Road Traffic Safety Research and Education in Israel – Peer review ...

Road Traffic Safety Research and Education in Israel – Peer review ...

Road Traffic Safety Research and Education in Israel – Peer review ...


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קרן רן נאור לקידום מחקר בטיחות בדרכים<br />

R A N N A O R F O U N D A T I O N<br />

for advancemenent of road safety research<br />

<strong>Road</strong> traffic safety research <strong>and</strong><br />

education <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong><br />

<strong>Peer</strong> <strong>review</strong> by an International Experts' Advisory Committee

Dear Reader<br />

March 2007<br />

We have the pleasure to present you a copy of the f<strong>in</strong>al report of an International<br />

Experts' Advisory Committee on the subject of:<br />

" <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Traffic</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> <strong>Research</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Education</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>".<br />

The experts were <strong>in</strong>vited by the Ran Naor Foundation for the Advancement<br />

of <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> <strong>Research</strong> <strong>and</strong> Yad Hanadiv (the Rothschild Foundation) <strong>in</strong><br />

the thought that <strong>in</strong>dependent road safety experts of <strong>in</strong>ternational st<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

could provide useful <strong>in</strong>sights concern<strong>in</strong>g the scope <strong>and</strong> quality of road safety<br />

research <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>, identify strengths <strong>and</strong> gaps, <strong>and</strong> recommend improvements.<br />

The preparation of the next generation of road safety research <strong>and</strong> the plann<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>and</strong> implementation of research were an <strong>in</strong>tegral part of the evaluation. The<br />

Committee completed its <strong>review</strong> <strong>in</strong> December 2006.<br />

We believe this report provides, for the first time, a comprehensive description<br />

of road safety research <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>.<br />

The Ran Naor Foundation has already taken a decision to work towards<br />

implementation of the recommendations, both <strong>in</strong> its own work <strong>and</strong> at the<br />

National level, <strong>in</strong> cooperation with other agencies fund<strong>in</strong>g road safety research.<br />

We hope the report will be of use to you <strong>in</strong> your road safety work.<br />

S<strong>in</strong>cerely,<br />

Avi Naor<br />

Chairman of the Board,<br />

Ran Naor Foundation<br />

Ariel Weiss<br />

Director<br />

Yad Hanadiv<br />

(the Rothschild Foundation)

Table of Contents<br />

1 Introduction<br />

1.1 The aim of the report<br />

1.2 The road safety situation <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong><br />

1.3 International th<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g on road safety<br />

1.4 The implications for road safety research <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong><br />

5<br />

6<br />

7<br />

8<br />

10<br />

2 Current state of affairs <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong><br />

2.1 <strong>Road</strong> safety research<br />

2.2 Clients of research<br />

2.3 Professional education <strong>and</strong> practitioner tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

2.4 Knowledge transfer<br />

2.5 International cooperation<br />

13<br />

13<br />

14<br />

14<br />

15<br />

17<br />

3 Conclusions <strong>and</strong> recommendations<br />

3.1 Organization <strong>and</strong> fund<strong>in</strong>g of research <strong>and</strong> professional education<br />

3.2 Future road safety research themes<br />

21<br />

21<br />

24<br />

4 References<br />

29<br />

5 Annexes<br />

31<br />

Annex I<br />

Annex II<br />

Annex III<br />

Annex IV<br />

Annex V<br />

Annex VI<br />

The International Experts' Advisory Committee<br />

The Terms of Reference<br />

Excerpt from the She<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>-report<br />

The providers of research<br />

The clients of research<br />

PowerPo<strong>in</strong>t presentation<br />

31<br />

32<br />

34<br />

37<br />

41<br />


Book Name<br />

5<br />

Introduction<br />

<strong>Israel</strong>’s ambition to reduce the number of casualties (killed <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>jured people) of road<br />

crashes has recently been reconfirmed by the government through the approval of a national<br />

programme for road safety based on the so-called She<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>-report (named after the chairman<br />

of the committee that prepared the report) (She<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>, 2005). Further, The Knesset on the<br />

12th of July 2006 approved the Governmental proposal to establish a strengthened National<br />

<strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Authority with significantly <strong>in</strong>creased fund<strong>in</strong>g. On 29 November 2006, when<br />

address<strong>in</strong>g the 5th Or Yarok road safety conference the Prime-M<strong>in</strong>ister Mr. Ehud Olmert<br />

publicly announced that <strong>Israel</strong> will work with a quantitative target for road safety <strong>and</strong> set a<br />

target of no more than 300 deaths per annum by the year 2015.<br />

<strong>Israel</strong>’s position <strong>in</strong> sett<strong>in</strong>g quantitative targets is not unique; many countries take a similar<br />

position. The European Union has a quantitative target of a 50% reduction <strong>in</strong> the number of<br />

fatalities over the ten years 2000 - 2010 (European Commission, 2001); other countries such as<br />

<strong>in</strong>dividual EU member states, Australia, USA <strong>and</strong> Canada have set similar targets, with the<br />

Russian Federation be<strong>in</strong>g a recent example (ECMT, 2006). At the highest level of government the<br />

wish has been expressed <strong>in</strong> some countries to reduce the death toll on the roads, by for example<br />

president Chirac <strong>in</strong> his so-called Bastille-speech on 14 July 2002 <strong>and</strong> president Put<strong>in</strong> when he<br />

addressed the Duma <strong>in</strong> 2005 <strong>and</strong> 2006. Develop<strong>in</strong>g countries are also start<strong>in</strong>g to put road safety<br />

higher on their political agenda (Peden et al.,, 2004, Commission for Global <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong>, 2006).<br />

<strong>Road</strong> safety has been improved dramatically <strong>in</strong> many highly-motorized countries. The number<br />

of fatalities <strong>in</strong> the Netherl<strong>and</strong>s, for example, decreased from more than 3200 <strong>in</strong> 1972 to about<br />

800 <strong>in</strong> 2005, a reduction of 75% <strong>in</strong> thirty years, despite motorisation <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g dramatically<br />

along with the number of kilometres travelled. Other countries are able to report similar<br />

successful developments. In <strong>Israel</strong> too, the number of fatalities decreased from 740 <strong>in</strong> the<br />

early 1970’s to less than 400 <strong>in</strong> the mid 1980’s, however it has s<strong>in</strong>ce rema<strong>in</strong>ed around 450<br />

fatalities <strong>in</strong> the 2000’s. Despite these ga<strong>in</strong>s road trauma rema<strong>in</strong>s the s<strong>in</strong>gle major cause of<br />

premature death <strong>in</strong> motorised societies.<br />

About 23,000 people died <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong> due to wars <strong>and</strong> terrorism s<strong>in</strong>ce the birth of<br />

the State of <strong>Israel</strong>. About 29,000 died <strong>in</strong> a road crash <strong>in</strong> the same time period.<br />

Source: Central Bureau of Statistics <strong>Israel</strong><br />

A wealth of evidence is available from all over the world suggest<strong>in</strong>g that at least a part of<br />

these improvements is caused by many successful road safety <strong>in</strong>terventions (Johnston,<br />

2006, Peden et al., 2004, Wegman et al., 2006). Modern cars are safer for their occupants<br />

than cars built twenty, or even only ten years ago, modern plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> design of roads <strong>and</strong><br />

streets result <strong>in</strong> lower crash <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>jury risks. Legislation <strong>and</strong> enforcement of important safety<br />

behaviours, such as dr<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> driv<strong>in</strong>g, us<strong>in</strong>g safety belts <strong>and</strong> speed management, have<br />

resulted <strong>in</strong> major steps forward <strong>in</strong> many countries dur<strong>in</strong>g the last two to three decades, as<br />

have improvements <strong>in</strong> trauma care.

6<br />

1. Introduction<br />

7<br />

1. Introduction<br />

1.1 The aim of the<br />

report<br />

These reductions <strong>in</strong> the number of road casualties <strong>and</strong> even more <strong>in</strong> the risks run on our<br />

roads have resulted not only <strong>in</strong> substantially less pa<strong>in</strong> <strong>and</strong> suffer<strong>in</strong>g of those <strong>in</strong>volved <strong>in</strong> road<br />

crashes but also <strong>in</strong> greatly reduced economic costs to society.<br />

In recent years several steps were taken to improve road safety <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>, not least due to the<br />

activities of Or Yarok. The She<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong> report (She<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>, 2005) did a sound analysis of road safety<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong> - see also Annex 3. - <strong>and</strong> the report conta<strong>in</strong>s several important recommendations.<br />

The M<strong>in</strong>ister of Transport <strong>and</strong> <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> established a new National <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Authority<br />

to consolidate road safety policies <strong>and</strong> to m<strong>in</strong>imize the number of road traffic crashes <strong>and</strong>,<br />

as already noted, recently a law was accepted by the Knesset approv<strong>in</strong>g this reorganization<br />

<strong>and</strong> provid<strong>in</strong>g its f<strong>in</strong>ancial base. These can be considered as important first steps towards<br />

<strong>in</strong>tensified efforts to br<strong>in</strong>g down the toll of road crashes <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>; the next steps will be to<br />

focus on the implementation of sound strategies <strong>and</strong> countermeasures. In prepar<strong>in</strong>g for the<br />

She<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong> report's implementation, the <strong>in</strong>stitutional changes of the Government <strong>and</strong> the road<br />

safety law, it became evident that acute problems exist with the road safety knowledge <strong>and</strong><br />

research base <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>. An International Experts' Advisory Committee (see Annex 1) was<br />

<strong>in</strong>vited to study the current state of affairs on road safety research <strong>and</strong> academic education<br />

<strong>and</strong> to recommend ways to improve the situation. The <strong>in</strong>vitation was sent out by two<br />

foundations: the Ran Naor Foundation for the Advancement of <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> <strong>Research</strong> <strong>and</strong> Yad<br />

Hanadiv (the Rothschild Foundation). Both foundations expressed their desire to contribute<br />

to further improvements <strong>in</strong> the field of road safety research. By implication it was stated that<br />

<strong>Israel</strong> could not solely rely on <strong>in</strong>ternational research. National capacity is needed to identify<br />

local problems <strong>and</strong> needs <strong>and</strong> to assess the effects of <strong>in</strong>terventions (ex-ante <strong>and</strong> ex-post).<br />

Develop<strong>in</strong>g research capacity nationally is a critical underp<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>g for effective evidencebased<br />

strategies, policies <strong>and</strong> practices <strong>and</strong> essential for <strong>Israel</strong> to achieve its stated goals of<br />

a reduced road toll.<br />

The members of this International Experts' Advisory Committee met <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong> <strong>in</strong> mid July<br />

2006. A full week programme was prepared. For this visit extensive background <strong>in</strong>formation<br />

was collected <strong>and</strong> studied. Study of the background material <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>itial discussions of the<br />

committee resulted <strong>in</strong> a proposal on how to structure the f<strong>in</strong>al report <strong>and</strong> how to structure<br />

<strong>in</strong>terviews <strong>and</strong> discussions with our colleagues from the academic world <strong>and</strong> the potential<br />

clients of research results. Due to unexpected events <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong> the visit had to be curtailed.<br />

However, <strong>in</strong>itial thoughts of the committee were formed <strong>and</strong> prelim<strong>in</strong>arily documented <strong>in</strong><br />

an <strong>in</strong>terim report. This <strong>in</strong>itial <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>formal exchange of op<strong>in</strong>ions <strong>and</strong> ideas supported the<br />

preparations for the committee’s second visit <strong>in</strong> late November 2006, to complete its tasks.<br />

In this full week programme, visits were paid to providers (universities) <strong>and</strong> clients of road<br />

safety research (see Annexes 4 <strong>and</strong> 5). At the end of this week the <strong>in</strong>itial results were presented<br />

to both Foundations (see Annex 6).<br />

The aims of the Advisory Committee as formulated by the Ran Naor Foundation <strong>and</strong> Yad<br />

Hanadiv were to:<br />

. Produce a detailed report summariz<strong>in</strong>g the current state of <strong>Israel</strong>’s research <strong>in</strong> the area of<br />

road safety, <strong>and</strong> the state of academic education <strong>in</strong> that area.<br />

. Produce a report outl<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g directions, research activities <strong>and</strong> goals that should set clear<br />

guidel<strong>in</strong>es for the future of road safety research <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>.<br />

. Provide a detailed set of recommendations as to how best to achieve the outl<strong>in</strong>ed goals.<br />

. Recommend <strong>in</strong>ternational research collaboration <strong>in</strong> the area of road safety.<br />

. Discuss successful models from other countries.<br />

It was anticipated that the respective roles of academia, government <strong>and</strong> NGO’s be identified,<br />

highlight<strong>in</strong>g the areas to which non-governmental support might most appropriately <strong>and</strong><br />

effectively be directed.<br />

In the Terms of Reference it was stated that the Advisory Committee should address the<br />

follow<strong>in</strong>g questions:<br />

Suggest a system to develop the next generation of researchers.<br />

. Def<strong>in</strong>e the research needs <strong>in</strong> road safety <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>, research activities <strong>and</strong> suggested<br />

priorities.<br />

. Def<strong>in</strong>e the needs of academic education <strong>in</strong> road safety:<br />

The level of education (1st, 2nd <strong>and</strong> 3rd degree).<br />

The lead<strong>in</strong>g areas of education (eng<strong>in</strong>eer<strong>in</strong>g/human factor/public policy/public health etc.)<br />

. The optimal system to promote research accord<strong>in</strong>g to needs (calls for papers, small teams<br />

of researchers, specialists <strong>in</strong> a specific field of research, study location at the ‘Ran Naor<br />

Foundation’ for the period of research, ‘tender’, <strong>in</strong>ternational exchange of researchers).<br />

. Other topics that the Committee considers appropriate.<br />

Over the last years there has not been a clear <strong>and</strong> consistent trend <strong>in</strong> the number of fatalities.<br />

Although dur<strong>in</strong>g the last two years there has been a reduction of about 10% each <strong>in</strong> fatalities,<br />

this cannot yet be considered a susta<strong>in</strong>ed downward trend. (fig 1).<br />

road fatalities <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong><br />

Figure 1.<br />

800<br />

700<br />

600<br />

500<br />

400<br />

300<br />

200<br />

100<br />

0<br />

1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006<br />

In terms of fatalities per population the record of <strong>Israel</strong> is good compared with many other<br />

countries. However, due to the low level of motorization, the level of fatalities per vehicles<br />

or per million vehicle-kms travelled is high compared with those countries with very good<br />

safety records. Figure 2 represents <strong>Israel</strong> benchmarked aga<strong>in</strong>st n<strong>in</strong>e European countries:<br />

three Western European countries lead<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> road safety: Sweden, the United K<strong>in</strong>gdom <strong>and</strong><br />

the Netherl<strong>and</strong>s; Three Southern European countries: Spa<strong>in</strong>, Portugal <strong>and</strong> Greece; <strong>and</strong> three<br />

Central European countries: Czech republic, Hungary <strong>and</strong> Slovenia.(fig 2).<br />

1.2. The road safety<br />

situation <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong><br />

<strong>Road</strong> Fatalities <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong><br />

Development of the number of<br />

road fatalities<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong> <strong>in</strong> the period<br />

1990 - 2006<br />

(Central Bureau of Statistics-<br />

Annual reports)

8<br />

1. Introduction<br />

9<br />

1. Introduction<br />

Figure 2. <strong>Road</strong> safety situations<br />

<strong>in</strong> SUNflower+6 countries <strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>Israel</strong> for 2001-2003 (mean value)<br />

as personal safety (fatalities per<br />

100 000 <strong>in</strong>habitants) versus traffic<br />

safety rate (fatalities per 10 000<br />

vehicles)<br />

source Wegman et al.,<br />

2006 <strong>and</strong> CBS,2005)<br />

A description of some key-f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>gs of the road safety situation, as appears <strong>in</strong> the She<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong><br />

report, is attached <strong>in</strong> Annex 2<br />

Personal safety<br />

International comparison – SUN + 6<br />

2. International Comparison - SUN +6<br />

IL<br />

Period Characteristic<br />

1900 - 1920 Crashes as chance phenomena<br />

1920 - 1950 Crashes caused by the crash-prone<br />

1940 - 1960 Crashes are mono-causal<br />

1950 - 1980 A comb<strong>in</strong>ation of crash causes fitt<strong>in</strong>g with<strong>in</strong> a ‘system approach’<br />

1980 - 2000 The road user is the weak l<strong>in</strong>k: more behavioural <strong>in</strong>fluence<br />

2000 - - Better implementation of exist<strong>in</strong>g policies<br />

- Systems management perspective, such as ‘Susta<strong>in</strong>ably <strong>Safety</strong>' <strong>in</strong> the<br />

Netherl<strong>and</strong>s <strong>and</strong> Vision Zero <strong>in</strong> Sweden<br />

It is important to underst<strong>and</strong> that there are various ideas among road safety professionals<br />

about what the most important crash causes are, <strong>and</strong> what the best ways to prevent them are.<br />

A discussion about these paradigms can possibly uncover a difference of <strong>in</strong>sight, <strong>and</strong> then lead<br />

to a consensus. Social organizations can make an important contribution to these discussions<br />

among professionals <strong>and</strong> with the public. This difference <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>sight is just as important if one<br />

is try<strong>in</strong>g, for certa<strong>in</strong> road safety measures, to w<strong>in</strong> the support of social organizations <strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>in</strong>terest groups, <strong>and</strong> ultimately the population <strong>and</strong> the politicians. Obviously, the support of<br />

the population is critical for w<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>g political support <strong>in</strong> many countries. Various groups play<br />

an important part <strong>in</strong> this: politicians, social organizations, scientific <strong>in</strong>stitutes, policy makers,<br />

civil servants <strong>and</strong> the media. There are complicated <strong>in</strong>teractions that do not follow fixed<br />

patterns, <strong>and</strong> their results are not predictable. In any case, it is important that such debate<br />

<strong>and</strong> discussions will be conducted on the basis of solid evidence, com<strong>in</strong>g from road safety<br />

research <strong>and</strong> results <strong>in</strong> concensus amongst key stakeholders <strong>and</strong> road safety professionals<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>.<br />

Dur<strong>in</strong>g the last few years we have seen the appearance of two ma<strong>in</strong> l<strong>in</strong>es (paradigms) <strong>in</strong><br />

road safety. The first one is especially aimed at effective <strong>and</strong> efficient policy implementation.<br />

A lot of <strong>in</strong>formation has become available about many road safety <strong>in</strong>terventions (see e.g.<br />

Elvik & Vaa, 2004, Johnston, 2006), <strong>and</strong> the idea here is not so much to develop new policy<br />

<strong>in</strong>terventions but to improve the quality of implement<strong>in</strong>g exist<strong>in</strong>g ones us<strong>in</strong>g evidencebased<br />

or research-based <strong>in</strong>formation. Greater effectiveness is a matter of scale <strong>and</strong> quality.<br />

Improv<strong>in</strong>g road safety <strong>in</strong> such a way that the number of casualties substantially decreases,<br />

generally requires a considerable effort, given the relatively low frequency of crashes, their<br />

low densities <strong>in</strong> space, <strong>and</strong> the modest effects of most safety <strong>in</strong>terventions. Large enough<br />

scale is a matter of sufficient means. There is also the quality of <strong>in</strong>terventions <strong>and</strong> with it not<br />

only the effectiveness, but also the efficiency of <strong>in</strong>vestments; as much possible effect per<br />

<strong>in</strong>vested NIS. Knowledge <strong>and</strong> expertise are features of quality, <strong>and</strong> promot<strong>in</strong>g road safety<br />

requires professional knowledge <strong>and</strong> should not be left to well-mean<strong>in</strong>g amateurs. The<br />

second one is the Susta<strong>in</strong>able <strong>Safety</strong> concept (see e.g. Wegman & Aarts, 2006) <strong>and</strong> Vision<br />

Zero from Sweden (T<strong>in</strong>gvall & Haworth, 1999). This paradigm starts from two observations:<br />

a) the current traffic system is <strong>in</strong>herently dangerous <strong>and</strong> b) <strong>in</strong>tensify<strong>in</strong>g current efforts (the<br />

first paradigm) could lead to fewer casualties <strong>in</strong>deed, but not to substantially safer traffic. For<br />

substantially safer traffic a paradigm shift is needed.<br />

Table 1. <strong>Road</strong> safety ‘causes’<br />

as seen <strong>in</strong> time<br />

(derived from OECD, 1997)<br />

<strong>Traffic</strong> safety rate<br />

Personal safety – average fatalities <strong>in</strong> 2001-2003 for 100,000 population<br />

<strong>Traffic</strong> safety - average fatalities <strong>in</strong> 2001-2003 for 10,000 vehicles<br />

Personal safety - average fatalities <strong>in</strong> 2001-2003 for 100,000 population<br />

<strong>Traffic</strong> safety - average fatalities <strong>in</strong> 2001-2003 for 10,000 vehicles<br />

1.3 International<br />

th<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g on road<br />

safety<br />

”Human action is a contributory factor <strong>in</strong> over 90% of road crashes. The pr<strong>in</strong>cipal emphasis of<br />

all road safety strategies must therefore be on improv<strong>in</strong>g road user behaviour. This behaviour<br />

needs to be <strong>in</strong>formed <strong>and</strong> tra<strong>in</strong>ed, <strong>and</strong> to be modified, so as to improve <strong>in</strong>teraction between<br />

road users, to ensure consideration for others <strong>and</strong> to reduce risk. In this way a culture of<br />

road use is created that is both precautionary <strong>and</strong> proactive <strong>in</strong> relation to road safety”. These<br />

sorts of sentences can be found <strong>in</strong> many policy reports on road safety <strong>and</strong> while superficially<br />

appeal<strong>in</strong>g, have held back safety progress.<br />

Human errors (<strong>in</strong> observations, decisions, <strong>and</strong> actions) play their part <strong>in</strong> just about every<br />

crash, <strong>and</strong> the po<strong>in</strong>t is to elim<strong>in</strong>ate them; <strong>and</strong> if they still do occur, not to let them lead to<br />

severe consequences. This sentence gives the impression that human errors are much more<br />

important than errors <strong>in</strong> road design, <strong>and</strong> that vehicle factors hardly play a part <strong>in</strong> caus<strong>in</strong>g<br />

crashes. A second conclusion for a superficial reader could be that crashes should ma<strong>in</strong>ly be<br />

combated by behavioural changes to be achieved by police surveillance, education, public<br />

<strong>in</strong>formation, <strong>and</strong> driv<strong>in</strong>g courses. Furthermore, it could be concluded that technical measures<br />

could prevent only a marg<strong>in</strong>al part of all crashes. These conclusions are not logical <strong>and</strong>,<br />

moreover, do not reflect the most recent road safety <strong>in</strong>sights.<br />

Dur<strong>in</strong>g the years of motorized traffic, there have been very many different ways of trac<strong>in</strong>g<br />

crash causes, <strong>and</strong> how they can best be avoided. Table 1 presents, by means of a few words,<br />

what the dom<strong>in</strong>ant thoughts <strong>in</strong> the OECD countries were (see also OECD, 1997).

10<br />

1. Introduction<br />

1.4 The Implications<br />

for <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong><br />

<strong>Research</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong><br />

There is no process at present for sett<strong>in</strong>g an effective national road safety research agenda <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>Israel</strong>. An effective process is one which br<strong>in</strong>gs together the end users (or clients) of the research<br />

outputs, the research funders <strong>and</strong> the research providers. At present, road safety research is<br />

organized along l<strong>in</strong>es of commissioned, <strong>in</strong>cidental grants, which can be won <strong>in</strong> competition.<br />

Topics of research are determ<strong>in</strong>ed by <strong>in</strong>dividual clients of research. Little coord<strong>in</strong>ation <strong>and</strong><br />

cooperation between providers <strong>and</strong> clients of research has been observed by the Advisory<br />

Committee. This lack of coord<strong>in</strong>ation <strong>and</strong> cont<strong>in</strong>uity most probably has resulted <strong>in</strong> dim<strong>in</strong>ished<br />

quality <strong>and</strong> efficiency of road safety research <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>. Career development is not seriously<br />

dealt with, mak<strong>in</strong>g it less attractive to work <strong>in</strong> this field for an extended period of time.<br />

The Advisory Committee recommends organiz<strong>in</strong>g such that a national road safety research<br />

agenda will be established; however, while establish<strong>in</strong>g such a process is an essential step,<br />

it is not sufficient <strong>in</strong> itself. First, a change is required <strong>in</strong> the way road safety is conceptualized<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>. As a generalization, road safety appears to be viewed as an <strong>in</strong>evitable by-product of<br />

road transport development; a by-product dom<strong>in</strong>ated by <strong>in</strong>appropriate road user behaviour,<br />

idiosyncratic but with strong socio-cultural underp<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>gs.<br />

As presented <strong>in</strong> 1.3., those highly motorized countries with the best road safety records share<br />

a common belief that road trauma results from characteristics of the road transport system<br />

design <strong>and</strong> its operation <strong>and</strong> that human error <strong>and</strong> behaviour is best approached from a<br />

systems management perspective.<br />

For a truly effective research agenda sett<strong>in</strong>g process to emerge, this belief needs to become<br />

a shared value of clients, funders <strong>and</strong> providers. It is not that attitude, personality, <strong>in</strong>dividual<br />

behaviour <strong>and</strong> cultural context are unimportant - far from it - it is rather that conceiv<strong>in</strong>g<br />

behaviour as an element of a complex road transport system has proven the most valuable<br />

path to effective safety <strong>in</strong>terventions.<br />

The second fundamental need for effective research agenda sett<strong>in</strong>g is a systematic process<br />

for problem identification <strong>and</strong> prioritization. Tak<strong>in</strong>g the topic of trauma as an example, what<br />

are the trends <strong>in</strong> trauma What are the emerg<strong>in</strong>g problems <strong>and</strong> what is currently known about<br />

those that comprise the largest components of overall trauma What has worked so far <strong>and</strong><br />

what has not And why Those nations with the best road safety records have systematic<br />

mechanisms for monitor<strong>in</strong>g progress, evaluat<strong>in</strong>g their actions <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>teractively improv<strong>in</strong>g<br />

their <strong>in</strong>terventions as a result. At present, <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>, it is the impression of the Advisory<br />

Committee that there is:<br />

. Little systematic issue monitor<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> problem identification (<strong>and</strong> none that is <strong>in</strong>tegrated<br />

across narrow agency <strong>in</strong>terests). For example the lack of systematic research upon the<br />

pedestrian safety problem (one third of the fatalities <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>) was a surpris<strong>in</strong>g f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

. Rather too much emphasis upon research focused upon <strong>in</strong>dividual <strong>and</strong> cultural determ<strong>in</strong>ants<br />

of behaviour <strong>and</strong> rather too little upon the system implications of road use.<br />

. Almost no research attention on the public policy process, particularly the dynamics of<br />

<strong>in</strong>ter- <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>tra-organizational attitudes <strong>and</strong> behaviour, despite the importance of these to<br />

effective plann<strong>in</strong>g for - <strong>and</strong> implementation of - road safety countermeasure programmes.<br />

Fortunately, these relative weaknesses can be addressed. The opportunity provided by a<br />

renewed <strong>in</strong>terest <strong>in</strong> a systematic research programme <strong>and</strong> the commitment to a revitalised<br />

national authority provide the means to lead this change <strong>in</strong> th<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> approach.

13<br />

2. Current state of affairs <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong><br />

The International Experts' Advisory Committee decided it would be worthwhile not<br />

only to pay attention to road safety research <strong>and</strong> academic education <strong>in</strong> this field, as<br />

stated <strong>in</strong> the Terms of Reference, but also to <strong>in</strong>troduce the clients of research <strong>and</strong> the<br />

users of road safety knowledge <strong>and</strong> research results as key players.<br />

Based on the documentation submitted by several research groups <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>stitutes, which the<br />

Advisory Committee received before <strong>and</strong> dur<strong>in</strong>g our July <strong>and</strong> November visits, we deduced<br />

that some relevant research areas are reasonably well covered <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong> (traffic eng<strong>in</strong>eer<strong>in</strong>g,<br />

human factors, public health), while others are largely miss<strong>in</strong>g (public policy, economic<br />

evaluation <strong>and</strong> modell<strong>in</strong>g, spatial/transportation plann<strong>in</strong>g). Most importantly we found<br />

limited capacities to analyse road crashes at a general level, or to evaluate <strong>in</strong>terventions to<br />

improve road safety (ex-ante or ex-post). Although the National <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Adm<strong>in</strong>istration,<br />

the Central Bureau of Statistics <strong>and</strong> the National Police produce overviews of road safety<br />

developments regularly, an impartial <strong>and</strong> cont<strong>in</strong>uous analysis try<strong>in</strong>g to expla<strong>in</strong> developments<br />

<strong>in</strong> road crashes <strong>and</strong> l<strong>in</strong>k these to implemented policies, is not common practice. This capacity<br />

is urgently needed when <strong>Israel</strong> starts to develop strategies to achieve quantitative road<br />

safety targets.<br />

A second observation is that, for the most part, research activities take place <strong>in</strong> isolation.<br />

There is no obvious coord<strong>in</strong>ation. <strong>Research</strong> groups def<strong>in</strong>e their own areas of <strong>in</strong>terests <strong>and</strong><br />

priorities, or respond to requests for proposals (RFP ’s). Problem statements have very much<br />

an academic nature. A strong partnership between research providers <strong>and</strong> the end users of<br />

research results appears to be lack<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

It was not the task of the Advisory Committee to audit the quality of the <strong>in</strong>dividual projects<br />

that comprise the road safety research effort <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>. However, from the material submitted<br />

as well as from the meet<strong>in</strong>gs <strong>and</strong> visits to universities <strong>and</strong> research <strong>in</strong>stitutes, the Committee<br />

formed the view that the quality at the <strong>in</strong>dividual project <strong>and</strong> researcher level seems to be<br />

sound. Much of the research has been published <strong>in</strong> peer <strong>review</strong>ed journals, researchers<br />

participate <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>ternational conferences <strong>and</strong> forums <strong>and</strong> several researchers participate <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>in</strong>ternational (e.g. by the European Union sponsored) research projects. All research groups<br />

expressed their ambition <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>terests <strong>in</strong> additional f<strong>in</strong>anc<strong>in</strong>g for their research.<br />

<strong>Research</strong> groups work to a large extent with hired/junior staff <strong>and</strong> students <strong>and</strong> only a few<br />

examples were presented to the Committee on systematic programmes for scholarships,<br />

PhD-programmes, post-doc-programmes or other forms of susta<strong>in</strong>able research tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong><br />

road safety. We acknowledge that the Ran Naor Foundation runs M.Sc <strong>and</strong> PhD scholarships<br />

<strong>and</strong> so does, to a limited extent the <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Authority. The Committee was <strong>in</strong>formed that<br />

from 2006 on, the Ran Naor Foundation will co-f<strong>in</strong>ance two graduate programmes <strong>in</strong> road<br />

safety to be run at Ben Gurion University <strong>and</strong> at the Technion.<br />

Only a few research groups have developed a tradition to communicate their research results<br />

with potential clients.<br />

2.1 <strong>Road</strong> safety<br />


14<br />

2. Current state of affair <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong><br />

15<br />

2. Current state of affair <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong><br />

2.2 Clients of<br />

research<br />

2.3 Professional<br />

education <strong>and</strong><br />

practitioner tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

The Advisory Committee concludes that the road safety research effort <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong> should be<br />

strengthened, structured <strong>and</strong> coord<strong>in</strong>ated <strong>in</strong> many areas <strong>in</strong> order to form a solid scientific<br />

basis to support policy mak<strong>in</strong>g, without <strong>in</strong>terfer<strong>in</strong>g with the impartiality of the researchers.<br />

The Committee sees quite some opportunities to do so, especially through the formation<br />

of a partnership between the research providers <strong>and</strong> the end users. Given the exist<strong>in</strong>g<br />

research quality <strong>and</strong> the <strong>in</strong>terests expressed to contribute to research growth, the basics<br />

for a productive partnership exist. A system of quality assurance should be developed.<br />

International collaboration should be formalised <strong>and</strong> exp<strong>and</strong>ed.<br />

Generally speak<strong>in</strong>g, the Advisory Committee def<strong>in</strong>ed the follow<strong>in</strong>g major client groups for<br />

results of safety research: the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Transport <strong>and</strong> <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong>, the National <strong>Road</strong><br />

<strong>Safety</strong> Authority, (an <strong>in</strong>dependent part of the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Transport <strong>and</strong> <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> with an<br />

advisory function), the National <strong>Traffic</strong> Police, the Central Bureau of Statistics, the National<br />

<strong>Road</strong>s Company, Or Yarok <strong>and</strong> local authorities. Further clients can be found <strong>in</strong> various other<br />

m<strong>in</strong>istries, NGO’s, the public health sector, the educational sector, the physical plann<strong>in</strong>g<br />

sector, politicians, the press <strong>and</strong> the public.<br />

The Advisory Committee found only a few <strong>in</strong>dications of a structured, systematic relationship<br />

between the results of research <strong>and</strong> its use by potential clients, or even between the research<br />

community <strong>and</strong> its potential clients. Of course, various research projects are commissioned,<br />

but <strong>in</strong> neither the general direction sett<strong>in</strong>g of road safety research nor the translation of actual<br />

research projects <strong>in</strong>to an implementation process could a clear l<strong>in</strong>k be discovered between<br />

the research results <strong>and</strong> the actions of decision/policy makers <strong>and</strong> practitioners.<br />

The conclusion can be drawn that policy mak<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong> does not fully profit from road safety<br />

research results, nor is it fully us<strong>in</strong>g the available knowledge <strong>and</strong> capacities <strong>in</strong> this field. The<br />

Advisory Committee found no good explanation. We have the impression that policy makers<br />

<strong>and</strong> researchers do not - as a general rule - know each other personally. It may be expla<strong>in</strong>ed<br />

by the fact that <strong>Israel</strong> fails to have a high profile road safety policy so far <strong>and</strong>, consequently,<br />

no real <strong>in</strong>terest <strong>in</strong> partnerships as can be found <strong>in</strong> many countries (at least the four countries<br />

represented <strong>in</strong> the Committee). But <strong>Israel</strong> seems to have no tradition <strong>in</strong> br<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g together the<br />

policy makers <strong>and</strong> researchers. Nobody feels him/herself responsible to bridge this gap. No<br />

organization is held responsible for this. The Advisory Committee learned dur<strong>in</strong>g the 5th Or<br />

Yarok Annual Conference that this <strong>in</strong> the future (legalised by law) will be one of the duties of<br />

the new National <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Authority. start<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> January 2007.<br />

The Advisory Committee found two types of educational activities ongo<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>.<br />

These are discussed separately.<br />

Professional <strong>Education</strong><br />

Improv<strong>in</strong>g road safety <strong>and</strong> carry<strong>in</strong>g out road safety research are activities which require<br />

adequate education <strong>in</strong> order to deliver good quality. <strong>Road</strong> safety problems require public<br />

expenditure which, <strong>in</strong> turn, deserves an appropriate professional underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g of the nature<br />

of road crashes <strong>and</strong> how best to prevent them. For all <strong>in</strong>volved <strong>in</strong> road safety policy a certa<strong>in</strong><br />

level of knowledge <strong>and</strong> underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g of road safety is required, this is the case at both the<br />

national <strong>and</strong> the local level.<br />

There are programmes <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong> specifically grant<strong>in</strong>g graduate level degrees with specialization<br />

<strong>in</strong> road safety. A small number of tra<strong>in</strong>ed researchers emerge from these programmes. To<br />

take full advantage of these graduates a career path must be available. Without a cont<strong>in</strong>u<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>and</strong> consistent base of fund<strong>in</strong>g for road safety research such paths are rare. Hence many<br />

graduates move to other fields or other countries. Also, cont<strong>in</strong>u<strong>in</strong>g fund<strong>in</strong>g makes succession<br />

plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> development possible, a necessity given the scarcity <strong>and</strong> age of full professors<br />

of road safety at present <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>.<br />

To <strong>in</strong>crease the number <strong>and</strong> quality of new road safety researchers, resources support<strong>in</strong>g<br />

graduate study are important. Recently the Ran Naor foundation began provid<strong>in</strong>g scholarships<br />

for a Masters level road safety graduate programme at the Technion <strong>and</strong> Ben Gurion<br />

Universities. Hopefully, this can be exp<strong>and</strong>ed to accommodate more road safety graduate<br />

students if other universities are also <strong>in</strong>volved. This would provide support for a greater<br />

diversity of discipl<strong>in</strong>es needed <strong>in</strong> road safety research <strong>and</strong> programmes.<br />

All of the universities perform<strong>in</strong>g road safety research do so on a project by project basis,<br />

e.g. relatively short term <strong>and</strong> on very specific topics. This does not provide the cont<strong>in</strong>uity or<br />

flexibility of resources needed to build <strong>and</strong> susta<strong>in</strong> a truly functional road safety academic <strong>and</strong><br />

research programme. The Advisory Committee recommends that mechanisms <strong>and</strong> resources<br />

be developed to allow this type of capacity build<strong>in</strong>g for road safety research <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>. See<br />

section 3.1 for suggestions on models to do this.<br />

Practitioner Tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

To strengthen the road safety programme <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>, tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g is needed for the safety <strong>and</strong><br />

safety-related practitioners. A wide spectrum of jobs is <strong>in</strong>cluded <strong>in</strong> this category. This means<br />

that road safety officers <strong>in</strong> local jurisdictions, traffic law enforcement, judiciary, highway<br />

ma<strong>in</strong>tenance <strong>and</strong> public health workers to name but a few types of jobs, need to be tra<strong>in</strong>ed<br />

to vary<strong>in</strong>g degrees <strong>in</strong> road safety.<br />

Bar Ilan University provides a two-year certificate programme which is regularly attended by<br />

practitioners. Additional types of tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g of vary<strong>in</strong>g lengths, technical content complexity<br />

<strong>and</strong> specificity would fill the tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g needs of those enter<strong>in</strong>g road safety jobs <strong>and</strong> of those<br />

already <strong>in</strong> road safety <strong>and</strong> related jobs.<br />

To assume a basel<strong>in</strong>e of knowledge, skill <strong>and</strong> underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g of road safety workers, both<br />

professionals <strong>and</strong> practitioners, a set of core competencies could be the basis for curriculum<br />

development. Once these fundamentals are known, education <strong>and</strong> tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g would cont<strong>in</strong>ue<br />

<strong>in</strong>to more technical detail or specialization. See, for example, Core Competencies for Highway<br />

<strong>Safety</strong> Professionals (<strong>Research</strong> Results Digest 302, 2006), available from the Transportation<br />

<strong>Research</strong> Board, USA (www.trb.org).<br />

Different types of awareness <strong>and</strong> tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g materials may also be useful for people who are<br />

not <strong>in</strong> road safety or related careers but would benefit from knowledge about road safety.<br />

Decision makers, e.g. elected officials, <strong>and</strong> media who regularly cover transportation news are<br />

two examples. An important feature for these groups is the ‘conceptualisation’ of road safety.<br />

<strong>Research</strong> on effective communication techniques with such groups may be appropriate.<br />

Knowledge transfer is an important aspect of any policy field, <strong>in</strong> order to design <strong>and</strong> implement<br />

effective <strong>and</strong> efficient policies <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>tervention practices <strong>and</strong> so it is for road safety research.<br />

This knowledge not only relates to the ‘what to do question’ but should also deal with the<br />

‘how to do it’ This knowledge is broader than actual research f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>gs. Often new research<br />

2.4. Knowledge<br />


16<br />

2. Current state of affair <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong><br />

17<br />

2. Current state of affair <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong><br />

f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>gs have to be brought <strong>in</strong>to the exist<strong>in</strong>g stock-of-knowledge. Organizations hav<strong>in</strong>g<br />

responsibility for policy development <strong>and</strong> implementation should direct their staff to fully<br />

profit from available knowledge, professionals <strong>in</strong>volved <strong>in</strong> road safety policies, whatever<br />

their position, should be tra<strong>in</strong>ed to use <strong>and</strong> trust impartial knowledge arriv<strong>in</strong>g from road<br />

safety researchers com<strong>in</strong>g from either <strong>Israel</strong> or com<strong>in</strong>g from abroad.<br />

The researchers have an obligation to ensure that their results are correctly understood <strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>in</strong>terpreted. Both sides have to learn to play <strong>and</strong> consider themselves as partners.<br />

It is the Committee’s impression that not enough emphasis is put on implementation of road<br />

safety research <strong>and</strong> knowledge, both on the part of the researchers <strong>and</strong> on the part of those<br />

who commission research.<br />

On the part of the researchers, more emphasis should be put on mak<strong>in</strong>g research results<br />

widely known <strong>and</strong> available. This could be done through workshops, <strong>in</strong>ternet sites <strong>and</strong> jo<strong>in</strong>t<br />

committees with research sponsors. Universities should br<strong>in</strong>g this important aspect <strong>in</strong>to their<br />

systems of credit<strong>in</strong>g researchers.<br />

The preparation of fact sheets <strong>and</strong> position papers is also a well established <strong>and</strong> recommended<br />

method of dissem<strong>in</strong>ation, <strong>and</strong>, obviously, relevant <strong>in</strong>formation can be made easily accessible<br />

through the Internet.<br />

Some knowledge transfer activities do exist on the part of the various research sponsors.<br />

Both the National <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Authority <strong>and</strong> the Ran Naor Foundation hold workshops with<br />

professionals <strong>and</strong> researchers, where new f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>gs from road safety studies are presented<br />

<strong>and</strong> discussed. The L<strong>and</strong> Division of the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Transport also holds implementation<br />

meet<strong>in</strong>gs where new or recent knowledge is discussed <strong>and</strong> distributed. One technique to<br />

speed up the implementation process is to <strong>in</strong>volve research users <strong>in</strong> project oversight so that<br />

they can develop implementation plans at the same time as the project is conclud<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

A few examples can be provided of successful attempts of knowledge transfer <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>:<br />

1. The L<strong>and</strong> Division of the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Transport commissioned the preparation of guidel<strong>in</strong>es<br />

for traffic calm<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> residential areas. A steer<strong>in</strong>g committee of some 20-30 professionals from<br />

all agencies <strong>in</strong>volved <strong>in</strong> this subject regularly met to evaluate <strong>in</strong>terim progress <strong>and</strong> f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>gs.<br />

At the end of the project a manual was produced which received wide circulation <strong>and</strong> was put<br />

on the <strong>in</strong>ternet site of the L<strong>and</strong> Division. A similar process is followed on other guidel<strong>in</strong>es <strong>and</strong><br />

projects that the L<strong>and</strong> Division commissions.<br />

2. A similar process has been developed for all guidel<strong>in</strong>es prepared as the result of the<br />

Commission on road safety devices chaired by the L<strong>and</strong> Division of the MOT. Subjects cover<br />

crash barriers, crash cushions, barriers at road works, raised pavement markers <strong>and</strong> more. The<br />

preparation of guidel<strong>in</strong>es is accompanied by a steer<strong>in</strong>g committee of some 30 professionals<br />

from most agencies <strong>in</strong>volved. The f<strong>in</strong>ished guidel<strong>in</strong>es are generally discussed at a conference<br />

<strong>and</strong> a workshop <strong>and</strong> then put on the website of the L<strong>and</strong> Division. Further tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g courses are<br />

then conducted with other parts of the safety community.<br />

3. Or Yarok took part <strong>in</strong> the SARTRE III survey with comparison to 23 European countries. The<br />

results were widely publicized. In particular, results relat<strong>in</strong>g to self reports on driv<strong>in</strong>g under<br />

the <strong>in</strong>fluence <strong>and</strong> number of times checked for alcohol, were presented to the police. The<br />

very low performance of <strong>Israel</strong> compared to other countries, <strong>in</strong> conjunction with a literature<br />

<strong>review</strong> on r<strong>and</strong>om breath tests, were <strong>in</strong>strumental <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>vit<strong>in</strong>g the police to adopt a new policy<br />

for alcohol checks. This policy resulted <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g the number of yearly alcohol checks from<br />

2,000 to 20,000 <strong>in</strong> 2006, <strong>and</strong> sett<strong>in</strong>g a target of 90,000 alcohol checks for 2007.<br />

4. Or Yarok <strong>in</strong>itiated a proposal for a comprehensive Graduated Driver Licens<strong>in</strong>g (GDL)<br />

process for young new drivers. The proposal was based on: world-wide research, experts'<br />

op<strong>in</strong>ions, <strong>and</strong> dedicated surveys evaluat<strong>in</strong>g public acceptance of the new suggested system.<br />

The results were presented to all relevant stakeholders dur<strong>in</strong>g a workshop for which two<br />

<strong>in</strong>ternational experts were <strong>in</strong>vited. Later on, the adjusted GDL process was presented to the<br />

new M<strong>in</strong>ister of Transport <strong>and</strong> <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> who is currently pursu<strong>in</strong>g an overall effort to adopt<br />

such a system.<br />

To conclude, on the part of the road safety authorities <strong>and</strong> professionals a greater effort<br />

should be made to cause a wider dissem<strong>in</strong>ation <strong>and</strong> implementation of the research f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>gs.<br />

The results of research should be used <strong>in</strong> policy development, whether it is <strong>in</strong> regulations,<br />

laws, eng<strong>in</strong>eer<strong>in</strong>g programmes, public education or other activities. This is what is known as<br />

evidence-based decision mak<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

It seems impossible <strong>and</strong> a waste of resources for any country <strong>in</strong> the world to carry out all<br />

the necessary research on its own. A lot of research knowledge is available world-wide <strong>in</strong><br />

technical reports <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> scientific journals. Every country should develop capacities to digest<br />

this knowledge, to underst<strong>and</strong> the implications of research results from abroad <strong>and</strong> adapt<br />

it to its conditions. This component of <strong>in</strong>ternational cooperation seems well performed by<br />

<strong>Israel</strong>’s universities concern<strong>in</strong>g their specialist topics of road safety research.<br />

Another component of <strong>in</strong>ternational cooperation is study<strong>in</strong>g abroad or participat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong><br />

foreign research projects. This k<strong>in</strong>d of <strong>in</strong>ternational project-level collaboration also seems<br />

widespread among <strong>Israel</strong>’s scientific community, however possibilities for deepen<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong><br />

broaden<strong>in</strong>g this collaboration were detected by the Advisory Committee.<br />

A lot of the universities visited by the Advisory Committee were <strong>in</strong> favour of participat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>ternational research projects to improve their research competence. Enter<strong>in</strong>g the<br />

<strong>in</strong>ternational research network is considered as a very good means to speed up knowledge<br />

growth <strong>and</strong> cont<strong>in</strong>uous knowledge transfer <strong>and</strong> the Advisory Committee supports this view<br />

strongly. International cooperation is assumed even more necessary for a small country<br />

like <strong>Israel</strong> to ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong> <strong>and</strong> improve cont<strong>in</strong>uously the competence level of its scientific<br />

community.<br />

The Committee can illustrate this view with the follow<strong>in</strong>g example. A long-term fruitful<br />

bilateral cooperation exists between the Technion <strong>and</strong> the BASt (German Federal Highway<br />

<strong>Research</strong> Institute) on the basis of a Memor<strong>and</strong>um of Underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g. Both sides profit from<br />

this collaboration. This example could be used as a model for other bilateral <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

cooperation between universities <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong> <strong>and</strong> other research <strong>in</strong>stitutes abroad.<br />

In spite of the high quality of the visited research <strong>in</strong>stitutes the committee found only limited<br />

<strong>and</strong> not permanent organized participation of researchers from <strong>Israel</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>ternational road<br />

safety research. There is some participation <strong>in</strong> the EU <strong>Research</strong> <strong>and</strong> development programmes,<br />

but it seems mostly be<strong>in</strong>g organized by <strong>in</strong>dividual researchers <strong>and</strong> not at the level of research<br />

<strong>in</strong>stitutes or as consortia between <strong>in</strong>stitutes. The Advisory Committee recommends to<br />

consider partnerships or memberships of <strong>in</strong>ternational organizations such as,<br />

. FERSI (Forum of European <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> <strong>Research</strong> Institutes)<br />

. FEHRL (Forum of European Highway <strong>Research</strong> Laboratories)<br />

. ECTRI (European Conference of Transport <strong>Research</strong> Institutes)<br />

2.5. International<br />


18<br />

2. Current state of affair <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong><br />

ETSC (European Transport <strong>Safety</strong> Council)<br />

ERTICO (Intelligent Transport Systems <strong>and</strong> Services Europe)<br />

IRTAD (International <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Traffic</strong> <strong>and</strong> Accident Database)<br />

TRB (Transportation <strong>Research</strong> Board)<br />

ICADTS (International Council on Alcohol, Drugs <strong>and</strong> <strong>Traffic</strong> <strong>Safety</strong>)<br />

PIARC (World <strong>Road</strong> Association “PIARC”)<br />

. TISPOL (European <strong>Traffic</strong> Police Network)<br />

These <strong>in</strong>ternational organizations are prepared to plan, to <strong>in</strong>itiate <strong>and</strong> to organize research<br />

consortia of excellence concern<strong>in</strong>g participations <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>ternational research projects sponsored<br />

by the European Commission or <strong>in</strong> the US <strong>and</strong> to compete with others. When participat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong> these <strong>in</strong>ternational organizations <strong>in</strong>ternal communication about opportunities for <strong>Israel</strong>i<br />

researchers is essential.

21<br />

3. Conclusions <strong>and</strong> recommendations<br />

First of all, we have to def<strong>in</strong>e what we expect from research. <strong>Road</strong> safety research is applied<br />

research, <strong>and</strong> has not the character of l’art pour l’art. From this the Committee concludes that<br />

the road safety research agenda has to be set up <strong>and</strong> its implementation has to be carried<br />

out <strong>in</strong> close relationship with the road safety situation <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong> <strong>and</strong> road safety policies. This<br />

applied research can be split <strong>in</strong>to two simple questions:<br />

1. to underst<strong>and</strong> causes of road crashes; what are the ma<strong>in</strong> contribut<strong>in</strong>g factors<br />

2. to underst<strong>and</strong> how to prevent crashes (most effectively <strong>and</strong> most efficiently)<br />

3.1. Organization<br />

<strong>and</strong> fund<strong>in</strong>g of<br />

research <strong>and</strong><br />

professional education<br />

<strong>Research</strong> can be carried out at a micro level (<strong>in</strong>dividual crash or crash type), on a meso level<br />

(a city, a road type, an age group, the motorway network, etc.) <strong>and</strong> a macro level (all crashes<br />

<strong>in</strong> a country). This research can be carried out ex-ante <strong>and</strong> ex-post. The Committee concludes<br />

that there is a need for a strong emphasis on research of type I <strong>and</strong> that research of this type<br />

should ma<strong>in</strong>ly be carried out at a micro- <strong>and</strong> meso level. The second type of research (II) deals<br />

with road safety policy development <strong>and</strong> its effective implementation <strong>in</strong> general. This type of<br />

research is meant to underst<strong>and</strong> road safety trends <strong>in</strong> the past <strong>and</strong> their underly<strong>in</strong>g forces<br />

(through evaluation <strong>and</strong> assessment) <strong>and</strong> to foresee future developments, threats (emerg<strong>in</strong>g<br />

road safety problems) <strong>and</strong> opportunities. The emphasis of research type II is on a meso- <strong>and</strong><br />

macro level. Little type ll research was reported to the Committee.<br />

The road safety research reported to the Committee com<strong>in</strong>g from <strong>Israel</strong>i Universities was<br />

most notable at the Technion <strong>and</strong> at Ben Gurion University. These two universities have<br />

a wide range of areas covered <strong>and</strong> both have a group of researchers active <strong>in</strong> the field of<br />

road safety. Human factor research seems to be an area where both universities are active,<br />

however <strong>in</strong> that area, the track record <strong>in</strong> road safety of Ben Gurion is more impressive (with<br />

some good research <strong>in</strong> behavioural science also at Bar Ilan). Moreover, Bar-Ilan, Haifa <strong>and</strong><br />

Tel Aviv Universities have done road safety research <strong>in</strong> the past, but these universities have<br />

to rely primarily on contributions from <strong>in</strong>dividual researchers. The Gertner Institute is also<br />

<strong>in</strong>volved <strong>in</strong> road safety research <strong>and</strong> ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>s a high quality trauma registry. <strong>Research</strong><br />

outside universities comes from consultants <strong>in</strong> the field of traffic/transport eng<strong>in</strong>eer<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong><br />

relation to draft guidel<strong>in</strong>es <strong>and</strong> manuals on road design. Cooperation <strong>in</strong> road safety research<br />

between these universities is more an exception than a rule. Few examples are reported on<br />

<strong>in</strong>teraction with US road safety research but more widespread participation <strong>in</strong> European<br />

research projects was found.<br />

The Advisory Committee concludes that <strong>in</strong> type l research deal<strong>in</strong>g with ‘why crashes occur’<br />

many examples are found of good, very good to excellent research. Some of the presented<br />

lists of publications are impressive. However many of the researchers choose a rather narrow<br />

scope for their research <strong>and</strong> the research deals with specialized/specific problems. More<br />

research <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong> has a focus on analysis of (contribut<strong>in</strong>g factors to) crashes (type I) than on<br />

effects of <strong>in</strong>terventions (type II).<br />

<strong>Israel</strong> has no national agenda of safety research. The research agenda is a result of those

22<br />

3. Conclusions <strong>and</strong> recommendations<br />

23<br />

3. Conclusions <strong>and</strong> recommendations<br />

topics commissioned by (important) stakeholders such as the National <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Authority,<br />

the National <strong>Road</strong>s Company, <strong>and</strong> recently the Ran Naor Foundation, <strong>and</strong> fields of <strong>in</strong>terests as<br />

def<strong>in</strong>ed by <strong>in</strong>dividual members of the research community. <strong>Safety</strong> research is lack<strong>in</strong>g a strategic<br />

plann<strong>in</strong>g based on <strong>and</strong> derived from a national road safety strategy <strong>and</strong> its action plans.<br />

this round table of potential funders of road safety research is to come to an agreement on<br />

future cooperation <strong>in</strong> plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> coord<strong>in</strong>ation of future research. Based on this agreement<br />

<strong>and</strong> underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g next steps could be def<strong>in</strong>ed. The new <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Authority has to play a<br />

key-role <strong>in</strong> this roundtable.<br />

The Committee recommends to establish a national partnership among the pr<strong>in</strong>cipal<br />

road safety research funders with six ma<strong>in</strong> tasks:<br />

. translat<strong>in</strong>g the national road safety strategy <strong>and</strong> its action plans <strong>in</strong>to a strategic plan of<br />

research.<br />

sett<strong>in</strong>g up a research action plan, cover<strong>in</strong>g for example a period of 4-5 years.<br />

monitor<strong>in</strong>g progress <strong>and</strong> quality of research.<br />

support<strong>in</strong>g dissem<strong>in</strong>ation <strong>and</strong> implementation of results.<br />

encourag<strong>in</strong>g research collaboration across <strong>Israel</strong>’s Universities.<br />

. to coord<strong>in</strong>ate fund<strong>in</strong>g between all key stakeholders: the National <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Agency,<br />

the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Transportation, the <strong>Road</strong>s Company, the Ran Naor Foundation <strong>and</strong> Or Yarok.<br />

Fund<strong>in</strong>g com<strong>in</strong>g from other sources such as allow<strong>in</strong>g for medical research, research to support<br />

operations by the police, activities of local authorities, could be added to this if sponsors are<br />

<strong>in</strong>terested to jo<strong>in</strong>. The Advisory Committee recommends to <strong>in</strong>vite these other sponsors only<br />

if that is considered appropriate.<br />

This plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> coord<strong>in</strong>aton of research should avoid duplications <strong>in</strong> research <strong>and</strong> should<br />

address the current gaps. Coord<strong>in</strong>ation is essential for prioritisation of research <strong>in</strong> the<br />

perspective of def<strong>in</strong>ed research needs <strong>and</strong> road safety policies.<br />

Two models for such a partnership can be considered:<br />

. A model <strong>in</strong> which the National <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Authority, responsible for coord<strong>in</strong>ation purposes,<br />

<strong>in</strong>vites the relevant other funders to accept this coord<strong>in</strong>ation, takes the lead <strong>and</strong> accepts<br />

accountability.<br />

. A model <strong>in</strong> which the funders of safety research form a partnership committee outside exist<strong>in</strong>g<br />

organizations <strong>and</strong> this committee has the authority (given by the fund<strong>in</strong>g organizations) to<br />

decide on the research agenda <strong>and</strong> the implementation of it.<br />

In the first model (but also <strong>in</strong> the second one) the chief scientist <strong>in</strong> the NRSA <strong>and</strong> his/her staff<br />

will play a very important role <strong>and</strong> only a very highly-qualified, knowledgeable <strong>and</strong> experienced<br />

researcher <strong>in</strong> the field of road safety research can carry out such a task successfully.<br />

This plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> coord<strong>in</strong>at<strong>in</strong>g work has to be carried out <strong>in</strong> close consultation with<br />

respresentatives of the clients of research results <strong>and</strong> with the providers of research. In<br />

pr<strong>in</strong>ciple, all funders of research should be prepared to br<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> their resources to one ‘road<br />

safety research budget’ <strong>and</strong> procedures have to be agreed upon how decisions are taken to<br />

spend the budget. But, hav<strong>in</strong>g agreed on the research agenda <strong>and</strong> research priorities, the<br />

budget allocation could also be coord<strong>in</strong>ated but h<strong>and</strong>led separately by each of the partners.<br />

This last option is recommended to start with, <strong>and</strong> the first option should only be considered<br />

if all partners are will<strong>in</strong>g to act accord<strong>in</strong>g to this model.<br />

Whatever model is chosen, the committee recommends an <strong>in</strong>itial round table meet<strong>in</strong>g at the<br />

beg<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>g of the process to pave the way for a <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> <strong>Research</strong> Partnership. The aim of<br />

While the plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> prioritisation process has yet to occur, the Committee considers that<br />

there are four substantial research themes that require longer-term core fund<strong>in</strong>g, also to<br />

ensure capacity build<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

The committee proposes to fund these four areas with programme fund<strong>in</strong>g for a period of<br />

4-5 years:<br />

<strong>Road</strong> safety policy development <strong>and</strong> evaluation<br />

Behavioural research<br />

Eng<strong>in</strong>eer<strong>in</strong>g research<br />

. Public health research<br />

The rationale for facilitat<strong>in</strong>g these four fields of research is to enable high-quality research to<br />

be susta<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>in</strong> an efficient manner. Such programmatic fund<strong>in</strong>g creates good conditions for<br />

capacity build<strong>in</strong>g, career paths <strong>in</strong> road safety research <strong>and</strong> succession plann<strong>in</strong>g. F<strong>in</strong>ally, the<br />

Committee expects a critical mass of researchers can be organised because research groups<br />

are less vulnerable.<br />

It is recommended to establish these four areas of research with<strong>in</strong> the Universities. The<br />

Committee recommends to <strong>in</strong>vite all universities to apply for host<strong>in</strong>g a core area of research<br />

based on a proposal submitted to the <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> <strong>Research</strong> Partnership. In these proposals<br />

it has to be made crystal clear how multi-discipl<strong>in</strong>ary programmes <strong>and</strong> projects will be<br />

effectively nurtured <strong>and</strong> how success will be measured.<br />

These four areas can be grouped, if proposed by Universities <strong>and</strong> accepted by the <strong>Road</strong><br />

<strong>Safety</strong> <strong>Research</strong> Partnership. It should be be permissible for cross faculty consortia with<strong>in</strong><br />

a university or cross-university consortia to be formed. In either case, however, the bidders<br />

must demonstrate how effective governance <strong>and</strong> co-ord<strong>in</strong>ation will be achieved. Besides<br />

competencies, experiences <strong>in</strong> safety research etc. critical mass <strong>and</strong> economics of scale are<br />

factors to be <strong>in</strong>cluded. At the end of the <strong>in</strong>itial contract period covered, an <strong>in</strong>dependent<br />

scientific <strong>review</strong> should be carried out by <strong>in</strong>ternational experts based on the performances<br />

reported. Based on these results decisions can be taken on cont<strong>in</strong>uation of a center or on<br />

modifications.<br />

In addition to the core programmes, a part of the total fund<strong>in</strong>g for research should be set<br />

aside to commission <strong>in</strong>dividual projects. All research groups <strong>and</strong> researchers from outside<br />

these groups should have the opportunity to prepare <strong>and</strong> submit proposals.<br />

The Committee def<strong>in</strong>ed several functional requirements of a core group deal<strong>in</strong>g with one<br />

or more of the four areas described. The group should be impartial (connected with but at<br />

“arm’s length” from the end user community, should deliver high quality <strong>and</strong> academically<br />

rigorous research, should be able to deal with multi-discipl<strong>in</strong>ary research, should be prepared<br />

to contribute to knowledge transfer, <strong>and</strong> should carry out professional education.

24<br />

3. Conclusions <strong>and</strong> recommendations<br />

25<br />

3. Conclusions <strong>and</strong> recommendations<br />

Figure 3. Proposal for future<br />

road safety research partnership<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong><br />

3.2 Future road safety<br />

research themes<br />

The ideas of the Advisory Committee are illustrated <strong>in</strong> Figure 3.<br />

Several models exist <strong>in</strong>ternationally on how to organise <strong>and</strong> f<strong>in</strong>ance road safety research. To<br />

mention the most important models:<br />

. A road safety research department <strong>in</strong> a broader highway research <strong>in</strong>stitute work<strong>in</strong>g under<br />

the commission of the government. Germany (BASt), France (Inrets)<br />

. A st<strong>and</strong> alone road safety research organization. the Netherl<strong>and</strong>s (SWOV)<br />

. A road safety research group <strong>in</strong>side a broader research organization. Sweden (VTI), F<strong>in</strong>l<strong>and</strong><br />

(VTT), Norway (TØI)<br />

. A research organization (with strong emphasis on safety) related to a university - Australia.<br />


All models are work<strong>in</strong>g but no ideal model could be recommended. It depends on local<br />

conditions which model should be preferred.<br />

The Committee recommends to organise the programmatic core research <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>i<br />

universities, but outside exist<strong>in</strong>g faculty structures. It goes without say<strong>in</strong>g that this research<br />

should be carried out <strong>in</strong>dependent of policy mak<strong>in</strong>g. <strong>Research</strong>ers should have the possibility<br />

to publish all results. The key <strong>in</strong>dicators for success would <strong>in</strong>clude: high scientific quality,<br />

stock of new knowledge, the development of advanced scientific methods, research results<br />

which are respected by other researchers, <strong>and</strong> acceptance by decision makers for their utility<br />

by policymakers <strong>and</strong> practitioners.<br />

The Advisory Committee has been impressed with the range <strong>and</strong> quality of the<br />

<strong>in</strong>dividual road safety research projects we have learned about from our discussions<br />

with the various university groups. The concept of ‘gaps’ is therefore a relative one. We<br />

have identified research themes which are either absent or under-represented from<br />

the perspective of where <strong>Israel</strong> needs to focus its major research effort <strong>in</strong> order to<br />

underp<strong>in</strong> its attempts to achieve its ambitious safety targets.<br />

The first set of research themes recommended for special attention is designed to strengthen<br />

the road safety strategic plann<strong>in</strong>g, programme implementation <strong>and</strong> programme evaluation<br />

process.<br />

1. <strong>Research</strong> to underp<strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>i road safety management systems. It is vital that there be<br />

ongo<strong>in</strong>g monitor<strong>in</strong>g of trends to underp<strong>in</strong> issue identification, accompanied by a scientifically<br />

rigorous programme to evaluate all countermeasure efforts. While evaluation methods are<br />

at reasonable current strength there is scope for considerable expansion. Similarly, while<br />

some trend analyses exist, the field requires further development. The new area of research<br />

is around the development of valid performance <strong>in</strong>dicators <strong>and</strong> ongo<strong>in</strong>g data sets with<br />

explanatory power. It is not enough to know that someth<strong>in</strong>g did not work; it is important to<br />

underst<strong>and</strong> why not, <strong>and</strong> what might be changed to produce a different outcome.<br />

2. <strong>Research</strong> <strong>in</strong>to the strategy <strong>and</strong> policy formulation process <strong>and</strong> the factors affect<strong>in</strong>g effective<br />

implementation of action plans. A range of issues around organizational behaviour <strong>and</strong> both<br />

<strong>in</strong>stitutional <strong>and</strong> societal cultural norms are relevant here. It is common <strong>in</strong> many nations to fail<br />

to implement known solutions not through lack of effort but through a lack of underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

of the risk factors <strong>in</strong> the implementation process.<br />

3. <strong>Research</strong> <strong>in</strong>to the economic costs <strong>and</strong> benefits of the road safety system <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong> <strong>and</strong> the<br />

development of suitable economic performance <strong>in</strong>dicators.<br />

4. <strong>Research</strong> <strong>in</strong>to the relationships between safety, mobility, urban amenity, social equity <strong>and</strong><br />

environmental impacts - each of which is an objective of a susta<strong>in</strong>able road transport system.<br />

In conjunction with item 2. above. This research must be undertaken with<strong>in</strong> the <strong>Israel</strong>i system<br />

as <strong>in</strong>ternational results can be no more than <strong>in</strong>dicative.<br />

In addition to these four essentially untapped research themes there are three more specific<br />

areas of research that are significantly under-developed <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>:<br />

. <strong>Research</strong> <strong>in</strong>to vulnerable road user safety, especially, <strong>in</strong> the first <strong>in</strong>stance, pedestrian<br />

safety. <strong>Israel</strong> has a very high proportion of pedestrian fatalities <strong>and</strong> the absence of systematic<br />

research is surpris<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

. <strong>Research</strong> surround<strong>in</strong>g regulations, enforcement <strong>and</strong> the judicial process is sparse, yet<br />

systematic, <strong>in</strong>tense, evidence-based enforcement has enormous potential to contribute to<br />

the achievement of <strong>Israel</strong>’s safety targets.<br />

. <strong>Research</strong> to quantify the <strong>in</strong>cidence <strong>and</strong> nature of alcohol, drugs <strong>and</strong> medic<strong>in</strong>es <strong>in</strong> road<br />

crashes <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>.<br />

F<strong>in</strong>ally, no country can hope to undertake research on all aspects of road safety. The focus<br />

needs to be on those topics where local factors are likely to prevent the simple adoption<br />

of research results from elsewhere. As an example, the physiological effects of alcohol on<br />

steer<strong>in</strong>g performance can be assumed to apply globally while the <strong>in</strong>cidence of alcohol across<br />

different crash types must be locally determ<strong>in</strong>ed.<br />

It is critical, therefore, to establish a ‘clear<strong>in</strong>g house’ or repository of research f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>gs to<br />

ensure ready access to <strong>in</strong>ternational knowledge. This exists via journals <strong>and</strong> web-sites, but<br />

can be augmented by local state-of-the-art <strong>review</strong>s on topics of greater relevance.

26<br />

3. Conclusions <strong>and</strong> recommendations<br />

In this report the Committee recommends strategic research <strong>and</strong> action plann<strong>in</strong>g, a<br />

coord<strong>in</strong>ated <strong>and</strong> focused research approach to road safety research, <strong>and</strong> greater emphasis<br />

on usefulness <strong>and</strong> implementation of research. When the emphasis shifts to more applied<br />

<strong>and</strong> more immediately useable research there is the danger of ignor<strong>in</strong>g longer term more<br />

basic research <strong>and</strong> new <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g research ideas that come from the research (or other)<br />

communities. The current research situation <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong> is that basic, longer-term <strong>and</strong> new idea<br />

research receives attention <strong>and</strong> fund<strong>in</strong>g. The Committee wishes to po<strong>in</strong>t out that these are<br />

important elements of a road safety programme <strong>and</strong> should not be lost <strong>in</strong> the process of<br />

refocus<strong>in</strong>g or reorganiz<strong>in</strong>g the research process <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>. Basic, longer range <strong>and</strong> new idea<br />

research should be <strong>in</strong>cluded <strong>in</strong> any research strategic <strong>and</strong> action plann<strong>in</strong>g process.

29<br />

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European Commission (2001). European transport policy for 2010; Time to decide. White<br />

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European Conference of M<strong>in</strong>isters of Transport (2006). <strong>Road</strong> safety performance. National<br />

peer <strong>review</strong>: Russian Federation. OECD, Paris.<br />

European Transport <strong>Safety</strong> Council (2003). Transport safety performance <strong>in</strong> the EU.<br />

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Johnston, I. (2006). Halv<strong>in</strong>g roadway fatalities. A case study from Victoria, Australia 1989-<br />

2004. FHWA, Office of International Programs, Wash<strong>in</strong>gton, DC.<br />

OECD (1997). <strong>Road</strong> safety pr<strong>in</strong>ciples <strong>and</strong> models. Organisation for Economic Co-operation<br />

<strong>and</strong> Development OECD, Paris.<br />

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(2004). World report on road traffic <strong>in</strong>jury prevention. World Health Organization WHO,<br />

Geneva.<br />

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The M<strong>in</strong>istry of Transport <strong>and</strong> <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong>, Jerusalem<br />

T<strong>in</strong>gvall, C. & Haworth, N. (1999). Vision Zero: An ethical approach to safety <strong>and</strong> mobility. In:<br />

Proceed<strong>in</strong>gs of the 6th ITE International Conference - <strong>Road</strong> safety <strong>and</strong> <strong>Traffic</strong> Enforcement:<br />

Beyond 2000, Melbourne.<br />

Transportation <strong>Research</strong> Board (2006). Core compentencies for highway safety professionals.<br />

<strong>Research</strong> Results Digest 302. TRB, Wash<strong>in</strong>gton<br />

Wegman, F. & Aarts, L. eds. (2006). Advanc<strong>in</strong>g Susta<strong>in</strong>able <strong>Safety</strong>. SWOV, Leidschendam.

31<br />

5. Annexes<br />

Annex I<br />

The International Committee<br />

Fred Wegman (chairman)<br />

Manag<strong>in</strong>g director, SWOV<br />

Institute for <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong><br />

<strong>Research</strong>, the Netherl<strong>and</strong>s<br />

Ian Johnston<br />

Director, Monash University<br />

Accident <strong>Research</strong> Centre,<br />

Australia<br />

Günter Kroj<br />

Former director of the<br />

department Behaviour <strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>Safety</strong> <strong>in</strong> the Federal Highway<br />

<strong>Research</strong> Institute BASt,<br />

Germany<br />

Richard Pa<strong>in</strong><br />

Transportation safety<br />

coord<strong>in</strong>ator, Transportation<br />

<strong>Research</strong> Board, United States<br />

of America<br />

Advisors to the Committee:<br />

Shalom Hakkert<br />

Scientific director, Ran Naor<br />

Foundation for the advancement<br />

of road safety research, <strong>Israel</strong><br />

Tsippy Lotan<br />

Chief scientist, Or Yarok, <strong>Israel</strong>

32 33<br />

5. Annexes<br />

5. Annexes<br />

Annex II<br />

The Terms of Reference (June 2006)<br />

The Challenges:<br />

Every year, <strong>Israel</strong> has to deal with the epidemic of road traffic accidents which result <strong>in</strong> more<br />

than 40,000 <strong>in</strong>juries <strong>and</strong> approximately 500 deaths.<br />

This year, the M<strong>in</strong>ister of Transport established a National Committee to consolidate policy<br />

<strong>and</strong> m<strong>in</strong>imize road traffic accidents.<br />

One of the acute problems raised by the committee was the lack of research <strong>and</strong> education<br />

<strong>and</strong> the need to establish a new young generation of researchers, as well as issues concern<strong>in</strong>g<br />

the complteness <strong>and</strong> reliability of road safety data.<br />

help <strong>in</strong> strengthen<strong>in</strong>g the area.<br />

5. The participants <strong>in</strong> the Committee will be able to discuss <strong>and</strong> present successful models<br />

used <strong>in</strong> other countries that will be evaluated for the <strong>Israel</strong>i sett<strong>in</strong>g. It is hoped that the roles<br />

of the academia, the government <strong>and</strong> NGO’s can be identified, highlight<strong>in</strong>g the areas <strong>in</strong> which<br />

philanthropy might most appropriately <strong>and</strong> effectively <strong>in</strong>tervene.<br />

Terms of Reference<br />

The Advisory Committee should address the follow<strong>in</strong>g questions on issues regard<strong>in</strong>g road<br />

safety research <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>:<br />

1. Suggest a system to establish a new <strong>and</strong> young generation of researchers.<br />

2. Def<strong>in</strong>e the research needs <strong>in</strong> road safety <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>, accompany<strong>in</strong>g research activities <strong>and</strong><br />

suggested priorities.<br />

3. Def<strong>in</strong>e the needs of academic education on road safety:<br />

the level of education (1st, 2nd <strong>and</strong> 3rd degree).<br />

the lead<strong>in</strong>g area of education (eng<strong>in</strong>eer<strong>in</strong>g/human factor/public policy/public health etc).<br />

. the optimal system to promote research accord<strong>in</strong>g to needs: call for papers \ small team<br />

of researchers, specialists <strong>in</strong> a specific field of research, study location at the “Ran Naor<br />

Foundation” for the period of research \ “tender” \ <strong>in</strong>ternational exchange of researchers.<br />

In light of this urgent need to improve the state of research <strong>and</strong> the academic education <strong>in</strong> this<br />

field <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>. Mr. Avi Naor <strong>and</strong> his family established the “Ran Naor <strong>Research</strong> Foundation”, a<br />

non-profit <strong>Israel</strong>i foundation for the advancement of road safety research.<br />

The Ran Naor Foundation, <strong>in</strong> cooperation with Yad Hanadiv, plans to convene an International<br />

Expert Advisory Committee on <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> for a week of meet<strong>in</strong>gs dur<strong>in</strong>g the first half of the<br />

year 2006.<br />

This <strong>in</strong>ternational team of experts will meet with representatives from the academic<br />

<strong>in</strong>stitutions <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>, the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Transport, the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Homel<strong>and</strong> Security, the M<strong>in</strong>istry<br />

of <strong>Education</strong>, the <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Authority, the scientific director of Ran Naor Foundation <strong>and</strong><br />

the senior scientific staff of “Or Yarok”, researchers, lead<strong>in</strong>g academics from relevant fields,<br />

<strong>and</strong> representatives of the road safety community.<br />

International Expert Advisory Committee on <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong><br />

Background material for these meet<strong>in</strong>gs will be provided <strong>in</strong> advance so that the committee<br />

will be prepared for the meet<strong>in</strong>gs with the relevant organizations.<br />

The aim of the Advisory Committee will be:<br />

1. To produce a detailed report summariz<strong>in</strong>g the current state of <strong>Israel</strong>’s research <strong>in</strong> the area<br />

of road safety <strong>and</strong> the state of academic education <strong>in</strong> that area.<br />

2. To produce a report outl<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g directions, research activities <strong>and</strong> goals that should set clear<br />

guidel<strong>in</strong>es for the future of road safety research <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>.<br />

3. To provide a detailed set o f recommendations as to how best achieve the outl<strong>in</strong>ed goals.<br />

4. To recommend <strong>in</strong>ternational research collaborations <strong>in</strong> the area of road safety which could

34<br />

5. Annexes<br />

35<br />

5. Annexes<br />

2.2 The problem of road<br />

safety <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong><br />

Annex III<br />

Excerpt from the She<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong> report<br />

The follow<strong>in</strong>g parts are taken from the She<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong> report (She<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong> 2005) which describes the<br />

road safety situation <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong> (section number<strong>in</strong>g is accord<strong>in</strong>g to the orig<strong>in</strong>al report):<br />

More than 500 people are killed on the roads each year, more than 3,000 are seriously <strong>in</strong>jured,<br />

<strong>and</strong> tens of thous<strong>and</strong>s suffer from bodily harm <strong>and</strong> property damage.<br />

The number of fatalities <strong>in</strong> road crashes per km of vehicle traveled <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong> is more than 70%<br />

higher than <strong>in</strong> Engl<strong>and</strong> or Holl<strong>and</strong>.<br />

The <strong>in</strong>dex of road safety, accord<strong>in</strong>g to the number of fatalities per kilometer of road traveled,<br />

shows that <strong>Israel</strong> is placed 16th <strong>in</strong> the world.<br />

The number of pedestrians killed <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong> out of the total road-crash fatalities is exceptional,<br />

about 35%, as opposed to about 15% <strong>in</strong> the developed countries.<br />

The direct economic damage caused by road crashes, based on actual <strong>in</strong>surance company<br />

payments, is about NIS 6.3 billion a year.<br />

With the addition of <strong>in</strong>direct damage, the amount exceeds NIS 10 billion a year, about 2% of<br />

the national product.<br />

Fatalities Per Kilometer Traveled - Comparison Between Countries<br />

A. The number of road crash fatalities <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong> <strong>in</strong> the past 10 years, from 1995 to 2004, ranges<br />

between 450 <strong>and</strong> 550 a year, with only a marg<strong>in</strong>al decreas<strong>in</strong>g trend of about 1% a year.<br />

Ignor<strong>in</strong>g this trend, the average annual number of fatalities is 511 with a st<strong>and</strong>ard deviation<br />

of about 0.36. The number of fatalities <strong>in</strong> 2004 accord<strong>in</strong>g to the trend of the past decade is<br />

only about 490.<br />

B. Dur<strong>in</strong>g this period, the country’s population grew by about 26%, the number of vehicles<br />

grew by about 50%, <strong>and</strong> the overall kilometers per vehicle traveled grew by about 42%.<br />

Despite this growth, the number of road crash fatalities rema<strong>in</strong>ed constant.<br />

C. Dur<strong>in</strong>g the 1990s there was a decl<strong>in</strong>e of about 4% a year <strong>in</strong> the number of fatalities per km<br />

traveled. However, <strong>in</strong> the past five years from 2000 to 2004, the trend has rema<strong>in</strong>ed constant<br />

<strong>and</strong> no significant improvement <strong>in</strong> safety was recorded.<br />

D. Between 1992 <strong>and</strong> 2000 there was a significant growth <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>vestments <strong>in</strong> the road system<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>. In the past five years, however, there has been a significant decl<strong>in</strong>e <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>vestments.<br />

E. The dom<strong>in</strong>ant factors lead<strong>in</strong>g to the decl<strong>in</strong>e <strong>in</strong> fatalities per km traveled dur<strong>in</strong>g the 1990s<br />

were, apparently, an improvement <strong>in</strong> vehicle safety (<strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g safety belts, air bags, <strong>and</strong> the<br />

brak<strong>in</strong>g system), <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>frastructure improvements - roads <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>terchanges.<br />

A. The level of motorization <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong> - the number of vehicles relative to the population - is still<br />

very low, only about 50% of that <strong>in</strong> the European countries. An <strong>in</strong>crease <strong>in</strong> liv<strong>in</strong>g st<strong>and</strong>ards<br />

implies an <strong>in</strong>crease <strong>in</strong> the level of motorization.<br />

B. The rate of population growth <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>, <strong>and</strong> especially the adult population of 18 years <strong>and</strong><br />

older, is about 2% a year, vastly different from the 0.2% European growth rate.<br />

C. Accord<strong>in</strong>g to projections made by “Economic Models”, with<strong>in</strong> ten years the number of<br />

vehicles <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong> is expected to grow by about 46%, <strong>and</strong> the kilometers traveled per vehicle<br />

by about 30% (on condition that mass transit systems will be <strong>in</strong> operation). This growth is<br />

highly exceptional <strong>and</strong> does not exist <strong>in</strong> most of the developed countries, which have reached<br />

a saturation po<strong>in</strong>t <strong>in</strong> the number of vehicles.<br />

D. Accord<strong>in</strong>gly, the transportation problem <strong>and</strong> road crashes <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong> are expected to<br />

exacerbate <strong>in</strong> the com<strong>in</strong>g years...”<br />

2.3 Developments <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>Israel</strong> <strong>in</strong> the last decade<br />

2.4 Monitorization<br />

forecast for the next<br />

decade<br />

Country<br />

Fatalities per<br />

billion kilometers<br />

traveled<br />

Country<br />

1. Great Brita<strong>in</strong> (2003) 7.2 11. Germany (2003) 9.7<br />

2. F<strong>in</strong>l<strong>and</strong> (2003) 7.6 12. Irel<strong>and</strong> (2001) 10.9<br />

3. Holl<strong>and</strong> (2003) 7.7 13. Japan (2003) 11.2<br />

4. Australia (2003) 8.0 14. Austria (2003) 11.7<br />

5. Sweden (1999) 8.3 15. New Zeal<strong>and</strong> (2000) 12.4<br />

6. Norway (2001) 8.3 16. <strong>Israel</strong> (2004) 13.0<br />

7. Switzerl<strong>and</strong> (2003) 8.8 17. France (2002) 13.8<br />

8. Canada (2002) 9.3 18. Icel<strong>and</strong> (2000) 16.0<br />

9. USA (2001) 9.4 19. Belgium (2001) 16.3<br />

10. Denmark (2002) 9.7 20. Slovenia (2000) 16.7<br />

Fatalities per<br />

billion kilometers<br />

traveled<br />

A. The European Union - EU 15, has declared a European plan to reduce the number of<br />

fatalities by 50% with<strong>in</strong> the 10 years from 2000 to 2010. In 2005 the Union is expect<strong>in</strong>g to<br />

reach half way toward achiev<strong>in</strong>g the goal.<br />

B. The “vision of zero fatalities” <strong>in</strong> road crashes is gather<strong>in</strong>g momentum <strong>in</strong> the European<br />

Community, <strong>and</strong> it appears that the improved-safety trend will also cont<strong>in</strong>ue <strong>in</strong> the second<br />

decade of the century.<br />

C. <strong>Road</strong> ma<strong>in</strong>tenance <strong>and</strong> road <strong>in</strong>frastructure <strong>in</strong> the European Union are significantly better<br />

than <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>. There is currently a trend <strong>in</strong> the European Union to <strong>in</strong>tegrate advanced<br />

technology as an <strong>in</strong>tegral part of the road <strong>and</strong> vehicle system, enabl<strong>in</strong>g warn<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> real time.<br />

D. The developed countries are experienc<strong>in</strong>g a severe problem of dr<strong>in</strong>k driv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> driv<strong>in</strong>g<br />

under the <strong>in</strong>fluence of drugs. These countries are search<strong>in</strong>g for ways to drastically reduce the<br />

dimensions of the phenomenon <strong>in</strong> order to significantly reduce the number of fatalities.<br />

The three pr<strong>in</strong>ciples of the European plan are:<br />

A. Improved driv<strong>in</strong>g habits <strong>and</strong> obey<strong>in</strong>g the traffic rules.<br />

2.5 The trend <strong>in</strong><br />

develop<strong>in</strong>g countries

36<br />

5. Annexes<br />

37<br />

5. Annexes<br />

B. Safer cars, especially <strong>in</strong> the area of electronics (e-safety).<br />

C. Better road <strong>in</strong>frastructure.<br />

The European plan claims that most road crashes are a result of driver error <strong>in</strong> obey<strong>in</strong>g<br />

the traffic laws, <strong>and</strong> lack of underst<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>g of the driv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> control systems. A forgiv<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong>frastructure thus reduces the damage from human error, which will always exist.<br />

In light of the European determ<strong>in</strong>ation to reduce the number of fatalities, it is reasonable to<br />

assume that the fatalities per km traveled <strong>in</strong> the lead<strong>in</strong>g countries will be less than 6 deaths<br />

per billion km (<strong>in</strong> 2000 the rate was about 8 deaths per billion km)…”<br />

To the above a number of observations can be added:<br />

Over the past few years the number of fatalities <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>jury accidents has cont<strong>in</strong>ued to<br />

decrease <strong>and</strong> it now seems likely that the number of fatalities <strong>in</strong> 2006 will be around 400. As<br />

a result of this, <strong>in</strong> terms of fatalities per 1000 population the record <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong> will be very good<br />

compared to other countries. Due to the low level of motorization, the level of fatalities per<br />

1000 vehicles or per million vehicle-kms traveled will still be high compared to the countries<br />

with very good safety records.<br />

The attitude of road safety professionals <strong>and</strong> decision makers <strong>in</strong> those countries with very<br />

good safety records is not to put too much focus <strong>and</strong> attention to their safety position <strong>in</strong><br />

comparison with other countries. They are look<strong>in</strong>g for ways to improve the safety situation<br />

further through the identification of actions that will lead to further improvements. This is<br />

almost <strong>in</strong>variable through the establishment of multi-year road safety plans, with quantitative<br />

target sett<strong>in</strong>g, a programme of performance monitor<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> the cooperation <strong>and</strong> commitment<br />

of all government agents <strong>in</strong>volved. This is the situation <strong>in</strong> countries such as the Netherl<strong>and</strong>s,<br />

the United K<strong>in</strong>gdom, the Sc<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong>avian countries, Australia <strong>and</strong> others.<br />

Annex IV<br />

The providers of research<br />

Bar Ilan University<br />

With<strong>in</strong> the university two dist<strong>in</strong>ct activities focus on road safety. The School of Social Work<br />

with the Department of Psychology conduct research <strong>in</strong> the areas of psycho-social aspects of<br />

drivers, traffic accident prevention, <strong>and</strong> post-trauma <strong>in</strong>tervention. <strong>Research</strong> themes <strong>in</strong> these<br />

areas <strong>in</strong>clude risk tak<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> driv<strong>in</strong>g, behavioural change <strong>in</strong> driv<strong>in</strong>g behaviour, licens<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong><br />

driver tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g processes <strong>and</strong> effectiveness <strong>and</strong> emotional response to crashes. An additional<br />

theme on culture <strong>and</strong> build<strong>in</strong>g safe communities is envisioned. The faculty offers road safety<br />

specializations at the graduate level.<br />

In the Department of Interdiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary Social Science studies, the Phoenix <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Studies<br />

<strong>and</strong> <strong>Research</strong> Program has education <strong>and</strong> research components. The <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Studies<br />

Program offers a two year undergraduate level course of study to prepare practitioners <strong>in</strong><br />

various traffic safety careers. They have applied to the university for a masters degree level<br />

road safety academic programme. The research unit is conduct<strong>in</strong>g studies of pedestrian<br />

behaviour, organizational aspects of safety <strong>and</strong> evaluation studies.<br />

Ben Gurion University of the Negev - Be’er Sheva<br />

Ben Gurion University has a core group of researchers <strong>in</strong> road safety with<strong>in</strong> the Department of<br />

Industrial Eng<strong>in</strong>eer<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> Management. The primary research foci are human performance<br />

<strong>and</strong> human factors eng<strong>in</strong>eer<strong>in</strong>g. The group has a laboratory, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g a driv<strong>in</strong>g simulator.<br />

<strong>Research</strong> strengths <strong>in</strong>clude:<br />

Driver performance us<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>-vehicle ITS devices.<br />

. Driver performance under distraction, under fatigue, <strong>and</strong> under the <strong>in</strong>fluence of alcohol<br />

<strong>and</strong> other drugs.<br />

The determ<strong>in</strong>ation of risk factors related to age, gender <strong>and</strong> levels of driv<strong>in</strong>g experience.<br />

. Hazard perception <strong>and</strong> decision-mak<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> driv<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

In addition, there is related work at Ben Gurion University on the road safety impacts of<br />

town plann<strong>in</strong>g, transportation plann<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> on traffic forecast<strong>in</strong>g. Database issues <strong>and</strong> data<br />

modell<strong>in</strong>g are also relative strengths.<br />

The human factors group has an excellent publication record <strong>and</strong> a post-graduate research<br />

programme. It can be further strengthened by improved leverag<strong>in</strong>g of academic skills from<br />

other faculties <strong>and</strong> departments.<br />

Recently (start<strong>in</strong>g October 2006), sponsored by the Ran Naor Foundation, two M.Sc.<br />

programmes <strong>in</strong> road safety were established. At present the programmes have about two<br />

students who are committed to conduct their thesis on road safety.

38<br />

5. Annexes<br />

39<br />

5. Annexes<br />

Haifa University<br />

The Committee met with eight scientists of the Department of Geography, the Department of<br />

Psychology <strong>and</strong> the Faculty of Social Welfare & Health Studies/School of Public Health, who<br />

conduct road safety research <strong>in</strong> the areas of road accident database enrichment through the<br />

application of GIS, a psychological approach to driver speed selection, safety measures <strong>and</strong><br />

prevention.<br />

The nature <strong>and</strong> type of these projects range from a fundamental theoretical approach through<br />

applied research to evaluation projects <strong>and</strong> cover both long term as well as short term<br />

studies. Only a few projects were <strong>in</strong>terdiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary or conducted <strong>in</strong> collaboration with another<br />

University. Interest <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>terdiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary cooperation was expressed, but not suggested as an<br />

important condition for <strong>in</strong>dividual research perspectives.<br />

Most projects were funded, <strong>and</strong> the results are/can be used as a base for the implementation<br />

or the improvement of <strong>in</strong>terventions on the local as well as on the national level or were<br />

already <strong>in</strong> use.<br />

The human behaviour <strong>and</strong> epidemiological research agenda at the School of Public Health<br />

is focused on actual <strong>and</strong> emerg<strong>in</strong>g road safety problems of <strong>Israel</strong> (e.g. pedestrians, children,<br />

cultural background) <strong>and</strong> delivers explicit results for policy makers.<br />

The implementation of a <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> <strong>Research</strong> Centre was not considered of high priority.<br />

But, if it were established, the researchers considered it should be at the Haifa University. As<br />

the most important condition to conduct more <strong>and</strong> better road safety research a larger <strong>and</strong><br />

cont<strong>in</strong>uous research budget should be provided from outside the university, was expressed<br />

as a view to the Committee. It was seen as useful to build an “Injury Prevention Centre” at the<br />

Haifa University to attract more grants, more students <strong>and</strong> a better context to prepare them<br />

for potential jobs as road safety experts.<br />

Technion- <strong>Israel</strong> Institute of Technology<br />

The history of road safety research at the Technion goes back to 1966 when, with support of<br />

the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Transport, a <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Centre was established <strong>in</strong> the Department of Civil<br />

Eng<strong>in</strong>eer<strong>in</strong>g. In 1977 this centre was <strong>in</strong>corporated <strong>in</strong>to the Transportation <strong>Research</strong> Institute.<br />

<strong>Road</strong> safety research is one of the five research areas of this <strong>in</strong>stitute.<br />

<strong>Road</strong> safety research has been carried out <strong>in</strong> the follow<strong>in</strong>g four areas:<br />

<strong>Traffic</strong> eng<strong>in</strong>eer<strong>in</strong>g (e.g. on urban areas, safety barriers, traffic calm<strong>in</strong>g, <strong>in</strong>tersection design<br />

ITS (e.g. data recorders, speed limiters)<br />

Town <strong>and</strong> transportation plann<strong>in</strong>g (e.g. by-passes)<br />

. Modell<strong>in</strong>g road safety developments (safety management systems, data collection <strong>and</strong><br />

analysis) <strong>and</strong> evaluation studies (e.g. on police enforcement).<br />

Publications are done <strong>in</strong> (commissioned) reports <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> peer <strong>review</strong>ed articles. The expertise<br />

<strong>in</strong> road safety of the Technion is used throughout the country through consultations,<br />

participation <strong>in</strong> expert groups, etc.<br />

Technion has an undergraduate programme <strong>in</strong> civil <strong>and</strong> environmental eng<strong>in</strong>eer<strong>in</strong>g, as part of<br />

this programme there are studies <strong>in</strong> various aspects of traffic eng<strong>in</strong>eer<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> safety. On the<br />

MSc-level a programme exists <strong>in</strong> transportation eng<strong>in</strong>eer<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong>, recently, with the support of<br />

the Ran Naor Foundation (established <strong>in</strong> October 2006) a dedicated road safety programme<br />

was established. MSc <strong>and</strong> PhD students conduct a variety of theses on road safety. In the<br />

present safety MSc-programme 4 students have registered, also 4 PhD-students write their<br />

dissertation on road safety subjects.<br />

Most of the fund<strong>in</strong>g of the research is com<strong>in</strong>g from (governmental) grants. These grants show<br />

wide fluctuations over the years. Fund<strong>in</strong>g is also com<strong>in</strong>g from participation <strong>in</strong> EC sponsored<br />

projects .Still additional fund<strong>in</strong>g exists through the normal University system which funds<br />

scholarships for graduate students <strong>and</strong> f<strong>in</strong>ances the research activities of academic staff.<br />

A small annual grant is received from the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Transport for a national library for road<br />

safety <strong>and</strong> a few databases. Only a few researchers are work<strong>in</strong>g full-time on road safety<br />

projects. A few more are also <strong>in</strong>terested <strong>and</strong> carry out safety research <strong>in</strong>cidentally. The<br />

Advisory Committee was told that other fields of expertise from the Technion could become<br />

available easily for safety research (from TRI <strong>and</strong> from other faculties as well) provided<br />

additional fund<strong>in</strong>g were available.<br />

Technion expressed its <strong>in</strong>terests to establish a National Centre for <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> <strong>Research</strong>. The<br />

purposes served by this centre are to augment <strong>and</strong> support efforts to prevent road crashes, to<br />

strengthen the road safety research community, to <strong>in</strong>crease knowledge on new technologies<br />

to improve road safety <strong>and</strong> to support the tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g of students <strong>and</strong> professionals <strong>in</strong> this field.<br />

Foreseen areas of research are: eng<strong>in</strong>eer<strong>in</strong>g, human factors, analysis of <strong>in</strong>formation on road<br />

accidents, trauma management, <strong>in</strong>-depth <strong>in</strong>vestigation of crashes, economic aspects of<br />

road accidents <strong>and</strong> ITS. Fund<strong>in</strong>g of this Centre should have a permanent <strong>and</strong> variable part. A<br />

permanent staff (ca. 12) is anticipated.<br />

Tel Aviv University<br />

The road safety research conducted <strong>in</strong> the psychology field is of a very applied nature,<br />

sponsored mostly by the National <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Authority <strong>in</strong> the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Transport <strong>and</strong><br />

deals with the evaluation of road safety media campaigns. They see this work as hav<strong>in</strong>g<br />

limited theoretical benefits <strong>in</strong> their field which they would prefer to explore. There are more<br />

capabilities at Tel Aviv University, not presented at the meet<strong>in</strong>g with the Advisory Committee<br />

with <strong>in</strong>terests <strong>in</strong> the media campaign subject, <strong>in</strong> the Department of Communications. There is<br />

no coord<strong>in</strong>ation of research <strong>in</strong> the road safety field at Tel Aviv University.<br />

The group from the Environment Simulation Laboratory is develop<strong>in</strong>g 3D simulation<br />

environments which enable the study of human activities, such as driv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> walk<strong>in</strong>g to<br />

evaluate their dynamic <strong>in</strong>teractions with the physical <strong>in</strong>frastructure. The work <strong>in</strong>cludes the<br />

application of video motion detection software. The group has applied this approach to<br />

the study of park<strong>in</strong>g problems <strong>in</strong> Tel Aviv <strong>and</strong> has submitted a proposal to the Ran Naor<br />

Foundation for the study of hazardous <strong>in</strong>tersections. Their <strong>in</strong>terest is to apply dynamic models<br />

to the design process. The activity <strong>in</strong> robotics deals with the development of multi-objective<br />

evolutionary algorithms. They feel this approach can be applied to the road safety field.<br />

There is a general feel<strong>in</strong>g that client sponsored research wants short term answers, whereas<br />

they are more <strong>in</strong>terested <strong>in</strong> long term research. They would be <strong>in</strong>terested <strong>in</strong> participat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong><br />

a road safety research centre, even one outside the University, as long as it enabled them to<br />

pursue their research <strong>in</strong>terests.<br />

A number of other related research fields were not presented at the meet<strong>in</strong>g with the<br />

Committee. These <strong>in</strong>clude the fields of urban plann<strong>in</strong>g, cognitive psychology, public health

40<br />

5. Annexes<br />

41<br />

5. Annexes<br />

,road safety campaigns <strong>and</strong> economic aspects of road safety.<br />

The <strong>Israel</strong> Centre for Trauma <strong>and</strong> Emergency Medic<strong>in</strong>e <strong>Research</strong><br />

This centre is part of the Gertner Institute for Epidemiology <strong>and</strong> Health Policy research.<br />

The centre accommodates <strong>and</strong> manages the national trauma registry conta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g data on<br />

hospitalised patients at 10 trauma centres <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>. This covers about 80% of all hospitalized<br />

trauma patients <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>.<br />

With the aid of the available data base, the Centre conducts a range of road safety studies<br />

deal<strong>in</strong>g with a variety of aspects of trauma <strong>and</strong> also conducts other road safety research.<br />

Some examples <strong>in</strong>clude the scope of hospitalization due to road traffic trauma; children’s<br />

<strong>in</strong>juries <strong>in</strong> cars, bicycle <strong>in</strong>juries, children’s <strong>in</strong>juries dur<strong>in</strong>g bus transport to schools, etc.<br />

Annex V<br />

The clients of research<br />

Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS)<br />

Official statistics <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong> are the m<strong>and</strong>ated responsibility of this agency. Legislation gives<br />

them the authority to request data from any government agency to fulfil their m<strong>and</strong>ate. <strong>Road</strong><br />

safety data, e.g. crash data <strong>and</strong> related data, are not <strong>in</strong>cluded as official compulsory statistics<br />

<strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong> but CBS, us<strong>in</strong>g fund<strong>in</strong>g from the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Transport, ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>s a national road<br />

crash database. Crash data reports are collected from police agencies, <strong>and</strong> are entered <strong>in</strong>to<br />

the database, generally with<strong>in</strong> one month. Additional studies <strong>and</strong> requests require additional<br />

funds. Also, because of hir<strong>in</strong>g constra<strong>in</strong>ts, staff for perform<strong>in</strong>g such studies is <strong>in</strong> short supply.<br />

A significant function of CBS is their ability to l<strong>in</strong>k data bases. Crash reports can be l<strong>in</strong>ked<br />

with driver, vehicle <strong>and</strong> traffic violation citation files. Other files, useful to researchers,<br />

which can be l<strong>in</strong>ked, <strong>in</strong>clude census, social survey, <strong>and</strong> trauma registry, <strong>in</strong>surance <strong>and</strong><br />

emergency service.<br />

Traditionally, CBS provides crash data <strong>in</strong> hard copy summary tables. Recently they developed a<br />

web based capability giv<strong>in</strong>g users considerable flexibility to query the crash report database.<br />

Further, a new GIS capability allows spatial analysis of crash data.<br />

CBS undertakes special studies to improve the quality of the crash report<strong>in</strong>g system <strong>and</strong><br />

database. They recently conducted a survey to determ<strong>in</strong>e <strong>in</strong>ternational practices <strong>in</strong> crash data<br />

bases, e.g. def<strong>in</strong>itions, l<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g to other data bases, legal report<strong>in</strong>g requirements. Another<br />

study compared hospital/trauma records to police crash files.<br />

A public function of CBS is to provide crash data to transportation <strong>and</strong> safety agencies,<br />

national <strong>and</strong> local, which they do with periodic tabular reports, e.g. to local authorities.<br />

CBS also responds to special requests for crash data analysis. To support this function they<br />

ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong> a research room where researchers <strong>and</strong> the public may access sanitized versions of<br />

the crash record data base. CBS does not tra<strong>in</strong> data users or provide technical assistance to<br />

end users. They would welcome another agency to provide such services.<br />

<strong>Israel</strong>i Police<br />

The <strong>Israel</strong>i Police traffic enforcement programme <strong>in</strong>cludes:<br />

a database of polic<strong>in</strong>g efforts <strong>and</strong> a process for bas<strong>in</strong>g future operations upon this <strong>in</strong>telligence.<br />

. A small <strong>in</strong>ternal research capacity both to underp<strong>in</strong> future operations <strong>and</strong> to assess the<br />

impacts of particular programmes<br />

A unique force of volunteers to extend the reach of the permanent force<br />

. A knowledge of developments <strong>in</strong>ternationally <strong>in</strong> road polic<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Access to appropriate equipment for dr<strong>in</strong>k-driv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> speed enforcement as well as for crash<br />

<strong>in</strong>vestigations, (although the level of equipment is relatively small).

42<br />

5. Annexes<br />

43<br />

5. Annexes<br />

In those nations that have achieved the greatest road safety benefits from enforcement<br />

strategies the key characteristic has been an active partnership between researchers<br />

knowledgeable <strong>in</strong> deterrence <strong>and</strong> behaviour change theories <strong>and</strong> operational police,<br />

particularly through will<strong>in</strong>gness to trial <strong>in</strong>novatively. The <strong>Israel</strong>i Police traffic department<br />

might seek to create such a research partnership to build upon the solid foundation they<br />

have established.<br />

Local authorities<br />

A separate road safety function at the municipal level exists only <strong>in</strong> the major cities like<br />

Jerusalem, Tel Aviv <strong>and</strong> Haifa. Most other cities <strong>and</strong> municipalities do not have such a person<br />

or office. There is also a general lack of good road accident data. The major source of accident<br />

data comes from the Central Bureau of Statistics <strong>and</strong> has serious deficiencies when it comes<br />

to locational detail which is crucial for work at the municipal level. Most of the Municipalities<br />

also lack the capabilities to <strong>in</strong>stall <strong>and</strong> use GIS systems that enable the detailed comb<strong>in</strong>ation<br />

of accident data with spatial <strong>in</strong>formation.<br />

Although all Municipalities should have a local road safety officer, 150 out of the about 250<br />

municipalities do not have one. The ones that do exist are from vary<strong>in</strong>g backgrounds <strong>and</strong> do<br />

not generally have specific road safety tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g. In recent years some were tra<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>in</strong> road<br />

safety courses for practitioners. A possible solution would be to provide these municipalities<br />

with the support needed through outside consultants specializ<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> road safety <strong>and</strong> GIS.<br />

Municipalities generally do not use research results, unless these apply to conditions <strong>in</strong> their<br />

own town. On that level, generally the number of accidents is not sufficient to conduct major<br />

research projects. These should be carried out with data com<strong>in</strong>g from more than one city.<br />

The local road safety professionals are generally not well <strong>in</strong>formed about research results<br />

available both from <strong>Israel</strong> <strong>and</strong> from abroad.<br />

There are some exceptions to this general picture. The Municipality of Tel Aviv has a road<br />

safety Department <strong>and</strong> a tra<strong>in</strong>ed road safety eng<strong>in</strong>eer, who is <strong>in</strong> charge of local road safety<br />

activity, not just eng<strong>in</strong>eer<strong>in</strong>g. Tel Aviv developed its own database, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g improvements<br />

to the basic police accident data, an accident database, GIS <strong>and</strong> data analyses programmes,<br />

<strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g SAS. They also have an extensive road safety programme. Even such a department<br />

makes little use of research results, although they are generally aware of such results. A few<br />

other cities also have some local capabilities.<br />

The (New) National <strong>Road</strong>s Company - MAATZ -<br />

This company was established <strong>in</strong> 2005 <strong>and</strong> is an entity separate from the Government. The<br />

government is the only stakeholder of the company. The new MAATZ is responsible for the<br />

national (<strong>in</strong>terurban) road network with a total length of about 6500 kilometre. <strong>Road</strong> safety<br />

is an important element <strong>in</strong> the mission of the company (besides level of service/efficiency of<br />

the road transport system). It was presented to the Advisory Committee that road safety will<br />

be addressed along four l<strong>in</strong>es:<br />

Black spot treatment<br />

Upgrad<strong>in</strong>g roadside safety on the exist<strong>in</strong>g network<br />

. Upgrad<strong>in</strong>g about 1000 kilometre of road length to a motorway st<strong>and</strong>ard (with lower crash<br />

rates than on the exist<strong>in</strong>g roads)<br />

. build<strong>in</strong>g new roads with design st<strong>and</strong>ards of high safety quality<br />

To fulfil this important task research <strong>and</strong> development is needed <strong>and</strong> the new MAATZ has<br />

resources (0, 3% of its annual budget; 65 million NIS) to commission research. The <strong>Research</strong><br />

<strong>and</strong> Development department is commission<strong>in</strong>g research (to universities <strong>and</strong> the private<br />

sector) <strong>and</strong> no research is carried out <strong>in</strong>-house. <strong>Research</strong> concentrates on: safety, geometric<br />

design, pavement <strong>and</strong> ITS. Some safety related examples: safety management systems,<br />

median barriers, work zones, build<strong>in</strong>g an <strong>in</strong>frastructure database.<br />

The new MAATZ is prepar<strong>in</strong>g a five-year research plan. MAATZ is coord<strong>in</strong>at<strong>in</strong>g its plann<strong>in</strong>g<br />

of research with the National <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Authority already, <strong>and</strong> expressed its wish to act<br />

<strong>in</strong> partnership with other sponsors of research. MAATZ is look<strong>in</strong>g for rational criteria how to<br />

decide on their research plan.<br />

The op<strong>in</strong>ion was expressed that the research community lacks enough highly-qualified<br />

manpower to carry out the grow<strong>in</strong>g amount of safety research foreseen <strong>in</strong> the future. MAATZ<br />

is <strong>in</strong>terested to carry out research not only <strong>in</strong> the field of hard eng<strong>in</strong>eer<strong>in</strong>g, but also wants to<br />

pay attention to human factors <strong>and</strong> ITS. Visualizations of design <strong>and</strong> simulations/simulators<br />

is a field to be entered. ITS <strong>and</strong> e-<strong>Safety</strong> is another field of <strong>in</strong>terest.<br />

M<strong>in</strong>istry of Transport<br />

The L<strong>and</strong> Department of the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Transport (MOT) is <strong>in</strong> charge of all <strong>in</strong>frastructure<br />

regulation <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>, both on urban roads <strong>and</strong> on <strong>in</strong>terurban roads. It also deals with approv<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>and</strong> f<strong>in</strong>anc<strong>in</strong>g all transport projects <strong>in</strong> local authorities. The plann<strong>in</strong>g division of the L<strong>and</strong><br />

Department deals with st<strong>and</strong>ards <strong>and</strong> guidel<strong>in</strong>es connected with physical <strong>in</strong>frastructure.<br />

So far a list of over 70 guidel<strong>in</strong>es <strong>and</strong> other documents have been completed <strong>and</strong> distributed for<br />

use to all concerned, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g local authorities, MOT branches, consultants <strong>and</strong> the national<br />

<strong>Road</strong>s Company (NRC).Some of these documents deal explicitly with roads safety issues,<br />

such as guidel<strong>in</strong>es for the <strong>in</strong>stallation of road safety barriers, crash cushions, urban barriers,<br />

breakaway poles, barriers at road works, etc. Other guidel<strong>in</strong>es have safety implications e.g.<br />

guidel<strong>in</strong>es for traffic calm<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> residential areas, guidel<strong>in</strong>es for park<strong>in</strong>g, guidel<strong>in</strong>es for urban<br />

streets (<strong>in</strong> preparation), etc.<br />

Generally the preparation of these guidel<strong>in</strong>es is issued through a tender<strong>in</strong>g process where the<br />

team <strong>in</strong>cludes experts from different field e.g. traffic eng<strong>in</strong>eer<strong>in</strong>g, road safety, town plann<strong>in</strong>g,<br />

etc. Consult<strong>in</strong>g bureaux are generally the project leaders who work <strong>in</strong> cooperation with<br />

these other experts. In some cases, this procedure was also used to sponsor more research<br />

oriented projects, e.g. the development of guidel<strong>in</strong>es <strong>and</strong> tools for the evaluation of the<br />

effectiveness of road <strong>in</strong>frastructure improvements, safety profiles of local authorities. Some<br />

of their projects require the quantification of the safety effects associated with consider<strong>in</strong>g<br />

traffic alternatives, e.g. the restrictions for trucks on busy roads, the closure of an <strong>in</strong>terchange<br />

on Saturdays, etc<br />

National <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Authority<br />

The Advisory Committee was <strong>in</strong>formed dur<strong>in</strong>g its visit to the MOT/Division of Infrastructure<br />

<strong>and</strong> <strong>Traffic</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> on the mission, objects, resources <strong>and</strong> procedures of the new NRSA start<strong>in</strong>g<br />

its work <strong>in</strong> January 2007. The structure of this new organization is “an <strong>in</strong>dependent unit <strong>in</strong>

44<br />

5. Annexes<br />

45<br />

5. Annexes<br />

the MOT which can advise all stakeholders” with an significantly <strong>in</strong>creased staff of 120 to<br />

150 employees <strong>and</strong> a budget of 550 Mio-NIS- yearly for the next 5 years. This demonstrates<br />

the political will to <strong>in</strong>crease research based road safety <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>. With respect to road safety<br />

research the hope was expressed to conduct long term research projects on the basis of an<br />

own research agenda (5 years) which can commission <strong>in</strong>terdiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary research focused on<br />

specific road safety problems of <strong>Israel</strong> above all <strong>in</strong> the areas of human behaviour, e-safety<br />

<strong>and</strong> accident data management. It was proposed to implement an Accident Data Centre <strong>in</strong><br />

co-operation with the CBS <strong>in</strong>side the NRSA. It is also planned to enrich the role of exist<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong>terdiscipl<strong>in</strong>ary road safety research groups at the Technion <strong>and</strong> the Ben Gurion University,<br />

<strong>and</strong> possibly to other research centres by grants <strong>and</strong> long term research projects <strong>and</strong> to<br />

attract other universities to build more capacities for road safety research. A strong wish<br />

was expressed to promote more sound research to work on legal issues <strong>and</strong> to support the<br />

implementation of the National <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Programme through evaluation studies <strong>and</strong><br />

monitor<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

On the one h<strong>and</strong> the idea of private fund<strong>in</strong>g of road safety research was welcomed, on the<br />

other h<strong>and</strong> it was stated that the research agenda should be set <strong>in</strong>side NRSA. The already<br />

exist<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>formation network between NRSA <strong>and</strong> other research sponsors was found useful.<br />

Above all from the exist<strong>in</strong>g co-operation with the National <strong>Road</strong> Company <strong>and</strong> its <strong>Research</strong><br />

Unit as well as with Or Yarok <strong>and</strong> the Ran Naor foundation synergy effects were expected.<br />

In general support of the local research capabilities for the next five years would be expected<br />

concern<strong>in</strong>g e-safety, <strong>and</strong> technological development, but more would be expected concern<strong>in</strong>g<br />

human behaviour research <strong>and</strong> evaluation of <strong>in</strong>terventions.<br />

A stronger <strong>and</strong> more systematic <strong>in</strong>volvement <strong>in</strong> the EU R&D programmes of universities was<br />

found important to <strong>in</strong>crease the level of scientific competence <strong>and</strong> build<strong>in</strong>g new research<br />

capacities <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>.<br />

There is the vision that the NRSA with <strong>in</strong>creased resources <strong>and</strong> new personnel can be the<br />

start of an evolution for road safety activities <strong>and</strong> also for road safety research <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>.<br />

Or Yarok<br />

Or Yarok, the largest NGO deal<strong>in</strong>g with road safety <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>, is both a client <strong>and</strong> a commissioner<br />

of research. Its ma<strong>in</strong> projects up to 2006 have been:<br />

1. Collaboration with the <strong>Israel</strong>i Police; a donation of 140 police cars which resulted <strong>in</strong> an<br />

<strong>in</strong>crease of the volunteer workforce of the police from 2000 to approximately 11,000.<br />

2. Young Drivers - a project target<strong>in</strong>g the accompanied driv<strong>in</strong>g phase, currently reach<strong>in</strong>g<br />

about 50,000 young drivers<br />

3. Public motivation <strong>and</strong> political support for adopt<strong>in</strong>g a National <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> plan.<br />

The guidel<strong>in</strong>es for Or Yarok’s activities for 2007-2008 <strong>in</strong>clude research <strong>in</strong> the core of all its<br />

activities, <strong>and</strong> develop<strong>in</strong>g a role <strong>in</strong> be<strong>in</strong>g the “watch dog” of road safety <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>. For this<br />

activity it will have to create a knowledge base for road safety, prepare position papers <strong>and</strong><br />

research based evidence for its response team.<br />

Or Yarok has been active <strong>in</strong> try<strong>in</strong>g to dissem<strong>in</strong>ate <strong>and</strong> implement research results <strong>in</strong> various<br />

areas; some examples <strong>in</strong>clude:<br />

Extend<strong>in</strong>g the accompanied phase for new drivers from 2 to 3 months.<br />

Propos<strong>in</strong>g a comprehensive GDL system for young drivers<br />

Advocat<strong>in</strong>g r<strong>and</strong>om breath test<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> large quantities<br />

. Test<strong>in</strong>g of new technologies such as the Green Box.<br />

Other clients of research<br />

It was unfortunately not possible to meet all clients of research dur<strong>in</strong>g the visit of the<br />

Advisory Committee. Below we briefly describe some of the other potential clients of road<br />

safety research <strong>in</strong> the country.<br />

The press - the committee did not meet with representatives of the press but this is an<br />

obvious user of road safety research. The press does not sponsor research, but should have<br />

convenient access to road safety data <strong>and</strong> to research results.<br />

Parliament <strong>and</strong> politicians - parliament has a research division which conducts <strong>and</strong> supports<br />

studies for the members of parliament. They occasionally contact the road safety research<br />

community <strong>and</strong>/or the National <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Authority for research results on specific issues.<br />

This relationship should be exp<strong>and</strong>ed <strong>and</strong> formalized, to provide members of Parliament with<br />

a better evidence base.<br />

M<strong>in</strong>istry of Transport<br />

Economic Division - This division is <strong>in</strong> charge of the economic evaluation of all transport<br />

projects <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>. It also deals with the economic evaluation of the cost of accidents. In<br />

conjunction with the M<strong>in</strong>istry of F<strong>in</strong>ance, they are <strong>in</strong> charge of prepar<strong>in</strong>g guidel<strong>in</strong>es for these<br />

evaluations (Nohal Prat). Currently new guidel<strong>in</strong>es were issued (2006), which explicitly<br />

<strong>in</strong>clude the safety effects <strong>and</strong> accident costs of transport projects.<br />

Vehicle licens<strong>in</strong>g Division - This Division is <strong>in</strong> charge of all aspects <strong>and</strong> regulations deal<strong>in</strong>g<br />

with vehicles, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g vehicle type approval, vehicle licens<strong>in</strong>g, vehicle annual test<strong>in</strong>g, etc.<br />

Occasionally this Department sponsors research deal<strong>in</strong>g with mechanical/technical aspects<br />

of heavy goods vehicles <strong>and</strong> buses <strong>in</strong>volved <strong>in</strong> severe crashes.<br />

Driver licens<strong>in</strong>g Division - This Division deals with all aspects associated with licens<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>and</strong> regulat<strong>in</strong>g drivers, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g new driver test<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> licens<strong>in</strong>g, other licenses, courses for<br />

driv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>structors, etc. As far as the Advisory Committee was told, no systematic research<br />

activities are go<strong>in</strong>g on <strong>in</strong> this division.<br />

The M<strong>in</strong>istry of <strong>Education</strong><br />

This M<strong>in</strong>istry is <strong>in</strong> charge of all education from k<strong>in</strong>dergarten to 12th grade. They have a range of<br />

road safety programmes for the pupils, which are developed <strong>in</strong> their <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Division. The<br />

division works <strong>in</strong> close contact with the National <strong>Road</strong> <strong>Safety</strong> Authority <strong>and</strong> is partly f<strong>in</strong>anced<br />

by them. Some evaluation <strong>and</strong> research is conducted <strong>in</strong> association with these activities.<br />

The M<strong>in</strong>istry of Health<br />

This M<strong>in</strong>istry is <strong>in</strong> charge of health regulations <strong>and</strong> hospitals <strong>in</strong> <strong>Israel</strong>. The Injury Prevention

46<br />

5. Annexes<br />

47<br />

5. Annexes<br />

Council <strong>and</strong> other councils deal with road safety health aspects. The Gertner Institute is also<br />

part of this M<strong>in</strong>istry <strong>and</strong> ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>s the Trauma Registry (see also Annex IV).<br />

The M<strong>in</strong>istry of Internal Security<br />

This m<strong>in</strong>istry is <strong>in</strong> charge of the Police. They have a research department led by the Chief<br />

Scientist <strong>and</strong> conducted a number of studies deal<strong>in</strong>g with issues related to road safety,<br />

amongst others: the evaluation of the operation of the traffic police, the establishment of<br />

<strong>in</strong>-depth accident research <strong>in</strong>vestigations <strong>and</strong> others.<br />

The M<strong>in</strong>istry of Justice<br />

This M<strong>in</strong>istry is <strong>in</strong> charge of the judicial system, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g the courts, traffic laws <strong>and</strong><br />

regulations. The Advisory Committee was not <strong>in</strong>formed about previous dedicated road safety<br />

research, but it is well-researched that these activities could have significant road safety<br />

implications.<br />

Annex VI<br />

The presentation to Or Yarok <strong>and</strong> Yad Hanadiv as used on 2nd of<br />

December 2006<br />

The Army<br />

The army has a special branch deal<strong>in</strong>g with road safety. In some respects this branch was a<br />

pioneer <strong>in</strong> develop<strong>in</strong>g dedicated road safety programmes, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g the execution of a traffic<br />

safety <strong>and</strong> traffic eng<strong>in</strong>eer<strong>in</strong>g audit <strong>in</strong> army units- conducted by qualified reservist traffic<br />

eng<strong>in</strong>eers, <strong>in</strong>-depth <strong>in</strong>vestigation of all fatal accidents, research <strong>in</strong> aspects of young driver<br />

crashes, etc.<br />


48<br />

5. Annexes<br />

49<br />

5. Annexes<br />

2<br />

3<br />

4 5<br />

6 7<br />

8 9

50<br />

5. Annexes<br />

51<br />

5. Annexes<br />

10<br />

11<br />

12 13<br />

14 15<br />

16 17

52<br />

5. Annexes<br />

18 19<br />

20 21<br />

Design & Production: Vered H. Eden Pr<strong>in</strong>t<strong>in</strong>g: Dfuz Zaidman

קרן רן נאור לקידום מחקר בטיחות בדרכים<br />

R A N N A O R F O U N D A T I O N<br />

for advancemenent of road safety research

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