1986

Dallas, Tex., USA: The Adolphua, October 1987

Bretton Woods, NH, USA: The Mount Waahington, Auguat 1988

London, England: Auguat 1989






•lift '. J "ifi

1 I' i.ikrl * :

We reprint the late Dal Newfield's piece

from Finest Hour 22, partly because it is so

interesting, and partly to inspire philatelists to

construct their own Churchill "stories in

stamps," and loan us the stamps and connective

words for like articles in this space. "C-Rs" give

a new dimension to a collection.

Anzac Philately: Aussies, Kiwis, Newfoundlanders Remembered

THE Dardanelles campaign was

one of Churchill's persistent dead

cats; a scapegoat for the abortive naval

attack and subsequent landings on

Gallipoli was needed, and Winston

filled the bill handily.

Strategically, as Attlee would later

comment, it was perhaps the only imaginary

concept of the Great War —

had Churchill the supreme authority

necessary to follow-through, timid admirals

and generals could have been

forced to proceed, and to win. (At the

time the initial naval engagement with

the Dardanelles forts was broken off by

the British admiral, the Turks had only

a score of rounds left.)

Gallipoli was an especially sad story

for the Anzacs (Australia and New

Zealand Army Corps), who bore much

of the Empire's losses on Gallipoli, attacked

against odds that might have

been overcome. The difference between

victory and defeat lay in the ability of a

young Turkish colonel named

Mustapha Kernel to divine Sir Ian

Hamilton's every move and, by sheer

miracles of leadership, to move the

disorganized, dispirited and underarmed

Turks into exactly the right spot

to frustrate Hamilton's strategy and

tactics. Kernel later became Ataturk

("Father Turk"); he was destined to


lead his country into the 20th century.

On the 50th anniversary of the Anzac

campaign a mini-omnibus stamp

issue centered around the statue,

"Simpson and his Donkey," at the

Shrine of Remembrance in Melbourne.

(Private John Simpson Kirkpatrick

saved the lives of many wounded

soldiers.) These and other appropriate

Gallipoli commemoratives are shown

here. Australia's three-stamp issue was

accompanied by one stamp each from

the Australian area islands, Nauru,

Norfolk, Cocos and Christmas, and

the then-colony of Papua and New

Guinea. Together, they make an attractive

page of C-R (Churchill-

Related) Stamps.

In 1919 Newfoundland issued a set in

commemoration of her WW1 activities.

Eight are labeled "Trail of the

Caribou," and commemorate land battles.

The 1* value is subtitled "Suvla

Bay," for the scene of a bloody series of

actions on Gallipoli. Four of the set are

labeled "Royal Naval Reserve" and the

subtitle on each is "Ubique," which

means "Everywhere." All four are C-Rs

— not only because the RNR fought at

the Dardanelles, but because Churchill

was First Lord at the time.

Turkey (Scott 434, SG 762) shows a


soldier on guard beside a huge armorpiercing

artillery shell of the type used

against naval forces, probably a

Gallipoli scene. Then, too, there is a

Turkish soldier bidding his family

farewell on Scott B46, SG 766. If you

think he is leaving for Gallipoli, you

can consider him a C-R also.

In 1936 New Zealand issued a twovalue

set showing a soldier at Anzac

Cove. This is Scott SP8-9, SG 591-92,

and commemorates the 21st anniversary

of the battle.

Reaching a bit further, some collectors

might view as C-Rs Newfoundland's

stamps illustrating war

monuments (Scott 133, 143, 153, SG

130, 161, 172). When looking these up,

note that Scott 143, SG 161, shows

Placentia Bay. This was the scene of

WSC's Atlantic Charter meeting with

Roosevelt; Churchill went ashore for a

bit of relaxation in a small boat, with

his bodyguard, Inspector W.H.

Thompson — so this must be a "C-R."

Finally, returning to the "Trail of the

Caribou" set, the 24* value is subtitled

"Cambrai." As this is the site of the

first great tank battle in history, and

considering Churchill's role in the

development of the tank, I would certainly

want this one in my C-R collection.

Paintings: Banff's Bunkers

An Amusing Catalogue Correction


Bow River from Banff, 1929, Coombs #89, 14x20"

Lake Louise, 1929, Coombs #91, 14x20"

SOME ten years ago, on a visit to

Chartwell, I noticed in a corner

of the Studio two paintings by Winston

Churchill, both labelled "In the

Dolomites, c. 1926." Both were immediately

recognisable to me as scenes

in the Canadian Rockies. The first

reproduced here is of the Bow River

seen from the Banff Springs Hotel: in

the background are three unmistakable

peaks, towards which the river

meanders, with a golf course laid out

along its right bank. I knew the scene

well, as I had been to several conventions

in the hotel and had played some

very bad golf there.

I determined to ask that the

catalogue be changed; but of course my

unsupported word would not do, and I

had to prove my case. This took time

and research, which included obtaining

a coloured postcard of the same view,

consulting Vol. V of Martin Gilbert's

biography, and finding a chance

newspaper article stating flatly that,

during his triumphal tour of Canada in

1929, in company with his brother Jack

and their sons Randolph and John,

Churchill had indeed gone out on the

terrace of the Banff Springs Hotel to

paint the scene.

But I like to think that what really

clinched the matter was when I said to

Grace Hamblin, then Administrator of

Chartwell, "Look, Miss Hamblin, Sir

Winston even painted in the bunkers

on the golf course. I know those

bunkers — I've been in every one of


The small printed catalogues in the

Studio have been changed to read, correctly,

"Banff, Alberta, 1929" and

"Lake Louise, Alberta, 1929" •


It Is Not Too Late To Register . . .

Alistair Cooke, Gov. Sununu to Address Churchill Society

20th Anniversary ICS Convention, Bretton Woods, NH, August 27-28th

There is Still Time to Register But Telephone Now: (603) 746-4433.

Alistair Cooke, best known in Britain as author of the

BBC "Letter From America" and in North America as host

of PBS Television's "Masterpiece Theatre," is keynote

speaker at The Mount Washington at Bretton Woods on

Saturday August 27th. The second of two black tie banquets,

on Sunday, will be addressed by New Hampshire

Governor John Sununu. The event is the Churchill

Society's 20th Anniversary Convention, and the 25th

Anniversary of Sir Winston's American citizenship.

At the writing (20 May), over 90 people have responded

to our mailings, which virtually "locks up" the events as a

sure think — but since only 50 rooms are being held for ICS

at discount rates, The Mount Washington is filling up fast.

If you have been holding off, or thought the deadline had

passed, think again! But do ring us right away at (603)

746-4433, weekdays 9AM-5PM for latest booking information

and assistance.

Because of the splendid location and resort nature of this

famous hotel, we have purposely kept daytime convention

activities to a minimum. The main one is a Sunday symposium,

with papers delivered by distinguished academics

on the state of Churchill Scholarship today: Dr. Raymond

Callahan of the University of Delaware ("Churchill/Retreat

From Empire"); Dr. Ted Wilson of Kansas State University

("The First Summit/Roosevelt and Churchill at Placentia

Bay"), and Dr. Maxwell P. Schoenfeld of the University of

Wisconsin ("The War Ministry of Winston S. Churchill").

This panel is chaired by Prof. Hal Elliott Wert, Dean of

Kansas City Art Institute, and will be open for floor comment

and debate as papers are presented.

On display all weekend is the Donald S. Carmichael collection

of inscribed Churchill first editions, commemorative

brass and china, and various possessions of and paintings by

Sir Winston (see also Finest Hour 52). Both formal banquets

will be preceded by receptions, and will terminate early

enough to allow you ample time to meet our guests. Entertainment

planned includes "Music of the Forties," a selec-

One of the world's Grand Hotels, the

Mount Washington offers special ICS discount rates.

tion of WSC's favorite songs, and national anthems following

toasts to the President, the Queen, Canada, Australia

and New Zealand.

Prices are $109 per person per day (based on double

occupancy, $139 single) which includes full breakfasts and

dinners (banquet dinners on the weekend), and which is

offered exclusively to ICS members for any days from 26

August through 1 September. Registration: $55 per person,

to cover our guest expenses and overheads.

Queen of the White Mountains, The Mount Washington

offers a 90-year tradition of elegance and service in a

magnificent location, and a host of leisurely pursuits: golf,

horseback riding, fishing, hiking, tennis, indoor and outdoor

pools, a full children's program.

This is the last call! Call today to be part of it. •



"An essay into the field of Churchill

reading material that might be of more interest

and use than reviews, this is a column

that YOU can contribute to easily." Thus

wrote the late Dalton Newfield, editor, in

FINEST HOUR 31, from which these

notes are reprinted. If you find them interesting,

help us keep them going! Send

your notes, comments and opinions of

books by and about Winston Churchill to

the editor.

Have you noticed that almost every

book collection which goes beyond

Churchill himself has England Under

Queen Anne/Blenheim, by Trevelyn —

but almost none have the companion

Ramillies and the Union With Scotland,

equally Churchill-related? . . . Delighted

to find Famous American

Belles of the Nineteenth Century, V.T.

Peacock, Lippincott, 1901, with a

chapter and picture of Jennie Jerome. It

is very nicely bound . . . Tom Thomas

reports The Reminiscences of Lady Randolph

Churchill, Mrs. George

Cornwallis-West, was reprinted by

Cedric Chivers, 1973 . . . Centenaryyear

publications: Winston Churchill by

Elizabeth Longford, a pictorial biography

with foreword by Eden, afterword

by Winston S. Churchill, MP . . .

Winston Churchill, Henry Pelling, 724

pages including 79 pp of indices and

notes, is still generally regarded as the

best single-volume biography . . . Likewise,

Churchill/A Photographic Portrait,

Martin Gilbert, with 364 pages of

photos and cartoons, remains the

best overall photo-documentary . . .

Winston S. Churchill/His Complete

Speeches 1897-1963, edited by Robert

Rhodes James, 8 volumes (Chelsea

House/Bowker) was said to be "absolutely

complete" but wasn't — key

passages were edited including some of

the most famous.

Delightful discovery: War Impressions

by the artist Mortimer Menpes, 1901,

contains 99 watercolors of Boer War

scenes and portraits of British leaders

and personalities, two pictures of WSC,

plus several pages of text, and one of

Sunny Marlborough . . . The Great

Boer War, Arthur Conan Doyle, 1900,

has three WSC mentions including a

description of the Armoured Train Incident.

Doyle was an Army doctor and

Three years ago we predicted in these pages that values of American first

edition postwar speech books were destined to rise dramatically. They have

since appreciated by at least 400% — especially in fine, jacketed condition.

Bear in mind the press runs: Sinews of Peace 3000 copies, Europe Unite 2500,

In The Balance 2000 and Stemming The Tide only 1850. There were no later

impressions. Going, going . . .

Menpes' book has a number of pages

on him as a dedicated medico . . .

Another unusual acquisition: True

Remembrances, Philip Tilden, 1954.

Tilden was Churchill's architect when

Chartwell was rebuilt. No Churchill

when it comes to writing (he wanders),

but there are Chartwell insights that

deserve shelf-space . . . Tom Thomas

reports Battles of the Boer War, W.B.

Pemberton, 1964, was republished 1974

as a Pan Books "British Battle Series"

paperback. Mention of WSC, of course

. . . Also, TT recommends two books

of Fisherisms by Admiral Lord Fisher

himself, Memories and Records, Hodder

&. Stoughton; WSC, of course, in

these too . . .

"Leatherbound" does not exactly

describe my Lives of the 'Lustrious by

Stephen &. Lee, 1901, as it is covered

with limp calfskin, no boards. A spoof

of the great, it gives a pungent page to

"CHURCHILL, WINSTON, Unknown Quantity".

. . . How seldom we see Marlborough

with unfaded spines! I found it

recently in original dust jackets, spines

immaculate, but it wasn't cheap . . .

[There followed some remarks about

the Woods Bibliography's current

availability status. Like most of us, Mr.

Newfield ran hot and cold on Woods]:

It amazes that this work, which is by far

the best in its field, has received such


criticism. Perhaps the critics will seek to

improve it with their own? [Well, the

critics are still promising.]

After telling the bookseller I was only

interested in Churchill, he was surprised

when I pounced on a copy of The

War and Colonel Warden. [Reminds me

of how another bookseller did a

double-take when I pounced on my

copy of Long Adventure — Ed.] . . .

Possibly the most beautiful of Churchill

books, Woods D(a)5 and D(a)8, published

by Ransohoffs and printed by

the Grabhorn Press in San Francisco,

were printed in limited editions of 250

each; grab them when you see them. It

is a tragedy that Grabhorn used "selfend"

papers, the result being that

almost every copy has one of two binding

flaws front and back. Grabhorn

should have known better — but they

are still most desirable . . . Can anyone

find a copy of Cawthorne's Mr.

Speaker, Sir?. . . Was Ascalon/The Story

of Sir Winston Churchill's War-Time

Flights 1943-1945, Gerrard Tickell,

H&.S, London, 1964, ever produced in

hard cover? . . . And, if you collect

mentions of Randolph Churchill and

his son, don't overlook The Great

Saharan Mouse-Hunt, Pomeroy and Collins,

Hutchinson, London 1962; a

comic bit on RSC and some views of

the then-student WSC.


TEST your skill and knowledge! Virtually

all questions can be answered in back

issues of FINEST HOUR (but it's not

really cricket to check). Twenty-four questions

appear in each issue, the answers in

the following issue.

Questions fall into six categories, which

will enable us to develop a deck of cards for

"Trivial Pursuit" game boards: Contemporaries

(C), Literary (L), Miscellaneous

(M), Personal (P), Statesmanship (S), and

War (W).

25. Who said, "There will be a tremendous

literature about you. There will be

many, many volumes." To which WSC

replied, "I know. I wrote about 40

myself." (C)

26. For which American newspaper

syndicate did Churchill write? (L)

27. What was WSC's favorite film? (M)

28. Who shone for Churchill "like the

Evening Star"? (P)

29. What was the subject of WSC's

maiden speech? (S)

30. What pseudonym did Churchill

use during World War II when he

wished to keep his name out of the

headlines? (W)

31. Churchill and F.E. Smith founded

the Other Club in 1911. What was its

primary purpose? (C)


32. What book by the American

novelist Winston Churchill is often

confused with a book by WSC? (L)

33. Where did WSC and Lady Churchill

celebrate their Golden Anniversary?


34. Who was the artist commissioned

by Parliament to paint WSC's 80th

Birthday portrait? (P)

35. What businessmen were used to

undermine Churchill's campaign

against Dominion status in India? (S)

36. Who told Churchill, "I will fight in

front of Paris, I will fight in Paris, I will

fight behind Paris"? (W)

37. What rumor did Brendan Bracken

encourage? (C)

38. What is another title for M;y Early

Life? (L)

39. What greeting did the Churchills

use to each other instead of "hello"?


40. What was Churchill's best subject

in school? (P)

41. What was (is) Tonypandy? (S)

42. "A bright [what?] has caught the

helmets of our soldiers ..." (W)

Gaze intently at the

four central dots for

not less than 60

seconds, then stare

hard at any plain surface

for 30 seconds or



43. Who was WSC's Best Man at his

wedding? (C)

44. Where and when did tAarlborough

make its first appearance in print? (L)

45. Where and when did Churchill

first take up the paintbrush? (M)

46. What was the name of the Reves'

villa where WSC visited? (P)

47. When did WSC call the idea of war

between Britain and Germany "nonsense"?


48. What nation "suffered in every

respect by her association with the

Western democracies"? (W)



1. F.E. Smith, later Lord Birkenhead.

2. The World Crisis.

3. Three: the first Sir Winston, father

of the 1st Duke of Marlborough;

WSC; his grandson Winston S.

Churchill, MP.

4. WSC was 57. (It was 1931).

5. "A dark gulf."

6. 1942.

7. Frederick A. Lindemann, Oxford

professor of Physics.

8. In 1932

9. Lady Churchill destroyed it.

10. Rob Roy.

11. WSC was 32.

12. In Carthage.

13. Prime Minister Ramsay Mac-


14. Napoleon.

15. "Fiel Pero Desdichado" (Faithful

But Unfortunate).

16. Lead soldiers.

17. Three: 1940 Coalition, May 1945

Caretaker Govt., 1951 Conservative.

18. Coronel, off Chile, 1914.

19. Bessie Braddock, MP.

20. Savrola, published in magazine

serial form before his first book.

21. Colombia, 1945

22. "Mad Dogs and Englishmen."

23. "The Hughligans," after Lord Hugh


24. "Much." D


Churchill in Stamps



The 1922-24 period represents the only interregnum in Churchill's

six-decade Parliamentary career, but it contained key

events in his life, notably the acqusition of Chartwell — a subject

where actual Churchill commemoratives finally assert

themselves! Catalogue numbers are Scott (#) and Gibbons (sg).

We also refer to Minkus. A slashmark (/) means a Churchillrelated

(C-R) set from which any stamp may be used.

91. We complete coverage of the Irish Treaty period with an Irish

label showing Collins and Griffith — Irish patriots whom Churchill

successfully brought into negotiation, yet who've never appeared

on an Irish stamp. Illustrating the rebels is Ireland #120.

Overprints from Ireland #1/7 declare "Saorstat Eireann" (Irish

Free State), 1922. St. Vincent #389 (sg 403) shows WSC in

1940, but the image is close enough.

92. More Churchill commemoratives are Grenada #571-72 (sg

637-38); again it's an older Churchill, but as we move into the

1920s the likeness becomes more and more appropriate. This is

the period of WSC's famous interchange with Bernard Shaw

(Czechoslovakia #1584, sg 1785); his friendship with Charlie

Chaplin (Czechoslovakia #1588, sg 1789); and his regular

presence at Monte Carlo (Monaco #44/6, sg ?).

93. At last some Churchill commemoratives become useful. In

1922 WSC bought Chartwell, shown here on Cook Islands #419

(sg 508), Anguilla #198 (sg 186), Barbuda sg 204 (Minkus 201)

and St. Christopher #291 (sg 308). The Anguilla issue is the best

illustration of ChartwelFs facade after its conversion from a vinecovered

Victorian monstrosity by architect Philip Tilden. Cook

Islands shows a more private aspect, looking up from the area of

the swimming pool.

94.1 could have introduced painting in 1915, since Churchill took

it up that year at Hoe Farm, but I held back because all WSC

commemoratives show an older Churchill at the easel. Among

these are Gilbert & Ellice Islands #235 (sg 241), Haiti #603 (sg

1113) and Dominica #409 (sg 438), although Dominica has him

at Marrakesh, but never mind! Aden Kathiri sg 97 (Minkus 98) is

a Churchill still life of Chartwell flowers. Great artists who influenced

Churchill's style include Cezanne (France #370, sg

636), and Picasso (Czechoslovakia #1586, sg 1787). The Czech

set, #1582-86 (sg 1783-89) is indispensible C-R material!

95. More painting-related Churchill commemoratives — there

are so many, in fact, that I took to quoting from Painting as a

Pastime to create enough pages to hold them all. These include

Khor Fakkan (Minkus 69), Grenada #279 (sg 294), Aitutaki #113

(sg 139) and Brunei #192 (sg 202).

96. And on and on! Here Churchill the artist is portrayed by Aden

Kathiri #92 and #99 (sg 91 and 98), Upper Volta #350 (sg ?) and

Umm al Qiwain sg 64 (Minkus 65). All this stuff is of the infamous

"sand dune" variety, wallpaper that never or rarely saw

use as postage, roundly despised by collectors. Still, these pretty

frauds make for an interesting page.

a continuing series





WSC had never been an Imperialist about Ireland, and as Colonial

Secretary he spilled over constantly into other people's business,

including Ireland. It was largely through Churchill that

the compromises were worked out that established two Irelands:

a Catholic South and a protestant Ulster. Churchill didn't like

it—but both aides were immovable. It was the best he could do.

WSC worked

closely with

Irish Free

State leaders

Michael Collins

and Arthur

Griffith. They

settled for

a provisional


(1922 British

stamp overprinted


Gaelllc) and

this became

the Irish

Free State

(new overprint



The Collins-


"stamp" is

only a label;


has not


stamps for

these two


who settled

for independence

within the


instead of




....the newspapers headlined (many of them with glee), when WSC

lost his "seat for life," Dundee, in 1922. He ran several times

and lost before winning Epping, later Woodford, which he would

represent for over 40 years. Out of office he worked on his WW1

memoirs, THE WORLD CRISIS, and spent holidays In the sun.

He gambled

with mixed

success at

Monte Carlo,

met and liked

Charlie Chaplin

and sparred

with his

friend George

Bernard Shaw.

Sending WSC

two tickets

to a new play

Shaw wrote,

"Come to the

premiere and

bring a


you have one.

WSC wrote

back, "Can't

make the premiere


will come on

'•A'.f second


"huire is one.





The Churchills bought their commodius home, near Westerham,

Kent, in 1922. Chartwell became the bustling work center for

WSC when he was out of power in the Thirties. He wrote a number

of books, painted ceaselessly, built several brick walls, a

swimming pool and part of two cottages on his grounds

...was the title of a two-part essay Churchill published in

the Strand magazine in 1921-22. Ten years later he restated

his philosophy in a larger work, "Amid These Storms." His

original essay was later excerpted and published independently

with photographs of several of his paintings. Eventually he

was given the title of Honorary Academician Extraordinary

by the Royal Academy, where he exhibited beginning in 1947.

A set of

views of


Originally WSC

exhibited at

the Academy

under the name

of Mr. Winter.

When the secret

was out, he

began using his

own name.



He was most

generous in

giving paintings

away as gifts

and disclaimed

a professional



by one of



It is believed

that this


and good artist

painted 518

pictures during

his lifetime.




But most of all, Churchill painted. He had taken up the hobby in

1915, after being forced from the Admiralty, and once interested

he attached each canvas with his customary vigor. He had turned

out over 500 paintings before he died, most of them in oil, and

few portraits. "A tree," he said, "doesn't complain if I don't

do it Justice."


"I write no word in disparagement of water colours, but there

is really nothing like oils. You have a medium at your disposal

which offers real power, if you can only find out how to use it.

You can correct mistakes more easily. One sweep of the palette

knife lifts the blood and tears of a morning from a canvas and

enables a fresh start to be made..."



style was

c ompared to

that of

Cezanne; none

other than

Pablo Picasso

said he could

be a great

artist if he

applied himself

to it

fully. But

to WSC it

remained only

a pastime.



painted between



during lunch,

whenever he

could find the

time. One long

exception was

World War II,

when he painted

only one picture,

and that

a gift for a


Exhibiting in

Paris in 1920

under the name

Charles Moren,

WSC sold four


for $200 each.

He couldn't

have been badi

If his time at

a site would

be limited he

would have a


taken, sketch

in the main

details, and

complete the

work later in

his studio.


Francis Neilson: The First Revisionist

Stanley Smith Examines the Neilson Case

Against WSC and The Hinge of Fate.

IN The Hinge of Fate, the fourth volume of his war

memoirs, Winston Churchill narrates the events of 1942,

the most terrible year of the war, and the most successful efforts

following the victory of El Alamein. The first half of

the book focuses on the powerful sweep of Japanese forces

through British and European possessions in the Far East.

Rommel's counterattack in the North African desert, and

the political repercussions from the military disasters, are

also described. The second half of the book tells of the hammering

out of a unified Allied strategy and the liberation of

North Africa.

In his review of the work, Francis Neilson, in now familiar

style, claps hand to brow, wonders how the Alliance ever

managed to survive under such incompetent leadership, and

puts the Allies on the same moral level with the Axis.

It is an unusual pleasure to see Neilson "give the devil his

due" in his introductory section by complimenting Churchill

on his enormous literary output, his personal courage,

and his tenacity of purpose. Even in his first paragraph,

however, he commits what may be called Neilson's Fundamental

Fallacy, because it recurs so often, He scolds

Churchill for not rendering a complete history of the period

despite Churchill's description of his memoirs not as

history, but as "a contribution to history." Many of

Neilson's criticisms throughout his series of reviews are

made irrelevant at best by this error, though naturally he

does not hesitate to refer the reader to his own book to "fill

in the yawning gaps."

Neilson's discussion of Churchill's moral dilemma on the

questions of Soviet occupation of the Baltic states contains a

number of pertinent truisms, but it goes too far in implying

that Churchill cast aside moral inhibitions upon the

declaration of war. The higher moral cause was that of

defeating Nazi Germany, and when occasionally Churchill's

wishes on that effort had to accommodate hard necessity,

such as accommodation did not reflect on his moral sense.

Neilson's section of Pantelleria and North Africa smacks

strongly of the armchair strategist, enjoying 20/20 hindsight.

Had the capture — and continued control — of the

island been as simple and decisive as he intimates, it undoubtedly

would have been done. But circumstance, and

the deliberations of those in positions of responsibility,

determined a different course of action.

From the standpoint of the time, igniting Allied resistance

in the Balkans was strategically much more promising than

taking Pantelleria. Churchill had long been intrigued by the

possibility of reaching Nazi central Europe through the

Balkans. Things often go wrong in war, and the Greek and

Balkan campaigns went wrong in the face of overwhelming



force. The subsequent weakening of Mediterranean forces

was the price of the gamble.

Churchill and Neilson agree that Churchill should have

been better informed, by one means or another, on the state

of the military defenses at Singapore. Neilson lays much of

the blame on Churchill's supposed attempts to control

every aspect of the fighting. While it is well known that the

British have traditionally kept their commanders on a much

shorter leash than have the Americans, an inspection of the

messages exchanged during the crisis of Singapore shows

that any claim that Churchill tried to control every detail is

false. It is incidentally amusing to see Neilson the correspondent

reciting war maxims to a man of Churchill's experience.

The attack on Pearl Harbor did indeed complicate Imperial

relations, particularly with Australia. Curtin was

then personally and politically distasteful to Churchill,

which did not ease official relations. The correspondence

between the two reprinted in the book shows excellent examples

of cold fury in language that is sometimes

diplomatic, often blunt.

In an extreme and ridiculous section, Neilson labels as

"aggression" the liberation of North Africa and denies any

distinction between the Nazi conquest of central Europe

and the breaking of the Nazi grip in the French possessions.

Few would deny that Vichy France was essentially a puppet

state under Hitler, and yet Neilson takes the contrary for

granted, not even condescending to argue the point.

It hardly seems consistent, morever, to find Neilson in the

very next section calling Allied dealings with Darlan

"disgraceful." Apparently, as far as Neilson was concerned,

to use force in possessions of Vichy France was a crime, but

to act in cooperation with Vichy leaders, even to save many

lives, was no better. The Allies, in his eyes, were damned if

they did and damned if they didn't.

In his final section, Neilson is wholly erroneous in declaring

that "[t]he country was certainly not with [Churchill]"

on the basis of some by-election results. He fails to make the

enormously important distinction that most voters in 1945

made between Churchill the war leader and the Conservative

Party. The Conservative Party was seen by many as

the party of Munich and a failed past. Churchill, the man

and leader, commanded wide support and remained enormously


Neilson's unhappiness at the dangers of the postwar

world, as expressed in his concluding paragraphs, can be

shared by many of us, and was shared by Churchill. The

passage of more than 30 years without a general war since

the review was written may, however, allow us more

grounds for hope than either of them felt.

Postcards, Cachets on Wartime Themes

Some Examples From the Collection of L.L. Thomas, Surrey, UK


ABOVE: Churchill and Sir Edward Grey, a

WW1 postcard in colour, printed in

England, not posted, ABOVE RIGHT Peaslake,

Surrey, with WSC insert and speech quotation,

published by Photochrom, London

and Tunbridge Wells "by permission of the

Prime Minister." RIGHT: An all-purpose,

elaborate Naval card by Bells of Westcliff,

Essex, with space for the ship's name and

engagements to be filled in; this example

sent to a sailor's mother at Falmouth, Cornwall,

franked by a l/2d George V definitive

with wavy line postmark, stamped PASSED BY

CENSOR on 20 September 1916. BELOW:

Brown and white "Big Three" drawing,

copyright R. Aboulafia, Jerusalem; the verse

is from Ecclesiastes IV: 12. On reverse, a 3

mils Palestine stamp (Rachel's Tomb)

postmarked Tel Aviv, 11 April 1945. The

models for the busts were by M. Gur-Arieh.

The "V" was, by that date, near fulfillment.


The Battle of


CTlay 31, 1916.

BELOW: Marshal of the RAF, Sir Arthur T. Harris, Bt. GCB, OBE,

AFC, LLD died on 6 February 1984. Known as "Bomber," he was

C-in-C of Bomber Command from February 1942 and instigated

the 1000-bomber raid, but was much criticised for it later.

RIGHT: "Bomber" Harris' signature on the RAF cover marking the

30th Anniversary of VJ-Day. Illustrated are aircraft which have

been in service with 101 Squadron since 12 July 1917. The 8p

Churchill Centenary stamp franks this interesting cover.

Flown from RAF. Wadding ton Ir

Mfrtftfrifi So^tlo corftpming Bombing and w^v$(j3tion 4E w*y^ 3*^fS

tow Uvot ever Ww Uatttd Kingdom and Hank Sea.

Tots! Flight Tims: 3 hrs 40 mine.

C»pt»iti^ Fit. It R. M. AapiJisS Co-Pilot; Fg. Off, A.N; a^dt.

««. fUdw; FM, U F. J, £. Ctitctiiey Nav. Hoftet: Fit. U J. E. Cfark

Ak StctrofiJc* Oftrew: Sqn. Idf. B. R. Dtsts

100-75-50-25 YEARS AGO


SPRING 1888 • AGE 13

Lord and Lady Randolph returned to

England from a tour of Russia. His

loyalty to the Tory Party was fragile

and he was still greatly feared by

Salisbury, Balfour and the Queen.

On 25 April Lord Randolph's opposition

to his own party came into the

open. When Balfour spoke in favour of

a Private Member's Bill to extend Local

Government in Ireland, Churchill was

strongly critical of him. He thought he

had the support of Joseph Chamberlain

to oppose the Government but Chamberlain

found the criticisms a little too

sharp. Lord Randolph deeply resented

what he considered a betrayal by his

friend. When they made up,

Chamberlain suggested that Lord Randolph

must overcome his habit of making

things so difficult for his friends.

In the main, Churchill remained

silent in the House but it was apparent

that he was becoming increasingly

disillusioned with politics. When he

was greeted by a supporter in St.

James's Park with the wish that he

hoped to see him again in the Cabinet,

Lord Randolph replied: "I sincerely

hope that you will not."

Lord Salisbury remarked that among

Churchill's other problems, "his

pecuniary position is very bad." This

assessment certainly did not inhibit

young Winston Churchill from making

frequent requests for money from his

parents. On April 17 he entered Harrow

School as a member of H.O.D.

Davidson's House. Within a week of arriving

he wrote his mother for more

money. "Most boys say they usually

bring back £3 and write for more. . . .

Please send the money as soon as possible

you promised me I should not be

different to others."

Harrow at this time was in its golden

age. Still in the country, it was

separated from London by green fields.

On a clear day they could even see


Winston was having difficulty resolving

what surname he would live with.

He wrote his father: "I am called, and

written Spencer Churchill here and

sorted under the S's. I never write

myself Spencer Churchill but always

Winston S. Churchill. Is it your wish

that I should be so called? It is too late

to alter it this term but next term I may

assume my Proper name."

Winston's son later told the story

that when visitors to Harrow looked

for the child of the famous Lord Randolph

Churchill at "Bill," the Harrow

roll-call, they were heard to remark,

"Why, he's the last of all," as he filed by

in alphabetical order.

We do not have many comments by

Winston Churchill on religion but in

an essay on 'Palestine in the Time of

John the Baptist' he made the following

assessment of the Pharisees: "Their

faults were many. Whose faults are few?

For let him with all the advantages of

Christianity avouch that they are more

wicked than himself, he commits the

same crime of which he is just denouncing


SPRING 1913 • AGE 38

On 13 March the First Lord

presented his naval estimates of £48

millions to the House of Commons.

Concerns over Britain's ability to compete

with Germany overcame the reservations

expressed by Lloyd George

about the country's ability to afford it.

In fact, other views, expressed by Lord

Charles Beresford, argued that the

navy was still understaffed and illprepared.

However, the Daily Telegraph

stated that "the Navy has never

in its long history had a more persuasive

spokesman in Parliament than

the present Minister."

In April Churchill was involved in

what came to be known as the Marconi

Scandal. His colleague, Lloyd George,

was accused of improperly trading in

shares of the Marconi Company.

Churchill vociferously defended his

friend. When the editor of the Financial

News testified that Churchill

himself had profited by trading, the accused

exploded. He charged that

anyone who stated anything other

than his innocence "was a liar and a

slanderer." Not only was he believed to

be innocent by the public but his

friends were impressed by his selfdefence.

One wrote: "It is in affairs like

these that breeding asserts itself."

In May the Churchills set out on a


Mediterranean cruise on Enchantress.

They were accompanied by the Asquiths

and their daughter, Eddie

Marsh and Winston's mother. At the

time, Jennie was unhappily divorcing

her husband, George Cornwallis-West,

who had deserted her. They toured

Venice in a gondola, visited Dubrovnick

and went fishing in Vallona Bay

on the Albanian coast. At a picnic luncheon

Winston kept quoting Gray's

Ode to Spring. "At ease reclined in a

rustic state. . . ." At Athens they saw

the Parthenon. Churchill, distressed at

the sight of the collapsed columns,

wanted to bring in a group of naval

blue-jackets to set them upright. In

Sicily Prime Minister Asquith, having

reviewed his Thucydides for the occasion,

entertained the party with an account

of the Sicilian Expedition.

The British press followed their

journey with much interest. Punch

published a cartoon showing the First

Lord and Prime Minister relaxing on

the deck of Enchantress. The Prime

Minister is scanning a newspaper as

Churchill asks him: "Any Home

News?" To which Asquith replies:

"How can there be with you here?"

PUNCH 21tl Miy 191)

At Malta the First Lord disembarked,

visited the naval station and rejoined

the party at Palermo. On visiting Corsica,

Eddie Marsh and Churchill called

ac ' Napoleon's house and stood

together "for a full moment in silent


Violet Asquith, the Prime Minister's

daughter, remembered particularly the

evening card-games. Eddie Marsh was a

serious bridge player who was often

bemused by Churchill's unconventional

play. "I can still hear Eddie's cry

of pain" she has recorded, "when

Winston, having led up to and sacrificed

his partner's king, declared,

"Nothing is here for tears. The king

cannot fall unworthily if he falls to the

sword of the ace" — a dictum which left

Eddie's tears over his fallen king undried."

Anothing amusing story from the

voyage involved Clementine. On paying

a visit to the galley to talk to the

cook, she found a large and, to her

beautiful, turtle. When it became obvious

that it was destined for soup she

obtained a dinghy and a party of men

and returned the intended victim to

the Mediterranean. Despite his love of

culinary pleasures, Winston approved.

SPRING 1938 • AGE 63

In March Churchill was informed by

the Evening Standard that his contract

to write a series of articles for them on

foreign affairs was being terminated

because his views were not in agreement

with those of the newspaper's

proprietor, Lord Beaverbrook. He

quickly reached agreement with the

Daily Telegraph, although its owner,

Lord Camrose, insisted on a six-month

trial because "our policies might well be

at serious variance." These articles were

interspersed with others in the News of

the World. Millions of readers were

reading his views every week as they

were syndicated throughout Europe

and the Empire.

He reached fewer, but more influential,

audiences in his public speeches.

He believed that a national defence

campaign was necessary and was doing

his utmost to contribute his share to it.

His goal was to unite England on the

issue. "Our party must carry the Trade

Unions with them. Non-Conformists,

Churchmen and Catholics must work

for the common end." His son Randolph

published a collection of his

speeches on defense under the title

Arms and the Covenant in England and

While England Slept in the United

States (Woods A44).

Distressed by pro-German and anti-

French propaganda in Britain, he flew

to France to advocate an Anglo-French

alliance. When he was received with

full honours by the French, the

Cabinet let it be known that he spoke

only for himself and not the Government.

He believed that "if France broke

then everything would break, and the

Nazi domination of Europe, and potentially

of a large part of the world, would

seem to be inevitable." In April, Leon

Blum's Government fell and Edouard

Daladier became Premier. "A capable

and sincere man," said Churchill.

When an agreement was signed by

Britain and Italy which recognized

Italian control over Ethiopia, Churchill

called it "a complete triumph for

Mussolini." The Government also

negotiated an agreement with Ireland

to end British naval rights at several

Irish ports. Churchill saw this as

another example of appeasement. He

equated it to a withdrawal from

Gibraltar or Malta but his criticisms

further alienated him from the Conservative


In May he met with Conrad Henlein,

the leader of the Sudeten Germans,

who Churchill called "the best treated

minority in Europe." He approved of a

Henlein plan for a federal system in

Czechoslovakia but informed Henlein

that "if Germany attacked Czechoslovakia,

France and then England

would come to the latter's assistance."

When Lord Swinton resigned as

Secretary of State for Air it was assumed

by many that Churchill would

join the Cabinet. But Chamberlain was

still not inclined to offer a position to

his principal critic. For his part, Churchill

professed to be reluctant to come

aboard. "The present majority will remain

dumb to the end," he said.

SPRING 1963 • AGE 88

In April the American Congress and

President John F. Kennedy awarded Sir

Winston Churchill an honourary

citizenship of the United States of

America. The story of this honour will

be told in the next issue of Finest Hour.

In May it was announced that Sir

Winston would not contest the next

election. And so would end one of the

truly remarkable parliamentary careers

in the history of the free world. In some


ways that announcement could be

viewed as Churchill's real retirement,

because he was, as Lord Beaverbrook

has written, "in every sense a professional

politician, having trained himself

for his vocation." Robert Rhodes James

has noted that Churchill was born into

politics, and it was his devotion to his

father that shaped his early political interests,

attitudes and ambitions and

propelled his early political career.

He had entered the House of Commons

as Conservative Member for

Oldham at the end of 1900 when he

was just 26. This early period was

devoted to finishing his father's battles.

In 1904 he had crossed the floor to the

Liberals over the issue of Tariff Reform.

Two years later he was elected as a

Liberal Member for North-West Manchester.

In 1908 he had to stand for reelection

to Parliament because of his

appointment to the Cabinet as President

of the Board of Trade. He was

defeated by his Conservative opponent,

but within a month he found a

new constituency in Dundee, Scotland.

In 1922 Churchill was defeated at

Dundee and out of the House of Commons.

The Liberal Party was in disarray.

Attempts to return in West

Leicester as an Independent in 1923

and in the Abbey Division of

Westminster as a Constitutionalist in

1924 were narrow failures. Late in

1924 he was elected in Epping, near

London, and subsequently rejoined the


In 1945 Labour refused to continue

the wartime coalition and a general

election ensued while Churchill was at

Potsdam. Churchill's constituency had

changed from a country seat to a

populous borough and its name was

changed to Woodford. Despite the

breakdown of the alliance, as a mark of

respect Opposition parties declined to

stand an official candidate against the

Prime Minister in his own constituency.

But by the 1960s great diplomacy

was required to convince Sir Winston

that it was time to relinquish the

seat. Even Lady Churchill, who so

often took on impossible tasks in dealing

with him, could not bring herself to

meet this challenge alone. In the end, a

coalition of Lady Churchill, son-in-law

-Christopher Soames, and a very tactful

Constituency Chairman, Mrs. Doris

Moss, achieved the inevitable,

although Sir Winston would attend the

House of Commons several more times

until his final visit on 28 July 1964. •



As a Trustee of the Churchill Literary

Foundation (in which I feel a great honor

and thank all of you!) I have been studying

carefully all of the Society's past literature,

including the Churchill Handbook, specifically

Section 4 Part 1, the "Checklist of

Foreign Language Editions." I went immediately

to my library to see if I could be of

help with some of the questions. I have a few

answers regarding foreign editions of The

Second World War, arranged by my husband,

the late Emery Reves.

SPANISH EDITIONS: There were two, the first

in October 1954 by Los Libros de Nuestro

Tiempo (Barcelona), in gold-beige linen

boards with titles gilt. The second was one

of the loveliest Churchill sets, in fine beige

leather with dark blue, dark red and gold

decor and gilt lettering. This was published

in 1965 by Plaza y Janess A. Editores,


What is interesting is that Jose Janess was

director of Los Libros when they published

the 1954 edition.

Each of these works was in six volumes; I

have a set of the first, and four complete sets

of the second, here at La Pausa. The Dallas

Museum of Art has at least one set of each,

and sets are also in storage in Switzerland.

A Spanish-language edition was published

in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1955 by

Peuser. It is a linen type in blue with a black

rectangle and the author's signature in gilt.

They seem to have published one volume

at a time in 1948/49/50/52/53/55. It is a

hodgepodge set, with covers and contents

varying in color. I am not certain that I have

a complete set. Emery was greatly disappointed

in every way by his dealings with

them, and they never paid for the rights, as I

remember. There was even a lawsuit which

Emery, being a foreigner, did not win —

altogether a total mess! I need more time to

research this subject in Emery's files.

swiss EDITIONS: Emery did not negotiate

with a German publisher for the German

rights. You will recall his persecution by the

Germans; secondly, they were not interested

in "Churchill Memoirs" at that

period. With Alfred Scherz of Bern (not

"Zurich" as stated in the Handbook) and

Munich publishing the work, there was no

need for a German publisher.

The German language editions were for

the German-speaking Swiss, and for those

in Germany who were interested. Your question

was whether Scherz's volumes should

be considered Swiss or German. Correctly,

they are Swiss Editions in the German

language. (For the minority of Swiss who

spoke French, there was the Plon (Paris)


I hope I've helped. I've learned a lot

myself. The library is packed with so many

editions — they were a part of my life, but I

had not studied them. Now, the Society's

bibliographic efforts have created an avid

researcher in me!


I can report that a complete set of six Argentinian

Editions does reside in the library at

Chartwell, though this is a very uncommon

Spanish-language issue. Chartwell also holds

both Barcelona sets, and a set of Swiss Editions

by Scherz.

As editor of the Handbook, it was I who raised

the question of whether Scherz should be considered

a Swiss Edition, and 1 am glad to have

this input from Mrs. Reves. Now, if only I can

find a set of the lovely Spanish leather edition

for my library, 1 will have to add yet another

shelf. . .



Professor J.K. Galbraith ("The Companion

Volumes: An Appreciation," FH 57)

states, "this extraordinary writing exists

because Churchill's career antedates the use

of the telephone." Could too much use of

the telephone be the reason why Galbraith's

writing is so bad — and so out of place in a

magazine devoted to the memory of a

master of English?

Galbraith's writing is affected. When he

prissily says, "the senior Churchill," I think

of Lord Randolph. What are we to make of

"he showed up in Cambridge," when

"visited" is adequate? His sentences are so

wordy they become tortuous, and set the

reader a wearisome task of unravelling to get

the drift — and drift it is. I do not refer to

the differences between American and

British usage, but to his failure to use correct

syntax and grammar.

Re-read his first paragraph, if you can bear

it: "Certainly anyone of the requisite

literacy" means (I think) "a literate

person." Later he writes, "he asked me to

look at that part of his connective tissue

having to do with economics." Forsooth!

Throughout Sir Winston's long career,

the Old and New World instantly

understood what he had to say, and were

enchanted by the way he said it. Should

not, therefore, a university professor be able

to write with simplicity and clarity?

I need say no more than quote Sir

Winston's aphorism when encountering

jargon — "Up with this I will not put" —

and beg you not to inflict John Kenneth

Galbraith upon us again!




I am pleased to join the Society, since I

was present at the Iron Curtain speech in

Fulton, Missouri on 5th March 1946. I'm

afraid I went A.W.O.L. from high school to




I thought you might be interested in the

enclosed newspaper report of ICS honorary

member James Humes, who I saw performing

as WSC here recently. He went non-stop

for 75 minutes and I could have listened far

longer. I introduced myself as an ICS

member. "Ah yes," he said — and then proceeded

to speak of Winnie the Pooh being

named after WSC! I think you all do a super

job with Finest Hour. The "Churchill in

Stamps" series indicates a depth of

knowledge and organization not evident in

many collections. Keep up the good work.



Just a quick note to say that the ICS

booklet "Churchill's London," by Martin

Gilbert, is splendid. It is hard to believe the

good fortune of Wendy Reves' gift. I believe

it is in a way personal recompense to you for

all the effort you've put forth over the years.


The editor blushes, but not for long. To

paraphrase an apt quote, it is the Churchill

community around the world that has the lion's

heart; I have the luck to be called upon to give

the roar.


After 18 months in Florida, I am now going

through my final six months training in

the high desert of southeast Idaho. When I

first arrived I strolled over to Idaho State

University Library, and was pleased to

discover a complete set of all official

biography and companion volumes published

to date, plus a full set of the Rhodes

James Complete Speeches.



I was pleased to obtain a full set of the sixvolume

Scribners postwar World Crisis,

along with Dalton Newfield's fine facsimile

editions of Mr. Brodrick's Army and For Free

Trade. Having read The Second World War

(it took a year but was worth it) and My Early

Life, I've been anxious to get Churchill's

account of World War I. Reading it will take

awhile, as I am swamped in the study of

political theory, my major in my doctoral

program at Georgetown. But the Great

Man's words cannot be resisted. I am now

looking for a good reading edition of

Marlborough, either in the two- or sixvolume

version (or was it four)?


It was tuio (postwar Harrap), six (Scribner

pre- and postwar) and four volumes (prewar

Harrap), depending on the date and publisher.

Can anyone help Mr. "Nierman with a reading

set? His address: 204a Kirby Hall, Trinity College,

Washington, DC 20017 USA.


Being English-born, I read Professor

Callahan's two-part paper, "Churchill and

the Erosion of British Power" (FH 56/57)

with a great deal of sympathy. If he has written

anything more I would like to read it.

[Try his book, Churchill /Retreat From Empire;

Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources

Inc., 1984 — Ed.] There was, I recall, a great

deal of sympathy in the mid-Thirties for the


Britain between 1926-37 was very confused.

Many of our respected thinkers were

perceived to be admirers of Hitler: Edward

VIII and Mountbatten among the Royals,

with aides Charles Lambe and Peter Murphy.

Samuel Hoare, Michael Foot, Megan

Lloyd George, Halifax and Bevan admired

the turn-around in Germany, if not the

underlying philosophy.

The loss of two kings, unemployment and

labour unrest were somewhat assuaged by

such patriotic events as Campbell breaking

the world land speed record and Tom Skipworth

trying for the America's Cup. Henry

Cotton, Fred Perry, Amy Johnson and

Brenda Fisher kept the Union Flag flying.

But, as during the war, our military brains

were for the most part time-serving second

raters. Callahan did not have to cite this so

liberally; Liddell Hart would have been

enough. Churchill was awake, but even he

had his blind-side. One wonders if he, indeed

any of us, realised the sun was setting

on the British Empire.

As the wise men say, if there is one thing

we learn from history it is that we do not

learn from history. Our current crop of

American presidential candidates suggests

that we are witness to the replay of the

Roman and British Empires — except that

they lasted longer. We have produced a

political process, it seems to me, that is

tailor-made for second-raters. And they are

not what we want in the White House.



The unidentified gentleman in the picture

on page 23 of issue 57 is the late G.C. Rivington,

then chairman of the Harrow

School Governors.


Thank you so much for the beautiful

tribute you wrote about Christopher in

Finest Hour No. 57.

As I see there is going to be a further article

in No. 58, may I just say that there is one

error in the last paragraph but one which

must have been the result of a misunderstanding

when we spoke on the telephone.

Christopher's ashes have not been placed in

my father's grave, but close by with my

sisters and where I too one day will be. This

is just for accuracy's sake.

I loved the photograph of Grace Hamblin

and Robert Hardy on the cover.


Just a short note to say thank you for the

set of The Second World War that you sent to

Airlift Operations School Library. I expect

to have them processed and on the shelf by

next week. This really has helped us fill a

gap in our collection. We certainly appreciate

your donation. I feel sure we will

put these books to good use.




We wish to thank you for the donation of

Amid These Storms. We will be placing a

bookplate in it that will read, "Gift of the

International Churchill Society." Thank

you also for Finest Hour. We will put it in the

Magazine Room and await any patron comment.

Thank you again.


I am shocked to see on page 14 of issue no.

58 remarks attributed to me in reply to a

question on writing a book about my years

with Sir Winston.

Although I cannot recall this particular

occasion, I am indeed asked this question

from time to time. My answer has always

been that I never had any such intention. In

this particular instance I may have added

that Sir Winston had been known to say

(not to me, but to another member of his

Staff), "You are not writing, are you?" Candidly

the paragraph which disturbs me is

ridiculous, as everyone in the "Inner Circle"

will know full well. My friends certainly

know that I would never invent it.

I am sure you will find room in your next

issue to print this letter and so put the

record straight.


Thank you for your recent letter and copy

of The Dream. I appreciate your thoughtfulness

and am confident that this book will

be a helpful resource to me. It is an honor to

have such a fine book and I look forward to

reading it.

Best wishes for a successful Bretton Woods

convention. I hope my schedule will permit

me to join you at a future meeting.



Thanks to very generous assistance from

Mr. Winston S. Churchill, MP, Lt. Grodzinski

in Canada and I are marking strong

progress at a full and accurate compilation

of all Sir Winston's orders and decorations

for publication in Finest Hour. [We are

delighted! - Ed.]








CA: ALAMO/Kenntah Barker; BALBOA

IS/Virginia Badham; SAN DIEGO/West Kennedy;

SANTA ROSA/Albeit LaFerriere

DC: WASHTN/Judith Plunkett

FL: LEESBURG/Margaret Lewis; PTE.

VEDRA BCH/Paul Fletcher

IA: SIOUX CITY/E.J. Vornbrock

IL: CHICAGO/Dorothy Boyden, Harry Hart,

Karen Meister, Jay Schmidt, M/M H. Sollitt;

OAK PK/Michael Ralston, Robt. Tagler;

ROCKFORD/Loren Smith

IN: DYER/Maurice Nymeyer; MER-

RILL VILLE/Donald Short

KS: TOPEKA/Jay Watson


LA: HARAHAN/J. Dunlap, Jr.; LAFA-

YETTE/Barbara Oster

MD: BROOKVLE/Jerry O'Conor;

ROCKVLE/Dr. Barrie Ciliberti

MI: ANN ARBR/Michael Malley; BIRM-

NGHM/Alec Rogers; TRENTON/Calvin Voegtle

NH: HOPKINTON/Frank Wardley

NJ: ENGLWD/Richard Leech; LIV-

INGSTN/Jas. Lynch; PRINCETN/Peter Brennan;

WESTFLD/Barton Boschoff

NM: LAS CRUCES/John Reynolds

NY: APO/Dave Lounsbury; FPO/David

Hayes; MT. KISCO/Bruce Kennedy;

NYC/Michael Daly, Norman Hickman, Philip


OK: HAILEYVILLE/Michael Studebaker


PORTLND/William Schaud


John Baesch; WRIGHTSVLE/Ronald Kohr Jr.

TN: JFSN CITY/Robt. Wilson; NASH-

VLE/Dudley Fort, Oscar Hofstetter, Ronald

Ligon, F.T. Marion, Jr., Calvin Pastors, Brian

Sinclair-Whitely, John Thomison


SPGS/Wm. Nicholson; DALLAS/Henry Coke;

HOUSTON/Thos. Kain, Doris Leifeste, Irving

Leonard; PLANO/Charlotte Kurilecz; SAN

ANGELO/J.W. Johnson

VA: CREWE/J. Larry Williamson



FRANCE: LYON/Laurent Benhemoun; RO-

QUEBRUNE/Wendy R. Reves

NEW MEMBERS, continued


W.A.: LYNWOOD/Ray Perry


BC: NANAIMO/Stanley Freestone; NEW

WESTMINSTER/Joseph Raphael; N. VAN-

COUVER/Leslie A. Strike; VAN-

COUVER/Barry Kirkham, W.C. Koerner, Saul

Kohn, Lionel S. Such, Stan Szary, Vancouver

Public Library, C.S. White, Bryan E. Yirush;

VICTORIA/Edw. Bowden-Green, Leone

Trubkin; W.VANCOUVER/John Goodger


M.C. Shonfield; MARKHAM/David Hencher;


Marlene Allan, G.E. Campbell; UNION-


G.W. Churton, John Piddington; WOOD-

STOCK/Mary Alexander

NB: GAGETOWN/Dr. John Moore

NEWFNDLND: ST. JOHN/Tim Horgan, Jas.

H. Steele



Urgently wanted to complete my collection of

ICS commemorative covers: issue no. 2, the "Act

of Union" cover, dated London, 18 September

1970. Details to A.H. Benham, 4 Walpole Walk,

Rayleigh, Essex SS6 8HY, England


New list of hundreds of books by and about

Churchill. Includes pre-1940 titles and a good

selection of Woods, B,C,D items. Send SAE

(UK) or dollar bill for airmail catalogue. Mark

Weber, 35 Elvaston Place, London, SW7,


Write for our latest catalogue of works by and

about Sir Winston: books "by" and "about,"

autographia, paintings, records priced from one

dollar up. Churchillbooks, Burrage Road, Contoocook,

NH 03229 USA

"The Hour of Decision" Churchill plate

autographed by Sarah Churchill, originally sold

for $150; we have two and would like to sell

them for $75 each. Dorothy Collins Cramp,

29919 Valle Olvera, Temecula CA 92390 USA.

BPO stamp-subject postal cards: 10 different including

Churchill 5 l/2p issue. Wish to sell to a

fellow Anglophile who will appreciate them.

Edith Ellexson, 404 23rd St, Apt 1, Richmond

CA 94804 USA.

Official Biography: Biographic Volumes I-V,

Companion Volumes I-IV, 15 volumes in all.

Please contact A.B. Palk, Wellesley House, 63a

Vansittart Road, Windsor, Berks. UK

Churchill stamps for sale or swap. Write for

list. Peter Jenkins, 8 Regnans Ave., Endeavour

Hills, Victoria, Australia 3802.

Classified adverts are free to members, but subject

to editing for space. Please send yours to the editor.

Copy deadlines: Summer 2 wks, Autumn 1 Sef>,

Winter 1 Dec, Spring 1 Mar.


Q. I've heard it said, "Churchill had as many

lives as a cat — and he needed them." How

many near-misses did he have?

A. He needed more than nine lives. He fell

out of a tree (1893), nearly drowned in Lake

Lausanne (1893), fell off a camel (1921), fell

off a polo pony (1922), fell into a lake while

goose hunting (1928); when he fell from a

horse he claimed £2 a week for six weeks

from a London newspaper under its free insurance

scheme. He had car accidents in

Whitehall, Cairo and Kent (although

whether he, one of the world's worst

drivers, was behind the wheel at these

events we don't know).

In 1931 he was knocked down by a New

York taxicab. In 1919 he was passenger in a

plane which landed in a ditch after taking

off near Paris. In Flanders, 1916, a 4.2 shell

landed in his room. He had five attacks of

pneumonia, suffered from gastroenteritis,

appendicitis (1922), tonsilitis (1928),

paratyphoid (1932) and irritations of the skin,

eyes and lungs. However, he never suffered

from nicotine or alcohol poisoning.

(Answered with the help of John Frost's

Historical Newspaper collection, and a cutting

from Leader magazine, 2 April 1949.)


Q. At our dinner for Robert Hardy at the

Reform Club last September (FH 57), someone

mentioned that Churchill had been a member of

the Reform Club, but resigned on a matter of

principle. What was it?

A. We asked member Norman Rogers of

Suffolk to follow this up; he consulted

Simon Blundell, Club librarian, who refers

us to a privately printed book, The Reform

Club 1836-1978, by George Woodbridge.

Here is the story . . .

On 18 December 1912 Baron Maurice Arnold

de Forest, Liberal MP for West Ham

North, was entered in the Candidates'

Book, proposed by Churchill and seconded

by Eugene Wason, a member who actively

promoted the admission of MPs. (Wason

had seconded Churchill's own nomination.)

De Forest came up for election 23 January

and was blackballed.

Although legend has it that members and

seconders are obliged to resign if their

nominees are blackballed, this is untrue and

was never routine procedure. Thus it was a

surprise that both Churchill and Lloyd

George resigned over de Forest's rejection.

(The Baron was quite a rake, and also the

adopted son of Austrian Jewish banker

Baron Hirsch. According to Randolph

Churchill's official biography, Volume II,

when discussing the creation of peers to pass

the Parliament Act in 1911, George V told

Asquith the only one he would never accept

was de Forest.)

Because of their close friendship with de

Forest, both Churchill and Lloyd George

thought it necessary to resign from the

Reform Club. Churchill, writes author

Woodbridge, "never returned to the Club

and eventually left the Liberal Party [but]

Lloyd George did return in 1917."


A very limited supply remains available, bound H|HHH!IB!!^^HH[H^HHIH^Ii

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COLLECTED ESSAYS: The only compila- Hf'S'

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Advert (mock-up) running in the "Winnie" play programme

Honour the memory of

Sir Winston Churchill

in an immediate, positive and

practical way - become a sponsor

or a 'Friend' of the ICS

The International Churchill Society - now an autonomous UK charity - was

founded in 1968 Its aim is the preservation of the memory of this many sided genius

- this ' Great Man of the Century' - and of the priceless legacy he bequeathed to the

world. Part of this legacy was his indomitable ability to think POSITIVE in

the face of all adversity.

The ICS is now seeking corporate or individual sponsorship for the following

"POSITIVE THINKING" projects for schools





The International Churchill Society also invites you to honour Sir Winston's

memory, in a practical and positive way, by becoming a 'FRIEND' of the ICS. As a

new 'FRIEND' you will receive a complimentary copy of Martin Gilbert's

'Churchill's London' and thereafter a quarterly copy of the Society's journal. 'The

Finest Hour'.

Give generous support to the

International Churchill Society

All enquiries for sponsorship and enrolment as a JneiuT to:

Richard Haslam-Hopwood (OH), Flat 1,20Pembndge Crescent, London WU 3DS

(Telephone 01 229 4918)

rRTTSTFFS np iri/tnc- Ladv Soames, the Duke of Marlborough, Lord Charles Spencer-

ChurchUl the Hon Nicholas Soames MP, the Hon Celia Sandys-Perkins, Geoffrey Wheeler Esq,

Colin Spencer Esq, Richard Haslam-Hopwood Esq

THE strength of the International Churchill

Society in the UK has always been

the number of its members who have

had, some time or other, close personal

contact with Sir Winston. However,

over the years, we have always lost

more of these members than we have

gained and the Society was fast becoming

a fan club with no real purpose. It

was decided that a change of direction

was required, with a sense of Churchillian

purpose, following the standards

set in his lifetime by Sir Winston.

The best way to achieve this was by applying

for UK charitable status, with a

clear definition of our mission.

This charitable status has now been

approved. The founding Trustees are

The Lady Soames, The Duke of

Marlborough, Lord Charles Spencer-

Churchill, The Hon. Celia Sandys

Perkins, The Hon. Nicholas Soames

MP, and the ICS/UK directors, Geoffrey

J. Wheeler, Colin A. Spencer, and

this writer.

The purpose of the Charity is to

educate the young, namely those of

school age, in that major Churchillian

characteristic, "Positive Thinking."

This is to be achieved by the creation of

"Young Winston Awards" in Oratory,

Art and Literature, and sponsors are

now being actively sought.

Under UK Charitable Law, any UK

Charity must be totally autonomous.

Therefore, all Trustees, UK citizens

and funds must be used for the benefit

of UK citizens. To preserve its relationship

with the "umbrella organisation"

of ICS, and those charitable entities

registered in the United States and

Canada, we have become an associate

of these organisations — a member of

the "commonwealth" of ICS Charities

throughout the world.

We believe that this is the start of a

new era in the fortunes of the International

Churchill Society in the UK —

and it is hoped that we will be in full

flow by the 25th Anniversary of Churchill's

death in 1990, when it is planned

that we will be going national, with the

Young Winston Awards. Thus we will,

to some extent, be emulating the contributions

made by other ICS Branches

around the world, perpetually to commemorate

the memory of the greatest

man in the history of the English-

Speaking Peoples.

To help kick-off our efforts, the ICS

Board of Directors have scheduled the

1989 Churchill Society Convention for

London in mid-August.


The continent of Australia is:

• the only nation that is a continent

• the smallest continent

• the flattest

• the driest (except for Antarctica).




Brisbane and Adelaide. Sydney is the continent's

"downtown" with 3,365,000 inhabitants, followed

by competitor Melbourne with 2,833,000 and

Brisbane with 1,150,000. Perth weighs in at

995,000, Adelaide at 978,000, and Canberra, the

planned capital city, at 270,000.

Which explains why:

• less than 10 percent of the land is arable

• the largest lake, Eyre (3,600 square miles), is

usually bone-dry

• where a bar will do for a billabong, Australians

are the greatest consumers of alcohol in the

English-speaking world.

Roughly the size of the coterminous United States

at 2,966,368 square miles, Australia is also among

the world's least densely populated countries,

averaging only five people per square mile. Thus:

• there are ten times as many jumbucks as people

• in the arid outback, where it takes 40 acres to

graze a single sheep, are the world's largest stations,

including Anna Creek cattle station in South

Australia, at 12,000 square miles

• Australia leads the world in the export of beef and

veal —624,000 tons in 1987 —and is second, after

New Zealand, in mutton and lamb—293,000 tons

• wool production is 30 percent of the world's

entire output.

Australia is flat, the highest peak, Kosciusko, being

only 7,310 feet—but its Great Barrier Reef is the

world's longest at 1,250 miles, more than half as long

as its longest river system, the Murray-Darling

(2,300 miles).

Elsewhere are rocks, not just any rocks, but:

• the oldest known fragments of the earth's crust,

from the Jack Hills, at 4.3 billion years

• 28 percent of the free world's uranium, along

with coal reserves that match Saudi Arabia's oil in

potential energy

• formations that supply nearly 90 percent of

Australia's oil needs

• almost all the world's opals.

Small wonder that 80 percent of Australia's 16

million people (including 200,000 Aborigines)

live in cities, mainly along the fertile coast between

In statistical terms, Australians have it better

than most:

• per capita income, at $11,200 U. S., is one of the

world's highest

• life expectancy, 76 years, is one of the world's


• literacy is virtually 100 percent

• workers earn from four to six weeks of vacation


• some 70 percent own their homes

• voting is compulsory

• which may or may not explain why Australians

spend twice as much on gambling as on national


Aussie blokes have dinkum reasons for thinking

their land is bonzer, so shout them a drink, mate,

and wish them a happy anniversary.


billabong—water hole

billy—container for boiling tea

bloke— man

bonzer— great, terrific

bush—country away from the city

chook — chicken

dingo—Australian wild dog

dinkum, fair dinkum—honest, genuine

dinki-di—the real thing

fossick — to prospect for gold or gems


jwnbuck — sheep

make a good fist—do a good job

ocker—basic down-to-earth Aussie

outback—remote bush

pom — English person

shout—buy a round of drinks

station—sheep or cattle ranch

Strine—what Aussies speak

swag—bedroll and belongings

tucker— food

ute—utility or pickup truck

waltz matilda—carry a swag


National Geographic, February 1988

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