Training Manual




The Making Process

Making Paper Hygiene Products

Toilet roll and hand towels can be made from either pure pulp or recycled paper.

This means that they can be made from virgin paper, taken directly from trees, or

reclaimed paper, which is in its secondary life.

There is no discernible difference in quality between pure or recycled paper.

Different types of trees have different properties and so toilet paper is usually made

from a combination of hardwood and softwood trees. Softwood trees have long

fibres that wrap around each other and gives paper strength. Hardwood trees have

shorter fibres that gives softness.

The process for making PURE PULP roll is as follows:

Trees arrive at

The batch of wood chips is

1 the mill. 2 then mixed into a slurry

and sent to a digester,

where it is ‘cooked’. This

process reduces the wood to

cellulose fibres. These fibres are

known as pulp.

Training Manual


The pulp then goes through a washing process that removes

any other substances. The extracted chemicals can be reused

for this process again.


The washed pulp goes

through a whitening process

to ensure that paper does not

yellow over time.


The pulp is then mixed

with water (99.9% water

and 0.1% fibre). It is

sprayed between moving mesh

screens, allowing the water to

drain and producing sheets of

matted fibres.


These sheets are then

transferred to a dryer,

where the moisture

content is reduced to

about 5%. The paper is then

scraped off the dryer. This

process gives the tissue its

required softness and

flexability but lowers its

strength. The paper

is then wound onto

jumbo reels that

can weigh as

much as 5 tons.


Paper is then sent to

converting machines,

that unwind and cut

the paper, then rewind

onto cardboard cores to

form the rolls that we are

all familiar with.

For RECYCLED PAPER, only the first stage differs, whereby

reclaimed paper goes through a process to remove foreign

bodies, such as staples and plastics. It is then mixed with hot

water and detergents to clean and remove inks. The process

from then on matches the pure pulp product in being sprayed

onto mesh screens, dried and wound onto jumbo rolls.

Did you know?

For every ton of reclaimed paper, 3.3 cubic yards is saved

from landfill (that’s the equivalent of 3 washing machines!).

Northwood recycles over 75,000 tons of material every

year, the equivalent of 225,000 washing machines

taken from landfill and put back into the supply chain!

Training Manual

Jargon Buster

Before we get started, let’s get into some of the jargon that is typically used

with paper products:

Ply – the quantity of sheets used

to give the product more weight and

bulk. 1 ply is considered entry level

product, with 2 and 3 ply being

more premium.

GSM – grams per square metre.

This refers to the ‘weight’ of paper

used. Generally speaking, the higher

the GSM the better quality of


Embossed – there are different

types of emboss, but papers are

embossed to give them added

strength and absorbency, through

their increased surface area.

Laminated – this is the most

premium form of attaching the

sheet plies together.

Eco Label – this is

an accreditation given

by the European Union

to products that hit the

most stringent of ‘green’ credentials.

A key selling feature to customers

who are environmentally conscious.

Many Northwood products carry

this accreditation.

Mother/Parent Reel - A Large

reel from a mill

Cores – the cardboard inner to a roll that

the paper is wound around.

Core Size – The diameter of the core

can vary within products.

Pulp – the fibrous material used to make

paper product.

Perforations – the small ‘rips’ in each

sheet making it easy to tear.

Systems – specifically engineered

dispensers for a range of products.

Base Sheet – the term used to refer to

the paper. Base sheet encompasses all

quality features.

Non Woven – non paper products for

wiping tasks that have increased strength

and absorbency, generally used for

specialist wiping rather than general spills.

Often multi-use.

CHSA – Cleaning and

Hygiene Suppliers Association

Soft Tissue Standard. A scheme

that gurantees that all products

are fully labelled with lengths,

widths and sheet counts etc, and a

guarantee that the product in the box

meets the specification on the label. All

Northwood products proudly meet

this standard.


Toilet Roll


Conventional Toilet Rolls are

the domestic style format of

roll. Typically, these are

available in either 200 or 320

sheet counts.


Some toilet rolls are

coreless. Toilet roll cores

are recyclable but this

format reduces the

need for one.


There are many forms of jumbo toilet roll (jumbo, midi

jumbo, mini jumbo), but as the name suggests, these are

just large (in some cases very large!) toilet rolls.

Rolls tend to come in the

following lengths:

150m & 200m – Mini Jumbo

250m – Midi Jumbo

300 & 400m – Jumbo

These are typically available in 2

different core sizes: 76mm and

62mm, but generally have the same

width of sheet.

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Did you know?

The average person

spends 3 years of

their life on the

toilet, visiting 2,500

times per year.

We use an

average of 57

sheets of

paper a day, the

equivalent of

around 3 metres!

The average toilet

is flushed 8

times a day!

The cleanest public

toilet is typically

the first one, as

it is the least

frequently used.

Brits lead the way in

toilet paper use with

the highest

consumption per

person, 25 times the

amount used by the

people of Ukraine.


Hand Towels

Roll Towel (Hand Towels)

Roll Towels are available in a wide

variety of lengths. Available as

continuous rolls and the dispenser

cuts to a pre-determined length.

They are generally available in blue

and white colours.

Did you know?

In a recent survey at a Service Station, 99% of people

interviewed said they had washed their hands after visiting

the toilet. Washroom data showed otherwise, with only

32% of men and 64% of women actually had!

Hand washing was only linked to the spread

of germs in 1847! At the time, nobody

believed Hungarian Ignaz P. Semmelweiss, and

so committed him to an insane asylum.

Training Manual


Hand Towels

Folded Hand Towel

There are three different formats to the

folded paper towel (C Fold / Z Fold / V

Fold), but they all just refer to the way

that they have been folded. Generally,

sheet sizes are similar and tend to be

available in white, blue and green

colourways. Folded hand towels are

sold in packaged sleeves.

There are a variety of different

names for folded towels, but

many of them are just the same

thing. Here is what they mean:

V Fold = Interfold / Single Fold

Z Fold = S Fold / M Fold

C Fold = Only known by this name

Z Fold and V Fold towels have been

designed to dispense one at a time, so

when removing one from a dispenser,

the next is left slightly exposed making

it easy to remove. They are designed to

work with systems, whereas C Fold are

typically seen as generic commodity


Paper towels tend not to be flushable,

as their tougher qualities mean that it is

more difficult to breakdown in water.

However, Flight Towels are available

from Northwood under the Optimum

brand, which do breakdown when

agitated in water. This is beneficial

where disposing of waste is not easy i.e.

aircraft – hence the name!

Z Fold C Fold V Fold


Roll Towels and Folded Towels are the

most environmentally friendly and

hygienic method of hand drying.

Re-usable hand towels harbour and spread

germs. The rewashing process means they are

energy inefficient and release more pollutants

into the water supply.

Electronic hand dryers are also susceptible to

being unhygienic, with the blow of the dryer

spreading germs across the washroom.

They are also energy inefficient

through their production of heat

and noise.

Did you know?

In a recent study of a Detroit school, children who washed their hands had

24% fewer sick days due to respiratory illness and 51% fewer sick

days due to upset stomach. Hand washing reduces absences and

improves productivity!

Training Manual



Dispenser systems are used to

control usage and cost of paper

products, and to give an upmarket

finish to any washroom. Through

their engineering, dispensers can be

designed to hold multiple rolls, only

exposing a new one once the first

has been fully used (reducing waste).

Multiple roll options also reduce

janitorial time, with less frequent

refills needed.

Often these are the best way to

manage washroom hygiene, with

easy to wipe surfaces, no touch

dispensing and contained / clean

dispensing, meaning paper is free

from dirt and grime.

Leonardo offers a full

complement of washroom

dispensers to give an upmarket

finish to any location, suitable

for use at both front and back

of house functions.

Key features of systems include:

• Consumption & waste reduction

• Janitorial and maintenance reduction

• Suitable for use in high and low

footfall areas

• Suitable for use in front and back

of house

• Hygienic

• Durable and long lasting

• Lockable systems prevent

theft of paper

Did you know?

50% of Brits admitted

to taking hotel property

including toiletries

and tissue

Training Manual


Hygiene Roll

Hygiene Rolls, also known as Couch/Bed

Rolls or Medical Rolls, are mainly used in the

hair and beauty and medical sectors.

Industry standard widths

are 250mm (10”) or

500mm (20”), and are

typically available in 40m

and 50m lengths. Hygiene

rolls are available in blue

and white, with

Northwood also offering

in pink. All rolls are

individually wrapped for

hygiene purposes.



Centrefeed rolls have a removable core,

meaning that they can be pulled from

the centre, making it more hygienic as

only the outside layer is exposed. They

can be used for a variety of wiping

tasks, generally used for lighter spillages

and hand drying. Emboss and additional

plies make these products suitable for

more heavy duty tasks.

Typically available in blue and white

colours. Blue roll is generally used

where hygiene is essential in food


Rolls are available in a multitude of

lengths and widths, and can be used in

dispensers for more controlled and

hygienic consumption.


Non Woven

For more premium wiping solutions, non woven rather than paper should be used.

They give added absorbency and strength, and the option for multi-use (as opposed

to paper, which is single use).

These are generally considered more specialist wipes, and have more sector specific

uses such as Northwood’s Optimum Pro Wipers Resource Rag, perfect for lndustrial

and Automotive use due to its high absorbtion, low linting, chemical free and

chemical compatible qualities.

• Low lint – essential for polishing,

and when a total clean surface is


• Heat and Solvent resistant

– this makes wipes excellent for

janitorial cleaning, amongst other

uses, for its compatibility with

cleaning products.

All Northwood non woven wipes

are formaldehyde free.

Non woven are generally available

in folded formats, centrefeed,

standard roll or loose rags.

• Colour coding – when re-useable

are beneficial but cross contamination

needs to be prevented. Optimum Pro

Wiper’s Smart Wipe is available in 4


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Ecolabel : Licence Number: UK/04/005 / UK/04/002

Awarded to all Northwood recycled products manufactured

from recycled parent reels made at the Northwood mills

(Lancaster & Disley) - this covers the entirety of the Essentials

range excluding hand towels. Many Leonardo recycled tissue

products also carry the Ecolabel accreditation.


The Cleaning and Hygiene Suppliers Association soft tissue

standard. A scheme that guarantees all products are fully

labelled with lengths, widths and sheet counts etc, and a

guarantee that the product in the box meets the specification

on the label.

BRC Certification

A Global Standards Consumer Products certification covering

products that are sold from our Telford site.

The standard sets out the requirements for the production and

supply of the safe and legal consumer products of consistent

quality. The products may be retailer-branded (private label),

branded or unbranded for use by other organisations.

ISO 9001

FM 558673

The International Standard is based on the quality management

principles which are; customer focus, leadership, engagement of

people, process approach, improvement, evidence based

decision making and relationship management. The above is all

to enhance customer satisfaction by meeting customer

requirements. This standard covers all three converting sites

(Telford, Penygroes & Meltham) and is awarded by Royal Charter.

Northwood Hygiene Products | Northwood House | Stafford Park 10 | Telford | Shropshire | TF3 3AB | Tel: 01952 236930

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