2.1-The Inca

the inca empaer

the inca empaer


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Lesson 2.1 The Inca, pages 200–201


Examine the Inca Empire

in South America.


The Inca Empire in South America stretched along the

Pacific coast.

The empire included parts of present-day:

• Colombia

• Ecuador

• Peru

• Bolivia

• Chile

• Argentina


From 1438 until the

Spanish conquest in

the 1530s, the Inca

Empire was one of

South America’s

largest and most



Workings of the Empire

The Inca built their

Capital→ Cuzco (modern day Peru)

Government/society→ highly organized

People→ 12 million people

Families of the Inca Empire

Within Inca society, families

were organized into groups

based on:

• kinship or blood relationship

• common land ownership

→ Inca married within their

kinship groups.

Families of the Inca Empire

• They also worked together and shared land and


• The leader of each family worked for the empire

for a few months of the year as builders, farmers,

craftsmen, soldiers.

Achievements of the Inca

The Inca utilized, or made practical use of their

advanced engineering skills to adapt to the

mountainous environment.

Achievements of the Inca

The Inca farmed on the terraced fields, or flat

fields cut into slopes or mountainsides.

Achievements of the Inca

They also built irrigation canals to water

their crops because the climate was arid.

Achievements of the Inca

The Inca adapted to their

mountainous surroundings

in other ways.

They built suspension

bridges using vines and


• A suspension

bridge is a bridge

used to cross

canyons or water.

Achievements of the Inca

• Another example of the Inca’s engineering skills is

Machu Picchu “ Old Mountain”, built in the 1400s.

• The Inca built this complex city on a mountain by

constructing giant walls, terraces, sloping ramps, and

steep stairways.

Achievements of the Inca

• Some archaeologists

believe Machu Picchu

served as a royal estate.

• Today it is a UNESCO

World Heritage Site

because of its historical

and archaeological


Achievements of the Inca

By the 1530s, the empire faced internal

problems that included a weak economy

and civil war.

A much smaller and better equipped

Spanish force conquered the Inca in 1532.

Achievements of the Inca

Today, the descendants of the Inca, the

Quechua (South American Indians) , live in

the Andes of Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia.

Guided Discussion

Were the Inca effective in running their

empire and keeping the people united?


Yes, they found ways to deal with the difficult

terrain and vastness of the empire. They

instilled good values such as working hard for

the good of all.

Photo Lab

Based on the photos and text, in what ways did the Inca utilize advanced

engineering skills in their empire?

They built suspension bridges to connect mountainous parts of the empire

and complex city structures such as Machu Picchu.

How would you describe the Inca Empire based on the photo of Machu


Machu Picchu exemplifies the architectural and engineering skills of the

Inca Empire, an advanced ancient civilization.

What factors made it possible for a small force of Spanish conquers to

overcome the large Inca Empire?

A weakened economy and civil war enabled the Spanish to take advantage

of the Inca Empire.


The Inca lived in ____ and built a ______empire.

(Peru, large)

In Inca society _____ worked


The Inca built ______ fields on the sides of



The ______ conquered the Inca in 1532.

( Spanish)

Quick Quiz

How were the Inca able to farm on the

slopes of the Andes Mountains?

a.Connecting roads

b.Crop rotations

c. Suspension bridges

d.Terraced fields

Quick Quiz

Which of the following is an

achievement of the Inca civilization?

a. Archaeological excavation

b. Irrigation canals

c. Slash-and-burn agriculture

d. diamond mines

Quick Quiz

Which of the following statements is

true of the Inca civilization?

a. It made use of many engineering


b. It was invaded by the Portuguese

c. It was located along the Atlantic


d. It developed laws still used today


Create Graphic Organizers

Reading and Note-Taking: Summarize Information

Vocabulary Practice

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