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Identifying constraints of bio-fertilizer adoption (Azospirillum and Azotobacter bacteria) by corn farmers of Shoushtar Township, Iran

Abstract Use of bio-fertilizers is one of the important components of nutrient management, as they are renewable source of plant nutrients to supplement the chemical fertilizers for sustainable agriculture. This study is aimed at identifying the constraints of bio-fertilizer adoption (azospirillum and azotobacter bacteria) by corn farmers of Shoushtar Township, Iran. The methodology of this research is non experimental (descriptive) and correlation. Geographic area of this study includes the Shoushtar Township and it has been done in 2013.The population of this study included all corn farmers in Shoushtar Township, Khouzestan province, Iran. The sample size according to the Cochran equation was 148. The farmers were classified into two categories of adopters, and non-adopters. A questionnaire, as the main study tool, was designed in seven sections. Content and face validity were established by a panel of experts. A pilot study was conducted with 30 persons. Computed Cronbach Alpha score was 83.5%, which indicated that the questionnaire was highly reliable. Based on the results, lack of education and extension practices was considered as the important factor for non-usage bio-fertilizers in the farming practices. The lack of knowledge of experts about bio-fertilizers was the second reason for non-adoption. Based on the logit model, correctly predicted 73 percent of the adopters and non-adopters. The analysis indicated that the following farmers’ personal, economical and social characteristics were positively and significantly related to the adoption: Educational level, farm size, accessibility, attitude to natural conservation, on farm income, off farm income and social participation.

Identifying constraints of bio-fertilizer adoption (Azospirillum and Azotobacter bacteria) by corn farmers of Shoushtar Township,

J. Bio. & Env. Sci. 2014 Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES) ISSN: 2220-6663 (Print) 2222-3045 (Online) Vol. 5, No. 5, p. 189-196, 2014 http://www.innspub.net RESEARCH PAPER OPEN ACCESS Identifying constraints of bio-fertilizer adoption (Azospirillum and Azotobacter bacteria) by corn farmers of Shoushtar Township, Iran Ahmad Reza Ommani * , Azadeh N. Noorivandi Department of Agricultural Management, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran Article published on November 19, 2014 Key words: Bio-Fertilizer, Adoption, Corn Farmers, Shoushtar Township. Abstract Use of bio-fertilizers is one of the important components of nutrient management, as they are renewable source of plant nutrients to supplement the chemical fertilizers for sustainable agriculture. This study is aimed at identifying the constraints of bio-fertilizer adoption (azospirillum and azotobacter bacteria) by corn farmers of Shoushtar Township, Iran. The methodology of this research is non experimental (descriptive) and correlation. Geographic area of this study includes the Shoushtar Township and it has been done in 2013.The population of this study included all corn farmers in Shoushtar Township, Khouzestan province, Iran. The sample size according to the Cochran equation was 148. The farmers were classified into two categories of adopters, and nonadopters. A questionnaire, as the main study tool, was designed in seven sections. Content and face validity were established by a panel of experts. A pilot study was conducted with 30 persons. Computed Cronbach Alpha score was 83.5%, which indicated that the questionnaire was highly reliable. Based on the results, lack of education and extension practices was considered as the important factor for non-usage bio-fertilizers in the farming practices. The lack of knowledge of experts about bio-fertilizers was the second reason for non-adoption. Based on the logit model, correctly predicted 73 percent of the adopters and non-adopters. The analysis indicated that the following farmers’ personal, economical and social characteristics were positively and significantly related to the adoption: Educational level, farm size, accessibility, attitude to natural conservation, on farm income, off farm income and social participation. * Corresponding Author: Ahmad Reza Ommani Ommani75451@yahoo.com 189 | Ommani and Noorivandi

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