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Chapter 25: The History of Life on Earth

Chapter 25: The History of Life on Earth

AP Biology Reading

AP Biology Reading GuideFred and ong>Theong>resa Holtzclawong>Chapterong> ong>25ong>: ong>Theong> ong>Historyong> ong>ofong> ong>Lifeong> on Earthong>25ong>. On the figure below, label Pangaea, Gondwana, and Laurasia.26. See if you can answer each ong>ofong> these short questions:a. What is the San Andreas Fault?b. What caused the uplift ong>ofong> the Himalayas?c. How can a fossil freshwater reptile be found in both Brazil and west Africa, areas separatedtoday by a wide expanse ong>ofong> ocean?d. Why are no eutherians (placental) mammals indigenous to Australia?27. A mass extinction is the loss ong>ofong> large numbers ong>ofong> species in a short period, caused by globalenvironmental changes. What caused the Permian mass extinction ong>25ong>0 million years ago(mya)? Summarize the species that were lost.Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. - 6 -

AP Biology Reading GuideFred and ong>Theong>resa Holtzclawong>Chapterong> ong>25ong>: ong>Theong> ong>Historyong> ong>ofong> ong>Lifeong> on Earth28. A second important mass extinction is the Cretaceous mass extinction that happened about 65mya. Everyone’s favorite group, the dinosaurs, was lost, along with more than half ong>ofong> allmarine species. What caused it?29. What are adaptive radiations?30. Why did a large-scale adaptive radiation occur after each mass extinction?Concept ong>25ong>.5 Major changes in body form can result from changes in the sequences and regulationong>ofong> developmental genes31. What two areas ong>ofong> biology are merged in the field ong>ofong> study commonly called evo-devo?32. What is an evolutionary change in the rate or timing ong>ofong> developmental events?33. Homeotic genes are master regulatory genes that determine the location and organization ong>ofong>body parts. Mutations in a homeotic gene can have a prong>ofong>ound effect on morphology.Homeotic gene mutations can contribute to the potential for evolutionary change. ong>Theong> Hoxgenes are one class ong>ofong> homeotic genes. What do they control?Concept ong>25ong>.6 Evolution is not goal oriented34. When a structure that has evolved in one context becomes co-opted for another purpose, thisevent is called ___________________.Testing Your Knowledge: Self-Quiz AnswersNow you should be ready to test your knowledge. Place your answers here:1. _________2._________3. _________4. _________5. _________6. __________7._________Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. - 7 -

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