Aquaculture in Korea: Gil Ha Yoon

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Aquaculture in Korea: Gil Ha Yoon

Seaweed culture

Aquaculture in Korea

Seaweed culture in Korea is mainly concentrated on the south western coast where

almost 90% of cultivation takes place. Undaria dominates production constituting 42%

of the total wet weight. However, Porphyra is the most valuable species totalling 65% of

overall value. Porphyra cultivation in Korea reached a turning point in the 1960s when

Gil Ha Yoon

South Korea is peninsula with a 2,413 km coast line.

The total land mass of the country is 98,480 km 2 ,

(including 290 km 2 of inland water) but usable land

AQUACULTURE IN KOREA

is only 20% of the total and the population is thus

South Korea is peninsula with a 2,413 km line. The total land mass of the

concentrated around the coast. Not surprisingly

country is 98,480 km

Koreans obtain 2 , (including 290 km

more protein 2 of inland water) but usable land is only 20%

from fishery products

of the total and the population is thus concentrated around the coast. Not surprisingly

than red meat. The Korean Food Year Book

2007 Koreans reported obtain more protein that from fishery annual products than per red meat. capita The Korean sea Food food Year

consumption Book 2007 reported that was annual 48.1 per capita kg sea in food 2005. consumption Because was 48.1 kg of in 2005. the

high Because of the high consumption of of fishery products, products, the industry the is recognized industry as an

is important recognized national industry, as although an important it contributes only 1% national of Korean GDP. industry,

although it contributes only 1% of Korean GDP.

Extensive aquaculture has been practiced in Korea for several hundred years, but modern

Extensive aquaculture has been practiced in Korea for several

intensive culture (mainly of sea weed and shellfish) did not emerge until the 1960's.

hundred years, but modern intensive culture (mainly of sea weed

and However, shellfish) production did was not less emerge than 100,000 until metric the 1960’s. tons in this However, period. From production

the 1970's

was

aquaculture

less than

production

100,000

increased

metric

year on

tons

year from

in this

around

period.

147,000

From

metric tons

the

in

1970’s

1971,

aquaculture production increased year on year from around 147,000

metric to reach tons more in than 1971, 700,000 to metric reach tons more in 1981 than and over 700,000 1.2 million metric tons in 2006. 1981

and over 1.2 million metric tons in 2006.

Table 1. Contribution of capture fisheries and aquaculture to Korean fishery

production (1971-2006)

(unit:1,000 tonnes)

Year

Capture

Culture Total

Coastal Offshore

1971 766 159 147 1,073

1976 1,257 724 410 2,407

1981 1,528 542 701 2,811

1986 1,726 930 947 3,660

1991 1,304 874 775 2,952

1996 1,623 715 874 3,214

2001 1,252 739 656 2,647

2006 1,109 639 1,259 3,007

Table 1. Contribution of capture fisheries and aquaculture to Korean fishery production

(1971-2006) 1. Mariculture

Mariculture makes up 99% of aquaculture production. Production is dominated by

Mariculture

seaweeds and followed by molluscs and finfish.

Mariculture makes up 99% of aquaculture production. Production is

dominated by seaweeds and followed by molluscs and finfish.

Table 2. Production of different aquaculture products in Korea 2006

Fishery products Tonnes %

Seaweed 764,913 60.7

Shellfish 391,060 31.1

1616

Seaweed culture

Finfish 91,123 15.2

Others 12,128 0.9

Total 1,259,274 100

Table 2. Production of different aquaculture products in Korea 2006

Seaweed culture

Seaweed culture in Korea is mainly concentrated on the south western coast where

Seaweed culture in Korea is mainly concentrated on the south

western

almost 90%

coast

of cultivation

where almost

takes place.

90%

Undaria

of cultivation

dominates production

takes

constituting

place. Undaria

42%

dominates of the total wet production weight. However, constituting Porphyra is the 42% most valuable of the species total totalling wet weight. 65% of

However, Porphyra is the most valuable species totalling 65% of

overall value. Porphyra cultivation in Korea reached a turning point in the 1960s when

Porphyra cultivation in Korea reached a turning point

in the method 1960s of seeding when changed the method from natural of seeding to artificial changed using oyster from shells. natural Since the to

artificial using oyster shells. Since the early 1980s, the previously used

early 1980s, the previously used floating system was replaced by a rack system, and

frozen, seeded nets are commonly used. Production has also been boosted by the

transplanting of new species and expansion of the culture areas.

the method of seeding changed from natural to artificial using oyster shells. Since the

early 1980s, the previously used floating system was replaced by a rack system, and

Table 3. Production of cultured seaweeds in Korea in 2006

Seaweed Tonnes %

Porphyra 217,559 28.4

Undaria 322,371 42.1

Laminaria 201,919 26.4

Hiziki 21,125 2.8

Others 1,939 0.3

Total 764,913 100

Table 3. Production of cultured seaweeds in Korea in 2006

floating system was replaced by a rack system, and frozen, seeded

nets are commonly used. Production has also been boosted by the

transplanting of new species and expansion of the culture areas.

Porphyra production from aquaculture is currently estimated to be

217,559 tons (wet wt.) which is equivalent to more than 10 billion

sheets of dried laver. Porphyra needs to be exposed to the air from

time to time. On ground that is unsuitable for racks, floating rafts are

used. These consist of frames of plastic tubing to which up to 100m of

nets can be attached. The frames are arranged in such a way that the

nets are exposed to the air for 3-4 h every day. Undaria and Laminaria

are cultured using a long-line method in which culture ropes are laid

in parallel with the main water flow. The ropes are checked every

month to thin the plant densities and to remove trapped debris and

fouling organisms. The plants are kept approximately 1~2m below

the surface.

Mollusc culture

Production of molluscs reached 391,060 MT in 2006, making up 31.1%

of the total mariculture production. The major species cultured are

oysters (Crassostrea gigas, Pinctada fucata), mussels (Mytilus coruscus),

Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum), ark shells (Anadara satowi,

A. broughtonii), cockles (A. granosabisenensis, A. subcrenata), scallop

(Patinopecten yessoensis), and abalone (Haliotis discushannai). Oysters

dominate production. In 2006, oyster production was 283,296 MT,

accounting for 72.4% of the total yield of cultured invertebrates.

Table 4. Production of cultured mollusc species in Korea 2006

Molluscs Tonnes %

Oyster 283,296 72.4

Mussel 81,617 20.9

Manila clam 14,327 3.7

Arkshell 7,127 1.8

Abalone 3,050 0.8

Others 1,643 0.4

Total 391,060 100

Table 4. Production of cultured mollusc species in Korea 2006

Culture of oysters, mussels and pearl oysters is based on the long line system. In this

Culture system, the of oysters, floating lines mussels are laid on and the pearl water surface oysters The is long based lines are on 100m the long in length line

system. In this system, the floating lines are laid on the water surface

The and long laid 510m lines are apart. 100m Vertical in ropes length are hung and from laid the 5 ~ long 10m line apart. at intervals Vertical of

ropes are hung from the long line at intervals of 50 ~ 70cm and seed

5070cm and seed collectors are attached to these ropes at intervals of 30 50cm.

collectors are attached to these ropes at intervals of 30 ~ 50cm.

Bottom culture is employed for molluscs such as arkshells and Manila clams. The

parameters affecting site selection include water depth, water temperature, algal foods


Rainbow trout farm

was 91,123 tonnes, 15% of total marine production, but because of

trends in consumption in Korea, finfish culture is the most valuable

aquaculture production. The highest production of cultured fish

was from olive flounder (48.1%), followed by black rockfish (30.2%),

sea breams (9.6%) and grey mullet (6.2%). Although culture of olive

flounder started only in the late 1980s, Korean production exceeded

that of Japan by 1997.

Olive flounder is reared in land-based raceway culture systems where

water is pumped ashore.

Farms are usually located on the south and west coasts and each farm

usually produces on average about 110 tonnes per year with mean

stocking densities of 20kg/m 3 . Other fish species such as sea breams

or mullet are grown in floating cages or enclosures. Cage cultures

are more common. The cages are 5m x 5m or 10m x 10m in size and

stocked with 700-1000 juveniles per m 3 at a length of 4cm to 5cm.

Cage farms for finfish culture near the shore

Cage farms for finfish culture near the shore

Bottom culture is employed for molluscs such as arkshells and Manila

clams. and Acanthopagrus The parameters schlegeli, affecting and grey mullet, site selection Mugil cephalus, include have been water important depth,

water

marine

temperature,

finfish cultured since

algal

the

foods

late 1980s.

and

Finfish

bottom

production

substrate.

in 2006 was

Normally,

91,123

water depths for bottom culture are less than 20m for most species

but

tonnes,

arkshells

15% of total

are

marine

cultured

production,

below

but

the

because

intertidal

of trends in

zone

consumption

down

in

to

Korea,

40m

depth.

finfish culture is the most valuable aquaculture production. The highest production of

cultured fish was from olive flounder (48.1%), followed by black rockfish (30.2%), sea

Finfish

With breams the (9.6%) development and grey mullet of (6.2%). advanced Although aquaculture of olive flounder technology, started only olive in

flounder, the late 1980s, Paralichthys Korean production olivaceus, exceeded together that of Japan with by black 1997. rockfish, Sebastes

schlegeli, sea breams, Pagrus major and Acanthopagrus schlegeli,

and grey mullet, Mugil cephalus, have been important marine

finfish cultured since the late 1980s. Finfish production in 2006

Table 5. Production of cultured finfish in Korea 2006

Finfish Tonnes %

Olive flounder 48,852 48.1

Rock fish 27,517 30.2

Sea breams 8,777 9.6

Grey mullet 5,651 6.2

Freshwater culture

Freshwater culture represents only 1% of total Korean aquaculture

production. Eel ponds were first constructed in 1924 near Busan,

but the operation was discontinued in the 1940’s. A further attempt

was made in 1966 in Noksan, Kimhae, near Busan, using wild elvers.

The rainbow trout was first introduced into Korea in 1965, but the

annual production remained negligible (below 10 tonnes) until

1980. Production then increased reaching 704 tonnes in 1987 and

more than 5000 tonnes in 2006. The main area of trout production is

Gangwon-do, where relatively large amounts of upland cool spring

water are available. In some sites ground water is used.

Korea has traditionally been a seafood exporter but increasing

domestic demand and decreased local production means Korea

currently imports $ 1.7 billion more seafood products than it exports.

It is unlikely that Korean capture fisheries will be increased due to

stock depletion and that aquaculture will be increasingly important.

However, the Korean aquaculture industry also faces problems such

as natural disasters (typhoons and red tides), low price imported

products and lack of highly skilled manpower. To circumvent these

problems there will be expansion of offshore culture sites, and

increasing use of automated management systems.

Sea bass 1,571 1.7

Others 4,090 4.5

Total 91,123 100

Table 5. Production of cultured finfish in Korea 2006

Olive flounder is reared in land-based raceway culture systems where water is pumped

ashore.

Farms are usually located on the south and west coasts and each farm usually produces on

average about 110 tonnes per year with mean stocking densities of 20kg/ m3 . Other fish

species such as sea breams or mullet are grown in floating cages or enclosures. Cage

cultures are more common. The cages are 5m x 5m or 10m x 10m in size and stocked with

Rainbow trout farm

Rainbow trout farm

17

Submerged nets for sea weed culture

Aquaculture News 34 / May 2008 17

Submerged nets for sea weed culture

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