Euro Infectious Diseases Congress


Peers Alley Media grandly launches an International event on Infectious Diseases in Paris

Euro Infectious Diseases Congress
March 23-24, 2020
Mercure Paris Charles De Gaulle Airport & Convention
Paris, France

We focus and strive to make our theme “Infectious Diseases Research- A global priority” reliable!

Euro Infectious Diseases Congress welcomes global researchers to an alluring destination Paris to share and exchange the latest research advancements in this field. It is dedicated to innovate solutions to the public health challenges of infectious diseases. With the interdisciplinary sessions, it is offering the best platform to all the interested members to join, share and learn beyond your field of interest which elevates your knowledge and aids in your professional development

Sessions: Infectious Diseases and Global Health | Viral Infections | Bacterial Infections | Fungal Infections | Vector-borne Diseases | Virology and HIV | Immunology and Clinical Microbiology | Neurological and CNS Infections | Healthcare-Associated Infections | Ophthalmological Infectious Diseases | Lower Respiratory and Pediatric IDs | Vaccines and Immunizations | Tropical Diseases and Parasitic Diseases | Sexually Transmitted Diseases and STIs | Oral and Maxillofacial Infections | Genomics and Infectious disease | Pathophysiology and Diagnosis | Clinical Trials and Case Studies | Influencing Factors of IDs | Advanced Treatments and Technologies | Prevention and Control | Public Health and Epidemiology

This activity intends to have emergency medicine physicians, internists, family practitioners, hospitalists, clinicians, microbiologists, anthropologists, epidemiologists, public health practitioners, nurses, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, pharmaceutical researchers, business professionals, scholars, residents, academicians and students along with delegate participation from organizations (industries/companies, associations/societies etc..)

We wish and believe you all will have fruitful days with the scientific discussions over there. Join us and be part of these productive sessions, enjoying the beauty of Paris!




Physicians, Internists, Microbiologists, Biotechnologists,

Epidemiologists, Healthcare Practitioners, Nurses, Anthropologists,

Physician Assistants, Business Professionals, Pharmaceutical

Researchers, Academicians and Students



Disease Congress

MARCH 23-24, 2020 | PARIS, FRANCE


Mercure Paris Charles De Gaulle

Airport & Convention

BP 20248 -Roissypôle Ouest -Route

de la commune -95713

Roissy CDG Cedex

2 12+ 20+ 60+ 125+














featured speakers

Jerard Seghatchian

Audit/Inspection and DDR

Strategies, UK

Dov Lichtenberg

Hebrew University of

Jerusalem, Israel

Ahmed G Hegazi

National Research Center,


Reza Nassiri

Michigan State University


Friedrich Gotz

Eberhard Karls University of

Tübingen, Germany


Cairo University, Egypt

Monica Junie

University of Medicine and

Pharmacy “Iuliu Hatieganu”,


LECA Daniela Anicuta

Clinical Hospital of Infectious

Diseases Lasi, Romania


South East Asia Global Goodwill

Ambassadors, Singapore

Nicoleta Negrut

Dr Gavril Curteanu Municipal Hospital,

University of Oradea, Romania

Laura Iliescu

Fundeni Clinical Institute and Carol

Davila University of Medicine and

Pharmacy, Romania





Presentations under Keynote Forum or Mini-Plenary Sessions includes

abstracts with remarkable research value selected by the program

committee. These significant speeches are delivered by globally

recognized honorable speakers and it is open to all registrants.



In this forum, speakers and experts of the research field gets an

opportunity to showcase their noble research work that involves

comprehensive research findings. These formal oral presentations

include a wide range of talks covering basic research to advanced

research findings in accordance to the theme and scientific sessions

of the conference.



This session is particularly introduced to encourage more number of

student participation at international conferences, however it is not

restricted only to students since it is also available for the participants

with language barrier. There are specific guidelines to be followed to

prepare the poster. Poster topic should be selected only from relevant

scientific sessions with in-depth technical details.


An exclusive opportunity for students and young investigators to

present their research work through a formal oral presentation. Young

Investigators Forum provides a global platform for young researchers

and scholars to showcase their valuable contribution to the scientific

world and to get acknowledged by the global scientific community of

experts. It is an excellent opportunity to recognize young scientific

assets with promising research ideas. These oral presentations are of

shorter time duration with 10-15 minutes of informative and precise

presentations in relevant scientific sessions.





Register & Participate


Euro Infectious

Diseases Congress








(Registration + 2 night’s accommodation)


(Registration + 3 night’s accommodation)






With an aim of transferring knowledge among the participants, workshops

are introduced as a part of international conferences. These interactive

and occasionally practical sessions gives an opportunity for participants

to engage in detail discussion. Workshops are mostly scheduled for 60

to 90-minutes. It may range from learning about a specific topic relevant

to international education, products and research which sometimes

involves practical demonstration. It helps in enhancing skills, knowledge

and understanding of the research field in depth through interactive



“Highlights of the Day Sessions” is introduced to discuss and focus a

ray upon previous day ORAL ABSTRACT presentations by experts to

summarise the key findings. It helps in getting better insights into the

various dimensions of the topic.



Educational Sessions or training programs are specifically designed

for a better understanding of the latest findings and technologies.

These are generally 45-minute sessions that gives an exposure to the

multidisciplinary field, that provides in-depth learning experiences

and address educational needs.


This session involves open discussion between the experts and

session attendees, it gives enough time for getting answers to specific

questions and doubts. It is an opportunity for attendees to increase

their professional networking, sometimes also leads to an excellent

collaboration opportunity.


Infectious Diseases and Global Health | Viral Infections | Bacterial

Infections | Fungal Infections | Vector-borne Diseases | Virology and HIV |

Immunology and Clinical Microbiology | Neurological and CNS Infections |

Healthcare-Associated Infections | Ophthalmological Infectious Diseases

| Lower Respiratory and Pediatric IDs | Vaccines and Immunizations |

Tropical Diseases and Parasitic Diseases | Sexually Transmitted Diseases

and STIs | Pathophysiology and Diagnosis | Clinical Trials and Case Studies

| Influencing Factors of IDs | Advanced Treatments and Technologies |

Prevention and Control | Public Health and Epidemiology






(Registration + 2 night’s accommodation)


(Registration + 3 night’s accommodation)








(Registration + 2 night’s accommodation)


(Registration + 3 night’s accommodation)





Accompanying Person


Virtual Presentation




Concurrent Educational Sessions

MONDAY, MARCH 23, 2020

Infectious Diseases and Global Health

• Causes and pathophysiology

• Classification (Viral, Bacterial, Fungal

and prion infections)

• Diagnosis and Prevention

• Prevalence and Epidemiology

• Clinical Studies

• Pharmaceutical Research

• Tropical Diseases

Fungal infections

• Aspergillosis and Candidiasis

• Athlete’s foot

• Ringworm and Yeast infections

• Skin Fungal Infections

• Fungal Diseases in Soil

• Anti-Fungal therapies


Viral infections

• Hepatitis

• Influenza and Respiratory Infections

• Encephalitis and Meningitis

• Gastrointestinal Infections

• Skin Infections

• Placenta and fetus infection

• Anti-viral drugs

Vector-borne diseases


• Malaria

• Dengue fever and Chikungunya

• Leishmaniasis and Yellow fever

• Zika and Lymphatic filariasis

• Schistosomiasis

• Japanese encephalitis and Onchocerciasis

Bacterial infections

• Tuberculosis

• Pneumonia

• Cholera and Diphtheria

• Bacterial Meningitis

• Tetanus

• Lyme disease

• Gonorrhea and Syphilis

• Skin and Urinary Tract Infections

• Sepsis & Septicemia

Virology and HIV/AIDS

• Molecular virology of HIV & Viral Therapy

• Viral genomes

• Viral Pathogenesis and Immunity

• Viral Evolution and Emerging Viruses

• HIV/AIDS Epidemiological Statistics

• Anti-HIV Drugs

• Animal Models of HIV Infection and


Immunology and Clinical Microbiology

• Immunology and Hypersensitivity

• Host-Microbe Interactions and


• Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms

• Molecular Genetics

• Autoimmune and Inflammatory



Vaccines and Immunizations

• Vaccine Research & Development

• Vaccines safety & Efficacy

• Live-attenuated and Inactivated


• Conjugate and Toxoid vaccines

• Immunization for Women

Sexually Transmitted Diseases /

Sexually Transmitted Infections

• Chlamydia

• Genital herpes

• Trichomoniasis

• Syphilis and Gonorrhea

• Other STDs

Tropical Diseases and Parasitic Diseases

• Neurocysticercosis

• Giardia and Helminthiasis

• Leishmaniasis

• Schistosomiasis and Trichinosis

• Human African Trypanosomiasis


Neurological and CNS infections

• Encephalitis

• Prion diseases

• Meningitis

• Brain abscesses

Ophthalmological Infectious Diseases

• Retinitis and Chorioretinitis

• Retinal Vasculitis

• Optic Neuropathy

• Ocular Immunology

• Trachoma and Conjuctivitis

Concurrent Educational Sessions


Pediatric Infectious Diseases

• Immune deficiency diseases

• Encephalitis

• Lymphadenopathy

• HIV and Lyme disease

• Osteomyelitis

• Pneumonia and Tuberculosis

Clinical Trials and Case Studies

• Evaluation of Safety and Efficacy of

novel drugs

• Research studies on IDs

• Reviews on IDs

• Drug Developmental Stages

• Animal and Mathematical Models


Healthcare-Associated Infections

• Central line-associated bloodstream

infection (CLABSI)

• Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus

aureus (MRSA)

• Catheter-associated urinary tract


• Surgical site infections

• Bloodstream infections

• Clostridium difficile infections

Influencing Factors of IDs

• Environmental factors

• Biological and Social factors

• Human and physical resources

• Food and Water borne infections

• Veterinary infectious Diseases


Pathophysiology and Diagnosis

• Pathogenesis

• Modes of Transmission

• Antimicrobials/Antimicrobial Resistance

• Molecular Methods

• Infectious Agents and defense mechanisms

• Novel methods and techniques

Advanced Treatments and Technologies

• Novel Drug Therapies

• Novel imaging and screening techniques

• Technologies and devices

• Biomarkers

• Antibiotics, antiviral drugs and vaccines

• Infection and Drug Resistance

• Nursing Care Practices

Prevention and Control

• Vaccination

• Genomic study

• Antibiotics and Anti-microbials

• Biochemical Tests

• Drugs and risk factors


Public Health and Epidemiology

• Endemic, Epidemic and Pandemic cases

• Disease agent, host and the environment

• Global Burden

• Infectious Disease Spectrum studies

• Public Health Surveillance studies

• Data collection, Analysis, Interpretation

and Dissemination

Title: Botulism, still a problem?

Nicoleta Negruț | University of Oradea, Romania


Botulism is a life-threatening acute neuroparalysis, which can mimic gastroenteritis at the onset, and often raising

diagnostic' problems. The study's outcome was to evaluate clinical and epidemiological data of patients diagnosed with

botulism, from the region of Bihor, Romania. The diagnosis of the patients was clinical, subsequently confirmed by

detection of the Clostridium Botulinum neurotoxin through mouse bioassay at the National Institute of Research and

Development for Microbiology and Immunology "Cantacuzino", Bucharest, Romania. Epidemiological data were

obtained directly from patients or their relatives. The data were statistically analysed with IBM SPSS software. During

2012-2018, 48 patients have been diagnosed with foodborne botulism, with a prevalence of 36.92% from total cases of

botulism nationally reported. Most of the cases were registered during the winter-spring period (36, 66.67%, p=0.020).

The females from rural areas were predominant, but the differences have not been statistically significant. All cases

were produced by botulinum neurotoxin type B. Smoked ham, traditionally made in the household, was the most

common cause as a source of botulism (33, 68.75%, p=0.009). The mean age of the patients was 39.93±12.59 years. We

recorded 3 family outbreaks, all related to the consumption of ham. The incubation period was 25.72±23.70 hours. The

time from the onset to diagnostic was 2.25±1.68 days. Three cases (6.25%) developed respiratory manifestations

requiring a transfer in the intensive care unit. The first sign of neurological recovery was recorded after 5.04±1.87 days.

No deaths were recorded. Botulism is still a public health problem, in areas where traditional products are preparing in

improper conditions.

Title: Global Impacts of Antibiotic Resistance

Reza Nassiri | Michigan State University, USA


Bacterial pathogens do not respect national borders and in today’s interconnected world to the point of an emerging crisis. Global

consumption of antibiotics has dramatically increased in the last decade which as led to dramatic emergence of antibiotic resistance

(ABR). Considerable mortality is associated with ABR and such resistance is an impediment to the healthcare delivery systems. While

the causes of ABR are complex, certainly human behavior play a significant role in the spread of antibiotic resistant genes. In addition

to the human behavior, the drivers of resistance include agriculture sector, animal husbandry, household and industry – these factors

contribute significantly to the spread of the resistant genes within the ecosystem. There is also a global concern about the emergence of

ABR carried by the healthy individuals, the commensal bacteria. Therefore, ABR has gained tremendous ability to impact several

aspects of our daily lives with significant global public health impacts. Furthermore, ABR-associated mortality rates are indeed

increasing in both developed and developing nations’ hospitals. Particularly, those with diseases that weaken the immune system such as

ABR increases the length of hospital stays, the primary source of increasing healthcare costs, in both developed and developing nations.

The CDC and WHO surveillance data shows that the resistance in E. coli is generally and consistently the highest for antibacterial

agents in both human and veterinary medicine. Within communities, resistant bacteria circulate from person to person or from animals

and environment to person, or vice versa. With 1 billion people travelling each year, the resistant bacteria are becoming more mobile.

The bacterial resistance can kill 700,000 worldwide each year and it’s been estimated to kill 10 million by 2050. The emergence of

resistance to last-resort treatments known as extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) is now eminent. The discovery of the New Delhi

metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) which disables almost all antibiotics directed against it, was a turning point in the rapid emergence

of bla NDM-1 gene which was first identified in 2008 in people who had traveled in India or sought medical care in South Asia. The gene

for NDM-1 travels on a plasmid, an extra-chromosomal loop of DNA that can be traded freely among bacteria. In hospital infections,

bacteria carrying NDM-1 move from person to person when patients who have received many antibiotics, develop diarrhea and traces of

feces contaminate surfaces, equipment and healthcare workers' hands. In community infections, the bacteria carrying the enzyme passes

from person to person when traces of feces contaminate municipal water supplies – and with a large percentage of the population

lacking any access to sanitation. India is facing with two antibiotic resistant genes what carry NDM-1; E. coli and Klebsiella. The

discovery mrc-1 gene in China which is being transferred between Klesbsiella pneumoniae and E. Coli further compounded the global

burden of ABR, which has already spread to the neighboring countries. Numerous European countries have reported the existence of

mrc-1 gene in the isolates from human, isolates from animals used for food, isolates from food, and isolated from the environment. In

summary, common infections such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, blood poisoning, gonorrhea, and foodborne diseases are becoming

increasingly challenging to treat. These infections can easily spread, especially in our globalized world today. Therefore, there is an

urgent need between research universities and industry aimed at developing novel antimicrobial agents to save the practice of modern

medicine and to reduce the global burden of microbial resistance.

Title: Interrelations between the steady state plasma concentrations of

Oxidative stress biomarkers and low molecular weight antioxidants

Dov Lichtenberg | Tel Aviv University, Israel


"Oxidative stress" (OS) is an ill-defined term, being dependent on the method of its evaluation is either due to

different manifestations of OS or due to the existence of several types of OS. Quantitation in terms of a

universal criterion is impossible. The most commonly used tests of OS are based on analysis of the steady

state concentration of lipid peroxidation products, particularly hydroperoxides and aldehydes. In the MARK-

AGE study of more than two thousand individuals, the OS, as evaluated on the basis of the steady state

concentration of any given peroxidation product either does not correlate with the OS determined on the basis

of another biomarker or, when the results based on two biomarkers correlate significantly with each other, the

correlations were weak. We think that the different biomarkers reflect different, thus far unidentified, types of

OS. If different types of OS exist, the different types may be involved in different diseases and may also

respond differently to different antioxidants. Hence, the difference between the alleged sub-groups (types) of

OS may be identified on the basis of the association of different biomarkers with different antioxidants. In the

present study, we test this possibility by analyzing the association of the steady state concentrations of eight

peroxidation products and eleven low molecular weight antioxidants.

Based on our analysis we can only conclude that (i) bi-radical quenching results in antioxidative effect of

peroxidation products, (ii) under certain conditions, antioxidants promote peroxidation and (iii) the different

biomarkers of OS are not associated with the same antioxidants. The complexity of the redox activity of

peroxidation promotors and inhibitors interferes with the possibility of identification of alleged sub-groups of

OS. This study adds important knowledge to the concept of OS.

Title: Satisfactorily responds to Antituberculous Treatment: Surgery

has no role in the management of Tuberculous Mastitis in Egyptian

women population

Gamal M SAIED | Cairo University


Having no clear etiology, idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) and its variant tuberculous

mastitis (TM) are chronic inflammatory lesions usually picked up on clinical suspicion. They

inter in the differential diagnosis of breast cancer and may cause diagnostic perplexity.

Mammography and needle biopsy display nonspecific features, but may provide additional

diagnostic support. Patients vary in presentation and once malignancy is excluded, their

treatment may be instituted on empirical basis. Three cases of IGM were referred for surgical

treatment. Provisional diagnosis was made on clinical suspicion, while final diagnosis was

made only after histopathology. Exclusion of malignancy was given a priority and TM was

the first possibility. It is not necessary to see the acid fast bacilli in tissue specimen or in

culture, and for Egyptian ladies antituberculous treatment was safely given empirically if the

clinical data were sufficient. Progressive reduction in the size of the masses with amelioration

of the preexisting breast symptoms was found. Follow-up radiology showed parallel

improvement and the lesions disappeared at the end of the course. Cure is expected within 6

months and early treatment failure dictates shifting to drugs for genuine IGM like steroids and


Title: Aspects of LCR modifications in bacterial meningitis of

the child

Daniela Leca | Clinical Hospital of Infectious Diseases Lasi, Romania


Objective: To study macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical changes of the CSF, by pediatric age

categories and to establish prognostic risk factors in bacterial meningitis.

Material and method: We conducted a retrospective study including 124 children with bacterial meningitis

admitted in the period 2008-2018. We analyzed the CSF parameters (appearance, pleocytosis, sediment,

albuminorachia, glycorachia) by age groups (infants, 1-2 years, 4-6 years, 7-10 years,11-15 years, 16-18

years) in surviving and deceased children. Statistical analysis was performed with Microsoft Excel 2018


Results: The etiology of bacterial meningitis was specified in only 16.9% of cases. The CSF aspect was

predominantly opalescent in the group 7-10 years (29%), purulent at 1-3 years (35%), clearly in infants

(30%), with pleocytosis over 2000 elements/cmc especially in children under 3 years ( 63.6%) and below 200

elements/cmc in infants (43.5%). The average albuminorachia was 1.67 g/l, with the highest values in

children 1-3 years (50%) and 16-18 years (50%). Glycorachia had an average value of 17, with

hypoglycorachia only in 28 cases (22.6%), especially in children under 3 years (64%). Mortality was 16.9%

(21 cases) with most cases in infants (7/21) and children 1-3 years (6/21) with opalescent CSF (7/21) very

high pleocytosis ( 8/21) albuminorachia reduced below 1 g / l (9/21) and hyperglycorachia (8/21).

Conclusions: Bacterial meningitis in children has a severe evolution, favored by the immunosuppressed field

and by the atypical clinical picture. The young age, the appearance of opalescent CSF, very high pleocytosis,

reduced albuminorachia and hyperglycorachia could be the risk factors for a lethal evolution in the bacterial

meningitis of the child.

Title: Bioluminescent alphaviruses allow in vivo visualisation

of acute and persistent alphaviral infection

Valérie Choumet | Institut Pasteur, France


Mosquito-borne alphaviruses chikungunya (CHIKV) and Ross River (RRV) are remarkable for causing massive

outbreaks of severe polyarthritis in humans. They can induce prolonged arthritis resulting in a significant loss of life

quality and an important socio-economical burden. Neither vaccine nor treatments are available against these viruses.

To better understand the physiopathology of alphaviral arthritis, we developed recombinant molecular clones of RRV

and CHIKV expressing NanoLuc, a small and bright luciferase reporter. In vitro, the NanoLuc expressing viruses

(RRV-NLuc and CHIKV-NLuc) exhibited high genetic stability and near native replication kinetics. In vivo, they

allowed real time bioluminescence monitoring of viral spread in an albino mouse strain.

The use of RRV-NLuc allowed a longitudinal follow-up in living mice showing long-term viral replication after

complete resolution of the acute symptoms one month post-infection. Mice subjected to an immunosuppressive

cyclophosphamide treatment by day 30 of infection exhibited a moderate increase in the bioluminescent signal

indicating an active in vivo replication of the remnant virus. Using CHIKV- NLuc and in vivo imaging, we observed

viral replication in the joint area. This observation was further confirmed by ex vivo measurement of the bioluminescent

signal in the cartilage and by isolation of infected primary chondrocytes up to 30 days after infection, which strongly

suggests that chondrocytes serve as reservoir.

This innovative alphaviruse-NLuc mouse model allowed monitoring of viral dissemination up to the chronic stage.

These observations give new insights into the pathogenesis of alphaviral arthritis and open new perspectives for

evaluation of therapeutic interventions.

Title: Systematic review of the prevalence HIV-associated

Neuropathic Pain and associated symptoms and risk factors

April Dianne Buazon | Universitat de Barcelona, Spain


Background: Through significant advancements, a newly diagnosed 20-year-old, with the use of lifelong, uninterrupted

cART could have a life expectancy similar to those without HIV. According to the International Association for the

Study of Pain (IASP), pain in chronic diseases is under-assessed and undertreated. The aim of this systematic review is

to present the prevalence of HIV-associated neuropathic pain and associated symptoms and risk factors.

Method: Initiated with a search for papers through PubMed, Scopus and ScienceDirect, that included people living with

HIV of any age and with or without cART or pain as a symptom. Cross-sectional, cohort and prevalence studies were

included and then evaluated using a standardised 8-item critical appraisal tool, which consisted of two sections. Section

1 based on sample population and section two based on neuropathic pain and diagnosis. The Neuropathic Pain Special

Interest Group (NeuSPIG) screening tool for neuropathic pain was also used for comparison.

Results: Twenty-three studies were found to meet the inclusion criteria, encompassing 23,751 participants. Diagnostic

criteria varied; 20 studies reported physical examination or confirmatory testing, in order to corroborate a diagnosis.

Prevalence of symptomatic HIV-associated neuropathy was 37.1%. Prevalence of pain was found to be 24.7%. Using

NeuSPIG diagnosis, prevalence of ‘definite’ neuropathic pain was 42% and prevalence of ‘probable’ neuropathic pain

was 27.5%. Only two studies could fulfil the screening tool, therefore was used. Significance of risk factors also varied

between studies. The table below shows risk factors found by the studies included.

Conclusion: The review demonstrated that HIV-associated neuropathy is complex and clinical presentation is varied.

There is no universally accepted diagnosis for HIV-associated neuropathy. More research is required for diagnosis and

pathology and then subsequently management and treatment, otherwise like all other pain in chronic disease, HIVassociated

neuropathic pain will remain undertreated.

Title: Training program established by the Institutional Committee

for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (IACUC) in pre-clinical

trials on infectious diseases

Mario Enrique García Rodriguez | Institute of Tropical Medicine ¨Pedro Kourí¨, Cuba


The implementation in our institution, Regional Reference Center for the study of Tropical Diseases, of the

Institutional Committee for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (IACUC), meant a change in the

institutional approach in research with laboratory animals due to the need to respect the welfare of animals in

the study of preclinical research. Our institution, with the collaboration of several institutions in our country,

managed to establish an annual training program for both technicians and researchers in the ethical

management of experimental animals where national and international basic concepts are updated with the

aim of achieving research Reliable and reproducible. In addition, strategies were designed to encourage the

proper development of research protocols that implicitly imply the use of animals for studies of infectious

diseases. All this has resulted in 6 years training a total of 168 participants in our courses between technicians

and researchers of our institution, as well as other research centers inside and outside our country, in basic

aspects of the welfare of our animals. For scientific purposes, it was also possible to raise awareness among

all the staff who attended our courses to achieve high quality research protocols where laboratory animals are

used in accordance with national and international laws. Encourage the development of good practices in

preclinical research in infectious disease studies and keep in mind that to carry out clinical research in

infectious disease studies it is necessary to design correct preclinical research.

Title: Development of a CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) tool

for specific gene silencing in Leptospira spp

Luis Guilherme Virgílio Fernandes | Institute Butantan, Brazil


Introduction. Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by pathogenic species of the genus Leptospira. Many

aspects of the disease remain unexplored mainly due to the lack of effective genetic tools. Type II CRISPR/Cas system

from Streptococcus pyogenes has been explored as a tool to target mutagenesis by inducing double-strand breaks

(DSBs) due to an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease called Cas9. DSB is lethal for most prokaryotes and a newer variant

of this technique, CRISPR interference (CRISPRi), has been employed to obtain gene silencing rather than disruption,

by using a catalytically inactive Cas9 (dCas9).

Objectives. To develop a CRISPR/Cas9 system in the saprophyte L. biflexa, to evaluate the outcome of a genomic DSB

and, in case of lethality, employ a nuclease deficient variant of Cas9.

Methods. Cas9 gene was ligated into the pMaOri plasmid. L. biflexa cells were transformed with the plasmids to

evaluate Cas9 expression. Different single guide-RNA (sgRNA) targeting β-galactosidase gene were construct and

included into the plasmids. In case of DSB lethality, plasmids containing dCas9 and sgRNA were constructed for gene

silencing. β-galactosidase activity was measured by employing different chromogenic substrates and mRNA levels by


Results and Discussion. L. biflexa cells could successfully express the Cas9 protein. When bacteria were transformed

with plasmids containing both Cas9 and gRNA targeting β-galactosidase, no cells could be recovered, indicating DSB

lethality. Cells expressing both dCas9 and sgRNA could be successfully recovered. When sgRNA was designed to pair

with the template strand of β-galactosidase, only a slight reduction in this enzyme activity was observed, opposing to a

complete gene silencing when sgRNA pairing to the coding strand was used. Employment of CRISPRi led us to

conclude that DnaK is essential to leptospires and FliG, is associated with motility.

Title: Cryptococcus and Cryptococcosis: The One Health

approach revealing a possible role for domestic cats and

dust indoor

Fabio Brito-Santos | National Institute of Infectious diseases, Brazil


The One Health concept recognizes that the health of people is connected to the

health of animals and the environment. Cryptococcal infection is acquired by

exposure to exogenous sources. The understanding of the dynamics and adaptation

of the agents reservoirs, identification of how the infection is acquired by humans

and animals, and what are the means to avoid or reduce its risks of infection, are of

fundamental interest. Several cryptococcal subtypes described worldwide, that are

potentially virulent, are circulating in house dust in Brazilian Amazon, to which

humans and animals are frequently exposed. Animals also share our susceptibility to

some diseases and environmental hazards. For this reason, they can serve as early

signs of possible human disease. Considering that cryptococcal infection in animals

reflects infections in human hosts from the same geographic area, studies of one

health context are necessary. Cryptococcosis in Brazil reiterates the value of sentinel

animal surveillance for this emerging infectious disease, reinforcing the need for

indoor environment studies

Title: Confronting multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter

baumannii via immunization against tigecycline resistance

Ming-Hsien Chiang | National Defense Medical Center, Taiwan


Antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacterial infections, including those caused by Acinetobacter

baumannii (Ab), have emerged as a clinical crisis worldwide. Immunization with AMR

determinants had been suggested as a novel approach to combat AMR bacteria, but had not

been validated. The present study targeted tigecycline (TGC) resistance determinants in Ab to

test the feasibility of this approach. Four candidates, AdeA, AdeI, AdeK, and TolC were

identified as highly conserved and exposed antigens from 15 Ab genomes using bioinformatic

tools. Antisera generated from the recombinant proteins showed the capability to reserve the

substrate of the efflux pump by Hoechst 33342, in the bacterial cell. The rTolC and rAdeIspecific

antisera had significant complement-dependent killing effects as compared to the sera

from phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-Immunized mice. Among the antisera, rAdeK-specific

antisera decreased the minimal inhibitory concentration of TGC in 26.7% of the tested

isolates. Immunization with rAdeK significantly potentiated TGC efficacy in treating TGCresistant

Ab pneumonia in the murine model. The bacterial load (7.5 x 10 5 vs 3.8 x 10 7 , p <

0.01) and neutrophil infiltration in the peri-bronchial vasculature region of immunized mice

was significantly lower compared to the PBS-Immunized mice. Collectively, these results

suggest that active Immunization against resistance determinants might be a feasible approach

to combat multidrug-resistant pathogens.

Title: The Onchocerciasis Vaccine for Africa (TOVA)

David W Taylor | University of Liverpool, UK


The International Community has set ambitious targets for elimination of onchocerciasis (river blindness) as a public

health problem by 2025. Considerable progress has been made through annual and bi-annual mass treatment with

ivermectin (MectizanTM) for periods of between 10 and 15 years. However, in areas of high prevalence, transmission

of the infection persists after 20 years of mass treatment. Furthermore, disease modelling studies suggest that it may not

be possible to achieve complete onchocerciasis elimination using ivermectin alone, even after 50 years of annual


A vaccine would complement and augment ivermectin treatment and address identifiable deficiencies in current

ivermectin-based control programmes which exclude children under 5 years and cannot used in communities where

onchocerciasis is co-endemic with loiasis, a second parasitic infection.

TOVA partners have been working towards the development of a vaccine for over 25 years. Three vaccine candidates

have been selected based on their ability to evoke strong protective responses capable of reducing parasite burden of

immunised animals by more than 90%. In part this is achieved by neutralisation of the immunosuppressive capacity of

the parasite.

The onchocerciasis vaccine is initially aimed at protecting pre-school children (<5 years of age). The vaccine will

reduce adult worm burden and fecundity with consequential reduction in pathology associated with microfilariae.

In addition, a vaccine will find use in ongoing ivermectin control programmes and contribute to reduction in

transmission rates; moreover, it will protect areas where local elimination may have been achieved.

Title: Infectious ecology: The basis for explaining discrete

activation of pathogens

Dmitry Nikolaenko | V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Ukraine


Existing strategies to understand, treat, and prevent infectious disease has limited effectiveness in relation to population

health (e.g., limits of vaccine, antibiotic resistance, unexplained mutations) setting the stage for new strategies that

embrace technological innovations and preventive strategies. Through the lens of infectious ecology, the discrete

activation of pathogens and the infectious process is based on detailed analysis of the microorganism, the microbial

community, and microbial environment in which adaptation can be monitored 1) providing a new pathway to assess

triggers to harmful microbial disruption, and 2) suppress the activation of infectious processes. As a result, infection is

viewed as a natural option of the adaptive process of the microorganism in which certain individuals of species are

susceptible. Thus, understanding the natural and anthropogenic gradients of the microelement dynamics of the natural

environment of microorganisms (ecotone) in the discrete activation of microorganisms in the ecological system

(epigeosystem) is the main construct of infectious ecology. This methodology is key to addressing the numerous

scientifically registered cases of a single infection of animals or the infection of a small number of animals described for

tularemia and plague for which current science cannot define. In addition, S-Theory supports the infectious ecology

approach to deciphering the manifestation of pathogenic microorganisms by including modern science (e.g.

microgeography, nanocartography). Together, this methodology introduces new standards of ecological organization,

definitions, and taxonomic units of geostationary research for the discrete activation of pathogens and the capacity to

locate microbial hot spots. The process is successfully applied to the Advanced Space-Time Algorithm of Site

Detection, known as the ASTA methodology, in which ASTA testing continues to achieve a high level of accuracy in

determining these locations. To optimize this process, researchers must embrace infectious ecology (the adaptive

properties of microorganisms and their natural communities) and S-Theory by recording empirical data using

geostationary monitoring. Benefits include optimizing input from various scientific perspectives, elevating the status of

geostationary research, and development of the concept of true preventive medicine by understanding the nature of

microorganisms from a new ecological perspective to shed light on infectious disease.

Title: Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Salmonella Isolated

from Enteric Fever Suspected Patients

Bijayata Shrestha | HAMS Hospital


Objectives: To isolate and identify the Salmonella species from the blood samples and determine its antimicrobial

sensitivity pattern. To detect the prevalence of the enteric fever among the patients visiting HAMS hospital . To assess

the incidence of enteric fever rate and impact of enteric fever in developing country

Scope: Enteric fever is one of the most common diseases encountered worldwide and is endemic in Nepal. This study

was conducted to access antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella isolates from culture positive cases of enteric


Methods: Altogether 505 blood samples were collected from patients clinically suspected of enteric fever attending

HAMS Hospital. All blood samples were cultured by BACTEC method and sub cultured in blood agar and MacConkey

agar plates. All isolates were identified by colony characteristics, biochemical tests and serotyping methods. Antibiotic

susceptibility test was performed by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method interpreted with CLSI guideline.

Result: Isolation rate of Salmonella species was 3.6%. Among 18 Salmonella isolates, 10 were S. typhi, 8 were S.

paratyphi A. The prevalence rate of infection was high among the age group 11-20 years (50%) and among the male

patients. However, there was no significant association of enteric fever with gender of patients (p=2.47). All 18 isolates

were sensitive to Amoxycillin, Azithromycin, Ceftriaxone and Chloramphenicol, Ciprofloxacin and Ofloxacin. Majority

of isolates were sensitive to Cefixime (94.4%), Cotrimoxazole (94.4%) and Cephotaxime (90%). There were no any

MDR isolates. Higher percentage of isolates was resistant to Nalidixic acid (87.5%).

Conclusion: The decreased susceptibility to Fluroquinolones of S. typhi and S. Paratyphi A can be correlated with

resistance to Nalidixic acid. Commonly used third generation Cephalosporins and rolled back first line drugs be the

choice in case of NARS isolates.

Title: Characterization of adverse effects and it’s associations

in the patient medicated with anti-tubercular drugs

Priyatam Khadka | Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital


Background and Objective

Adverse effects from long-term therapeutic intervention in tuberculosis is obvious; however, were taken nonchalantly

due to the only therapeutic alternative. The objective of this study was to characterize the adverse effects and it’s

associations in the patient medicated with anti-tubercular drugs.


A longitudinal prospective study was conducted among the patient medicated with anti-tubercular drugs. As per the

guideline of Nepal’s National tuberculosis control programme (NTP), Nepal, the treatment category was selected, fixeddose-regimen

was calculated, and treatment outcome was affirmed. Patients’ demographics and other clinical details

were extracted from the repository files. Upon a consecutive follow-up, observed adverse effects were noted and

multivariate logistic analysis against independent factors was done for elucidating any association.


Of 177 cases enrolled, 138(77.9%) reported at least two adverse effects. In our multivariate logistic analysis: female,

abnormal body mass index (BMI) i.e. underweight and overweight cases, patients’ behaviours i.e. smoking/drinking or

both, clinical diagnosed cases and intensive treatment phase were independently associated with adverse side effects.

Loss of appetite (85.4%) was the commonest while dermatologic manifestations (1.2%) and severe weight-loss (1.2%)

were the least observed side-effects among the patient medicated with anti-tubercular drugs. Absolute drug-inducedtoxicity

was observed in treatment failure or MDR (multi-drug-resistant) subjects.


Adverse effects from anti-tubercular therapy are associated with patients’ demographics variables. Symptomatic

treatment, regular follow-up after implicated therapy, and therapeutic-discontinuation may be required for successful


Title: The Role of the International Health Regulations in

Strengthening the Sudanese Health Security-2018

Adam Suliman Abaker Ahmed | Hope City for Patient's Care & Rehabilitation of



Background: Under the International Health Regulations IHR 2005, Sudan is committed to playing its part in the global effort to

plan for and respond to public health threats to the international community by implementing the IHR core capacities of the country

to meet the health security requirements.

Objective: To study the implementation of the IHR and showing its role in strengthening the Sudanese health security.

Method: A historical, descriptive study was conducted; a systematic search of the reports summarizing six national and international

joint evaluations reports from 2011 to 2017.

Main findings: Coordination capacity was 100%, Sudan has a strong tiered system of supporting committees: the Higher Committee

for IHR consists of undersecretaries from different ministries provides strategic guidance. A Technical Committee consists of

technical focal points from different ministries. Four subcommittees address chemical, radionuclear, legislation and points of entry

issues. The IHR NFP, and the Emergency Operations Centre. This allows for efficient coordination of multisectoral engagement in

emergency and crisis situations, which has been demonstrated during many infectious disease outbreaks. But unfortunately

sometimes and for political reasons there was no commitment to timely report of the epidemiological events to the WHO according

to IHR protocol. Surveillance capacity was 95%, there are multiple public health surveillance systems exist in Sudan. Zoonotic

diseases capacity was 100%, Sudan has capacity to respond to more than 80% of zoonotic events within 24–48 hours. There was a

decline in the percentage of some capacities; chemical, radiation and points of entry. Sudan is under sanctions for many years,

which affects its ability to mount adequate responses to some core capacities.

Recommendations: The Commitment to implement all core capacities of the IHR. Develop an emergency plan to improve the

implementation of some of the core capacities of the IHR.

Title: Site Attachment Inhibition: Endurance of resistance


Simon Raymond | Melbourne University, Australia


Part of the global crises in respect of infectious disease is represented by antibiotic resistance. Therefore,

seeking a solution would seem to involve considering solutions which offer a degree of endurance. Stem cell

therapy (stc) based site attachment inhibition (new generation immunization) would seem worthy of

consideration given that the hereditary mutations provide life long resistance (immunity) to the given infective

agents, in addition to the procedure being stc based.

Any deviation from this would include suspicion of other causes including: mal practice (and, terrorism) in

development of strains or variants that are not covered by the procedure as new to the environment.

The current researcher addresses, in the below conference, issues surrounding dysfunction genetics and

premature ageing reported in China. The current researcher discusses the issues regarding direct copying and

uses a well known case, namely Dolly the sheep, as a centre of focus to discuss the issues that connect with

direct copying involving stem cell research and therapies.

Furthermore, as detailed in the above, the current researcher clearly underscores that such issues are not

applicable to his research as he detailed right back in Association versus Causation lectures the importance of

considering first principles approach to identifying genetic targets as opposed to direct copying. This supports

the current researcher’s ability to deal with complex issues and is maintained in the research log

Title: Adopting laughter therapy to get dosage of happy hormones to remove

stress caused by being in slight pain , being depressed, being unhappy

anxious or sad. Saying positive affirmations aloud changes body cell energy

Suchi | South East Asia Global Goodwill Ambassadors, Singapore


Statement of the Problem: There is a lack of awareness about what happy hormones are ,how to use positive words to

feel energetic and what can be done to get happy hormones. People tend to feel unhappy for multiple reasons and

neuropathic pain adds on Stress levels of not only the patient but the caregivers as well. Being in pain leads to feeling

depressed and anxious in some cases.

Methodology & Theoretical Orientation:

Review of Books and Research shows that getting a dosage of happy hormones will not only ease slight pain of the

patient but feeling happy will also have a positive impact on the recovery of the patient. Adopting Laughter therapy

and getting hormones which makes one feel good will help many to recover from Neuropathic pain /Long term sadness

caused by having grief ,Anger or Resentment, Depression & Anxiety.

Findings: One needs to work on his/her energies using Laughter Therapy which is a positive approach for not having

Depression & Anxiety caused by Neuropathic pain . The therapy can be used as a Holistic way to recovery.

Conclusion & Significance: The Laughter therapy which includes ways to get the dosage of happy hormones promotes

overcoming Depression & Anxiety caused by Neuropathic pain ,is a fun way to manage pain. Repeated sessions to be

conducted to remind patients that life while having pain or during the recovery should go beyond just seeking medical

and counselling help and also include rebuilding Spiritual, Physical, Emotional, Relational and Mental health. The

model has been put together from for testing in many settings including hospitals ,elderly homes and senior citizen

centres. This is not a research book or paper. It is just an effort to demystify the help available for Depression &

Anxiety caused by pain. It is an attempt to motivate and encourage people to seek help and take a simple approach to

remember and work on all aspects of their recovery.

Title: Coverage Assessment Survey Following Trachoma Mass

Drug Administration (MDA) In 6 Districts of Oromia, Ethiopia

Tariku Tesfaye Bekuma | Wollega University


Background: Trachoma is a contagious infection of the eye by specific strains of the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. It is the

leading cause of blindness worldwide. Mass drug administration (MDA) with azithromycin is a cornerstone of WHO’s global effort

to eliminate trachoma by 2020. This coverage survey was aimed to assess trachoma post-MDA coverage among six selected

districts of East Wollega, Horoguduru Wollega, and West Shewa zones, 2017.

Methods: A community based cross-sectional coverage survey was conducted. The sample size was calculated automatically using

Coverage Survey Builder (CSB) tool in Microsoft Excel. Thirty segments were selected per each selected districts of the three

zones. A separate Results Entry Form for each district surveyed was completed, saved and uploaded directly into the online

Coverage Survey Analysis Tool to estimate the surveycoverage and the program reach along with the corresponding 95%

confidence limits and design effects. EPI-INFO 7.0 and SPSS Version 20 was used for further analysis of survey data.

Result: A total of 1,747 households were surveyed, out of which 10,700 individuals were interviewed. Most respondents (95.1%)

stated that they heard about trachoma MDA and most of them replied that they got the information from health workers. Program

reach ranged between 89.5% in Jimma Gannati district and 94.8% in Dirre Hinchinni district.

Conclusion: In this survey, four of the six districts met the target threshold (i.e. 80%) for effective coverage; Ambo rural and

Jimma Geneti did not meet the target threshold. In these, programmatic improvements should be made for the future campaign to

reach the expected thresholds while the campaign in four of the six districts should be encouraged.

Title: Effectiveness of Bilateral Superficial Cervical Plexus Block as part

of Postoperative Analgesia for patients undergoing Thyroidectomy in

Empress Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Zemedu Aweke | Dilla University


Introduction: Pain after thyroid surgery is considered of moderate intensity and short duration. Most trials

showed significant reduction in pain intensity and severity of pain in patients for whom bilateral superficial

cervical plexus block (BSCPB) was done.

Objective: To assess the postoperative analgesic effect of BSCPB for thyroid surgery.

Method: Sixty six euthyroid patients were recruited and assigned to two groups (33 patients each). Group 1

BSCPB and Group 2 standard analgesia. Unpaired Student’s t-test and Mann–Whitney test were used for

comparison. Statistical significance was stated at p value < 0.05. Results. Median postoperative pain score

(NRS) was 3 in the BSCPB group and 5 in the control group (p 0.002). ,ere was also statistically

significant difference at 6th, 12th, and 24th hour showing a lower median pain score in the BSCPB group

compared to the control group. Median time was (360 minutes) in the treatment group and (180 minutes) in

the control group (p 0.0006). Median tramadol consumption within 24 hours is 0 mg in the BSCPB group

compared to 100 mg in the control group (p 0.001).

Conclusion and Recommendation: BSCPB done for thyroidectomy under general anesthesia decreases the

postoperative pain score, total analgesia consumption, and time to first analgesia request.

Title: Case of Talaromyces marneffei infection in Burkina Faso

GUIGUEMDE Kiswendsida Thierry | Joseph Ki-Zerbo University


Talaromycosis is caused by an intracellular dimorphic fungus Talaromyces marneffei (formerly known as Penicillium

marneffei). The disease is endemic and geographically limited in Southeast Asia. Infection by T. marneffei is commonly

described in HIV-infected patients with a CD4+ T lymphocyte count below 100 cells / μL. In Thailand it is the third

commonest opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and responsible for high mortality. Without treatment the mortality

is 100% in HIV-infected patients. The mode of transmission of the fungus to humans and the natural reservoir are still

unknown. Talaromycosis is a rare in non-endemic area. In Africa the fungus had already been isolated in one patient

from Ghana who had no history of travel. In Burkina Faso, no case of Talaromyces marneffei infection had already been

described. We describe the first case of Talaromycosis in HIV-infected patient in Burkina Faso. The patient is followed

for HIV with ART treatment and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. His CD4+ T lymphocyte count was 240 cells /μL. He had

skin lesions evoking a mycotic condition. The thick scales removal from the lesions was used for the mycological

examination. Microscopic examination of growth allowed isolation of Talaromyces marneffei in its yeast and mold

forms. Treatment with Itraconazole (ITZ) alone was started with a dose of 400 mg/day for 8 weeks with a maintenance

dose of 200 mg daily for 6 weeks. The lesions disappeared after two months of treatment with a cure of the patient.

Talaromycosis occurs in Burkina Faso in HIV-infected patients even with a CD4 count> 100 cells/μL. This must draw

the attention of the health system to the follow-up of people living with HIV. Infection buy Talaromyces marneffei is an

opportunistic disease and should be commonly sought in immunocompromised patients like any other opportunistic


Title: Hepatitis c virus testing and treatment among persons

receiving Buprenorphine in an office -based program for Opioid use

disorder in Nigeria

Adeyemi Adeniyi Abati | Lagos university teaching hospital


Aims: In Nigeria, hepatitis c virus (HCV) infection is primarily spread through injection drug use. There is an urgent

need to improve access to care for HCV among persons with Opioid use disorders who inject drugs. The purpose of our

study was to determine the prevalence of HCV, patient characteristics, and receipt of appropriate care in a sample of

patients treated with Buprenorphine for their Opioid use disorders in a primary care setting.

Methods: This study used retrospective clinical data from the electronic medical record. the study population included

patients receiving Buprenorphine in the office based Opioid treatment (OBOT) clinic within the adult primary medicine

clinic at Lagos medical center between October 2008 and august 2015 who received a conclusive HCV antibody AB

test within a year of clinic entry we compared characteristics by HCV Serostatus using Pearson's chi-square and

provided numbers/percentages receiving appropriate care.

Results: The sample comprised 300 patients. slightly less than half of all patients (n = 134, 27.7%) were HCV AB

positive, and were significantly more likely to be older Hausas and Yoruba’s, have diagnoses of post- traumatic stress

disorder (PTSD) and bipolar disorder, have prior heroin or cocaine use, and be hi v- infected. among the 134hcvab

positive patients, 126 (67.7%) had detectable HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA) indicating chronic HCV infection; only 8

patients (2.21%) with chronic HCV infection ever initiated treatment.

Conclusions: Nearly half of patients (47.7%) receiving office-based treatment with Buprenorphine for their Opioid use

disorder had a positive hepatitis c virus antibody screening test, although initiation of HVC treatment was nearly nonexistent


Title: Prevalence and Virulence gene profiles of Escherichia

coli O157 from cattle

Akomoneh Elvis Achondou | University of Bamenda


Background: Escherichia coli O157 is an emerging foodborne pathogen of great public health concern. It has

been associated with bloody diarrhoea, haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uremic syndrome in humans.

Most human infections have been traced to cattle and the consumption of contaminated cattle products. In

order to understand the risk associated with the consumption of cattle products, this study sought to

investigate the prevalence and identify virulence genes in E. coli O157 from cattle in Cameroon. Method: A

total of 512 rectal samples were obtained and analysed using conventional bacteriological methods

(enrichment on modified Tryptone Soy Broth and selective plating on Cefixime-Tellurite Sorbitol Mac-

Conkey Agar) for the isolation of E. coli O157. Presumptive E. coli O157 isolates were confirmed

serologically using E. COLIPROTM O157 latex agglutination test and molecularly using PCR targeting the

rfb gene in the isolates. Characterisation of the confirmed E. coli O157 strains was done by amplification of

stx1, stx2, eaeA and hlyA virulence genes using both singleplex and multiplex PCR. Results: E. coli O157

was detected in 56 (10.9%) of the 512 samples examined. The presence of the virulence genes stx2, eaeA and

hylA was demonstrated in 96.4% (54/56) of the isolates and stx1 in 40 (71.4%) of the 54. The isolates

exhibited three genetic profiles (I-III) with I (stx1, stx2, eaeA and hlyA) being the most prevalent (40/56;

71.4%) while two isolates had no virulence genes. Conclusion: A proportion of cattle slaughtered in abattoirs

in Buea are infected with pathogenic E. coli O157 and could be a potential source of human infections. We

recommend proper animal food processing measures and proper hygiene be prescribed and implemented to

reduce the risk of beef contamination.

Title: Human Papillomavirus Infection in genital women in

four regions of Senegal

El Hadji Seydou Mbaye | International Agency for Research on Cancer, France


INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer is the most frequent cancer among women in Senegal. However,

there are few data concerning the HPV types inducing neoplasia and cervical cancers and their

prevalence, in the general population of Senegal

AIMS: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of HPV infection in Senegalese women

aged from 18 years and older.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A study was performed on 498 cervix samples collected from

healthy women aged 18 and older in Dakar. 438 other samples were collected from three other regions,

Thiès, Saint Louis and Louga. The samples were screened for 21 HPV genotypes using an HPV typespecific

E7 PCR bead-based multiplex genotyping assay (TS-MPG) which is a laboratory-developed

method for the detection of HPV.

RESULTS: The prevalence for pHR/HR-HPV in the region of Dakar was 20.68%. HPV 52 (3.21%)

was the most prevalent HPV type, followed by HPV 16 (3.01%) and HPV 31 (3.01%). In the regions of

Thiès, Louga and Saint Louis, the prevalence for pHR/HR-HPV was 29.19%, 23.15% and 20%,


CONCLUSION: The study revealed the specificity of the HR-HPV prevalence in Dakar and other

regions of Senegal. The patterns differs from the one observed in the other regions of the world and rise

the issue of the development of vaccination program in the country. Such a program should take into

account the real HPV prevalence for an effective protection of HPV-associated diseases.

Title: Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices among HIV positive

breastfeeding mothers

Phumzile Dlamini | University of South Africa


Vertical transmission of HIV through breastfeeding is still one of the major concerns

regardless of endless interventions for its prevention. This study sought to explore

knowledge, attitudes, and practices of breastfeeding HIV positive mothers. 90

conveniently selected breastfeeding mothers living with HIV were part of the study

sample and a questionnaire was administered to the participants. Data were captured

using a statistical package for the social science version 20 and descriptive analysis

was done through tabulation and frequencies. The study results showed that nearly

80% of breastfeeding mothers living with HIV had high levels of knowledge on

PMTCT, while a positive attitude and a positive behavior was seen in 90% of the

participants. In the contrary, stigma and discrimination among family members, nondisclosure

of HIV status to sexual partners, poverty and fear of future drug resistance

were reported as risk factors of non-adherence to ARV prophylaxis. Moreover, there

are behaviors and practices which include inconsistent condom use, mixed –feeding

methods as well as wet-nursing that were practiced by breastfeeding mothers which

can contribute to postnatal HIV transmission to breastfeeding babies.

Title: Zinc finger CCCH-type Antiviral Protein 1 Restricts the Replication of

Influenza A Viruses by Positively Regulating Type I Interferon Response

Mohsan Ullah Goraya | Institute of Microbiology


Zinc finger CCCH-type antiviral protein 1 (ZC3HAV1) is a host antiviral factor that

inhibits the replication of specific viruses via viral RNA degradation by recruiting

cellular RNA degradation machineries. In this study, infection of influenza virus

induced the expression of ZC3HAV1, and it functions as a potent stimulator of

interferon responses in human cells, which is mediated by IRF3. Interference with the

endogenous expression of ZC3HAV1 encourages the replication of influenza virus by

impairing the induction of interferon-β (IFN-β) and MxA, following the infection of

influenza virus. A549 cells with decreased expression of ZC3HAV1 were unable to

control the replication of influenza virus. Furthermore, the ectopic expression of

ZC3HAV1 successfully restricted the replication of influenza virus in A549 cells.

ZC3HAV1 has the positive role on the induction of IRF3-dependent IFN-β expression.

In addition, ZC3HAV1 enhances the induction of antiviral factors TNF and IL-6. These

results reveal that ZC3HAV1 is considered a positive key regulator of IFN signaling

during the innate antiviral immune response and a promising therapeutic target for

virus control. This study will reveal new horizons to find new antiviral therapeutic to

treat the seasonal and pandemic outbreaks of influenza viruses.

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