The Making Process
Making Paper Hygiene Products
Toilet roll and hand towels can be made from either pure pulp or recycled paper.
This means that they can be made from virgin paper, taken directly from trees, or
reclaimed paper, which is in its secondary life.
There is no discernible difference in quality between pure or recycled paper.
Different types of trees have different properties and so toilet paper is usually made
from a combination of hardwood and softwood trees. Softwood trees have long
fibres that wrap around each other and gives paper strength. Hardwood trees have
shorter fibres that gives softness.
The process for making PURE PULP roll is as follows:
Trees arrive at
The batch of wood chips is
1 the mill. 2 then mixed into a slurry
and sent to a digester,
where it is ‘cooked’. This
process reduces the wood to
cellulose fibres. These fibres are
known as pulp.
The pulp then goes through a washing process that removes
any other substances. The extracted chemicals can be reused
for this process again.
The washed pulp goes
through a whitening process
to ensure that paper does not
yellow over time.
The pulp is then mixed
with water (99.9% water
and 0.1% fibre). It is
sprayed between moving mesh
screens, allowing the water to
drain and producing sheets of
These sheets are then
transferred to a dryer,
where the moisture
content is reduced to
about 5%. The paper is then
scraped off the dryer. This
process gives the tissue its
required softness and
flexability but lowers its
strength. The paper
is then wound onto
jumbo reels that
can weigh as
much as 5 tons.
Paper is then sent to
that unwind and cut
the paper, then rewind
onto cardboard cores to
form the rolls that we are
all familiar with.
For RECYCLED PAPER, only the first stage differs, whereby
reclaimed paper goes through a process to remove foreign
bodies, such as staples and plastics. It is then mixed with hot
water and detergents to clean and remove inks. The process
from then on matches the pure pulp product in being sprayed
onto mesh screens, dried and wound onto jumbo rolls.
Did you know?
For every ton of reclaimed paper, 3.3 cubic yards is saved
from landfill (that’s the equivalent of 3 washing machines!).
Northwood recycles over 75,000 tons of material every
year, the equivalent of 225,000 washing machines
taken from landfill and put back into the supply chain!
Before we get started, let’s get into some of the jargon that is typically used
with paper products:
Ply – the quantity of sheets used
to give the product more weight and
bulk. 1 ply is considered entry level
product, with 2 and 3 ply being
GSM – grams per square metre.
This refers to the ‘weight’ of paper
used. Generally speaking, the higher
the GSM the better quality of
Embossed – there are different
types of emboss, but papers are
embossed to give them added
strength and absorbency, through
their increased surface area.
Laminated – this is the most
premium form of attaching the
sheet plies together.
Eco Label – this is
an accreditation given
by the European Union
to products that hit the
most stringent of ‘green’ credentials.
A key selling feature to customers
who are environmentally conscious.
Many Northwood products carry
Mother/Parent Reel - A Large
reel from a mill
Cores – the cardboard inner to a roll that
the paper is wound around.
Core Size – The diameter of the core
can vary within products.
Pulp – the fibrous material used to make
Perforations – the small ‘rips’ in each
sheet making it easy to tear.
Systems – specifically engineered
dispensers for a range of products.
Base Sheet – the term used to refer to
the paper. Base sheet encompasses all
Non Woven – non paper products for
wiping tasks that have increased strength
and absorbency, generally used for
specialist wiping rather than general spills.
CHSA – Cleaning and
Hygiene Suppliers Association
Soft Tissue Standard. A scheme
that gurantees that all products
are fully labelled with lengths,
widths and sheet counts etc, and a
guarantee that the product in the box
meets the specification on the label. All
Northwood products proudly meet
Conventional Toilet Rolls are
the domestic style format of
roll. Typically, these are
available in either 200 or 320
Some toilet rolls are
coreless. Toilet roll cores
are recyclable but this
format reduces the
need for one.
There are many forms of jumbo toilet roll (jumbo, midi
jumbo, mini jumbo), but as the name suggests, these are
just large (in some cases very large!) toilet rolls.
Rolls tend to come in the
150m & 200m – Mini Jumbo
250m – Midi Jumbo
300 & 400m – Jumbo
These are typically available in 2
different core sizes: 76mm and
62mm, but generally have the same
width of sheet.
Did you know?
The average person
spends 3 years of
their life on the
toilet, visiting 2,500
times per year.
We use an
average of 57
paper a day, the
around 3 metres!
The average toilet
is flushed 8
times a day!
The cleanest public
toilet is typically
the first one, as
it is the least
Brits lead the way in
toilet paper use with
person, 25 times the
amount used by the
people of Ukraine.
Roll Towel (Hand Towels)
Roll Towels are available in a wide
variety of lengths. Available as
continuous rolls and the dispenser
cuts to a pre-determined length.
They are generally available in blue
and white colours.
Did you know?
In a recent survey at a Service Station, 99% of people
interviewed said they had washed their hands after visiting
the toilet. Washroom data showed otherwise, with only
32% of men and 64% of women actually had!
Hand washing was only linked to the spread
of germs in 1847! At the time, nobody
believed Hungarian Ignaz P. Semmelweiss, and
so committed him to an insane asylum.
Folded Hand Towel
There are three different formats to the
folded paper towel (C Fold / Z Fold / V
Fold), but they all just refer to the way
that they have been folded. Generally,
sheet sizes are similar and tend to be
available in white, blue and green
colourways. Folded hand towels are
sold in packaged sleeves.
There are a variety of different
names for folded towels, but
many of them are just the same
thing. Here is what they mean:
V Fold = Interfold / Single Fold
Z Fold = S Fold / M Fold
C Fold = Only known by this name
Z Fold and V Fold towels have been
designed to dispense one at a time, so
when removing one from a dispenser,
the next is left slightly exposed making
it easy to remove. They are designed to
work with systems, whereas C Fold are
typically seen as generic commodity
Paper towels tend not to be flushable,
as their tougher qualities mean that it is
more difficult to breakdown in water.
However, Flight Towels are available
from Northwood under the Optimum
brand, which do breakdown when
agitated in water. This is beneficial
where disposing of waste is not easy i.e.
aircraft – hence the name!
Z Fold C Fold V Fold
Roll Towels and Folded Towels are the
most environmentally friendly and
hygienic method of hand drying.
Re-usable hand towels harbour and spread
germs. The rewashing process means they are
energy inefficient and release more pollutants
into the water supply.
Electronic hand dryers are also susceptible to
being unhygienic, with the blow of the dryer
spreading germs across the washroom.
They are also energy inefficient
through their production of heat
Did you know?
In a recent study of a Detroit school, children who washed their hands had
24% fewer sick days due to respiratory illness and 51% fewer sick
days due to upset stomach. Hand washing reduces absences and
Dispenser systems are used to
control usage and cost of paper
products, and to give an upmarket
finish to any washroom. Through
their engineering, dispensers can be
designed to hold multiple rolls, only
exposing a new one once the first
has been fully used (reducing waste).
Multiple roll options also reduce
janitorial time, with less frequent
Often these are the best way to
manage washroom hygiene, with
easy to wipe surfaces, no touch
dispensing and contained / clean
dispensing, meaning paper is free
from dirt and grime.
Leonardo offers a full
complement of washroom
dispensers to give an upmarket
finish to any location, suitable
for use at both front and back
of house functions.
Key features of systems include:
• Consumption & waste reduction
• Janitorial and maintenance reduction
• Suitable for use in high and low
• Suitable for use in front and back
• Durable and long lasting
• Lockable systems prevent
theft of paper
Did you know?
50% of Brits admitted
to taking hotel property
Hygiene Rolls, also known as Couch/Bed
Rolls or Medical Rolls, are mainly used in the
hair and beauty and medical sectors.
Industry standard widths
are 250mm (10”) or
500mm (20”), and are
typically available in 40m
and 50m lengths. Hygiene
rolls are available in blue
and white, with
Northwood also offering
in pink. All rolls are
individually wrapped for
Centrefeed rolls have a removable core,
meaning that they can be pulled from
the centre, making it more hygienic as
only the outside layer is exposed. They
can be used for a variety of wiping
tasks, generally used for lighter spillages
and hand drying. Emboss and additional
plies make these products suitable for
more heavy duty tasks.
Typically available in blue and white
colours. Blue roll is generally used
where hygiene is essential in food
Rolls are available in a multitude of
lengths and widths, and can be used in
dispensers for more controlled and
For more premium wiping solutions, non woven rather than paper should be used.
They give added absorbency and strength, and the option for multi-use (as opposed
to paper, which is single use).
These are generally considered more specialist wipes, and have more sector specific
uses such as Northwood’s Optimum Pro Wipers Resource Rag, perfect for lndustrial
and Automotive use due to its high absorbtion, low linting, chemical free and
chemical compatible qualities.
• Low lint – essential for polishing,
and when a total clean surface is
• Heat and Solvent resistant
– this makes wipes excellent for
janitorial cleaning, amongst other
uses, for its compatibility with
All Northwood non woven wipes
are formaldehyde free.
Non woven are generally available
in folded formats, centrefeed,
standard roll or loose rags.
• Colour coding – when re-useable
are beneficial but cross contamination
needs to be prevented. Optimum Pro
Wiper’s Smart Wipe is available in 4
Ecolabel : Licence Number: UK/04/005 / UK/04/002
Awarded to all Northwood recycled products manufactured
from recycled parent reels made at the Northwood mills
(Lancaster & Disley) - this covers the entirety of the Essentials
range excluding hand towels. Many Leonardo recycled tissue
products also carry the Ecolabel accreditation.
The Cleaning and Hygiene Suppliers Association soft tissue
standard. A scheme that guarantees all products are fully
labelled with lengths, widths and sheet counts etc, and a
guarantee that the product in the box meets the specification
on the label.
A Global Standards Consumer Products certification covering
products that are sold from our Telford site.
The standard sets out the requirements for the production and
supply of the safe and legal consumer products of consistent
quality. The products may be retailer-branded (private label),
branded or unbranded for use by other organisations.
The International Standard is based on the quality management
principles which are; customer focus, leadership, engagement of
people, process approach, improvement, evidence based
decision making and relationship management. The above is all
to enhance customer satisfaction by meeting customer
requirements. This standard covers all three converting sites
(Telford, Penygroes & Meltham) and is awarded by Royal Charter.
Northwood Hygiene Products | Northwood House | Stafford Park 10 | Telford | Shropshire | TF3 3AB | Tel: 01952 236930
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org | Web: www.northwood.co.uk