Wet Chemistry Soybean Series - Seed World

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Wet Chemistry Soybean Series - Seed World

oct110404 ManeuveringThrough theRegulatory MazeThe recent increase of new traitsto feed a growing population isputting unrelenting pressure onboth the regulatory system andseed industry—what progress isbeing made?10 HarmonizingRegulations forBetter TradeWork is being done to ensurephytosanitary regulations aroundthe world are clear and in sync.16 The Native SeedIndustry: Not Forthe Faint-HeartedThis niche market had aprofitable and relatively stableyear, but its future is in questionas the government dishes out anew federal budget and farm bill.20 Organic SeedIndustry at aCrossroadsIncreased organic seedproduction in the United Statesmay require changes to nationalorganic certification regulations.101620Departments02 Where on the Web24 Cross Pollination26 STRATEGY (new department)28 World Status (new department)30 Regulatory Roundup32 Industry News40 Giant Viewsyour focus is ...Management/RegulatoryManeuvering Through the Regulatory Maze 4Harmonizing Regulations for Better Trade 10The Native Seed Industry: Not For the Faint-Hearted 16Organic Seed Industry at a Crossroads 20Cross Pollination 24ForagesThe Native Seed Industry: Not For the Faint-Hearted 16Cross Pollination 24International TradeHarmonizing Regulations for Better Trade 10Cross Pollination 24Regulatory Roundup 30MarketingCross Pollination 24STRATEGY 26Regulatory Roundup 30october 2011 1


Online resources for the seed industryHear from some of the bright lights in the seedindustry. New Giant Views of the Industry videoclips on topics ranging from consolidation to theforage industry have now been posted.“Do you protect yourself from consolidationor do you position yourself to profit fromconsolidation?”—Tray Thomas of Context NetworkFind this clip and others at SeedWorld.com.Buy Local: There’s An App for ThatA new application for iPhone or iPod Touch calledHarvest to Hand allows consumers to locate andmap out vendors of locally harvested foodsand products, as well as agritourism events,food festivals and more throughout the UnitedStates. Harvest to Hand app users can sharetheir favorites and vendors can register theirevents or product information. It’s an excellentway to bridge the gap between consumers andgrowers/marketers of local agriculture.HarvesttoHand.comCorn Growers on the GoAll of the information, news and updates availableon the National Corn Growers Associationwebsite are now available on-the-go. The new,smartphone-friendly mobile version of the NCGAwebsite allows visitors to access information onthe main site in a faster, more streamlined mannerbetter suited to current cell-phone technology.“Research shows that, like the majority ofAmericans, farmers are accessing the Internetthrough a Smartphone increasingly frequently,”says Brandon Hunnicutt of NCGA.October 2011Published ByIssues Ink www.issuesink.comUSAP.O. Box 3601395-A S. Columbia RoadGrand Forks, ND 58201PublisherShawn Brook sbrook@issuesink.comEditorJulie McNabb jmcnabb@issuesink.comstaff writersLindsay Hoffman, Julienne Isaacs, Shannon SchindleMarketingCraig Armstrong carmstrong@issuesink.comPaige Collette pcollette@issuesink.comJeff Hamilton jhamilton@issuesink.comHiten Shah hshah@issuesink.comCreativeWade Clisby, Jeff Hiebert, Lesley Nakonechny, Ashley SomervilleProductionErica MarkscontributorsAngela Lovell, Kari Belanger, Andrea Geary, Marc Cool, Ric DunkleEditorial BoardJulie Douglas, American Seed Trade AssociationWayne Gale, Stokes SeedsR.B. Halaby, AgriCapitalBetty Jones-Bliss, Purdue UniversityPeter Marks, Germain’s Technology Group – N.A.Bill Romp, Becker UnderwoodJohn Schoenecker, Harris Moran Seed Co.Jim Schweigert, GroAllianceKaren Withers, Pennington SeedRon Wulfkuhle, GreenLeaf GeneticsSubscriptionsSeed World is published six times a year. North American subscriptionrates are: one year USD $45.00, two years USD $80.00.International: one year USD $95.00.mobile.ncga.comKeep up with all the seed industry events atSeedQuest.comPlease recycle where facilities exist.No part of this magazine may be reproduced without the written permission of thepublisher. Printed in Canada.2 Seed World


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Maneuvering Throughthe Regulatory MazeThe U.S. regulatory system remains the gold standard,but the recent drive to introduce new, geneticallyenhanced crops to feed a growing population is puttingunrelenting pressure on both the regulatory system andthe seed industry.In order for the exciting new generation crops we’ve all beenhearing about to reach the farm, they must first pass throughthe regulatory process, which, especially for the approval ofnew biotech traits, has become even more complicated in theUnited States over the past few years.“Not much has changed since 2009; we are in a prettysimilar place in terms of the amount of time it takes to bringa product through the regulatory process,” says Andy LaVigne,president and CEO of the American Seed Trade Association,which has provided the voice for the seed industry in the regulatoryprocess debate over the last few years.On average it takes about two to three years to get a productthrough the approvals process, says LaVigne, but recent legalchallenges to certain biotech products cause the regulatory processto get bogged down. “[United States Agriculture Secretary]Tom Vilsack mentioned changing Part 340 regulations, whichessentially governs the deregulation of biotech products,” explainsLaVigne. “Our hope is that the administration recognizes theconstraints on the system and makes it a priority to modify thesystem to avoid the legal matters, as well as improve efficiencies.”Public PerceptionIt’s not the job of regulatory agencies in the United States to“sell” the products they approve to the general public, but it istheir responsibility to tell a compelling story about why theyhave approved them. If they fail to do that, as recent litigationsin the United States around Roundup Ready alfalfa and sugarbeets has shown, there will be a backlash of public opinion,particularly around new biotech traits.“I believe that public perceptionwould be better informed by knowing how regulators usea science-based approach to understand and look at products,”says Philip Miller, global regulatory lead for Monsanto.However, as weather extremes such as floods and droughtstake a toll on global crop yields, they also inflate the weeklygrocery bill. That, in turn, starts to influence public opinionabout things like biotechnology, which is focusing on a newgeneration of traits to make tomorrow’s crops more droughttolerantor water efficient.These and other products are likely to be in demand, notjust for growers contending with water shortages and other challenges,but also consumers, whose perceptions are beginningto change as the economic impacts of these problems are felt.There is also a creeping recognition that these new technolo-gies are quite different from the first generation of geneticallymodified products, which focused on resistance to herbicidesor insects.“In terms of something like drought tolerance, I think thereis real public awareness, and I think we will see this in our walletswhen we go to the grocery store,” says Andrew Reed, headof regulatory affairs at BASF. “Crops that have better toleranceto medium-level stress, and can still yield well, will resonatewith the general public. Traits like that are a bit closer to theconsumer than herbicide tolerance.”Increasingly ComplexAlthough the courts have upheld the United States Departmentof Agriculture’s decision to deregulate certain biotech crops,the legal battles have taken a toll on its resources. “There hasbeen a series of litigations by critics of biotech questioning thedecisions to approve biotech crops which have consumed theUSDA’s regulatory agencies’ resources,” says Miller. “That hasbeen one of the factors that has led to the slowing down of theapproval process in the United States.”Another factor lengthening approval timelines is a significantincrease in new products being submitted by more companies.“One of the things that has been critical has been makingsure that the USDA has the resourcing it needs to handle thatgrowth in innovation that will benefit the U.S. grower,” he says.LaVigne says some additional resources have been allocatedto the biotechnology regulatory system over the pastcouple of years, but given the current economic situation, hebelieves resources will continue to be tight for all programsfor a while yet.As products and technologies become more complex,requirements are becoming more rigorous. “There are more linkagesbetween traits, there’s more stacking of traits,” says ThomasKlevorn of Context Network. “When a company stacks two pesticidally-activegenes in a plant, there’s the potential for a newapproval process. It’s like a new product mix in a formulation, sothe EPA gets involved. That could make the approval processmore complicated as well.”One of the big questions facing the industry, says Klevorn,is whether regulatory agencies may begin, as part of insect resistancestrategies, to move towards having companies demonstratewhether one gene is as good, or better, than another gene for4 Seed World


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control of an insect. “Currently we don’t have to do that specificallyin the United States—the customer ultimately decides if itworks or not,” says Klevorn.He believes that in some instances, such as traits for insectcontrol, there may be a move towards requiring proof that whatevergenes are put into the market will dramatically reduce theopportunity for insect resistance to occur. “It will never be 100percent guaranteed to prevent insect resistance,” says Klevorn.“Companies may have to get a lot closer to 100 percent efficacyin insect resistance management than they may have had to inthe past to get their insect resistance products commercialized.”Expanding the ToolboxThe toolbox available to researchers and scientists also has ahuge effect on the regulatory system. “The current technologicalenvironment influences the regulatory system,” says LaVigne.“To ensure that only safe products hit the marketplace, the regulatoryenvironment has to change and evolve along with theindustry’s ever-advancing technologies used to improve breedingand crop production techniques.”However, technology is constantly providing new techniquesthat are bringing genetic modification of plants closer tomore conventional plant breeding techniques. “Over the pastfew years there has been a slow transition from working withforeign genes—genes that come from widely different organismslike bacteria—to identifying plant genes that are involvedin key traits like drought tolerance and making smaller, subtlerchanges to these genes that are already in the plant, or bringingin 11-8929 a gene MAGad355-SW_Layout from a closely related 1 species,” 9/12/11 2:48 says PM Malcolm Page 1Devineof Crookedholm Partners Inc. “These fine-tuning techniques,although they involve going in and making a very small andprecise genetic modification, will be regarded more as forms ofmutation breeding and not GM.”Devine believes that U.S. regulatory authorities will eventuallymove towards treating plants developed using these techniquesin the same way as mutation breeding, which is essentiallyfree of regulation. “What I am saying is that over time a newtoolbox has been developed which may open the door to smallerand more precise genetic modifications that could result inenhancing certain traits, but without the very high regulatoryburden that comes with transgenic GM as we know it,” he says.Communication is KeyThe industry and regulatory bodies have recognized that everyonehas to work together to make products available faster togrowers. ASTA spends a substantial amount of time meetingwith the USDA, FDA and Congress, says LaVigne.“We have a great deal of dialogue with the regulatory community,”he explains. “We continue to see progress in this areabecause the various agencies and people in these positions havea better understanding of the technologies at work, and a lotmore information is easily accessible, making it easier for themto research the industry and different issues.”It’s a continual work in progress. “Our member companieshave done a great job acting as ambassadors to help introduceregulators to all aspects of seed research, production and distributionand the intricacies involved by opening up their facilitiesfor tours, field days and demonstrations,” says LaVigne.The U.S. regulatory system will remain the gold standard forother regulatory organizations, as it is based strongly on scienceAUTOMATED BAGGINGFOR THE SEED INDUSTRYLeaders in the design and manufactureof conveying and packaging automationsystems and equipment.Electronic Bagging Scales. Net and grossweigh scales. Refuge-in-a-bag systemsand Seed Calc enabled electronics.Automated Bag Filling. Hang and fillopen-mouth paper or poly-woven bags.The system is easily adjustable toaccommodate most sizes.Robotic Palletizing Systems. Unmatchedfor reliability and consistent throughout.Experience and flexibility, engineered tomeet your needs, now and for the future.Experience, Engineering andEquipment in One Neat Package.ELECTRONICBAGGINGSCALESAUTOMATEDBAG FILLINGSYSTEMSROBOTICPALLETIZINGSYSTEMSwww.taylorproducts.com / Toll Free 888.882.9567Phone 620.421.5550 / Fax 620.421.55312205 Jothi Ave., Parsons, Kansas 673576 Seed World


durability bydesign. TMEAR CORN DRYERSAGRA is specialized inthe seed industry and ourear corn dryers are thebest in the business. Withthree types to choose fromwe can design and buildan ear corn dryer to meetyour drying requirements.Whether you need a foundation dryer or a productiondryer, we can High CFM per bushel ratio supply you withthe complete design, fabrication and erection.AGRA also offers fi ll conveyors,letdown systems, electrical installation,controls and dryer monitoring.Dryer Types:• Single Pass Reversing• Double Pass Reversing• Our Patented ® AGRA Combination DryerStandard Features:• Heavy gauge “bolt-together” wall panels• Self cleaning and fully sealed bin interiors preventhung-ups• Perforated fl ashing bin fl oors eliminate “dead air pockets”• Minimum pressure drop through air pleums anddoorways• Unique heavy angle iron corners• Extremely low turn around rate• Maxon Gas trainsDryer Options:• Monitoring controlpackages• Door automation packages• Filling and unloadingconveyors• Ear corn letdown devices• Custom bin wall fi ll-linepaintingInstall a dryer that takes second placeto no other corn ear dryer in the industrytoday! Contact AGRA and let us showyou how effi cient, economical anddependable our dryers can be.For information on scheduling theerection of your dryeror other seed plantrelated needs,please call AGRAor visit our website!WWW.AGRAIND.COMAGRA1211 West Water StreetMerrill, Wisconsin 54452 - USA715-536-9584 phone715-536-9587 faxinfo@agraind.comDESIGNERS FABRICATORS ERECTORS CONTRACTORSand product safety, contends LaVigne. “The certainty providedby the U.S. regulatory process is conducive for researchers todevelop new tools that benefit America’s farmers,” he says. “Ifanything, the U.S. regulatory process encourages research anddevelopment of new products, whereas other regulatory processesaround the world discourage this type of innovation.”The drive to introduce new, genetically enhanced cropsto feed a growing global population puts unrelenting pressureon both the regulatory system and the seed industry, both ofwhich have to rise to the challenge of feeding people safelyand efficiently.“As we deal with the constraints placed on the food system,such as limited land and water, coupled with the increasingglobal population, these new traits will only provide additionalopportunities to showcase the benefits that can be seen frommodern plant breeding,” says LaVigne. Angela LovellPlaying the GameWhat can companies do to ensure regulatorysubmissions are met in a timely manner?Listen.Make sure you understand the regulations and whatthe regulatory agency wants. “We listen to what theregulators need and what they believe they will need tounderstand in order to successfully get through theirreview process and their scientific assessment,” saysPhilip Miller, global regulatory lead with Monsanto.Communicate.“I would say the conversations we have had with theregulators have been very helpful,” says Andrew Reed,director of regulatory affairs with BASF. “The UnitedStates is one country where a company can go in andhave a consultation. They help us determine where weneed to focus.”Many companies begin the dialogue with regulatoryagencies long before they are ready to submit theirproducts for approval. “We share with them proactivelyboth what we are working on and how we are workingon it, and include them in that dialogue many yearsbefore we come in with a product,” says Miller.Inform.Make sure they understand you and your technologyand products. “We continue to work with agenciesto help them understand the seed industry and howit fits into the rollout process of new products,” saysAndy LaVigne, president and CEO of the AmericanSeed Trade Association. “It’s always valuable to bringregulators to a facility to see the process and to helpthem understand the intricacies.”8 Seed World


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Harmonizing Regulationsfor Better TradeThere is a need for global harmonization of seed health and seed trade regulations.Seed companies in today’s global environment need tobe aware of many different types of seed trade regulationsaround the world. These regulations can be unclear,contradictory, ever-changing and downright frustrating to seedexporters, but with global harmonization, the process can bemade easier.Whether developing a local business presence in an overseasmarket or exporting seed around the world, most companiesship seed (including commercial, foundation or research seed)from one country to another at some time. Shipments mustmeet complex seed health standards and other requirements.The regulations can be even more intricate in the case of there-export of seed, where product is produced in one country,shipped to another for processing or other value-addition, andfinally ends up in yet another country.The Background to Seed TradeWhen selling seed in a foreign country, all local requirementsgoverning seed trade must be met. This includes any productregistration or seed certification requirements, local seed lawsand intellectual property rights systems. In many cases, local laws(for example, laws regarding deregulation of biotech products,use of plant patents and tolerance levels for unapproved events)are vastly different than laws in the seller’s home country.All of these issues are part of a country’s foreign and tradepolicy agenda, and government and industry groups are focusedon harmonizing regulations across regions and ensuring theseare science-based and reasonable, while still allowing seedto move around the world so the benefit of technology andimproved varieties reaches the world population.Seed health regulations for seed shipments have themost immediate impact on many seed companies. While it isappropriate to use phytosanitary regulations as a way to protect alocal environment from the introduction of unwanted pests, theregulations should be based on scientific research, and should beclearly and consistently communicated. All too often regulationsused at borders are either unknown to the shipper and/or arenot science-based. They may be either politically motivated orbased on assumptions or incorrect science.Communicating the RegulationsThe two primary forms used to communicate phytosanitaryregulations to the importer and exporter, as well as borderofficials, are a government-to-government notification systemor a phytosanitary certificate. Any special seed health issuesare addressed in an additional declaration requirement onthe certificate.Shipments of seed for fruit such as watermelon must meet complex seedhealth standards.Governments determine the pest issues of concern for cropspecies from each country of origin. In the United States, forinstance, seed health officials from around the world notify thePlant Protection and Quarantine program of the Animal andPlant Health Inspection Service, responsible for maintaininginformation on global import regulations (from the United Statesto the destination country) in the Export Certification Project(EXCERPT) database. Likewise, APHIS works to prevent theintroduction of potential pests into the United States, andcommunicates its import requirements to foreign governments.Similar organizations and systems exist around the world.An acceptable controlled pest restriction is one where allof the following conditions are met:• The pest occurs in the area of production.• The pest is transmitted by or with seed as the pathway.• The pest does not exist in the destination country andwould cause problems if introduced or, if present, isunder some form of official control such as eradicationor containment.10 Seed World


The available methods to determine absence of a pest in aseed shipment are: area freedom declarations, field inspection ofmother plants, seed treatments, seed inspection prior to and/orpost-entry, and sometimes post-entry field inspections.To determine the presence or impact of a pest risk, a PestRisk Analysis can be conducted. This is a time-consumingand expensive process, so several countries also proactivelymaintain a database of region, crop and pathogen combinations.In the United States, APHIS maintains the Global Pest andDisease Database at the Center for Plant Health Science andTechnology, as well as the Cooperative Plant Health Survey,which focuses on distribution of domestic pests and pathogens.The National Seed Health System also maintains a databaseof all official testing methods and accredited testing agencies.On an international level, the science-based development andinformation organization CABI maintains several databases ofplant/pathogen combinations which can impact agriculture andthe environment.There are also a number of regional and global treaties andorganizations governing the establishment and regulation ofagricultural trade rules, including those involving seed. Theseinclude the International Plant Protection Convention, theNorth American Plant Protection Organization, the Europeanand Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization and theAgreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures of theWorld Trade Organization.Harmonization and Consistency are KeyHowever, this scientific system is not always followed. There arenumerous examples of new regulations suddenly being applied,Seed Testing LaboratoryA pioneer in seed analysis.A leader in customer service.—Over 100 years of quality seed testing—Approved to test for all biotech traits incorn and soybeans—ISO 9001:2008 and NSHS certified—Recognized leader in seed health testing—Certified seed analysts and genetictechnicians with over 160 years experience—Same day service—Convenient online access to sampleprogress and results—Highly rated customer serviceCall us today.www.seeds.iastate.edu/seedtest 515-294-6826of border control officials using different regulations than theimporters or exporters use, of regulations that are not basedon any scientific or factual data, and of requirements to useseed tests which do not correctly determine the presence of apest or are incorrectly conducted. This is the everyday realityof importers and exporters, and is a constant threat to the freetrade of seed around the world. As a result, this issue has becomea major focus for all seed associations, including the AmericanSeed Trade Association and European Seed Association.A perfect example of a seed health issue with a unifiedglobal response calling for clear, science-based and harmonizedrules happened recently in Brazil.For many years, commercial seed shipments from aroundthe world have been entering Brazil with field inspectionsensuring that no pests have been introduced into the country.On December 30, 2010, Brazil published a new seed health rulenamed “Normative 36,” without any prior notice or commentperiod. Normative 36 requires:• That all seed from all origins is treated.• That an additional declaration on the phytosanitarycertificate states that the seed is free of all quarantinepests of concern to MAPA (the Brazilian plant healthorganization).• That seed is tested in Brazil for these pests. Normative 36also forbids the seed from being planted until test resultsare obtained.Normative 36 contains annexes for each country listing allseed species to which it applies. All common seed species tradedand all common production areas and countries of origin, suchas the United States, Holland, France and Japan, are impactedby this rule. Of major concern to companies exporting seedto Brazil is that Brazil no longer accepts field inspections, butimport requirements are based on seed testing. There is noinformation provided on which of Brazil’s quarantine pests areassociated with each seed species.Without knowing which pests are of concern in whichspecies, and without knowing the seed testing methods for thesepests, the international seed community cannot possibly complywith this new rule. Additionally, because MAPA intends toretest all incoming seed shipments, there is a high likelihood oftest result discrepancies. This lack of clarity is of grave concernas such a highly restrictive, across-the-board requirement forcommercial seed will severely disrupt or stop all seed exportsto Brazil.Working on a SolutionOnce it became aware of Brazil’s new seed regulations, APHISimmediately began working on solutions with ASTA andESA, as well as the Seed Association of the Americas andthe International Seed Federation. Importantly, the BrazilianSeed Trade Association (ABRASEM) was contacted, andafter several global seed association telephone conferences tocoordinate efforts, ABRASEM arranged a meeting with MAPAto attempt to repeal the new rule.MAPA then revised Normative 36 to allow field inspectionsinstead of seed testing until March 2012, which is a temporaryreprieve only. MAPA also indicated they will publish pest lists foreach seed species on the annex. In February, a list was published12 Seed World


Roots hold the future to crop yield improvementBecause they are out of sight, roots are often out of mind. Yet research increasingly points to Root Health asthe key for future crop productivity improvements. It has been estimated that 80% of all plant problems startwith soil/root problems. 1Global trends underline the importance of Root HealthChanges in agriculture worldwide – including increased use of agronomic practices such as no-till and irrigation– confirm Root Health as the key to ensure future crop productivity.Syngenta hosted a Global Root Health Forum this year in Florida (USA), bringing together nearly 100 expertsfrom 15 countries to exchange perspectives.Forum participant Dr. Wayne Pedersen, emeritusplant pathologist, University of Illinois, has beeninvestigating Root Health in corn for severalyears. “Healthier root systems absolutely helpplants better utilize available nutrients andmoisture,” Pedersen explains. “This helps producestronger plants that are able to withstandstress brought on by adverse weather conditions,disease and insects.“Source: Syngenta Global Root Health Forum, 2011New seed treatment VIBRANCE key part of integrated Root Health solutionIn May, Syngenta announced the launch of VIBRANCE , a proprietary seed treatment fungicide based on thenew active ingredient sedaxane. VIBRANCE, which has been tailored specifically for the seed treatment market,belongs to the new succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs) class of fungicides.VIBRANCE INTEGRAL is now available in Argentina for cereals. Further registrations in all major crops worldwideare expected over the next two years.Impact of Rhizoctonia on roots andenhanced protection from VIBRANCE CheckVIBRANCE-based offerSource: Syngenta Switzerland (Stein), 2010,Rhizotrones trials, 83 days after seedlingsSee the visible difference“By integrating worldwide expertise, Syngenta is poised to providegrowers with new technology that will extend the spectrum ofdisease control while maximizing the performance of the roots,”says Christian Schlatter, Syngenta Global Brand Manager. “Strongerand healthier root systems ensure better uptake and use ofsoil resources plus improved stress tolerance. As a result, growerswill achieve greater yield stability across their fields.”With its optimal combination of systemic movement and soil mobility,VIBRANCE provides long-lasting protection of the entire rootsystem through all critical development stages of the crop andunder a wide range of environmental conditions.1Rovira, A.D. 1990. The impact of soil and crop management practices on soil-borne root diseases andwheat yields. Soil Use and Management 6(4): 195 - 200.© 2011 Syngenta, Basel, Switzerland.Important: Always read and follow label instructions before buying or using Syngenta products. The instructions contain important conditions of sale, including limitations ofwarranty and remedy.Vibrance is currently only registered for sale and use in Argentina. Registrations are pending in other countries throughout the world; please check with your local regulatoryauthority for registration status. This is not an offer for sale.Vibrance , Rooting Power , the Purpose icon and the Syngenta logo are trademarks of a Syngenta Group Company.Contact: Christian Schlatter, Global Seedcare Asset Manager, christian.schlatter@syngenta.com


for carrot seed. However, while it lists the pests of concern, itthen proposes to apply the full provisions of Normative 36 tothose pests. There is still no allowance for field inspections andno clarity on seed testing methods. Furthermore, not all of thepests listed are considered to be of scientifically-valid concern.If all imported seed species are regulated with such a normativesystem, Brazil will effectively close its borders.This is clearly not the intent of MAPA; rather the intent mustbe to continue to ensure the safety of all seed imports, and allowlocal farmers and growers to have access to improved seed varietiesapproved for use in Brazil. The international seed associationcommunity is working together to urge governments to negotiatea better process with MAPA. This is a perfect example of theneed for a science-based, globally harmonized seed health system.Progress toward global harmonization is being made. In2009, the North American Plant Protection Organizationestablished a seed panel to draft a regional seed movementstandard. This standard will be sent out for country consultationthis summer. The International Plant Protection Conventionalso added the development of a global seed movement standardinto its work program in 2010. The future of seed is bright, aslong as seed can continue to be safely and efficiently shippedaround the world, providing the basis for global agriculture andfood production. Marc Cool and Ric DunkleEditor’s Note: Ric Dunkle is the senior director for seed health andtrade for the American Seed Trade Association and has workedextensively on seed trade issue around the world. Marc Coolis a fifth-generation seedsman with over 20 years of professionalexperience in the seed industry.The regulations should bebased on scientific research.The International Plant ProtectionConventionwww.ippc.intThe North American Plant ProtectionOrganizationwww.nappo.orgThe Agreement on Sanitary andPhytosanitary Measures of the World TradeOrganizationwww.wto.org/english/tratop_e/sps_e/sps_e.htm14 Seed World


oregro


The Native Seed Industry:Not For the Faint-HeartedA healthy, stable native seed industryis entering the new U.S. fiscal year,but the debt crisis and concern overbudget cuts to conservation programshave industry leaders watching the2012 U.S. Federal Budget and FarmBill more closely than usual.It’s been a good year for the native seed industry. A generalsign-up for the United States Department of Agriculture’sConservation Reserve Program in 2010 and 2011, steady seedsales and decreasing inventories have had a stabilizing effect onthe sector. But as industry leaders move forward with preparationsfor the new year, some see clouds on the horizon. Onething is clear—there are more questions than answers aboutthe direction the sector could take in 2012.Switchgrass seed production field in Nebraska.Photo Credit: Star Seed16 Seed World


“The CRP sign-up was, and is, a boost to the native seedindustry—it was a pleasant surprise. We saw a lot of plantingduring the fall of 2010, as well as the spring and fall of 2011.We’re looking at additional plantings in the fall of 2012. It’shelped consume some inventories, and that needed to happen,”says Mark Mustoe, co-owner and manager of Clearwater Seedin Spokane, Wash. “Last year, there seemed to be no bottom toprices, but now we are in a stabilizing mode.”Government SpendingHowever, Mustoe is concerned this stability could be shortlived.This fall, he’ll be watching the 2012 U.S. federal budgetclosely. “If agriculture takes a huge budgetary hit, there’s noquestion that it’s going to affect conservation programs. Muchof the native seed industry in the United States, whether itis the CRP or Bureau of Land Management, somehow relatesback to federal or state government. I think everyone is beingcautious at best, looking at their business models, and tryingto figure out how to diversify what we grow and what we do.”But the degree to which the deficit crisis and the new budgetwill affect native seed businesses will not be known until earlynext year, says Mustoe.How the CRP is handled in the upcoming 2012 Farm Bill isalso an issue Mustoe is following. “If the cap [for enrolled acres]is reduced, the possibility of acres being bid into CRP are goneuntil we fall under whatever number that cap is, and that couldtake several years. It’s a long-term deal,” he says.The growing debate over local ecotype material for reclamation,rehabilitation and restoration projects versus the use ofspecies with broad applications has also left Mustoe with morequestions than answers. Government agencies such as the BLMare moving toward the use of local ecotype material, and that’sgood or bad depending on who you’re talking to, he says. “Insome agencies there are people who think seed for a projectneeds to be a local ecotype, which is in a radius of so manymiles of that site—and there are some who don’t. There’s atug-of-war going on about what scientifically is [best for theconservation of the environment]. It’s almost more of a beliefsystem than a science.”For now, given the lack of scientific evidence on the issue,Mustoe says he thinks the use of plant material with broad applicationsmakes common sense. “If we pigeonhole ourselves intothis 10-mile radius, I think it dilutes, and hurts, the industry.“You can grow 100 pounds of X, Y or Z, but what do you dowhen there’s no job there? It’s best for the industry if we lookat the bigger picture on a broad landscape.” The debate oftencauses disagreement, even within agencies, says Mustoe. “Onepart of the agency is going in a local direction and the other followsa broader application. It’s a hard thing to know what to do.”Tom Lutgen, president of Star Seed Inc., located inOsborne, Kan., has also had a good year. Generally, he says,there was good movement in the sector, so sales were brisk. “Theindustry doesn’t have a lot of carryover stock, which is healthyfor the industry—to start the new year fresh.”In the short term, sales won’t be slowing down in hishome state of Kansas. Lutgen’s anticipating more interest inand demand for native grasses and herbaceous plants after theannouncement of the latest project area for the USDA’s seventhBiomass Crop Assistance Program, which provides incentivesto landowners to establish and cultivate biomass crops for heat,power, bio-based products and biofuels.He also speculates that there could be a boost to the sectorfrom conservation programs aimed at reducing soil erosionalong, and sediment in, waterways. “They’ve built some programsspecifically for those areas that are hard to farm becausethey flood frequently,” he says. Recently, the enrollment cap wasexpanded and incentives increased to the Upper Arkansas RiverConservation Reserve Enhancement Program.Despite these increases to government programs, Lutgen isconcerned about future budget cuts and whether or not fundingwill be slashed for conservation programs. But overall, he says,agriculture is a good place to be right now. “The agricultural baseof the economy is still pretty strong in all segments. Farmlandprices are still rising, and agriculture, in general, has been veryhealthy. The farmers are doing well, and that affects everybody.”The high price of commodities may be good for farmers, butincreased competition for land from high-priced commoditiesis affecting the profitability of the native seed sector. “The highprice of commodities affects what we pay our growers to growseed. We have got to compete with wheat, corn and soybeans.This affects all seed markets because there’s only so much landout there,” he says.When landowners do sign up for conservation programs,businesses are having a tougher time than in the past trying todetermine seed needs. “There used to be standard mixes,” saysLutgen, “Now it’s almost prescription mixes for each farmer. It’s alittle more challenging to figure out what the demand is going tobe because you may know the acres, but you don’t know the ingredients,and the precise ingredients depend upon the area it’s in.”For a Catalog:Phone: 303.431.7333Fax: 303.467.7886Email:sales@applewoodseed.com5380 Vivian StreetArvada, CO 80002 USAwww.applewoodseed.comRSpecialists inWildflowersSince 1965Garden FlowersNRCS Pollinator &Conservation MixturesBiomass FeedstocksWildflower Seedsoctober 2011 17


Sorghum PartnerSSeed Testing LaboratoryNot only are we a full service sorghum seedcompany, but we also have a full service seedlab with a Registered Seed Technologist onstaff. We test many crops including sorghum,corn, soybean, cotton, wheat, peanuts, oatsand many more.Please contact Terry at 1.806.853.8103 forservices and prices.Sorghum PartnersP.0. Box 189 | 403 Monroe St. | New Deal, TX 79350Terry.Dunfield@sorghum-partners.comYour Seed is inGood HandsContact us Today!Ask for Mike at 800-992-2824KrauterSolutionsFierce CompetitionLike other seedsmen, Kyle Thompson, owner of Prairie LandManagement Inc. of Glenwood, Minn., admits the native seedindustry is not for the faint of heart. The last few years havereally tested his mettle—and he’s not talking about the volatilenature of the business, funding cuts, or even competition fromother native seed companies.He says increased competition for seed sales and plantingservices from non-profit organizations and his local Soiland Water Conservation District office has crippled his business.Thompson, previously employed by the USDA’s NaturalResources Conservation Service, Farm Service Agency, SWCD,and other government agencies, started PLM in 1994. By 2001,his company, which grows and sells seed, and plans, prepares,plants and maintains land for conservation and habitat development,employed 54 people, and was planting over 10,000 acresof native grass species each year.Thompson says that same year his local SWCD officeacquired native grass drills and started selling seed. “Each year,up until 2001, in our own county we were providing 1,100 to1,200 acres of native grass plantings and seed sales. In 2001, wehad 86 acres and the county had over 2,000 ... By 2004, we had12.5 acres, and the county had 1,900. It literally took 90 to 95percent of our revenue away. It crippled us.”Thompson says since then the word has spread to otherSWCD offices that selling native seed and planting nativegrasses can be a lucrative venture. “Other surrounding SWCDoffices saw the opportunity to make money, so they got drillsand started selling seed,” he says.But Thompson maintains the SWCD, a governmentagency, and non-profit organizations have an unfair advantageover privately-owned companies, and he says he wants a levelplaying field. He says landowners are solicited by the employeesof local SWCD offices and non-profit organizations for nativeseed sales and planting services when they sign up for CRPprograms, because all offices arelocated in the same center. “Peoplehave to come in and sign up for the[CRP] programs, so they get accessto every landowner. They get solicitedby these groups. We can’t evenput up a flyer ... it’s just not a fairplaying field.”For now, Thompson says thisissue mainly affects the centralUnited States. But he warns competitionwith local SWCD offices andnon-profit organizations is becomingmore widespread. “Now it’sgetting worse, and private [nativeseed] companies are saying, ‘Weneed to do something about this.’A lot of them have gone out of businessbecause they couldn’t take itany longer. They just didn’t want tofight it,” he says.Despite the increased competition,Thompson, like other seedsmen,is optimistic about the futureof his sector. “I think there’s plenty of work out there to be done,”he says. “We fluctuate like any business, with trends going upand down. We will downsize a little if we need to, and if opportunitycomes along, we will increase equipment and staff. Thereare still plenty of opportunities.” Kari Belangermichael@krauter-storage.comwww.krautersolutions.com18 Seed World


agbiotech


organic seed industryat a crossroadsOrganic seed growers in the United States will potentiallyface some hard production decisions dependant on possiblechanges to certification regulations.In order for organic fruit, vegetables and grain to be consideredtruly organically grown, do they have to grow fromorganic seed? Right now the answer to this question isn’tentirely clear, as the United States Department of Agriculture’sNational Organic Program regulations allow certified organicgrowers to use non-organic (untreated, conventional) seed fortheir organic crops if they first make every effort to use organicallygrown seeds.In a draft guidance issued by the NOP, section 205.204states, “Certified operations may use non-organic seed andplanting stock if organic seeds and planting stock are not commerciallyavailable in an appropriate form, quality or quantity tofulfill an essential function in organic production. Price cannotbe a consideration.”The sale of organic fruit and vegetables in the UnitedStates grew by 11 percent in 2009, commanding 38 percentof total organic food sales worth $26.6 billion. While organicfood purchases came to less than four percent of the total U.S.food purchases in 2009, this market segment increased by 5.1percent, compared to an increase of only 1.6 percent for all foodpurchases. There is no doubt that consumer demand for organicfoods, especially produce, is increasing; this growth providesorganic growers with good market potential, but this doesn’tcompletely equate to a higher demand for organic seed.Organic Seed Not on Consumers’ RadarWhen a shopper in the organic section of a Kansas City grocerystore buys a bag of carrots, or even when they buy organicstrawberries directly from the grower at a farmers’ market, theyare unlikely to know or care whether or not the produce they’rebuying is grown from organic seed.Barb Perkins, owner of Vermont Valley Community Farmnear Madison, Wis., provides about 1,300 boxes of organic produceto the farm’s 2,000 members each year. She says all her membersknow they are receiving organic produce, but none ask aboutthe seed used to grow the fruit and vegetables in their boxes.Even though consumers may not be knowledgeable aboutthe use of organic seed, most organic growers wish to basetheir production on a holistic system that starts with organicseed. However, commercial growers aren’t currently able to buyorganic seed for all the varieties they wish to grow.Support Needed for Organic SeedThe Organic Seed Alliance, a research and education organizationwith a mission to support the ethical development andstewardship of the genetic resources of agricultural seed, recentlyreleased a report on its State of Organic Seed project. The reportstates, “Yet, even with the organic industry’s impressive growth,the organic seed sector has not caught up to meet this demand.There is a limited availability of appropriate organically producedseed for a variety of reasons, including cutbacks in publicplant breeding programs, lack of investments from the privatesector, seed industry consolidation, and ongoing disagreementregarding implementing NOP requirements pertaining toorganic seed, among others.”Vitalis Organic Seeds, a company within the Enza ZadenGroup, was established in 1994 as the first U.S. seed companyconcentrating exclusively on breeding, producing, cleaning and20 Seed World


$14.95selling high-quality seed for organic farmers. Erica Renaud, businessdevelopment manager with Vitalis, agrees that there is alack of government support for organic breeding. “There is notthe same support for organic breeding in terms of infrastructure,”she says.As with all plant breeding using traditional methods ratherthan genetic modification, it takes breeders years to develop anew variety, then collect enough seed so it can be grown in commercialproduction. In addition to the time involved in breedingnew varieties, organic seed producers must abide by specificguidelines on organic growing methods. To make it worthwhilefor a company like Vitalis to invest time and money to produceorganic seed, there must be a pay-off. Renaud sees possiblechanges in NOP regulations, requiring organic growers to usean increasing percentage of organic seed each year, as being thecatalyst the U.S. seed industry needs to encourage more organicseed development.Tom Stearns, president of High Mowing Organic Seeds,agrees with Renaud’s assessment.“I am hoping the rules will change. I think that it will bevery beneficial to the overall organic seed industry to have a seedrule that is clearer,” he says. “It will help stimulate the industryto grow, which is a great thing for everyone.”Stearns founded his company, based in Hardwick, Vt., in1996 when he grew and marketed 28 varieties on his own. NowHigh Mowing Seeds offers home gardeners and commercialgrowers about 500 heirloom, open-pollinated and hybrid varietiesof vegetable, fruit, herb and flower seed. Stearns says about80 percent of seed sales are made to commercial organic growers.He is concerned that changes to the NOP regulationscould result in increased paperwork for organic growers whodon’t use organic seed because the varieties they wish to growaren’t available as organic seed. “The important issue is in thebalance—how is it implemented to serve growers rather thanbeing a burden on them,” he says.Barb Perkins and her husband, David, now use organic seedwhen they feel they can switch from conventional seed. “Everyyear we look at organic seed and see what is available. Does ithave all the qualities we want?” she says.Seed Must Offer Extra BenefitsThe higher cost of organic seed isn’t a deterrent for most fruitand vegetable growers, according to Stearns, because organicgrowers are able to extract a premium for their produce. Perkinsagrees, but adds they must be assured that organic seed holdsadditional benefits for them.Mark Overduin, president of Bejo Seeds Inc. in Oceano,Calif., a subsidiary of Holland’s Bejo Zaden, knows that organicgrowers are looking for extra characteristics in organic seed.“We do expect to provide additional benefits such as broaderadaptability, stronger overall immune systems, and more efficientroot systems with stronger nutrient uptake capabilities,” he says.The tipping point for organic seed—for seed growers andthose organic producers who use it—could come from thedevelopment of organic seed that can grow fruit and vegetablespossessing extra health benefits for consumers. For example,a new variety of red cabbage could contain a higher level ofantioxidants, making it nutritionally superior to other varieties.5 FactsEvery Grower Should Know about Sorghum1. Sorghum genetics are not the same as your father grew.2. Sorghums can produce as much or more yield as corn.3. Sorghums (BMR 6) can make more palatable and moredigestible high quality forage than corn silage.4. Sorghums grow with less input and less waterfor less cost than corn.5. Call us to learn about the new generationof SG sorghums for grain and forage.Advanta US1-800-333-9048www.AdvantaUS.comAdvanta US is an operating unit of Advanta, a global seed company.© 2011 Advanta US, Inc. SG (logo) is a registered trademark of Advanta US, Inc. D1724 SWSorghum for Forage Field GuideCall today for your copy of this 132-pagecomprehensive production guide.GrowingValueGreenin theSorghum for ForageField Guide800.333.9048october 1724_SW-horiz.indd 2011 18/17/11 2:36:18 PM21


GRAY RESEARCH PRODUCTION GRAY RESEARCH PRODUCTION GRAY RESEARCH PRODUCTION GRAY RESEARCH PRODUCTION GRAY RESEARCH PRODUCTION GRAY RESEARCH PRODUCTIONOrganic seed production is more popular in fruits and vegetables that possesshealth or agronomic benefits.Stearns and Renaud say they welcome more competitionin the organic seed market. “I see a huge opportunity, with 90percent of the market now unfulfilled,” says Stearns. “I needmore competition.”Whether the impetus for more organic seed production inthe United States will come from changes to national organiccertification regulations, stronger consumer demand for organicproduce grown from organic seed, or additional agronomic benefitsfor producers using organic seed, the reality is that thisindustry is in its infancy, and will continue to grow up in thecoming years. Andrea GearyPhoto Credit: High Mowing Organic SeedsRules for Organic GrowersThe USDA’s National Organic program establishesthe guidelines for certified organic crop production.According to a draft guidance issued in June 2011,organic growers can use non-organic seed togrow certified crops, but only if organic seed isn’tcommercially available in an appropriate form, qualityor quality.Reasons for using non-organic seed can include:• Form considerations—site-specific agronomic ormarketing characteristics, such as the number of daysuntil maturity or harvest, color, flavor, weight or size ofharvested crop, and disease and pest resistance. Forexample, a conventional seed variety might producelarger, healthier cucumbers than any organic seedvariety now available.• Quality considerations—germination rate of seed,presence of weed seeds in the seed mix, shelf-life andstability of seed, and disease and pest resistance.• Quantity considerations—an insufficient amount oforganic seed available for planting.Organic growers must keep documents to prove to NOPcertifying agents they have contacted a minimum ofthree seed sources to see if they are selling organic seedvarieties that meet the growers’ needs.GRAYRESEARCHPRODUCTION• 20 YEARS OF RESEARCH EXPERIENCE• NORTH CENTRAL ILLINOIS LOCATION (100-118 DRM)• ISOLATED MULTI-FEMALE SEED CORN PRODUCTION• PILOT HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION• ISOLATED INBRED INCREASES• NURSERY PROJECTS (SELFING, SIBBING, CROSSING,AND SPECIALTY PROJECTS)• YIELD TRIAL PLOTS INCLUDING AGRONOMIC NOTES• CONFIDENTIAL AND PROFESSIONALResponsive to your needs andcommitted to accessibility.grayresearchproduction.comphone: (815)698-2400 fax: (815)698-248422 Seed World


CSS 2011 & Seed ExpoDEC. 6-9 • HYATT REGENCY CHICAGOIF YOU’RE IN THE SEED BUSINESS...CORN SORGHUM SOYBEANdon’t miss the largest seed convention in the country—designed to excel your business and advance your industry.Featuring Seed Expo 2011, with120 exhibitors supplying all seed sectors.REGISTER TODAY! WWW.AMSEED.ORG


exploring ideas and views on all aspectsof the seed industry.Off Patent: Let the Games Begin“This is our most important project ever,” saidDow AgroSciences CEO Antonio Galindez in arecent interview with Reuters. “It is big.” DAShas submitted a regulatory package seekinggovernment approval for a glyphosate-tolerantsoybean that the company says would bethe “first-ever, three-gene” herbicide-tolerantsoybean. The new soybean will be tolerant of anew DAS herbicide that combines glyphosate,glufosinate and 2,4-D so farmers can spray it onfields without harming the crop. Dow is dubbingthe system “Enlist” and pending regulatoryapproval the soybean trait package is expectedto be available by 2015. “We call Enlist ourAmazon Kindle,” said Galindez, referring to theelectronic book reader released in 2007 that hashelped spur a decline in sales of traditional booksfrom bookstores. “It is bringing the next level oftechnology to the market,” added Galindez.“Plant breeders wouldvolunteer to workoverseas on specificprojects.”Media Moguls“Ag is becoming more ‘social’ and there’s a wealth ofinformation available through Internet and mobiletechnologies that have changed the way we get informationlike weather and commodities,” says Rosalyn Moore,Internet marketing lead at Syngenta. “But that informationcan also be overwhelming, especially when consideringhow these technologies can range from strictly personal useto benefitting your business. Our goal is to provide directionfor those looking to explore these technologies.” Syngentahas developed the Growing Digital blog to help members ofthe agricultural community grow their businesses throughsocial media.Breeders Without Borders“The idea is similar to ‘Doctors without Borders’—where plant breeders would volunteer to workoverseas on specific projects where they couldtrain local plant scientists and share their insightsand knowledge with the developing world,” saysAnthony Leddin, an Australian plant breederwho is the brainchild behind Plant BreedersWithout Borders. “There’s also the potentialfor undergraduate plant breeding students totake part in these projects—where they can bementored by a senior plant breeder on-site. Tomake the projects sustainable, the plant breederswould also train people on the ground so thattheir work could be carried on after they leave theproject to return home.”24 Seed World


The Rise of Nanotechnology“The key aspect of [nanotechnology] is that when you decrease the size [of a food item’s molecules], they are going to achieve some functions, newproperties, new phenomena that cannot be observed on a regular, large scale,” said Qingrong Huang, food scientist at Rutgers University in NewJersey, in a recent issue of Farm Credit Canada’s AgriSuccess newsletter. Nanotechnology is a growing market—it’s estimated there are already 600food items on the market taking advantages of the advances made in nanotechnology—and a recent study from technology information specialistCientifica predicts the nano-food market will surge to $5.8 billion by 2012 (up from just $410 million in 2006). According to the article, the idea is thatsomeday seeds may be modified by nano-particles in the same way organisms are now genetically modified. And instead of farming a commodity,producers could farm a specific ingredient contained in the crop. Growers will still grow corn, but it’ll be primarily for the proteins and oils to beextracted via nanotechnologies rather than for the grain itself.Expiration Date“As patents on traits or events expire, our goal is to createa smooth, streamlined transition into a generic seedmarket without violating property rights or interruptinginternational trade,” says Mike Gumina, chairman of theAmerican Seed Trade Association for 2011/12. ASTA hasbeen working in partnership with the BiotechnologyIndustry Organization on this front, as well as oncoexistence. “The whole concept of coexistence is not newto the seed industry; it’s allowed us to create high-qualityseed for America’s growers for decades. It’s important tohave a process in place where all agricultural sectors canbe successful in producing their products and benefit fromthe added value of their efforts. This is a really importanttopic and one where ASTA is going to be a leader.”Chemical Cost Perspectivesfrom a Grower“A few years ago, it used to cost mebetween $12 and $15 per acre to controlthese weeds,” said grower MalcolmHaigwood, who spelled out in detailjust how expensive fighting glyphosateresistantweeds has become on a recenttour of crop fields in Arkansas. “Last year,it cost me between $65 and $80 per acre,using more applications and more cropprotection products to achieve the samelevel of control.” He further predictedthat with the increased materials, laborand fuel costs associated for these weedcontrol efforts, his cost per acre in 2012could reach nearly $100.Instead of farming acommodity, producerscould farm a specificingredient contained inthe crop.OCTOBER 2011 25


Agriculture’s FootprintstrategyNEW DEPARTMENT. A featured segmentdesigned to share business-critical information toseed-selling professionals. Visit SeedWorld.comto download this department and other tools to helpyou sell seed to farmers.EnvironmentMaking Gains for theEnvironmentIt is said agriculture consumes70 percent of the world’sfreshwater supplies. “Farmingoil” is the phrase used by thosewho say that fertilizer applicationsand passes of farm equipmentare equivalent to pouring barrelsof fossil fuels on the ground. Inthe face of criticisms like these,agriculture needs to get seriousabout explaining its role inthe environment to growersand the public.Irrigatedwater use2050%toper unit of outputhas also decreasednearlySeeing ResultsA report by Field to Market: TheKeystone Alliance for SustainableAgriculture offers indicators ofagriculture’s environmental impact.Its findings show substantialprogress in corn, soybean andcotton between 1987-2007in terms of the environmentalimpacts of the crops. Wheat alsoshows progress, although notnearly as much. Findings includethe following:• The single greatest improvementin agriculture’s environment impactis a drop in soil loss. Efficiencytrends have improved substantially,by 30 to nearly 70 percent for thefour crops evaluated.• The unit of energy used toproduce a bushel of corn hasdecreased by about 30 percent inthe past 20 years.• The energy used to produce abushel of soybeans has droppedby more than two thirds.• Irrigated water use per unit ofoutput has also decreased 20percent to nearly 50 percent.• Carbon emissions per unit ofoutput have dropped by about athird for corn, soybean and cottoncrops.• Since the introduction of biotechcrops in 1997, there has been amarked increase in the consistencyof yields.GROWMOREWITHLESSSpreading the MessageThe progress in these areas isimportant and deserves to betouted. However, it is just the startof the path that agriculture musttake—gains are needed in otherareas and must continue to bemade progressively. Momentumis continuing, however, and it isa credit to the seed industry thatthere are some clear mid-term goalsthat will be important for furtherreducing agriculture’s environmentalfootprint. Drought, salinity andheat tolerance as well asnitrogen fixing are amongthe innovations that arecurrently in development.Quite simply, ag must growmore with less in an eraof changing climate andchanging social demands—but it is meeting thesechallenges, and must beready to prove this progressto growers and the public.Sustainable agriculture meets the needs of the present whileimproving the ability of future generations to meet their own neeDS.26 Seed World


Field to Market evaluated national-scale metrics over the past two decades for land use, water use, energy use, soil loss and climate impact on corn, soy,cotton and wheat production. Water quality and biodiversity indicators are currently being developed and will be included in the next report. An executivesummary and full report can be accessed at keystone.org/spp/environment/sustainability/field-to-marketOnline CalculatorAnalyzes SustainabilityFarmers can analyze their naturalresource use and key cropproduction inputs using a newonline tool by Field to Market. TheFieldprint Calculator helpsfarmers evaluate naturalresource use on theiroperations comparedwith industry averages.These measures couldhelp improve productionefficiencies and profitpotential. The calculatorillustrates the connectionbetween resource andeconomic sustainability.fieldtomarket.org/fieldprintcalculator/trial/sustainableThe Field to Market group has defined sustainable agriculture as meeting theneeds of the present while improving the ability of future generations to meettheir own needs by focusing on these specific, critical outcomes:• Increasing agricultural productivity to meet future nutritional needs whiledecreasing impacts on the environment, including water, soil, habitat, airquality and climate emissions as well as land use;• Improving human health through access to safe, nutritious food; and• Improving the social and economic well-being of agricultural communities.For case studies, blogs and articles on what the industry is doing toimprove its environmental footprint visitfieldtomarket.org/resourcesTMOCTOBER 2011 27


worldSTATUSA look at seed industry developments around the globe.An in-depthoverview onthe globalseed industry.From rice researchin Australia to legalaction in India.STATUSAUSTRALIAInternationalRice Research Instituteresearchers, in cooperationwith the Australian Centrefor International AgriculturalResearch, have discovered thegenetic information responsiblefor “chalkiness” in rice, anunwanted trait which, accordingto the IRRI, can lower the valueof a crop by 25 percent.Chalky areas in rice, causedwhen starch granules fail todevelop properly, are opaquerather than translucent. “If riceis chalky, it often breaks in themill, contributing to post-harvestloss. In our long-term studies,we show that for every percentincrease in chalk, there is aone percent decrease in headrice yield,” explains MelissaFitzgerald, head of the IRRI’sgrain quality and nutritionresearch. The breakthrough issignificant for its potential todramatically improve profits, as“chalk is one of two parametersthat are used to grade rice onthe international market.”To locate the genetic regions ofthe rice genome which controlchalkiness, Fitzgerald’s teamused phenotyping tools tomeasure the chalk in multiplevarieties, as well as genomictechniques for genome-widegenotyping and bioinformatictechnologies. If all goes well,Fitzgerald’s team expects an“excellent” reception on theinternational market, althoughit might take some time tocreate new varieties. “Differentcountries have differentexpectations of grain quality,and chalk is just one parameterof quality,” says Fitzgerald.“We have one variety with allthe good genes against chalkthat would suit some areas ofsouth-east Asia, but it couldtake a number of years toplace these genes in all popularvarieties using conventionalbreeding techniques.”STATUSAFRICAThe II International Societyfor Horticulture ScienceGenetically Modified Organismsin Horticulture (GMO 2011)symposium was held inMpumalanga, South AfricaSeptember 11-15. The theme ofthe conference, which discussedthe role of plant biotechnologyfor horticulture in the developingworld, was “Paving the Wayfor a Sustainable Future.” Theevent aimed to provide “anopportunity for those involvedin the research, development,testing, regulation, assessmentand management of GMOsworldwide to share experienceswith colleagues from aroundthe globe.”According to organizingcommittee member GurlingBothma, who is also biosafetymanager for the Councilfor Scientific and IndustrialResearch, Pretoria, theconference is a step forward inthe discussion of biotechnologyfor horticulture in the region.“GMO seed is not currentlyused in the horticulturalindustry. Maize, cotton andsoya totally dominate the sceneand there the multinationalplayers control the game,”he says. However, Bothma’soutlook is optimistic. “As youknow, many small influencesthat have no major impact inthe present may play a biggerrole in the future,” he says.“So hopefully this symposiumwill play a role in the futurepaths of researchers, enablingthem to do better, morerelevant and ethical researchthat will hopefully lead to usefulproducts down the line.”STATUSINDIAIndia’s NationalBiodiversity Authority isexpected to pursue legal actionagainst Maharashtra HybridSeeds Company (Mahyco),which is partially ownedby Monsanto, for allegedlytaking samples of at least 10varieties of the GM eggplantbrinjal for development withoutpermission.Although Bt brinjal had beenapproved for commercialWhen U.S. seed industry professionalswant to be in the know … they turn to SeedWorld.com.Visit us online and check out breaking news feeds, free retailer and grower tools,comprehensive video interviews and regulatory information as it affects your business.28 Seed World


Regulatory RoundupNationalBayer Amends Patent Infringement LawsuitBayer CropScience has amended its patent infringementlawsuit pending in the United States District Court for theDistrict of Delaware against Dow AgroSciences, followingDAS’s announcement that it has applied for approval tolaunch a three-gene herbicide tolerant soybean under theDow Enlist brand name. Bayer’s existing suit asserts thatDAS’s previously announced Dow Enlist brand of corn,soybeans and cotton infringe Bayer’s 2,4-D herbicidetolerance patents. In the amendment, Bayer claims thatDAS’s newly announced products also infringe severalBayer patents covering glyphosate-tolerant plants. Thiscomplaint now seeks a permanent injunction both againstDAS’s unauthorized use of the company’s 2,4-D herbicidetolerance patents and Bayer’s glyphosate tolerance patents.“Respect for intellectual property is the foundation for anyresearch-based business,” says Margaret Keating, associategeneral counsel for Bayer CropScience, “and we intend tovigorously enforce our property rights.”DuPont Receives Two EPA Registrations for CornProductsDuPont business Pioneer Hi-Bred has approval from the U.S.Environmental Protection Agency for Optimum AcreMaxand Optimum AcreMax Xtra insect protection products incorn. Optimum AcreMax marks the industry’s first U.S.approval of a single-bag integrated refuge product thattargets only above-ground insects. Both Optimum AcreMaxand Optimum AcreMax Xtra products integrate all of a CornBelt grower’s refuge needs into a single bag. “We are excitedto offer corn growers the broadest line-up of simplified,integrated refuge products in the industry,” said Paul E.Schickler, president of Pioneer. “Optimum AcreMax andOptimum AcreMax Xtra products from Pioneer will not onlyhelp growers maximize corn yields but preserve valuablein-plant insect protection for the future.”Syngenta Receives Import ApprovalsSyngenta in North America has received import approvalfrom Japanese and Mexican regulatory authorities for theAgrisure Viptera 3220 trait stack, which offers corn growersdual modes of action against a broad spectrum of abovegroundinsects, including corn borer, as well as a five percentrefuge in the Corn Belt region of the United States. Theseregulatory approvals allow the importation of U.S. corn grownwith the Agrisure Viptera 3220 trait stack for food or feed usewithin Japan and Mexico. “Japanese and Mexican importapprovals provide U.S. growers access to a highly valuablemarket and are a major step toward Agrisure Viptera 3220trait stack commercialization for the 2012 growing season,”says David Morgan, Syngenta’s North American regionaldirector and president of Syngenta Seeds Inc.Syngenta Agrisure Trait Stack Approved by EPAThe U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has grantedregistration approval for Syngenta’s Agrisure 3122 traitstack. The Agrisure 3122 stack offers growers dual modesof action against both corn borer and corn rootworm, with astructured refuge of only five percent in the Corn Belt regionof the United States. The Agrisure 3122 trait stack includesthe Agrisure CB/LL trait, which has been helping to protectcorn from European corn borer for more than 10 years; theAgrisure RW trait, which protects against corn rootworm; theHerculex I trait for corn borer; the Herculex RW trait for cornrootworm; and the Agrisure GT trait for glyphosate tolerance.InternationalEuropean Court of Justice Rules French Banon GM Crops IllegalThe European Court of Justice has judged the French ban onthe cultivation of genetically modified crops to be illegal. TheECJ ruling has confirmed the arguments raised by Frenchfarmers and seed companies that the 2008 French governmentorder suspending MON810 use by French farmers did notfollow applicable procedural regulations. In addition, the ECJindicated that emergency measures can be invoked only whenthere is a clear and serious risk to human health, animalhealth or environment, but this was not the case when theFrench government initially acted. EuropaBio views the Court’sjudgment as a sign of progress. “The European Court of Justicehas given a clear verdict today: EU member states cannotban GM based on myths and hearsay. In fact, French farmershad three years of experience planting GM crops prior to thisban,” says Carel du Marchie Sarvaas, EuropaBio’s directorof green biotechnology. “European scientists have shownagain and again that GM crops pose no risk to health or theenvironment and, in fact, have health, socio-economic andenvironmental benefits. After all, they are grown on nearly150 million hectares worldwide by over 15 million farmers,90 percent of whom are resource-poor farmers working indeveloping countries.”EU Backs Right to Ban GM CultivationEuropean Union member states should have the flexibility toban or restrict the cultivation of genetically modified cropsand should be able to cite environmental motives for doingso, according to members of the European Parliament whorecently voted on draft legislation. The draft amendmentto existing legislation will now go to the council for furtherdiscussion. “I am pleased that parliament has reached anagreement on the difficult issue of GMOs, which has been anissue of public concern for years. If the council manages tofind a common position, this balanced agreement will allowcountries and regions the right to not grow GMOs if they so30 Seed World


choose,” says the parliament’s rapporteur Corinne Lepage.Only one strain of GM maize and one modified potato arecurrently authorized for cultivation in the EU and most memberstates do not grow either crop commercially.Peru Accedes to the UPOV ConventionPeru has acceded to the UPOV Convention and will become theseventieth member of the International Union for the Protectionof New Varieties of Plants on August 8, 2011. The purpose ofthe UPOV Convention is to encourage the development of newplant varieties by granting breeders intellectual property rightson the basis of a set of clearly defined principles. To be eligiblefor protection, varieties need to satisfy certain conditions, suchas being distinct from existing, commonly-known varieties andsufficiently uniform and stable. The development of new plantvarieties is one of the most powerful tools to enhance foodproduction sustainably, to increase income in the agriculturalsector and to contribute to overall development. UPOV is anintergovernmental organization based in Geneva, Switzerland.Kenya to Allow GM Crop ImportsKenya’s Cabinet has approved the importation of geneticallymodified maize as it seeks to curb a food shortage ravagingmost parts of the country. The move makes Kenya the firstcountry in the region to allow GM crops into the market forhuman consumption. Kenya is the most advanced country inthe region in terms of GM research and biosafety protocols,and analysts expect that the country’s experience in handlingGM crops in the market will be used as a model for otherneighbouring countries to refine their own biotechnologicalpractices. The brief from Kenya’s presidential press unit statesthat “only millers will be allowed to import GM maize, whichwill only be used for processing into flour.” The brief alsostated that “no GM maize should be used as seeds underany circumstances.”UPOV Technical Working PartyThe International Union for the Protection of New Varieties ofPlants recently held the 45th session of its Technical WorkingParty for Vegetables in Monterey, Calif. The session included apreparatory workshop, which gave a general overview of UPOV,including its structure and project completion strategy. Oneof the session’s focuses was intellectual property protection.Jerry Vosti, an account manager for Nunhems USA who hasbeen working in the lettuce and spinach industry for more than35 years, says intellectual property protection is especiallyimportant because it is so difficult to protect genetics inthe lettuce seed industry. “There is an enormous amountof competition out here and the fact that lettuce is openpollinatedmakes IP protection and enforcement a criticalbusiness component,” says Vosti. “Anything that can be doneto strengthen PVP laws and help companies’ ability to protecttheir investments is a good thing.”Regulatory RoundUp keeps you informed ofissues at the international, national and statelevels that affect your business—from recentregulatory changes to new issues that are at theforefront of the seed industry.OCTOBER 2011 31


Industry NewsPeople NewsJose Graziano da Silva of Brazil has been elected directorgeneralof the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Since2006, he has served as FAO’s assistant director-general andregional representative for Latin America and the Caribbean.Graziano da Silva is FAO’s eighth director-general since theorganization was founded in Quebec City, Canada on October16, 1945. The term of the new director-general, who willsucceed Senegal’s Jacques Diouf, will start on January 1, 2012and run through July 31, 2015.The International Rice Research Institute has appointedEero Nissila as head of plant breeding, genetics andbiotechnology, and leader of GRISP Theme 2: Acceleratingthe Development, Delivery and Adoption of Improved RiceVarieties. Nissila will provide strategic and operationalleadership on all aspects of rice varietal improvementresearch in IRRI. As the global leader for GRISP Theme 2, andin collaboration with others, he will provide overall leadershipfor accelerating the development of new rice varieties andhybrids in all major rice-growing environments, with aparticular emphasis on new, targeted product developmentpipelines that utilize molecular breeding approaches andnetworks.Renze Seeds has named Doug Breinig of Arapahoe, Neb.,as sales manager for south-central and southwest Nebraska.Breinig began his career in the seed industry in 1974 andworked for three different companies before joining RenzeSeeds. John West has joined the company as district salesmanager and will be based in St. Joseph, Miss. West willwork to build and service a dealer network while reaching outdirectly to growers. Seed industry veteran Jeremie Parr hasjoined Renze Seeds as district sales manager in east-centralIowa. Parr has been employed in the agriculture industry since1993 and has worked in the seed industry since 1997.FuturaGene has announced that Eugênio César Ulianhas joined the company as vice president of regulatoryaffairs. Ulian reports directly to the chief executive officer ofFuturaGene, Stanley Hirsch, and his scope of activity is global.Ulian has extensive knowledge and experience in the biotechsector. His last position was scientific and regulatory affairsmanager at Monsanto.Valent U.S.A. Corporation has announced three new hiresin the company’s seed protection business unit. MartyRobinson, Jay Stroh and Jeff Weber will serve as seedprotection market managers in their respective territories.Robinson will work out of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and will beresponsible for brand management of corn seed protectantsand seed protection account management for key westernCorn Belt seed companies. Stroh will work out of Underwood,Minn., with responsibilities including brand management ofthe NipsIt Suite line-up of products for sugar beets, canolaENVIRONMENTAL SEED PRODUCERSChina Gansu JiuquanOK Seed MachineryCo., Ltd.multiple seedseparatorhttp://en.woksm.comE-mail:lzok@woksm.comTel:+86(931)4613160Fax:+86(931)4611187Seeds of~ Native andNaturalized Wildflowers~ Native Grasses~ Herbs~ Certified OrganicsENVIRONMENTAL SEED PRODUCERSP.O. Box 947, Albany, OR 97321541.928.5868 ph / 541.928.5581 faxwww.espseeds.com esp@espseeds.com32 Seed World


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and cereals, and seed protection account management forkey North Dakota and western seed companies. Weber willbe based in Noblesville, Ind., and will manage Inovate as wellas work with sales organization and seed protection accountmanagement for key Midwest seed companies. As the seedprotection team expands, Glen Karaffa will shift his focus tosupport the growing Valent rice, cereals and sorghum seedprotection portfolio.Product NewsSyngenta has announced that spinosad insecticide is nowavailable for use on onions as a seed treatment. Spinosad willbe available exclusively as a component of FarMore FI500, aninsecticide/fungicide seed treatment technology containingseparately registered products. The registration of spinosadas a seed treatment for protection against onion maggotsmarks the first commercially available product offer derivedfrom the 2008 agriculture chemical research and developmentcollaboration between Syngenta and Dow AgroSciences.The J. R. Simplot Company’s Plant Sciences businesshas announced its new Innate Technology, the all-nativebiotechnology platform for improving crops, leading to new,better and healthier foods. Innate Technology is a patentedplant biotechnology process that works with a plant’s owngenes to enhance desirable traits and to decrease lessdesirable traits. Innate Technology precisely targets particulartraits without introducing foreign DNA. Simplot’s firstapplication of Innate Technology has been submitted to theUnited States Department of Agriculture for regulatory review.Soybean growers now have access to a revolutionarybiological mode of action to help protect their crop fromnematodes, as well as other pests, as part of an agreementannounced by Bayer CropScience LP and MonsantoCompany. Offered with Monsanto’s Acceleron seedtreatment products for soybeans, Poncho/VOTiVO seedtreatment from Bayer combines a seed-applied insecticidewith a new living-barrier approach to nematode protection.Under the agreement, Monsanto will have rights tocommercialize Poncho/VOTiVO on seed from its AsgrowtheChannel brand and regional brands, as well as to sell theproduct through its seed licensees, which include numerousindependent seed companies across the United States.Business NewsSyngenta has entered into an exclusive global technologypartnership with Pasteuria Bioscience Inc., a U.S.-basedbiotechnology company. Under the terms of the agreement,the two companies will develop innovative bio-nematicideproducts based on the naturally occurring soil bacteriaPasteuria spp. This group of bacteria controls nematodesacross a broad variety of crops. Jointdevelopment will initially focus on seedtreatment products for controllingsoybean cyst nematodes. Syngentaand Pasteuria aim to launch their firstproduct within two years.The Makhteshim Agan Group andIsagro Company have reached anagreement for the exclusive licenseof the active ingredient kiralaxyl forseed dressing applications globally.According to the agreement, MAIwill have the rights to register,develop and market mixtures andformulations based on kiralaxyl forthe seed dressing market. Isagro willcontinue to manufacture and holdregistrations for the active ingredientof kiralaxyl. The agreement also allowsfor the development and registration ofproducts to better address customerneeds in the segment of seed dressing,predominantly in North America.Bayer CropScience and the privatelyownedcompany RAGT SemencesS.A.S., based in Rodez, France,34 Seed World


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The Industry’s Trusted Sourcefor chemical and seed handling equipmentSeed TreatersRH Series Seed TreaterLiquid Handling Equipment• Herbicide Transfer Systems• Fertilizer Transfer Systems• Weigh Systems, Meters andAccessories• Pumps, Motors and Accessories• Safety Equipment• Fittings, Strainers and Valves• Nurse and Storage Tanks• Spray Parts and Accessories• Repair Parts• Tank MonitoringRH BasicSeed Handling Equipment• Environmental Systems• Bulk Seed Bins• Seed Treaters• Belt Conveyors• Seed Hoppers• Seed Tenders• Seed Boxes8RH CommercialServicesThe RH series seed treater utilizes a rotary volumetric seedwheel, chemical atomizer, rotating drum, closed calibrationand a tank & pump system to treat various seed types.These continuous flow seed treating systems will treatbetween 800 and 2000 bushels per hour. This machine isoffered with manual controls (Basic), or PLC touch screencontrols (Commercial). The RH Basic and RH Commercialare both offered as RH-800 and RH-2000 models. Upgradesare available to convert a HC model seed treater to a RHmodel.RH-800 DimensionsAdjustable Height: up to 119”Width: 44”Length: 116”RH-2000 DimensionsAdjustable Height: up to 119”Width: 44”Length: 144”• Design and Consultation• Conceptual Drawings• CAD Drawings• Bulk Bin Delivery• Conveyor Installation• System Start-up• On-Site TrainingFind us on800.247.1854www.farmchem.comServing the agricultural industry since 1974


INCOTEC Group BV and Plant Health Care, a leadingprovider of naturally derived products to the agriculture andhorticulture industries, have signed a non-exclusive, multiyearagreement to develop and market PHC’s Myconate incombination with INCOTEC’s proprietary seed treatmentpackages. PHC will contribute its Myconate technology andintroduce its current customers to Incotec seed treatments.The two companies will work together to develop new andnovel uses for Myconate around the world.Winfield Solutions LLC, a subsidiary of Land O’ Lakes,and Chromatin Inc., a provider of innovative crop breedingtechnology, sorghum seed products and energy cropfeedstocks, have joined forces to market and develop foragesorghum hybrids. Under the agreement, Winfield will partnerwith Chromatin and its subsidiary, Sorghum Partners LLC, toprovide and develop market leading hybrid forage sorghumseed products that will be marketed and distributed throughthe Winfield network of customers in North America.Industry NewsThe world’s largest database on plants’ functional properties,or traits, has been published. Scientists compiled threemillion traits for 69,000 of the world’s roughly 300,000 plantspecies. The achievement rests on a worldwide collaborationof scientists from 106 research institutions. The initiative,known as TRY, is hosted at the Max Planck Institute forBiogeochemistry in Jena, Germany. The first release ofthe TRY database has been published in the journal GlobalChange Biology. “This huge advance in data availability willlead to more reliable predictions of how vegetation boundariesand ecosystem properties will shift under future climate andland-use change scenarios,” says Ian Wright of MacquarieUniversity in Australia.Agricultural producers will benefit from a project at SouthDakota State University that uses an innovative plantbreedingtechnique to shave perhaps two years off thetime needed to produce winter wheat varieties for farmers.Breeders are pollinating wheat plants with corn to producedoubled-haploid wheat plants. The resulting doubledhaploidsare homozygous lines with identical chromosomesets carrying genes originating only from the wheat parent.Consequently, instead of needing approximately sixgenerations of conventional self-pollination, such homozygouslines are produced in only one.Industry News is geared to seed professionals anddelivers the people, industry, business andproduct news you need to know. Submissions arewelcome. Email us at news@issuesink.com.We keep you growingThe new Conviron Growth House - Big room, Big resultsConviron continues to lead the industry with innovative solutions incontrolled environments. Our new Conviron Growth House providesthe large capacity of a greenhouse with the precision of a growthchamber. Designed as a walk-in room, features include:• Space efficiency - rolling benches and large-area design• Lighting - HID lighting and support system• Environmental Control - configurable options and customization• Security - no outside visual exposure as with a greenhouseThese represent only a sampling of the features and capabilities available with theConviron Growth House . Options exist for lighting, construction method, refrigeration, additiveCO 2and numerous other design elements. Involve us in the early planning stages and let us tailor asolution specific to your unique requirements.To learn more about our company or to inquire how Conviron can help you to achieve your vision,visit us online at www.conviron.com or contact us directly.®tel +1.204.786.6451 | toll free 800.363.6451 North America | email info@conviron.com | www.conviron.com38 Seed World


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Emerging from the Global Financial CrisisThe turf andforage grassseed industry issmall when comparedto the major grain andanimal agriculturesectors. However, it isnonetheless important toa slice of the agricultureindustry. The epicenterof this industry is theWillamette Valley inOregon. It is in thisvalley, measuring about120 miles long and 30-50miles wide, that just over50 percent of the world’s commercially traded turf and foragegrass seed is grown.I chose the word “epicenter” for its reference to earthshakingevents. The Global Financial Crisis of 2008 sentshock waves through the industry, causing a ripple of financialpain and uncertainty for turf and forage grass seed companiesthroughout the world. But it was in the Willamette Valley wherethe most significant economic damage occurred.While the sudden drop in the value of securities (mortgagebackedsecurities and collateralized debt obligations) tied to realestate, especially home values, is usually seen as the trigger forthe recent financial crisis, the events of September 2008 set off adrop in inventory and crop values that was greater in percentagethan the drop in real estate values. Worldwide production andconsumption were at their highest levels in 2006-2007 and seedprices were escalating. However, in just one week in September2008, over $144 billion was withdrawn from money marketmutual funds in the United States, 20 times the normal rate ina period of uncertainty.The impact on seed orders and shipments was immediate.Many of my colleagues in the business saw sales and contractsfor future delivery drop 35-50 percent. Inventory values alsodropped immediately, and the value of future contracts cameinto question. Estimates of the drop in inventory values forWillamette Valley growers, producers and seed companies in2008-2009 are $175-$200 million dollars.After three long and painful years, we are emerging fromthe GFC. We must employ the best new strategies we canimplement in order to avoid a repeat of our recent painful andcostly experience. I am reminded of the wise counsel of anAfter three long andpainful years, we areemerging from the GFC.earlier writer of this column. In “Surviving the Next 25 Years”—printed in the December 2010 issue of Seed World—RurikHalaby of AgriCapital Corporation writes, “The way to surviveis a mindset: be adaptable. Anticipate and welcome change.And the best insurance? Be adequately capitalized, and yourbanker will call you up and invite you to lunch!”In the turf and forage grass seed business, we have oftennot paid much attention to being adequately capitalized. Perhapsour biggest error is in failing to account for the risks inherentin multi-year production contracts. During the past three years,worldwide production has dropped dramatically in response tothe lack of demand and the emptying of the supply chain.However, as we emerge from the GFC, it is importantthat we remember how painful it is when assets such as seedinventories and current production lose 30 percent, 50 percentor even 65 percent of their value. Such losses were typical duringthe 2008-2009 crop year. Remaining fiscally responsible andplanning with realistic sales and profit goals in mind will bethe mark of a forward-looking turf and forage seed business.Remaining well capitalized and taking measured and appropriaterisks should lead to success.When demand appears, we in the grass seed business areoften too quick to respond by putting in production acres,hoping we can take advantage of that increasing demand. Whilehope is a good attitude to maintain, the creation of realisticgrowth plans with profitability in mind is a better goal. PerhapsI should call my banker and take him to lunch.Mike Baker, General Manager, Pennington Seed, Inc. OregonDivision40 Seed World


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