Emerald Ash Borer - New York Invasive Species Information

nyis.info

Emerald Ash Borer - New York Invasive Species Information

David Cappaert, Michigan State University, bugwood.org

Emerald Ash Borer:

An Introduction

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources - Forestry Archive, Bugwood.org

EAB Basics

The Emerald Ash Borer is a

small green beetle whose

larva feed on the living

tissue of ash trees between

the bark and the wood.

No ash tree is safe from EAB.

Unless precautions are

taken, ALL ASH TREES WILL

BE KILLED BY THE EMERALD

ASH BORER.

James W. Smith, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


What does this mean

• 1 in 14 trees in New York is an ash tree

• Thousands of ash line our trees, shade our parks

and fill our public spaces.

• Thousands more dot our home landscapes

• Millions can be found in our woodlots and along our

rivers and streams.

EAB puts all

of these trees

in danger.

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural

Resources - Forestry Archive, Bugwood.org

Result

When Emerald Ash Borer infest an ash, there is

only one result unless that ash is treated.

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


The EAB in North America

• First recognized as a problem near Detroit,

MI in 2002

• Established in mid 1990’s

• Hitchhiked in wood packing material

• Has spread to 15 states

and 2 Provinces

• Movement by:

– Firewood

– Nursery stock

– And flight

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab

Howard Russell,

Michigan State University,

Bugwood.org


December 2006

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


October 2009

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


August 2012

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


Emerald Ash Borer Impact

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


No untreated ash materials can be

moved from these areas

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


EAB Life cycle

Eggs

David Cappaert, Michigan State University, forestryimages.org

Adults lay eggs in

mid to late June

Eggs laid on bark

surface, cracks

Hatch in 7 to 10

days

David Cappaert, Michigan State University, Bugwood.org

Larvae

David Cappaert, Michigan State University, bugwood.org

Larva – four instars- 301 to 315 days- June - April

“nested bells” appearance of body segments

“S” shaped feeding pattern

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


EAB Life cycle

Pre pupa

David Cappaert, Michigan State University, bugwood.org

Pupa

David Cappaert, Michigan State University, bugwood.org

Pupa – about 28 days: May

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


Daniel Herms, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.org

David Cappaert, Michigan State University, bugwood.org

“D” shaped emergence holes

EAB Life cycle

David Cappaert, Michigan State University, bugwood.org

Adult – female lives 21 to 25 days:

May and early June

2-3 week maturation feeding on leaves

Female lays 60 to 90 eggs

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


What to look for:

Signs of EAB

• “D” shaped exit hole

• “S” galleries under the

bark (or larvae)

David Cappaert, Michigan State University, Bugwood.org

David R. McKay, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


Symptoms of EAB

Woodpecker foraging

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


What to look for: Symptoms of EAB

Bark splitting

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


Signs & Symptoms

Epicormic, or water sprouts

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


Symptoms of EAB

Canopy thinning- smaller leaves and leaflets

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


Tree death generally

takes 2 to 3 years.

Infestations in the

Midwest are lasting

for up to 11–12 years.

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


We want to SLow Ash Mortality- SLAM

Through:

–Surveying and Early Detection

– Visual signs and symptoms

– Purple traps and girdled trees

– then Population Reduction

• Remove infested trees and destroy EAB

• Create clusters of girdled trees to attract

female EAB

– They are removed and destroyed after egg laying

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


Tactics

Long Term

• Resistance

– ID and incorporate genetically into native species

• Just getting started

• Biological Controls

– Parasitoid wasps in culture (Asian and native).

Fungus a possibility

Infested Trees

• Mechanical

– whole tree removal or chipping to 1 inch in 2 dimensions of infested

trees (or removing the bark outer ½ of wood, interior wood is still

useable)

• Insecticides

– Systemic Insecticides are the only truly effective EAB insecticides

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


Community

Trees

Think of this

as your community.

Each of these purple

dots is an ash tree.

• What are your

options

• Who will be

impacted by your

management

decisions

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


Tree Management Option 1: Remove

– Street tree removal

Range of $150 to $2000 + per

tree

• Size of tree, condition of tree,

location of tree, and contractor

versus staff all affect price.

– Residential Trees can be even

more

– In forests, conduct a timber or

firewood harvest

Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural

Resources - Forestry Archive, Bugwood.org

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


Tree Management Option 2: Insecticides

Issue one- different types of insecticides:

– Effectiveness/appropriateness of

individual chemicals depends on

pest pressure at each location.

• Depending on your distance from an

infestation, and the size of that infestation there are

different recommendations. See http://www.nyis.info/eab

for maps and recommendations

– Generally, there is less risk to your ash tree if it is more than 10

miles from an infestation zone.

– Effectiveness of insecticides vary

• Imidacloprid – only non-professional chemical registered

• Emamectin benzoate (Tree-age) – most effective, can kill EAB in

an already infested tree (up to 40% infested)

• Azadirachtin (TreeAzin) – neem seed product, new, inconclusive

– Insecticides have different application frequencies

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


Tree Management Option 2: Insecticides

• Issue2 : Condition of

Tree – ineffective spread of

systemic insecticides to the

crown of old and structurally

damaged trees

Is this the tree

you intend to

save

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


Tree Management Option 3: Do Nothing

Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources - Forestry Archive, Bugwood.org

There is the option of not

removing or treating

trees. In forested and

unused areas this is a

fine option. Removing

all of the ash trees

from an area will not

protect other ash

trees.

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


Tree Management Option 3: Do Nothing

For street trees, park

trees, and yard trees

this is not an option.

Dead ash trees are a

public safety issue.

Dead ash trees lose

their limbs which can

cause damage to people

and property.

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab

Steven Katovich, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org


Tree Management Option 3: Do Nothing

In utility right of ways and along rural roads, ash

trees are a liability, but that human safety

liability may be lower based on exact location.

But, there are

still costs

associated

with clearing

debris from roads

and wires.

Rebekah D. Wallace, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


Woodlot Ash Trees

Now is the time to think about what you have and

what you want to do

• What are your goals

• Utilization:

• lumber

• firewood

• Recreation:

• dead ash could be

a safety hazard

• What do you have Are they big enough/good enough

to be used

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


Woodlot Management

• Don’t need to remove all ash trees

– Won’t slow down EAB once infestation starts

growing

• Don’t have hasty harvests

– Could have 10+ more years of growth

Leah Bauer, USDA FS NRS, Bugwood.org

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


Woodlot

Management

• Don’t sacrifice other

trees, or take trees

not included in your

plan, just to justify a

timber sale.

It may not be worth

it.

• Work with a Forester

– take inventory

– write a plan

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab

Chili Site - John Gibbs, NYS DEC


Community Trees: How do you decide

what to do

• Where are your ash trees What is their

condition

– Which ones will be a hazard.

– Locate the closest infestations

• What are the costs to remove vs. treat

(or a combination)

• Consider the impact of each scenario on the your

home, community or landscape

• What are your long term goals for your property

• What are your community’s long term goals

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


Management Considerations- Pest

Pressure

Pest Pressure is a critical factor in management decisions:

• The number of individual bugs attacking a tree

determines:

– How quickly a tree will be killed

– Rate of spread (the more insects the faster it will be)

• Base Your Treatment Decisions on Pest Pressure

– Timing of management decisions

– Pesticide effectiveness varies

• Remember that Pest Detection is difficult at low

Pest Pressure

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


Tiers and Management

• Tier I- Small Infestation

– Do not apply insecticides until the leading edge of the

EAB infestation is within 1 mile of your tree

– Now is the time to inventory, assess, and plan

• Tier II- Mid- Size Infestation

– Do not apply until EAB infestation is within 5 miles

– Consider implementing your plan

• Tier III- Large Infestation

– Do not apply until EAB infestation is within 10 miles

– Consider immediate plan implementation

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


No untreated ash materials can be

moved from these areas

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


Impact of EAB

St. Paul, MN Ash Removal- Minn. Public Radio, Nov 2009

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


Impact of EAB

St. Paul, MN Ash Removal- Minn. Public Radio, Nov 2009

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


What can you do to NOW help Ash Trees

• Slow the Spread- Don’t Move Firewood

• Serve on an EAB Community Preparedness Planning

committee to make decisions for your community.

• Help Conduct Community Tree Inventories

• Monitor for EAB

• Report Suspicious Sightings

– Local CCE Office http://www.cce.cornell.edu/

– DEC Hotline (866)640-0652

– http://beetledetectives.com/

• Collect Ash Tree Seed

http://www.nsl.fs.fed.us/geneticconservation_ash.html

• Educate Yourself and Your Friends and Neighbors

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


LOCAL EAB Task Forces

A place for local experts and volunteers to

gather and develop local EAB response plans

• EAB Task Forces can

– Educate the public

– Provide a forum for local resource identification

and sharing

– Coordinate and train volunteers

• Inventory, monitor, and educate

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


More Assistance

• CCE New York Invasive Species Information

Web Site: www.nyis.info

• Cornell Cooperative Extension:

www.cce.cornell.edu

• NYS Department of Environmental

Conservation: www.dec.ny.gov

• NYS Agriculture and Markets:

www.agmkt.state.ny.us/PI/eab.html

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


Thoughtful solutions result in a better outcome.

We may not be able to stop it right now, but we

can Slow The Spread

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab


Credits

NYS EAB Web Site: http://nyis.info/eab

• Presentation prepared by

– Rebecca Hargrave, Horticulture and Natural Resources

Extension Educator, Cornell Cooperative Extension of

Chenango County, jrh45@cornell.edu, and

– Mark Whitmore, Forest Entomologist with Cornell

University Department of Natural Resources

mcw42@cornell.edu

• Funded by USDA/APHIS and

Cornell University

July 26, 2012

Preparing for the Emerald Ash Borer

http://nyis.info/eab

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