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Connecting Literacy Student Folio 1 Sample Pages

Connecting Literacy targets whole-school literacy improvement for Secondary students and teachers. What is Connecting Literacy? A developmental literacy program for Secondary schools, including: -3 student folios -3 teacher books -100s of video lessons hosted by literacy consultant, Hayley Harrison. Who is Connecting Literacy for? Secondary school students and teachers who: -are embarking on whole-school literacy improvement, OR -integrate literacy skills in the English classroom, OR -attend a timetabled literacy block. How does Connecting Literacy work? With cumulative skill development over three books where students: -Model: read and annotate an ‘anchor text’ – an authentic piece of student writing -Practise: complete units of work in class or as homework with video support from Hayley Harrison, literacy coach -Apply: draft their own text directly into the writing pages included in each student folio. Why do you need Connecting Literacy? -Flexibility: Use the series over three consecutive years or use the student folios in parallel to differentiate, support and extend. -Support: Video lessons, teacher books with answers and suggested programs, a literacy skills ‘toolkit’ and on-demand P.D. sessions will support experienced and out-of-discipline teachers alike. -Evidence: Student folios are designed as a learning pathway with built-in student reflection, metacognition and formative assessment (with developmental rubrics). -Whole-school: Use Connecting Literacy to underpin your whole school literacy plan and create a common metalanguage around literacy.

Connecting Literacy targets whole-school literacy improvement for Secondary students and teachers.

What is Connecting Literacy?

A developmental literacy program for Secondary schools, including:

-3 student folios
-3 teacher books
-100s of video lessons hosted by literacy consultant, Hayley Harrison.

Who is Connecting Literacy for?

Secondary school students and teachers who:

-are embarking on whole-school literacy improvement, OR
-integrate literacy skills in the English classroom, OR
-attend a timetabled literacy block.

How does Connecting Literacy work?

With cumulative skill development over three books where students:

-Model: read and annotate an ‘anchor text’ – an authentic piece of student writing
-Practise: complete units of work in class or as homework with video support from Hayley Harrison, literacy coach
-Apply: draft their own text directly into the writing pages included in each student folio.

Why do you need Connecting Literacy?

-Flexibility: Use the series over three consecutive years or use the student folios in parallel to differentiate, support and extend.
-Support: Video lessons, teacher books with answers and suggested programs, a literacy skills ‘toolkit’ and on-demand P.D. sessions will support experienced and out-of-discipline teachers alike.
-Evidence: Student folios are designed as a learning pathway with built-in student reflection, metacognition and formative assessment (with developmental rubrics).
-Whole-school: Use Connecting Literacy to underpin your whole school literacy plan and create a common metalanguage around literacy.

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<strong>Connecting</strong><br />

<strong>Literacy</strong><br />

‘… eternal life gives time little meaning’<br />

Authored by<br />

Hayley<br />

Harrison<br />

and a team of students, just like you.<br />

<strong>Student</strong><br />

<strong>Folio</strong>


<strong>Connecting</strong><br />

<strong>Literacy</strong><br />

<strong>Student</strong><br />

<strong>Folio</strong><br />

Authored by<br />

Hayley<br />

Harrison<br />

and a team of students, just like you.<br />

‘… eternal life gives time little meaning ’


<strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong><br />

<strong>Student</strong> <strong>Folio</strong> 1<br />

1st edition<br />

Hayley Harrison<br />

Publisher: Catherine Charles-Brown<br />

Project editor: Naomi Saligari<br />

Copy editor: Naomi Saligari<br />

Proofreader: Kelly Robinson<br />

Cover and text design: Ana Cosma (anacosma.com)<br />

Typesetter: Paul Ryan<br />

Illustrator: QBS Learning<br />

The author and publisher are grateful to the following<br />

for permission to reproduce copyright material:<br />

Cover: Getty Images/ Yasser Chalid<br />

Graph based on Australian Institute of Health and<br />

Welfare material, 98; iStockphoto/Danylyukk, 71<br />

(bottom), /darksite, 25 (bottom), /elenabs, 71 (top),<br />

/Holy Polygon, 25 (top), /PALMIHELP, 95,<br />

/Holy Polygon, 25 (top), Syntika, 25.<br />

Every effort has been made to identify copyright<br />

holders and obtain their permission for the use of<br />

copyright material. We actively solicit copyright<br />

holders or anyone with knowledge of copyright<br />

holders to come forward.<br />

Warning: It is recommended that Aboriginal and<br />

Torres Strait Islander peoples exercise caution when<br />

viewing this publication as it may contain images of<br />

deceased persons.<br />

Matilda Education Australia acknowledges all Aboriginal<br />

and Torres Strait Islander Traditional Custodians of<br />

Country and recognises their continuing connection to<br />

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to Elders past and present.<br />

First published in 2023 by Matilda Education Australia,<br />

an imprint of Meanwhile Education Pty Ltd<br />

Melbourne, Australia<br />

T: 1300 277 235<br />

E: customersupport@matildaed.com.au<br />

www.matildaeducation.com.au<br />

Copyright © Hayley Harrison 2023<br />

Copyright © Matilda Education 2023<br />

The moral rights of the authors have been asserted.<br />

All rights reserved. Except under the conditions<br />

described in the Copyright Act 1968 of Australia<br />

(the Act) and subsequent amendments, no part of<br />

this publication may be reproduced, in any form or<br />

by any means, without the prior written permission<br />

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for educational purposes under the Act must be<br />

covered by a Copyright Agency Limited (CAL) licence<br />

for educational institutions and must have given<br />

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These limitations include: restricting the copying<br />

to a maximum of one chapter or 10% of this book,<br />

whichever is greater. For details of the CAL licence<br />

for educational institutions, please contact:<br />

Copyright Agency Limited<br />

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Publication data<br />

Author: Hayley Harrison<br />

Title: <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> <strong>Student</strong> <strong>Folio</strong> 1<br />

ISBN: 9780655091417<br />

A catalogue record for this<br />

book is available from the<br />

National Library of Australia<br />

Printed in Malaysia by Vivar Printing<br />

Oct-2022


<strong>Connecting</strong><br />

<strong>Literacy</strong><br />

Contents<br />

Introduction to literacy .........................<br />

iv<br />

Unit 1: Persuasive literacy ..................... 2<br />

Unit 2: Procedural literacy ..................... 24<br />

Unit 3: Imaginative literacy .................... 48<br />

Unit 4: Informative literacy .................... 70<br />

Unit 5: Analytical literacy ...................... 94<br />

Unit 6: Reflective literacy ...................... 118<br />

Unit 7: Comparative literacy .................. 140<br />

<strong>Literacy</strong> How-to .................................. 164<br />

Comprehension ............................... 164<br />

Planning and writing ......................... 167<br />

Structures and features ...................... 174<br />

Vocabulary ..................................... 181<br />

Syntax ........................................... 183<br />

Punctuation .................................... 188<br />

Spelling ......................................... 191<br />

Speaking and listening ....................... 200<br />

Introduction to literacy<br />

iii


Introduction to literacy<br />

<strong>Literacy</strong> is a complex amalgamation of skills that interweave and are applied when<br />

reading, writing, speaking, and listening. The goal of systematically and explicitly<br />

teaching individual literacy skills is to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of<br />

students’ communication. Mastering literacy skills requires a person to understand,<br />

consolidate, and build automaticity in individual skills and then combine these skills<br />

to develop as a critical reader, coherent writer, and confident speaker.<br />

The literacy skills and strategies presented in this book are designed to be individually<br />

taught, explored, consolidated, and built upon. This learning is then explicitly transferred<br />

beyond the classroom to help students in every part of their school and everyday<br />

lives. Teaching is supported by an instructional model that consists of prior knowledge<br />

activation, explicit teaching, collaboration, independent practise, and reflection. There<br />

are layers of teaching and learning support, including links to comprehension strategies,<br />

writing organisers, and formative assessment opportunities at a lesson and unit level.<br />

How to use <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong>: Model, practise, apply<br />

This book is divided into seven units – which are based on the different text types that students<br />

will encounter during school and beyond – and one <strong>Literacy</strong> How-to section, which is a complete<br />

reference guide that can be referred to throughout the book:<br />

• Unit 1: Persuasive literacy<br />

• Unit 2: Procedural literacy<br />

• Unit 3: Imaginative literacy<br />

• Unit 4: Informative literacy<br />

• Unit 5: Analytical literacy<br />

• Unit 6: Reflective literacy<br />

• Unit 7: Comparative literacy<br />

• <strong>Literacy</strong> How-to section.<br />

In each unit, the students model, practise, and apply specific literacy skills to a different text type.<br />

Model<br />

Each of the seven units begins with an anchor text. Each anchor text is a model that is<br />

designed to ‘anchor’ the students’ learning as they complete the activities in the unit.<br />

The anchor texts in this series were all written by students in years 7–10, from schools<br />

across Australia.<br />

Practise<br />

Each unit has eight lessons that focus on core literacy skills and strategies:<br />

1 comprehension<br />

5 syntax<br />

2 planning and writing<br />

6 punctuation<br />

3 structures and features<br />

7 spelling<br />

4 vocabulary<br />

8 speaking and listening.<br />

At the end of the book, there is a <strong>Literacy</strong> How-to section. This is a comprehensive<br />

literacy reference guide that is designed to support teachers and students by providing<br />

content, skills, and strategies that can be applied across the units. This section is<br />

designed to connect with prior knowledge activation, and to provide opportunities<br />

for clarification and extension of understanding and skill development.<br />

iv <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> • Book 1


Apply<br />

In each lesson, comprehension strategies are suggested to help the students to complete the<br />

activities successfully. Each unit includes writing pages for students to use to draft and edit their<br />

own original texts. By containing their learning and application in the same book, students can<br />

build a comprehensive learning folio.<br />

STRATEGY<br />

Pause to<br />

wonder and<br />

connect.<br />

<strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong><br />

Model, practise, apply<br />

Comparative texts<br />

SPEAKING &<br />

LISTENING<br />

3 Apply<br />

MY WRITING PAGES<br />

2 Practise<br />

COMPREHENSION<br />

Persuasive texts<br />

Refllective texts<br />

SPELLING<br />

PUNCTUATION<br />

1 Model<br />

ANCHOR TEXT<br />

A model text written<br />

by a student,<br />

just like you<br />

PLANNING &<br />

WRITING<br />

STRUCTURES &<br />

FEATURES<br />

Procedural texts<br />

Analytical texts<br />

SYNTAX<br />

VOCABULARY<br />

Imaginative texts<br />

Informative texts<br />

LITERACY HOW-TO<br />

Your go-to literacy reference guide, to support your every step<br />

Reflect<br />

Unit confidence scores: At the start of each unit, students are invited to rate their confidence about<br />

reading, writing, speaking, and listening to the particular text type. The intention is that students will<br />

return at the end of the unit to score their learning confidence again and to celebrate their success.<br />

Lesson confidence scores: Every lesson in the <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> series culminates in students<br />

giving themselves a score out of five: this self-assessment promotes students’ awareness of their<br />

learning and understanding. This self-assessment also provides an opportunity for teachers to note<br />

any areas that require further class time or clarification.<br />

The students’ learning in each unit is brought together with a learning ladder. Using this chart,<br />

the students can self-assess their final writing and speaking and listening task (these tasks have<br />

a speaking and listening icon in the margin) and reflect on their learning throughout the unit.<br />

Introduction to literacy<br />

v


Persuasive literacy<br />

http://mea.<br />

digital/CL1_1_0<br />

Being persuasive involves convincing another person, or a group of people, to do something<br />

or to agree with you about something. Developing your literacy skills in this area will help<br />

you to read, write, speak, and listen to texts that powerfully express an opinion or point of<br />

view. Persuasive texts use various techniques to convince the audience; the author carefully<br />

selects the techniques that will have the most impact on the audience. Persuasive texts are<br />

non-fiction and can be written, spoken, or multimodal. Many different types of texts can be<br />

persuasive, including speeches, presentations, flyers, blogs, and podcasts.<br />

Why do we create persuasive texts?<br />

Persuasive texts are created to cause action: they are written to inspire people to do something or<br />

to actively agree with a point of view. These texts try to make the reader or audience agree with<br />

what is being presented. Persuasive texts usually cover topics that the writer or speaker is passionate<br />

about. Who a text is created for changes the type of language and persuasive devices used by the<br />

author. A persuasive email written to a teacher should sound very different from a persuasive text<br />

message written to a friend.<br />

1 Use your own words to describe persuasive writing.<br />

2 List some persuasive texts you might be asked to read, listen to, or write in different school subjects.<br />

Page 3<br />

3 Read the anchor text. This text is a model that will help you to ‘anchor’ your learning as you<br />

complete the activities in this unit. It will also assist you to draft your own persuasive speech.<br />

The anchor text was written by a student, just like you.<br />

Rate my<br />

confidence<br />

At the end of each lesson, you will rate how confident you are about your<br />

progress through the unit. Be as honest as you can; it’s your learning!<br />

4 How confident do you currently feel about reading, writing, speaking, and listening to persuasive<br />

texts? Give yourself a confidence score out of five. Come back at the end of the unit to score your<br />

learning confidence again.<br />

Start of the unit: DD \ MM \ YYYY<br />

End of the unit: DD \ MM \ YYYY<br />

1 2 3 4 5<br />

1 2 3 4 5<br />

Not very<br />

confident<br />

Somewhat<br />

confident<br />

Confident<br />

Highly<br />

confident<br />

Super<br />

confident<br />

Not very<br />

confident<br />

Somewhat<br />

confident<br />

Confident<br />

Highly<br />

confident<br />

Super<br />

confident<br />

2 <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> • Book 1


Anchor text<br />

Persuasive speech<br />

Will streaming services replace cinemas?<br />

Netflix. Disney+. Amazon Prime. A few years ago, no-one even knew that these services<br />

were possible! Yet now our future seems to be overflowing with options. So, what does this<br />

mean for the humble cinema? Hello friends, as you know, my name is Kathleen and I’m here<br />

today to show you that, while cinemas will stay a luxury, streaming platforms should be,<br />

and ultimately will be, the unrivalled way to watch movies. ‘Why?’ you may ask.<br />

Well, for starters, it is way more affordable. The average price of a student movie ticket is<br />

around $18. A basic Netflix subscription is $11 per month – almost half the price for a wider<br />

catalogue of movies for a whole month. What a scam! Why would we spend double the<br />

amount of money to watch one movie, when we could watch as many movies as we want<br />

from the comfort of our own home? It just doesn’t make any sense …<br />

Adding to this, the cinema experience is not as lenient or flexible as the streaming<br />

experience. It can be hard to find time for entertainment in our busy lives. The limited<br />

showing times in movie theatres can be an annoying and unnecessary problem for people<br />

to work around. But with Disney+ or Binge, we can watch movies whenever and wherever<br />

we please. We can also stop and start the film, or re-watch parts again – none of which<br />

you can do in a cinema! So, whether it is midnight in bed, or during your morning bathroom<br />

routine, online streaming provides the convenience and comfort that cinemas simply cannot!<br />

But some think that cinemas provide the ‘irreplaceable’ experience of a popcornstenched<br />

room. And sure, getting dressed up and going out with friends and having<br />

a shared experience is always fun. However, most people know this is not always a<br />

reality. For families, it can be a nightmare – spilled snacks, untimely toilet trips, and short<br />

attention spans. Not to fear! Streaming at home can prevent this, and it also allows people<br />

with disabilities to accommodate their needs through subtitles and appropriate seating.<br />

Its inclusivity allows everyone to be able to enjoy films the way that suits them best,<br />

and we all want that, don’t we?<br />

Streaming services have given everyone a better way to indulge in the art of film.<br />

The cinema, in contrast, is an expensive and restrictive luxury that only suits a small<br />

percentage of the population. I don’t believe the debate is whether streaming services<br />

will replace cinemas – we’ve already embraced the change from theatres to our TVs and<br />

laptops – today I want you to feel comfortable in accepting these services as a positive<br />

replacement to the antiquated cinema. So, the only question left is: who’s ready for another<br />

binge session?<br />

<strong>Student</strong> author: Kathleen Pham<br />

Audience: Kathleen’s class<br />

http://mea.digital/<br />

CL1_1_A<br />

Persuasive literacy ~ Unit  1 3


1.1<br />

L E A R N I N G<br />

I N T E N T I O N :<br />

Persuasive comprehension<br />

To understand the overall<br />

purpose of a persuasive text<br />

Part A: Question the text<br />

http://mea.digital/<br />

CL1_1_1<br />

Page 3<br />

One way to deeply explore any text is to question the text. Asking questions can help you to uncover<br />

parts of the text that might not have made sense, or to notice things you might have missed, when<br />

reading or hearing the text for the first time.<br />

Read the anchor text and then answer the following questions.<br />

1 What question is the anchor text answering?<br />

2 What does the author mean when she says that ‘cinemas will stay a luxury’?<br />

3 Why did the author say that a movie ticket costing $18 is ‘a scam’?<br />

STRATEGY<br />

Re-read the<br />

text at a slower<br />

pace to search<br />

for specific<br />

information.<br />

4 The author describes the cinema as a ‘popcorn-stenched room’.<br />

a How does this description make the audience feel about the cinema?<br />

b Why do you think the author chose to describe a cinema this way?<br />

5 What other questions could you ask to better understand the anchor text? Try to think of three<br />

questions. Start each question with a different question word.<br />

Part B: Contention and intention<br />

Page 164<br />

Comprehension<br />

strategies<br />

A persuasive text tries to convince the reader or audience to think something or to do something.<br />

Every persuasive text contains a contention and an intention:<br />

• a text’s contention is the overall thing the author wants you to think (the main idea)<br />

• a text’s intention is what the author wants you to do (the call to action).<br />

One way to identify a text’s contention is to pick out the arguments. This is because all the<br />

arguments in a text combine to make the text’s contention. Evidence is used to support<br />

the arguments.<br />

4 <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> • Book 1


For example, imagine a persuasive speech that answers the question, ‘Are books better than<br />

television?’; this speech argues that books are superior to television. The contention and intention<br />

of this speech are:<br />

Contention<br />

(the main idea)<br />

Intention<br />

(the call to action)<br />

Books are more detailed, use imagination, and do not need electricity,<br />

which makes them far superior to television.<br />

Turn off the television and read more books.<br />

6 Annotate the anchor text by numbering the paragraphs.<br />

7 Identify the three main arguments presented in paragraphs two, three and four of the anchor text.<br />

Give each argument a short label (use one to four words) to explain what the argument is trying to<br />

make us think.<br />

a Argument one:<br />

Page 3<br />

STRATEGY<br />

Identify and<br />

understand<br />

the pieces<br />

of the text.<br />

b Argument two:<br />

c Argument three:<br />

8 Combine all the arguments into one overall idea. What is the anchor text’s contention?<br />

Contention (the main idea): Streaming services are …<br />

9 Search the anchor text to find out what the author is directly asking the audience to do. What is the<br />

text’s intention?<br />

Intention (the call to action): The author wants the audience to …<br />

10 For each of the three arguments you identified in the anchor text, underline the specific evidence<br />

the author uses to support that argument.<br />

For example: Underline ‘The average price of a student movie ticket is around $18. A basic Netflix<br />

subscription is $11 per month’.<br />

11 Overall, how has the anchor text answered the question it was responding to?<br />

I understand the overall purpose of a persuasive text: ______ / 5<br />

How many times this week can you question a text you are reading? Keep this strategy<br />

at the front of your mind in other subjects and you will be amazed how many times you<br />

use it.<br />

TAKE IT<br />

WITH YOU<br />

1.1 Persuasive comprehension 5


1.2<br />

Persuasive planning and writing<br />

Part A: Develop your arguments<br />

L E A R N I N G<br />

I N T E N T I O N :<br />

To understand how<br />

to plan and develop<br />

my persuasive speech<br />

http://mea.digital/<br />

CL1_1_2<br />

Page 20<br />

Authors use multiple arguments to build towards their contention. It is important when you are<br />

planning your own persuasive texts to not just think about separate arguments but how you can<br />

connect the arguments to build your contention.<br />

Your writing task for this unit is to write a short speech, which will be similar to the<br />

anchor text in purpose, audience and length. In this speech, you will present your opinion<br />

on the following question:<br />

Will the future be better than the past?<br />

1 Use the network tree in Figure 1.1 below to brainstorm different ways the future could, and could<br />

not, be better than the past.<br />

Will the FUTURE be better than the PAST?<br />

Page 167<br />

Brainstorming,<br />

researching,<br />

and planning<br />

Yes<br />

No<br />

Figure 1.1<br />

2 Using your filled-in network tree as a guide, decide whether you think the future or the past<br />

is better.<br />

3 Identify two arguments you will use in your speech.<br />

a Argument one<br />

b Argument two<br />

4 Using your arguments, determine the contention of your speech.<br />

Contention (the main idea): The future will be/The past is better than the past/future because …<br />

6 <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> • Book 1


Part B: Revise your text for your audience and purpose<br />

You are writing a speech to present to your class, so you want to make sure that it is persuasive and<br />

engaging. Try to connect your thinking with their thinking so your speech means as much as possible<br />

to your audience.<br />

5 What do you want your classmates to do after listening to your speech? What is your intention<br />

(call to action)?<br />

Intention (call to action):<br />

STRATEGY<br />

Understand<br />

the purpose<br />

of the text<br />

or feature.<br />

6 What kinds of things are your classmates currently interested in? (Think about your class overall:<br />

Which big topics are the most important to your classmates? What are they most passionate about?)<br />

7 What evidence could you use to support the two arguments you identified in Question 3? Think<br />

about what evidence will mean the most to your classmates and will connect to your classmates<br />

most effectively. (You might be able to use some of the ideas you brainstormed in Question 6 if<br />

they support your arguments.)<br />

Arguments<br />

Evidence<br />

Argument one:<br />

Page 172<br />

Finding<br />

appropriate<br />

evidence<br />

Argument two:<br />

Page 20<br />

8 Using the anchor text as a model and the arguments and evidence you identified in Question 7,<br />

write a draft of your speech. You can write your draft in the writing pages at the end of this unit.<br />

We will continue to revise your speech throughout the unit, so for now, write the first draft, knowing<br />

it doesn’t have to be perfect, but it is enough to start experimenting with.<br />

Page 172<br />

Turning a plan<br />

into a draft<br />

I understand how to plan and develop my persuasive speech: ______ / 5<br />

Beyond the English classroom, where else is it important to keep the audience and<br />

purpose of your writing in mind? Note the impact this has on your planning and writing<br />

in other subjects.<br />

TAKE IT<br />

WITH YOU<br />

1.2 Persuasive planning and writing 7


1.3<br />

Persuasive structures<br />

and features<br />

L E A R N I N G<br />

I N T E N T I O N :<br />

To understand the key structural<br />

elements and language features<br />

of persuasive speeches<br />

Part A: Persuasive speeches<br />

http://mea.digital/<br />

CL1_1_3<br />

One of the most powerful forms of persuasion is to present your ideas orally, which means speaking<br />

persuasively. Often, we plan a persuasive speech in a similar way to an essay or a report: we brainstorm<br />

our key ideas, identify our overall intention, and ensure we have specific evidence to support each<br />

idea. However, while the planning process is similar, writing a speech is different to writing an essay.<br />

1 Identify and label the following structural elements of a speech in the anchor text.<br />

Page 3<br />

STRATEGY<br />

Annotate and<br />

make notes.<br />

a The opening or introduction (paragraph one):<br />

• an engaging hook (a question, fact, anecdote, or statement to interest the audience)<br />

• an introduction of the topic (the question or issue being addressed)<br />

• an introduction of the speaker<br />

• an introduction of the contention<br />

b The body (paragraphs two and three):<br />

• an introduction of the key arguments<br />

• evidence to support the arguments<br />

• an explanation of how the arguments prove the contention<br />

c The rebuttal (paragraph four):<br />

• the alternative perspective<br />

d The closing or conclusion (paragraph five):<br />

• a synthesis of the arguments in the contention<br />

• the intention is made clear<br />

• the alternative perspective disproven<br />

• a final, memorable statement.<br />

Page 174<br />

Text forms<br />

2 Highlight and label one example of each of the following language features of a speech<br />

in the anchor text:<br />

• first-person perspective<br />

• shift in tone<br />

• present tense<br />

• signposts and transitions<br />

• speaking directly • persuasive devices<br />

• pause for effect (punctuation) to the audience<br />

(see Part B).<br />

3 Explain how the following structural elements and language features are either similar or different<br />

in a persuasive speech and a persuasive essay.<br />

Structural elements and<br />

language features<br />

How are these elements and features similar or different<br />

in a persuasive speech and essay?<br />

The overall structure (introduction,<br />

body, and conclusion)<br />

The language features (tense,<br />

vocabulary, tone, narrative<br />

perspective, and devices)<br />

How the evidence is used (quotes,<br />

types of evidence, and where and<br />

how the evidence is used)<br />

8 <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> • Book 1


Part B: Persuasive devices<br />

A persuasive device is a language technique that helps to sway the reader or audience to agree with<br />

the author. The key persuasive devices that work best in spoken language include:<br />

• rhetorical questions: asking a question with an implied answer (look for a question mark)<br />

• inclusive language: using words that imply the audience members agree (look for words such as<br />

‘we’, ‘us’ and ‘together’)<br />

• emotive language: using words with strong connotations that make the audience feel something<br />

(look for descriptive words).<br />

4 Identify an example of each of the following in the anchor text.<br />

a Rhetorical question:<br />

b Inclusive language:<br />

Page 3<br />

c Emotive language:<br />

5 Read the following examples of other persuasive devices used in the anchor text. Explain what<br />

effect each device has on the speech.<br />

Persuasive<br />

device<br />

Generalisation<br />

Alliteration<br />

Rule of three<br />

How to find it<br />

in a text<br />

Look for<br />

words such as<br />

most, every,<br />

all, everyone,<br />

nobody.<br />

Look for more<br />

than two words<br />

that start with<br />

the same letter<br />

in the same<br />

sentence.<br />

Look for<br />

commas<br />

separating<br />

three words or<br />

phrases in the<br />

same sentence.<br />

Example from the<br />

anchor text<br />

‘However, most people<br />

know this is not always<br />

a reality.’<br />

‘… online streaming<br />

provides the<br />

convenience and<br />

comfort that cinemas<br />

simply cannot!’<br />

‘For families, it can be<br />

a nightmare – spilled<br />

snacks, untimely<br />

toilet trips, and short<br />

attention spans.’<br />

What effect does the<br />

device have?<br />

STRATEGY<br />

Pause to<br />

wonder and<br />

connect.<br />

6 What other persuasive devices can you find in the anchor text?<br />

7 Identify the structural elements and language features in your speech. How could you make your<br />

speech more persuasive? What other persuasive devices could you use? Revise your draft.<br />

I understand the key structural elements and language features of persuasive speeches: ______ / 5<br />

All kinds of texts have identifiable structural elements and language features.<br />

See how many you can spot in other classes and different texts!<br />

TAKE IT<br />

WITH YOU<br />

1.3 Persuasive structures and features 9


1.4<br />

L E A R N I N G<br />

Persuasive vocabulary<br />

I N T E N T I O N :<br />

To understand emotive language,<br />

denotation, and connotation<br />

in persuasive writing<br />

Part A: Emotive language<br />

http://mea.digital/<br />

CL1_1_4<br />

STRATEGY<br />

Connect to<br />

the feeling<br />

of the word.<br />

Persuasive people are passionate people who care enough about a topic that they want other<br />

people to agree with them. Writers use emotive language to express their feelings. Emotive<br />

language makes a person feel something. Emotive words build sensory imagery and appeal to<br />

people emotionally (rather than rationally). If you can identify the emotion connected to a word,<br />

you can ‘hear’ the tone in a piece of writing and ‘see’ the writer’s emotional perspective.<br />

1 Match each of the words in the table below with the emotion it best evokes.<br />

disgust, pity, distrust, confident, embarrassed, hurt, confused, fear<br />

Word<br />

Victims<br />

Ashamed<br />

Disillusioned<br />

Dangerous<br />

Betrayed<br />

Successful<br />

Pathetic<br />

Perplexed<br />

Emotion<br />

2 Highlight the emotive language used in the conclusion of the anchor text.<br />

Page 3<br />

3 Identify two words to describe how the anchor text made you feel.<br />

a The writer made me feel ____________________________________ about cinemas.<br />

b The writer made me feel ____________________________________ about streaming services.<br />

Part B: Denotation and connotation<br />

The meaning of every word can be specifically defined. This is called the denotation of a word<br />

(the literal meaning). The connotation of a word is very closely linked to emotive language,<br />

because it is the feeling a word evokes in a person.<br />

Denotation<br />

Connotation<br />

The standard definition of a word; its literal meaning<br />

The feeling evoked by a word<br />

Every word either has a positive, negative, or neutral connotation. If you find identifying the emotion<br />

of a word difficult, the first step is to think about whether it is positive or negative.<br />

10 <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> • Book 1


4 a Does ‘victim’ make a person sound positive, negative, or neutral?<br />

b Does ‘champion’ make a person sound positive, negative, or neutral?<br />

5 In the table below, provide a simple denotation (definition) for each emotive word from the<br />

anchor text. Then decide if the connotation of each word is positive or negative.<br />

Emotive word Denotation (definition) Connotation<br />

Page 3<br />

Luxury<br />

Unrivalled<br />

Lenient<br />

Convenience<br />

Irreplaceable<br />

Antiquated<br />

6 In the sentences below, the bolded words have negative connotations. Replace each bolded term<br />

with a word that has a positive connotation.<br />

a The manipulative teacher forced his new policy on the victims of the school.<br />

Page 181<br />

Word meanings<br />

b Vulnerable children continue to be trapped in despicable conditions.<br />

c The unjustified decision to destroy the school’s statue repulsed students.<br />

7 a How is a word’s connotation powerful?<br />

b What is the importance of a word’s connotation in persuasive writing?<br />

8 How do you want your audience to feel during your speech?<br />

9 Revise your speech to appeal to your audience’s feelings. Experiment with your language choices<br />

to make them more emotive. Include more descriptive words so your audience knows how to feel<br />

about what you are talking about.<br />

Page 20<br />

I understand emotive language, denotation, and connotation in persuasive writing: ______ / 5<br />

How is emotive language used in texts other than persuasive speeches? Challenge<br />

yourself to identify positive or negative language in every text you read this week.<br />

TAKE IT<br />

WITH YOU<br />

1.4 Persuasive vocabulary 11


1.5<br />

Persuasive syntax<br />

L E A R N I N G<br />

I N T E N T I O N :<br />

To understand the differences between<br />

spoken and written language, including<br />

maintaining the subject–verb agreement<br />

Part A: Spoken versus written language<br />

http://mea.digital/<br />

CL1_1_5<br />

Page 202<br />

Spoken versus<br />

written language<br />

STRATEGY<br />

Connect with<br />

the language<br />

choices.<br />

We know that our language changes depending on our audience and purpose. We also use different<br />

language (particularly syntax or sentence structure) when we speak and when we write. However,<br />

speeches are different because they are written texts that are created to be spoken.<br />

1 Read the descriptions in the table below and decide which column is describing spoken language<br />

and which column is describing written language.<br />

• Is older, more informal, and simple<br />

• Is mostly used between people in the<br />

same place<br />

• Uses tone, pitch, volume, and intonation to<br />

express emotions and ideas<br />

• Is often temporary (unless recorded)<br />

• Is often improvised and formulated on the spot<br />

• Is not always clear or succinct; it often<br />

includes repetitions, incomplete sentences,<br />

interruptions, and self-corrections<br />

• Is younger, more formal, and complex<br />

• Can communicate across time and space<br />

• Uses headings, punctuation, layout, and<br />

symbols to express emotions and ideas<br />

• Is often permanent (unless deleted)<br />

• Is often organised and formulated; it is<br />

edited for clarity<br />

• Is as clear and succinct as possible; it is<br />

often grammatically correct<br />

2 How would you describe the similarities and differences between spoken and written language?<br />

3 Think about when you are writing a text that is intended to be read aloud or spoken (a speech).<br />

How is your writing different to when you are writing a text that is not intended to be spoken?<br />

Page 3<br />

4 How have the following sentences in the anchor text been written to make them sound more like<br />

the way a person speaks?<br />

a ‘ “Why?” you may ask.’<br />

b ‘Not to fear!’<br />

5 Turn each of the following sentences into a sentence that sounds more like the way a person speaks.<br />

a The future being faced is bleak.<br />

b By learning from past mistakes, the future looks bright.<br />

12 <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> • Book 1


Part B: Subject–verb agreement<br />

Every sentence needs a subject (someone or something doing something) and a predicate (which<br />

includes a main verb to show what the subject is doing).<br />

In English sentences, the subject and the verb must ‘agree’ with each other. What this means is:<br />

• if a subject is singular (one), the verb must also be singular<br />

• if a subject is a plural (more than one), the verb must also be plural.<br />

For example: Singular subject and verb: The writer argues the point.<br />

Plural subject and verb: The writers argue their point.<br />

Page 186<br />

Subject and<br />

predicate<br />

6 Sort the following subjects and verbs into singular and plural.<br />

writers<br />

writer<br />

child<br />

children<br />

they<br />

he<br />

woman<br />

women<br />

has<br />

have<br />

is<br />

are<br />

argue<br />

argues<br />

was<br />

were<br />

Singular subject<br />

Plural subject<br />

Singular verb<br />

Plural verb<br />

STRATEGY<br />

Connect the<br />

subject and<br />

predicate.<br />

7 Underline the subjects in the following sentence and circle the verbs.<br />

When the subject disagree with the verb it confuse the reader.<br />

8 What revisions would you make in the sentence above to make the subjects and verbs agree?<br />

9 Does your speech read like a text that is intended to be spoken? How can you find the balance<br />

between writing formally and writing a text that is intended to be spoken to your class? Make sure<br />

your subjects and verbs all agree!<br />

Page 20<br />

I understand the differences between spoken and written language,<br />

including maintaining the subject–verb agreement: ______ / 5<br />

Spoken and written language are quite different, but the subjects and verbs should<br />

always agree. How often do you stop and check if your subjects and verbs agree when<br />

writing in other subjects? Pay attention to subject–verb agreement in Science, Maths,<br />

Geography or History this week and notice how your writing improves.<br />

TAKE IT<br />

WITH YOU<br />

1.5 Persuasive syntax 13


1.6<br />

L E A R N I N G<br />

Persuasive punctuation<br />

I N T E N T I O N :<br />

To understand the impact<br />

exclamation and question<br />

marks have on a written text<br />

Part A: Exclamation marks!<br />

http://mea.digital/<br />

CL1_1_6<br />

Page 188<br />

Types of<br />

punctuation<br />

An exclamation mark lets a reader know they should add emphasis to a sentence; this punctuation<br />

mark generally shows shock or surprise. An exclamation mark can also indicate a strong command<br />

or an emphasised show of emotion:<br />

• a strong command shows a firm and direct order<br />

For example: Swim at your own risk! Don’t touch! Watch out!<br />

• an emphasised show of emotion makes the emotion clearer.<br />

For example: That’s horrible! That’s awesome!<br />

1 Match each statement below with the emotion it is emphasising.<br />

excitement, astonishment, shock, vehemence, urgency<br />

What a terrible accident!<br />

This is a fantastic idea!<br />

Watch out! This is not going to last!<br />

That company is pure evil!<br />

Look at what has been achieved!<br />

STRATEGY<br />

Connect the<br />

punctuation<br />

to what is<br />

being said.<br />

2 Read the exclamations from the anchor text below. What is the exclamation mark showing?<br />

a ‘A few years ago, no-one even knew that these services were possible!’<br />

b ‘What a scam!’<br />

Page 3<br />

c ‘Not to fear!’<br />

3 Write a sentence, using an exclamation mark, to show each of the following emotions.<br />

a Anger:<br />

b Excitement:<br />

c Confusion:<br />

Part B: Question marks?<br />

A question mark is used to show that a direct question has been asked. It allows you to show doubt<br />

and it lets you know that something needs an answer. When you speak, your voice naturally rises in<br />

pitch at the end of a question. This is a signal to the person you are talking with that you’re looking<br />

for an answer. When it comes to the written word, the question mark does the same thing as your<br />

tone of voice: it sends the same signal.<br />

14 <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> • Book 1


4 Write sentences to show your understanding of the following uses of the question mark.<br />

a A question mark can be used to express doubt.<br />

b A question mark can be used to show that a sentence is a direct question.<br />

c A question mark is placed at the end of a sentence.<br />

d A question mark should not be used for an indirect question.<br />

5 Match each of the following rhetorical questions from the anchor text to the impact the question<br />

has on the audience.<br />

Rhetorical questions from the<br />

anchor text<br />

‘So, what does this mean for the<br />

humble cinema?’<br />

Impact of the questions on the audience<br />

Page 3<br />

‘… and we all want that, don’t we?’<br />

‘… who’s ready for another binge<br />

session?’<br />

A question mark should be placed inside the quotation marks if it is a part of the quote and outside<br />

the quotation marks if it is part of the sentence.<br />

6 Decide whether the question mark goes inside or outside the quotation marks in the following<br />

sentences.<br />

a People are always asking, ‘What will the future be like’<br />

b What does anyone mean when they say, ‘The future is doomed’<br />

c So then she asked, ‘Why look back or forward when you can see the present’<br />

7 a Revise your speech to use exclamation marks to evoke different emotions. Although the audience<br />

won’t see them, they will help you use the right tone when speaking.<br />

b Rhetorical questions are compelling in persuasive writing. Have you used any rhetorical questions<br />

in your speech? Revise your speech to include at least one.<br />

Page 20<br />

I understand the impact exclamation and question marks have on a written text: ______ / 5<br />

How many exclamation marks and question marks did you use today? Remember to be<br />

consistent, clear, and purposeful when using any punctuation.<br />

TAKE IT<br />

WITH YOU<br />

1.6 Persuasive punctuation 15


1.7<br />

Persuasive spelling<br />

L E A R N I N G<br />

I N T E N T I O N :<br />

To understand how prefixes<br />

and suffixes impact words<br />

Part A: Prefixes<br />

http://mea.digital/<br />

CL1_1_7<br />

A prefix is a group of letters that is added to the beginning of a word. By adding a prefix to a word,<br />

we make a new word with a different meaning. Each prefix has its own meaning.<br />

Prefixes can:<br />

• create a new word that is opposite in meaning (stop – nonstop)<br />

• make a word negative (even – uneven)<br />

• express relations of time (pay – prepay), manner (power – overpower), or amount (cycle – tricycle).<br />

A prefix that can be spelled in more than one way – but keeps the same meaning – is called<br />

an assimilated prefix.<br />

For example: ‘in’ and ‘im’ both mean ‘not’: inconvenient (not convenient) and impossible<br />

(not possible)<br />

STRATEGY<br />

Consider the<br />

meaning and<br />

pronunciation<br />

of familiar<br />

parts of<br />

the word.<br />

1 Complete the following table and note the impact of adding prefixes to different words.<br />

Prefix<br />

un<br />

Prefix<br />

meaning<br />

not, opposite,<br />

reverse<br />

Base word<br />

certain<br />

comfortable<br />

New word<br />

created<br />

Other words that use<br />

that prefix<br />

forgiven<br />

re again, back act<br />

ignite<br />

organise<br />

Page 195<br />

Bases and affixes<br />

Prefixes placed before freebase words (words that can stand on their own) generally make a lot<br />

of sense. However, prefixes can be placed before bound bases (these cannot stand on their own);<br />

these are not as easy to spot as we often see the whole word and miss the prefix.<br />

A general rule: ‘con’ is used before c, d, j, n, q, s, t, and v; ‘com’ is used before b, p, l, m, or r.<br />

2 Decide whether the following bound bases are spelled with ‘con’ or ‘com’.<br />

a ________cur<br />

b ________vey<br />

c ________done<br />

d ________pose<br />

e ________mend<br />

f ________sume<br />

3 Look at the assimilated prefixes ‘con’ and ‘com’, which mean ‘together, with’. Explain how the<br />

meaning of the prefix connects with the overall meaning of each of the following words.<br />

a Consult<br />

b Convince<br />

c Compel<br />

16 <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> • Book 1


4 Write the meaning of the following words from the anchor text.<br />

a Unnecessary<br />

b Re-watch<br />

5 Highlight any other words you can identify in the anchor text that use the prefixes un, re, con, or com.<br />

Page 3<br />

Part B: Suffixes<br />

A suffix is a letter or group of letters added to the end of a word to create a new word. Unlike a<br />

prefix, which changes the meaning of a word, a suffix changes the grammatical function of a word.<br />

Suffixes can create a plural, or change the tense:<br />

For example: argue + s = argues argue + ed = argued argue + ing = arguing<br />

Suffixes can also completely change how a word can grammatically be used.<br />

For example: argue + er = arguer (changes to a noun: a person)<br />

argue + ment = argument (changes to a noun: a process)<br />

argue + ment + ative = argumentative (changes to an adjective: describing a noun)<br />

6 Change ‘persuade’ by adding appropriate suffixes.<br />

Original word Change to … New word<br />

persuade<br />

persuade<br />

persuade<br />

past tense<br />

adjective (describing a noun)<br />

noun (a thing)<br />

7 Using the spelling generalisations in the <strong>Literacy</strong> How-to section (page 197), answer the following<br />

questions.<br />

a Why does ultimately keep the ‘e’ when adding ‘ly’?<br />

STRATEGY<br />

Connect the<br />

word to its<br />

function.<br />

b Why does families change the ‘y’ to an ‘i’ when adding ‘es’?<br />

c Why does irreplaceable keep the ‘e’ when adding ‘able’?<br />

Page 197<br />

Spelling<br />

generalisations<br />

8 Work out the correct spelling for the following words and their suffixes.<br />

a refer + ed<br />

b approve + al<br />

c greedy + ly<br />

d notice + able<br />

9 Have you accurately used prefixes and suffixes? How many have you used? Check the spelling<br />

in your speech (use the spelling rules in the <strong>Literacy</strong> How-to).<br />

Page 20<br />

I understand how prefixes and suffixes impact words: ______ / 5<br />

What common prefixes and suffixes can you find in words from other subjects?<br />

Notice numerical prefixes such as ‘bi’, ‘tri’, and ‘quad’ in Maths, and suffixes such<br />

as ‘ology’ and ‘ist’ in Science.<br />

TAKE IT<br />

WITH YOU<br />

1.7 Persuasive spelling 17


1.8<br />

Persuasive speaking and listening<br />

Part A: Voice and body language<br />

L E A R N I N G<br />

I N T E N T I O N :<br />

To understand<br />

how people speak<br />

persuasively for<br />

different audiences<br />

and purposes<br />

http://mea.digital/<br />

CL1_1_8<br />

You can have the most powerful speech ever written, but if it is not presented effectively, it will not<br />

convince anyone of anything! How a spoken text is expressed has a lot to do with its persuasiveness<br />

and this comes down to two things: how the speaker uses their voice, and how the speaker uses<br />

their body.<br />

1 Categorise the following skills into how a speaker can use their voice or their body.<br />

Page 200<br />

Voice and body<br />

language<br />

tone, eye contact, pitch, facial expressions, pause, gestures, pace, emphasis, posture, expression<br />

How a speaker can use their voice<br />

How a speaker can use their body<br />

2 a Practice saying the following sentence: ‘The future is what we make it.’ Each time you say the<br />

sentence, use your voice and body differently, for example:<br />

• use a rising intonation at the end, like you are asking a question<br />

• increase the volume of your voice throughout the sentence<br />

• speak with a huge smile on your face<br />

• use a different gesture when you say each word<br />

• speak slumped over, with your eyes to the floor.<br />

b How did the meaning of the sentence change depending on how you spoke or moved your body?<br />

Page 3<br />

STRATEGY<br />

Identify and<br />

understand<br />

the pieces<br />

of the text.<br />

3 Watch the video of the anchor text by scanning the QR code on page 3.<br />

4 In the video of the anchor text, how did the speaker use her voice and body to make her speech<br />

as persuasive as possible?<br />

Part B: The active audience<br />

Our lives are filled with persuasive texts. People are constantly trying to convince us to buy something,<br />

do something, think something, or feel a certain way about something. In many cases, the intention of<br />

the persuasive text is obvious (for example, a video advertisement on social media is trying to get you<br />

to buy a product). However, there are plenty of other situations where someone speaks persuasively.<br />

Being an active listener, or an active audience member, is not only about paying attention to<br />

the speaker, being polite, making eye contact, and asking clarifying questions where appropriate.<br />

Being an active listener is also about understanding what the speaker is trying to say and knowing<br />

how to respond appropriately in the moment. When should you clap? Or laugh? Or ask questions?<br />

18 <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> • Book 1


5 When you watched the video of the anchor text, did you find the text easier to understand than<br />

when you read it? Why or why not?<br />

Page 3<br />

6 When you watched the video of the anchor text, what did you notice about the speech that you<br />

didn’t notice when you read it?<br />

7 If you were watching the anchor text speech live:<br />

a When would it be appropriate to clap?<br />

STRATEGY<br />

Pause to<br />

wonder and<br />

connect.<br />

b Would it be appropriate to answer the questions Kathleen asked throughout her speech?<br />

Why or why not?<br />

c Would it be appropriate to laugh at any stage during Kathleen’s speech? Why or why not?<br />

8 How can you be an active listener during your classmates’ presentations?<br />

9 You have spent this unit revising your speech into a quality piece of writing. Now you need to<br />

rehearse your speech. You should practise your speech until you know it well enough so you don’t<br />

have to read every word and you can make eye contact with members of your audience. Rehearsing<br />

your speech will also help you to find a good pace, know where the pauses are, what words need<br />

emphasis, and what tone of voice works best in which parts.<br />

Page 20<br />

10 Think about presenting your speech.<br />

a What are you feeling most confident about?<br />

b What are you feeling most nervous about? How might you overcome these nerves?<br />

I understand how people speak persuasively for different audiences and purposes: ______ / 5<br />

How can you use your understanding of voice and body language to improve your<br />

speaking skills in other subjects?<br />

TAKE IT<br />

WITH YOU<br />

1.8 Persuasive speaking and listening 19


1.9<br />

My persuasive speech draft<br />

20 <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> • Book 1


M Y P E R S U A S I V E S P E E C H D R A F T<br />

1.9 My persuasive speech draft 21


1.9<br />

My persuasive speech draft<br />

22 <strong>Connecting</strong> <strong>Literacy</strong> • Book 1


Persuasive literacy learning ladder<br />

Writing task: Write a persuasive speech about whether the future will be better<br />

than the past.<br />

1.5 I am confident<br />

I can effectively<br />

question a<br />

persuasive text<br />

to identify the<br />

main contention,<br />

intention, and key<br />

arguments.<br />

2.5 I am confident<br />

I can develop<br />

arguments to<br />

build towards a<br />

contention and<br />

to use evidence<br />

to support these<br />

ideas when writing<br />

persuasive texts.<br />

3.5 I am confident I<br />

can use appropriate<br />

structural elements<br />

and features<br />

(including a variety of<br />

persuasive devices)<br />

when writing<br />

persuasive texts.<br />

4.5 I am confident<br />

I can control my<br />

use of language<br />

to evoke specific<br />

feelings in my<br />

audience when<br />

writing persuasive<br />

texts.<br />

5.5 I am<br />

confident I can<br />

control a variety<br />

of appropriate<br />

language features<br />

(including subject–<br />

verb agreement)<br />

when writing<br />

persuasive texts.<br />

6.5 I am<br />

confident I can<br />

make informed<br />

and conscious<br />

decisions when<br />

using punctuation<br />

for effect when<br />

writing persuasive<br />

texts.<br />

7.5 I am confident<br />

I can use different<br />

strategies to spell<br />

unfamiliar words<br />

(particularly those<br />

using prefixes and<br />

suffixes) when<br />

writing persuasive<br />

texts.<br />

8.5 I am confident<br />

I can rehearse and<br />

present persuasive<br />

texts that show my<br />

understanding of a<br />

variety of persuasive<br />

and presentation<br />

techniques.<br />

1.4 I have<br />

questioned my<br />

speech to ensure<br />

my contention,<br />

intention, and<br />

arguments<br />

are clear.<br />

2.4 I have<br />

effectively<br />

connected my<br />

arguments with<br />

my contention and<br />

used evidence with<br />

purpose to support<br />

these ideas.<br />

3.4 I have effectively<br />

used appropriate<br />

structural elements<br />

and features<br />

(including a variety of<br />

persuasive devices)<br />

for persuasive effect.<br />

4.4 I have<br />

effectively used<br />

language to<br />

evoke specific and<br />

desired feelings in<br />

my audience.<br />

5.4 I have<br />

effectively used<br />

appropriate<br />

language features<br />

to write a text that<br />

will be spoken.<br />

6.4 I have<br />

effectively used<br />

punctuation to<br />

improve the tone<br />

of my speech<br />

and add to its<br />

persuasiveness.<br />

7.4 I have used<br />

different spelling<br />

strategies to<br />

accurately spell<br />

unfamiliar words,<br />

including those<br />

with prefixes and<br />

suffixes.<br />

8.4 I have presented<br />

a well-rehearsed<br />

speech that showed<br />

my understanding<br />

and application<br />

of persuasive<br />

and presentation<br />

techniques.<br />

1.3 I have<br />

experimented<br />

with different<br />

ways to make<br />

my contention,<br />

intention, and<br />

arguments clear<br />

in my speech.<br />

2.3 I have<br />

experimented –<br />

during my<br />

revisions – with<br />

ways to connect<br />

my evidence to my<br />

arguments, and my<br />

arguments to my<br />

contention.<br />

3.3 I have<br />

experimented –<br />

during my revisions –<br />

with how best to<br />

use the structural<br />

elements and<br />

language features of<br />

persuasive writing<br />

for effect.<br />

4.3 I have<br />

experimented –<br />

during my<br />

revisions – with<br />

different ways to<br />

use language for<br />

emotional effect.<br />

5.3 I have<br />

experimented –<br />

during my<br />

revisions – with<br />

ways to use<br />

language features<br />

to create a spoken<br />

text.<br />

6.3 I have<br />

experimented –<br />

during my<br />

revisions – with<br />

ways to use<br />

punctuation to<br />

enhance my<br />

writing.<br />

7.3 I have tried<br />

spelling unfamiliar<br />

words that use<br />

prefixes and<br />

suffixes.<br />

8.3 I have<br />

experimented –<br />

during my<br />

rehearsals – with<br />

different ways to<br />

present my speech<br />

so it could be<br />

as persuasive<br />

as possible.<br />

1.2 I have<br />

explained my<br />

contention,<br />

intention, and<br />

arguments<br />

throughout<br />

my speech.<br />

2.2 I have used<br />

appropriate<br />

arguments<br />

and evidence<br />

to support my<br />

contention overall.<br />

3.2 I have followed<br />

the structural<br />

elements of a<br />

persuasive speech<br />

and included several<br />

persuasive devices.<br />

4.2 I have included<br />

some words that<br />

show a positive or<br />

negative feeling<br />

towards my topic.<br />

5.2 I have shown<br />

an understanding<br />

of the difference<br />

between written<br />

and spoken texts<br />

when creating<br />

my speech.<br />

6.2 I have<br />

accurately used<br />

a variety of<br />

punctuation<br />

independently.<br />

7.2 I have<br />

independently<br />

edited my spelling<br />

errors.<br />

8.2 I have presented<br />

my speech using<br />

different voice and<br />

body language<br />

strategies.<br />

1.1 I have<br />

directly stated<br />

my contention,<br />

intention, and<br />

arguments.<br />

2.1 I have included<br />

arguments and<br />

evidence in<br />

my speech.<br />

3.1 I have followed<br />

the structural<br />

elements of a<br />

persuasive speech<br />

with support and<br />

included a few<br />

persuasive devices.<br />

4.1 I have included<br />

some emotive<br />

words with<br />

support.<br />

5.1 I have written<br />

a text that is<br />

intended to be<br />

spoken.<br />

6.1 I have<br />

accurately used<br />

punctuation with<br />

support.<br />

7.1 I have edited<br />

my spelling errors<br />

with support.<br />

8.1 I have presented<br />

my persuasive<br />

speech.<br />

1.0 Not shown 2.0 Not shown 3.0 Not shown 4.0 Not shown 5.0 Not shown 6.0 Not shown 7.0 Not shown 8.0 Not shown<br />

1 Comprehension 2 Planning and<br />

writing<br />

3 Structures and<br />

features<br />

4 Vocabulary 5 Syntax 6 Punctuation 7 Spelling 8 Speaking and<br />

listening<br />

Persuasive literacy learning ladder 23

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