Viva Brighton Issue #50 April 2017

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Kneehigh<br />

Tue 23 – Sat 27 May<br />

Theatre Royal <strong>Brighton</strong><br />

Tristan<br />

& Yseult<br />

Directed & adapted by<br />

Emma Rice<br />

Writers Carl Grose &<br />

Anna Maria Murphy<br />

‘If this show doesn’t<br />

make you fall in love<br />

with theatre, there’s<br />

no potion on earth<br />

that can help you’<br />

<br />

The Guardian<br />

brightonfestival.org<br />

01273 709709<br />

Image © Steve Tanner

vivabrighton<br />

<strong>Issue</strong> 50. <strong>April</strong> <strong>2017</strong><br />


.......................................................................................<br />

“It’s just so not me.” Deputy editor Steve agonises. He’s got to go on a stag<br />

weekend in June, to Liverpool. “It’s a terrifying prospect… A combination of all<br />

the things I’m very bad at or dislike: group conversation, lots of drinking and<br />

too much stimulation - the loud music, the nightclubs...”<br />

“So why go?” I ask. Steve isn’t usually given to doing things that he doesn’t want<br />

to do. “I have to. It’s a ritual. It’s a rite of passage. At least the groom’s a doctor,<br />

so I can rest assured that we’re not going to drink enough to actually die.”<br />

The Stag Do. Just one of life’s inescapable, time-honoured rituals. Apparently, in French-speaking<br />

countries, it’s termed ‘enterrement de vie de garçon’ - ‘burial of the life of the boy’. Cheery. A final<br />

hazing on the threshold of adulthood.<br />

I’ve long been fascinated by the rituals we observe. As a species, we seem to add ceremony and ornament<br />

whenever possible. Sacred or secular, solitary or in congregation, grandiose or mundane, they<br />

seem to steady us. Bind us together and orient us in time and space.<br />

In this issue we examine just a few of them. From Norwegian shock rockers to modern-day pilgrims,<br />

religious leaders to ritualistic tea drinkers, we all draw succour from the knowledge that we belong<br />

to something greater than ourselves. To each other, to society, or the natural order of things… We<br />

remind ourselves that what we are doing is worthwhile and has meaning. Touch wood.<br />

THE TEAM<br />

.....................<br />

EDITOR: Lizzie Lower lizzie@vivamagazines.com<br />

DEPUTY EDITOR: Steve Ramsey steve@vivamagazines.com<br />

ART DIRECTOR: Katie Moorman katie@vivamagazines.com<br />

WRITER/DESIGNER: Rebecca Cunningham rebecca@vivamagazines.com<br />

PHOTOGRAPHER AT LARGE: Adam Bronkhorst mail@adambronkhorst.com<br />

PUBLISHER: Becky Ramsden becky@vivamagazines.com<br />

ADVERTISING: Hilary Maguire hilary@vivamagazines.com, Sarah Jane Lewis sarahjane@vivamagazines.com<br />

ADMIN ASSISTANT: Kelly Hill kelly@vivamagazines.com<br />

INTERN: Jasmine King hello@vivamagazines.com<br />

DISTRIBUTION: David Pardue distribution@vivamagazines.com<br />

CONTRIBUTORS: Alex Leith, Amy Holtz, Andrew Darling, Ben Bailey, Cara Courage, Chloë King,<br />

David Jarman, Emma Chaplin, JJ Waller, Jay Collins, Joda, Joe Decie, John Helmer, Lizzie Enfield,<br />

Mark Greco, Martin Skelton, Michael Blencowe and Nione Meakin<br />

<strong>Viva</strong> <strong>Brighton</strong> is based at <strong>Brighton</strong> Junction, 1A Isetta Square, BN1 4GQ<br />

For advertising enquiries call 01273 810 277. Other enquiries call 01273 810 259

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...............................<br />

Bits and bobs.<br />

10-23. Tandem-riding mayor. Devotional<br />

toilet graffito. Sleepy cartoonist’s routine.<br />

Cultish cover artist. Patcham-born Archbishop.<br />

Lost art gallery. Fly-tipping rage.<br />

Other stuff too.<br />

My <strong>Brighton</strong>.<br />

24-25. ‘I don’t get angry looking at them<br />

in the shop window anymore’. Neurotic<br />

cartoonist and artisan-scotch-egg avoider<br />

Joe Decie.<br />

Photography.<br />

27-31. The photographer, model and war<br />

correspondent who left a 60,000-shot<br />

legacy. We delve into (a tiny fraction of)<br />

the Lee Miller archive.<br />

41<br />

49<br />

Photo by Paul Bergen<br />

46<br />

Columns.<br />

33-37. John Helmer’s ritual is mocked,<br />

Amy Holtz’s is interrupted, and Lizzie<br />

Enfield’s is surprisingly useful.<br />

On this month.<br />

38-49. Salem Witch Trials. Masked<br />

Shock Rockers. Experimental Narrative<br />

Circus. Managing Medical Uncertainty.<br />

Ghanaian Kogolo Star. French Character<br />

Comedy. Plus Billy Ocean.<br />

....7 ....


...............................<br />

Art, design and making.<br />

51-65. Taking inspiration from a Nigerian<br />

parable; tracking down Constable’s <strong>Brighton</strong><br />

studio; painting with hot wax; fumbling<br />

for words in front of Picasso; and more.<br />

The way we worship.<br />

67-71. Five religious leaders, of different<br />

faiths, walk in front of Adam Bronkhorst’s<br />

camera lens. No joke.<br />

Food and drink.<br />

73-77. Casual dining (with a two-week<br />

waiting list); very-non-casual tea drinking<br />

(Song Dynasty style); plus thinking about<br />

sugar, agreeing with Jay Rayner, and (inevitably)<br />

more.<br />

62<br />

Photo by Dan Weill<br />

73<br />

97<br />

Features.<br />

79-97. Could society exist without<br />

rituals? How does Google referee the<br />

internet? Who killed off ladies’ football<br />

in 1921? How scary are parliamentary<br />

whips? Can you have a church ‘without<br />

the god bit’? Which kind of insect is a<br />

‘tiny Travolta’? These, and other questions,<br />

tackled.<br />

Inside left.<br />

98. The height of modernity (briefly): the<br />

old Churchill Square building, in 1973.


..................................................<br />

“A lot of my work has been described as ‘cultish’,”<br />

says Billy Mather, the illustrator behind this<br />

month’s cover. “I wanted to be sensitive to the<br />

theme. Ritual, when it’s applied to religion, is<br />

something people take very seriously, and I didn’t<br />

want the design to make fun of anybody’s beliefs,<br />

so I made up my own ritual/worship world. I’m<br />

really obsessed with the idea of secret societies,<br />

so that was where the idea for the characters<br />

came from. Rituals are a way for people who<br />

might be different from each other to share<br />

experiences, so I liked the idea of the people<br />

wearing cloaks, because underneath you don’t<br />

know if they are young or old, rich or poor, what<br />

language they speak… the cloaks symbolise a sort<br />

of uniform, making everybody equal.<br />

“The tower is based on the i360, which kind of<br />

makes a crucifix shape, and that made me think<br />

about how symbols are used in rituals. What I<br />

like about the i360 as a symbol is that it can be<br />

quite divisive, because it’s a part of the fabric of<br />

the city now. We have to drive past it every day<br />

on our way to work, we see it from our offices,<br />

we can’t avoid it, and the fact that it goes up and<br />

down on a cycle is sort of a ritual in itself. It’s a<br />

focal point of the city and it kind of looks down<br />

on all of us. Sometimes I think that if aliens<br />

landed in <strong>Brighton</strong> they would probably think it<br />

was our leader.”<br />

As well as our cover, Billy has recently been<br />



..........................................<br />

working on the branding and labelling for Holler<br />

Boys, a new brewery down the road in Lewes.<br />

The designs feature more of his quirky, vibrant<br />

characters, illustrating each of the equally<br />

quirky beers. Moving into a slightly more<br />

unusual medium, he recently started working<br />

on an exhibition of socks called ‘A Tus Pies’<br />

(‘At Your Feet’) which will open at Fábrica<br />

Moritz in Barcelona in November. He’ll<br />

be putting his designs onto a pair of socks<br />

which will be displayed and sold at the<br />

exhibition.<br />

Rebecca Cunningham<br />

Check out more of Billy’s work at<br />

billymather.co.uk<br />


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...............................<br />

ON THE BUSES #24: JOHN PECHAM (ROUTE 50, 50A, 46)<br />

What was John Pecham like? Well, to grow up poor, and rise to become Archbishop<br />

of Canterbury; to argue with the king about power, and with Thomas Aquinas about<br />

philosophy; to write an optics textbook which was still being used centuries later - to do<br />

all this, from a working-class background, in the thirteenth century…<br />

It’s believed that Pecham was born in Patcham, which may explain his surname. It’s<br />

believed that he was born around 1230, and educated at the Priory in Lewes. His rise<br />

through academia and the church means that his later life is better documented, though<br />

he remains a puzzling figure.<br />

For example: Pecham believed in religious self-denial and poverty; but on being appointed<br />

Archbishop in 1279, one historian notes, ‘he entered Canterbury with the utmost pomp<br />

and magnificence’. Pecham was noted for ‘his kindness, sincerity and humility’, according<br />

to the Dictionary of National Biography; however, he could also be ‘overbearing’, ‘high handed’, and rude. Reading<br />

about Pecham’s dogged anti-corruption efforts, he seems modern and forward thinking; but then one finds out<br />

that, in 1282, he ordered the demolition of every synagogue in the diocese of London.<br />

This order, according to the historian Mark Antony Lower, ‘would assuredly have been carried into effect but<br />

for the wise and foreseeing policy of King Edward the First, who temporarily became their protector.’ However,<br />

Pecham wasn’t defrocked or forced to resign in disgrace - he was still Archbishop at the time of his death in 1292.<br />

Steve Ramsey<br />

Illustration by Joda, jonydaga.weebly.com<br />



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...............................<br />


Here we are with Steve (pictured right), one half of Alan and Steve, ‘and<br />

a bit of colourful Spanish pottery’. They are more usually to be found<br />

around the West Hill and Seven Dials areas of <strong>Brighton</strong>, but they took<br />

us on a sunny winter break to Seville. They tell us they couldn’t leave us<br />

behind, so caught up with our March issue in<br />

between trips to the great tapas bars they found<br />

on every corner. And Pat Scott (left) took our<br />

‘flesh’-themed issue with him on a recent trip<br />

to that infamous fleshpot, the Colosseum, in<br />

Rome. Whilst the naked bike ride might raise an<br />

eyebrow or two in <strong>Brighton</strong>, our research tells<br />

us that those gladiators got up to so much worse, with very few clothes on.<br />

It makes for grisly reading. Keep taking us on your adventures and send your<br />

pictures to us at hello@vivamagazines.com


...............................<br />


The dark clouds gathering overhead reflect JJ Waller’s mood in response to this<br />

scene, captured last month on the road to Ditchling Beacon. ‘This dumping on<br />

the Downs is really hard for me to comprehend’ writes JJ… ‘It verges on a raw<br />

wickedness, a grotesque metaphor for human contemptuousness.’<br />

We couldn’t agree more, JJ.<br />


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...............................<br />


“Classy joint,” says my mate Dave, down from<br />

London for the day, who’s asked me if I fancy<br />

Friday-afternoon lunch, in a swanky restaurant,<br />

on his business account. Thing is, I need to do<br />

some fieldwork research on the Font, so I’ve told<br />

him we’re eating there instead. I arrive early, and<br />

wait with a pint of Camden Hells, absorbing the<br />

oddity of my surroundings. I’ve never before<br />

been in a pub that was originally designed as a<br />

Nonconformist chapel.<br />

I’ve done enough onscreen research to bore poor<br />

Dave to tears. In the late-seventeenth century,<br />

when <strong>Brighton</strong> was expanding as a fashionable<br />

resort, it only had one church, St Nicholas’, so a<br />

second was built nearer the seafront, named the<br />

Union Chapel. The date of its foundation is under<br />

dispute: some have it as early as 1668, some<br />

as late as 1698. Its first Minister was a Presbyterian,<br />

and the space was also used by other Non-<br />

Anglican groups; 8% of the city’s population was<br />

then Nonconformist.<br />

In 1825, when <strong>Brighton</strong> was undergoing its<br />

Regency facelift, the building was redesigned<br />

- probably by Amon Wilds Junior and Charles<br />

Busby - which explains its rather gorgeous Classical<br />

façade, rather difficult to admire nowadays in<br />

the narrow alley it resides in. In 1853 it merged<br />

with the Queen Square Congregational Church<br />

(as featured in VB#49); by 1905 it had become an<br />

Evangelical Mission Hall, and subsequently an<br />

Elim Pentecostal Centre. The evangelists left in<br />

1985, and the building was bought by the Firkin<br />

group, who turned it into a real-ale pub - The<br />

Font and Firkin.<br />

Nowadays, run by pubco Mitchells & Butlers,<br />

it’s become something of a twenty-something<br />

vertical-drinking establishment on Friday and<br />

Saturday nights, filling up with revellers enjoying<br />

the sounds spun by its resident DJs, and the<br />

cheap booze on sale. In the weekdays and daytime<br />

weekends its huge screen (above what used<br />

to be the altar) shows live football and rugby: the<br />

seats in the semi-circular gallery on the first floor<br />

look like the perfect place to settle in for a game.<br />

It’s fairly quiet this Friday lunchtime: I enjoy<br />

another couple of pints of craft lager and a very<br />

reasonably priced (£8.95) meat platter as we catch<br />

up on gossip and news. The sausages are pretty<br />

average, but the steak isn’t, actually, at all bad.<br />

It’s not quite The Salt Room, which Dave had in<br />

mind for the afternoon, but when you can mix<br />

work with pleasure… Alex Leith<br />

Union Street, fontbrighton.co.uk<br />

Painting by Jay Collins<br />



...............................<br />

<strong>Brighton</strong> Picture Gallery on Grand Parade, 1823 © Royal Pavilion <strong>Brighton</strong><br />




With the Constable in <strong>Brighton</strong> exhibition opening<br />

this month, to be followed in June by a display on<br />

Jane Austen and the seaside, I have been interested<br />

in the various forms of entertainment available in<br />

our city in the early 19th century. Apart from events<br />

at assembly rooms, horse races, theatres and libraries,<br />

<strong>Brighton</strong> also had at least one significant picture<br />

gallery in the 1820s, long before art exhibitions<br />

were held in the Royal Pavilion (from 1850) and<br />

<strong>Brighton</strong> Museum was built (1873).<br />

This image from 1823 shows the interior of the<br />

much-praised picture gallery that Constable is<br />

likely to have visited during his time in <strong>Brighton</strong>.<br />

It stood at what is now roughly the area between<br />

Circus Street and Grand Parade. This plot of land<br />

was developed between 1806 and 1808. The works<br />

included the building of a riding school known as<br />

the Royal Circus, which was opened by Messrs I<br />

Kendall and Co in August 1808. An engraving from<br />

the same year shows an impressive nine-bay, threestorey<br />

structure, with a large Pegasus sculpture<br />

placed on top. Wings to the north and south housed<br />

a coffee house, billiard rooms and a confectionary.<br />

By the early 1820s, the building had become a<br />

picture gallery and social meeting place where<br />

visitors, having paid a shilling admission, could<br />

also read newspapers, magazines and reviews.<br />

The engraving showing the interior appeared in<br />

Richard Sickelmore’s popular book The History<br />

of <strong>Brighton</strong> (1823). He describes the gallery as a<br />

‘beautiful and splendid cabinet of the arts… As a<br />

public exhibition, the Dulwich gallery excepted,<br />



...............................<br />

The Bazaar, 1826, courtesy of Alexandra Loske<br />

it is decidedly unrivalled, provincially, and may be<br />

fairly classed with those of the first consequence<br />

in London.’ The gallery looks impressive indeed:<br />

fashionably dressed visitors can be seen flocking in,<br />

and the paintings arranged in a style reminiscent<br />

of the Royal Academy summer exhibitions - hung<br />

closely and all the way to the top of each wall of<br />

the top-lit, 95-foot-high room. Pictures on levels<br />

above the coveted eye-line (referred to as ‘on the<br />

line’) are slightly tilted, for better visibility. In the<br />

early years after its opening, <strong>Brighton</strong> Museum<br />

displayed paintings in the same way.<br />

The list of artists shown at the Grand Parade<br />

gallery was surprisingly international, comprising<br />

Dutch, Flemish, Italian, German, Spanish<br />

and French masters, among them Parmigiano,<br />

Veronese, Caravaggio, Poussin, Ryusdael, Mengs,<br />

Hogarth, Gainsborough and others, as well as<br />

‘the finest collection of De Loutherbourg’s work<br />

extant’. There are no records that confirm that<br />

Constable visited the gallery, but it seems highly<br />

unlikely that during his extended stays in <strong>Brighton</strong><br />

in the 1820s he would not have dropped in to see<br />

the impressive display of high-quality art.<br />

By 1826 the gallery had been turned into a ‘Bazaar’.<br />

J Whittemore notes in one of his <strong>Brighton</strong><br />

guides that ‘although we lament the alterations it<br />

has undergone, we are gratified to perceive that<br />

in its present state, it affords an hour’s amusement<br />

to the numerous fashionable visitors, who honour<br />

it with their presence.’ The author also mentions<br />

that some paintings by foreign artists are still displayed<br />

in the building. A tiny engraving in Whittemore’s<br />

books shows a building that appears to have<br />

been refaced completely, with the additional wings<br />

gone. Sadly, no trace of it remains today.<br />

Alexandra Loske, Curator, Royal Pavilion Archives<br />

Constable in <strong>Brighton</strong> is on at <strong>Brighton</strong> Museum<br />

from the 8th and forms part of Royal Pavilion &<br />

Museums’ Regency Summer season which will<br />

include Jane Austen by the Sea at the Royal Pavilion<br />

from the 17th June<br />



...............................<br />


You’re invited to join our tandemriding<br />

Mayor, Councillor Pete West,<br />

as he rounds off his year in office<br />

with three charity events. Or, if that<br />

sounds a bit too much like hard work,<br />

you can sponsor him to complete<br />

the triple and support upwards of 20<br />

good causes.<br />

Bike the Biosphere Boundary: On<br />

the 23rd, Cllr West will lead a cycle<br />

ride around the <strong>Brighton</strong> & Lewes<br />

Downs Biosphere boundary: 50 miles<br />

which, he assures us, won’t be too<br />

arduous. Heading out from Hove Lawns at 9am, he’ll head along the coast to Newhaven, up the<br />

Ouse valley to Lewes, on to Cooksbridge, over to Ditchling, on to Shoreham via Bramber and back<br />

to Hove. Get yourself sponsored to join him and register at Eventbrite. (Registration £20)<br />

Walk the ‘<strong>Brighton</strong> & Hove Way’: On the 30th, join Pete on an 18-mile path around the<br />

boundary of the city. Starting at Saltdean Oval at 9am, the walk is broken down into six stages so<br />

you can join for a shorter stretch. The route takes in Castle Hill, Stanmer Park, and Waterhall Golf<br />

Course before ending at Emmaus in Portslade around 4pm. (Registration £5)<br />

Sponsor the triple: To round things off - and launch the <strong>Brighton</strong> Fringe - Cllr West will ride the<br />

Mayoral tandem back from Paris (having launched the Fringe fireworks via a live satellite link-up<br />

from the Eiffel Tower and carried out a few ambassadorial duties on the way), arriving back for the<br />

Fringe City Community Day on the 8th of May. Then he’ll take a well-deserved rest. LL<br />

To find out how to join in, or to sponsor Pete, visit facebook.com/BHMayor<br />

Photo by Nick Ford, nickfordphotography.co.uk<br />

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...............................<br />


Habits are things we do<br />

repeatedly without thinking;<br />

rituals are ways of behaving<br />

that we deliberately create<br />

and regularly observe.<br />

Wherever I am, I always have<br />

a coffee each day. When I am<br />

working in the shop I have<br />

created a ritual of starting<br />

my day at coffee@33, just up<br />

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Their balance of simplicity,<br />

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coffee (and food) always puts<br />

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Many of our customers tweet or post pictures<br />

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They often do this on a Sunday; it’s part of their<br />

ritual of finding downtime in their busy lives. For<br />

them and me, these gorgeous<br />

magazines become part of a<br />

ritual of self-care.<br />

Our magazine choice this<br />

month is Dumbo Feather. The<br />

new issue, just in, is its 50th,<br />

and each comes from a good<br />

place, trying to understand<br />

people rather than throw<br />

snarky comments the whole<br />

time. It’s challenging, in its<br />

own way, but it is hopeful, too.<br />

So much of its subject matter<br />

is about ritual. About the need<br />

to do things consciously and<br />

regularly in order to make good things happen.<br />

In the new issue, you can read about the healing<br />

power of music, cultivating compassion, building<br />

homes with heart, and business with a purpose.<br />

All good, all achievable, all dependent, to one<br />

degree or another, on ritual.<br />

Martin Skelton, Magazine<strong>Brighton</strong><br />


Damascene conversion can strike in the<br />

unlikeliest of places. This month’s sitter<br />

found faith in the lowliest of stalls.<br />

But where is this confessional?<br />

Last month’s answer:<br />

Presuming Ed’s<br />


Photo by Adam Bronkhorst, adambronkhorst.com<br />



..........................................<br />

MYbrighton: Joe Decie<br />

Cartoonist and worrier<br />

Are you local? No. In the I-Spy in <strong>Brighton</strong><br />

book you get 50 points if you can spot an actual<br />

local. I’ve been here 15 years. I came for love,<br />

from Leeds, and before that, Kent. I met my<br />

wife Steph at university. She’s from here, so we<br />

had a choice of <strong>Brighton</strong> or Leeds, and we chose<br />

<strong>Brighton</strong>. Because there’s no place like it. It’s<br />

so unaware of the rest of the country. It’s the<br />

only place I know where people wouldn’t bat an<br />

eyelid at spending £3.50 on a Scotch egg.<br />

Do you balk at that price, or have you been<br />

here long enough not to? I do. But I’m acclimatised<br />

to it. I wouldn’t actually buy one, but<br />

I don’t get angry looking at them in the shop<br />

window anymore.<br />

What are your favourite things about the<br />

city? I like how daft it is. The other day I saw<br />

a sign for craft beer for dogs. I think in every<br />

other town in this country dogs are satisfied<br />

with water. Or least a big-brand dog beer. It’s<br />

quite silly. I do make fun of <strong>Brighton</strong>; it’s very<br />

easy to make fun of the organic-small-batchness<br />

of everything, but sometimes I feel I’m being<br />

priced out of the market because I can’t afford to<br />

buy a £4.50 artisan loaf on my high street.<br />

But you’re getting the community bakery<br />

in your neighbourhood… I already bake my<br />

own. That’s the thing. I laugh and joke about<br />

the <strong>Brighton</strong> folk, but I’m very much one of<br />

them. This is my place. I wouldn’t want to live<br />

anywhere else.<br />

You worry quite a bit, it seems. What worries<br />

you most about <strong>Brighton</strong> lately? I don’t<br />

really worry about anything in <strong>Brighton</strong>. I<br />

mean, I worry about everything in real life, but<br />

not <strong>Brighton</strong> specific. I worry that I worry too<br />

much. That is my main thing.<br />

Does <strong>Brighton</strong> give you lots of inspiration<br />

for your work? Constantly. Take a 37b bus and<br />

you’ll get a dozen stories.<br />

What’s a perfect Decie family outing? The<br />

charity shops of Blatchington Road are fun. A<br />

walk down London Road. We like our secret<br />

spots. The Secret Woods…<br />

Are we allowed to know where they are? No,<br />

they’re secret. <strong>Brighton</strong>’s great for finding your<br />

own special places. Going back to the 37b bus,<br />

that takes you to the best views of <strong>Brighton</strong> - up<br />

by the racecourse - and nobody goes there, just<br />

a few dog walkers. Pack yourself some £3.50<br />

Scotch eggs and have a picnic.<br />

Have you got a favourite restaurant? I have<br />

several. You don’t get a better salt-beef bagel<br />

than at Fourth & Church. And there’s a pizza<br />

place on Waterloo Street. I don’t remember<br />

the name. It’s family run and a bit tatty around<br />

the edges. The menu seems very basic, and you<br />

could easily walk past it but they are the best<br />

pizzas in <strong>Brighton</strong>. The best you’ll get outside of<br />

Naples. I’d rather people didn’t know about it.<br />

Do you swim in the sea? I will roll my trousers<br />

up to my knees and paddle and the waves will<br />

come in and I’ll get completely soaked but<br />

no, I don’t swim in the sea. We’re fair weather<br />

seafront goers… around about now we go down<br />

beachcombing. I’m sure that my son Sam found<br />

a big bit of ambergris once.<br />

Interview by Lizzie Lower<br />

Collecting Sticks, Joe’s first graphic novel, is published<br />

by Jonathan Cape. Available from the 13th<br />



..........................................<br />

Lee Miller<br />

Carole Callow, Archive Curator<br />

“Most people see her from<br />

the outside, as a model, a<br />

fashion and portrait photographer,<br />

a war correspondent,<br />

a gourmet cook and hostess,”<br />

says Carole Callow, of Lee<br />

Miller, who was, indeed, all of<br />

those things.<br />

Miller worked either side of<br />

the camera for Vogue in the<br />

20s, experimented with surrealism<br />

with her lover Man Ray<br />

in the 30s, became Vogue’s war<br />

photographer and correspondent in Europe in the<br />

40s, and ended up hosting a number of celebrity<br />

artist friends in Farleys House, Chiddingly, where<br />

she lived with her husband, the surrealist painter<br />

Roland Penrose, until her death in 1977.<br />

“But because I’ve got to know her more intimately,<br />

through her photographs, I feel I know her from<br />

the inside, through her eyes,” she continues. “Like<br />

a friend I never met.”<br />

For 35 years Carole has been responsible for the<br />

Lee Miller archive, a collection of 60,000 negatives<br />

which she has had sole responsibility for printing,<br />

in a period in which Miller’s star has risen dramatically.<br />

When Carole started the job, in 1982, the<br />

American was a largely forgotten figure; now<br />

her work regularly features in major exhibitions<br />

around the world.<br />

Carole’s involvement with the project was serendipitous.<br />

“I got a job as a home help at Antony and<br />

Susanna Penrose’s house in Chiddingly. On my<br />

first day I found some black and white photographic<br />

prints hung on the line to dry. Later that<br />

morning over coffee, I revealed to Susanna that in<br />

previous years I worked in a photographer’s studio,<br />

and was familiar with darkroom techniques. This<br />

came at a point when Antony was overwhelmed<br />

with trying to document<br />

and archive the photos.”<br />

Since then, every official<br />

modern print of a Lee<br />

Miller photograph has<br />

been created by Carole’s<br />

hand, utilizing the original<br />

wet process in the darkroom<br />

or, more recently,<br />

created digitally with<br />

Carole’s guidance.<br />

“My favourite period in<br />

Lee’s career was when<br />

she lived in Egypt between 1933 and 1939 with<br />

her first husband. For the first time she wasn’t<br />

shooting for commercial purposes. My favourite?<br />

Portrait of Space, the only print on my wall at<br />

home, gifted to me after 25 years in the job.”<br />

Seeing Lee Miller’s world through Lee Miller’s<br />

eyes hasn’t always been easy for Carole, who<br />

retires in June. The photographer was extremely<br />

damaged by the experiences she went through<br />

during and after the war. Particularly traumatic<br />

was the liberation of Dachau in <strong>April</strong> 1945. “It<br />

was only after a camp survivor came to Farleys<br />

House some years ago, that the emotional reality<br />

hit home,” says Carole. “He told us how he met<br />

Lee, and showed us a packet of cigarettes she had<br />

signed for him. Suddenly I thought, ‘this is real,<br />

it’s not just photos’. It hit me that they were depictions<br />

of events that Lee had witnessed, and been<br />

tremendously moved by. They started affecting<br />

me even more profoundly, just as Lee had seen<br />

through her lens.”<br />

Alex Leith<br />

Lee Miller Archives Print Room Sale, Friends Meeting<br />

House. Part of Artists’ Open Houses festival,<br />

weekends only, May 13th-21st, free entry.<br />

Collectors evening, May 19th. leemiller.co.uk<br />



..........................................<br />

Max Ernst and Leonora Carrington, St Matin d’Ardeche, France 1939<br />

© Courtesy Lee Miller Archives, England <strong>2017</strong>. All rights reserved. leemiller.co.uk<br />



..........................................<br />

Roland Penrose and Picasso in Roland’s studio, Farley Farm, East Sussex, England, 1950<br />

© Courtesy Lee Miller Archives, England <strong>2017</strong>. All rights reserved. leemiller.co.uk<br />



..........................................<br />

Saul Steinberg, Long Man of Wilmington, Sussex, England, 1952<br />

© Courtesy Lee Miller Archives, England <strong>2017</strong>. All rights reserved. leemiller.co.uk<br />



..........................................<br />

Lee Miller and Antony Penrose, London, England 1947<br />

© Courtesy Lee Miller Archives, England <strong>2017</strong>. All rights reserved. leemiller.co.uk<br />



SUMMER OPERA FESTIVAL <strong>2017</strong><br />



COLUMN<br />

...........................................<br />

Lizzie Enfield<br />

Notes from North Village<br />

“The man in the moon came tumbling down and<br />

asked the way to Norwich… Da da da. No. That’s<br />

porridge.”<br />

I’m having tea and cake with a couple of friends<br />

and am trying to remember which nursery rhyme<br />

features groats.<br />

I’m just back from Poland, where we were served<br />

groats for dinner. They were new on me. A kind of<br />

puy-lentil-coloured quinoa, if you want to be really<br />

North Village about it. A grain of some description,<br />

if not.<br />

But I think they feature in a rhyme, so I’m going<br />

through all the ones I know.<br />

“Sing a song of sixpence, a pocket full of rye…<br />

Nope.”<br />

“This is the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house<br />

that Jack built. Malt!”<br />

My companions are surprised by my knowledge of<br />

nursery rhymes.<br />

“Didn’t your parents test you on them over<br />

dinner?” I ask, casually, expecting the answer to be a<br />

murmured “oh yes,” not a bemused “no, did yours?”<br />

Yes.<br />

I now realise nursery-rhyme tests were not part<br />

of everybody’s mealtime rituals and that not<br />

everybody’s father sat at the head of the table asking,<br />

“Who worried the cat that chased the rat that ate the<br />

malt? Quick. First to answer can have another roast<br />

potato!”<br />

“The Dog.” The potato went to my brother.<br />

“And who popped its head into the shop and said<br />

‘What! No soap?’”<br />

“I know! I know! The great she-bear.”<br />

A potato would be mine if there were any left.<br />

Instead, a lifetime of thinking and sometimes saying<br />

“What! No Soap? So he died…” out loud, whenever<br />

someone in a public toilet remarks that the soap in<br />

the dispenser has run out, was what I ended up with.<br />

Cue strange looks. Were the people around this<br />

washbasin not tested on the words of The Grand<br />

Panjandrum over dinner? Clearly not.<br />

Nor the friends of my children who question my<br />

pronunciation of forehead to rhyme with florid or<br />

torrid or, definitively, horrid because that’s how the<br />

nursery rhyme goes.<br />

“It’s fore to rhyme with score - head,” the kids insist.<br />

“There was a little girl, who had a little curl, Right in<br />

the middle of her forehead…” I counter.<br />

“And when she was good, she was very, very good,<br />

but when she was bad, she was horrid!”<br />

This proves that my pronunciation is right.<br />

Otherwise the little girl is not “horrid” but “whore<br />

head,” and it’s a children’s nursery rhyme after all.<br />

Not that they’re all suitable for children.<br />

The groat one comes to me.<br />

“There was an old man in a velvet coat,<br />

He kissed a maid, And gave her a groat” I begin<br />

reciting.<br />

“The groat it was cracked and would not go. Ah, old<br />

man, do you serve me so?”<br />

“Wow, I’m strangely impressed,” says one of my<br />

friends. “More cake?”<br />

So, years down the line, ritualistic mealtime rhyme<br />

testing at dinner has finally come into its own. I’ve<br />

strangely impressed someone and earned more cake.<br />

Illustration by Joda, jonydaga.weebly.com<br />



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COLUMN<br />

...........................................<br />

John Helmer<br />

11 o’clock<br />

Illustration by Joda, jonydaga.weebly.com<br />

“Is that a coffee cup?”<br />

I’m at the computer in my study, skyping with<br />

my eldest child Grace. She’s laughing at me.<br />

“What?”<br />

Poppy, at my side, smirks - in that unpleasant<br />

way she does all the time now that she’s nearly<br />

fourteen and a proper teenager.<br />

“What?!” I’m getting exasperated. “Let me in<br />

on the joke, someone.”<br />

“Every morning at eleven…”<br />

I look at the cup on my desk, slightly stained<br />

at the rim; adorable little almond cantuccini<br />

biscuit nestling in its saucer...<br />

“You’re so predictable, Dad!”<br />

They’re on to me. Coffee at eleven.<br />

Lunch at one. Tea at four... How<br />

did I become this OCD robot?<br />

Blame a Catholic upbringing,<br />

perhaps. I remember a game I<br />

used to play with my brothers,<br />

nibbling the corners off After<br />

Eights and administering them<br />

like hosts to each in turn, with<br />

a blasphemous sign of the<br />

cross - the body of Christ...<br />

Or perhaps it’s genetic. I am<br />

the son of an engineer, a group<br />

of people who, I was reading<br />

the other day, are significantly<br />

more likely to be on the<br />

spectrum.<br />

A picture comes to mind of Dad,<br />

standing in the porch of our old<br />

house, cleaning his ears out with<br />

a front-door key. Was he<br />

a bit autistic maybe?<br />

Did he have<br />

rituals? I struggle to think of any. But then I<br />

struggle to know anything much about him. He<br />

was a taciturn man, without much small talk.<br />

And without much big talk either.<br />

There was, of course, the tea-time ritual. Tea at<br />

home was served strong, with up to four sugars.<br />

Mum would bring it in and we would all sit<br />

around in the front room nursing our mugs.<br />

After one sip all three of the adults - Mum,<br />

my father and my grandfather - would fall<br />

deeply asleep and silence would reign until the<br />

moment when the heat of the tea caused my<br />

grandfather’s dentures to expand, and they fell<br />

into his cup with a loud splash.<br />

But that was a family thing, and had no allotted<br />

time. My father, my father, though: did he do<br />

particular things at particular times of day? I<br />

rifle through my memories of him - happy face,<br />

cross face - and come back with not much. The<br />

truth is, he was always away on some foreign<br />

airfield, fixing planes (he was an aeronautical<br />

engineer). Long dead, there’s not enough of him<br />

remaining in my memory from which to divine<br />

any sort of pattern to his behaviour. It’s like<br />

looking for the shape of mist.<br />

“…Predictability is not a bad thing,” says Grace,<br />

smiling sweetly through the screen; “Wherever<br />

I am in the world, whoever I’m with, I always<br />

know what you’re doing at eleven o’clock every<br />

morning. It’s reassuring.”<br />

I think about this for a moment, wondering<br />

what it must be like to have a parent whose<br />

presence in your life makes you feel reassured<br />

(rather than mystified and freaked out).<br />

“…It’s a good thing,” says Poppy, patting me<br />

softly, like a dog.<br />

I sip my coffee. A good thing.<br />


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COLUMN<br />

...........................................<br />

Amy Holtz<br />

And her ten-finger orchestra<br />

I’m in the middle of telling<br />

a story and drinking a pint<br />

when one of my friend’s<br />

bejewelled hands reaches<br />

out and slaps across mine.<br />

“Stop it!” she thunders,<br />

appalled.<br />

“Stop what?” I ask,<br />

bewildered. “Ow.”<br />

She points to my fingers with<br />

the wide, all-seeing eyes of<br />

a former teacher, and huffs.<br />

“You know.”<br />

It takes a minute, but of<br />

course I do know. I just forget<br />

I’m doing it - cracking my<br />

knuckles. And over the years, I’ve come to realise<br />

there are only two kinds of people in the world;<br />

the innocent, misunderstood air-bubble poppers<br />

who just want to be left alone, and the people who<br />

shame them.<br />

“I’m just thinking of your future,” she continues,<br />

calmer, sifting through our pub booty of dryroasted<br />

peanuts, the eating of which, in my opinion,<br />

is a far bigger public-health risk. “My sister got<br />

arthritis early on and she used to do that.”<br />

“But how do you know it was the knucklecracking?<br />

Instead of say, I don’t know, genetics?” I<br />

say this defiantly, with not a smidgen of sensibility,<br />

but I can feel what can only be described politely<br />

as an urge - building. In my fingers. I didn’t finish,<br />

and now I’m going to have to wait until she turns<br />

her back or risk another slapping.<br />

I used to get regular knuckle raps from my<br />

gramma. As an often-annoying do-gooder, it was<br />

the only thing that gave me a frisson of devilry<br />

throughout my youth. The feeling was as close<br />

as I had come to bank robbery or face tattooing -<br />

and likely ever will. And<br />

my piano teacher spent<br />

many a lesson lecturing<br />

me on my thoughtless<br />

habit, as though a<br />

career as a concert<br />

pianist was somehow<br />

hanging in the balance.<br />

It wasn’t. Sighing, a<br />

noise so charged with<br />

disappointment, she<br />

used to tap at my hands<br />

with her marking pencil,<br />

which, looking back,<br />

smacks of counterproductiveness.<br />

But it isn’t just the well-intentioned - the folk who<br />

rightly profess to be looking out for you, no matter<br />

how obnoxiously persistent they are. People look<br />

at you when you do this in the library, one knuckle<br />

at a time, using your other fingers to get at the<br />

thumbs, like a little ten-finger orchestra. Or say,<br />

“ouch”, and wince in your general direction, as<br />

if experiencing some sort of knuckle-cracking<br />

stigmata on their person.<br />

It does make you wonder - just where do these<br />

old wives’ tales come from? And how come they<br />

live on, even now we have Google?<br />

I posit this to my friend - fishing for my rational<br />

voice but coming up with shrill. “I’m not going to<br />

get arthritis! There’s simply no evidence!”<br />

She looks at me with mild pity and passes me the<br />

peanuts. I’m desperate to finish my forefinger and<br />

thumb, which are patiently waiting, but I’m too<br />

scared of her.<br />

Ok, so maybe I do have a problem. In the end, it<br />

doesn’t really matter how these things start. All I<br />

know is that they don’t seem to stop.<br />


MUSIC<br />

..........................<br />

Gigs In <strong>Brighton</strong>...<br />

cHarLie sTraW<br />

Monday 17th <strong>April</strong><br />

The Prince Albert, <strong>Brighton</strong><br />

Haus<br />

Friday 21st <strong>April</strong><br />

Komedia, <strong>Brighton</strong><br />

WiLLiaM MccarTHy<br />

Friday 21st <strong>April</strong><br />

The Haunt, <strong>Brighton</strong><br />

JoHnny LLoyD<br />

Friday 21st <strong>April</strong><br />

Sticky Mike’s, <strong>Brighton</strong><br />

VaLerie June<br />

Saturday 22nd <strong>April</strong><br />

Concorde 2, <strong>Brighton</strong><br />

Dan oWen<br />

Tuesday 25th <strong>April</strong><br />

Komedia, <strong>Brighton</strong><br />

counTerFeiT<br />

Saturday 29th <strong>April</strong><br />

The Haunt, <strong>Brighton</strong><br />

ProToJe<br />

Thursday 11th May<br />

Concorde 2, <strong>Brighton</strong><br />

Marianas TrencH<br />

Saturday 13th May<br />

The Haunt, <strong>Brighton</strong><br />

Foy Vance<br />

Monday 22nd May<br />

Concorde 2, <strong>Brighton</strong><br />

exoDus<br />

Wednesday 7th June<br />

Concorde 2, <strong>Brighton</strong><br />

Minus THe Bear<br />

Saturday 10th June<br />

The Haunt, <strong>Brighton</strong><br />

LoutPromotions.co.uk<br />

Ben Bailey rounds up<br />

HATERS<br />

Fri 7, Green Door Store, 7pm, £5/4/3<br />

Perhaps pre-empting detractors with their choice<br />

of band name, Haters make the kind of lo-fi<br />

indie-pop that’s often associated with groups from<br />

the late 80s and early 90s. However, the combination<br />

of jangly guitar and pop-punk drumming is a<br />

format that never really went away, and with good<br />

reason. It still works, especially as Haters’ lyrics<br />

have a straightforward honesty which ensures<br />

indie kids of a certain hue will find something to<br />

relate to here. This show, put on by local DIY<br />

promoters FemRock, is the band’s last UK date<br />

before a short European tour. They’re back again<br />

at the end of the month, playing the ‘Fallopian<br />

Tunes Fest’ at the same venue on the 30th.<br />


Mon 10, Prince Albert, 8pm, £2<br />

Not to be confused<br />

with Bath’s Isobel<br />

Holly, <strong>Brighton</strong>’s<br />

Holly Isobelle is a<br />

singer-songwriter who<br />

sometimes transforms<br />

into the frontwoman of a pop band, trading her<br />

acoustic guitar for a sparkly synth. It’ll be in that<br />

incarnation that she takes to the stage of the Prince<br />

Albert for the launch show of her first single, Remains<br />

of Our Love. Influences range from contemporary<br />

alt-pop acts like Two Door Cinema Club<br />

and Lucy Rose, to original shimmering-synthpop<br />

exponents Simple Minds. Support comes from folk<br />

songstress Hayley Chillcott and local indie rockers<br />

Codename Aquarius. To mark the occasion Holly’s<br />

promising special décor, cupcakes and a free drink.<br />


MUSIC<br />

..........................<br />

the local music scene<br />


Sat 8, Sticky Mike’s Frog Bar, 7pm, £5<br />

Marking the anniversary of Kurt Cobain’s death, this<br />

tribute night sees four local grunge acts paying homage<br />

to the tragic hero of 90s rock. Nirvana covers are<br />

inevitable, the only question is: who gets to play Teen<br />

Spirit? Fuoco, DITZ, and PLUNGE fill out the bill,<br />

while Dirty White Fever take the headline slot, mixing<br />

the sludgy blues rock of The White Stripes with<br />

the speed riffing of Queens of the Stone Age. The<br />

<strong>Brighton</strong> duo, one half of which was briefly in The<br />

Eighties Matchbox B-Line Disaster, will go down well<br />

with anyone who likes their rock raw and unpretentious.<br />

The WÜF DJs round off the night playing all<br />

the big grunge hits - which seems like an oxymoron,<br />

but you know what we mean.<br />


Thu 13, Sticky Mike’s Frog Bar, 8pm, £5/3<br />

Promoting the launch of<br />

their debut album, First<br />

World Pros are a new <strong>Brighton</strong><br />

seven-piece comprised<br />

of former members of The<br />

Leisure Society and Django Spears. If you ever caught<br />

the latter, you’ll remember that their klezmer/skiffle<br />

pop covers were musically much better than they<br />

needed to be for the humour to work. Likewise, the<br />

comical lyrics that First World Pros have hewn out of<br />

everyday petty problems (you know the sort) are set<br />

to a diverse and impressively executed form of festival<br />

music. The band’s Afrobeat, highlife and alt-rock<br />

influences leaves them sounding like a frenetic version<br />

of Vampire Weekend mixed perhaps with some of<br />

The Clash’s weirder later stuff. If you’re not dancing,<br />

you’ll be laughing.<br />

________________________________________<br />

Sammy and the Snow Leopard<br />

Wed 19 - Thu 20 Apr<br />

________________________________________<br />

KIN<br />

Wed 19 Apr<br />

________________________________________<br />

Banff Mountain Film Festival<br />

Thu 20 Apr<br />

________________________________________<br />

Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra<br />

Sat 22 Apr<br />

________________________________________<br />

Naomi’s Wild & Scary<br />

Sun 23 Apr<br />

________________________________________<br />

London Philharmonic Orchestra<br />

Sat 29 Apr<br />

________________________________________<br />

<strong>Brighton</strong> Festival<br />

Sat 6 - Sun 28 May<br />

________________________________________<br />

brightondome.org<br />

01273 709709<br />


<strong>Brighton</strong> Fringe Award<br />

Winners 2014 . 2015 . 2016<br />

What the critics say about Pretty Villain:<br />

‘Brilliant’- Plays International ✶✶✶✶✶ ‘High quality’ The Argus<br />

‘Thoroughly professional’ – Fringe Review<br />

‘Tragedy and comedy intertwine magically’ - Broadway Baby<br />

Blue/Orange<br />

by Joe Penhall<br />

NE-YO<br />

Sat 1 Apr<br />


Sat 15 Apr<br />


Fri 14 Apr<br />


Tue 18 Apr<br />

Award-winning comedy and modern<br />

masterpiece - one day before release<br />

from psychiatric hospital, an enigmatic<br />

patient claims to be the love child of<br />

an African dictator.<br />

27th - 28th May | 30th May - 3rd June<br />

New York Stories<br />

by Damon Runyon<br />

Two wise-crackin’, fast-talkin’ 1930s<br />

short stories brought to life by ‘the<br />

nest actors I have seen on the Fringe’.<br />

‘A masterclass in direct storytelling<br />

and character comedy’.<br />

16th - 21st May<br />

box office 0844 847 1515 *<br />

www.brightoncentre.co.uk<br />

*calls cost 7p per minute plus your phone company’s access charge<br />

What did I miss?<br />

The Missing Special<br />

by Richard Hearn<br />

Winner of The Rialto’s 2016 new<br />

writing competition by acclaimed<br />

<strong>Brighton</strong> author. This comedy/drama<br />

replays key events from Rufus’ life -<br />

but does he have a second chance ?<br />

21st, 23rd - 26th May<br />

11 Dyke Road, <strong>Brighton</strong> BN1 3FE<br />

(50 yards from Churchill Square)<br />

Box Office: 01273 725230<br />

www.rialtotheatre.co.uk<br />


MUSIC<br />

....................................<br />

Ghost<br />

Agnostic shock rock<br />

All things considered, I guess we’re a shockrock<br />

band. I don’t put a lot of effort into thinking<br />

about what we are in terms of genre, but I perfectly<br />

understand that if you’re a little bit anal and you’re<br />

a protector of your genre, then you might not buy<br />

into us.<br />

I come from a very mixed-up musical background;<br />

we listened to everything from doo-wop<br />

and pop to extreme black metal. But the spark that<br />

started Ghost was the fact that I found a way to<br />

combine death-metal riffing with AOR choruses.<br />

Papa Emeritus is our mascot. Like Eddie is for<br />

Iron Maiden; but he just happens to be the singer<br />

as well. I think what you’ll get in <strong>Brighton</strong> is what<br />

we call ‘the full thing’. A few new songs, and maybe<br />

some pyro that we haven’t really done before in the<br />

UK. It’s a bigger show; it just looks grander.<br />

Religions claim to be for the greater good,<br />

whereas anyone who knows a little bit about history<br />

knows they are made up in order to control people.<br />

And that has led to an enormous amount of grief<br />

and suffering, all in vain. Ghost is an emulation of<br />

that, symbolic of that suffering. But as opposed to<br />

traditional worship, we are trying to make people<br />

euphoric by taking part in a mass, in a ritual. We<br />

leave people with the idea of wanting to<br />

live and wanting to live freely, rather<br />

than going away feeling that they<br />

need to repent or that their lives<br />

suck. That is<br />

not to say we<br />

dismiss religion<br />

per se, or a<br />

belief in<br />

something<br />

greater. We<br />

respect the<br />

fact that we<br />

have no f**king idea.<br />

You get used to playing in a mask. Obviously it’s<br />

strange at first, but the upsides are definitely greater.<br />

You find yourself transforming into a slightly different<br />

character, and that in turn gives you an extra<br />

boost on stage. In the beginning there wasn’t an issue<br />

with being recognised, because I never thought<br />

it would be propelled to this size.<br />

If there’s one person screwing up the anonymity,<br />

it’s probably my mum. She’s very proud. Ever<br />

since I was a kid I’ve always been a fan of musicals<br />

and theatre; she dragged me along to a lot of different<br />

cultural events. The first time we went to<br />

London we saw The Phantom of the Opera and Cats.<br />

I was absolutely blown away. I knew it was a format<br />

I wanted to work within. Will there be a Ghost<br />

musical? I really hope so. The point has always been<br />

to be theatrical. With the aid of masks you can more<br />

freely let your mind ease into the idea that this is<br />

‘real’.<br />

I knew nothing about the bands I loved when<br />

I was a kid; I had to invest so much imagination<br />

into the posters on my wall. Even in 2008, when<br />

we started, I was extremely annoyed by hysteria on<br />

Facebook and Twitter. A lot of the new bands have<br />

to profile themselves as individuals and photograph<br />

everything they eat. I guess Ghost was a counterreaction<br />

to that. This is not<br />

the rock ’n’ roll that I love.<br />

I wanted Ghost to be<br />

something completely different.<br />

We do things that<br />

make other people<br />

talk. As told to Ben<br />

Bailey<br />

<strong>Brighton</strong> Dome,<br />

Sun 2nd Apr,<br />

7pm, £27<br />


MUSIC<br />

....................................<br />

Billy Ocean<br />

Tailor’s-apprentice-turned-megastar<br />

“I was told I was singing before I could talk,” says<br />

Billy Ocean. “I used to sing along to the radio; I<br />

always did it.” He heard calypso tunes at his musician<br />

father’s shows; he listened to American popular<br />

music on the radio; he sang in a church choir. He<br />

was given his first instrument at the age of four - a<br />

toy ukulele. The authoritative AllMusic website says<br />

that ‘by his teenage years [he] was singing regularly<br />

in London clubs’.<br />

All this - the keen interest, the early start, and<br />

the useful mix of influences - might seem to have<br />

been leading him towards inevitable success as a<br />

musician. His mother, though, got him to learn a<br />

trade, as a fall-back. So he started work as a tailor’s<br />

apprentice. The Telegraph later noted that ‘he got<br />

the sack when Annie Nightingale played his first<br />

single on Radio One’.<br />

That was in 1974; he signed with the GTO label<br />

the following year, and went on to sell 30 million<br />

records. It’s tempting to say something like ‘…and<br />

he never looked back’. But Ocean evidently retained<br />

an interest in tailoring; he told the Guardian that ‘in<br />

the 80s, I made all my suits myself’.<br />

“I still have a few of the old suits,” he tells <strong>Viva</strong>. “But<br />

they don’t get worn these days. I like to feel good on<br />

stage, so I always wear a suit and tie; it’s just me.”<br />

Mon 24th, <strong>Brighton</strong> Dome Concert Hall, doors 7pm,<br />

tickets from £24.50<br />

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COMEDY<br />

....................................<br />

Ed Patrick<br />

Real life isn’t like med school<br />

“One of the main things about being a doctor,<br />

actually, is managing uncertainty,” says Ed Patrick, a<br />

comedian and junior doctor. “Everything’s laid out<br />

for you on a plate in medical school, but actually in<br />

real life you have to deal with uncertainty” - with<br />

situations that are messier and more complex than<br />

the ones you tend to encounter as a student.<br />

In medical school, for example, “you learn a theory,<br />

and you learn how things happen if there’s only one<br />

thing wrong.” But in real life, patients often have<br />

multiple issues, whose symptoms you have to try to<br />

disentangle and make sense of.<br />

In medical school “you have practical exams: you’ll<br />

be called together, examine the patient, take histories,<br />

and all that stuff you need to do. But whether<br />

you actually have the time, and the space, to do that<br />

in the hospital setting, when it gets really busy, is<br />

difficult. Because you’re juggling a lot of priorities.<br />

“That’s one of the key things as a doctor; you have<br />

to prioritise. You have people coming at you from<br />

left, right and centre. If you’re a junior doctor, like<br />

me, you have a list, and have to assess each thing<br />

that comes to you, and decide which is most important,<br />

and prioritise that accordingly.<br />

“You’ve seen what’s happened in A&E over the last<br />

couple of months; it’s not like everyone’s got their<br />

own room, where you can go and comfortably do<br />

everything you need to do in that time. It’s more<br />

hectic. You’re having to work in corridors and<br />

things like that. That’s not what you’re taught in<br />

medical school.<br />

“The show is about how you’re kind of thrown<br />

into this world that you didn’t know about, and<br />

it’s not quite as set up as you thought it was… You<br />

go from a medical-school situation, a university<br />

situation, to suddenly being in a very responsible<br />

position. And it’s a baptism of fire, for the first few<br />

years of doing that.”<br />

I gather that a theme of the show is that doctors<br />

aren’t ‘demi-gods’, as people might like to imagine -<br />

they’re just well-trained people doing their best. Ed<br />

says: “I think society’s always sort of seen doctors<br />

on a pedestal. There are good reasons for that, but I<br />

think sometimes you need to remember that they’re<br />

human as well.<br />

“Actually, what makes a good doctor is someone<br />

who’s aware of their limitations and gets help when<br />

they need it. And that’s why you have teams of<br />

people that you work with. It’s not actually a solo<br />

thing… You have different specialists; you wouldn’t<br />

attempt to do something that wasn’t your specialism,<br />

or where you felt out of your depth, your level.<br />

“But what happens is that people come to see you<br />

and might not realise that you’re not the specialist<br />

in that area. Because you are a doctor you’ve got<br />

that general sort of, ‘you are a man in a white coat;<br />

you must know everything.’” Steve Ramsey<br />

Ed Patrick: Junior Optimist, Komedia, Sun 30th,<br />

8pm, £10, komedia.co.uk<br />


Omid Djalili Tracy-Ann Oberman<br />


THE ROOF<br />

This celebrated and much loved<br />

musical directed by Daniel Evans is<br />

packed with show-stopping songs<br />

including If I Were A Rich Man,<br />

Tradition and Matchmaker<br />

#FiddlerOnTheRoof<br />

10 July – 26 August<br />

01243 781312 cft.org.uk


....................................<br />

The Crucible<br />

‘A perfect post-truth play’<br />

‘I have laid seven babies<br />

unbaptised in the earth,’<br />

Ann Putnam says in The<br />

Crucible, Arthur Miller’s<br />

play about the Salem<br />

Witch Trials. This is<br />

early in Act One; the<br />

suspicion of witchcraft<br />

has been raised; Mrs<br />

Putnam connects it with<br />

the deaths of her babies.<br />

“That’s the hardship of that time; many women lost<br />

their children,” says Douglas Rintoul, the director<br />

of a current touring production of the play. “I find<br />

the character incredibly moving, because she’s desperately,<br />

desperately looking for a reason why those<br />

children didn’t live, and she cannot [accept] that her<br />

body was not strong enough to produce those seven<br />

children. There has to be another reason…<br />

“That’s really the beginning of where the seed of<br />

the hysteria starts. That’s to do with somebody who<br />

was so deeply unhappy in her life that she had to<br />

find a reason outside of herself to explain it away.<br />

And certainly we can find lots of analogies with that<br />

in a contemporary society, as well. We often look<br />

for something outside of ourselves to make up a<br />

narrative of why things haven’t worked out the way<br />

that we were told that they should have done.<br />

“For such a long time, as individuals in the western<br />

world, we’ve been told that we can have anything<br />

and everything, as long as we fight for it and we<br />

work hard… It’s kind of the American dream. And<br />

then, when we don’t attain those things… because<br />

the structure of capitalist society has kind of let us<br />

down - I mean, it is an anti-capitalist play - but then<br />

we don’t question the structure of that society.<br />

“In the same way, in<br />

the play they’re…<br />

[generally] not<br />

questioning the<br />

structure of their<br />

theocracy, which is<br />

really to blame for<br />

all of the events in<br />

the play. They’re<br />

looking to blame<br />

other individuals for<br />

why their lives have not turned out the way that<br />

they were told that they should. And I think that’s<br />

the great parallel, is that we are in a time where our<br />

structures are falling apart, and we’re not blaming<br />

the structures; we’re looking to blame individuals,<br />

which will be the minorities or the outsiders. In<br />

the play, the weakest members of that community<br />

are the ones who are first attacked. Which is Sarah<br />

Good and Goody Osburn, who are old women who<br />

live in ditches and probably have dementia. They’re<br />

a really easy, easy target. And the hysteria picks<br />

them out first…<br />

“There are lots of examples in contemporary<br />

society… Look at Islamic extremism, or the way<br />

that we scapegoat immigrants for all the ills of our<br />

societies; we read enough Daily Mail headlines and<br />

then we believe… I mean, the play is a perfect posttruth<br />

play. I’m not sure that Arthur Miller would<br />

have ever believed that we would find ourselves in<br />

this situation in the 21st century, where his play is<br />

probably more pertinent now than it was when he<br />

wrote it in the 1950s. It’s… the whole play is about<br />

believing a lie, believing the lies.”<br />

Steve Ramsey<br />

Theatre Royal, Mon 24th – Sat 29th<br />


MUSIC<br />

....................................<br />

King Ayisoba<br />

Ghanaian kologo prodigy<br />

Photo by Paul Bergen<br />

King Ayisoba is a musician<br />

and singer from<br />

Kalaga, in the Upper<br />

East region of Ghana.<br />

His grandfather was<br />

a traditional healer<br />

who taught him how<br />

to play the kologo (a<br />

two-stringed guitar),<br />

and King Ayisoba<br />

became something<br />

of child prodigy in<br />

the area. Having<br />

played with hip-life artist Terry Bonchaka, King<br />

Ayisoba went on to win the Ghana Music Award<br />

in 2007. He’s been touring the world more or less<br />

ever since. This month he comes to <strong>Brighton</strong>,<br />

supported by his unlikely ally Arnold de Boer, who<br />

performs with his lo-fi electro-punk project Zea.<br />

How would you describe your music? Is it a<br />

traditional style? It is kologo music from Ghana,<br />

played with my own personal style.<br />

What is kologo? How did you start playing it?<br />

Kologo is a mystical instrument, and it’s a gift. My<br />

grandfather was a kologo player, so the kologo<br />

spirit caught me when I was born.<br />

Who else are you bringing to the Komedia this<br />

month? Ayuune Sulley (kologo player and singer),<br />

Francis Ayamga (drummer and sound engineer),<br />

Aboba Azure (talking drum) and my brother Adortanga<br />

Abbadongo Aporee, who is a dancer and<br />

horn player. We are all from the same area, Bongo<br />

Soe and Bolgatanga.<br />

What other influences have shaped your style<br />

of music? I listened to reggae music, and I started<br />

promoting kologo through the hip-life and hiphop<br />

scene, with the support of Terry Bonchaka and<br />

Panji Anoff.<br />

What is your connection<br />

with Dutch<br />

punk band The Ex?<br />

Arnold De Boer, a<br />

member of The Ex<br />

and also of Zea, invited<br />

me on tour with<br />

him and produced my<br />

albums in Europe, so<br />

I started touring with<br />

him and we shared a<br />

stage together. Later<br />

he invited me again<br />

with my full band for a European tour.<br />

Have you toured around here before? Do audiences<br />

in different parts of the world react differently<br />

to your music? I’ve been touring all over<br />

Europe and beyond for six years now... including<br />

China. Even Chinese people enjoy my music and<br />

dance like crazy.<br />

What does ‘King Ayisoba’ mean? Why did you<br />

choose it as a name? King Ayisoba means “Land<br />

Lord”; people call me that.<br />

How did you celebrate the 60th anniversary<br />

of Ghanaian independence last month? What<br />

are the biggest problems facing the country at<br />

the moment? In the north of Ghana, we have a<br />

big problem about water access and electricity. I<br />

created my own water foundation to support my<br />

people and my region.<br />

What inspired your song Wicked Leaders?<br />

I wrote this song to talk to all the leaders who<br />

are not helping their own people and just make<br />

promises when an election comes. I always want<br />

to remind them that their “power” come from<br />

their people!<br />

Interview Ben Bailey<br />

Komedia, Monday 3rd <strong>April</strong>, 7.30pm, £9<br />


COMEDY<br />

....................................<br />

Marcel Lucont<br />

Trop drôle pour l’Anglais<br />

French ‘raconteur, bon-viveur<br />

and flâneur extraordinaire’<br />

Marcel Lucont is the winequaffing<br />

alter-ego of awardwinning<br />

British comedian<br />

Alexis Dubois. He shares his<br />

Gallic wisdom…<br />

What does being French<br />

mean to you? In these times,<br />

a discerning man chooses to<br />

wear his nationalism lightly,<br />

like a billowing cravat. Yet it<br />

is difficult not to appreciate<br />

the many positives that come<br />

with being French - like a<br />

billowing cravat. There is a<br />

style, a way of life, an insouciance<br />

that only the French can truly live.<br />

French style is lauded all over the world; can<br />

you talk us through your own look? My level<br />

of style deceptively hides its functionality. Each<br />

jacket pocket contains at least one book of notes;<br />

the deft roll of the pullover conceals at least one<br />

reminder of the night before; the neat trouser<br />

contains at least one mystery.<br />

Which French stereotype is furthest from the<br />

truth? We are said to be aloof, I believe. If this<br />

is the case, perhaps you should ask yourself why<br />

are we not immediately engaging in conversation<br />

with you? Perhaps we first need convincing that<br />

an interaction will be worthwhile, or everybody’s<br />

time is wasted.<br />

You’ve written a memoir, Moi. What do you<br />

think readers will be most surprised to learn?<br />

My role in France’s space programme.<br />

What are you reading at the moment? My<br />

memoir.<br />

Your new show is described as ‘a kind of group<br />

therapy’; have you ever<br />

attended such a thing yourself?<br />

No. Having to interact<br />

with a group of strangers in<br />

this way would merely drive<br />

me to further therapy. Perhaps<br />

this is a misleading précis<br />

of the show, as it implies<br />

that I will alleviate audience<br />

members’ gripes, grievances<br />

or failings. I can assure you<br />

this is not the case. It is highly<br />

likely everyone will leave feeling<br />

more depressed.<br />

Do you rate any other<br />

comedians? Comedy is, in<br />

general, such a low art form. I<br />

find it so bewildering that other practitioners refuse<br />

to write even one poem or chanson. Observational<br />

comedy, in particular, seems wasted on the<br />

British, whose observations often reveal lives so<br />

mundane that Socrates may instead have decided<br />

the unexamined life to be perfect left as it is.<br />

What do you think of English wine? It is about<br />

time we had a joke question. I believe this is part<br />

of your mythical folklore, along with Robin Hood,<br />

King Arthur and Iraq’s Weapons of Mass Destruction.<br />

A good attempt, but it will take more than<br />

this to fool me.<br />

Are you a fan of <strong>Brighton</strong>? ‘Fan’ is a strong<br />

word. Despite its unusually large grains of sand<br />

and suspiciously cheery nature I have spent some<br />

memorable afternoons staring across the sea at<br />

civilisation. Often such moments can last up to<br />

three minutes without the interruption of a skateboarder,<br />

a child or a festival.<br />

Interview by Nione Meakin<br />

Marcel Lucont’s Whine List, Komedia, <strong>April</strong> 12th<br />


eathe deeply<br />

close your eyes<br />

think beautiful thoughts<br />

about how your<br />

home could look<br />

do something about it<br />

call Nutshell:spaces<br />

01903 217900

CIRCUS<br />

....................................<br />

KIN<br />

Narrative acrobatics<br />

Dance and theatre director Ben Duke<br />

has collaborated with acrobatic heroes<br />

Barely Methodical Troupe<br />

on their new show, KIN.<br />

In a general sense, dance<br />

is introverted where<br />

circus seems extroverted<br />

- needing the audience<br />

to feed it. A few years<br />

back, I made a dance piece<br />

called It Needs Horses, about<br />

two circus performers. It<br />

explored the concept of having<br />

no skills or talent and the increasingly<br />

desperate lengths the performers<br />

would go to to entertain - very direct in terms of<br />

contact with the audience. It made me think about<br />

how dance deals with a fourth wall; the performers<br />

aren’t necessarily pretending to be someone else<br />

and it isn’t like theatre, where you’re developing a<br />

separate world, but dance tends to have an inward<br />

focus. I was curious about how these disciplines,<br />

dance and circus, could meet - if an emotional narrative<br />

could find its way into this extreme physical<br />

language of the circus.<br />

KIN is Barely Methodical Troupe’s second<br />

show after Bromance - the story of founding<br />

members Charlie, Louis and Beren’s relationship.<br />

Bromance was a huge hit and they built a kind<br />

of reputation and aesthetic; but we’re trying to do<br />

something different with KIN, which explores ideas<br />

of hierarchy and power struggles. KIN is about<br />

people who become close because of the situations<br />

they are put in - the families that form outside<br />

‘blood families’; the circus is interesting in that<br />

way because of the physical and mental closeness,<br />

the trust and danger involved and how that builds<br />

connections. This show looks at contemporary<br />

ideas of those power<br />

and gender roles.<br />

This is an exciting time<br />

for the circus - it’s got an<br />

openness and curiosity<br />

about what’s going on<br />

and it’s learning how to<br />

borrow and steal from<br />

other things. There’s<br />

something about the idea<br />

of entertainment that circus<br />

embraces very consciously,<br />

which is a great thing. I’m a big<br />

fan of dance, but it can have a feeling<br />

of inaccessibility or, like with conceptual art, that<br />

you need some kind of key to understand it. I don’t<br />

think that’s the case, but I think that’s how a lot of<br />

people feel. But circus is overtly fun and inclusive,<br />

less formal for the performers and the audience. If a<br />

trick goes wrong, you can do it again; there’s a kind<br />

of humanity in that - we can acknowledge the fact<br />

that it didn’t succeed and that gives the circus a kind<br />

of relatability.<br />

KIN is a kind of experiment in sustaining a<br />

narrative in circus. For me it shifts between these<br />

moments where there are tricks, while feeling like<br />

you’re lost in an amazing world; there’s an atmosphere<br />

that carries you through, which creates an<br />

emotional and theatrical landscape. It’s interesting<br />

to notice the kind of audience that comes to KIN as<br />

opposed to a dance performance. It’s got a more relaxed<br />

kind of vibe; beer and popcorn, not high-arts<br />

stuff. They want to clap and cheer for tricks, and I<br />

think that’s how it should be; but that doesn’t mean<br />

it can’t be intelligent. As told to Amy Holtz<br />

<strong>Brighton</strong> Dome, Wed 19th <strong>April</strong>, 3pm and 7.30pm<br />


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our passion<br />

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ART<br />

....................................<br />

Constable in <strong>Brighton</strong><br />

Exhibition curator Peter Harrap<br />

When artists Peter Harrap<br />

and Natasha Kissell bought<br />

a run-down house in Sillwood<br />

Road back in 2010,<br />

no-one could have predicted<br />

that it would one day<br />

display an English Heritage<br />

blue plaque. “It looked kind<br />

of bombed-out. The building<br />

had been divided into<br />

three flats, none of them<br />

very salubrious, and some of the windows were<br />

missing. But there was something about it that we<br />

liked, particularly the light in the upstairs studio.”<br />

It was a journalist neighbour, Shan Lancaster, who<br />

first hinted that the house might have an impressive<br />

pedigree. “She had been doing some digging,<br />

and was convinced that it had been the painter<br />

John Constable’s <strong>Brighton</strong> studio. The deeds of<br />

her house were listed as Sober’s Gardens and<br />

there’s a letter from 1824 where Constable says<br />

he’s living at 9, Sober’s Gardens. Obviously that<br />

address doesn’t exist today, so up until that point,<br />

no one had made the connection. We discovered<br />

that both the street name and numeration had<br />

changed twice, but through a process of deduction<br />

- including an uncatalogued, unarchived letter we<br />

found at the Tate - we were able to establish that<br />

the house had indeed been Constable’s studio.”<br />

Fired up by the discovery, Harrap then worked out<br />

that the painter had made some 150 works over<br />

the period he spent in <strong>Brighton</strong> during the 1820s,<br />

many inspired by a series of walks he took from his<br />

studio towards Shoreham, Devil’s Dyke and along<br />

the seafront in the direction of the chain pier.<br />

“1824 was a particularly good year. The Hay Wain<br />

had been selected for the Paris Salon, and Constable<br />

later won a gold medal<br />

for it. But he never went<br />

to France. Instead, he was<br />

at the top of Devil’s Dyke<br />

having a revelation about<br />

painting. He decided it was<br />

not the job of the painter<br />

just to depict a beautiful<br />

view, but instead, to make<br />

something out of nothing.<br />

He then began taking off<br />

on these systematic walks across <strong>Brighton</strong>, stopping<br />

every few yards to make a little painting. To<br />

my delight, I realised that I walk my kids to their<br />

school in St Nicholas Road overlooked by the<br />

windmills Constable painted in 1824.”<br />

Although Constable only came to the city in the<br />

(dashed) hope that the sea air would revive his<br />

sick wife Maria, the years he spent here were to<br />

change his work quite profoundly. “He gains a<br />

lot of confidence over the <strong>Brighton</strong> period. His<br />

paintings were a little stuffy, a little brown, and<br />

during this time they became more energetic,<br />

almost wild. There’s a very clear transition from<br />

these quite staid pictures of Salisbury Cathedral to<br />

his big, bold storm clouds.” The house has become<br />

a popular draw for tourists since it received official<br />

English Heritage recognition in 2013, but not,<br />

Harrap has learned, for the reasons one might<br />

expect. “We’ve had five years of people standing<br />

outside taking snaps on their phones. I thought<br />

it was fantastic that there was so much interest in<br />

Constable. But I’ve just learned that it’s probably<br />

because our address is a Pokemon Go destination…”<br />

Nione Meakin<br />

Constable in <strong>Brighton</strong>, at <strong>Brighton</strong> Museum from<br />

<strong>April</strong> 8th<br />

‘A Windmill near <strong>Brighton</strong>, 1824’ by John Constable © Tate<br />


ART<br />

....................................<br />

Victor Pasmore<br />

Il était peintre<br />

There is a story that is<br />

often told about Victor<br />

Pasmore meeting<br />

Picasso. It’s November<br />

1950, and Picasso is<br />

in England to address<br />

the second International<br />

Peace Congress<br />

in Sheffield. Accounts<br />

differ wildly. Sometimes<br />

Pasmore is meeting Picasso<br />

off the boat train at<br />

Victoria. Or maybe he’s<br />

at St Pancras to greet Picasso on his return from<br />

Sheffield. Sometimes he’s deputising for a poorly<br />

Roland Penrose as Picasso’s chauffeur. Unless, that<br />

is, he’s bundling Picasso into a taxi to take him<br />

from Victoria to St Pancras. Or was it from St Pancras<br />

to Victoria? Occasionally, fellow-artist Rodrigo<br />

Moynihan is in the taxi as well. Anyway, whichever<br />

the version, whichever the terminus, there’s a problem.<br />

Unable to conduct a conversation with the<br />

great man in either Spanish or English, Pasmore<br />

has to fall back on his schoolboy French. After a<br />

lengthy silence he essays: “Moi, je suis peintre”.<br />

Picasso replies: “Moi, aussi”.<br />

Victor Pasmore was born in 1908 and took to being<br />

a peintre at an early age. His brother Stephen<br />

recalled him determinedly drawing battleships and<br />

aeroplanes in the nursery during World War One.<br />

He showed great promise at Harrow, pulling off<br />

a very creditable copy of Landseer’s Dignity and<br />

Impudence. Unfortunately, the sudden death of his<br />

father meant that the proposed art-school education<br />

was no longer financially viable. Instead, he<br />

worked as a clerk in the Public Health department<br />

of the London County Council for ten years. Two<br />

factors were crucial in his eventually becoming an<br />

artist. The first was that dogged determination first<br />

revealed in the nursery.<br />

According to Pasmore’s<br />

entry in the Dictionary<br />

of National Biography,<br />

he refused all promotions<br />

at work to have as<br />

much time as possible<br />

to devote himself to art.<br />

For years he attended<br />

evening classes at the<br />

Central School of Arts<br />

and Crafts. The second<br />

factor is the patronage<br />

of Kenneth Clark. In 1935 he bought, from the<br />

annual London Group Show, Victor Pasmore’s The<br />

Café (Tea Gardens). He went on to provide a stipend<br />

for Pasmore in exchange for paintings, that eventually<br />

allowed him to give up his job at the LCC.<br />

Nonetheless, their first meeting was not propitious.<br />

As recounted in his autobiography, Clark was<br />

rehanging a Turner at the National Gallery in a<br />

silvery new frame: ‘A young man with bright black<br />

eyes came up to me and said “I don’t know who you<br />

are, but whoever you are you’ve no taste”. I agreed<br />

and the frame was hastily removed’.<br />

Clark was unable to follow Pasmore into the pure<br />

abstraction which he embraced from the late 40s<br />

onwards. The transition from his earlier figurative<br />

style to abstraction provides the main focus of the<br />

splendid Pasmore exhibition at Pallant House Gallery,<br />

Chichester (until 11th June).<br />

Pasmore is one of the great twentieth century British<br />

Artists, able to paint both figurative and abstract<br />

masterpieces. Take the exquisitely beautiful The<br />

Quiet River: The Thames at Chiswick (1943-4); probably<br />

my favourite painting on teenage visits to the<br />

Tate. And turn round from the last room at Pallant<br />

to look back at Yellow Abstract (1960-61). To me, it’s<br />

just breathtaking. David Jarman<br />

'Spiral Motif Green, Violet, Blue, Gold...' by Victor Pasmore © TATE<br />


ART<br />

....................................<br />

Keith Tyson<br />

‘It’s just a simple process that I repeat’<br />

Portrait of Keith Tyson © Scott Douglas<br />

“I would like to do them<br />

every day, but I have three children<br />

and a complicated life, so<br />

I don’t really have that routine,”<br />

says Keith Tyson, the 2002 Turner<br />

Prize winner, on his series of<br />

Studio Wall Drawings. Since<br />

the project began in 1997, he’s<br />

produced “about 900” of them.<br />

“It sounds a lot, but over 20<br />

years it’s about one a fortnight.<br />

Not that regular, really.”<br />

The series began when he was<br />

one of five artists sharing a<br />

small studio in South London<br />

and wall space was especially scarce. His part of<br />

the studio had ‘one solitary wall for painting and a<br />

small area between the windows where I could pin<br />

a sheet of watercolour paper to a board and scribble<br />

down notes, ideas and sketches.’<br />

Reflecting on the beginnings of this ongoing opus,<br />

Tyson says: “All these nebulous ideas that hadn’t<br />

quite formed just went on to it. And when it got<br />

full I would take it off and put another piece up.<br />

So they would pile up in the corner like carpets.<br />

But then I noticed that they all had different styles<br />

as my mood changed through<br />

them. A curator came in about<br />

98 or 99 and he thought they<br />

were really interesting, and he<br />

was doing the Venice biennale<br />

and asked if I would do a room<br />

of them. So I started to think of<br />

them as works, and they began<br />

to evolve, and I started putting<br />

more imagery in, and eventually<br />

they became more like poems,<br />

or paintings, or a diary.<br />

“They are the way that I process<br />

things as well. I might be going<br />

through a particularly black<br />

phase in my life and be very depressed, and then<br />

it’s very therapeutic. At other times it’s difficult.<br />

To sum it up, it’s just life. You have good days,<br />

you have bad days, you’re inspired, you’re jaded.<br />

It’s not meant to be anything grand. It hasn’t got<br />

any message. It’s just a simple process that I repeat.<br />

“But as I do it for longer and longer periods of<br />

time it becomes imbued with some of the beauty<br />

and pathos of what it’s like to be a human being.<br />

Anyone who did this regularly would see a similar<br />

effect - maybe not as ambitious in scale, but I<br />


ART<br />

....................................<br />

Photo by Lizzie Lower<br />

think that’s what it’s supposed to be. It’s always<br />

been a longer project, and I kind of see it as one<br />

big work. When I’m gone, that’s what I’ll leave<br />

behind. Some kind of trace of my activity on earth,<br />

or the things that I experienced.<br />

“Everything in there happened. The things that<br />

are favourites of mine are moments that just<br />

happened - that catch you unawares. I remember<br />

after the Paris attacks I was in New York eating<br />

breakfast, and the New York Times had this headline<br />

about all this suffering and sending bombers<br />

into Syria, and in the corner was the weather<br />

forecast. So on that drawing, there’s a touch of<br />

the news in the corner, but I focused on reproducing<br />

the weather forecast. There’s this thing<br />

that the weather is always going on against our<br />

affairs, our individual lives. There’s something<br />

kind of Buddhist about this relationship between<br />

the clouds and the events. Those are the [drawings]<br />

that are most successful to me, that point to<br />

something transcendental. Even though they’re<br />

about specific events, there is something that draws<br />

you out of yourself. If there weren’t moments like<br />

that then I wouldn’t keep doing it. These are the<br />

moments that make you want to carry on. That<br />

I’ve just managed to grab something that’s bigger<br />

than me.”<br />

Lizzie Lower<br />

Turn Back Now, a show of 365 of Tyson’s Studio<br />

Wall Drawings, continues at Jerwood Gallery until<br />

4th June. jerwoodgallery.org<br />

‘Of Course I Know that you Don’t Exist’ 2015 © Keith Tyson<br />

‘Somewhere Near the Edge of the Visible Universe’ 2001 © Keith Tyson<br />


䠀 䄀 倀 倀 夀 䔀 䄀 匀 吀 䔀 刀<br />

昀 爀 漀 洀 愀 氀 氀 愀 琀 嘀 椀 瘀 愀 䈀 爀 椀 最 栀 琀 漀 渀<br />

瘀 椀 瘀 愀 洀 愀 最 愀 稀 椀 渀 攀 猀 ⸀ 挀 漀 洀

ART & ABOUT<br />

....................................<br />

ART & ABOUT<br />

In town this month...<br />

‘Hove Beach c1824’ by John Constable © V&A Museum<br />

‘There is not a healthy man in London, such is the state<br />

of the atmosphere and the mode of life,’ the painter John<br />

Constable once said. His wife Maria had tuberculosis,<br />

and the Constables spent quite some time, between 1824<br />

and Maria’s death in 1828, taking in the sea air at <strong>Brighton</strong>.<br />

During these stays, he must have worked prolifically,<br />

as he apparently produced around 150 works in the<br />

town. From the 8th, <strong>Brighton</strong> Museum shows upwards<br />

of 60 of these: paintings, drawings and sketches (more on<br />

pg 51). [brightonmuseums.org.uk]<br />

Ipek Duben has long been preoccupied with perceptions<br />

of her native Turkey, both from within and without.<br />

THEY / ONLAR, her latest work on the theme,<br />

has its UK debut at Fabrica from the 8th as part of the<br />

<strong>Brighton</strong> Festival. In the multi-screen video installation,<br />

the personal stories of several individuals allow<br />

us an insight into the interweaving strands of Turkish<br />

society, revealing a diversity of ethnic, religious and gender positions and how they perceive, define and tolerate<br />

one another. Dupek has said the work ‘sets out to define the Other’s Other. Prescribed identities marginalize<br />

people within their own ‘victimhood’, in turn breeding prejudice, even violence and denying some people’s right<br />

to life. In such a divided situation, how can ‘togetherness’ be realised?’ Continues until 29th May. [fabrica.org.uk]<br />

Ipek Duben at Fabrica<br />

Photo by Sergi Gorselleri<br />

‘Sway’ by Solange Leon and Dirk Engels<br />

From the 10th until the 23rd, ONCA Gallery hosts a two-week interactive community<br />

art project exploring themes of identity, migration and borders. Sway is the brainchild of<br />

Solange Leon, and is a response to the environmental and political challenges of recent<br />

times. Visitors are invited to add to a flock, or<br />

sway, of paper swallows suspended in the gallery,<br />

and also to add their voice to a new dawn<br />

chorus arranged by John Warburton. The<br />

fortnight includes workshops, performances, films and talks.<br />

[onca.org.uk] Cameron Contemporary has Menagerie until the 23rd;<br />

a group exhibition inspired by all creatures furry, feathered and finned.<br />

Featured artists include newcomers to the gallery Alice McMurrough,<br />

Clare Mackie and Andrew Squire. [cameroncontemporaryart.com]<br />

‘Oui, Oui, Oui’ by Alice McMurrough<br />


ART & ABOUT<br />

....................................<br />

In town this month... (cont)<br />

The DIY Art Market comes to The Old Market on Sunday the 30th.<br />

It’s a curated selection of works from upwards of 60 artists working in all<br />

sorts of media and from a wide range of artistic backgrounds. Go along<br />

for a rummage and find prints, ceramics, zines, illustration, risograph<br />

prints, photography, jewellery, comics, custom tees, homemade cassettes,<br />

records, artist books and all manner of creative knick-knackery.<br />

[diyartmarket.com]<br />

Methodology of the Edition: 50x50=75 is at 154–155 Edward Street until the<br />

20th. 75 members of staff and students from The University of <strong>Brighton</strong>, Nagoya<br />

University of Art and King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology in Thailand<br />

have collaborated on this international printmaking project, each making<br />

a 50x50cm print using a variety of traditional and digital techniques. The exhibition<br />

marks 20 years of exchange and communication between <strong>Brighton</strong> and<br />

Nagoya universities.<br />

Intimidated by art galleries? Bemused by art-speak? Too broke for Brâncusi?<br />

Fear not. The Vending Machine Art Gallery comes to Patterns<br />

in time for the Bank Holiday Weekend. Dispensing works from upwards<br />

of 35 artists - including <strong>Brighton</strong>’s Sophie Abbott - from just £20 a<br />

pop. Curators Tom and Hannah chose <strong>Brighton</strong> as their latest landing<br />

spot for its individuality and positivity and - no doubt - its love of a slot<br />

machine. From the 13th of <strong>April</strong> until the 26th of May.<br />

‘Sunny Beach’ by Sophie Abbott<br />

Out of town...<br />

Photo by JJ Waller<br />

Ditchling Museum of Art + Craft is seeking <strong>Brighton</strong>ians to take part in an installation<br />

as part of their Festival programme. They need six colourful individuals who represent<br />

the city’s vibrant personality to model (clothed) for their Lunchtime Life Club; a series<br />

of lively life-drawing classes using an eclectic array of models. The drawing classes will<br />

take place at University of <strong>Brighton</strong>’s Grand Parade gallery, in Cathie Pilkington’s The<br />

Life Rooms installation. If you want to volunteer yourself to model, email a photo of yourself<br />

to lucy@ditchlingmuseumartcraft.org.uk, and tell her what makes your unique individuality<br />

worth capturing. You’ll also need to be available for three lunchtime sessions,<br />

either Tuesday 9th, 16th, 23rd, or Thursday 11th, 18th, and 25th of May from 12.30-<br />

2pm. All classes will be led by experienced drawing tutors. Go on, join in. [ditchlingmuseumartcraft.org.uk]<br />


ART & ABOUT<br />

....................................<br />

Susie Monnington at Pelham House<br />

From the 12th, at Pelham House in Lewes, there’s an exhibition by painter<br />

Susie Monnington, who has a technique that she calls ‘drift and draw’: making<br />

sketches while afloat in a canoe. Her field drawings - not exclusively made<br />

in canoes - are later used to create paintings. In them, Monnington tries to<br />

capture the shifts in mood which come with the changing seasons: ‘the stillness<br />

of winter, the chaos of spring and the intensity of high summer,’ as she has<br />

described it. [pelhamhouse.com]<br />

Turn Back Now, the epic show of 365 of Keith Tyson’s<br />

long-running series of studio wall drawings, continues<br />

at Jerwood Gallery (see pg 54). The venue also hosts<br />

Bride of the Sea, a one-room exhibition of works by Eileen<br />

Agar. Affiliated with the British surrealists, and a<br />

regular visitor to Farleys House, when pressed to define<br />

herself, she wrote: ‘If anything, I would like to call myself<br />

a humanist. Whatever you are going to do, you should<br />

do it here, on this planet, now. You must listen to your spiritual side and develop it. Listen to the things<br />

that whisper to you.’ [jerwoodgallery.org] Speaking of Farleys House, the former home of Lee Miller<br />

and Roland Penrose, it’s open again for the summer, with guided tours every Sunday. Admission is £12<br />

per person (tickets from reception; there is no advance booking). They also have a selling exhibition of<br />

Lee Miller’s prints coming up, at the Friends Meeting House in <strong>Brighton</strong>, as part of the Artists’ Open<br />

Houses festival in May (more on pg 27). [leemiller.co.uk]<br />

' Pigeon Post' by Eileen Agar<br />

© The Estate of Eileen Agar<br />

The Museum of Art at Towner<br />

Photo by Rohan Van Twest<br />

What was it like being an art collector before the globalised<br />

mass-media age? How would you go about finding out how<br />

many works survived by a particular artist, and where they<br />

all were? You may find yourself pondering such questions<br />

after visiting The Museum of Art, a show inspired by the eclectic<br />

collections amassed by 19th-century art enthusiasts.<br />

It continues at Towner Gallery<br />

until the 17th. If you’re<br />

very quick, there is still time to<br />

enter the gallery’s Sussex Open <strong>2017</strong>. Entries must be submitted by 4pm on<br />

the 2nd of <strong>April</strong>. [townereastbourne.org.uk] Finally, our congratulations to<br />

Simon Martin, whose appointment as Director of Pallant House Gallery<br />

was recently announced. Simon joined the gallery as Assistant Curator in<br />

2003, working his way up to the position of Co-director in November 2013.<br />

During his time at the gallery, he has overseen an acclaimed programme of<br />

exhibitions, which this spring includes Sidney Nolan in Britain and Victor<br />

Pasmore: Towards a New Reality (see pg 53). We very much look forward to<br />

seeing what plans he has for the gallery’s future. [pallant.org.uk]<br />

Photo of Simon Martin by Alun Callender<br />


<strong>April</strong> Lambing<br />

at MIDDLE FARM<br />

Witness lambs being born, and<br />

even help bottle feed some of them

WE TRY...<br />

....................................<br />

Hot-wax painting<br />

‘Aggressive is ok...’<br />

“It looks a bit…<br />

aggressive” I think<br />

aloud, taking a step<br />

back from the canvas<br />

I’m working on. “Aggressive<br />

is ok. Here,<br />

take the heat gun.”<br />

I’m learning the art of<br />

encaustic painting at<br />

Tony Owers’ studio<br />

in Hove. Sometimes<br />

called ‘hot-wax painting’,<br />

the art form was<br />

used by the ancient<br />

Egyptians to paint portraits of the deceased,<br />

Tony tells me. However, he became interested in<br />

encaustic painting while studying the far more<br />

contemporary work of Jasper Johns.<br />

“Hot wax has all sorts of appeals,” he explains.<br />

“It’s fast, immediate, spontaneous. It comes under<br />

a genre called ‘process painting’, in which the<br />

painter has less interest in the outcome and more<br />

interest in the process. You allow the material to<br />

do its own thing, so when you start painting you<br />

won’t have any set idea of what’s coming out.” The<br />

wax we’re using is a mixture of beeswax, paraffin<br />

wax and a setting agent, which is kept hot over a<br />

camping-sized electric hob while I’m painting.<br />

I started by gluing down a piece of dyed fabric<br />

onto my empty board. Then Tony dotted some<br />

ink around, and told me to move it about using<br />

the heat gun until it dried (the heat gun is a sort<br />

of industrial-looking high-power hairdryer).<br />

After that, I covered the board in clear wax, using<br />

a broad, coarse brush, painting it on in random<br />

strokes to create texture. Then Tony told me to<br />

pick a coloured wax,<br />

so I went for a garish<br />

red, and painted<br />

two thick, diagonal<br />

strokes across the<br />

board. And this is<br />

the part where I start<br />

to understand the<br />

‘process’ bit.<br />

Until now I’ve been<br />

doing what I’m<br />

told, to an extent,<br />

and trying to make<br />

something - if not<br />

particularly artistic - at least pretty. But the red<br />

has taken away any prettiness from my canvas, so<br />

I feel more free to just mess around with it. “Take<br />

the heat gun again, and you’re going to heat the<br />

coloured wax so that it blends into the clear wax<br />

underneath,” he guides. The heat has a much<br />

stronger effect than I expected, and the brush<br />

strokes in the red wax completely melt away. It<br />

pools in some areas and creates rippling waves in<br />

others. We experiment with dropping pigment<br />

on top of the wax, and blowing it around with the<br />

heat gun. Tony suggests looking in closely at the<br />

way it moves and bubbles and dries onto the wax,<br />

and it’s kind of captivating.<br />

I spend probably an hour on my piece, and it feels<br />

a bit like meditation; I’ve become so focused on<br />

each step that I stop feeling the time pass. And<br />

while the end result isn’t necessarily something<br />

I’d hang on my wall, it was a lovely way to spend a<br />

morning. Rebecca Cunningham<br />

Workshops for beginner level up to practising artists,<br />

call 07970613288. encausticworkshop.co.uk<br />


DESIGN<br />

....................................<br />

Yinka Ilori<br />

How do you turn a parable into a chair?<br />

Photo above by Veerle Evens<br />

Artist and designer Yinka Ilori is achieving great<br />

things with his enigmatic furniture, which is<br />

inspired by Nigerian words of wisdom. He may still<br />

be in his twenties, but Yinka is already preparing for<br />

his eighth solo show, in South Korea, and his chair<br />

A Trapped Star was recently acquired for the permanent<br />

collection at <strong>Brighton</strong> Museum & Art Gallery.<br />

Yinka says it’s an honour to have his work exhibited<br />

alongside personal favourites such as Salvador<br />

Dali’s Mae West Lips Sofa. “To be around designers<br />

and artists who I’ve looked up to a lot, to have my<br />

work around theirs, is amazing.”<br />

Yinka’s work found its way to <strong>Brighton</strong> after<br />

Fashion Cities Africa co-curator Helen Mears asked<br />

him to create chairs for their reading room. The<br />

team visited Yinka’s East London studio and were<br />

taken by his series If Chairs Could Talk, so they<br />

snapped up his favourite piece.<br />

Photo by Dan Weill<br />


DESIGN<br />

....................................<br />

The series is based on a Nigerian parable: ‘No<br />

matter how long the neck of a giraffe, it still<br />

can’t see the future’. “It’s quite a funny parable,”<br />

Yinka tells me, “but with a strong message… We<br />

shouldn’t judge people. We should always believe<br />

that people can change.”<br />

Yinka was born and raised in London to Nigerian<br />

parents, and many of his peers were also from<br />

immigrant families. “That was quite powerful,”<br />

says Yinka. “We shared this automatic love and this<br />

bond based on our parents’ backgrounds.”<br />

Having parents that are busy creating a sense<br />

of belonging creates a particular sense of being.<br />

Says Yinka, “I always respected [my parents], and<br />

thought I can’t ever say anything is hard enough<br />

because they’ve done one of the hardest things<br />

anyone can ever do: to start again... I struggled<br />

with the idea of fitting in, because I love being<br />

British, I love being born in London, but I always<br />

felt there was a lot more to me.”<br />

The subject of A Trapped Star is a boy Yinka was<br />

close to in year seven. His friend was brilliant at<br />

music but was also falling over: dealing drugs and<br />

bunking school. “He was trapped in this body of<br />

two people,” says Yinka. “He was trying to find this<br />

inner person, find out who he is.”<br />

The piece, constructed from a child’s and an<br />

adult’s chair bonded together, says Yinka, ‘is quite<br />

sentimental’. The larger, captain’s chair, represents<br />

the boy’s unfulfilled potential. “I really liked this<br />

person, he was intelligent. I just felt the system<br />

could have done a lot more for him, and for a lot<br />

of people.”<br />

While the stories Yinka tells can be touched with<br />

sadness, the works themselves are almost overwhelmingly<br />

joyous, playful, celebratory. Readymade<br />

furniture items, repurposed and reinterpreted,<br />

upholstered in allegorical wax print fabrics<br />

and sprayed vivid colours.<br />

“What I love about doing exhibitions,” says Yinka,<br />

“is seeing how people react to my work. Some<br />

people, their first contact is to smile… You don’t<br />

always walk up to a chair and smile. Well I don’t...<br />

actually, that’s a lie. I love chairs, so I’m always<br />

smiling!” Interview by Chloë King<br />

yinkailori.com<br />

Photo by Andy Stagg<br />

Photo by Dan Weill<br />


let<br />

with us<br />

We’d love to talk to you<br />

about how we can maximise<br />

income on your property.<br />

Best of <strong>Brighton</strong><br />

@bestof_brighton<br />

best.of.brighton<br />

www.bestofbrighton.co.uk<br />

enquiries@bestofbrighton.co.uk<br />

01273 308779


....................................<br />

David Jones<br />

Watch repairer<br />

I’ve been in this business for about 70 years.<br />

I’d been working as a mechanic for the National<br />

Cash Register Company, but then I put my back<br />

out. I was off work for a year, and while I was<br />

recovering I started doing watch and clock repairs<br />

from my home in Portslade.<br />

It started as a hobby, but then a man called Mr<br />

Scrace came knocking on my door, as he’d heard I<br />

was keen. He trained me and gave me most of my<br />

early jobs - mainly cleaning watches for seven and<br />

sixpence.<br />

I had a lucky break. My father worked for Remploy,<br />

which organised factory work for disabled<br />

people, and he was asked to move to Sussex to<br />

oversee a new watchmaking factory. It fell through,<br />

and the company had to sell off the tools and machinery.<br />

My dad bought me a lot of the equipment<br />

I needed to start out.<br />

I took my first shop in Sackville Road in 1952,<br />

in the building now occupied by Countryman<br />

Improvements. I’ve been in this shop since 1970.<br />

The business went through a tough time in the<br />

’70s. Customers wanted everything brand new<br />

and would just replace their watches when they<br />

broke. Now it’s picked up again, because a lot of<br />

people have taken a shine to traditional mechanical<br />

watches.<br />

My son Martin has worked with me since<br />

he was about 13. He wanted to buy a radiocontrolled<br />

speedboat and I said: “Well, if you want<br />

one, you’ll have to come and earn some money.”<br />

I started him on watches, but he always preferred<br />

working on clocks, so that’s his speciality.<br />

Watches are seen as a prestige item. Me, I’m<br />

not particularly interested in that. I wear a secondhand<br />

Tissot that I’ve had for about ten years. Tissot<br />

is a subsidiary of Omega and good quality. But<br />

as long as it keeps time, any watch is okay by me.<br />

Some of the most unusual watches we get in<br />

are by Verge and date from the 1700s. I have to<br />

say, my heart sinks a bit when someone puts a<br />

Verge on the counter. They’re hard to make any<br />

money from because you have to spend so much<br />

time on them.<br />

It’s an inventive job; you have to think out of the<br />

box to find solutions to problems. A lot of shops<br />

now just tell customers they can’t do the work or<br />

they send it back to the makers. I always try and<br />

fix it.<br />

You need good eyesight. Mr Scrace taught me<br />

how to drill balancestaffs, which are as thin as a<br />

hair. My eyesight is not as good as it was, but it’s<br />

good enough.<br />

I’m kept very busy. I didn’t used to open the shop<br />

til 11am. Now I come in at 8.30am and rarely go<br />

home before 10pm. It would be nice to have a<br />

little more time to myself, but I’d be a fish out of<br />

water if I gave this up. As told to Nione Meakin<br />

DL Jones & Son, 64 Blatchington Rd, Hove<br />

dljonesandson.co.uk<br />

Photo by Adam Bronkhorst, adambronkhorst.com<br />


Feed your body & soul<br />

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This month, Adam Bronkhorst’s portrait series took him to a church, a mosque,<br />

a meeting house, a synagogue and a meditation room, all in one morning.<br />

We asked each of the religious figures he photographed:<br />

‘What’s your morning ritual?’<br />

adambronkhorst.com | 07879 401333<br />

Rabbi Hershel Rader at West Hove Synagogue<br />

“Every morning before I get out of bed, I say, not a prayer, but an affirmation:<br />

‘I thank you, living and eternal king, for giving me back my soul in mercy. Great is your faithfulness.”


Deacon Julie Newson at St Luke’s<br />

“I get up, get dressed, take the dog for a walk, and then have porridge - always porridge.”


Imam Uthman Jeewa at Almedinah Mosque<br />

“First prayers are at 5am so I have to wake up at half four.”


Rachel Ramaker, Elder at Friends Meeting House<br />

“I’ve got two big windows in my bedroom, which I open up to say hello to the world.”


Gen Kelsang Chodor at Bodhisattva Meditation Centre<br />

“We start the day with a group meditation at 7.30am.”

Food & Drink directory<br />


Terre à Terre<br />

It’s spring! Visit Terre à Terre, the go-to for the most creative vegetarian food in <strong>Brighton</strong>,<br />

always delivered with a cheeky little pun. Open all day offering lunch and dinner options<br />

from small plates to three-course set meals, not forgetting their magnificent afternoon<br />

tea: multi-tiered savoury, sweet and traditional delights available from 3 till 5pm daily and<br />

lots of chocolate goodies! 71 East Street, 01273 729051, terreaterre.co.uk<br />

The Set Café<br />

The café is situated next to the The Set restaurant and offers laid-back snacks and small<br />

plates in a relaxed atmosphere. Eating off tables made from the old West Pier and overlooking<br />

Regency Square and the sea makes it an ideal place to have a quick lunch or night<br />

out with friends. Cocktails and craft beers are on hand as well as a wine list shared with the<br />

restaurant. 33 Regency Square, 01273 855572, thesetrestaurant.com<br />

The Better Half<br />

The Better Half pub has put the heart and soul back into one of the oldest public houses in<br />

the city, just off Hove seafront. There’s a superb wine and spirits list and some great ales and<br />

ciders on offer, as well as a hearty and wholesome menu to enjoy, making the best of local<br />

ingredients. The Better Half is relaxed, friendly and easy-going, making all feel welcome and<br />

comfortable when you visit. 1 Hove Place, Hove, 01273 737869, thebetterhalfpub.co.uk


...........................................<br />

Holy Phok<br />

Casual street food with a two-week waiting list<br />

It is very probably easier to book<br />

a seat on a flight to Hanoi than<br />

it is to get one at Holy Phok, the<br />

22-seat, super-hip, Vietnamese<br />

eatery on Lansdowne Place. Four<br />

months after opening the place<br />

is still packed, and I’ve waited a<br />

fortnight for this table for two at<br />

six o’clock on a Wednesday night.<br />

Try as I might to get a third person<br />

added closer to the day (I thought<br />

you might appreciate me taking<br />

a meat-eater along, as I hear the<br />

chicken pho is truly life enhancing),<br />

they take a hard line on not<br />

overcrowding their diners, and<br />

fellow <strong>Viva</strong> vegetarian Rebecca<br />

had already called dibs. The menu<br />

might be casual street-food dining<br />

but the protocol, if you want to<br />

avoid disappointment, is strictly call<br />

ahead. Two weeks ahead.<br />

We start our meal sharing an order<br />

of ‘vesto’ - a pesto-style dip made<br />

with coriander instead of basil and<br />

peanuts in the place of pinenuts,<br />

with a good kick of garlic and<br />

chilli. It’s served with vast sesame<br />

rice crackers - all the better to<br />

shovel it in. Rebecca is the office<br />

bao bun expert and orders the (vegan) ‘bao wow<br />

tofu’ - two springy steamed buns stuffed with<br />

crispy marinated tofu, pickled carrots, cucumber,<br />

beansprouts and both peanuts and chilli sauce.<br />

Tofu can be underwhelming but, in this case, the<br />

wow of the bao is justified. Even the side of Vietnamese<br />

herb slaw is packed with zesty flavours<br />

and, whilst I know it’s rude to repeatedly help<br />

yourself to another person’s food,<br />

I have decided that she who writes<br />

the review gets to graze all plates.<br />

And I do.<br />

It is, in my experience, very hard<br />

to clear your plate when using<br />

chopsticks but I doggedly chase the<br />

last few peanuts around my ‘mockthe-squid’<br />

noodle bowl. It’s one of<br />

those clever dishes where a thing is<br />

masquerading as another thing. In<br />

this instance it’s oyster mushrooms,<br />

dredged in a turmeric-and-five-spice<br />

mixture, and fried until crispy. They<br />

turn out to be an upgrade on calamari<br />

which, in my memory, was so often<br />

like rubbery washers. The ‘mock<br />

squid’ is piled on cool vermicelli noodles,<br />

pickled vegetables, mint, basil<br />

(the aniseed Thai variety), coriander<br />

and lime dressing. The mixture of<br />

tastes, textures and temperatures is<br />

mouth-watering. The flavours are as<br />

bright on the tastebuds as the neon<br />

lights are against the dark teal walls.<br />

For dessert we share a salty fudge<br />

brownie - pleasingly more salt than<br />

sweet - and chilli chocolate ice cream.<br />

As we’ve been eating, 40 golden<br />

fortune cats have been waving<br />

down from the wall, neatly regimented around<br />

cerulean neon letters spelling ‘YOU LUCKY<br />

CATS’. Now I get what all the fuss is about. But<br />

it’s not luck you’ll need to eat at Holy Phok.<br />

It’s patience.<br />

Lizzie Lower<br />

52 Lansdowne Place (entrance on Western Road)<br />

01273 911551 holyphok.com<br />

Photos by Lizzie Lower<br />


RITUAL<br />

..........................................<br />

Photos by Horseshoe Photography<br />


RITUAL<br />

..........................................<br />

Tea Ceremony<br />

<strong>Brighton</strong> tea mistress Jennifer Maksymetz<br />

explains all...<br />

Tea ceremony stems from the Song Dynasty,<br />

an era that ran from 960 to 1279. The monks<br />

of southern China found that drinking<br />

steeped tea leaves made them more alert and<br />

able to meditate for longer periods of time.<br />

What began as an everyday practice in mindfulness<br />

developed over the centuries into the<br />

ritual we know today.<br />

I first learned about tea ceremony in 2000<br />

when I was living in Taiwan. My Taiwanese<br />

‘family’ didn’t drink alcohol so all our<br />

social occasions revolved around tea. When<br />

I moved back to Canada two years later I<br />

met Olivia Chan, a second-generation tea<br />

master whose dad opened the first teashop in<br />

Vancouver. She taught me how to perform<br />

formal gongfu tea ceremony. Gongfu means<br />

‘with skill’.<br />

The first thing one does when hosting tea<br />

ceremony is to prepare the space or chaxi,<br />

which translates as ‘tea stage’. You might light<br />

a candle or some incense, put out a cloth to<br />

place your tea set on, and add some favourite<br />

items - a beautiful flower, perhaps, or a poem.<br />

You would warm the cups and teapot and<br />

prepare the tea. In the spring, it’s traditional<br />

to drink green tea and other light teas as<br />

they are thought to be cooling to the body.<br />

In the winter, you might choose black tea or<br />

fermented pu-erh.<br />

Fill the teapot with water and let it overflow<br />

a little as a sign of abundance and gratitude.<br />

Pour into the cups immediately and as you<br />

do, focus on your wishes and hopes for each<br />

guest. Offer the tea to each person by placing<br />

the cup in front of them, either on a coaster, a<br />

piece of fabric or just on the table.<br />

There will usually be three to five infusions<br />

in total. The first and last are given in silence.<br />

In between, the host will lead the conversation;<br />

it’s part of their training. Don’t expect<br />

general chit-chat. It’s usual to talk about how<br />

the tea tastes, or to comment on the teaware<br />

or the flower the host has placed on the table.<br />

The whole process should be approached<br />

with reverence. Sitting down to tea ceremony<br />

is like stepping into a church, temple or<br />

mosque. When everyone has finished, it’s<br />

important to take a moment to appreciate the<br />

time you have spent together.<br />

Tea ceremony is a ritual that’s accessible to<br />

us all. You don’t have to have the fancy yixing<br />

teapot with the precise temperature of water<br />

and the ornate tea tray. It can be done over a<br />

mug of classic English breakfast tea in your<br />

kitchen. The point is to focus on the moment.<br />

You don’t look at your phone, or read the<br />

paper; you just sit, drink your tea and reflect.<br />

As told to Nione Meakin<br />

jadespringteas.com<br />


FOOD<br />

............................<br />

Edible updates<br />

Illustration by Chloë King<br />

Fair to say, as Edible Updates columnist, I don’t quite have Jay Rayner’s level of<br />

experience. But even so, I wholeheartedly agree with his recent (glowing) review<br />

of The Salt Room. The restaurant has just celebrated its 2nd birthday, and their fab<br />

new menu features delights like monkfish tiger’s milk and gurnard, romesco and octopus.<br />

A real star. Another delight is Edendum on East St, who are celebrating their newly revamped interior and menu.<br />

Look out for their new pizzettes and extended selection of sharing plates.<br />

Now, you must admit our city’s bloggers and journos do much to boost <strong>Brighton</strong> & Hove’s place on the food<br />

map, but too many critics can be... pesky. The Set get their own back with Too Many Critics on Apr 9th, in aid of<br />

Action Against Hunger. The likes of Andy Lynes (food writer and co-founder of <strong>Brighton</strong>’s Best Restaurants) and<br />

Fran Villani (Graphic Foodie) will take to the kitchen and it’s bound to be fun (tickets via Eventbrite).<br />

In other news, all eyes are on <strong>Brighton</strong> fave chef Tom Griffiths, of Flank fame, opening new restaurant Pascere<br />

with Amanda Menahem this spring. The Manor on Gardner St has been given a fresh new start as The<br />

Common - still serving ‘proper food, made with love’. Fatto a Mano have just launched a new gluten-free pizza<br />

option. Foodies Festival returns to Hove Lawns from Apr 29th - 1st May. Top of the pop-ups goes to Lizzie Bett<br />

of Yolk Catering at Café Rust on Sat 8th (contact: lizziebett@live.com). And last but not least, on <strong>April</strong> 28th,<br />

Conversations on Sugar at One Church promises an essential debate on one of the hottest topics in food (more<br />

on pg 77). Chloë King<br />


FOOD<br />

...........................................<br />

Conversations on Sugar<br />

A dangerous weapon?<br />

“In 1971, when we had a macrobiotic restaurant and the first naturalfood<br />

store, I wrote a book called About Macrobiotics, and in it I said,<br />

rather simplistically, ‘if sugar was discovered today it would be banned immediately and handed over to the<br />

military for weapons research’.” So says health-food activist Craig Sams. He’s since moderated his views, cofounding<br />

the Green & Black’s chocolate company with his wife in 1991. “But, ultimately,” he adds, “our energy<br />

comes from sugar - without it we’d be dead - so it’s good stuff in principle. It’s how we approach it that matters.”<br />

In Conversations On Sugar later this month, Craig will be discussing that approach with Jo Rallings of the Jamie<br />

Oliver Food Foundation, and Dan Parker from Sugar Smart <strong>Brighton</strong> & Hove - organisations both dedicated<br />

to increasing awareness of, and reducing consumption of, sugar nationwide. They’ve been making inroads with<br />

their pilot phase in <strong>Brighton</strong> & Hove.<br />

Obesity is rising; experts are telling us to drastically reduce sugar consumption, while advertisers are telling us<br />

otherwise. Slow Food Sussex have convened the panel to examine the evidence, navigate the conflicting advice<br />

and help to bring about a very necessary change. “It’s about everything in moderation,” Craig concludes. “You<br />

get more pleasure out of the things that you don’t overdo.” Lizzie Lower<br />

Friday 28th, 6.30-9pm, One Church <strong>Brighton</strong>, Gloucester Place. Tickets are available from eventbrite.co.uk<br />


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....................................<br />

Sunday Assembly<br />

A sort of church, ‘without the god bit’<br />

It’s a non-religious<br />

or secular community<br />

that, in<br />

<strong>Brighton</strong>, meets on<br />

the 4th Sunday of<br />

every month. There<br />

are about 50 Sunday<br />

Assembly groups<br />

around the world<br />

now. It’s a community<br />

of people who come<br />

together without<br />

having to have a<br />

common belief in anything. They just want to<br />

come together to celebrate life.<br />

The London one was the first to be set up<br />

by Sanderson Jones and Pippa Evans, two<br />

comedians. They came together with the thought<br />

that ‘wouldn’t it be great to have a church without<br />

having to have the god bit’. Initially it was<br />

nicknamed ‘the atheist church’, but very quickly<br />

they abandoned that headline, as it wasn’t just a<br />

place for atheists.<br />

I was brought up as a Christian, but realised<br />

in my early teens that I didn’t believe in the God<br />

I’d been brought up with. I used to think I’d love<br />

to go to the church at the end of my road and<br />

be among other people, be part of a welcoming<br />

community, but I didn’t feel comfortable saying<br />

or singing words in church that I didn’t mean.<br />

When I heard Sanderson speaking about Sunday<br />

Assembly on the radio, I thought ‘that’s exactly<br />

what I want’. So I expressed my interest, met<br />

with Sanderson and some interested local people,<br />

and eventually formed a committee of eight. We<br />

launched in September 2013.<br />

We were given a very loose template. There<br />

should be an interesting<br />

talk; something<br />

like a TED<br />

talk, something<br />

positive. There<br />

should be songs -<br />

that’s a big part of<br />

it. There should<br />

be a moment of<br />

silence and reflection.<br />

And, one of<br />

the most important<br />

bits, tea and cake<br />

at the end. That’s one of my favourite things, to<br />

hear people chatting who didn’t know each other<br />

an hour before.<br />

Everyone is welcome. Some people believe in<br />

God, some people don’t. We don’t promote one<br />

belief over another and we don’t discuss religion...<br />

we just focus on our common traits as humans.<br />

Our lowest turnout has been 75, and the highest<br />

250. There are always new faces, and I’m still<br />

staggered by how many new people come. We<br />

have an assembly every May in the Speigeltent as<br />

part of <strong>Brighton</strong> Fringe. They keep asking us back,<br />

so we’ll have our fourth this year, on 7th May. It<br />

gives us the capacity to have more people along.<br />

It’s really opened my eyes to lots of different<br />

things. Different values. Other people’s perspectives<br />

on life and faith and all sorts of things. One<br />

person told me that he thinks it saved his life. He<br />

was in a place that was dark and lonely when he<br />

came along; it just lifted him enough to see a way<br />

out of a really dark time.<br />

Lizzie Lower interviewed <strong>Brighton</strong> founding member<br />

Jo Wright<br />

sundayassemblybrighton.com<br />


RITUAL<br />

....................................<br />

Modern Pilgrims<br />

What’s your wholesome destination?<br />

When we made our first pilgrimage together,<br />

the ritualising of the walk that we did<br />

made it into a pilgrimage. We were walking<br />

a song that had been written by gypsies<br />

about a tragedy where 37 hop-pickers were killed<br />

on a bridge over the River Medway. When we<br />

got to the monument in the churchyard where<br />

they were buried, there was this couple there, and<br />

we asked, ‘Why are you here?’ They said, ‘We<br />

tried to find this monument ten years ago, but we<br />

couldn’t - we had three ancestors who died in the<br />

tragedy’. They hadn’t heard the song, and so we<br />

got to return it, not only to the land where the<br />

tragedy actually happened, but to the bloodline.<br />

It was amazing, the power of ritualising something,<br />

of having clear intention, and the very<br />

specific destination of the source of the song; the<br />

whole thing worked so well. What we realised<br />

was that this was pilgrimage: a journey on foot<br />

to a holy place - ‘holy’ being from the Old<br />

English word ‘halled’, which just means holistic,<br />

or wholesome. But having that focus changed<br />

everything, and thus was our quest for pilgrimage<br />

was born.<br />

There’s no description in Britain that says you<br />

have to go barefoot or not shave or brush your<br />

hair; what binds it all together is walking: pilgrimage<br />

is an unbroken journey on foot. There<br />

are four principles which we call the ‘SONG’ of<br />

pilgrimage: ‘S’ is for ‘self’, which means connecting<br />

with your physical self. We talk a lot about the<br />

spirituality of pilgrimage, but it’s a physical<br />

journey; it puts you in your body in a way<br />

that modern life often doesn’t allow. We’re of-<br />


RITUAL<br />

....................................<br />

ten so hemmed in by walls and deadlines and<br />

emails and mortgage repayments - all this stuff<br />

that fills our minds in modern life – but all of<br />

that kind of drifts away, and you find yourself<br />

thinking about things in a totally different<br />

way.<br />

The ‘O’ is for ‘other’: connecting with the other<br />

people you’re walking with. They become<br />

your mirror, showing you the ugliest and the<br />

best parts of yourself. The ‘N’ is ‘nature’; connecting<br />

with more than just the human world<br />

that we’ve created in cities, but everything. We<br />

are just one animal amongst the whole wave of<br />

life forms on earth, and it’s quite easy to forget<br />

that in our anthropocentric, human-built lives.<br />

Pilgrimage really strips that away.<br />

The final one is connecting with your sense<br />

of gratitude. Which obviously leads to the question:<br />

what, or who, are you grateful to? And we<br />

leave that up to people to decide.<br />

There are lots of groups today which will take<br />

you to places all over the country, but what we<br />

really try and tell people is that if you want to<br />

make a pilgrimage, you don’t have to take three<br />

weeks or follow a signposted track. You can simply<br />

work out for yourself where your wholesome<br />

destination is, the one that calls to you - it might<br />

be the grave of an ancestor, or a place where you<br />

first experienced something significant. Choose<br />

somewhere that feels like the right place, look<br />

it up on Ordnance Survey maps, make sure you<br />

plot a route that is away from the road, follow<br />

footpaths as much as possible, and simply make<br />

your own pilgrimage. You take a holiday, but you<br />

make a pilgrimage - it’s a creative act - so there’s<br />

a freedom within it to stretch to your own ritual<br />

needs. As told to Rebecca Cunningham by Guy<br />

Hayward and Will Parsons, founders of the British<br />

Pilgrimage Trust.<br />

They will be leading a two-night pilgrimage from<br />

Lewes to Eastbourne, leaving on <strong>April</strong> 7th, see<br />

britishpilgrimage.org<br />


MY SPACE<br />

....................................<br />

Pete West<br />

Mayor of <strong>Brighton</strong><br />

I’ve got two months to go. This is day 307 and<br />

my 724th engagement. My spreadsheet calculates<br />

that I might just get to 900 by the end of the year,<br />

if I keep this up.<br />

I’ve got a very long list of highlights. The first<br />

was abseiling off Peacehaven cliffs for the Martlets.<br />

That was properly scary. I won’t forget that in a<br />

hurry. Then there was a special moment at Pride.<br />

They were remembering all the victims of the<br />

Orlando massacre and it was very powerful to<br />

be invited to walk at the front of the procession.<br />

Tandeming down to Lewes bonfire, with 100 other<br />

people in the cycle train, was fun. And I love putting<br />

medals on runners when they come in. The mayor<br />

gets invited to start lots of things, but I like to be<br />

there at the end to celebrate the achievement.<br />

I’ve enjoyed meeting so many of what I call<br />

our newer communities. I’ve met people from<br />

the Filipino community who have been here for<br />

around 20 years and who mostly work in the<br />

health service. Many of these groups identify<br />

through their faith, so I’ve been to Coptic Christian<br />

celebrations and visited a Sudanese Muslim<br />

women’s group.<br />

One of the amazing things has been realising<br />

how diverse the city is and what a beacon<br />

of hope we project into the world. It’s not just<br />

our ethnic diversity, but our massive LGBTQ<br />

community too. People have come here because<br />

they feel a sense of sanctuary. They feel welcome,<br />


MY SPACE<br />

....................................<br />

Photos by Lizzie Lower<br />

at home, and not judged. All that diversity leads to<br />

all sorts of amazing things happening. The good<br />

thing about being the mayor is that you get a year<br />

to focus on that. Such positive news. I feel very<br />

humbled by that. I thought I knew the city well,<br />

but I’m still finding out new things every day.<br />

The mayor would usually have three of four<br />

charities, but I was faced with 16 or 17 applicants,<br />

so I’ve created a family of charities - some<br />

big, some small - and they’re learning from one<br />

another and working together. There is so much<br />

to embrace and support. People are motivated by<br />

charitable giving and volunteering. Capturing all<br />

that positive energy and getting people involved<br />

is so important. I started my year with a theme,<br />

‘active life’, and my first interpretation was from a<br />

public-health point of view. But it’s not just physical<br />

wellbeing that’s important, it’s mental health<br />

too, so my reinterpretation is to be as active as you<br />

can and involved.<br />

I’m often invited to thank volunteers, and I’ve<br />

had loads of receptions here at the town hall. It’s<br />

a great place to invite people. We’ve had lots of<br />

kids in too. Politicians are not highly regarded,<br />

but the mayor seems to be immune from that.<br />

Thankfully. Everyone seems to be well disposed<br />

to the mayor. Kids see you as something between<br />

a pirate and Santa Claus when you’re wearing all<br />

the gear. When I’ve captured their interest, I’ll<br />

take the group into the council chamber and ask<br />

them to imagine all the decisions that have been<br />

made there. I think that’s an important role for the<br />

mayor to perform - to strengthen an interest in<br />

democracy. As told to Lizzie Lower<br />


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<strong>Viva</strong> Lewes half page March 17 b.indd 1 13/03/<strong>2017</strong> 15:12

RITUAL<br />

....................................<br />

Prof Jon Mitchell<br />

Why do we have rituals?<br />

“I don’t think society can<br />

exist without rituals,” says<br />

Jon Mitchell, Professor<br />

of Social Anthropology at<br />

Sussex University. “The<br />

idea of human beings without<br />

ritual is a non-starter.”<br />

There is a caveat, though.<br />

Ritual is a very broad term.<br />

As well as the religious<br />

kind, there are secular rituals<br />

- which can be anything<br />

from a stag do to the State<br />

Opening of Parliament. Then there are personal<br />

rituals: superstitious habits, for example. Anything<br />

which is done partly for symbolic reasons can be<br />

called ritual - and even that broad definition doesn’t<br />

cover everything, apparently.<br />

Ritual, in this wider sense, is “absolutely central”<br />

to what it is to be human, Mitchell says. So why<br />

are we a ritualistic species? Is it a social thing, to<br />

do with bonding?<br />

“That’s an argument that comes from Emile Durkheim,<br />

a 19th-century sociologist-anthropologist<br />

who was interested in religion. He argued that<br />

at the core of religion is ritual activity, and ritual<br />

activity is about social bonding. It’s about bringing<br />

people together in the worship of something bigger.<br />

And that something bigger, he said, is simultaneously<br />

god and society. That when people come<br />

together to celebrate what they think is god, they’re<br />

actually celebrating the social bond that brings<br />

them together. A very influential view.<br />

“In some contexts, ritual is helping us to understand<br />

that we’re part of something bigger, and what the<br />

dynamics of that are. In the classic religious ‘rites of<br />

collectivity’, it’s about recognising that we’re all a<br />

part of a group, worshipping the same god.<br />

“I think that translates into<br />

[secular] ‘rituals of state’ as<br />

well, which are about recognising<br />

that we are part of<br />

something bigger: the state<br />

which is presiding over us...<br />

For example, the ritualization<br />

which goes into legal<br />

proceedings is about recognising<br />

that we’re subject to<br />

a legal framework which is<br />

shared and collective.<br />

“More recently, people have<br />

tweaked Durkheim’s idea, and started to recognise<br />

that ritual can be about challenging social cohesion,<br />

as well as constructing it. Ritual activity can<br />

be about protesting; it can be about going against<br />

the established social order. The kind of ways in<br />

which some of the alter-globalisation movement<br />

has started protesting in the last, say, 20-30 years, is<br />

often highly ritualistic.<br />

“And things like the Orange parades in Northern<br />

Ireland; to what extent are they about creating a<br />

cohesive group of unionists, and to what extent are<br />

they actually about communicating with the Catholics,<br />

and creating antagonism in relation to the<br />

Catholics? So it [can be] as much about out-groups<br />

as about in-groups.<br />

“Ritual is partly, I’d say, a search for an understanding<br />

of the social bonds in which we are located... It<br />

goes back to the basic Durkheimian idea that ritual<br />

is about constructing an idea of what ‘the social’ is,<br />

and how are we are placed as individuals within it.<br />

“We assume that, as humans, we are individual,<br />

separated, psychological beings. And so ‘the social’<br />

then becomes a problem. Actually ritual is about,<br />

precisely, dealing with that issue.”<br />

Steve Ramsey<br />



....................................<br />

The whip system<br />

Recent Labour rebel Peter Kyle tells all<br />

Peter Kyle walked into the Labour whips’ office,<br />

accidentally interrupting a meeting. This was<br />

a few months ago, before he defied the party’s<br />

three-line whip over the Brexit bill. Perhaps the<br />

whips guessed what he’d come to talk about.<br />

“They all stopped and looked at me,” the MP for<br />

Hove and Portslade recalls.<br />

“The deputy chief whip walked over, walked past<br />

me, and opened the door to his office, without<br />

saying a word. I knew what I was supposed to do.<br />

I walked in... He slammed the door shut and said<br />

something quite frank and unrepeatable, along<br />

the lines of ‘what are you doing here, Kyle’, but<br />

using other words. I said to him ‘I’m intending to<br />

break the whip.’”<br />

If Kyle was nervous at this point, it would have<br />

been understandable. Years earlier, he had read<br />

Jeremy Paxman’s 2002 book The Political Animal.<br />

It portrays whips as pretty fearsome people -<br />

scheming, bullying, Machiavellian types. It says<br />

that, ‘for the average backbencher, the whip is the<br />

street-corner thug they need to get past on their<br />

way home from school’. It’s got some worrying<br />

stories about things whips have done to ensure<br />

MPs’ obedience.<br />

However, Kyle had also worked for Hilary<br />

Armstrong, a former chief whip, and “had a lot of<br />

conversations with her about how it changed…<br />

I think what [Paxman] was describing was an era<br />

that ended, pretty much, pretty soon into the<br />

Blair period…<br />

“I don’t think, in this day and age, the whips’<br />

main job is actually discipline anymore. I think<br />

the whips’ job is a much more sophisticated one<br />

now… ninety percent of what I’ve experienced<br />

from whips has been supportive. It’s much more<br />

akin to the role of an HR department in any<br />

other business.<br />

“So, for example, I will get a phonecall from my<br />

whip saying, ‘there’s a piece of legislation coming<br />

in in two weeks’ time; we think this is something<br />

that you’re really interested in and would have<br />

an interesting perspective on - would you want<br />

to speak on it? Would you like to go on the bill<br />

committee for it? Is there any information we can<br />

provide for you?’<br />

“There’ll be other times when my whip will call<br />

me and say, ‘we know that you are very, very busy<br />

at the moment, you’re under a lot of stress; is<br />

everything ok? Can we help you with anything?<br />

Is there any additional support that you need – in<br />

terms of information, lightening the load, that<br />

kind of thing?’<br />

“Whipping is far more about understanding the<br />

challenges and problems that MPs have, than just<br />

trying to squeeze them into one voting lobby in<br />

one division… It’s a much more sophisticated<br />

job than people realise; it’s a lot more supportive<br />

than people realise. As an MP, I’ve always<br />

been really grateful for it, although I’ve been<br />

at the receiving end of some pretty challenging<br />

conversations.”<br />

For example, that Brexit-bill encounter in the<br />

deputy chief whip’s office. “He tore into my argument...<br />

We had a conversation that lasted about<br />

half an hour. It ranged from quiet, deliberate,<br />

detailed, calm conversation, to the other extreme,<br />

where there were raised voices and… It was very,<br />



....................................<br />

very challenging. Probably the<br />

single most challenging conversation<br />

I’d had since I’d become an<br />

MP. And I left slightly shaken, and<br />

physically pretty much sweating.<br />

“But the next day I went and did<br />

some interviews when I went<br />

against Tories on TV and the radio<br />

about what I was doing. And at that<br />

instant I was grateful for what I’d<br />

been through the day before, because<br />

my argument was sharper, I<br />

had a much deeper clarity of vision<br />

and clarity of purpose, and I felt<br />

like I’d been given a real challenge<br />

as to why I was doing it… I came<br />

away from that experience with<br />

more respect for the whips and<br />

what they do than I had before.<br />

“And at no point - I’m really keen<br />

to stress this - at no point did I<br />

ever feel that any of the whips, including<br />

the deputy chief whip, was<br />

disrespectful to me, or disrespectful<br />

to the people who elected me,<br />

or compromised my ability to act<br />

in the best interests of my community.”<br />

Which is not what one<br />

might have expected, if whips still<br />

behaved in the way that Paxman<br />

described in The Political Animal.<br />

“I think there has been a shift in<br />

the way that whipping has been<br />

done,” Kyle says. Though the<br />

whips, I gather, still carry a certain<br />

aura of intrigue. “The mythology,<br />

I think, around whipping is<br />

understandable… [Imagine] you’ve<br />

told people who work for you, who<br />

are friends with you, that you’re<br />

thinking of rebelling on a piece of<br />

legislation. Then you go into the whips’ office, they take you<br />

apart on the argument and it doesn’t stand up, and you cave in.<br />

If you leave and say, ‘they put the argument to me, and they’re<br />

right and I’m wrong’, you’re going to look like a right idiot.<br />

“But if you come out and say, ‘oh my god, they threatened me<br />

with this, that and the other; they threatened to take my office<br />

away, to bury me in committees, and not put money into my<br />

campaign in the next election’, and all that stuff, then people<br />

will understand it. So I think there is a… some people allow<br />

the reputation of whips to grow because it kind of suits their<br />

interests.” Steve Ramsey<br />


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....................................<br />

Search-engine optimisation<br />

With brightonSEO founder Kelvin Newman<br />

Apparently there are<br />

‘white-hat’ SEO techniques,<br />

which involve<br />

making a website<br />

better, and ‘black-hat’<br />

methods, which involve<br />

tricking Google into<br />

thinking a website’s better<br />

when it isn’t. Is that<br />

right? That’s a good way<br />

of approaching that… But<br />

there are lots of shades of grey between white and<br />

black hat. Often it’s about what your motivation is,<br />

and whether you can justify the approach you’re<br />

using if it wasn’t for search reasons.<br />

Google often updates its algorithms, possibly<br />

to make SEO harder. Is it like an arms race between<br />

Google and SEOs? I think a better way of<br />

thinking of Google’s role is like a referee. They’re<br />

refereeing between the different websites and saying<br />

‘we prefer this type of approach’. They’re trying<br />

to penalise the people who are diving, and reward<br />

the people who are playing the game in the right<br />

way. And Google do quite a lot to help people play<br />

in the right way; they clarify the rules, they toughen<br />

up the bans [for using black-hat techniques].<br />

Is Google a good referee? To continue that<br />

analogy, diving does sometimes work. But it comes<br />

with risks. You can get a situation - and this has<br />

happened in the past - where a major florist found<br />

themselves banned by Google for Mother’s Day.<br />

Does SEO involve creativity, or just applying<br />

standard techniques? There’s fundamental rules,<br />

changes you might want to make to your website<br />

based on keywords that people are searching for.<br />

So for a company that provides insurance for<br />

expensive bicycles, on one level, you go, ‘ok, we<br />

just need to reflect what people search for’. The<br />

obvious one might<br />

be ‘bike insurance’.<br />

But some people<br />

who are making<br />

those queries might<br />

be after motorbike<br />

insurance. So, do we<br />

optimise for ‘bike<br />

insurance’? Because<br />

you’re also then<br />

going up against<br />

the people who sell motorbike insurance - there’s<br />

a lot more competition, it’s a lot harder to rank<br />

for ‘bike insurance’ than for ‘bicycle insurance’.<br />

But are more people searching for it? Does it have<br />

a bigger value? Nitty-gritty decisions like that<br />

become the challenges, before you start to get<br />

into… For example, you might find that people<br />

search for ‘cheap weekend breaks’, but the people<br />

selling the weekend breaks don’t want to describe<br />

themselves as cheap. So how do you navigate that as<br />

well, before you then start to get into the technical<br />

challenges, where it’s like, I would like to make<br />

this change because this is what the search engines<br />

want, but the content-management system you’re<br />

on doesn’t allow you to make that change… There’s<br />

some fundamental principles, but the devil’s in the<br />

detail. Often it’s easy to come up with ideas that<br />

help search, but it’s much harder to actually make<br />

them happen.<br />

So SEOs aren’t pure coding nerds? You also<br />

need to understand psychology? Definitely; the<br />

best people sit between those two disciplines. It’s a<br />

technical creative discipline, so… it’s not an IT-type<br />

role, if you see what I mean. Steve Ramsey<br />

The brightonSEO conference is held every six<br />

months. The next one is on <strong>April</strong> 7th, <strong>Brighton</strong><br />

Centre. brightonseo.com<br />


Photos by Chloë King<br />



....................................<br />

The Chattri<br />

‘Spiritual and physical protection’<br />

The Chattri memorial, situated<br />

high on the Downs near Patcham, is<br />

usually accessible only on foot. In the<br />

company of the Chair of the Chattri<br />

Memorial Group Davinder Dhillon,<br />

however, I am permitted to drive<br />

here over open farmland, and as the<br />

white dome appears modestly in the<br />

distance, I’m moved by the view.<br />

This unique memorial, named for<br />

the Urdu, Hindi and Punjabi word<br />

for ‘umbrella’, was unveiled by the<br />

Prince of Wales, Edward VIII, in<br />

1921. Today, it is adorned with saffron<br />

and blue cloths, representing the Hindu and<br />

Sikh soldiers cremated here. Three raised slabs,<br />

bordered by weathered poppy wreaths, mark the<br />

cremation sites. “Looking at it,” says Davinder, “the<br />

Chattri represents shelter from the elements. It offers<br />

spiritual and physical protection.”<br />

Some 12,000 soldiers from India were treated in<br />

<strong>Brighton</strong> during the First World War, and in many<br />

ways, the Chattri is a partner to the Gateway to the<br />

Royal Pavilion, erected the same year as a gift from<br />

India in gratitude for the work of ‘Doctor <strong>Brighton</strong>’.<br />

On this remote hill off Standean Lane, 53 Indian<br />

soldiers were cremated in traditional ceremonies.<br />

“They would have been sad but practical affairs,”<br />

Davinder tells me.<br />

The mourners had responsibility for gathering wood<br />

and building a pyre on which they laid the body, covered<br />

with clean white sheets. Prayers would be given<br />

and then the pyre would be set alight. Afterwards, the<br />

ashes would be gathered, taken to the sea, and scattered<br />

over moving water.<br />

The 1902 Cremation Act made it illegal to hold<br />

funerals to these rites, but it is thought that the King<br />

made an exception in respect of these soldiers. The<br />

inscription on the Chattri acknowledges<br />

it as the site where soldiers<br />

“passed through the fire”, in poetic<br />

reference to their reincarnation.<br />

The inscription, however, may be<br />

open to different interpretations,<br />

says Davinder. “It’s a creative<br />

phrase, and a good phrase, in my<br />

view, but sadly, you can interpret<br />

it as referring to all Indians, or<br />

just the Sikhs and the Hindus.”<br />

India at the time was pre-partition,<br />

and 19 Muslim soldiers, who<br />

also died in <strong>Brighton</strong> and were<br />

buried near Woking, should also be considered. The<br />

Chattri honours all the Indian soldiers, and also the<br />

Nepalese Gurkhas.<br />

Each year, on the second Sunday in June, a pilgrimage<br />

is made to the Chattri to honour them. Davinder<br />

took responsibility for this commemoration quite<br />

by accident. In 2000, he saw an article saying that<br />

the Royal British Legion was struggling to continue<br />

the service they had performed there since 1950. He<br />

offered to help make the teas, only to find himself<br />

tasked with the whole event.<br />

Davinder has since grown what was a dwindling<br />

gathering, to a meeting of over 500. People from<br />

across the UK come for a wreath-laying service<br />

and an exhibition, and each year, Davinder grows<br />

our connection to the Chattri, meeting people and<br />

learning new aspects of its story. It’s important and<br />

gratifying work.<br />

“It’s conceivable that the First World War, the Western<br />

Front at least, would have been lost without the<br />

Indians,” he says, “and yet it’s just a footnote in history.<br />

Part of my motivation, if you like, is to correct<br />

that imbalance.” Chloë King<br />

chattri.org<br />


SPORT<br />

....................................<br />

Lewes Ladies FC<br />

At the top of their game<br />

Photo by James Boyes<br />

We speak to Ash<br />

Head, media and PR<br />

manager of Lewes<br />

Ladies FC.<br />

Who are the<br />

Rookettes? Members<br />

of Lewes FC Ladies.<br />

The nickname for<br />

the men is the Rooks,<br />

so the women are affectionately<br />

called the<br />

Rookettes. Both teams<br />

play at the Dripping<br />

Pan in Lewes and share training facilities. Lewes<br />

Ladies play in the FA Women’s Premier League,<br />

alongside Tottenham, West Ham, Cardiff. We’re<br />

a small-town team playing against big-city clubs.<br />

We’re currently mid-table. The Rookettes recently<br />

beat the Women’s side of Leicester City, which<br />

means we’re through to the FAWPL Plate Final,<br />

at Brackley Town FC’s stadium on the 23rd of<br />

<strong>April</strong>. That’s St George’s Day, which works for us<br />

because our goal scorer was Georgia Bridges.<br />

How did you come to be involved? I used to<br />

watch the men and thought nothing of women’s<br />

football. One day, I was persuaded to watch Lewes<br />

Ladies, and I’ve never looked back. If push comes<br />

to shove, I’d watch the women over the men.<br />

Why is that? The men are a little faster, but both<br />

teams are equally skillful. I find the women’s game<br />

easier to follow, and you don’t get the petulance<br />

and aggression from players, or negativity from<br />

opposing fans. The women’s game is hard but fair.<br />

There’s a great camaraderie after the game. Plus,<br />

we get fantastic supporters.<br />

You’ve got some special events coming up...<br />

Yes, to highlight an immense injustice in women’s<br />

football. In 1921, the FA banned women from<br />

playing on men’s pitches, effectively killing off<br />

ladies’ football. The<br />

best-known team of<br />

that time, Dick Kerr<br />

Ladies, was formed in<br />

1917, during WWI,<br />

from workers at a<br />

Preston munitions<br />

factory. One Christmas<br />

Day match they drew<br />

a crowd of 10,000, and<br />

donated the whole<br />

gate (£38,000 in<br />

today’s money) to the<br />

war wounded. So Lewes Ladies are donating their<br />

entire gate for the last four matches of this season<br />

to local women’s charities, in their honour.<br />

Where do Lewes Ladies get their players? The<br />

pathway starts with the Newman Lewes Academy<br />

for girls, followed by the Foundation Squad, then<br />

the Development Squad. All are managed by John<br />

Donoghue and Jacquie Agnew, who is a Lewes FC<br />

director. (Four of the ten members of the Lewes<br />

FC board are women).<br />

How is the team funded? As well as gate receipts,<br />

both the men’s and women’s teams are funded<br />

from income from community ownership of Lewes<br />

FC (£30 buys a year’s membership, which offers<br />

members discounts in many Lewes businesses).<br />

Plus sponsorship of players by local businesses.<br />

What's different about Lewes FC? It’s an extension<br />

of Lewes, so it’s open and friendly. Beautiful<br />

views, great food, Harvey’s bitter, plus things like<br />

fantastic posters and hospitality beach huts. We’re<br />

family friendly, and visiting supporters always say<br />

they love the place. Interview by Emma Chaplin<br />

Home matches this month: Lewes Ladies v Charlton,<br />

Sun 9th, 2pm, Lewes Ladies v Coventry, tbc.<br />

The Dripping Pan, Mountfield Road, Lewes BN7<br />

2XA. £3/kids go free. lewesfc.com / @Rookmeister<br />


HEALTH<br />

....................................<br />

OCD<br />

Clawing back control<br />

Obsessive Compulsive<br />

Disorder (OCD) is<br />

essentially an anxietydriven<br />

condition, but like<br />

all repetitive behaviours,<br />

the compulsion may start<br />

to function like any other<br />

addiction. The OCD<br />

sufferer may feel they have<br />

to do increasingly more<br />

of their compulsive behaviour just to feel ‘normal’<br />

- just as the addict may need to take increasingly<br />

more of a substance to get the same hit.<br />

I see OCD as particularly ritualized: ‘If I do<br />

this, I’ll avert some disaster; I won’t be powerless’.<br />

There’s often a superstitious element to it, doing<br />

whatever it is - checking, cleaning, counting - a<br />

certain number of times.<br />

One very important, basic emotional need is<br />

the need to feel some control over one’s life<br />

and environment. You see that need come out<br />

in all sorts of ways, sometimes maladaptively<br />

- perhaps as perfectionism. Someone with an<br />

under-quenched need for feeling control and<br />

autonomy in their life might try to get it through<br />

unrealistic, unreasonable means. You could say that<br />

religions are society’s attempt to control capricious<br />

nature, to give a sense of control. There’s a lot of<br />

uncertainty about the world, and in such times we<br />

try to claw back some certainty: at least I know<br />

how many times I’m doing this activity, at least I<br />

can control how long I’m showering for.<br />

We could say that with OCD, as with any<br />

problem, there’s a need trying to get through,<br />

but the ‘solution’ can become a problem. An<br />

analogy would be someone drinking engine oil in<br />

the desert because they’ve no water and they’re<br />

desperate to hydrate.<br />

There’s a lot of<br />

research that actually<br />

suggests that the more<br />

you check, the less<br />

reliable your memory<br />

of what you’ve done<br />

becomes. Once the<br />

imagination is involved,<br />

there’s almost a falsememory<br />

effect: you become less sure whether<br />

you’ve checked. It’s a good idea to check once or<br />

twice whether you’ve turned the gas off or locked<br />

the door, but spending four hours doing it isn’t<br />

great. I teach people to trust their perceptions<br />

more. One exercise I do is I clap my hands, and<br />

then get them to close their eyes and tell them<br />

to imagine me clapping my hands. Then I really<br />

clap my hands, and I get them to tell me which<br />

one was real. They always identify the real clap.<br />

That would be the beginning of trusting their<br />

perceptions rather than imagining.<br />

People often understand that it’s irrational,<br />

but that can make it worse - the knowing. It’s the<br />

arousal that’s the problem: it’s the emotion driving<br />

the thinking rather than the other way round, and<br />

you can only appeal to the rational, cognitive part<br />

of the brain once the emotions are calmed down. I<br />

think that a therapeutic skill that’s necessary across<br />

all models is the ability to sit calmly with someone,<br />

so that the emotional temperature can drop.<br />

You can’t clear the back garden until the wind’s<br />

dropped, otherwise the leaves will keep getting<br />

whipped up. An emotionally heightened state<br />

makes extremists of us all. As told to Andy Darling<br />

by Mark Tyrrell, psychology trainer and psychotherapist<br />

uncommonknowledge.co.uk<br />


Illustration by Mark Greco<br />


....................................<br />

Ghost Moths<br />

Spectral dancers of the South Downs<br />

Last summer, as the sun set over the South Downs,<br />

I was wandering through a wood on a twilight hike.<br />

Through the trees I noticed about a dozen figures<br />

decked out in brilliant white gathering in a small<br />

clearing. I hit the floor and, buried amongst the<br />

bracken, watched as other white figures joined them.<br />

Each individual slowly started swaying, swinging<br />

hypnotically like a pendulum suspended on an<br />

invisible wire. The whole silent scene felt eerie,<br />

otherworldly, ancient. I was spellbound and barely<br />

breathing, scared I would be discovered and this<br />

mesmerising performance would end. As some of<br />

the figures swung fixed to their stations, others oscillated<br />

wildly, whirling and crashing into each other.<br />

The light was fading fast, and as my surroundings<br />

dissolved into shadow, the swaying white figures<br />

seemed luminous against the gloom. Then, as the<br />

full moon rose and illuminated the glade, the action<br />

slowed, the figures retreated and I was left alone in<br />

the gloaming.<br />

The ritual I had witnessed was not the sinister<br />

secret ceremony of some part-time pagans. This<br />

was the dance of the ghost moths: elaborate<br />

courtship behaviour performed by the male moths<br />

on warm summer evenings across Sussex. That<br />

moonlit glade had been temporarily transformed<br />

into a miniature moth disco where these incredible<br />

insects pirouetted, pranced, swaggered and strutted<br />

in an attempt to attract a female. More Saturday<br />

Night Fever than The Wicker Man.<br />

And, like tiny Travoltas, the male ghost moths<br />

know that to stand out on a crowded dancefloor,<br />

you need a flashy white suit. Their wings are whiter<br />

than white and look as though they have been<br />

hand-painted with Tipp-Ex. The female ghost<br />

moth has a more subdued wardrobe and wears pale<br />

yellow wings with elegant orange swirls. Males also<br />

have another trick up their sleeve (or in this case<br />

their trouserlegs). Their hind legs contain furry<br />

scent-brushes which release pheromones into the<br />

air which act as an overpowering aphrodisiac. Once<br />

the ladies are lured it’s the individual moth’s dancing<br />

which seals the deal. It can be murder on the dancefloor<br />

and scuffles start as the males try to assert their<br />

positions. It’s a behaviour known as lekking and the<br />

dominant dancers will lead a lucky lady of the lek<br />

into the surrounding shadows.<br />

In days gone by the moth’s mysterious, ethereal<br />

waltz was interpreted as something supernatural and<br />

it has been suggested that the dance of the ghost<br />

moth gave rise to local legends of fairies and will-o’-<br />

the-wisp.<br />

For many years I believed that an empty dancefloor,<br />

Stevie Wonder’s Superstition and a splash of Brut 33<br />

was all that was needed for the ladies to fall under<br />

my spell. Yet the ghost moths seemed to have more<br />

success. I knew I should have gone for the white suit.<br />

Michael Blencowe, Sussex Wildlife Trust<br />


We believe we can create any shape<br />

garden room, please challenge us!<br />

25 Year guarantees on materials<br />

T E L : 0 1 2 7 3 4 7 9 9 9 8<br />

E M A I L : I N F O @ M O D P O D S . C O . U K<br />

W W W . M O D P O D S . C O . U K<br />

嘀 椀 瘀 愀 䰀 攀 眀 攀 猀 䤀 猀 猀 甀 攀 ⌀㈀ 㜀<br />

䌀 漀 瘀 攀 爀 椀 洀 愀 最 攀 戀 礀 匀 椀 洀 漀 渀 攀 刀 椀 氀 攀 礀<br />

猀 椀 洀 漀 渀 攀 爀 椀 氀 攀 礀 ⸀ 挀 漀 ⸀ 甀 欀<br />

吀 爀 愀 渀 猀 昀 漀 爀 洀 礀 漀 甀 爀 栀 漀 洀 攀 眀 椀 琀 栀 漀 甀 爀 昀 椀 渀 攀 猀 琀 焀 甀 愀 氀 椀 琀 礀<br />

匀 㨀 䌀 刀 䄀 䘀 吀 洀 愀 搀 攀 ⴀ 琀 漀 ⴀ 洀 攀 愀 猀 甀 爀 攀 椀 渀 琀 攀 爀 椀 漀 爀 猀 栀 甀 琀 琀 攀 爀 猀 ⸀<br />

琀 ⸀ ㈀ 㜀 アパート アパート アパート 㠀 㐀 ㈀<br />

攀 ⸀ 挀 漀 渀 琀 愀 挀 琀 䀀 戀 攀 氀 氀 愀 瘀 椀 猀 琀 愀 猀 栀 甀 琀 琀 攀 爀 猀 ⸀ 挀 漀 ⸀ 甀 欀<br />

眀 ⸀ 眀 眀 眀 ⸀ 戀 攀 氀 氀 愀 瘀 椀 猀 琀 愀 猀 栀 甀 琀 琀 攀 爀 猀 ⸀ 挀 漀 ⸀ 甀 欀

RITUAL<br />

....................................<br />

Street Festivals<br />

Identity parades<br />

Rituals don’t just take<br />

place in buildings associated<br />

with faith or religion.<br />

<strong>Brighton</strong> and Hove has<br />

created many rituals on its<br />

streets to mark the passing<br />

of the year. On the<br />

seafront alone there will<br />

be some 19 events, from<br />

the marathon to speed<br />

trials and the somewhat<br />

slower Classic Car Run.<br />

They sit in an annual<br />

calendar of public parades<br />

and happenings held each<br />

year to celebrate who and<br />

where we are.<br />

During its long history, our annual Pride day has<br />

transformed from a political march to a ritual celebration<br />

of our gay community that is intrinsic to<br />

the city’s culture. <strong>Brighton</strong> and Hove also held the<br />

first Trans Pride in the UK, now in its fourth year.<br />

We’re coming up to two of the biggest of our<br />

calendar rituals - the <strong>Brighton</strong> Festival and Fringe.<br />

This year’s Festival guest director, Kate Tempest,<br />

has urged that some of the programme be delivered<br />

out in the community, and this year we’ll see<br />

events in Whitehawk and Hangleton, with Your<br />

Place creative hubs alongside a range of outdoor<br />

events. Festival season starts with one of the most<br />

joyous of our annual street marches, that of the<br />

Children’s Parade, this year on the 6th of May.<br />

The Fringe can be found on the streets all month<br />

long, particularly on New Road, with its weekend<br />

smorgasbord of performances.<br />

Where the Children’s Parade marks the beginning<br />

of springtime and the fairer conditions that<br />

make outdoor ritual<br />

more pleasant, Same<br />

Sky’s Burning the Clocks<br />

marks our mid-winter<br />

celebration. <strong>Brighton</strong>’s<br />

White Night events<br />

marked the ritual turning<br />

of the seasonal clock with<br />

a city-wide programme<br />

of events late into the<br />

night on the last day of<br />

British Summertime.<br />

Donna Close, Arts Officer<br />

at the Council at the<br />

time of White Night, and<br />

one of the driving forces<br />

behind it, comments:<br />

‘The best festivals always have an association with<br />

ritual, not least in the way they mark key points in<br />

the year and the passing of the years. White Night<br />

was conceived as a modern-day ritual.’ With ritual<br />

comes myth and a quick affection, and Donna<br />

recalls, ‘You have to give space for the audience<br />

to bring themselves to the experience in order for<br />

it to be meaningful. Just after the fourth and last<br />

White Night event, someone was saying that they<br />

had gone to the first ever White Night in the mid-<br />

1990s… success!’<br />

None of these festivals can take place without the<br />

people of the place, and they take a huge amount<br />

of volunteer hours and enthusiasm. Much loved<br />

rituals, such as Kemptown Carnival, operate in a<br />

precarious setting and are reliant on community<br />

support. <strong>Brighton</strong>’s Trans Pride is also in need of<br />

help this year - find them on Facebook to see if<br />

you can help.<br />

Cara Courage<br />

Photo by Lizzie Lower<br />



.....................................................................................<br />

This photo of the old Churchill Square Shopping Centre was taken in 1973, a year when young men were uncomfortable<br />

if their hair didn’t cover their ears (or their flares their toes); when <strong>Brighton</strong> buses were stripy and<br />

colour coded; when the Albion were languishing in the old Third Division; when <strong>Brighton</strong> & Hove was still<br />

more than a quarter-century away from becoming a city. We reckon it was taken from a flat in Sussex Heights.<br />

Churchill Square was built in 1967 in the place of a neighbourhood which incorporated a number of highstreet<br />

shops, lots of terraced houses, several pubs and an underground church, all demolished in the cause of<br />

progress. At the time it was the height of modernity, but it very soon became dated, after indoor shopping malls<br />

became all the rage, and within just 31 years the complex itself was razed to the ground, with the new covered<br />

centre built in its place.<br />

It’s worth pointing out a few details you can see in this picture. The sculpture in the back (south) open space<br />

was called Spirit of <strong>Brighton</strong>, and was designed as a water feature by the experimental artist Bill Mitchell, who<br />

pioneered the use of recycled materials in his work. The water soon stopped running, and the statue became<br />

a folly-like feature that a lot of townspeople loved to hate, its base filled with crisp packets and empty cans:<br />

few mourned it when it was demolished in 1998 along with the rest of the Centre. The space around it<br />

was poorly designed and became something of a wind-tunnel, though it was a popular area for the first<br />

generation of skateboarders.<br />

The round building at the other side of the complex was, when the photo was taken, a wedding-dress shop<br />

called Solitaire: white-clad mannequin-brides looked out from each of the rectangular first-floor windows.<br />

Other businesses located in the complex (and thanks here to members of the <strong>Brighton</strong> Past Facebook page<br />

for the information) included British Home Stores (one of the ‘anchor’ stores at the front), Tesco, The Green<br />

Shield Stamps shop, Slims Café, Orange Hand, Hall of Cards, Cox’s Hi-fi, Savory & Moore Chemists, Habitat<br />

and Bejam. At the top of the picture, just left of centre, you can see the Union Church, as featured in VB#49.<br />

When the Square was rebuilt in 1998, the Council decided it would keep the name given to it in 1967:<br />

Winston, of course, was partly schooled down the seafront in Hove. Alex Leith<br />

Thanks to the Royal Pavilion and Museums for the use of this picture. brightonmuseums.org.uk<br />


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