Muse: Issue 02

musemediauw


ON THE COVER

PHOTOGRAPHER: Lola Reinhardt, @llllooolla

MODELS: Kym Littlefield, @waitbutwho /

Darra Bunkasem, @soundsbydarra

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ISSUE 02

SPRING 2020

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EDITOR’S

NOTE

Dear Readers,

No words can describe the pride we feel when holding this

year-long labor in our own hands. After the release of our

inaugural issue last year, we had nothing but high hopes and

expectations for this year. Despite the challenges we have

endured, the determination and spirit the entire team had this

year was truly phenomenal. Thank you to my officers, Calvin,

Savannah, Tyler, and Janine, for leading another year and

being part of this legacy. And thank you to our successors,

Anastasia, Courtnee, Lola, and Athena, for braving the roles

and carrying the torch onwards. I can only imagine the leadership

and creativity you all possess to guide Muse towards its

success in the years to come.

Muse’s second issue celebrates subcultures within our communities.

Featuring niche groups of people, our contributors

discuss the interests, beliefs, styles, and ideals they share.

Each of us belong to unique subcultures, whether it is a way of

dressing, a career path, or a religion. They infiltrate our core

identity. Calling upon subcultures we personally belong in,

aspire to be in, or find fascinating, we have curated unique

perspectives across the board.

Our magazine strives to be more than the average trends

analysis and pop culture speculation. Each piece delves deep

into the relationship culture has with clothing. As readers, it is

our duty to do the same, and begin exploring our relationships

we have with our cultures and clothes as well. In an increasingly

globalized and connected world, our best interests also

lie in engaging and educating ourselves about others. Reading

snippets will never replace living someone else’s experience,

nor should it. As a medium between the creator and the

reader, this magazine is a form of connection and a stride

towards empathy.

As I step down from my position, graduate from college, and

enter the real world, I want to thank everyone who has supported

Muse. Over the years, we have honed in on our true

mission: fostering a community of creatives to collaborate on a

fashion magazine. Inevitably, innovative thinkers, creators, and

leaders are allowed opportunities to thrive. As a budding businessperson,

this organization has developed in me adaptability,

responsibility, and confidence. With Muse only in its infancy,

I leave behind a legacy. I truly believe fashion is more than the

clothes we throw on our body. More conversation is to be had,

and there now exists a platform to discuss it.

With love,

Kaitlin Yau

PHOTOGRAPHER: Tyler Flom, @tylerflom

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ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION

CON-

TENTS

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08

10

16

20

Muse Playlist

Curated by Lola Reinhardt

Out with the Old, In with the Old

Written by Sonika Tayade

Hue

Photographed by Taiying Pusztaszeri

Runway Realism

Written by Jordyn Bryant

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32

38

42

Grime

Photographed by Lola Reinhardt

Gender and Fashion Intertwine

Written by Horatio Shine

Hybrid

Photographed by Shawn Lee

Hip-Hop Streaming Into Fashion

Written by Varun Rao

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52

58

62

68

Paradise

Photagraphed by Moniyat Chowdhury

The Clothing Rebellions

Written by Athena Benjamin

Glimmer

Photographed by Jasmine Wee

CTRL+ALT+FASHION

Written by Vivian Tran

Meet the Team

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Launch Spotify, go to search, press the camera

icon, and scan this code to follow the playlist!

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I DON’T WEAR

THE SAME THING

EVERY DAY;

I DON’T LISTEN

TO THE SAME

MUSIC EVERY DAY.

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MUSE PLAYLIST

I don’t wear the same thing every day; I don’t listen to the same music every day. I’m

focused on experimentation. Why not wear something out of your comfort zone

because you never know what might be. Colors and silhouettes are always switched

up, and handmade pieces to one-of-a-kinds are staples in my wardrobe. My fashion,

music, and emotions are undeniably connected. The music I listen to and the clothes

I wear depend on my mood. I’ve created a playlist that encompasses songs from several

different genres. Experimenting with different sounds and clothes will help you

realize new things about your personal style and can even bring fresh meaning to

seemingly meaningless days.

Lola Reinhardt

In My Room, Frank Ocean

Eternal Light, Free Nationals

Holy Terrain, FKA Twigs & Future

I'm Just Snacking, Gus Dapperton

Midsection, KAYTRANADA

Cyanide, Daniel Caesar

Sandstorm, Mereba, JID

Photosynthesis, Saba

Hungry Hippo, Tierra Whack

Dreams, Fairytales, Fantasies, A$AP Ferg

Shea Butter Baby, Ari Lennox, J.Cole

No Idea, Don Toliver

Come Thru, Summer Walker

Poof, Pi’erre Bourne

M’s, Trippie Redd

Orange Soda, Baby Keem

Highest In The Room, Travis Scott

Juicy, Doja Cat

FlatBed Freestyle, Playboi Carti

Hot, Young Thug

Had Enough, Travis Scott

What To Do?, Travis Scott

The Box, Roddy Rich

Down Below, Roddy Rich

Been Around, RBN Cordae

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PHOTOGRAPHER: Silas Chu, @silas_shc

MODEL: Jaime Huckins, @jaimehuck


OUT WITH THE

OLD, IN WITH

THE OLD

Written by Sonika Tayade


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RETRO REPRESENTS STYLE THAT

IMITATES TRENDS, MUSIC,

AND ATTITUDES THAT ARE NO

LONGER MODERN.

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THE SKINNY

CAT-EYE

FRAMES.

THE CHUNKY

SNEAKERS. THE

WHITE BOOTS.

We’ve seen our favorite celebrities sporting

these fashion pieces, whether it’s at

high-profile events or simply on the

streets with their casual, model-off-duty

looks. These trends have one thing in

common – they’re part of a set of trends

making a comeback from the 70s, 80s,

and 90s. Today, we’re seeing a boom of

retro and vintage pieces in the fashion

world. Designers are integrating these

trends into the clothes they put out, and

consumers are excitedly reaching toward

them. Of course, such trends look great

when paired correctly and have the

potential to create truly novel looks. But

why do we love throwback fashion?

What’s the appeal of retro and vintage

trends, even for those of us who don’t

exactly have ties to the decades these

clothes were popular?

In examining retro and vintage fashion,

it is important to distinguish the two

terms. Retro represents style that imitates

trends, music, and attitudes that

are no longer modern. On the other

hand, vintage refers to an actual piece

of clothing manufactured in the past. In

other words, retro clothing doesn’t indicate

a specific time period a piece of

clothing was created, but instead allows

vintage trends to come back into our

fashion today.

The first reason retro trends might be

making a comeback today is as a

response to fast

fashion. We all

know the feeling

of walking into

Forever21 or

H&M and discovering

a great deal

for a great piece of clothing. Fast fashion

is the process of creating fashion trends

quickly and making them cheaply available

to customers. This new style of

manufacturing has become the new

trend. However, according to Marilyn

DeLong, a researcher in apparel design,

consumers might be looking for something

other than just mass-manufactured

garments. She believes that as shoppers,

we wish to create our own individual

identities and escape common

trends, which is achievable by wearing

both retro and vintage items of clothing.

This is especially applicable to vintage

pieces of clothing. In a research article

entitled, “The Rise of Vintage Fashion

and the Vintage Consumer,” a representative

from the British vintage store Little

Red Vintage stated that the underlying

themes of vintage clothing are “originality,

authenticity, and quality.” As we all

know, combining retro and vintage clothing

with contemporary pieces lets us

make truly novel looks. We all become

our own designer, and a “symbol of fashion

independence.”

There’s a piece of clothing that is a

prime example of our search for individuality:

mom jeans. According to a New

York Post article, mom jeans became

popular in the 1980s because they were

a reference of “starlet silhouettes.” Now,

we see ourselves wearing mom jeans

without batting an eye toward the trend’s

supposed “older” look. And according to

Jessica Morgan, the co-creator of a popular

celebrity style blog, she credits this

increased popularity of mom jeans to

their potential to make an outfit look

simply more interesting and unique.

Also suggested as to why we’re so

intrigued by trends from the past is

ON THE OTHER HAND, VINTAGE

REFERS TO AN ACTUAL PIECE

OF CLOTHING MANUFACTURED

IN THE PAST.

perhaps a fascination with past time

periods. Let’s face it - we’re surrounded

by a rapidly-changing environment. So

who can blame us if by focusing on retro

and vintage pieces, we are finding relief

from this environment and are attempting

to instead connect with the past?

Regardless of whether we have an

age-related connection to the past, we

may still view the 90s as an age of simplicity.

The past comes with a certain

nostalgia, and perhaps we are comforted

by the ability to grasp it.

Of course, there’s a huge contributor

to the popularity of retro and vintage

trends we’re constantly surrounded by.

Take social media, for example. Fashion

influencers achieve millions of followers

on social media, and these influencers

have the power to globally impact all

types of peoples’ perspectives on fashion.

Many of these popular fashion bloggers

and influencers are heavily falling

into vintage and retro trends. Many of

vlogger Emma Chamberlain’s aesthetic

Instagram pictures feature items such

as bell bottoms, retro striped denim,

and cat eye sunglasses. Blogger Kavita

Donkersley, who runs the blog titled

“She Wears Fashion” often documents

her love of vintage fashion. Aside from

social media, media such as film and

television often incorporate vintage and

retro fashion, once again increasing its

appeal. For example, the show Girl Boss,

featuring the founder of Nasty Gal,

vintage clothing is brought to the forefront,

emphasizing its unique and

stylish charm.

With consumers constantly turning

their head toward vintage and retro

pieces, there is one concept that plays a

huge role in retro and vintage fashion:

thrifting. We all

know the feeling

of finding that one

perfect shirt for a

great deal at the

thrift shop, and

the rush that

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PHOTOGRAPHER: Silas Chu, @silas_shc

MODEL: Cassie Collinge, @cassiecollinge

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Photography: Silas Chu / @silaschu

Model: Cassie Collinge / @cassiecollinge

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comes with it. Thrifting culture is a huge

part of the influx of retro and vintage

trends. At thrift shops, what sits on the

rack one day could be gone by the next.

Therefore, when consumers are at thrift

shops, they discover truly unique pieces.

That discovery of one of a kind vintage

and retro pieces at thrift shops leads to

an ability to create individualized looks.

And what we find at thrift shops isn’t

only fashionable, but affordable. Here’s

a motivating statistic: Carolyn Schneider,

author of The Ultimate Consignment &

Thrift Store Guide, says the average discount

on clothing in thrift stores is often

more than 50%. The combination of an

individualized shopping experience and

affordability makes thrift shops a highly

active player in the world of vintage and

retro fashion.

The fashion we see changes every

day. What is “in” one day may be “out”

the next. However, even in a state of

constant change, we can still hold on to

certain trends and styles we once considered

precious. Maybe this demonstrates

an ability to salvage what we can

of the past and bring it back even stronger,

to all different types of people. As

we peer into the future, it is highly probable

that vintage and retro trends will

continue to be a large part of our style.

The 2000s are already making their way

back into style through, for example,

crop top tanks, bedazzles, and low rise

jeans. Thirty or fifty years from now,

pieces from the 2010s will become retro

and vintage clothing. And again, this

cycle will continue. Yet, the current retro

and vintage trends will not vanish. As

these trends age, their charm simply

increases. Just as consumers cherish

the originality of incorporating their retro

and vintage pieces in their outfits today,

they will increase their love for these

older pieces. Vintage and retro trends

allow more creativity and diversity in

each outfit. The past doesn’t always

disappear; sometimes it finds a way

to reappear.

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PHOTOGRAPHER: Silas Chu, @silas_shc

MODEL: Josie Culp, @josieculp

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HUE

Photographed by Taiying Pusztaszeri

PHOTOGRAPHER: Taiying Pusztaszeri, @taiying.shoes

16 MODEL: Nicole Sanchez, @nicola.ayn


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RUNWAY

REALISM

Written by Jordyn Bryant

PHOTOGRAPHER: Silas Chu, @silas_shc

MODEL: Kurstin Dennis, @shesangelickurstin

20 FASHION SHOW: a.oei studio, @a.oei_studio


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T

here’s something captivating

about watching models strut

down runways in thoughtfully

assembled outfits as major fashion

houses use Haute Couture (custom-fitted

collections) and Ready-To-Wear

shows (standardized sizing) to develop

their brand’s image. Chic music, creative

hair and makeup, and lavish decor all

create a certain fantasy illustrating the

stories of each collection. This form of

artistic expression is what draws so

many people into the world of high fashion.

So yes, we all dream of wearing the

beautiful gowns, perhaps purchasing

a handbag off the runway, and maybe

even attending one of these glorious

The main difference

between those who

are able to sit in the

audience and those

who must watch from

home lies in one key

characteristic of the

individual: status.

shows. But in reality, many fashion

junkies are sitting in their room at 1:00

am watching Chanel’s glorious 2016/17

Métiers d’Art show for the third time

that week.

Who are the ones invited to these

shows? From the public’s perspective,

we recognize the faces of musicians,

actors, and social media influencers.

Within the fashion industry, there are

also corporate buyers, designers, magazine

editors, and online bloggers. So

it seems that only the elite, with fame

and high social status, are invited to

shows for reasons pertaining to profit

and popularity for the designer’s brand.

A brand’s image is perhaps its most

valuable characteristic. By associating

with those who have a large following

and strong credibility, fashion brands

are able to boost their own status by

creating invitation lists full of reputable

individuals. This select group of people

have a unique way of dressing, presenting

themselves, and interacting with

others while attending these shows.

Designers often gift and borrow outfits

to those attending their shows to further

promote their designs. Bloggers often

wear unique outfits to each show and

willingly change in nearby bathrooms

ac to meet these certain expectations.

These expectations guide a stronger

notion of “class” into a runway atmosphere.

Take the iconic editor-in-chief

of Vogue, Anna Wintour for example.

She has undeniably set the standard for

what’s to be expected of a runway show

audience member. Many emulate her

way of conducting herself with a certain

poise while expressing she’s intrigued

by the clothing being showcased. She

always attends shows wearing couture

ensembles by the specific designer

she’s experiencing. The audience

is expected to promote the designer

without distracting from the show itself.

These unspoken expectations limits who

is invited and chosen to represent the

brand at these shows. This constricted

demographic sheds light on the aspect

of exclusivity in the fashion industry: if

you’re in, you’re in.

Now this doesn’t mean that the

general public is not an integral part of

the runway community. Designers and

marketing teams specifically hire videographers

and editors to spread their

designs and creative narrative beyond

the walls of the show. The fast fashion

industry takes trends off the runway to

market to a wider audience and with

current platforms like YouTube, fashion

enthusiasts can watch these runway

shows in the convenience of their own

home. It may be unfortunate that most

people cannot physically sit in the seats

and see the textural intricacies of the

ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION

PHOTOGRAPHER: Silas Chu, @silas_shc

MODEL: Mavaney Keel, @mavaney

FASHION SHOW: a.oei studio, @a.oei_studio

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PHOTOGRAPHER: Silas Chu, @silas_shc

MODELS: Domenica Michelle, @domenica_photo /

McKenna Herzog, @mckennaherzog /

Yanina Panfilenka, @jadfeel /

Megan McBride, @meganleemcbride

24 FASHION SHOW: a.oei studio, @a.oei_studio


PHOTOGRAPHER: Silas Chu, @silas_shc

MODELS: Agatha Tutia, @allaboutaggie

FASHION SHOW: a.oei studio, @a.oei_studio

designs in person, but as an audience,

we unknowingly inspire the culture and

ideals in which the world of fashion is

founded on.

As individuals, we are able to shape

the cultural identity of our society

through creating music, art, and technological

advances unique to our current

decade. Current and traditional culture

from around the world is embedded

into shows to broaden its audience and

to promote diversity in fashion design.

It’s important to recognize the difference

between a designer incorporating

cultural elements from the perspective

of appreciation and education rather

than a self-serving, irreverent perspective.

Some positive examples include

Chanel’s 2016/17 Cruise show in

Cuba, which incorporates Cuban culture

through its use of local musical artists

performing on the runway, and its

location being physically on the streets

of Cuba. The models in the show are

diverse and represent the demographics

of the area in a way appropriate and

important to runway culture. Lagerfeld’s

As a general public,

we may not find

our names on the

exclusive invitation

lists, but we can see

elements of ourselves

within the music that

represents our experiences

and within

the designs that tell

our stories.

pieces in the collection all have a certain

ease representing the free spirited

Cuban culture of the early 1900’s. Guo

Pei, the genius behind Rihanna’s iconic

yellow ensemble at the 2015 Met Gala,

is a specialist in incorporating ethnic

culture into runway fashion. She integrates

traditional Chinese design into

intricate headdresses, dramatic gowns,

and beautiful shoes. This aspect of high

fashion reveals how we as an audience

actually do impact the looks we see in

the seemingly distant and elite runway

scene. We influence our society’s culture,

which then inspires high fashion.

The integral link between the individual

and largely known name brands can

further be found within the designs of

local artists as well as the atmosphere

of their shows. These shows are often

more personal and organic. Through

these designs, the designer’s identity

is clear and at the forefront. They are

unapologetically revealing parts of themselves

within their shows, an aspect that

prestigious high fashion can sometimes

lack. Local fashion culture demonstrates

the possibilities of what the fashion industry

can become when it embraces an

intimate approach of sharing designs.

The prestigious nature of the world

of fashion fosters the captivating unattainability

of runway culture which draws

us all in.

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GRIME

Photographed by Lola Reinhardt

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PHOTOGRAPHER: Lola Reinhardt, @llllooolla

MODELS: Kym Littlefield, @waitbutwho /

Darra Bunkasem, @soundsbydarra

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PHOTOGRAPHER: Tyler Flom, @tylerflom

INTERVIEWEE: Mati Rafael, @kalemne

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GENDER

AND FASHION

INTERTWINE

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Written by Horatio Shine

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WHAT IS

GENDER?

Trust me, I’ve asked this question a lot.

At eighteen, I’m still struggling to discover

an answer, both in the great big

theoretical and in the much more intimate

personal. I don’t yet know how I

identify. The concept of gender exists for

me as foggy, shapeless ideas. These

ideas, for me, are largely based in aesthetics.

Girlhood is frilly skirts swishing

around my thighs and brightly colored

eye shadow and mile high stilettos.

Boyhood is poofy-sleeved button-ups

and sweater vests and those same mile

high stilettos (I may just like pretending

to be tall). I’ll be the first to admit it—

these ideas are pretty shallow and

loosely based on stereotypes. I honestly

don’t know, in this world fighting against

gender norms, what else gender is supposed

to include. My entire conception

of this society-ruling construct is based

on fashion.

Since my personal views on gender

are so aesthetically based and don’t fall

properly into either of the binary genders,

I thought it would be best to ask

some people with personal experience

in the intricacies of living outside the

gender binary. I turned to the brothers of

Delta Lambda Phi’s Psi Chapter, a UW

fraternity chapter made up of LGBTQ+

individuals. Meet Mati Rafael and Layne,

my guides in understanding the complex

world outside of binary gender. Gender

expression is often centralized in clothing,

so how does fashion play into that

story? I interviewed Mati Rafael and

Layne in hopes of gaining a better grasp

on some of the connections between

gender and fashion and how fashion

shapes existence outside of the binary.

Mati Rafael identifies as bigender,

meaning they identify as both a trans

woman and a gay man. She is “both at

the same time, all the time.” She uses

she/her, he/him, and they/them pronouns

interchangeably. He looks specifically

in the women’s sections, saying

that his beard and build already make

him appear masculine, so he looks for

more feminine clothing to build a mix of

the two influences. They described this

as “trying to find the feminine part,”

which they have been doing since childhood.

She has “no connection to masculinity

at all, other than being gay,” so her

fashion melds together women’s fashion

with the more effeminate side of gay

fashion subcultures.

Layne, on the other hand, considers

himself to be a non-binary man, and

uses both he/him and they/them

Through their clothing

choices, Mati

Rafael showcases

resistance against

gender normativity.

pronouns. In other terms, Layne identifies

as in-between male and female, but

leaning more towards the masculine, or

“male-ish” side of the spectrum. While

shopping, Layne said he looks in both

the men’s section and the women’s section,

choosing clothes based on whether

he likes them over what gender they

were supposed to evoke. They enjoy

clothes “that other people don’t have,”

fostering a unique aesthetic completely

outside of a binary set of norms. They

also appreciate clothing for sentimental

value, things with “family connections,”

such as heirloom jewelry, from relatives

across the gender spectrum.

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PHOTOGRAPHER: Tyler Flom, @tylerflom

INTERVIEWEES (L to R): Layne, @layne.woodward2701 (Left) /

Mati Rafael, @kalemne (Right)

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Layne relishes the

freedom that exists

outside gender

specificity.

They both have complex relationships

with gender, both personally and as a

broader concept. Gender as a construct

rules all of our lives in both imperceptible

and obvious ways, and the journey of

stepping outside of those bounds is not

an easy one.

They definitely share some similarities.

Both stated a desire for positive

attention that is achieved through bold

fashion choices, such as bright colors

and fun patterns. Both expressed that

they wanted to appear queer in their

dress choices, preferring to emphasize

their gender non-conforming identities

through the clothes they wear. Part of

the joy of identifying outside of the gender

binary comes in challenging the borders

of traditionally gendered clothing.

Unfortunately, dressing against the

grain of gender norms is not as safe as

many would think. Openly transgender

people are subject to a constant fear of

violence in retribution against their gender

expression. Both Mati Rafael and

Layne expressed concerns towards

really expanding their expressive clothing

choices. Mati Rafael said she is

afraid to wear skirts or dresses in public,

taking her outward gender expression

from androgynous to overtly feminine

and perhaps crossing a line into dangerous

territory. Layne communicated a

similar fear; while they enjoy presenting

as obviously transgender, they are hesitant

to do so when not surrounded by

their LGBTQ+ peers. Being alone in public

places makes unconstrained gender

expression unsafe.

This fear is a journey that every gender

non-conforming person experiences.

Though their worries are far from gone,

both Layne and Mati Rafael are finding

their way along individual odysseys of

self-confidence. In their younger years,

both felt it necessary to try and hide

within their clothes, uncomfortable with

the bodies beneath. For Layne,

as with many transgender individuals,

fashion was a means of masking his

body so that he would pass, or be perceived,

as male, allowing little experimentation

outside of that. For Mati

Rafael, she first came out as a gay man,

at which point she began to pay more

attention to fashion. Only as each was

able to become more comfortable with

their gender identity were they able to

experiment more with clothing. Mati

Rafael is now confident enough to wear

more feminine clothes, but feels pressured

to present femininely enough to

still be seen as the bigender person she

is. Layne, on the other hand, finds their

non-binary identity freeing, allowing

them to wear whatever they choose,

unconstrained by gender norms.

The pressures of society and gender

norms are sure to exist for many years to

come, but change is happening around

us. The journey to freedom of expression

and identity is one with no defined ending,

but be assured that if we, both as

individuals and as communities, continue

to step along that path, together

we can come to a more diverse and yet

interconnected society. I come out of

writing this article not with answers to

the endless myriad that is gender, but

with a sense of hope that joy and

self-confidence are possible regardless

of whatever my answers or lack thereof

may be. There is happiness to be had in

the gray zones, the in-between places,

the unanswered questions. Fashion and

gender walk hand in hand into that

ambiguity. I think I will follow them in.

PHOTOGRAPHER: Tyler Flom, @tylerflom

INTERVIEWEE: Mati Rafael, @kalemne

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There is happiness to be

had in the gray zones, the

in-between places, the

unanswered questions.

Fashion and gender walk

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hand in hand into that

ambiguity. I think I will

follow them in.

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HYBRID

Photographed by Shawn Lee

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PHOTOGRAPHER: Shawn Lee, @syn.photo

MODEL: HoKwon Kim, @kqwon7750

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HIP HOP

STREAMING INTO

FASHION

Written by Varun Rao

PHOTOGRAPHERS: Lola Reinhardt, @llllooolla /

Vanessa Rivera, @vanessarivera10

42 MODEL: Eve Moynihan, @eve.moynihan


‘Cause everything

designer, her jeans

is Helmut Lang

Shoes is Alexander

Wang and her shirt

the newest Donna

Karan, wearing all

the Cartier frames

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Jean Paul Gaultiers

‘cause they match

with her persona

Song: “Fashion Killa”

from A$AP Rocky’s debut album LONG.LIVE.A$AP

43


As hip-hop became a cultural

phenomenon, the style of

artists and fans started to

become more recognized

around the world.

ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION

Creativity in art is defined by the stories

that are told through the medium. The

worlds of fashion and hip-hop have both

been cornerstones of storytelling over

the past decades. The two worlds have

been crossing streams with their ability

to showcase the experiences of the artists.

Fashion and hip-hop have become

reflective of the environment and the

upbringing of the artists which resonates

with the millions of fans around the

world. As hip-hop became a cultural phenomenon,

the style of artists and fans

started to become more recognized

around the world. It created a crossover

that would change how modern consumers

view fashion: the hip-hop subculture.

A REFLECTION

OF SOCIETY

The hip hop culture is one that roots

itself in the late '80s, when artists began

to record their music and publish it for

the world to hear. It would go on to

evolve over the decades to develop into

a perfect medium for complex storytelling

and becoming the most commercially

successful genre of the 21st

century. In the late '80s, when hip-hop

was in its infancy, groups like

Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five

wore the quintessential bright colors

that reflected the wild and fresh beats

they were performing over. As the '90s

rolled on, iconic gangsta rap groups, like

NWA, began to bring their fashion from

the streets of Compton into the limelight.

Black was the primary color they

wore to reflect the harsh and dangerous

reality of their home city. Cuban chains

and baseball caps became the stereotypical

image of hip-hop artists as NWA

began to receive national media coverage

for their controversial and rebellious

lyrics. This resonated with the audience,

as they were able to recognize these artists’

struggles and emotions through

PHOTOGRAPHERS: Lola Reinhardt, @llllooolla /

Vanessa Rivera, @vanessarivera10

MODELS: Eve Moynihan, @eve.moynihan) /

Abdi Abdikadir, @lavishbrock

44


their music and fashion. As the artists

began to get more attention in the media,

so did the clothes they were wearing.

COMMERCIALIZATION

OF HIP-HOP FASHION

The first example of mainstream acceptance

of hip-hop culture was when the

New York-based rap trio Run DMC

signed a $1 million endorsement deal

with Adidas in 1986. This caused the

verification of hip-hop artists as fashion

icons by one of the largest sports brands

in the world. It opened the gate for collaborations

between various sporting

brands and hip-hop artists. These

include Reebok partnering up with 50

Cent and Jay Z in the early ’00s, and

Adidas collaborating with hip-hop artists

like Missy Elliot in 2005. This commercialization

leads to more global influences

as fans across the world were

exposed to the growth of hip-hop.

INTERNATIONAL

INFLUENCES

It is undeniable the influence Pharrell

Williams had in introducing Japanese

fashion brands like A Bathing Ape and

Comme des Garçons to the hip-hop subculture

and integrating them into

American fashion through brands like

Billionaire Boys Club. This influenced artists

to wear international brands with a

variety of colors and designs to reflect

their status as global icons. The introduction

of bright colors and skater styles

that were the staple of Japanese street

fashion caused a blending of culture

that would cause hip-hop fashion to be

the leader in the modern streetwear

scene. Artists like A$AP Rocky are heavily

influenced by traditional designer

brands like Louis Vuitton and YSL, which

can be reflected through their lyrics and

fashion choices.

ARTIST TURNED

DESIGNER

Kanye West broke the boundaries

between hip-hop artist and fashion

designer when he launched his brand

Yeezy in 2009 in collaboration with Nike.

After switching brands to Adidas in 2013,

Kanye went on to make his Yeezy clothing

and sneaker line one of the most worn

and celebrated fashion brands among

artists and fans. By creating a brand

that appealed to the hip-hop community

with the attention to detail of a designer,

Kanye gave his fans the ability to stay

connected to their community while

experiencing the quality of a designer

brand. Using his newfound influence on

the fashion scene, Kanye went on to promote

upcoming fashion designers Virgil

ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION

45


ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION

46


Abloh and Jerry Lorenzo whose brands

Off-White and Fear of God have become

staples of the hip-hop community.

FUTURE OF

HIP-HOP FASHION

This diversification

With digital streaming and services like

SoundCloud, the entry barriers into the

world of hip-hop has never been smaller.

Exposure to many diverse characters

and personalities, who have brought

their unique style and perspectives to

music and fashion, have blossomed.

Digitization has also allowed artists to

independently sell their own merchandise

catered to their fanbase. This diversification

has caused hip-hop fashion to

branch out to reflect the individuality of

every artist and their fans. With this

change, fashion in the hip-hop world has

exploded to unprecedented fame. Artists

now sell merchandise simultaneously

with their albums, blurring the line

between musician and designer more

than ever before. As the industries continue

to integrate among themselves, we

will continue to see artists and fans’

styles evolve to the experiences and

environment of the time.

ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION

has caused

hip-hop

fashion to

branch out

to reflect

the individuality

of

every artist

and their

fans.

PHOTOGRAPHERS: Lola Reinhardt, @llllooolla /

Vanessa Rivera, @vanessarivera10

MODELS: Eve Moynihan, @eve.moynihan) /

Abdi Abdikadir, @lavishbrock

47


ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION

PARADISE

Photographed by Moniyat Chowdhury

48


49

ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION


PHOTOGRAPHER: Moniyat Chowdhury, @moniyat

MODEL: Sahra Salah, @sahra_salah

50


PHOTOGRAPHER: Moniyat Chowdhury, @moniyat

MODEL: Zarah Khan, @zarahkhan

51


ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION

52


THE CLOTHING

REBELLIONS

ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION

Written by Athena Benjamin

53


ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION

In 1908, Teddy Roosevelt was president,

Converse was founded, and the first

American woman flew as a passenger in

an airplane. Edith Hart O. Berg asked

the Wright Brothers to make a trip in

their plane, and when she was granted

permission, she tied a rope around the

bottom of her dress to keep it out of the

way. A decision based on functionality,

the hobble skirt emerged from this simple

act. At the

time, this

skirt was

immensely

controversial

for women to

wear, accentuating

the

shape of their

lower half.

Albeit small,

this was a

notable

moment in

the feminist

movement, as

women began

to appear in

more than

their traditional,

restricting

wear. It was a

small step

forward for

women that

allowed for

leaps in

the future.

Fashion is

often perceived as being unnecessarily

frivolous and impractical, disregarding

the movements that have risen due to

the industry. Moving from the rigid

Victorian period to the Roaring Twenties,

the feminist movement had more room

to flourish and grow, namely through

fashion. The 1920s, perhaps one of the

most famous eras for fashion,

introduced the flapper. Flapper style was

unlike anything seen before. Women

began wearing dresses that revealed

their calves, cutting their hair short, and

adding heels into their wardrobe.

Dresses’ drastically shorter hemlines

and thinner fabrics exposed women’s

bodies in an innovative and defiant way.

Their short hair existed in a time when

long hair was professed as feminine and

the way women “ought to be.” This boyish

hairstyle was a message, showing

no interest in being confined to the

expectations of female gender roles. It

was not a coincidence that flapper fashion

was born during the battle for women’s

suffrage. With more rights and

freedoms available to women, they were

more welcome to express a sense of

freedom in the way that they dress.

'30s fashion introduced women to

one simple article of clothing: pants.

Dresses greatly limited their movement

and constricted them into uncomfortable

apparel. Two famous actresses of

the decade, Marlene Dietrich and

Katharine Hepburn, made themselves

into fashion icons as they began to regularly

wear pants. In 1933, Eleanor

Roosevelt

became the

first First Lady

to wear pants

to a formal

Fashion is often perceived

as being unnecessarily

frivolous and impractical,

disregarding the movements

that have risen

due to the industry.

presidential

event. With a

push from

influencing

celebrities,

trousers

began to be

worn in leisure

and formal

events.

Today, wearing

pants

seems like a

normal day

outfit; however,

in the

context of the

1930s, wearing

dresses

was the norm.

When

World War II

stopped the

nation in its

tracks and

damaged the economy, the fashion

industry responded. In the '40s, because

of World War II, clothes began to see

less fabric to avoid using excess material.

Swimsuits got shorter than ever.

Two-piece sets were flaunted on the

American beaches, exposing women’s

stomachs to the public, an outrageously

scandalous act. In the past, women

54


wore full body undergarments to swim.

Once two-piece swimsuits arrived,

women received a new freedom on the

beach that was previously withheld

from them.

The 1950s brought the one and only:

bullet bras. Bullet bras inordinately

accentuated the breasts. This undergarment

virtually had the same effect as

putting a neon sign on a woman’s chest

clothing revealed more of their bodies.

This was most evident in the emergence

of miniskirts in the '60s. Named after

the designer and creator Mary Quant’s

favorite car, the Mini Cooper, miniskirts

were a symbol of female power and ownership

of sexuality. Skirts and dresses

were not worn above the knees until the

miniskirt and the skirt received

immense backlash. Coco Chanel herself

its actions. The peace symbol was worn

on necklaces and drawn on shirts.

Dressing in this new style reflected their

political beliefs and rebellious attitudes.

As the '80s came around, leggings

were a new controversial must-have

clothing piece introduced. Originally

worn by the women in aerobics, this

style of pants were worn more regularly

outside of exercise classes. Pop Queen

ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION

1900

Hobble Skirts

1920

The Flapper

1930

Pants

reading: “You can’t hide my femininity.”

They were in control of their bodies and

how they were perceived by the public.

Women got to show their curves outside

of the beach. It began as a“girl next

door” aesthetic and ended up sweeping

the nation. Anybody who was somebody

was wearing bullet bras in the '50s.

As the years went on, women’s

described them as “just awful.” The

pieces that receive the most retaliation

are often those that are heard the loudest.

While the Vietnam War raged on in

the '70s, fashion stood hand-in-hand

with the anti-war protests and marches.

What may be called hippie clothes or

bohemian fashion warned the government

that they would not stand behind

Cher, among other celebrities, popularized

this new fad. Skintight and sexy, the

leggings trend further allowed women to

own their bodies and dress comfortably

chic. In a time when women’s clothes

were far from comfortable, leggings took

the country by storm.

Then came the decade of grunge: the

'90s. The image of the “bad girl” arrived

ILLUSTRATOR: Janine Crosland, @_justmejanine_

55


1940

1950

1960

ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION

Swimsuits

Bullet Bras

Miniskirts

1970

1980

1990

Bohemian Fashion

Leggings

Grunge

56


It was a small step forward for

women that allowed for leaps

in the future.

with chokers, black eyeshadow, and

leather jackets. Women were seen as a

force to be reckoned with. The aggressive

nature of the '90s grunge aesthetic

directly challenged previous portrayals

of women as innocent and docile. With

grunge came an unrestrained form of

expression. Women in this decade were

unafraid to speak up for their beliefs and

their style reflected that fearlessness.

It may seem that all each decade left

behind was less and less room for the

imagination; however, there is more to it

than that. The freedom of dress offers

comfort and acceptance of oneself.

Fashion is an extension of self, and yes,

with each decade came more skin, but it

opened the choices that women had by

simply expanding their wardrobe. In

wearing skin-tight clothes or oversized

sweaters or men’s jackets, a woman is

communicating that she is comfortable

in her own skin.

While women have earned the right to

wear more revealing clothing in the 21st

Century, a victim-blaming culture has

been unwittingly thrust upon them.

Great strides have been made toward

female empowerment, but the fight is

not yet over. The recent #MeToo movement

has revealed the staggering number

of women and men who have fallen

victim to sexual abuse. Wearing short

skirts and cleavage-revealing shirts has

become a part of the norm; yet, this

does not stop the masses from accusing

women of “asking for it” when they

choose to dress in a more revealing way.

In a movement where people utilize

women’s clothing choices as a weapon

against them, others have fought back

using their own clothing choices for

retaliation. During the 2018 Golden

Globes, men and women dressed in all

black to protest the inequality between

the genders. Through large numbers

and unified fashion choices, they made

a loud statement against the normalized

culture against women.

Although there have been immense

amounts of progress in female empowerment

and equality, there is still massive

social inequality within the United

States and elsewhere. As the 2020s

begin this year, understand that clothing

has power to start and propel movements

forward. No one ever knows what

kind of new, controversial fashion statements

will arrive until it is in front of

them. The flapper era could never have

been predicted and it was one of the

most influential fashion movements in

recent history. Rebellious fashion

throughout the decades has shaped history

in ways that no one could have

imagined, and it will continue to do so.

ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION

57


ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION

58


GLIMMER

Photographed by Jasmine Wee

ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION

PHOTOGRAPHER: Jasmine Wee, @jasmine_wee

MODEL: Zoe Clarke, @zoeclarke

59 59


ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION

60


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ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION


ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION

PHOTOGRAPHER: Taiying Pusztaszeri, @taiying.shoes

62 MODEL: Marcella Touche, @marcellatouch


CTRL+ALT+

FASHION

Written by Vivian Tran

ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION

63


ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION

alternative fashion:

fashion standing apart from the

mainstream at some point in time

PHOTOGRAPHER: Taiying Pusztaszeri, @taiying.shoes

MODEL: Marcella Touche, @marcellatouch

64


Picture the

early 2010s.

You have a decently popular Tumblr blog

filled with fandom posts, Acacia Clark is

almost every girl’s beauty icon, and hundreds

of pretty boys have jump-started a

career as online humor personalities on

Vine. The domination of social media on

youth culture gained its traction and

momentum during the time of Tumblr.

Even if you didn’t have a Tumblr account,

the platform wriggled its way into whatever

account you did have. Facebook circulated

iconic justgirlythings posts and

Instagram humor accounts reposted

threads, giving everyone a taste of

Tumblr’s unique online social scene.

Tumblr dominated online teen pop-culture,

embedding itself particularly into

the teen fashion scene. Pastel hair, hipster

glasses, mustache-themed crop

tops, beanies, heavy eye makeup, and

large side-swept bangs across the

forehead clutter social media feeds.

While the days of Tumblr are behind

us, the Internet culture the platform

carried is recycled into today’s popular

social media.

From Instagram influencers to Twitter

baddies to TikTok e-stars, the teen fashion

aesthetics of yesterday’s Tumblr

blogs have grown in sync with the explosion

of new social media platforms to

create new tabs of fashion trends. The

hipsters are now VSCO girls and artsy

photography boys. The kawaii and

Vaporwave trends have meshed with

scene to produce e-girls and e-boys. Soft

grunge sees its elements in the modern

vintage art girl and skater boy, while also

contributing to the evolution of streetwear

hypebeasts. These categories illustrate

the idea of the “popular

alternative”, defined as the personified

categories of Internet fashion trends

that exist due to a niche being exploded

into popularity. The popular alternative is

The variety of alternative categories give

birth to an online system of fashion

cliques, all mashed together in the World

Wide Web cafeteria.

ironic in that it displays the ways internet

youth attempt to get away from what is

popular and, as a result, end up creating

something that is popular. The variety of

ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION

65


ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION

66


ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION

alternative categories give birth to an

online system of fashion cliques, all

mashed together in the World Wide Web

cafeteria.

The popular alternative defines a paradox

of being anti-mainstream yet at the

same time popular. What is fascinating

about ‘alt’ fashion, however, is how

many of the categories exist almost

solely online. Some categories, such as

VSCO girls and streetwear, have a little

more influence outside of the screen

and into the real world. But others have

distinctive looks living just within the

confines of the Internet. For example,

not many features of the e-girl/e-boy

look are seen often in everyday life. The

trend’s vivid and boldly colored fashion

is usually only spotted behind the screen

of a social media post. The name e-girl/

e-boy itself describes its digital nature,

as the letter ‘e’ in the names stands for

‘electronic’. Some also attribute the

meaning of ‘e’ to the word ‘emo’ as

many elements of emo fashion overlaps

with e-girl/e-boy style. Both e-girls and

e-boys found their beginning with help

from the popular TikTok platform, where

the trends of colorful dyed hair and

heavy, bright makeup with gothic or

anime-esque clothing rapidly spread as

a counterculture to the popular influencer

looks. Many of those who create

looks for the e-girl/e-boy trend are doing

so solely for an image to put on social

media. While not being a super popular

fashion trend in real life, the huge levels

of popularity the e-girl/e-boy look has

online says something about the ties

between fashion and the Internet.

On the Internet, fashion is a way to

present an aesthetic identity; and these

aesthetics become life forms of their

own, creating a personified fashion trend

that exists in the pixels making up our

screens. As social media continues to

evolve, the rebellion against the mainstream

and its influence on our styles

will also continue to pave the path for

new digital fashion identities to unfold.

Whether it be the child of the VSCO girl

and Vaporwave or the revival of bohemian

mixed with streetwear, whatever

the next big fashion persona is, it will

continue to shape our fashion sense

both on and off the Internet.

PHOTOGRAPHER: Taiying Pusztaszeri, (@taiying.shoes)

MODEL: Marcella Touche, (@marcellatouch)

67


MEET THE TEAM

Kaitlin Yau

Editor-in-Chief & Founder

Anastasia Gerrans

Incoming Editor-in-Chief

Tyler Flom

Photography Officer

Lola Reinhardt

Incoming Photography Officer

Silas Chu

Photography

Taiying Pusztaszeri

Photography

ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION

Shawn Lee

Photography

Vanessa Rivera

Photography

Moniyat Chowdhury

Photography

Jasmine Wee

Photography

Savannah Croissant

Marketing Officer

Courtnee Hong

Incoming Marketing Officer

Cassie Zeng

Marketing

Camille Beehary

Marketing

Olivia Nguyen

Marketing

Vera Zhang

Marketing

Janine Crosland

Editorial Officer

Athena Benjamin

Incoming Editorial Officer

Horatio Shine

Editorial

Sonika Tayade

Editorial

Varun Rao

Editorial

Jordyn Bryant

Editorial

Vivian Tran

Editorial

Calvin Kordel

Graphic Design Officer

Nicole Ayn Sanchez

Graphic Design

Katie Cowin

Graphic Design

Teagan Mach

Graphic Design

NOT PICTURED

Emily Hoang

Marketing


69

ISSUE 02: SUBCULTURES IN FASHION


@muse_uw

msha.ke/muse_uw

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