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Migration is<br />

about people.<br />

Annual Report <strong>2015</strong>

Content<br />

Capacity Building<br />

02<br />

03<br />

06<br />

12<br />

17<br />

22<br />

24<br />

A Decisive Year<br />

Five Questions for the<br />

Director General<br />

Lessons from a Migration<br />

Policy Crisis<br />

Smuggling of Migrants<br />

How are the war in Syria<br />

and the refugee crisis affecting<br />

human trafficking?<br />

Valletta Summit on Migration<br />

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Projects <strong>2015</strong><br />

37<br />

40<br />

42<br />

44<br />

46<br />

International Protection: <strong>2015</strong>,<br />

a Turning Point for the Global<br />

and European Protection Regime?<br />

Human Trafficking: Balancing<br />

Protection and Prosecution<br />

Border Management: From<br />

Security to the Effective<br />

Management of Migration Flows<br />

Irregular Migration and Return:<br />

Ensuring Migrants’ Rights<br />

Legal Migration and Integration:<br />

Laying the Foundations<br />

48<br />

Migration & Development:<br />

Policy Coherence for Sustainable<br />

Development<br />

Research<br />

28<br />

Evidence and Reflection:<br />

Policies, Programmes and<br />

the Fundamentals of Forwardlooking<br />

Policies<br />

Dialogues<br />

51<br />

52<br />

Cross-Cutting<br />

Migrants in Countries in Crisis<br />

MIgration EU eXpertise<br />

(MIEUX) - Forging Global<br />

Migration Partnerships<br />

30<br />

32<br />

Budapest Process<br />

Prague Process<br />

Policy Development<br />

33<br />

34<br />

EUROMED Migration<br />

Rabat Process<br />

54<br />

Towards a New Migration<br />

Architecture<br />

35<br />

36<br />

Mediterranean Transit Migration<br />

Khartoum Process<br />

55<br />

Promoting Interdisciplinary<br />

Approach to Migration —<br />

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Summer Schools<br />

55<br />

Better Informed for<br />

Better Migration

<strong>ICMPD</strong><br />

in a nutshell<br />

General<br />

Founded by Austria and<br />

Switzerland in 1993<br />

15 member states<br />

Headquarters in Vienna<br />

19 locations worldwide<br />

Gender distribution of<br />

staff: 66% female and<br />

34% male<br />

Contracted project<br />

volume: 110.6 million<br />

Three Pillars of Work<br />

Research: Policy-relevant<br />

research, empirical<br />

research with a comparative,<br />

interdisciplinary, and<br />

international approach<br />

covering numerous<br />

migration-related topics<br />

Migration Dialogues:<br />

Support dialogue between<br />

Europe and its neighbours<br />

East (Budapest Process,<br />

Prague Process) and<br />

South (Rabat and<br />

Khartoum Process (MMD),<br />

as well as EUROMED)<br />

Capacity Building:<br />

Training, capacity building<br />

programmes, workshops,<br />

study visits, facilitation<br />

of international and interagency<br />

cooperation and<br />

support in institution<br />

building<br />

Six Main Thematic<br />

Areas of Expertise<br />

Asylum<br />

Border Management<br />

and Visa<br />

Irregular Migration<br />

and Return<br />

Legal Migration and<br />

Integration<br />

Migration and<br />

Development<br />

Trafficking in Human<br />


comprehensive, sustainable and<br />

future-oriented migration governance<br />

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Member States<br />

Austria<br />

since 1993<br />

Bosnia and<br />

Herzegovina<br />

since 2012<br />

Bulgaria<br />

since 2003<br />

Croatia<br />

since 2004<br />

Czech<br />

Republic<br />

since 2001<br />

Hungary<br />

since 1995<br />

The former<br />

Yugoslav<br />

Republic of<br />

Macedonia<br />

since <strong>2015</strong><br />

Poland<br />

since 2004<br />

Portugal<br />

since 2002<br />

Romania<br />

since 2011<br />

Serbia<br />

since 2011<br />

Slovakia<br />

since 2006<br />

Slovenia<br />

since 1998<br />

Sweden<br />

since 2002<br />

Switzerland<br />

since 1993<br />

This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSCR 1244/99<br />

and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo Declaration of Independence.

Migration is<br />

about people.<br />

Annual Report <strong>2015</strong>

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

2<br />

Acting DG <strong>2015</strong><br />

A Decisive Year<br />

Gabriela Abado, Acting Director General <strong>2015</strong><br />

In January <strong>2015</strong> few would have predicted that by the<br />

end of the year we will have witnessed the largest<br />

refugee flows since World War II. Roughly one million<br />

refugees, displaced persons, and irregular migrants<br />

had made their way to Europe across the Mediterranean<br />

and via the Balkans route and thousands had<br />

lost their lives. Europe’s migration architecture was<br />

subjected to an unprecedented stress test. Failing<br />

policies and instruments prompted crises mode actions<br />

with reactive and sometimes drastic mea sures<br />

as an immediate response to a non-controll able<br />

situation. The <strong>2015</strong>’s events also challenged <strong>ICMPD</strong>’s<br />

capacity to support our Member States with adequate<br />

and balanced policy responses. It will be a key element<br />

of our future strategy to contribute to a holistic<br />

European concept including credible and sustainable<br />

cooperation frameworks with countries of origin and<br />

transit. <strong>2015</strong> was also a decisive year for <strong>ICMPD</strong>’s<br />

organisational development. Member States decided<br />

on improvements in the regulatoy framework, agreed<br />

on a new membership contribution scale and<br />

elected a new Director General. With a strength en ed<br />

institutional base and a stable leadership <strong>ICMPD</strong> is well<br />

prepared to play its part in making migration better.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

3<br />

5 Questions to the DG<br />

Five Questions for<br />

the Director General<br />

1 What is your relationship to<br />

the topic of migration?<br />

In the course of my career, I built up ext ensive<br />

experience in international politics<br />

and mediating between parties with differing<br />

interests. This was the case through out<br />

my activity as a Member of the European<br />

Parliament, as the second President of<br />

the Austrian National Assembly and during<br />

my five-year tenure as the Minister of<br />

Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Austria.<br />

Few topics are more sensitive and potentially<br />

divisive at the national as international<br />

level than migration. At the same time,<br />

migration offers great positive potential<br />

for individuals and states alike. Today, it is<br />

a great privilege for me to be able to use<br />

my experience in politics and mediation<br />

in my new capacity as Director General<br />

of the International Centre for Migration<br />

Policy Development, and I see it as my<br />

personal objective to contribute to more<br />

cooperation and common understanding<br />

among states concerning migration issues.<br />

2 What is the scope of <strong>ICMPD</strong>’s<br />

work and efforts?<br />

Since its foundation in the early 1990s,<br />

<strong>ICMPD</strong> has worked on various aspects<br />

of migration, looking both at long, mid and<br />

short-term challenges. We always emphasise<br />

that migration is about people.<br />

When we speak about people, we un questionably<br />

speak about migrants and their<br />

human rights, but we also speak about<br />

the interests of people in desti na tion and<br />

transit countries. Migration policies can<br />

not be developed or even discussed without<br />

looking at the bigger, human picture.<br />

We always talk about people, their fates<br />

and how they are affected by migration.<br />

This broad approach towards migration<br />

also determines how we approach our<br />

work. We combine research, support to<br />

intergovernmental migration dialogues<br />

between Europe and its Eastern and<br />

Sout hern neighbours and technical<br />

cooperation and capacity building on<br />

all migration issues. This allows us to<br />

build up considerable expertise and<br />

advise our partners on basis of a sound<br />

academic, political AND operational<br />

understanding of migration.<br />

3 What are the main challenges<br />

of migration today?<br />

In my opinion there are four main<br />

challenges for Europe and its partners:<br />

Firstly, we need to regulate the movements,<br />

curb smuggling and trafficking of migrants<br />

and refugees, and provide safe and legal<br />

ways for them to find protection.<br />

Secondly, we have to ensure the proper<br />

functioning of the European protection<br />

system, including proper reception and<br />

return when needed. Without this, Europe<br />

will lose the trust of its citizens, and will<br />

not be able to provide protection to those<br />

in need.<br />

Thirdly, we need to guarantee that refugees<br />

who will stay in Europe have the rights and<br />

possibilities to integrate and participate,<br />

and that obligations of both the newlyarrived<br />

and the host society are clear.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

4<br />

5 Questions to the DG<br />

“Finally, it is crucial to develop a new<br />

European migration regime, defining<br />

what the objectives of our migration<br />

and protection systems are.<br />

Europe has to act in solidarity, with<br />

a clear distribution of responsibilities.”

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

5<br />

5 Questions to the DG<br />

Only through successful integration into<br />

the labour market and educational systems<br />

can migrants and host communities reap<br />

the full benefits of migration. This is also<br />

the key to preventing the radicalisation of<br />

disenfranchised youth.<br />

Finally, it is crucial to develop a new<br />

Euro pean migration regime, defining what<br />

the objectives of our migration and protec<br />

tion systems are. Europe has to act in<br />

solidarity, with a clear distribution of<br />

responsibilities.<br />

4 What will be your new point<br />

of emphasis for <strong>ICMPD</strong>?<br />

I want to strengthen <strong>ICMPD</strong> in two fields<br />

of action: firstly, we all know that in order<br />

to master the current situation we need to<br />

follow a holistic approach and the current<br />

situation requires comprehensive solutions.<br />

It is also clear that no country can<br />

shoulder these challenges on its own.<br />

Countries from all regions can and will<br />

succeed only by working together.<br />

However, as each country has to follow its<br />

national interests, it takes a neutral broker<br />

to bring forth change. A platform that can<br />

analyse, act and communicate beyond<br />

national interests and tomorrow’s news<br />

headlines. For this purpose, I would like to<br />

continue developing <strong>ICMPD</strong> in the future<br />

and offer its services to states and Europe.<br />

The international community needs a<br />

“dialogue and mediation” platform for<br />

migration; an organisation which understands<br />

the priorities and interests of<br />

countries of origin, transit and destination.<br />

This platform should also be able to break<br />

new ground, the needs for which are only<br />

just emerging. I am considering, for exam<br />

ple, the much-needed rectification of<br />

smuggler’s propaganda, or the role of the<br />

diaspora in information flows to countries<br />

of origin. <strong>ICMPD</strong> should offer a platform<br />

that does not shy away from discussing<br />

all essential issues, listening to the concerns<br />

of everyone involved,proposing concrete<br />

solutions and finding ways to break<br />

through deadlocked situations.<br />

Secondly, Europe needs to better prepare<br />

itself for future developments. It must<br />

suc ceed at recognising certain developments<br />

further ahead. The EU needs to<br />

move from the point of constant “reaction”<br />

to anti cipatory “acting”. This can only be<br />

done on the basis of solid evidence and<br />

analysis, and with a thorough under standing<br />

of all facets of migration. In this<br />

sense, I want to strengthen <strong>ICMPD</strong> as a<br />

think tank, which provides independent<br />

research on future developments of<br />

migration, linking policy and practice and<br />

moving from ideas to actions. This think<br />

tank will deal with issues that go beyond<br />

individual states and beyond the EU.<br />

Only the broadest possible perspective<br />

will reveal the large migration trends of<br />

the future. The think tank will develop<br />

sce nar ios and complete impact analyses.<br />

What would the conclu sion of certain<br />

agree ments lead to? What will the effect<br />

be on flows; what will the impact be on<br />

other countries? How can Europe prepare<br />

for environmental degradation or for<br />

political turmoil?<br />

5 What makes <strong>ICMPD</strong> unique?<br />

In addition to our aforementioned three<br />

pronged approach, <strong>ICMPD</strong>’s uniqueness<br />

comes for its staff. Their expertise and<br />

professionalism impressed me from the<br />

very start as DG. They combine commitment<br />

to making migration better with<br />

professionalism in their work with our<br />

partners. As migration is one of the most<br />

crucial issues for the international community,<br />

influencing the future of countries<br />

and individuals alike, it is these qualities<br />

which are needed and which you will find<br />

in <strong>ICMPD</strong>.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

6<br />

Editorial<br />

Lessons from<br />

a Migration<br />

Policy Crisis Martijn Pluim, Lukas Gehrke<br />

The surge in the number of refugees and migrants<br />

making their way to Europe in <strong>2015</strong> brought the<br />

weaknesses of the fragile European migration and<br />

protection system to the forefront and indeed led<br />

to a virtual collapse of some of its key components,<br />

such as the Dublin Regulation. This triggered a<br />

policy and political crisis within the European Union<br />

as Member States and the European Commission<br />

found themselves in disagreement over how to<br />

effectively handle the situation. Inadequate intrastate<br />

coordination and a series of unilateral responses<br />

led to an uncontrollable situation for migrants,<br />

refugees and states alike. The drowning of thousands<br />

of people along the Mediterranean coasts, the<br />

erection of fences, as well as the temp orary rein troduction<br />

of border controls are all telling examples<br />

of the failure to develop a European set of policies<br />

ensuring adequate protection for refugees and a<br />

sustainable comprehensive migration system ready<br />

for the future migration realities.<br />

While the EU could have been expected to have the<br />

capacity to protect and integrate arriving migrants<br />

and refugees accounting for 0.1% of its population,<br />

the events in <strong>2015</strong> showed that the existing migration<br />

and protection system left countries unprepared<br />

to cope with the dramatic increase in the number of<br />

people transiting along the Mediterranean and<br />

Western Balkan routes, while placing an unequal<br />

level of responsibility on a few final destination<br />

countries as well as several states along the EU’s<br />

outer borders. The necessary reform of the European<br />

migration and protection system started to a certain<br />

extent already in <strong>2015</strong>, and will definitely continue<br />

in 2016. <strong>ICMPD</strong> will lend its active support to this<br />

process by contributing to and commenting on the<br />

various proposals being made.<br />

While the migratory flows to Europe are diverse and<br />

heterogeneous, the spike in refugee numbers is first<br />

and foremost a result of conflict rather than economic<br />

precarity. Whether it’s the war in Syria and parts of<br />

Iraq, the violent instability in Afghanistan and Libya,<br />

or indefinite military conscription in Eritrea – forced<br />

migration accounted for a large portion of the overall<br />

migratory flows.<br />

The current critical situation, however, is not only<br />

linked to the spike in the number of people displaced<br />

by conflict, but also reveals what happens when<br />

migration policies are not aligned with the economic,<br />

demographic, and social realities of today’s world.<br />

The lack of legal migration avenues, for example,<br />

pushed economic migrants to overburden the European<br />

protection system with asylum claims in order<br />

to be able to stay. With the spike in the arrival of<br />

refugees in <strong>2015</strong>, the existing migration structures<br />

broke down, unable to handle a critical situation they<br />

were not designed to withstand.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

7<br />

Editorial<br />

People smugglers profited immensely from the<br />

dramatic developments in <strong>2015</strong>, taking advantage<br />

of the absence of legal and regular migration<br />

chan nels to put migrants and refugees at risk.<br />

Combating smuggling has therefore been high on<br />

the EU’s migration agenda, particularly after the<br />

tragic death of seventy-one persons in an abandoned<br />

lorry in Austria. As is shown in this report,<br />

smuggling is facilitated by a network of ‘specialised<br />

service providers’, which demands a very targeted<br />

and differentiated law enforcement approach.<br />

At the same time, we should recognise that smugglers<br />

profit from the lack of alternative safe routes<br />

to protection, as well as from ever tighter border<br />

controls. Providing safe and legal migration pathways<br />

to Europe is therefore essential to prevent<br />

smuggling.<br />

Both delivering protection to those who need it and<br />

fighting irregular migration hinge on European unity<br />

and interregional cooperation. Coming up with a<br />

European-level solution is essential in order to regain<br />

control over migratory movements to Europe that<br />

would protect refugees, manage migration in an<br />

orderly manner, and safeguard freedom of movement<br />

within the Schengen zone. However, a strengthened<br />

European approach alone will not be sufficient.<br />

Targeted bi-lateral and multilateral cooperation as<br />

well as migration dialogues are essential tools to<br />

achieve better international migration governance.<br />

Strengthening International<br />

Solidarity<br />

The deepening political crisis within the EU has at<br />

times overshadowed the immense responsibility<br />

carried by transit countries along the current migration<br />

routes to Europe. While the EU asylum system may<br />

be under strain, Syria’s neighbouring countries have,<br />

since the beginning of the conflict, welcomed far<br />

larger numbers of refugees with 4.5 million refugees<br />

spread out across Jordan, Lebanon, Turkey, Iraq,<br />

and Egypt. These countries have been confronted<br />

with the Syrian refugee crisis to a much greater<br />

extent, over a longer period of time, and with more<br />

limited resources and humanitarian capacities. For<br />

transit countries most affected by the on-going influx<br />

of refugees, the crisis did not start in <strong>2015</strong>. Europe’s<br />

neighbours in the Mediterranean and the Middle<br />

East have been bearing the brunt of conflict-induced<br />

displacement for a number of years with limited<br />

assistance and insufficient opportunities for the<br />

displaced population.<br />

It is becoming increasingly clear that stepping up<br />

international assistance to countries hosting migrants<br />

and refugees in the region is a key part of the solution<br />

to the current situation. Guiding principle, in this regard<br />

should be that the eventual mid to long-term return<br />

of the displaced population forced out of their homes<br />

while offering humane and decent living oppor tunities<br />

is as important as taking the concerns of host communities<br />

seriously.<br />

Therefore, European migration policies need to take<br />

a truly regional and comprehensive approach. This<br />

is why <strong>ICMPD</strong> is working with all countries along key<br />

migration routes. Due to our active and close cooper<br />

ation with countries of origin, transit, and desti nation,<br />

<strong>ICMPD</strong> acts as a bridge and knowledge broker<br />

between Europe, its southern and eastern neighbours,<br />

and beyond, in developing interregional migration<br />

policies based on good existing practices.<br />

<strong>ICMPD</strong> has been at the forefront of providing evidencebased<br />

support to countries in the region, for example<br />

through our close cooperation with Turkish migration<br />

authorities in elaborating a development-sensitive<br />

and coherent migration policy. More broadly, <strong>ICMPD</strong><br />

has engaged with countries along major migration<br />

routes through a series of dialogues and partnerships<br />

based on information exchange throughout the<br />

Mediterranean, West and East Africa, as well as<br />

the Middle East. As part of our efforts to understand<br />

the long-reaching effects of the Syria conflict and<br />

the resulting flight from the country, we completed a<br />

groundbreaking research project on the impact of the<br />

Syrian crisis on trafficking in persons across the<br />

entire region. With these and other projects, <strong>ICMPD</strong><br />

strives to demonstrate the importance of close<br />

cooperation with transit countries in addressing the<br />

full spectrum of issues related to displacement,<br />

mobility, and vulnerability.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

8<br />

Editorial<br />

“It is becoming increasingly clear that<br />

stepping up international assistance to<br />

countries hosting migrants and refugees<br />

in the region is a key part of the solution<br />

to the current situation.”<br />

Regional Dialogues<br />

for Better Migration<br />

Beyond providing assistance in coping with the<br />

immediate effects of the current crisis, it is also<br />

imperative to simultaneously develop coherent<br />

policies for the long term as part of a new common<br />

migration regime tailored for the future. Past policy<br />

failures clearly show a need for more cohesion and<br />

dialogue on an intra-governmental level between<br />

source, transit, and destination countries. In addition<br />

to our existing role in supporting cross-regional<br />

migration dialogues dealing with migration issues<br />

such as the Prague, Budapest, Rabat, and Khartoum<br />

Processes and the Euromed project, <strong>ICMPD</strong> reasserted<br />

itself as a facilitator between Africa and the<br />

EU at the <strong>2015</strong> Valetta Summit, taking on the task<br />

of translating policy into practice through a variety<br />

of projects in the region. <strong>ICMPD</strong>’s work in the region<br />

focuses on promoting mobility within and between<br />

Africa and Europe, fighting smuggling and trafficking<br />

in human beings and helping migration act as a<br />

catalyst for socio-economic development through<br />

diaspora engagement.<br />

While taking into account the humanitarian needs<br />

of transit countries and the EU’s push for orderly<br />

migration, expanding access to legal migration<br />

channels remains an important issue for source<br />

countries who face youth unemployment and poor<br />

living conditions. In the long run, any successful<br />

migration policy needs to prevent irregular migration<br />

and strengthen alternatives allowing for safe, legal<br />

and voluntary migration.<br />

Fruitful cooperation with transit countries and countries<br />

of origin can only be based on mutual trust and<br />

a shared understanding of the challenges and opportunities<br />

related to migration. This involves taking into<br />

consideration the needs of source countries that<br />

have a vested interest in moving towards a sus tainable<br />

migration regime that utilises migration as an<br />

instrument for development while fighting against<br />

different forms of irregular migration and organised<br />

crime. Such an approach requires looking at migration<br />

as part of a wider developmental process that fits<br />

into a larger global trend and should be aligned with<br />

the UN’s sustainable development target of providing<br />

for orderly and well-managed migration.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

9<br />

Editorial<br />

“In order to effectively manage migration<br />

today, it is crucial to understand how<br />

orderly migration can have a positive<br />

impact on both sending and receiving<br />

societies in the future.”<br />

Anticipating Migration<br />

Challenges of the Future<br />

In order to effectively manage migration today, it is<br />

crucial to understand how orderly migration can have<br />

a positive impact on both sending and receiving<br />

societies in the future. At <strong>ICMPD</strong> we are firmly ded i-<br />

cated to providing countries and societies with the<br />

knowledge and tools to adequately integrate migration<br />

into their long-term economic, social, and demographic<br />

strategies. This is a particularly urgent task<br />

given the projected regional demographic, eco nomic,<br />

and social changes, including a sharp decline in<br />

Europe’s working age population in the decades to<br />

come. Given the increased availability of both infor mation<br />

and resources for a large number of ambitious<br />

young people in regions bordering Europe, states<br />

need to prepare both their migrations systems and<br />

their populations by designing comprehensive migration<br />

policies and practices adapted for the future.<br />

This is the only viable alternative to having the smugglers<br />

decide who gets to come.<br />

It is important to keep in mind that migration is part<br />

and parcel of a megatrend of global mobility that is<br />

not confined to a specific geographical area.<br />

Iden tifying complementarities between the needs<br />

of source, transit, and destination countries is the<br />

key to a successful future-oriented migration policy.<br />

When properly managed, migration can be mutually<br />

beneficial for countries facing a myriad of challenges<br />

ranging from youth unemployment and labour mismatch<br />

to aging populations and welfare systems<br />

under stress. As an organisation, <strong>ICMPD</strong> places particular<br />

emphasis on preparing countries and societies<br />

for mid to long-term changes related to migration<br />

with a broad set of tools, experience, and knowledge<br />

at our disposal.<br />

Most importantly, out of the migration policy crisis<br />

in <strong>2015</strong> comes a reinvigorated European and global<br />

understanding of the urgent need for a holistic<br />

approach to migration based on evidence-based<br />

policies and close partnerships bolstered by a sense<br />

of shared responsibility. Addressing the immediate<br />

concerns of refugees and asylum seekers seeking<br />

safety must go hand in hand with developing a more<br />

comprehensive future-oriented legal migration<br />

regime. Migration does not need to be a ‘problem’,<br />

but rather represents a series of opportunities and<br />

challenges that need to be effectively managed on<br />

an international level.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

10<br />

Global Facts<br />

and Figures<br />



refugees, asylum seekers,<br />

returnees (refugees and internally<br />

displaced people), stateless<br />

people, others of concern<br />

2002<br />





1965<br />

2,3%<br />

22million<br />

JUNE 2016<br />

65.3million<br />

1990<br />

2,9%<br />

(21.3 million refugees;<br />

40.8 million internally displaced;<br />

3.2 million asylum seekers.)<br />

60<br />

<strong>2015</strong><br />

3,3%<br />

40<br />

2002<br />

June 2016<br />

20<br />

0<br />

Source: UNHCR<br />

Global Appeal<br />

2016-2017<br />

Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social<br />

Affairs, Population Division (2016). International Migration<br />

Report <strong>2015</strong>: Highlights (ST/ESA/SER.A/375).

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

11<br />





Sources: The World Bank:<br />

Migration and Development Brief,<br />

April 13, <strong>2015</strong>; OECD – DAC,<br />

The global picture of Official<br />

Development Assistance (ODA)<br />

137billion USD<br />

Official Development<br />

Assistance<br />

440billion USD<br />

Remittances to<br />

Developing Countries

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

12<br />

In Focus <strong>2015</strong><br />

Smuggling of Migrants<br />

Policies, Programmes, and<br />

Operational Responses<br />

No matter the political stance of countries of origin,<br />

transit, or destination of irregular migration, policymakers<br />

and officials involved in migration issues must<br />

be provided an accurate and up-to-date picture of<br />

how migrant smuggling is operating. This is especially<br />

relevant when pictures of a drowned Syrian child<br />

washed up on a beach or a lorry filled with the corpses<br />

of seventy-one migrants is displayed on news<br />

media throughout the world. People want answers<br />

as to why irregular migration has become so dangerous;<br />

why it is taking such a human toll, and what can<br />

be done to better secure and regulate migrant flows<br />

while engendering safety for those involved.<br />

Government officials also need precise information<br />

for the enactment of more effective legislation and<br />

improvement of law enforcement. In a time when<br />

both national and EU officials are overwhelmed with<br />

a much-increased flow of irregular migration due to<br />

civil and economic strife in countries of origin, those<br />

who are the most informed are best positioned to<br />

create lasting and effective policy.<br />

In <strong>2015</strong>, <strong>ICMPD</strong> was an integral part of the six-month<br />

‘Study on smuggling of migrants – characteristics,<br />

responses and cooperation with third countries’ (EC,<br />

DG Migration & Home Affairs (<strong>2015</strong>)). The consortium,<br />

which was led by Optimity Advisors and also included<br />

ECRE as a partner, collected information on irregular<br />

migration routes, migrant smuggling networks, the<br />

effects of national deterrent measures, the increased<br />

risks taken by migrants, and essentially how migrant<br />

smuggling is practiced now. During the course of the<br />

study, <strong>ICMPD</strong> researchers found that much of the<br />

conventional wisdom on migrant smuggling is actually<br />

out-dated and/or based on misperceptions.<br />

They dis cov ered this through performing interviews<br />

with mi grants in their arrival country, migrants in<br />

transit, and in countries of departure. They also<br />

collected data from members of migrant smuggling<br />

networks who told researchers their stories. The<br />

culminating report sheds light on current migrant<br />

smuggling pro cesses as well as how these networks<br />

are affected by deter rence measures, and reveals<br />

reasons why irregular migration has become more<br />

dangerous for part i cipants.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

13<br />

In Focus <strong>2015</strong><br />

The legal definition of migrant smuggling is the paid<br />

facilitation of a migrant’s crossing of a national bor der<br />

illegally. This includes, among other things, driving<br />

people across a border (drivers), providing a map<br />

and set of directions for crossing on foot (guides),<br />

arrang ing and/or captaining a boat journey (skippers),<br />

or being paid to house an irregular migrant to facilitate<br />

his or her crossing. Often it is still believed that<br />

migrant smuggling and human trafficking are one<br />

and the same, but this is a misperception.<br />

Human trafficking is about recruiting and transferring<br />

humans into exploitation. In the business of migrant<br />

smuggling, migrants are not victims from the outset<br />

but human clients, paying for a service. However,<br />

many still believe that migrant smuggling and human<br />

trafficking practices share the same networks, and<br />

the smuggling study found that this is not necessarily<br />

the case. The researchers observed that migrant<br />

Relationships between different actors in migrant<br />

smuggling networks (Source: Optimity Advisors)<br />

smuggling is commonly practiced in a more horizontal<br />

framework (rather than vertically organised), with smugglers<br />

competing or cooperating together to provide<br />

services for different portions of the route. Usually,<br />

these services do involve a ‘manager’ or ‘coordi na tors’<br />

that ensure the crossing at a particular section of the<br />

route functions well, but there is no one individual or<br />

one organisation controlling the entire migration process<br />

of an individual migrant.<br />

The idea that an irregular migrant pays one organization<br />

a lump sum in their country of origin or departure to<br />

get them from a country of origin to a country of des tination<br />

is not the rule. Rather, migrants use services<br />

of several smuggling networks or individual facil itators<br />

along their way.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

14<br />

In Focus <strong>2015</strong><br />

“Everything that is needed to run a travel<br />

business is mirrored in the illegal travel industry –<br />

agents, bookers, guides, drivers,<br />

accommodation providers, document providers,<br />

advertisements, warranties, group packages,<br />

luxury and backpacker tours, you name it.<br />

All these elements need to be addressed to<br />

tackle migrant smuggling more effectively.”<br />

Martin Hofmann on the business<br />

As the report shows, migrant smuggling functions as<br />

essentially an ‘illegal travel industry’ with each contact<br />

a link in the chain. Much like other industries, when<br />

the demand for services raised sharply, the migrant<br />

smuggling industry had growing pains in accommodating<br />

such an increase.<br />

Overall, the networks became increasingly unsafe as,<br />

without regulation, unprofessional smugglers began<br />

offering their services. Via sea routes, this meant<br />

overloading boats with migrants who had been sold<br />

‘life-vests’ filled with sponges instead of buoyant<br />

material. If the irregular migrant chooses a land route<br />

it appears safer, as these routes do not necessarily<br />

require the smuggler to endanger his or her clients<br />

in order to accommodate the increasing demand<br />

for services. Nevertheless, there are still a number<br />

of risks and difficulties, as the aforementioned lorry<br />

tragedy illustrates, because the increasing number<br />

of unprofessional land route smugglers leads to more<br />

negligent practices.<br />

Traditionally, a migrant smuggler’s reputation and<br />

livelihood depended on the safety and efficiency of<br />

his or her services. The irregular migrant enters into<br />

an agreement with the migrant smuggler and once<br />

the border has been safely crossed and the migrant<br />

reaches a pre-determined destination, evidence of<br />

the safe arrival would be sent to the smuggler along<br />

with payment for services rendered. Many migrant<br />

smugglers would offer a type of guarantee, agreeing<br />

that if the migrant was sent back, the smuggler<br />

would help him or her attempt the border crossing<br />

again. However, due to the enormous demand many<br />

of the less-professional smugglers now do not<br />

only not offer guarantees, they also ask for payment<br />

before the service has been provided and many<br />

migrants do not have enough money to hire an<br />

experienced professional. Invariably, if a smuggler<br />

has clients die, it ruins his or her reputation within<br />

their respective network, but this is migrant smug -<br />

gling self-regulation at its most bare and grim and<br />

highlights how dangerous the irregular migrant’s<br />

journey has become. The smuggling report suggests<br />

that, without effective national and international<br />

policies and measures that both regulate the flow<br />

of irregular migration and enforce appropriate legal<br />

action on migrant smugglers, this situation will<br />

continue to worsen.<br />

Though historically their courses haven’t changed,<br />

migration routes used by migrant smugglers are not<br />

as simple as one may think after seeing images and<br />

video in the news media last year of large groups<br />

of irregular migrants crossing a field or collecting at<br />

a certain border or transit point. Irregular migration<br />

routes are actually complex, various, and spread out,<br />

with multiple options, like a large urban city map.<br />

If a segment of a route is affected by control measures,<br />

then the smuggling network adjusts and re- routes<br />

itself. However, the effect on the region shows at certain<br />

transit points and borders the system becomes<br />

congested as the smuggling network corrects itself.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

15<br />

In Focus <strong>2015</strong><br />

“A good analogy for how migrant smuggling<br />

routes work is a city metro or underground<br />

system. To get to their destination, travellers<br />

first get information on the best way to get there,<br />

then enter at any point on an underground line,<br />

change lines at major stations or ‘hubs’ if<br />

necessary, and/or get out when there is a line<br />

closure to take another form of transport –<br />

taxis, bus etc. or walk.” Veronika Bilger on routes<br />

One may describe the collection of these segments<br />

as a main route – and thus the report was aptly<br />

timed as it was conducted right in the middle of such<br />

a shift from the Central Mediterranean segment of<br />

a main route (through Turkey) to the Balkan segment<br />

of the route. The first signs that this shift would be<br />

major appeared in early July <strong>2015</strong> as a consequence<br />

of the introduction of visa requirements for Syrians<br />

in some Arab countries along the route to Libya and<br />

the understandable desire of smugglers’ clients to<br />

avoid crossing the Mediterranean once the huge<br />

numbers of deaths at sea during spring <strong>2015</strong> had<br />

made obvious how dangerous such a journey actually<br />

was. Ultimately, it was both surprising and informative<br />

that this giant, non-integrated migrant smuggling<br />

network was able to adapt within one month.<br />

In many cases control measures have almost immediate<br />

impacts on smuggling operations and irregular<br />

migration flows. Physical control measures reduce<br />

migrant smuggling on respective border sections,<br />

leading to displacement effects or route changes.<br />

Changes in transit, entry and residence regulations<br />

also require changes in modus operandi on the<br />

smugglers’ side to or away from a given country.<br />

Tighter controls and high document security standards<br />

can completely curb a modus operandi.<br />

However, the majority of control measures focus on<br />

the national level and are not fully coordinated and<br />

aligned between countries along smuggling routes<br />

and regions. This allows for circumventing such<br />

obstacles and for developing alternative routes or<br />

modus operandi. Enhanced cooperation between<br />

countries is crucial, however, to effectively regulate<br />

the current irregular migration flow and improve law<br />

enforcement on migrant smugglers. Policymakers<br />

must also take into account the technological advancements<br />

in how irregular migration is occuring.<br />

One of the more revealing discoveries <strong>ICMPD</strong> made<br />

through the course of the study was how much the<br />

use of current technology has changed both migrant<br />

smuggling processes and irregular migration in gener<br />

al. Ten years ago, the migrant smuggler controlled<br />

the migrant’s access to information to the extent that<br />

they would often take their client’s cell phone, only<br />

to be returned after the border was safely crossed, in<br />

order to make the migrant dependent and to prevent<br />

him or her from giving away information to the outside<br />

world that would endanger the carrying out of smuggling<br />

operations. With the advent of smartphones,<br />

this practice no longer enters the conversation.<br />

In fact, some smugglers even plan out a route for<br />

their client that depends on the migrant’s use of his<br />

or her smartphone’s GPS to find pre-designated<br />

locations on segments of the route. An irregular migrant<br />

may also use his or her smartphone to plan<br />

out segments of their journey in countries of transit,<br />

making real-time adjustments (for example, immediate<br />

access to train and bus timetables/schedules),<br />

and – most importantly – share and analyse realtime<br />

information with thousands of other migrants<br />

in communication networks.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

16<br />

In Focus <strong>2015</strong><br />

The advent of the smartphone is not the only tech nological<br />

advancement used in current irregular migration<br />

practices; social media networks and online<br />

for ums also play an important role in the migrant’s<br />

access to information and ability to search for smuggling<br />

services, find updates on situations and po tential<br />

problems at central points and border areas, and<br />

communicate safe passage. For example, an irregular<br />

migrant may post a photo on social media of his or<br />

herself in front of an iconic landmark in a country of<br />

destination, providing proof of safe arrival and trigger<br />

ing payment to the smuggler, depending on their<br />

specific arrangement.<br />

After witnessing the aforementioned uses of current,<br />

readily available technology by migrant smuggling<br />

service providers and clients, it is not surprising that<br />

migrant smuggling networks have been able to<br />

rapidly adapt to national regulatory and containment<br />

measures, as the route segment shift showed in<br />

summer of <strong>2015</strong>. <strong>ICMPD</strong> suggests that countries of<br />

origin, transit, and destination develop innovative<br />

and even-handed cooperation practices if they wish<br />

to effectively address migrant smuggling networks.<br />

Countries need to realise that irregular migration in<br />

general and migrant smuggling in particular is a distinct<br />

way of moving.<br />

Migrant smuggling essentially compensates lacking<br />

legal pathways. If countries do not take control over<br />

legal migration, and allow for a more diverse group<br />

of people arriving, it will be the smugglers who will<br />

define who comes.<br />

In conclusion, the findings of the <strong>2015</strong> migrant smuggling<br />

study are vital for understanding how migrant<br />

smuggling networks currently operate and the dangers<br />

irregular migrants face in a time of over whelming<br />

demand for smugglers’ services. Having accurate<br />

data on which to base policy decisions not only provides<br />

<strong>ICMPD</strong> member states with the tools for law<br />

enforcement and regulation of illegal migrant smuggling<br />

activities as well as assists policymakers in<br />

drafting effective regulatory measures, it also helps<br />

answer the questions posed by the sometimes<br />

tragic and deadly result of an overloaded and illegal<br />

service industry.<br />

“Facebook, WhatsApp and Viber, have changed<br />

the way migrants send and receive information,<br />

and have multiplied the speed of information<br />

dissemination. Migrants are able to contact<br />

smugglers through social media platforms, tell<br />

each other to avoid unscrupulous smugglers,<br />

and share information on the best routes,<br />

prices, and their successful arrival at a destination.<br />

They can decide next steps, including changing a<br />

route, immediately based on real-time information<br />

from others along the route.” Maegan Hendow on social media

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

17<br />

In Focus <strong>2015</strong><br />

How are the War in<br />

Syria and the Refugee<br />

Crisis Affecting Human<br />

Trafficking? Claire Healy<br />

Often people are trafficked or exploited<br />

because they are not able to meet their<br />

basic needs<br />

Violence in Syria has been driving children, women<br />

and men from their homes for almost five years now.<br />

<strong>ICMPD</strong>’s new research study looks at the vulnerability<br />

of displaced Syrian people to trafficking in<br />

persons. The research found that people are often<br />

trafficked or exploited because they are not able<br />

to meet their basic needs. This is exacerbated by<br />

com plications in relation to legal residence status<br />

in host countries and legal authorisation to work.<br />

While some trafficking is committed by highly organised<br />

criminal networks, the most common type of<br />

exploitation is at a lower level, involving fathers,<br />

mothers, husbands, extended family, acquaintances<br />

and neighbours. The context of general vulnerability<br />

means that there are often factors that leave families<br />

with no viable alternative for survival other than sit u-<br />

ations that could be defined as exploitation and<br />

trafficking in national and international law.<br />

We therefore need a paradigm shift in how trafficking,<br />

refugee, migration and child protection policy<br />

are viewed in terms of access to protection. While<br />

policy-makers and practitioners might see themselves<br />

as working in distinct fields, on specific<br />

topics, the human beings in need of protection do<br />

not always fall under one single, clear-cut category.<br />

We must concentrate efforts to provide access to<br />

basic needs and safety for people displaced from<br />

and within Syria.<br />

A new study, Targeting Vulnerabilities,<br />

examines the war’s impact on trafficking<br />

in Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq<br />

The study Targeting Vulnerabilities assesses the<br />

effects of the Syrian War and refugee crisis on trafficking<br />

in persons (TIP) in Syria and the surrounding<br />

region. The study applies an interdisciplinary methodology,<br />

combining primary research in the field with<br />

secondary desk research and remote consultations,<br />

as well as analysing qualitative and quantitative<br />

sources. The country research findings, together<br />

with regional desk research, were compiled and<br />

analysed for the study.<br />

Four of Syria’s neighbouring states — Turkey,<br />

Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq — are the most important<br />

hosting countries worldwide for refugees from the<br />

war-torn country. Together they host 85% of Syria’s<br />

registered refugees and asylum applicants abroad.<br />

According to Eurostat data, 670,000 Syrians sought<br />

asylum in Europe from April 2011 to March 2016, with<br />

147,000 in Egypt and other North African countries,<br />

giving an overall total of 5,506,000 Syrian refugees.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

18<br />

In Focus <strong>2015</strong><br />




Sources: UNHCR; Eurostat.<br />

Does not include Syrians awaiting<br />

registration and resettled<br />

refugees. EU figures 2011-1st<br />

Quarter of 2016 inclusive.<br />

1%<br />

2%<br />

4%<br />

12%<br />

19%<br />

12%<br />

50%<br />

Turkey<br />

Lebanon<br />

Jordan<br />

Iraq<br />

Egypt<br />

North Africa<br />

(other than Egypt)<br />

All 28 EU MS<br />

None of the four hosting countries apply the 1951 UN<br />

Convention definition of a refugee to those fleeing<br />

the war in Syria. This means that people fleeing Syria<br />

are subject to specific ad hoc regulations issued<br />

prior to and since the outbreak of the war and the<br />

beginning of the forced migration movement. On the<br />

other hand, Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq<br />

have all ratified the 2000 UN Trafficking Protocol and<br />

passed legislation criminalising human trafficking.<br />

The majority of displaced Syrians are not<br />

living in camps<br />

In Syria, just 26% of internally displaced people (IDPs)<br />

are in camps. Similarly, in all of the four hosting countries,<br />

the majority of Syrians are living outside of<br />

official refugee camps, among host communities.<br />

Lebanon has not authorised the setting up of any<br />

official refugee camps for Syrians, while in Iraq the<br />

proportion is 39%, in Jordan 21% and in Turkey 10%<br />

of all registered refugees. This affects refugees’ and<br />

IDPs’ access to essential humanitarian aid and other<br />

services like education, accommodation, vocational<br />

training and healthcare. Host communities have also<br />

been affected by the war and displacement, particularly<br />

the areas within each of the countries that have<br />

received higher proportions of IDPs and refugees.<br />

People are vulnerable because of the war<br />

and violence itself, but also because of the<br />

legal and institutional systems that they<br />

must navigate<br />

The violence that has characterised many parts of<br />

Syria since 2011, and certain areas within Iraq since<br />

mid-2014, has affected people in those territories<br />

and those who have fled abroad in a myriad of ways.<br />

The complexity of their situations is influenced by<br />

the war and violence itself, but also by the legal and<br />

institutional systems that they must navigate within<br />

Syria and in the four hosting countries in order to<br />

maintain a legal status, seek employment and generate<br />

income, access humanitarian aid and public<br />

services, and seek legal redress if they are victims<br />

of abuse.<br />

The desperation of some of these people, who cannot<br />

provide for sustenance, accommodation and<br />

essential services for themselves and their families,<br />

can lead to them exploiting members of their own<br />

families. Nevertheless, not all exploiters and traffickers<br />

in this context are themselves in a situation<br />

of vulnerability, as others exploit and traffic vulnerable<br />

people as a form of war profiteering. In addition,<br />

a multitude of child protection issues arise in the<br />

context of the conflict and the refugee crisis, particularly<br />

children remaining out of school and not<br />

having birth registration, placing them more at risk<br />

of being trafficked.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

19<br />

In Focus <strong>2015</strong><br />

General Vulnerabilities arising from Syrian War<br />

Humanitarian<br />

situation<br />

Legal status<br />

Lack of migration<br />

alternatives<br />

Child protection incl. child<br />

labour + early marriages<br />

Vulnerability to trafficking in persons<br />

Discrimination + sexual<br />

and gender-based violence<br />

Impoverishment<br />

Lack of income<br />

Survival sex + other<br />

in-kind transactions<br />

Gaps in antitrafficking<br />

response<br />

Poor working<br />

conditions<br />

Lack of access to<br />

services<br />

Desperation of some<br />

exploiters<br />

Impact on host<br />

communities<br />

Trafficking cases<br />

Armed Conflict<br />

Domestic Servitude<br />

Sexual Exploitation<br />

Forced Marriage<br />

Labour Exploitation<br />

The war and displacement have also caused added<br />

vulnerability for migrants and refugees whose situation<br />

was already precarious prior to 2011 and who<br />

were in Syria when the war broke out, including: Palestinian<br />

refugees from Syria; Iraqi refugees; Stateless<br />

people; Refugees of other origins, particularly from<br />

Afghanistan, Sudan and Somalia; and migrant domes<br />

tic workers from South and Southeast Asia and<br />

East Africa.<br />

A risk is that internal movement facilitation<br />

or migrant smuggling can develop into<br />

trafficking in persons<br />

Some refugees and displaced people have started to<br />

move on to countries outside the region, particularly<br />

EU Member States. While they are still within the five<br />

countries under study, the need to pay substantial<br />

sums of money - and possibly become indebted - to<br />

facilitators of internal movement and migrant smugglers<br />

is causing people to resort to risky methods of<br />

obtaining that money, rendering them vulnerable to<br />

trafficking. One major risk is that a situation of internal<br />

movement facilitation or migrant smuggling can de velop<br />

into one of trafficking in persons.<br />

There is no significant increase in the<br />

identification of trafficked people by the<br />

authorities<br />

The effects of the war and refugee crisis, placing people<br />

in a situation of increased vulnerability to trafficking<br />

in persons, have in some cases resulted in actual<br />

trafficking cases. This has not, manifested itself in a<br />

significant increase in the identification by the authorities<br />

of trafficking related to the war and refugee crisis.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

20<br />

In Focus <strong>2015</strong><br />

“… but the most common type of exploitation is<br />

at a lower level, involving fathers, mothers,<br />

husbands, extended family, acquaintances and<br />

neighbours.”<br />

People officially identified as trafficked in the countries<br />

under study since 2011 are mainly from Syria,<br />

North Africa, South and Southeast Asia and Eastern<br />

Europe. Also, in Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq,<br />

national citizens were identified as trafficked internally.<br />

Most of the trafficking routes originating outside<br />

of the region continued largely unaffected by<br />

the Syrian War.<br />

The research shows that the five countries under<br />

study have made significant efforts to respond to<br />

the displacement of IDPs and refugees. However,<br />

the incidence of trafficking in persons, and the<br />

nature and extent of vulnerabilities to trafficking,<br />

have been affected in a number of ways. These<br />

effects are partly related to the sheer magnitude<br />

of the displacement and partly to the legal, policy,<br />

infrastructural, security and socio-economic<br />

contexts in these five countries.<br />

The most common type of exploitation involves<br />

family members, acquaintances and neighbours.<br />

The classic organised crime paradigm commonly<br />

used for understanding trafficking does not fit<br />

neatly onto the actual situation of people trafficked<br />

or vulnerable to trafficking in the context of the<br />

Syrian conflict. Very severe forms of exploitation<br />

and trafficking are indeed taking place, committed<br />

by highly organised criminal networks, but the<br />

most common type of exploitation is at a lower<br />

level, involving fathers, mothers, husbands,<br />

extended family, acquaintances and neighbours.<br />

Child labour and child begging have been affected<br />

in the sense that conditions have become more<br />

severe, with more serious abuses of children’s rights.<br />

The incidence of these phenomena has also<br />

increased overall.<br />

In most of the cases revealed through this re s earch,<br />

trafficking is not a cross-border phenomenon re lat ed<br />

to the migratory movement itself, though cross-border<br />

trafficking is present in some cases.<br />

In gen eral, the forms of trafficking in evidence target<br />

the vulnerabilities caused by displacement post facto,<br />

with the trafficking process beginning when IDPs<br />

and refugees are already among host communities.<br />

Some forms of trafficking have emerged that are<br />

directly related to the war. This is the case for trafficking<br />

by Da’ish (ISIS) for sexual slavery, forced<br />

marriage and exploitation in armed conflict; and<br />

forced marriage and exploitation in armed conflict<br />

by other parties in the Syrian war. Nevertheless,<br />

not all forms of human trafficking have been influenced<br />

by the Syrian crisis. Indeed, the trafficking of<br />

migrants — most of them women — for exploitation<br />

in domestic servitude continues, and was only<br />

marginally affected by the refugee crisis in host<br />

countries. Even within Syria, since the start of the<br />

conflict in 2011, some migrant workers continue<br />

to be exploited in domestic servitude.<br />

Worsening forms of child labour, child trafficking for<br />

labour exploitation, exploitation through begging,<br />

and trafficking for sexual exploitation affected peo -<br />

ple in the countries under study before the war, but<br />

have now increased among Syrians. Particularly in<br />

the case of sexual exploitation, a certain replacement<br />

effect is in evidence, with Syrian women and<br />

girls exploited in prostitution, where before people<br />

trafficked for this purpose were of other nationalities.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

21<br />

In Focus <strong>2015</strong><br />

The primary focus is prevention<br />

of trafficking<br />

Because anti-trafficking capacities are significantly<br />

affected by the ongoing war and related conflicts in<br />

Syria and Iraq, and because the hosting countries<br />

are overwhelmed with the arrival of large groups of<br />

people fleeing Syria, <strong>ICMPD</strong>’s recommendations<br />

primarily address vulnerabilities to trafficking. The<br />

primary focus is therefore prevention of trafficking.<br />

However, the protection of trafficked people and the<br />

prosecution of perpetrators is also a central concern,<br />

and recommendations in this sense are also included.<br />

Policymakers and practitioners should therefore<br />

address low-level trafficking by family members and<br />

acquaintances, as well as by organised criminal<br />

groups, and identify trafficking among refugees and<br />

provide protection to refugees who are trafficked.<br />

They should also address forms of trafficking directly<br />

related to the war and incorporate internal trafficking<br />

into anti-trafficking policy and initiatives. It is simi<br />

lar ly important to identify and respond to labour<br />

exploitation.<br />

In order to make this feasible, legal chan nels for<br />

settlement outside the region should be signifi cantly<br />

expanded, combined with investment in infrastructure<br />

and services in Syria’s neighbouring<br />

coun tries. Children are particularly in need of birth<br />

registration and access to schooling, while for women<br />

and girls, it is essential to combat gender-based<br />

dis crimination and reduce the risk of sexual and<br />

gender-based violence. Particularly in areas where<br />

there are high numbers of Syrians, the vulner abilities<br />

of host communities should also be addressed.<br />

By implementing these recommendations, we can<br />

contribute to reducing people’s vulnerability and<br />

increasing their resilience. We need to offer them<br />

alternatives that are not merely the ‘least bad option’,<br />

and provide them with what they need in order to<br />

better cope with the ravages of violence and<br />

displacement.<br />

In terms of the general situation of Syrian refugees,<br />

hosting countries and donors should also provide<br />

access to regular employment and regularisation of<br />

legal status, and guarantee sufficient funding and fair<br />

distribution of aid, including for non-camp refugees<br />

and IDPs.<br />

The study Targeting Vulnerabilities: The Impact of the Syrian War and Refugee Situation<br />

on Trafficking in Persons – A Study of Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq is the result<br />

of a research project: ‘Assessment of the Impact of the Syrian War and Refugee Crisis on<br />

Trafficking in Persons (AIS-TIP)’. The project was funded by the US Department of State<br />

Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (J/TIP) and implemented by <strong>ICMPD</strong>.<br />

The study can be downloaded in full, together with a Briefing Paper and Policy Brief based<br />

on the study, in English, Arabic, Turkish and Iraqi Kurdish.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

22<br />

In Focus <strong>2015</strong><br />

Valletta Summit<br />

on Migration<br />

Speech by Michael Spindelegger, Director General elect,<br />

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Valletta, 12 November, <strong>2015</strong><br />

Excellencies, ladies and gentlemen,<br />

colleagues and friends:<br />

This September the world came together in New<br />

York to adopt the new UN Sustainable Development<br />

Goals, which for the first time acknowledge the key<br />

role migration plays for global development.<br />

At the same time, we have experienced the highest<br />

number of displacement since the Second World<br />

War, causing frightening numbers of migrants losing<br />

their lives trying to reach their destination and also<br />

giving way to growing anxieties in the countries<br />

affected. These coinciding two developments makes<br />

it so plainly clear that we need to effectively address<br />

both dimensions of international migration:<br />

1. Its fundamental contribution to development and<br />

prosperity of countries of origin and destination as<br />

well as of the migrants themselves<br />

2. The more immediate concerns of protection,<br />

safety and security.<br />

Therefore it is imperative to overcome the dichotomy<br />

of more or less migration and think in terms of better<br />

migration.<br />

We have come together here in Valletta to ensure<br />

the ability of governments to effectively manage<br />

migra tion and to overcome our current crisis mode.<br />

We need to formulate a global response to the<br />

per sis ting dysfunctionality of the international migration<br />

system. Only then will we be able to make<br />

inter na tional migra tion the positive force it can be.<br />

Let Valletta be that turning point.<br />

There is no single country that can adequately and<br />

effectively manage migration alone. Africa needs<br />

Europe and Europe needs Africa, and we have to<br />

recognise each other’s specific circumstances,<br />

priorities and requirements.<br />

<strong>ICMPD</strong> therefore welcomes the agreement to make<br />

good use of the existing multi-lateral structures and<br />

frameworks of cooperation — especially the Rabat<br />

and Khartoum Processes as well as the Africa-EU<br />

migration partnership. We should further strengthen<br />

their scopes and boost their abilities to implement<br />

concrete actions.<br />

The Valletta programme has made the subject of<br />

root causes of displacement and irregular migration<br />

a core feature and emphasises the development<br />

benefits of migration, which I very much welcome.<br />

It must be clear however that results will take time,<br />

and I am afraid that there are no shortcuts.<br />

We need to engage together — Europe and Africa —<br />

in an unparalleled effort of practical and operational<br />

cooperation. We need to substantially upscale initiatives<br />

and move beyond the mere piloting of ideas.<br />

A coherent and comprehensive set of policies is<br />

essential. However this alone is not sufficient: What<br />

we also need now is delivery coherence: a set of<br />

common objectives and goals, agreed actions, a clear<br />

delivery framework, dedicated resources and a ro ­<br />

bust monitoring system and communication strat egy.<br />

Only by pooling our resources and efforts and translating<br />

them into concrete joint actions will we be able<br />

to make real and tangible progress on the ground.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

23<br />

In Focus <strong>2015</strong><br />

The EU Emergency Trust Fund (for stability and<br />

addressing the root causes of irregular migration<br />

and displaced persons in Africa) could be just the<br />

tool we need: one that provides the required funds<br />

for flexible, speedy and efficient delivery on the<br />

Action Plan, the tool for delivery coherence that will<br />

make a real impact, building upon and upscaling<br />

existing programmes and initiatives. I am confident<br />

that the measures of the Action Plan paired with the<br />

Trust Fund will take us in this direction.<br />

In order to achieve a tangible impact, we need to:<br />

Make migration the enabler for socio-economic<br />

development, for instance via closer links to<br />

the diaspora.<br />

Include questions of displacement more robustly<br />

when addressing instability, crisis and conflict.<br />

Promote legal migration and mobility within and<br />

between our two continents: legal migration<br />

needs to become a real option for migrants.<br />

Make international protection and asylum work<br />

effectively in solidarity and as a shared responsbility<br />

both within and between Africa and Europe.<br />

Smugglers and traffickers will try to undermine<br />

our goals.<br />

Need to prevent and fight irregular migration,<br />

smuggling and trafficking in human beings.<br />

Let’s work more closely in sharing information and<br />

intelligence, step up operational cooperation — and<br />

importantly, let’s invest in systems and capacities<br />

for effective integrated border management.<br />

The task ahead is long and complex. We will ex pe rience<br />

set-backs and frustration. There is, however,<br />

simply no alternative. We need to pursue our goals in<br />

a persistent and determined manner. And because<br />

of the long-term perspective, we need to ensure that<br />

we are better able to explain what we are doing.<br />

The wider public needs to draw confidence from our<br />

ability to manage migration.<br />

There fore an essential flanking measure is the est ablish<br />

ment of a robust monitoring system that shows<br />

our progress in the implementation of our policies.<br />

<strong>ICMPD</strong> will invest its efforts in delivering on the Valletta<br />

objectives. Concretely, <strong>ICMPD</strong> will play its part in<br />

mak ing sure that the EU Migration and Mobility Dialogue<br />

initiative (MMD) will assume its central role<br />

in effec tively supporting the Rabat and Khartoum<br />

Frame works in their follow-up work, particularly<br />

through the so-called MMD Facility, that is resourced<br />

with € 10 million for concrete technical assistance<br />

and capacity building actions, some of which feature<br />

prominently in the Action Plan. Importantly, diaspora<br />

engagement will be supported through the MMD<br />

initiative as well.<br />

In doing so — Excellencies, friends — <strong>ICMPD</strong> will<br />

do its share to ensure that Valletta will be the longaspired<br />

turning point, the biggest possible enabler<br />

for our collaboration. It is time to make migration<br />

better, ‘to facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible<br />

migration and mobility of people, including<br />

through the implementation of planned and wellmanaged<br />

migration policies’ as it was laid down this<br />

September in the Sustainable Development Goals.<br />

Thank you.<br />

I am fully aware of the sensitivity and complexity<br />

of the subject, however, we have to find a common<br />

ground and understanding when it comes to the<br />

issue of return and readmission. A migration system<br />

will remain incomplete if it does not contain pro visions<br />

for those that do not qualify or have the right<br />

to remain on the territory of a state. Who if not this<br />

Summit could build the required consensus on how<br />

to address return and read-mission in a way that<br />

ensures and respects the rights and dignity of<br />

returnees and is capable of reinforcing our efforts<br />

to create orderly migration.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

24 24<br />

<strong>ICMPD</strong><br />

Projects<br />


<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

25 25<br />

Asylum<br />

Sharing of Medical Country<br />

of Origin Information, further<br />

cooperation with collecting<br />

new Med COI, extra training<br />

of national authorities officials<br />

aimed on the collection and<br />

usage of Med COI (III + IV);<br />

Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic,<br />

Germany, Denmark,<br />

Finland, Ireland, Netherlands,<br />

Norway, Sweden, United<br />

King dom, Switzerland<br />

Assistance to Manage<br />

Internal Displacement in<br />

Ukraine – AMID-UA<br />

Migration<br />

Dialogues<br />

South<br />

Mediterranean City-to-City<br />

Migration Profiles and<br />

Dialogue<br />

Support to Africa-EU Migration<br />

and Mobility Dialogue (MMD)<br />

Comparative Research on<br />

the State Practices on the<br />

Accessibility of Medical<br />

Treatment and/or Medication in<br />

Countries of Origin (REMEDA)<br />

<strong>2015</strong> Asylum Programme for<br />

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Member States<br />

Research on the educational<br />

and professional qualification<br />

of asylum seekers in Austria –<br />

EQUAS<br />

Survey on the educational and<br />

professional qualifications of<br />

asylum seekers in Austria and<br />

on the motives for the choice<br />

of destination country -<br />


Multi-<br />

Thematic<br />

Migration EU Expertise II -<br />

Providing short-term capacity<br />

building to third countries in all<br />

areas of migration<br />

management; Global<br />

Migrants in Countries in Crisis<br />

(MICIC); Global<br />

Support to the development<br />

of institutional capacity of the<br />

Directorate General for<br />

Migration Management of<br />

Turkey – (DGMM Phase II)<br />

EUROMED Migration III + IV;<br />

Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan,<br />

Lebanon, Libya, Morocco,<br />

Palestinian Territories, Syria,<br />

Tunisia<br />

Migration<br />

Dialogues East<br />

Support to the Silk Routes<br />

Partnership for Migration<br />

under the Budapest Process<br />

Support for the Implementtion<br />

of the Prague Process<br />

Action Plan<br />

Prague Process Targeted<br />

Initiative Project (2012 – 2016)<br />

Border<br />

Management<br />

and Visa<br />

Evaluation External Border<br />

Funds Switzerland (AGF CH)<br />

Supporting the Republic of<br />

Belarus in Addressing Irregular<br />

Migration and Promoting<br />

Human Rights of Vulnerable<br />

Migrants (AMBEL)<br />

Provision of Equipment and<br />

Infrastructure for the Bagratashen-Sadakhlo<br />

Border Cross<br />

ing Point between Armenia<br />

and Georgia and Enhancement<br />

of their Capacities (BSIBM)

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

26 26<br />

Eastern Partnership<br />

(EaP)-Integrated Border<br />

Management — Capacity<br />

Building Project (CaBuiPro);<br />

Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus,<br />

Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine<br />

Better coordination of protetion<br />

of the land border be tween<br />

Georgia and Azerbaijan<br />

(GAIBM)<br />

Providing high-quality studies<br />

to support activities under the<br />

Eastern Partnership (EaP);<br />

Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus,<br />

Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine<br />

Developing National Capability<br />

for Integrated Border Management<br />

in Lebanon (IBM Lebanon)<br />

Dutch Support: Developing<br />

National Capability for Integrated<br />

Border Manage ment in<br />

Lebanon(IBM Lebanon NL)<br />

Support to Creation of an<br />

Electronic System of Prearrival<br />

Information Exchange<br />

between the Customs Authorities<br />

of Belarus and Ukraine<br />

(PRINEX)<br />

Eastern Partnership Co op eration<br />

in the Fight against<br />

Irregular Migration- Supporting<br />

the Implementation of the<br />

Prague Process Action Plan<br />

(SIPPAP)<br />

Strengthening the Surveillance<br />

Capacity on the Green and<br />

Blue Border between the Republic<br />

of Belarus and Ukraine<br />

(SURCAP)<br />

Strengthening surveillance<br />

and bilateral coordination<br />

capacity along the common<br />

border between Belarus and<br />

Ukraine (SURCAP Phase II)<br />

Support Programme to the<br />

Government of Tunisia in the<br />

areas of Integrated Border<br />

Management (IBM Tunisia)<br />

Border Management and<br />

Border Communities in the<br />

SAHEL Region (BM Sahel)<br />

Border Management<br />

Programme in Central Asia<br />

– Phase 9 (BOMCA)<br />

Legal Migration<br />

and Integration<br />

Enhancing Georgia’s<br />

Migration Management<br />

(ENIGMMA)<br />

Development of Joint<br />

Principles, Procedures and<br />

Standards on the Integration<br />

of Immigrants, with specific<br />

focus on Labor Immigrants,<br />

between the Russian<br />

Federation and European<br />

partners in the context of the<br />

Prague Process Action Plan<br />

(ERIS)<br />

Migration &<br />

Development<br />

Sessiz Destek - Support of<br />

a Development-sensitive and<br />

Coherent Turkish Migration<br />

Policy Framework<br />

Africa - Europe<br />

Development Platform<br />

(AEDP) – Transition Project<br />

FMM West Africa (Support<br />

to Free Movement of Persons<br />

and Migration in West Africa)<br />

Link Up! Feasibility<br />

Study - Financing Diaspora<br />

Entrepreneurship<br />

Mandat “Unterstützung<br />

und Beratung zugunsten des<br />

Globalprogramms Migration<br />

und Entwicklung” (SDC<br />

Backstopping Mandate)

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong> 27 27<br />

Irregular<br />

Migration<br />

and Return<br />

Supporting the Republic<br />

of Moldova to implement the<br />

EU-Moldova Action Plan on<br />

Visa Liberalisation (Fighting<br />

Irregular Migration in Moldova)<br />

Forced Return Monitoring<br />

(FReM); Austria, Bulgaria,<br />

Greece, Hungary,<br />

Luxembourg, Malta, Portugal,<br />

Switzerland<br />

Post-Arrival Assistance to<br />

Ukrainian Nationals Returning<br />

from the Netherlands (PAA<br />

2013 – UKR)<br />

Post-Arrival Assistance to<br />

Ukrainian Nationals Returning<br />

from the Netherlands<br />

(PAA-AMIF)<br />

Research<br />

FastPass: A harmonized,<br />

modular reference system for<br />

all European automatic border<br />

crossing points; pilot sites:<br />

Romania, Austria, Greece<br />

Betreuungs- und Pflegebedarf<br />

älterer MigrantInnen: Bedarfsabschätzung<br />

und Herausforderungen<br />

(BEMIG); Austria<br />

Addressing demand in anti -<br />

trafficking efforts and policies<br />

(DemandAT); EU, US, Brazil,<br />

Nigeria, Qatar, Malaysia, New<br />

Zealand<br />

Study on smuggling of migrants:<br />

characteristics, responses and<br />

cooperation with third<br />

countries; Bulgaria, Egypt,<br />

Ethiopia, FYROM, Greece,<br />

Hungary, Italy, Libya, Malta,<br />

Nigeria, Pakistan, Syria, Turkey<br />

Integration, Transnational<br />

Mobility and Human, Social<br />

and Economic Capital Transfers<br />

(ITHACA); Austria, Spain, Italy,<br />

UK, Bosnia and Herzegovina,<br />

India, Mauritania, Philippines,<br />

Ukraine<br />

Pilotstudie – Integrationsverläufe<br />

von Neuzuwander-<br />

Innen (LEGINT); Austria<br />

Trafficking in<br />

Human Beings<br />

Assessment of the Impact of<br />

the Syrian War and Refugee<br />

Crisis on Trafficking in Persons<br />

(AIS-TIP); Syria, Lebanon,<br />

Jordan, Iraq, Turkey<br />

Persons at Risk of Trafficking<br />

in Europe – capacity to identify<br />

and assist potential victims of<br />

human trafficking (PROTECT);<br />

Croatia, United Kingdom<br />

International Collaboration to<br />

Reduce Labour Exploitation –<br />

Meeting of Central and East<br />

European Labour Inspectorate<br />

Representatives<br />

Fight against Trafficking in<br />

Human Beings and Organised<br />

Crime – Phase 2 (THB/IFS/2);<br />

Albania, Azerbaijan, Bosnia<br />

and Herzegovina, Moldova,<br />

Pakistan, Turkey<br />

Migrações Transfronteiriças’:<br />

strengthening the capacity of<br />

the Brazilian Federal<br />

Government to manage new<br />

migratory flows (MT Brazil)<br />

Meeting of National Coordinators<br />

from Central and South<br />

Eastern Europe; Albania, UK,<br />

Aus tria, Bulgaria, Bosnia and<br />

Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech<br />

Republic, Hungary, Macedonia,<br />

Moldova, Montenegro, Poland,<br />

Romania, Serbia, Slovenia,<br />

Slovakia, Romania, UK<br />

Development of a Transntional<br />

Referral Mechanism<br />

for Sweden (SE-TRM)<br />

Bulgarian-Swiss Joint Efforts<br />

for Providing Immediate and<br />

Unconditional Protection of<br />

Trafficked Persons and Pre -<br />

venting Trafficking in Humanbeings<br />

(BG/Swiss/Animus)<br />

Swiss-Bulgarian<br />

Cooperation on Identification<br />

and Long -Term Assistance of<br />

Children and Adults Victims<br />

of Trafficking in Human Beings<br />


<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

28<br />

Research Unit<br />

Evidence and<br />

Reflection: Policies,<br />

Programmes and<br />

the Fundamentals of<br />

Forward-looking<br />

Policies<br />

Policymakers turn to scientific evidence to prepare<br />

policies and assess their impact. Scientific research<br />

also provides important input for the policy process<br />

independent from any questions that may be posed<br />

by policymakers, thus encouraging critical reflection<br />

and long-term thinking. Studies conducted by <strong>ICMPD</strong><br />

in <strong>2015</strong> reflect these complementary roles of research.<br />

Ensuring the availability of the best possible evidence<br />

is an important objective in itself. At <strong>ICMPD</strong><br />

this has translated into a long-standing involvement<br />

in relevant efforts to improve statistical data collection<br />

on migration and integration. In regard to integration<br />

information on developments over time, data<br />

is crucial but often lacking. Research completed in<br />

<strong>2015</strong> has investigated different options to monitor<br />

and better understand migrants’ individual integration<br />

trajectories over time.<br />

Care and migration are largely discussed in terms<br />

of migrants as care workers. However, aging migrants<br />

are themselves an important group of persons<br />

in need of care. A recent case study on care<br />

and support of elderly migrants shows that service<br />

providers in countries of destination are not sufficiently<br />

prepared for this group’s specific care needs.<br />

For example, dementia often results in the loss of<br />

languages acquired after childhood, raising challenges<br />

for care providers. The study shows that this could<br />

be avoided by more customised care systems.<br />

In policy debates about integration there is often the<br />

assumption of a contradiction between migrants’<br />

engagement in their countries of origin and their<br />

successful integration in the destination country.<br />

The ITHACA study in which <strong>ICMPD</strong> was involved

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

29<br />

Research Unit<br />

Countries<br />

we and our<br />

project<br />

partners<br />

worked in:<br />

Austria,<br />

Belgium,<br />

Bosnia &<br />

Herzegovina,<br />

Brazil,<br />

Cyprus,<br />

Czech<br />

Republic,<br />

France,<br />

Germany,<br />

Greece,<br />

Hong Kong,<br />

Italy,<br />

Malaysia,<br />

Netherlands,<br />

New<br />

Zealand,<br />

Nigeria,<br />

Portugal,<br />

Qatar,<br />

Romania,<br />

Sweden,<br />

Switzerland,<br />

UK, USA<br />

provides evidence to the contrary and shows that<br />

migrants have the potential to engage in a variety<br />

of ways and in several societies. Reducing barriers<br />

and obstacles to do so would support migrants’<br />

transnational economic, political, civic and humanitarian<br />

engagement and help build bridges at all<br />

levels and in various societies, simultaneously.<br />

Clarity over concepts and definitions is important for<br />

any meaningful policy making. According to inter national<br />

law, states should address the demand side<br />

of trafficking in human beings. However, there is no<br />

agreed definition of demand in the context of THB,<br />

nor of demand-side measures. DemandAT, a multipartner<br />

project led by <strong>ICMPD</strong>, suggests limiting the<br />

notion of demand to a market context and measures<br />

that try to influence consumers of goods and services.<br />

Automated Border Control system<br />

<strong>ICMPD</strong> conducted case studies of existing Automated Border Control (ABC) systems<br />

and is undertaking an analysis of the fundamental rights implications of such systems.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

30<br />

Dialogues<br />

Budapest Process<br />

Migration<br />

Dialogues East:<br />

Participating states<br />

Observer states<br />

Members<br />

52 participating and 6 observer states<br />

Chair: Turkey (since 2006; Co-Chair 2003-2006)<br />

Co-Chair: Hungary (since 2006; Chair 1993-2006)<br />

Working Groups on the Silk Routes Region,<br />

the Southeast European Region, and the Black Sea Region

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

31<br />

Dialogues<br />

Fostering Cooperation with<br />

the Silk Routes Countries<br />

Since its establishment in 1993, the Budapest<br />

Process (BP) has evolved from a consultative forum<br />

for migration between European countries in a<br />

pre-EU setting to a far-reaching European-Asian<br />

forum for improving migration management. Initially,<br />

the Budapest Process focused on cooperation<br />

among Western, Central, Eastern, and Southeast<br />

European countries. Roughly a decade later, the<br />

Eastern Partnership countries, Russia, and Central<br />

Asia joined the dialogue. In 2010, the Budapest<br />

Process directed its focus further eastwards on a<br />

compre hensive migration dialogue with the Silk<br />

Routes Region — Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Iraq,<br />

and Pakistan. This geographic focus was reaffirmed<br />

in 2013 with establishment of the Silk Routes Partnership<br />

for Migration and the adoption of the Istanbul<br />

Ministerial Declaration. The current objective is to<br />

promote further dialogue and mutual cooperation in<br />

managing migration flows along the Silk Routes.<br />

Translating the Political Commitments<br />

of the Silk Routes Partnership into<br />

Concrete Actions and Cooperation<br />

During the third year of its implementation, the<br />

Budapest Process — Silk Routes Partnership for<br />

Migration focused on the topics of irregular mi gration,<br />

human trafficking, and the links between migration<br />

and development. Meeting in Islamabad, participating<br />

countries identified raising awareness on the dan gers<br />

and consequences of irregular migration as an utmost<br />

priority for the Silk Routes Region. Enhancing regional<br />

law enforcement cooperation to effectively fight<br />

migration-related organised crime was furthermore<br />

emphasised. In Dhaka, countries highlighted that<br />

strengthening the positive impact of migration on<br />

development was crucial for both countries of origin<br />

and desti nation and should be catered for equally<br />

by both.<br />

The Silk Routes Partnership Project reflected these<br />

priorities through several capacity building activities.<br />

Two pilot initiatives were launched: one to raise<br />

awareness about the consequences of irregular<br />

migration and establish Migration Information<br />

Centres in Pakistan, the other to enhance regional<br />

law enforcement cooperation between Turkey<br />

and the Silk Routes countries.<br />

The effects of crisis on migration management in<br />

the face of an increasingly challenging migration and<br />

refugee situation in the region were addressed at a<br />

Black Sea Region Working Group meeting in Sofia.<br />

The Budapest Process increased in significance in<br />

the last year. In numerous EU communication and<br />

policy documents, it is regarded as a key platform in<br />

upholding the dialogue engendering cooperation on<br />

sustainable solutions between countries of origin,<br />

transit, and destination.<br />

Budapest Process<br />

In 2014–2017 the Budapest Process implements the project Support to the Silk Routes<br />

Partnership for Migration. Capacity building activities are combined with information<br />

management and policy development. Two pilot projects focus on raising awareness<br />

concerning the consequences of irregular migration in Pakistan and regional law<br />

enforcement cooperation.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

32<br />

Dialogues<br />

Prague Process<br />

Participating states<br />

In the sixth year of its existence, the Prague Process,<br />

a recognised platform for intergovernmental dialogue<br />

on migration among fifty countries (EU+, Eastern<br />

Partnership, Central Asia, Western Balkans, Russia<br />

and Turkey) and the key process for the im plemen tation<br />

of GAMM towards the East, continued with the<br />

implementation of the Action Plan 2012–2016 through<br />

the EU-funded Prague Process Targeted Initiative<br />

(PP TI). <strong>ICMPD</strong>, as Secretariat of the Process, supported<br />

its leading states — Czech Republic, Germany,<br />

Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Sweden —<br />

in the implementation of selected priorities and further<br />

development of knowledge bases containing<br />

migration profiles and the i-Map.<br />

In addition to expert and policy-level dialogue, work<br />

on the knowledge base, and implementation of<br />

three pilot projects on the identification of irregular<br />

migrants, student mobility, and quality decision<br />

making in the asylum process, the Secretariat coordinated<br />

with the Prague Process umbrella projects<br />

ERIS, EaP SIPPAP, and the EaP Panel on Migration<br />

and Asylum. The external evaluation of the Process<br />

carried out in <strong>2015</strong> pro vided with positive results,<br />

paving the way for the future.<br />

Prague Process<br />

During its EU Presidency, Slovakia will host the 3rd Prague Process Ministerial<br />

Conference in Bratislava on 19-20 September 2016. This high-level event will set<br />

the objectives for years 2017–2021.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

33<br />

Dialogues<br />

Migration<br />

Dialogues South:<br />

EUROMED Migration<br />

The EUROMED Migration initiative is the flagship<br />

framework of the European Commission Direc -<br />

torate General Neighborhood and Enlargement<br />

Negotia tions (NEAR) for the Mediterranean region.<br />

After leading the third phase of this initiative from<br />

2012 to <strong>2015</strong>, <strong>ICMPD</strong> was entrusted with leading<br />

EUROMED Migration through its fourth phase<br />

(2016 to 2019).<br />

Participating states<br />

Observer states<br />

EUROMED Migration placed inter-institutional<br />

co operation and coordination, defined as the<br />

fundamental element of successful migration<br />

governance, at the centre of its focus. It assists<br />

a number of coun tries, including Algeria, Jordan,<br />

Palestine, and others, in launching a migration<br />

governance process and will also support the<br />

modernisation of migration governance through<br />

the use of modern methodologies and technology<br />

such as the Migration Governance Tool, the<br />

Migration Dashboard and the interactive map on<br />

migration (i-Map).<br />

Despite being important regions of origin of migration,<br />

Europe and the Middle East and North Africa<br />

regions tend to share a common, somewhat negative<br />

perception of migration. Therefore, EUROMED<br />

Migration IV will also include a special focus on<br />

developing a balanced and more positive narrative<br />

concerning migration.<br />

EUROMED Migration<br />

EUROMED Migration IV also invests in the future. Over the coming four years,<br />

around thirty students and junior officials will be trained to become professionals<br />

of migration governance.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

34<br />

Dialogues<br />

Rabat Process<br />

For a decade, the partners of this Dialogue have<br />

been meeting regularly to have a genuine dialogue<br />

regarding questions raised by the region’s migra tory<br />

challenges. Five principles, defined by the Dakar<br />

Strategy (2011), express the partner countries common<br />

desire to “approach migration issues in a<br />

balanced way, in the spirit of shared responsibility”:<br />

1. Working dialogue<br />

2. A flexible and balanced approach<br />

3. Coherent dialogue<br />

4. Committed partners<br />

5. Shared responsibility<br />

Since 2014, the policy framework of the Rabat<br />

Process has been the Rome Declaration and<br />

Programme 2014–2017. It added international<br />

protection as a fourth thematic pillar and placed<br />

emphasis on two of these priorities: the link<br />

between migration and development, and the<br />

prevention of and fight against irregular migra -<br />

tion and related crimes.<br />

<strong>ICMPD</strong> supports the Rabat Process by orga niz -<br />

ing and facilitating key meetings and sharing<br />

its knowledge and expertise relevant to the var -<br />

i ous topics and policy areas of the Process.<br />

In <strong>2015</strong>, the Rabat Process partners met for a<br />

Senior Officials Meeting (SOM) in Porto in order to<br />

discuss the Valletta Summit results. They adopted<br />

the Porto Monitoring Plan (PMP), piloted by the<br />

Support Project, to monitor the Valletta Action Plan.<br />

Participating states<br />

Observer states<br />

Partner states until 2014<br />

The Steering Committee (‘Comité de Pilotage’) of the Rabat Process is comprised of the<br />

following countries and organisations: Belgium, Burkina Faso, the European Commission,<br />

the Economic Community Of West African States (ECOWAS), Equatorial Guinea, France,<br />

Italy, Mali, Morocco, Portugal, Senegal and Spain

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

35<br />

Dialogues<br />

Mediterranean<br />

Transit Migration (MTM)<br />

The Mediterranean Transit Migration (MTM) dialogue<br />

is a framework focused mainly on exploring innova tive<br />

ways and means to address the complex diversity<br />

of migration governance. Since <strong>2015</strong>, Mediterranean<br />

City-to-City Migration (MC2CM) has been bringing<br />

together new key stakeholders concerning migration,<br />

that are also major urban areas. In an increasingly<br />

urbanised world where by mid-century more than<br />

70% of people are expected to live in cities, migration<br />

movements will strongly contribute to this growth.<br />

Subsequently, migration governance must increasingly<br />

become multi-levelled. Both central and local<br />

governments will play a major role in ensuring that<br />

migration is a positive contributor to stability, develop<br />

ment, and prosperity.<br />

To address the challenges such development<br />

dynam ics entail, <strong>ICMPD</strong> established a unique<br />

partnership with the United Cities and Local<br />

Government (UCLG), UN-Habitat and UNHCR.<br />

With the support of the European Commission<br />

and the Swiss Development Agency, the cities<br />

of Amman, Beirut, Lisbon, Lyon, Madrid, Tangiers,<br />

Tunis, Turin, and Vienna are actively sharing<br />

knowledge and experience, developing ideas,<br />

and helping shape the future of cooperation<br />

on migration among cities in the Mediterranean.<br />

Participating states<br />

Mediterranean Transit Migration (MTM)<br />

In 2016, city migration profiles will highlight the role of migration in urban development.<br />

Hosted on the i-Map, they will enrich the platform and complement both national and<br />

migration route profiles.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

36<br />

Dialogues<br />

Khartoum Process<br />

The Khartoum Process (EU-Horn of Africa Migration<br />

Route Initiative) is the newest of the EU-African Migration<br />

Dialogues established at the Ministerial Conference<br />

in Rome at the end of 2014. The Process<br />

pro vides a platform for consultation and coordination<br />

through dialogue between Africa and the EU on antitrafficking<br />

and human smuggling in the Horn of Africa.<br />

It thus fosters a common understanding of the challenges<br />

posed by human trafficking and the smug gling<br />

of migrants, encouraging opportunities for partnership<br />

and shared responsibility and cooperation<br />

through the implementation of concrete projects.<br />

<strong>ICMPD</strong> provides support to the Secretariat (European<br />

Commission and African Union Commission) of the<br />

Khartoum Process by organizing and facilitating key<br />

meetings and sharing its knowledge and relevant exper<br />

tise regarding the varied policy areas and themes<br />

of the Process.<br />

In this vein, the Khartoum Process has had several<br />

key meetings since its launch. A particular impetus<br />

was given by the <strong>2015</strong> Valletta Summit and its resulting<br />

Declaration and Action Plan, which outlines key<br />

priorities for Africa and the EU concerning migration<br />

more broadly.<br />

In 2016, the Process will hold a meeting in Khartoum<br />

on the theme of people smuggling, followed by<br />

a meeting on the topic of legal migration (including<br />

visa facilitation) later in the year.<br />

Participating states<br />

The Steering Committee (‘Comité de Pilotage’) of the Khartoum Process is comprised<br />

of the following countries: Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Italy, Malta, South<br />

Sudan, Sudan, and the United Kingdom

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

37<br />

Capacity Building<br />

International Protection:<br />

<strong>2015</strong>, a Turning Point<br />

for the Global and<br />

European Protection<br />

Regime?<br />

The tragic deaths of asylum seekers and<br />

migrants en route to safety in the EU<br />

stunned Europe in <strong>2015</strong>, while the arrival<br />

of unprecedented flows of migrants and<br />

refugees put the functioning of the Common<br />

European Asylum System (CEAS) at stake.<br />

These developments shaped, to a large<br />

extent, the <strong>ICMPD</strong>’s asylum portfolio in <strong>2015</strong>.<br />

A “Refugee Crisis”?<br />

Since 2014, with the increasing flow of migrants and<br />

refugees, <strong>ICMPD</strong> has been actively involved in the<br />

debate on different levels, engaging its member<br />

states in discussions on responsibility sharing in the<br />

European context. During this time, the Asylum<br />

Programme has analysed, through research papers<br />

and roundtable exchanges among member state<br />

representatives, various responsibility-sharing tools,<br />

distribution keys, and recast CEAS instruments.<br />

In reaction to the tragic deaths at sea in April <strong>2015</strong><br />

and against the background of further increasing<br />

flows, the EC tabled the European Agenda on Migration.<br />

Its relocation and resettlement scheme defined<br />

the framework of further exchange in the framework<br />

of <strong>ICMPD</strong>’s Asylum Programme (complemented by<br />

the exchange among <strong>ICMPD</strong> member states on<br />

push and pull factors) and proposed a roundtable<br />

discussion on mass influx, smuggling, and the situation<br />

in the countries along the Western Balkan migration<br />

route. The composition of <strong>ICMPD</strong> member states<br />

proved crucial for a suc cessful debate involving not<br />

only EU member states but also countries along the<br />

Western Balkan route.<br />

<strong>ICMPD</strong>’s role in the context of the mass influx of mi -<br />

grants and refugees in <strong>2015</strong> was to provide a platform<br />

for our member states’ policymakers to exchange<br />

information on migratory trends, map developments,<br />

and complement the public debate. <strong>ICMPD</strong> published<br />

an updated paper on responsibility sharing, and<br />

various blog posts, mapping lessons learned and<br />

various EU and EU member state policies created in<br />

response to the so-called ‘refugee crisis’.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

38<br />

Capacity Building<br />

Large scale arrivals and beyond<br />

Besides the task of hosting arriving refugees, EU member<br />

states are increasingly posing questions regarding<br />

their potential integration, inter alia, into the labour<br />

market. ‘What is the labour market potential?’,<br />

‘What skills and qualifications are asylum seekers<br />

and refugees bringing?’, and ‘How can this potential<br />

best be used to the benefit of the persons concerned<br />

and the host society?’ are only some of the questions<br />

that require more insight. In a pilot research study,<br />

<strong>ICMPD</strong> analysed possible tools to assess the qualifications<br />

of asylum seekers arriving in Austria with<br />

regard to their educational, language, and profession<br />

al skills. The pilot assessment led to preliminary<br />

results that will be researched further in 2016, based<br />

on interviews with asylum seekers.In recent years,<br />

officials have been receiving many claims based on<br />

medical grounds in asylum and other EU member<br />

state migration procedures. Since 2010, <strong>ICMPD</strong> has<br />

been a partner on a project that facilitates EU member<br />

states’ exchange of medical country of origin<br />

information among EU Member States. To tackle the<br />

lacuna of comparable information on EU member<br />

state policies in this specific area, The Netherlands<br />

commissioned <strong>ICMPD</strong> to carry out comparative<br />

research on state practices dealing with medical<br />

migration cases, which re vealed an increasing trend<br />

of medical claims in EU member states and a wide<br />

variety of national policies and practices.<br />

Outside the EU<br />

Furthermore, we are involved in assisting Ukrainian<br />

authorities to address internal displacement and<br />

supporting other <strong>ICMPD</strong> programmes to set up COI<br />

units in Georgia and Turkey, and train migration<br />

services and border agencies on protection-related<br />

issues in Georgia, Turkey, Lebanon, the Mediterranean,<br />

and the Western Balkan region.<br />

Who came<br />

to europe in <strong>2015</strong>?<br />

Asylum applicants (<strong>2015</strong>)<br />

as share of the total EU<br />

population (estimate):<br />

Countries of origin<br />

of asylum applicants in the EU in<br />

<strong>2015</strong>. ‘Others’ include, among others:<br />

Pakistan, Eritrea, Nigeria, and Iran.<br />

0.26%<br />

EU population<br />

Asylum applicants<br />

Syria (29%)<br />

Afghanistan (14%)<br />

Iraq (10%)<br />

Kosovo (5%)<br />

Albania (5%)<br />

Others (37%)<br />

This equals 1,321,600 persons in total, or<br />

1 asylum seeker per 400 inhabitants

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

39<br />

Capacity Building<br />

Policy responses by the EU<br />

13 May<br />

EC: European Agenda<br />

on Migration<br />

saving lives, hotspots, relocation<br />

Operations ‘Triton’ and ‘Poseidon’<br />

Proposal for relocation and resettlement<br />

‘Hotspot’ approach<br />

EUR 60 million for front-line EU states<br />

EUR 30 million for North Africa and<br />

the Horn of Africa<br />

9 September<br />

EC: Second Implementation Package<br />

quota, safe countries of origin,<br />

addressing root causes<br />

Relocation of 120,000 refugees within Europe<br />

+ permanent crisis relocation mechanism<br />

Common list of safe countires of origin<br />

Action plan on return, return handbook<br />

Addressing the external dimension of the crisis:<br />

EUR 1.8 billion Trust Fund for Africa<br />

<strong>2015</strong> 2016<br />

27 May<br />

EC: First Implementation Package<br />

emergency relocation, resettlement,<br />

fight against smuggling<br />

Emergency response mechanism to assist Italy and<br />

Greece Relocation of 40,000 refugees within the EU<br />

Resettlement of 20,000 refugees from outside Europe<br />

Action plan against migrant smuggling<br />

End of <strong>2015</strong><br />

EU: Managing the Crisis<br />

return, EU-Turkey cooperation,<br />

resettlement<br />

Proposal for new travel documents for return<br />

Sweden requests opt-out from EU relocation mechanism<br />

EU-Turkey action plan agreement includes resettlement,<br />

and EUR 3 billion financial support<br />

Responses<br />

on a national level<br />

<strong>2015</strong> was marked by heated debates<br />

over responsibility-sharing and the distribution<br />

of asylum seekers in Europe.<br />

This led to policy reforms at the national<br />

level in several countries.<br />

EU Member States marked in orange<br />

plan to or have already amended their<br />

asylum legislation in response to the<br />

large num ber of refugees and migrants<br />

arriving in Europe.<br />

In most cases, these changes mean<br />

tightening legislation and restrictions<br />

to the rights of asylum seekers.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

40<br />

Capacity Building<br />

Human Trafficking:<br />

Balancing Protection<br />

and Prosecution<br />

Balancing victim protection and prosecution<br />

of traffickers is central to our work. In <strong>2015</strong>,<br />

we engaged strongly in the fight against<br />

new forms of trafficking and exploitation.<br />

To better understand the protection needs of vulnerable<br />

groups at risk of trafficking, <strong>ICMPD</strong> conducted<br />

new research in <strong>2015</strong>. Our study Targeting Vulner a bilities,<br />

conducted in Syria and its neighbouring countries,<br />

shed light on different forms of the exploitation<br />

of refugees. We found that Syrian refugees are often<br />

trafficked or exploited because they lack alternatives<br />

to meet their basic needs. Affected people, whatever<br />

their legal migration status, must not fall between the<br />

cracks of our protection frameworks.<br />

A victim-centred approach in combating human<br />

trafficking requires good national and transnational<br />

cooperation, interagency coordination and a multistakeholder<br />

approach to victim care.<br />

<strong>ICMPD</strong> con ducted assessments of national referral<br />

mecha nisms in Albania and Bosnia & Herzegovina,<br />

and made recommendations on how to strengthen<br />

victim protection processes. We did similar work in<br />

Sweden, supporting government agencies in developing<br />

the first fully-fledged Transnational Referral<br />

Mechanism for victims. In Brazil, we developed<br />

guide lines and standard operating procedures for<br />

migrant assistance centres at their land borders<br />

and delivered training on victim identification and<br />

integration measures.<br />

At a regional level, <strong>ICMPD</strong> continued to serve as<br />

secretariat for the national anti-trafficking coordinators<br />

from Southeastern Europe, the so-called<br />

‘Brdo Process Group’. We supported cooperation<br />

and exchange of information between them by<br />

hosting their bi-annual meetings.<br />

Prosecuting Traffickers<br />

Our focus on the protection of vulnerable groups<br />

and trafficked people was balanced with our activities<br />

to develop the capacities and tools neces sary<br />

to effectively prosecute traffickers.<br />

One strategic tool in the fight against human<br />

trafficking, which identifies and prioritises crime

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

41<br />

Capacity Building<br />

Countries we<br />

worked in:<br />

“Victims of human trafficking,<br />

whatever their migration status,<br />

must not fall between the cracks<br />

of our protection frameworks.”<br />

Albania,<br />

Azerbaijan,<br />

Bosnia &<br />

Herzegovina,<br />

Brazil,<br />

Iraq,<br />

Jordan,<br />

Lebanon,<br />

Macedonia,<br />

Moldova,<br />

Nigeria and<br />

other West<br />

African<br />

countries,<br />

Pakistan,<br />

Romania,<br />

Southeast<br />

Europe,<br />

Sweden,<br />

Syria,<br />

Turkey,<br />

UK<br />

threats, is the Serious and Organised Crime Threat<br />

Assessment (SOCTA) report. In Moldova, we supported<br />

the drafting of the country’s first SOCTA on<br />

trafficking.<br />

This strategic level work was complemented with<br />

capacity building for frontline practitioners. We<br />

delivered specialised training to law enforcement<br />

officers around the globe and to one hundred<br />

members of the National Police Bureau in Pakistan<br />

alone. This is a group that had received very little<br />

training to date.<br />

In Europe, we worked alongside the UK authorities<br />

to coordinate a new network of European labour<br />

inspectors. We supported them in developing a draft<br />

action plan to strengthen European action against<br />

labour exploitation – an important step in the fight<br />

against trafficking in human beings.<br />

Bringing Southeastern National Anti-trafficking coordinators together<br />

Since 2010, <strong>ICMPD</strong> has acted as secretariat for all national anti-trafficking coordinators<br />

from Southeastern Europe. We were entrusted to support the work of the ‘Brdo Process<br />

Group’ thanks to our strong competence in this thematic area and our longterm cooperation<br />

with the countries from this region. We host the annual meetings of the group and<br />

facilitate the knowledge exchange and cooperation between all participating countries.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

42<br />

Capacity Building<br />

Border Management:<br />

From Security to the<br />

Effective Management<br />

of Migration Flows<br />

Border management has traditionally been seen as<br />

merely a security issue. Our work shows, through several<br />

examples, that this is no longer an actuality. In the past<br />

year we witnessed a launch of several projects where<br />

border security is going hand in hand with other sectors<br />

and also serves as a tool for better management of<br />

migration flows.<br />

<strong>2015</strong> was marked with an unexpected increase of<br />

migration flows across the external borders of the<br />

EU, increasing mobility of persons and goods as<br />

well as increased fear of terrorism and organised<br />

crime. Despite this, states need to ensure the right<br />

balance between open and, at the same time, secured<br />

and controlled borders. In this regard, we<br />

provided support to our partners in improving their<br />

border management capacities in particular and<br />

strengthening strategic and operational plan ning<br />

through a number of projects of a bilateral or regional<br />

nature. To this end, the concept of integrated<br />

border management (IBM) played a major role in<br />

our day-to-day activities in different regions of the<br />

world. A tailor-made approach enabled countries<br />

such as Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Tunisia,<br />

Lebanon, and the countries of Central Asia to prepare<br />

and draft national IBM strategies along with<br />

comprehensive action plans. Our belief in the<br />

utmost importance of education and training<br />

processes is reflected in our development of modern<br />

distance e-learning tools in the areas of integrated<br />

border management, risk analysis, standard operational<br />

procedures, document security, and trade facilitation.<br />

Countries of the European Eastern Partnership<br />

(EaP) made a milestone achievement in strengthening<br />

cooperation in training areas on a regional and multilateral<br />

basis by signing a memorandum on cooperation<br />

in the region and with selected EU member states<br />

in the training and education area. A regional approach<br />

is relevant to our work and one of the largest<br />

border management programmes – Border Management<br />

Programme Central Asia (BOMCA) – resumed<br />

its work in the region, where <strong>ICMPD</strong>, among others,<br />

provides a wide range of technical assistance to<br />

Central Asian border agencies. A number of efforts<br />

were directed to support partners in better management<br />

of the flows via border crossing points to shorten<br />

waiting times for traders, while at the same time<br />

increase security aspects. In particular, we assisted

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

43<br />

Capacity Building<br />

Countries of <strong>ICMPD</strong>´s Border Management Activities<br />

national experts in Lebanon preparing contingency<br />

planning at border crossing points with Syria – in the<br />

long term this will contribute to the effective management<br />

of people returning to Syria when the situation<br />

allows. With the raise of terrorist threats and<br />

appearance of foreign terrorist fighters, ICPMD´s<br />

Com petence Centre for Border Management & Visa<br />

(BMV) has started cooperation with the United<br />

Nations Counter-Terrorism Centre (UNCCT) to address<br />

new trends relevant to border management<br />

and state security. The importance of border man agement<br />

is reflected also in a number of border manage<br />

ment related activities under migration dialogues<br />

(Rabat Process and Budapest Process/The Silk Route)<br />

and multi-thematic projects such as one in Armenia<br />

where migration and border management are implemented<br />

under the umbrella of the Migration and<br />

Border Management in Armenia (MIBMA) project.<br />

Border management is no longer only a matter of<br />

one agency, as no single agency or country can deal<br />

with contemporary security threats. Our approach<br />

includes all relevant actors in border management,<br />

including civil society and border communities. In the<br />

Sahel region (Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauretania,<br />

and Niger), border communities and state border<br />

agencies play a significant role. Traditionally, border<br />

management was reserved exclusively for the latter,<br />

however with the introduction of a concept that aims<br />

to integrate several players at the borders where<br />

also other – equally important – actors have found<br />

their role and place in <strong>2015</strong>.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

44<br />

Capacity Building<br />

Irregular Migration<br />

and Return: Ensuring<br />

Migrants’ Rights<br />

Considering the present migration crisis,<br />

fostering a comprehensive approach to<br />

migration management is more important<br />

than ever. Our activities in the field of<br />

irregular migration and return address<br />

measures at all stages of the irregular<br />

migration process, applying a human<br />

rights-centred approach to all activities.<br />

In <strong>2015</strong>, there was a strong focus put on ensuring<br />

human rights in the actual return process by supporting<br />

EU member states and associated states in<br />

fulfilling their obligations under the Return Directive<br />

(Art. 8.6) that states: ‘Member States shall provide<br />

for an effective forced-return monitoring system’.<br />

By elaborating a set of documents describing the<br />

functioning and working modalities of a future European<br />

Pool of Forced Return Monitors and training<br />

forced return monitors on the principles and rules<br />

they are committed to comply with while monitoring<br />

forced return operations, we supported a number<br />

of states in further developing and improving their<br />

national forced return capacities, ensuring the safeguarding<br />

of human rights of returnees.<br />

A PILOT Euro pean Pool of Forced Return Monitors<br />

was created. Through our <strong>ICMPD</strong> Member State<br />

Pro gramme we offer our member states a possibility<br />

to discuss issues of specific relevance to them in<br />

a small and informal expert setting. The two workshops<br />

that we organised in <strong>2015</strong> focused on’ the<br />

migration situation at large and addressed the<br />

following topics: ‘Managing or Being Managed by<br />

Migration? Status Quo, Concepts and Responses<br />

to Migratory Flows via the Western Balkan Route’<br />

and ‘Migration Analysis Systems – Options,<br />

Challenges and Existing Practices for Analysing<br />

Migration Trends and Providing Evidence-based<br />

Inputs for Migration Policy Planning and Response’.<br />

Both workshops offered the opportunity for our<br />

member states to exchange experiences and discuss<br />

different approaches to their challenges faced.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

45<br />

Capacity Building<br />

“We supported a number of<br />

states in further developing and<br />

improving their national forcedreturn<br />

capacities, ensuring the<br />

safeguarding of human rights<br />

of returnees.”<br />

We continued our capacity building activities through<br />

cooperation with countries of origin, transit, and<br />

des ti nation, strongly focusing on facilitating dialogues<br />

between various stakeholders at the national, regional,<br />

and international level. In this regard we, for example,<br />

offered capacity building measures and training in<br />

Pakistan and Turkey, focusing on cooperation and<br />

implementation of the EU–Pakistan and EU–Turkey<br />

readmission agreements with the aim to support<br />

their smooth implementation as well as the set up<br />

of necessary structures.<br />

<strong>ICMPD</strong>, together with eight partners and associated partner states, established a<br />

Euro pean PILOT Pool of Forced Return Monitors – consisting of independent and welltrained<br />

monitors available to states in need of monitors and FRONTEX for forced return<br />

oper ations. Forced return monitoring aims to ensure that human rights standards and<br />

legal obliga tions are met and returnees are treated in a manner compliant with national<br />

legislation and international human rights standards during forced return operations.<br />

We offer training and consultation in the field of forced return monitoring for any state<br />

in need of support.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

46<br />

Capacity Building<br />

Legal Migration<br />

and Integration:<br />

Laying the<br />

Foundations<br />

The main aim of our work is laying the founda -<br />

tions for functioning migration governance, labour<br />

migration, and integration policies. In <strong>2015</strong>, we<br />

focused on EU mobility partnerships and global<br />

standards for immigrant integration.<br />

The support of countries that have concluded mobility<br />

partnerships or a visa liberalisation action plan<br />

with the EU has developed into one of our main areas<br />

of expertise and activity. In Georgia, we con tinued<br />

to support their efforts to fulfil the related requirements<br />

concerning migration, strengthen their migration<br />

management and information systems, and write<br />

new migration policy. In March 2016, the European<br />

Commission (EC) proposed to lift visa requirements<br />

for the citizens of Georgia, confirming that Georgia<br />

successfully met all benchmarks under the Visa<br />

Liberalisation Action Plan. Thus, the EC recognised<br />

the efforts of Georgian authorities who carried out<br />

far-reaching and difficult reforms, which had at<br />

least partly been conducted with the help of <strong>ICMPD</strong><br />

and European experts. A similar initiative has been<br />

developed for Azerbaijan, where we will support<br />

the implementation of the EU Mobility Partnership.<br />

Priorities will include well-managed labour migration<br />

and trade-related mobility, public awareness on<br />

migration, migration analysis, document security,<br />

asylum policy, and sustainable reintegration.<br />

We believe that labour migration is best supported<br />

by an honest dialogue between sending and<br />

receiv ing countries and pragmatic approaches<br />

that are based on all sides´ interests and priorities.<br />

This con vic tion found its expression in <strong>ICMPD</strong>´s<br />

internal cooperation on migration in the Euro-<br />

Mediterranean area.<br />

Working for the benefit of migrants<br />

Our activities want to focus on the migrants themselves whenever possible.<br />

In Tunisia, where we contributed to the strengthening of migration governance in a<br />

postrevolu tion ary country, we tried to go beyond traditional capacity building by<br />

including components for the actual benefit of returnees and prospective migrants.<br />

Concretely, a number of young Tunisians were supported in setting up small busi -<br />

nesses based on their own plans and ideas. All of them were still operating one year<br />

after funding had come to an end and many felt the need to expand their activities<br />

(some had even recruited additional employees in order to do so). This positive<br />

experience is intended to enrich our future activities and projects.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

47<br />

Capacity Building<br />

Dynamics of integration<br />

Early Integration<br />

Advanced Integration<br />

Country of Origin<br />

Country of Destination<br />

Pre-departure<br />

Measures<br />

Recruitment/<br />

labour matching<br />

Language and<br />

vocational training<br />

Language testing<br />

Orientation measures<br />

Harmonisation of<br />

national education<br />

systems<br />

Early Orientation<br />

Welcome desks<br />

Integration centres<br />

Orientation courses<br />

Language courses<br />

Vocational consultancy<br />

and training<br />

Labour market<br />

integration support<br />

Advanced Integration<br />

Measures<br />

Participation in regular structures<br />

Anti-discrimination measures<br />

Information relevant to<br />

obtaining citizenship<br />

Monitoring & evaluation<br />

Countries<br />

we have<br />

worked in/<br />

partnered<br />

with:<br />

Austria,<br />

Azerbaijan,<br />

Belgium,<br />

Bulgaria,<br />

Czech<br />

Republic,<br />

Georgia,<br />

Finland,<br />

France,<br />

Latvia,<br />

Lithuania,<br />

Netherlands,<br />

Poland,<br />

Russian<br />

Federation,<br />

Slovenia,<br />

Sweden,<br />

Tunisia,<br />

Turkey,<br />

United<br />

Kingdom<br />

Its aim was to analyse main trends in the areas of<br />

legal migration, irregular migration, protection, and<br />

migration and development, as well as the underlying<br />

challenges and opportunities, instruments and<br />

legal frameworks. Thus, it established a rich source<br />

for concrete conclusions and rec om men da tions that<br />

were agreed by partner countries in the EUROMED<br />

migration framework as priorities for future direction.<br />

Ensuring the full integration of immigrants in the eco -<br />

nomic, social, and cultural life of their host societies<br />

has become a priority of many immigration countries.<br />

In the Russian Federation, we supported the pro cess<br />

of developing the country´s first global integration<br />

pol icy together with experts from the Czech Republic<br />

and Austria. The outcome of this collaboration already<br />

found its resonance in the recent introduction of<br />

language and civic integration tests in Russia. Thus,<br />

the jointly elaborated principles and standards in<br />

integration policies were not limited to partners, but<br />

made available as a toolbox for policymakers in all<br />

states participating in the Prague Process.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

48<br />

Capacity Building<br />

Migration and<br />

Development:<br />

Policy Coherence<br />

for Sustainable<br />

Development<br />

In <strong>2015</strong>, we pioneered new guidelines on developmentsensitive<br />

migration management for Turkey and engaged<br />

in diaspora strategy and programme developments in<br />

seven countries on three different continents.<br />

Promoting Diaspora Engagement<br />

Unless we understand the many ways in which migration<br />

and development processes relate to one another,<br />

we will not have the information we need to<br />

design policies that will promote prosperity and<br />

stability in the long run. Sustainable migration governance<br />

needs to be anchored in long-term thinking.<br />

It needs to be based on knowledge of how migration<br />

policies shape development outcomes in countries<br />

of origin and destination and how various development<br />

processes, in turn, influence migrants and<br />

mi gra tion. To this end, <strong>ICMPD</strong> pioneered tools for<br />

Turkey to use in supporting a development-sensitive<br />

migration management framework. These pro gramming<br />

guidelines and checklists can be replicated for<br />

other countries and complement similar tools being<br />

developed to measure policy coherence on migration<br />

and development. By applying a human-centred<br />

de vel opment approach they also contribute to<br />

achiev ing the newly adopted global goal of facilitat ing<br />

safe and responsible migration and mobility of people.<br />

We added a cornerstone to the current knowledgebase<br />

on free movement of people in West Africa<br />

with a new survey on migration policies, conducted<br />

in cooperation with IOM. This survey is the first of<br />

its kind and sheds light on progress made and remain<br />

ing challenges for free movement. The share of<br />

migra tion within West Africa is seven times greater<br />

than in other parts of the world, so the potential of<br />

regional mobility for development and integration is<br />

signi fi cant. At the practical level, we started scaling<br />

up an innovative public-private sector partnership<br />

for faster cross-border movement in eight countries<br />

in the region.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

49<br />

Capacity Building<br />

Diaspora Policy<br />


Ties with the<br />

Diaspora<br />

Communication<br />

and networking<br />

Political participation<br />

Improved Legal<br />

and Institutional<br />

Framework<br />

National focal point<br />

for diaspora issues<br />

Dual citizenship laws<br />

and simplified visa<br />

regulations<br />

Reduced barriers for<br />

investment and<br />

philanthropy<br />

Getting to Know<br />

the Diaspora<br />

Visits to the diaspora<br />

in the destination<br />

country<br />

Diaspora mapping<br />

and information<br />

collection<br />

Coherent and<br />

Tailored Approach<br />

Coordination (interinstitutional<br />

and<br />

inter-agency)<br />

Involvement in development<br />

and planning<br />

Consultation & Partnership<br />

mechanisms<br />

with the diaspora<br />

Services and<br />

Information Abroad<br />

Support to diaspora<br />

associations and<br />

networks<br />

Diplomatic and<br />

consular services<br />

Incentives and<br />

Joint Agendas<br />

Joint projects<br />

(business,<br />

culture, sports,<br />

philanthropy, etc.)<br />

Tailored financial<br />

products (e.g.<br />

diaspora bonds)<br />

Low transfer fees<br />

for remittances<br />

Political Relations<br />

with Destination<br />

Countries<br />

Regional cooperation<br />

to facilitate mobility<br />

Diplomatic relations<br />

Agreements<br />

(portability of social<br />

rights, labour market<br />

access, education<br />

programmes, etc.)<br />


trade and tourism<br />

facilitation<br />

remittances<br />

and investments<br />

philanthropy towards<br />

its communities<br />

employment creation<br />

(enterprises and<br />

business support)<br />

know-how transfer,<br />

innovation, ideas, skills<br />

and competencies<br />

input to the political<br />

debate and support to<br />

civil society<br />

development<br />

assistance and poverty<br />

alleviation<br />



Origin & destination<br />

country governments<br />

Diplomatic & consular<br />

missions abroad<br />

Local authorities<br />

Local communities<br />

Civil society<br />

Diaspora individuals<br />

and associations<br />

Research and<br />

academia<br />

Private sector

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

50<br />

Capacity Building<br />

“Understanding the migration-development<br />

nexus and its policy implications is a precondition<br />

for pursuing comprehensive, sustainable and<br />

future-oriented migration governance.”<br />

Regional Mobility<br />

Promoting diaspora engagement is a major part of<br />

our work on the migration-development nexus. We<br />

took stock of more than eight years of activities in<br />

this field and published a working paper on lessons<br />

learned. It capitalises on our experience working<br />

with governments in designing improved policies<br />

and programmes, and the partnerships we have<br />

formed with some of the most well-known diaspora<br />

organisations in Europe to empower diasporas as<br />

development actors.<br />

As concrete evidence for the growing importance of<br />

effective diaspora engagement for governments<br />

world wide, we worked with seven countries on three<br />

different continents. In Burundi, Ghana, Malawi,<br />

Paraguay, and Tajikistan we helped develop new<br />

strategies and action plans.<br />

We supported Georgia to embark on a high-profile<br />

diaspora programme, and in Lebanon we started<br />

working on a diaspora direct investment strategy,<br />

which will cater one of the world’s biggest diaspora<br />

groups. We also conducted a feasibility study on<br />

diaspora entrepreneurship and supported the<br />

Global Forum on Migration and De vel opment with<br />

a background paper for the Istanbul summit on<br />

this still emerging topic. We have seen that whereas<br />

the importance of the private sector in development<br />

cooperation is widely acknowledged, the role of<br />

the migrant and diasporas is often over looked.<br />

An inclusive business approach that jointly defines<br />

goals that directly affect diasporas can bring substan<br />

tial gains to countries of destination and origin.<br />

Building a platform for African diaspora organisations<br />

Since 2011, <strong>ICMPD</strong> supports the set-up of ADEPT, a service delivery platform for African<br />

diaspora organisations in Europe engaged in the development of Africa. ADEPT acts as a<br />

catalyst for diaspora development actions for the 84 countries targeted: 28 EU countries<br />

plus Switzerland and Norway, and 54 African countries.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

51<br />

Cross-Cutting<br />

Migrants in<br />

Countries<br />

in Crisis<br />

Supporting an Evidence-based Approach for<br />

Effective and Cooperative State Action’ (MICIC) is<br />

a new EU-funded four-year project, started in early<br />

<strong>2015</strong> by <strong>ICMPD</strong>. The project aims to improve the<br />

capacity of states and other stakeholders to assist<br />

and protect migrants who are in countries in crisis.<br />

It encompasses the three-pronged approach of<br />

<strong>ICMPD</strong>, namely: inter-governmental consultations,<br />

research, and capacity building.<br />

The MICIC project is the EU’s contribution to the<br />

UN-lead initiative of the same name. The ultimate<br />

goal of this global initiative is to produce volun -<br />

tary guidelines that set out principles, roles, and<br />

responsibilities of different stakeholders vis-à-vis<br />

migrants in countries in crisis.<br />

Since January <strong>2015</strong>, <strong>ICMPD</strong> has organised six state<br />

consultations around the globe, receiving input for<br />

the global guidelines from countries in Asia, Eastern<br />

Europe, Central Asia, North Africa, the Middle East,<br />

West and Central Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean,<br />

and Eastern and Southern Africa.<br />

In parallel to the consultative process, in cooperation<br />

with Oxford University, <strong>ICMPD</strong> kicked off research<br />

into the long-term consequences of crisis.<br />

The re search fills an important knowledge gap in<br />

this area. Fieldwork was launched for six case<br />

studies focusing on a variety of crisis situations in<br />

Thailand, Libya, Central African Republic, Lebanon,<br />

South Africa, and Cote d’Ivoire.<br />

The MICIC guidelines as well as the initial research<br />

results will be presented at the UN General Assembly<br />

in September 2016.<br />

In 2016, the MICIC global guidelines will be officially<br />

launched, research outcomes showcased, and<br />

<strong>ICMPD</strong> will kick-off its capacity building for states<br />

and other stakeholders to enhance their preparedness<br />

in ad dress ing the needs of migrants in countries<br />

in crisis and mitigating the long-term impacts<br />

of such situations.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

52<br />

Cross-Cutting<br />

MIgration EU<br />

eXpertise (MIEUX) –<br />

Forging Global<br />

Migration Partnerships<br />

In <strong>2015</strong>, after seven successful years and a hundred received<br />

requests, the EU-funded MIEUX Initiative continued delivering<br />

short-term capacity building support in more than forty<br />

countries across the world. It is aimed at the consolidation<br />

of partner countries’ expertise in all areas of migration and<br />

mobility. MIEUX is a fast, flexible and demand-driven initiative.<br />

MIEUX is an EU-funded global facility strengthening<br />

the migration governance capacities of governments<br />

in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America<br />

by mobilising experts from EU Member States and<br />

other countries to share experiences with their peers<br />

in MIEUX partner countries.<br />

In <strong>2015</strong>, MIEUX supported the efforts of partner<br />

countries in a range of national migration management<br />

tools, strategies, policies and legislation. As a<br />

pioneering initiative, MIEUX has continued to deliver<br />

significant results both in terms of the scope of<br />

interventions and their outcomes. As such, MIEUX<br />

has pursued its objectives to build bridges between<br />

the EU and partner countries, equip partners with<br />

tailor-made practices, enhance migration under s-<br />

tanding and narratives, and bring together various<br />

stakeholders in view of setting national and regional<br />

migration goals, as well as opening up new cooperation<br />

opportunities.<br />

MIEUX provides expertise on legal migration, asylum,<br />

irregular migration, and migration and development.<br />

For example, its action in Mexico aims to strengthen<br />

national capacities to identify and protect unaccompanied<br />

minors. In West Africa, MIEUX focuses on the<br />

potential that mobility presents to adapt to climate<br />

change and environmental catastrophes. Further<br />

re sults from <strong>2015</strong> are the jointly crafted National<br />

Strategy and Action Plan Against Trafficking in Human<br />

Beings in Côte d’Ivoire, as well as the Malawian<br />

National Diaspora Engagement Policy.<br />

At the same time, MIEUX is a facility for EU Member<br />

States. The deployed experts are exposed to new<br />

practices and professional environments, reinforcing<br />

existing cooperations while fostering new ones.<br />

Going forward, MIEUX intends to broaden its outreach<br />

to include new actors, such as local administrations,<br />

parliamentary bodies, the judiciary, etc. MIEUX will<br />

run until December 2019.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

53<br />

Cross-Cutting<br />

Geographical Distribution of Acivities <strong>2015</strong><br />

3<br />

18<br />

4<br />

17<br />

Africa<br />

Asia<br />

Latin America<br />

and Caribbean<br />

Middle East<br />

MIEUX in <strong>2015</strong><br />

Requests received: 14<br />

Experts involved: more than 40<br />

Ongoing projects: 23<br />

Activities organised: 42<br />

Number of Participants of<br />

MIEUX events: more than 600

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

54<br />

Policy Development<br />

Towards a<br />

New Migration<br />

Architecture<br />

The global refugee crisis of <strong>2015</strong> underlined the<br />

need to find new ways in managing migration,<br />

both within Europe as well as together with countries<br />

of origin and transit. While states were inevitably<br />

preoccupied with finding ways to cope<br />

with and eventually overcome the crisis, it also<br />

became clear that a return to a pre-crisis state<br />

of affairs was neither feasible nor desirable. To<br />

ensure ‘orderly migration’, European and international<br />

migration governance needs a fundamental<br />

reorientation towards anew migration<br />

architecture. This new architecture must provide<br />

comprehensive concepts, functioning individual<br />

policies in the various areas of migration management,<br />

and a balanced and honest dialogue with<br />

countries of origin and transit.<br />

The main aim of <strong>ICMPD</strong>’s policy development is to<br />

contribute to new ideas that go beyond conventional<br />

wisdom, based on a sound analysis of migration<br />

realities and political feasibility. In <strong>2015</strong> we focused<br />

on developing a holistic approach to migration in the<br />

Mediterranean, lessons learned on the fight against<br />

migrant smugglers, and the potential for functioning<br />

labour market integration of refugees in Europe.<br />

New instruments and joint commitment<br />

The international migration regime has come under immense pressure caused by<br />

the migration situation and a lack of agreement and unity between states. New<br />

instruments are needed as well as reinforced commitment towards joint solutions.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

55<br />

Miscellaneous<br />

Promoting an Interdisciplinary<br />

Approach<br />

to Migration – <strong>ICMPD</strong><br />

Summer Schools<br />

Efficient migration management requires know ledge<br />

and expertise in different scientific dis ci plines: law,<br />

sociology, demography, the political sciences, economics,<br />

and others. <strong>ICMPD</strong> promotes this approach<br />

by organizing multi-disciplinary research-oriented<br />

migration summer schools within different projects.<br />

Moreover, these summer schools welcome students<br />

from different academic fields of study, young pro -<br />

fes sionals from state institutions involved in migration<br />

management, and representatives of civil society<br />

to support cooperation between the government,<br />

non-government, and academic sectors. The summer<br />

schools have been developed and organized<br />

by <strong>ICMPD</strong> staff, with lectures provided by internal<br />

and external <strong>ICMPD</strong> experts including professors<br />

from Maastricht University, University of Oxford,<br />

Sorbonne, and the University of Vienna, as well as<br />

independent migration researchers from different<br />

countries.<br />

Better Informed<br />

for Better Migration<br />

Migration is about people. Therefore, people should<br />

be best informed about manage migration within<br />

their respective governments. <strong>ICMPD</strong> works within<br />

multiple countries on a variety of projects to provide<br />

expertise and support for organizing and<br />

implementing public information campaigns on<br />

migration by teaching how to reach out to different<br />

target groups and select or adjust communication<br />

tools and methods. The topics for <strong>ICMPD</strong>-supported<br />

awareness-raising activities include the<br />

provision of information to academic and nongovernmental<br />

sectors concerning new migration<br />

policy, sharing achievements and perspectives of<br />

the implementation of the Visa Liberalization Action<br />

Plan with the general public, briefing diaspora<br />

members about the socio-political situation in their<br />

country of origin, promoting legal forms of migration,<br />

and preventing irregular migration. Methods<br />

for such support vary from the provision of training<br />

to public relations managers in migration-related<br />

institutions and the organization of mobile counselling<br />

units in destination countries to the organiza<br />

tion of photo contests for youth and open-air<br />

events on migration issues.

International Centre for Migration<br />

Policy Development (<strong>ICMPD</strong>)<br />

Gonzagagasse 1<br />

A-1010 Vienna<br />

Austria<br />

www.icmpd.org<br />

All rights reserved. No part of this<br />

publication may be reproduced,<br />

copied or transmitted in any form<br />

or by any means, electronic or<br />

mechanical, including photocopy,<br />

recording, or any information storage<br />

and retrieval system, without<br />

permission of the copyright owners.<br />

Art Direction & Design: Rosebud<br />

Photography: David Blacher<br />

(p. 2 and 4), Katsey (inside cover)<br />

International Centre for Migration<br />

Policy Development (<strong>ICMPD</strong>)<br />

Austria, 2016<br />

Boundaries and names shown and the designations<br />

used on the maps do not imply official endorsement<br />

or acceptance by <strong>ICMPD</strong>.

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

57<br />

Executive<br />

Management<br />

Michael Spindelegger<br />

Director General<br />

Gabriela Abado<br />

Deputy Director General, Director of<br />

Human and Financial Ressources<br />

Martijn Pluim<br />

Director, Eastern Dimension<br />

Lukas Gehrke<br />

Director, Southern Dimension<br />

Ralph Genetzke<br />

Head of Brussels Mission

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

58<br />

Financial<br />

Information<br />

General<br />

The financial statements are prepared in line<br />

with the rules governing the financial framework<br />

of <strong>ICMPD</strong> and relevant decisions by its<br />

Member States. They are drawn up in accordance<br />

with generally accepted accounting<br />

principles and International Public Sector<br />

Accounting Standards (IPSAS) as applied.<br />

Budget execution<br />

EUR 16,751,000<br />

873,100<br />

166,100<br />

951,900<br />

14,760,000<br />

Membership contributions<br />

Project resources<br />

Net contributions from<br />

operational activities<br />

Other income

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

59<br />

Budget Execution<br />

Programmes and Geographic Areas<br />

Expenditures in <strong>2015</strong> (regular and programme<br />

budget) amounted to EUR 16.7 million. The<br />

budget was funded by membership contributions,<br />

project resources and miscellaneous<br />

income including contributions from operational<br />

activities. The consolidated budget<br />

comprises the regular budget containing the<br />

essential management, administration, and<br />

infrastructure costs necessary for the steering<br />

and governance of the organisation and<br />

the programme budget containing dedicated<br />

funds for project implementation, specific<br />

programmes for Member States and support<br />

functions.<br />

<strong>ICMPD</strong>’s operational activities covered six<br />

thematic migration management programmes:<br />

Asylum, Border Management and Visa, Irregular<br />

Migration and Return, Legal Migration and<br />

Integration, Migration and Development, and<br />

as well as Trafficking in Human Beings. Geographically,<br />

the areas of operations reflected<br />

the priority regions of <strong>ICMPD</strong>’s Member States<br />

and main donors: the Eastern Neighbourhood,<br />

CIS and the Silk Routes region, the Southern<br />

Neighbourhood with the Mediterranean region,<br />

Sub-Saharian Africa, and Brazil. <strong>ICMPD</strong> supported<br />

major migration dialogues in the Southern<br />

and Eastern Neighborhoods and carried<br />

out research projects with a focus on European<br />

policy questions.<br />

Programme expenditures <strong>2015</strong><br />

by geographic region (in %)<br />

Programme expenditures <strong>2015</strong><br />

Funding structure (in %)<br />

19<br />

11<br />

5<br />

15<br />

38<br />

10<br />

33<br />

Global<br />

Europe<br />

Eastern dimension<br />

Southern dimension<br />

69<br />

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Member States<br />

European Commission<br />

UN & Other Institutions<br />

Other States

<strong>ICMPD</strong> Annual Report <strong>2015</strong><br />

60<br />


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