Book Fauna Palaestina 4 Year 2014 By Prof Dr Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf von Jaffa ISBN 978-9950-383-77-7

normankhalaf

Fauna Palaestina

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Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa

Fauna Palaestina

Part Four / Teil Vier

Zoological Studies in Palestine

between 1983 – 2014

Zoologische Studien in Palästina

zwischen 1983 – 2014

Al Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine

July 2014

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Al Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine

Tel. 00970-2-2340035

info@aljundi.biz

www.aljundi.biz

Fauna Palaestina – Part Four

Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2014

Fauna Palaestina – Teil Vier

Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2014

By: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa

First Edition / Erste Auflage . July 2014

ISBN 978995038377 - 7

All Rights Reserved / Alle Rechte vorbehalten

Copyright © 2014 by Al Jundi Publishing House. Jerusalem, Palestine

Website of the Book:

Fauna Palaestina – Part Four. Zoological Studies in Palestine between

1983 – 2014 (ISBN 978-9950-383-77-7):

http://fauna-palaestina-part-1.webs.com/faunapalaestina4.htm

E-mail of the Author: Jaffacity@yahoo.de

Tel. of the Author (Palestine): 00970-52-4170202

English / German Cover: A Cheetah at the Emirates Park Zoo, Abu

Dhabi, United Arab Emirates on 16.05.2014.

Photograph by Mrs. Ola Mostafa Khalaf, Dubai, U.A.E.

Cover Design / Umschlaggestaltung: Mrs. Ola Mostafa Khalaf,

Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Printed and bound in Al Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine

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اقْرَأْ‏ بِاسْ‏ مِ‏ رَ‏ بِّكَ‏ الَّذِي خَ‏ لَ‏ ‏َق خَ‏ لَقَ‏ اْلْ‏ ‏ِنسَانَ‏ مِنْ‏ عَلَق اقْرَ‏ أْ‏ وَ‏ رَ‏ بُّكَ‏

اْلْ‏ ‏َكْرَ‏ م الَّذِي عَلَّمَ‏ بِالْقَلَمِ‏ عَلَّمَ‏ اْلْ‏ ‏ِنسَانَ‏ مَا لَمْ‏ ‏ٌَعْ‏ لَمْ‏

.

.

. 5-1

.

.

سورة العلق ، اآلياث

.

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Read! In the name of your Lord who created. He

created man from a clinging form. Read! Your

Lord Is the Most Bountiful One. Who taught by

pen. Who taught man what he did not know.

Surah 96 (Al-Alaq), Ayat 1-5

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Contents

Fauna Palaestina – Part Four

English Articles

1. Preface .................................................................................... 9

2. About the Author: A Palestinian-German Zoologist ………. 12

3. Checklist of the Family Scarabaeidae (Scarab Beetles) from

Palestine …............................................................................. 15

4. Family Coccinellidae (Ladybird Beetles) in Palestine ……... 47

5. Freshwater Fishes in Palestine ……………………………... 69

6. Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013 : A New Freshwater

Doctor Fish Subspecies from Wadi Qana Nature Reserve,

Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine ……………………… 92

7. † Macropomoides palaestina Khalaf, 2013 : A New

Coelacanth Fish Fossil Species from the Anthracothere Hill

in Al-Naqab, Palestine .…………………………………….. 126

8. The Ceratosaur Dinosaur Elaphrosaurus bambergi

Janensch, 1920 Tracks from Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds

(Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine …........................................ 140

9. Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758)

Nesting in Palestine ………………………………………… 182

10. The Bycatch of a Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta

Linnaeus, 1758) in a fishing net on the Gaza Coast, Gaza,

State of Palestine …………………………………………… 691

11. Records of Dead Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta

Linnaeus, 1758) washed up on the Jaffa Beach, Occupied

Palestine between 2010 – 2013 …………………………….. 231

12. Killing Incidents of Wild Animals in the State of Palestine

in 2013 ……………………………………………………… 246

13. Mus musculus gazaensis Khalaf, 2007 : A New House

Mouse Subspecies from the Gaza Strip, Palestine …………. 272

14. The Dorcas Gazelle (Gazella dorcas Linnaeus, 1758) …….. 292

15. Canis aureus palaestina Khalaf, 2008 : A New Golden

Jackal Subspecies from the Gaza Strip, Palestine ………….. 296

16. The Wolf (Canis lupus) in Palestine ……………………….. 319

17 The Two Wolf Subspecies (Canis lupus arabs Pocock,

1934) and (Canis lupus pallipes Sykes, 1831) in Palestine ... 337

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Contents

Fauna Palaestina – Part Four

Arabic Articles

1. Al-Muqadima (Preface) ........................................................... 11

2. The Persian Badger (Meles meles canescens Blanford, 1875)

in Palestine and the Arabian Peninsula ……………………… 16

3. Dinosaurs of Al-Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine …..... 38

4. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf Award for Biodiversity in Palestine

2012 / 2013 : Essay and Photography Contest of the Palestine

Sunbird (Cinnyris osea Bonaparte, 1856) …………………... 53

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IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST GRACIOUS, MOST MERCIFUL

PREFACE

Packed into Palestine's small area are snow-covered mountains, parched

deserts, fertile fields, lush woodlands and long stretches of sand dunes.

No less than four different geographical zones are included in Palestine,

and the country's climate ranges from semi-arid to temperate to

subtropical.

All of this makes Palestine home to a stunning variety of plants and

animals. Some 47,000 living species have been identified in Palestine,

with another 4,000 assumed to exist. There are 116 species of mammals

native to Palestine, 511 kinds of birds, 97 types of reptiles and nine types

of amphibians. Some 2,780 types of plants grow countrywide, from

Alpine flowers on northern mountain slopes to bright red coral peonies

and desert papyrus reeds in the south.

My first published scientific article goes back to January 1980, when I

was still a student in the Zoology Department at Kuwait University,

State of Kuwait. The article was about "The Colouration of Animals".

I was especially interested in the Arabian Wildlife, and in particular, in

my Homeland Palestine. My first zoological article about the Palestinian

Fauna dates back to February 1983. The article was entitled "The

Badger in Palestine and the Arabian Peninsula", and was published

in the Palestinian "Al Khalisah" Bulletin, Kuwait University.

Since that time, I had published many scientific articles in different

scientific books, magazines and bulletins, and established my own

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. In July 1983, "Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin" was created. It was the First Palestinian Scientific

Journal Worldwide (ISSN 0178 – 6288).

My first zoological article in "Gazelle" was about "Order Lagomorpha

in Palestine". Till now 124 "Gazelle" Issues were published; and many

of my articles were about Palestinian Animals.

Finally, and after more than 35 years in Zoological research and studies,

in Palestine and many Arabic and European countries, and after

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publishing many scientific articles in different scientific books,

magazines and bulletins, especially the "Gazelle Bulletin", and after

publishing many articles in the Gazelle Bulletin Web Site, since 2001

under (www.gazelle.8m.net), and after publishing most of my articles

on the internet under (www.webs.com), and after publishing my

zoological books: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin in July

2004, Aquatica Arabica in August 2005, Mammalia Arabica in July

2006, Felidae Arabica in July 2007, Carnivora Arabica in September

2008, Fauna Palaestina – Part One in September 2009, Fauna

Emiratus – Part One in November 2010, Fauna Palaestina – Part

Two which was published by Dar Al Jundi Publishing House in Al Quds

(Jerusalem), Palestine in July 2012, and my ninth book Fauna

Palaestina – Part Three which was also published by Dar Al Jundi

Publishing House in Al Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine in July

2013; I finally decided to publish my newest scientific book in the Holy

City of Jerusalem, State of Palestine, containing selected "Palestinian"

research and articles which were published between 1983 - 2014.

It is hard to be optimistic about the future of Wildlife in Palestine. But

recent years have shown the development of official and public interest,

and efforts to conserve the Palestinian Fauna. Palestinian animals lived

with humans for thousands of years. There are a lot of stories concerning

Prophets with Palestinian animals, which were mentioned in the Holy

Quran, Bible and Torah.

I hope that I can participate with my new book to our knowledge about

"Fauna Palaestina", and to help and to be part in protecting the

endangered Palestinian and Arabian Fauna.

Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-von Jaffa.

Al Quds (Jerusalem), the Capital of the State of Palestine and the Capital

of Arab Culture.

05 th July 2014 (My 52 nd Birthday).

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About the Author :

A Palestinian-German Zoologist

Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von

Jaffa is a Palestinian-German Zoologist, Ecologist and Geologist. Born

in Saarbrücken, Saarland, Germany in 1962. His family originally comes

from Al Eizariya (Bethany), east of Al Quds (Jerusalem), Palestine. The

family then moved to the financial booming city of Jaffa, Palestine in the

beginning of the twentieth century. Finished School in Kuwait. Studied

Zoology, Geology and Ecology for the Bachelor, Master and Doctorate

degrees at the Universities of Kuwait, Durham (England) and Ashwood

(USA). Specialised in Animal Behaviour and Ecology. Done a lot of

work and research in the Universities of Kuwait, Durham and

Saarbrücken; and in the Zoos, Wild Parks and Field Studies in Palestine,

Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Emirates,

Qatar, Oman, Egypt, Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Hungary,

Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg, England, Scotland, Jersey Island,

France, Austria, Switzerland and Germany.

He is the author and publisher of "Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin" (ISSN 0178-6288), the first Palestinian scientific journal

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worldwide (since 1983); and the author of ten books: Gazelle: The

Palestinian Biological Bulletin (2004), Aquatica Arabica (2005),

Mammalia Arabica (2006), Felidae Arabica (2007), Carnivora Arabica

(2008), Fauna Palaestina – Part One (2009), Fauna Emiratus – Part One

(2010), Fauna Palaestina – Part Two (2012), Fauna Palaestina – Part

Three (2013), Fauna Palaestina – Part Four (2014), and the co-author of

the book "Palestine: A Guide" (2005/2006).

He discovered and scientifically named nine new animal species and

subspecies. Two Palestinian mammal subspecies from the Gaza Strip:

The Gaza or Palestine House Mouse (Mus musculus gazaensis Khalaf,

2007) and the Palestine Golden Jackal (Canis aureus palaestina Khalaf,

2008); and the Pink Panther or the Pink-hued Leopard (Panthera pardus

roseus Khalaf, 2013) from South Africa; and three freshwater fish

subspecies: The Emirati or Wadi Al Wurayah Blind Cave Fish (Garra

barreimiae wurayahi Khalaf, 2009), the Emirati or Bassam

Khalaf's Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus bassamkhalafi Khalaf,

2009) from the Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates and the

Palestine or Wadi Qana Doctor Fish (Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf,

2013) from Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of

Palestine; and three fossils: the Arabian or Emirati Four-Tusked

Elephant Fossil († Stegotetrabelodon syrticus emiratus Khalaf,

2010) from the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; the

Sharjah or Arabian Coelacanth Fish Fossil († Coelacanthus

sharjah Khalaf, 2013) from Sharjah Natural History and Botanical

Museum in Sharjah, Emirate of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates and the

Palestine or Al-Naqab Coelacanth Fish Fossil († Macropomoides

palaestina Khalaf, 2013) from the Anthracothere Hill in Al-Naqab,

Palestine.

He is working now as a free Scientific Researcher, Publisher and Eco-

Tourist Guide in the United Arab Emirates. He is married to Ola Khalaf

and has one daughter, Nora (15 Years).

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Checklist of the Family Scarabaeidae

(Scarab Beetles) from Palestine

خنافس الج عل فً‏ فلسطٌن

By: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa

Propomacrus bimucronatus. By: Peter Simon Pallas, 1781.

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Propomacrus_bimucronatus.png

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Family Scarabaeidae

Subfamily Eucheirinae

Propomacrus bimucronatus Pallas, 1781

Subfamily Melolonthinae

Tribe Melolonthini

Anoxia (Anoxia) maculiventris Reitter, 1890

Anoxia (Mesanoxia) cypria Zurcher, 1911

Anoxia (Protanoxia) laevimaculata Petrovitz, 1973

Anoxia (Protanoxia) orientalis Krynicki, 1832

Anoxoides bytinskisalzi Petrovitz, 1971

Cyphonoxia praestabilis Reitter, 1889

Melolontha (Melolontha) albida Frivaldszky, 1835

Polyphylla (Polyphylla) olivieri Laporte, 1840

Tribe Rhizotrogini

Aplidia caesarina Reitter, 1902

Aplidia chaifensis Kraatz, 1882

Aplidia endroedii Baraud, 1988

Aplidia fissa fissa Burmeister, 1855

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Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/Web%20Polyphylla%20olivieri.jpg

Aplidia janczyki Baraud, 1988

Aplidia joannis Baraud, 1988

Aplidia lizleri Keith, 2000

Aplidia nitidula Kraatz, 1882

Aplidia petrovitzi petrovitzi Baraud,1988

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Aplidia villosicollis Kraatz, 1882

Gnaphalostetha bonvoisini Reiche & Saulcy, 1856

Holochelus (Holochelus) setiventris Reitter, 1902

Tribe Pachydemini

Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/Gnaphalostetha%20bonvoisini.jpg

Brenskiella flavomicans Brenske, 1897

Leptochristina pubicavula Reitter, 1902

Tanyproctus (Taniproctocera) sinaiticus Heyden, 1900

Tanyproctus (Taniproctus) kindermanni Reiche, 1861

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Tanyproctus (Taniproctocera) crinitus Petrovitz, 1971

Tanyproctus (Taniproctocera) israeliticus Petrovitz, 1971

Tanyproctus (Taniproctocera) lederi Reiche, 1861

Tanyproctus (Taniproctocera) minutus Petrovitz, 1973

Tanyproctus (Taniproctocera) nabataeus Petrovitz, 1973

Tanyproctus (Taniproctocera) pumilus Petrovitz, 1973

Tanyproctus (Taniproctocera) saulcyi Reiche & Saulcy, 1856

Subfamily Sericinae

Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/web%20tanyproctus%20saulcyi.jpg

Maladera (Cephaloserica) insanabilis Brenske, 1894

Maladera (Eusericula) modesta Fairmaire, 1881

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Maladera (Macroserica) punctatissima Faldermann, 1835

Maladera (Macroserica) syriaca syriaca Petrovitz, 1969

Omaloplia (Acarina) labrata Burmeister, 1855

Paratriodonta olivieri Blanchard, 1850

Paratriodonta tripolitana Brenske, 1889 (?)

http://www.nature-of-oz.com/Maladera%20syriaca%20syriaca.jpg

Subfamily Rutelinae

Tribe Adoretini

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Adoretus granulifrons Fairmaire, 1882

Adoretus irakanus Ohaus, 1928

Tribe Anomalini

Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/Adoretus%20irakanus.jpg

Anisoplia (Anisoplia) signata akbesiana Baraud, 1991

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Anisoplia ferruginipes Petrovitz, 1963 (?)

Brancoplia klapperichi Petrovitz, 1971

Anisoplia pumila Mersuel, 1878

Brancoplia leucaspis leucaspis Laporte, 1840

Brancoplia mesopotamica Pilleri, 1954

Chaetopteroplia obenbergeri Vsetecka 1941

Chaetopteroplia syriaca Burmeister, 1844

Hemichaetoplia gossypiata Fairmaire, 1881

Anomala palaestina Pic, 1905

Asiopertha nazarena Marsuel, 1878

Blitopertha nigripennis Reitter, 1888

Pharaouns varicoloreus Burmeister, 1844

Tribopertha aegyptiaca Blanchard, 1851

Subfamily Dynastinae

Tribe Oryctini

Oryctes nasicornis kuntzeni )Minck,1915(

Oryctes agamemnon sinaicus

(Walker,1871)

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Tribe Pentodontini

Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/Asiopertha%20nazarena.jpg

Heteroninchus licas Klug, 1835

Pentodon algerinum dispar Baudi,1870

Pentodon bidens sulcifrons Kuster, 1848

Pentodon idiota idiota Herbst,1789

Pentodon variolopunctatus deserti Heyden, 1900

Phyllognathus excavatus Forster,1771

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Podalgus cuniculus arabicus Fairmaire, 1895

Temnorhynchus baal Reiche & saulcy, 1856

Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/Oryctes%20agamemnon%20sinaicus.jpg

Subfamily Cetoniinae

Tribe Cetonini

Subtribe Cetonina

Protaetia (Netocia) subpilosa dorchini Legrand & Drumond, 2006

Protaetia (Potosia) cuprea ignicollis

Gory et Percheron 1833

Protaetia (Cetonichema) speciosa jousselini Gory et Percheron, 1833

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Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/Temnorhynchus%20baal.jpg

Protaetia (Foveopotosia) judith Reiche, 1871

Protaetia (Netocia) vidua (Gory et Percheron,1833)

Protaetia funebris funesta (Menetries,1838)

Protaetia (Netocia) afflicta

Gory et Percheron,1833

Protaetia (Eupotosia) afflnis pyrodera (Reitter,1891)

Protaetia (Netocia) trojana syriaca Reitter, 1891

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Protaetia (Eupotosia) mirifica koenigi Reitter, 1894

Cetonia delegrangei Boucard,1893

Aethiessa mesopotamica

Burmeister,1842

Aethiessa floralis (Fabricius,1787)

Stalagmosoma albella (Pallas,1781)

Tropinota (Epicomentis) hirta suturalis Reitter, 1913

Tropinota squalida pilosa

Brulle,1832

Tropinota vittula (Reiche et Saulcy,1857)

Tropinota (Tropinota) ilariae (Dutto, 2007)

Oxythyrea abigail Reiche et Saulcy,1857

Oxythyrea noemi

Reiche et Saulcy,1856

Oxythyrea cinctella (Schaum,1841)

Subfamily Valginae

Valgus hemipterus )Linnaeus,1758(

Subfamily Scarabaeinae

Tribe Coprini

Catharsius sesostris Waterhouse, 1888

Copris (Copris) hispanus cavolinii Petagna, 1792

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Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/Aethiessa%20mesopotamica.jpg

Copris (Copris) lunaris (Linnaeus, 1758)

Tribe Gymnopleurini

Gymnopleurus flagellatus (Fabricius, 1787)

Gymnopleurus geoffroyi geoffroyi (Fuessly, 1775)

Gymnopleurus mopsus ssp. mopsus (Pallas, 1781)

Gymnopleurus sturmii (MacLeay, 1821)

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http://webzoom.freewebs.com/saturnids/Web%20Copris%20hispanu

s%20SERIES.jpg

Tribe Oniticellili

Euoniticellus fulvus (Goeze, 1777)

Euoniticellus pallens (A. G. Olivier, 1789)

Euoniticellus pallipes (Fabricius, 1781)

Tribe Onitini

Bubas bubaloides Janssens, 1938

Cheironitis furcifer (P. Rossi, 1792)

Cheironitis pamphilus (Menetries, 1849)

Cheironitis irroratus (P. Rossi, 1790) ??

Cheironitis ungaricus (Herbst, 1789) ??

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Onitis alexis ssp. septentrionalis Balthasar, 1942

Onitis damoetas Steven, 1806

Onitis ezechias Reiche and Saulcy, 1856

Onitis humerosus (Pallas, 1771)

Onitis ion (A. G. Olivier, 1789) ??

Photo by Oz Rittner.

http://webzoom.freewebs.com/saturnids/Bubas%20bubaloides.jpg

Tribe Onthophagini

Caccobius (Caccobius) histeroides (Menetries, 1832)

Caccobius (Caccobius) mundus (Menetries, 1839)

Caccobius (Caccobius) schreberi (Linnaeus, 1767 )

Caccobius (Caccophilus) pulicarius Harold, 1875

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Euonthophagus amyntas ssp. alces (Fabricius, 1792)

Euonthophagus atramentarius (Menetries, 1832)

Euonthophagus conterminus Petrovitz, 1971

Euonthophagus gibbosus (Scriba, 1790)

Euonthophagus tissoni (Reitter, 1906)

Onthophagus (Eremonthophagus) transcaspicus Konig, 1889

Onthophagus (Furconthophagus) furcatus (Fabricius, 1781)

Onthophagus (Micronthophagus) melanocephalus Klug, 1845

Onthophagus (Onthophagus) illyricus (Scopoli, 1763)

Onthophagus (Onthophagus) taurus (Schreber, 1759)

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) aerarius Reitter, 1892

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) aleppensis Redtenbacher, 1843

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) andalusicus Waltl, 1835

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) angorensis Petrovitz, 1963

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) bytinskii Balthasar, 1960

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) coenobita (Herbst, 1783)

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) cruciatus Menetries, 1832

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) falzonii Goidanich, 1926

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) fissicornis (Steven, 1809)

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Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) fissinasus Fairmaire, 1895

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) fracticornis (Preyssler, 1790)

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) hermonensis Baraud, 1982

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) lucidus (Sturm, 1800)

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) marginalis Gebler, 1817

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) muelleri P. Novak, 1921

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) nebulosus Reiche, 1864

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) opacicollis Reitter, 1892

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) ruficapillus Brulle, 1832

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) sericatus Reitter, 1892

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) similis (Scriba, 1790) ??

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) speculifer Solsky, 1876 ??

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) suturellus Brulle, 1832

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) truchmenus ssp.

truchmenus Kolenati, 1846

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) vacca (Linnaeus, 1767) ??

Tribe Scarabaeini

Ateuchetus puncticollis (Latreille, 1819)

Ateuchetus semipunctatus (Fabricius, 1792)

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Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/Scarabaeus%20irakensis.jpg

Mnematidium multidentatum (Klug, 1845)

Scarabaeus (Mesoscarabaeus) cristatus Fabricius, 1775

Scarabaeus (Scarabaeus) gangeticus (Castelnau, 1840)

Scarabaeus (Scarabaeus) irakensis Stolfa, 1938

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Scarabaeus (Scarabaeus) pius (Illiger, 1803)

Scarabaeus (Scarabaeus) sacer Linnaeus, 1758

Scarabaeus (Scarabaeus) typhon (Fischer de Waldheim, 1823)

Tribe Sisyphini

Sisyphus schaefferi boschnakii Fischer de Waldheim, 1824

Subfamily Aphodiinae

Acanthobodilus immundus (Creutzer, 1799)

Acrossus luridus (Fabricius, 1775)

Alocoderus hydrochaeris (Fabricius, 1798)

Alocoderus turbatus (Baudi, 1870)

Amidorus cribrarius (Brulle, 1832)

Amidorus obscurus (Fabricius, 1792)

Aphodius fimetarius (Linne, 1758)

Aphodius foetidus (Herbst, 1783)

Biralus equinus (Faldermann, 1835)

Biralus menetriesi (Menetries, 1847)

Biralus satellitius (Herbst, 1789)

Bodiloides ictericus ssp. ghardimaouensis (Balthasar, 1929)

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Bodilopsis rufa (Moll, 1782)

Bodilopsis sordida (Fabricius, 1775)

Bodilus lugens (Creutzer, 1799)

Bodilus punctipennis (Erichson, 1848)

Bodilus sabaeus (Peyerhimhoff, 1907)

Calamosternus granarius (Linne, 1767)

Calamosternus hyxos (Petrovitz, 1962)

Calamosternus pseudounicolor (Balthasar, 1960)

Calamosternus trucidatus (Harold, 1863)

Chilothorax discedens (A. Schmidt, 1907)

Chilothorax distinctus (O. F. Muller, 1776)

Chilothorax hieroglyphicus (Klug, 1845)

Chilothorax hucklesbyi (Paulian, 1942)

Chilothorax lineolatus (Illiger, 1803)

Chilothorax melanostictus (W. Schmidt, 1840)

Colobopterus erraticus (Linne, 1758)

Erytus aequalis (A. Schmidt, 1907)

Erytus cognatus (Fairmaire, 1860)

Erytus lindemannae (Balthasar, 1960)

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Erytus mesopotamicus (Petrovitz, 1961)

Erytus opacior (D. Koshantschikov, 1894)

Erytus pruinosus (Reitter, 1892)

Esymus filitarsis (Reitter, 1898)

Esymus merdarius (Fabricius, 1775)

Esymus ornatulus (Harold, 1866)

Esymus pusillus (Herbst, 1789)

Esymus suturinigra (A. Schmidt, 1916)

Eudolus quadriguttatus (Herbst, 1783)

Euheptaulacus carinatus (Germar, 1824)

Euorodalus longevittatus (A. Schmidt, 1916)

Labarrus digitatus (Harold, 1871)

Labarrus lividus (Olivier, 1789)

Labarrus splendidus (Petrovitz, 1955)

Liothorax isikdagensis (Balthasar, 1952)

Liothorax plagiatus (Linne, 1767)

Loraphodius suarius (Faldermann, 1835)

Mecynodes angulosus (Harold, 1869)

Mecynodes leucopterus (Klug, 1945)

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Mecynodes trochylus (Reitter, 1892)

Megatelus contractus (Klug, 1845)

Melinopterus consputus (Creutzer,1799)

Melinopterus prodromus (Brahm,1790)

Melinopterus pubescens (Sturm,1805)

Melinopterus punctatosulcatus ssp. hirtipes (Fischer, 1844)

Melinopterus sphacelatus (Panzer, 1798)

Melinopterus tingens (Reitter, 1892)

Mendidaphodius angustatus (Klug, 1845) - Palestine

Mendidaphodius armiger (Harold, 1874) - Palestine, Syria

Mendidaphodius lepidulus (Harold, 1866) - Palestine, Jordan,

Lebanon

Mendidaphodius linearis (Reiche and Saulcy, 1856) -

Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria

Mendidaphodius palaestinensis (Petrovitz, 1963) - Palestine, Jordan

Mendidius assectator (Balthasar, 1961) - Palestine, Jordan, Syria

Mendidius (?) calliger (Sahlberg, 1908) - Palestine, Lebanon, Syria

Mendidius fimbriolatus (Mannerheim, 1849) - Palestine, Jordan,

Syria

Mendidius palmetincolus (Karsch, 1881) - Palestine, Sinai

36


Mesontoplatys arabicus (Harold, 1875) - Palestine, Sinai

Nialosternus sitiphoides (d'Orbigny, 1896) - Palestine, Jordan, Syria

Nialus politus (Mulsant and Rey, 1870) - Palestine, Jordan,

Lebanon, Syria

Nialus varians (Duftschmid, 1805) - Palestine, Jordan

Nimbus contaminatus (Herbst, 1783) - Palestine

Nimbus harpagonis (Reitter, 1890) - Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon,

Syria

Nimbus libanonensis (Petrovitz, 1958) - Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon,

Syria

Nimbus obliteratus (Panzer, 1823) - Palestine

Nobius serotinus (Panzer, 1799) - Palestine

Oxyomus sylvestris (Scopoli, 1763) - Palestine, Syria

Parabodilus wollastoni ssp. iranicus (Balthasar, 1946) - Palestine,

Jordan, Lebanon, Sinai, Syria

Phalacronothus fumigatulus (Reitter, 1892) - Palestine, Jordan,

Lebanon, Syria

Phalacronothus hilaris (Harold, 1869) - Palestine, Jordan, Syria

Phalacronothus quadrimaculatus (Linne, 1761) - Palestine, Jordan,

Lebanon, Syria

Plagiogonus esymoides (Reitter, 1893) - Palestine

37


Plagiogonus nanoides (Balthasar, 1961) - Palestine, Jordan, Syria

Plagiogonus praeustus (Ballion, 1871) - Palestine, Syria

Plagiogonus syriacus (Harold, 1863) - Palestine, Syria

Planolinellus vittatus (Say, 1825) - Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria

Pseudacrossus koshantschikovi (Jakobson, 1911) - Palestine, Jordan,

Lebanon, Syria

Pseudacrossus suffertus (A. Schmidt, 1916) - Palestine, Syria

Pseuderytus chobauti (Clouet, 1896) - Palestine, Jordan

Pseudesymus lucidus (Klug, 1845) - Palestine, Sinai

Sahlbergianus longissimus (Sahlberg, 1908)

Subrinus (?) feculentus (Fairmaire, 1892) - Palestine

Subrinus sturmi (Harold, 1870) - Palestine

Subrinus vitellinus (Klug, 1845) - Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Sinai,

Syria

Volinus (?) signifer (Mulsant and Rey, 1870) - Palestine, Syria

Tribe Eupariini

Ataenius horticola Harold, 1869 - Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria

Tribe Psammodiini

Brindalus porcicollis (Illiger, 1803) - Palestine, Lebanon, Syria

38


http://www.nature-of-oz.com/Subrinus%20sturmi.jpg

Diastictus vulneratus (Sturm, 1805) - Palestine, Lebanon

Leiopsammodius laevicollis (Klug, 1845) - Palestine, Jordan, Syria

Psammodius asper (Fabricius, 1775) – Palestine

Psammodius laevipennis A. Costa, 1844 - Palestine, Lebanon, Syria

Psammodius nocturnus Reitter, 1892 - Palestine, Lebanon, Syria

Tribe Rhyssemiini

Platytomus laevistriatus (Perris, 1869)

39


Psammodius asper (Fabricius, 1775). Source: Darren J. Mann.

http://www.coleoptera.org.uk/scarabaeoidea/psammodius-asper

Platytomus tibialis (Fabricius, 1798)

Pleurophorus anatolicus Petrovitz, 1961

Pleurophorus arabicus Pittino and Mariani, 1986

Pleurophorus caesus (Creutzer, 1796)

Pleurophorus opacus Reitter, 1893

Rhyssemodes orientalis (Mulsant and Godart, 1875)

Rhyssemus beritensis Marseul, 1878

Rhyssemus verrucosus Mulsant, 1842

Trichiorhyssemus setulosus (Reitter, 1892)

40


Rhyssemodes orientalis (Mulsant and Godart, 1875).

http://jcringenbach.free.fr/website/beetles/scarabaeidae/Rhyssemod

es_orientalis.htm

References and Internet Websites:

Cambefort, Yves. Beetles as Religious Symbols.

http://www.insects.org/ced1/beetles_rel_sym.html

Copeland, Dave (Cameraman), NBC News. Insect invasion: Israel

battles plague of locusts. NBC News.

http://worldnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2013/05/13/18233295-

insect-invasion-israel-battles-plague-of-locusts?lite

Department of Entomology. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

http://departments.agri.huji.ac.il/entomology/

41


Evenor, Zachi. Insects in Israel . Flickr.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/zachievenor/sets/721576232207

01942/

Freidberg, A. and Y. Ben-Dov (Editors). (2007). Israel Journal of

Entomology. Vol. 37, 2007. http://www.magnes-

press.com/Book/Israel+Journal+of+Entomology.aspx?code=45-

412004

Israeli Journal of Entomology - Cover photo. (2008). Vol. 38, 2008.

http://www.nature-ofoz.com/apps/photos/photo?photoid=60173104

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1980). Tabie‘t Al-Talawon fi Al-

Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin.

Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait

University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (In Arabic).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). An Introduction to

the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of

Germany. Number 30, Tenth Year, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (In

Arabic).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to

the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae‘q Al-Nouma‘n (Anemone

coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI

(Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental

Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with

Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine.

Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (In Arabic).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das

Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche

Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004. /

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in

Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. ISBN 3-00-

014121-9. Erste Auflage / First Edition, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten /

Pages. Zweite erweiterte Auflage (Second Extended Edition),

August 2004: 460 Seiten / Pages. Norman Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad

Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-

42


ooks.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007).

Haywanat Filistin حٌوانات فلسطٌن (Fauna of Palestine). Wikipedia,

Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 69, Twenty-fifth Year,

September 2007 CE, Sha‘ban 1428 AH. pp. 1-4. (in Arabic).

http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8

%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D

8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab

1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina

– Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe

between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine

Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen

1983 – 2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition,

September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali

Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates &

Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010). Der

Hitlerkäfer (Anophthalmus hitleri Scheibel, 1937) / The Hitler‘s

Slovenian Blind Cave Beetle (Anophthalmus hitleri, Scheibel 1937).

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 –

6288. Twenty-eighth Year, Number 97, January 2010 CE,

Muharam 1431 AH. pp. 1-13. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://www.hitler-beetle.webs.com/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010).

Fauna Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab

Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins.

Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate

zwischen 2004 - 2009. ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First

43


Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: Dr.

Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United

Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik

Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2011).

Khunfusa‗ Hitler خىفساء ‏ٌخهز (The Hitler Beetle). Arab-Wikipedia.

http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AE%D9%86%D9%81%D8%

B3%D8%A7%D8%A1_%D9%87%D8%AA%D9%84%D8%B1

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2012). Fauna Palaestina

– Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 /

Fauna Palaestina - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina

zwischen 1983 – 2009. ISBN 978-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First

Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic

Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al

Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-normanali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Fauna Palaestina

– Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 /

Fauna Palaestina - Teil Drei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina

zwischen 2005 – 2012. ISBN 978-9950-383-35-7. Erste Auflage /

First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part

350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi

Publishing House, Jerusalem, State of Palestine. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali

Taher (2013). Checklist of the Family Scarabaeidae (Scarab

Beetles) from Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 105, September 2013, Thu Al

Qia‘da 1434 AH. pp. 1-26. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab

Emirates. http://palestine-insects.webs.com/scarab-beetles

Pavlíček, Tomas; Vladimir Chikatunov, Vasily Kravchenko, Petr

Zahradnik & Eviatar Nevo (1999). New records of deathwatch

beetles (Anobiidae) from Israel. Zoology in the Middle East.

Volume 17, Issue 1, 1999. pages 77-78.

44


http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09397140.1999.1

0637771#.Uh-KSdI3CSq

Ptashkovskiy, Yu.A. Beetles of Israel -illustrated atlas.

http://www.zin.ru/animalia/coleoptera/eng/col_izrb.htm

Springer. Abstracts of papers presented at the 16th conference of the

Entomological Society of Israel Research on thrips in Israel Dedicated to

the Memory of Prof. E. Rivnay on the 100th Anniversary of his Birth.

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02981466

The Insect World of Israel. Israel‘s Nature Site.

http://www.nature-of-oz.com/scarablist.htm

Trek Nature. Insects in Israel.

http://www.treknature.com/themes.php?thid=177

Ward, Alex and Steve Nolan (6 March 2013). Locust swarm hits Israel as

a million insects cross border from Egypt . Mail Online.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2288908/Locust-swarmhits-Israel-millions-insects-cross-border-Egypt.html

Wikimedia Commons. Insects of Israel.

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Insects_of_Israel

Wikipedia. Scarabaeidae.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scarabaeidae

Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/Scarabaeus%20sacer.jpg

45


46


Family Coccinellidae (Ladybird

Beetles) in Palestine

خنافس الدعسوقت في فلسطين

By: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

Khalaf- Sakerfalke von Jaffa

7-Spot Ladybird (Coccinella septempunctata) from Palestine. Photo by

Zachi Evenor. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:7-Spotted-Ladybird-

Wiki-Zachi-Evenor-0119.jpg

The Beetles comprise an order of insects characterized by

complete metamorphosis (including a pupal stage between the

larval and adult stages), biting-chewing mouth parts, and two

pairs of wings, of which the hind pair are membranous and used

for flight and the front pair (elytra) are sturdy and used for

protection. The approximately 350,000 known species of beetles in

the world comprise the largest animal group in existence. Only

1% of this number, about 3,500 species, are found in Palestine.

These species represent a wide variety of families, shapes, colours

47


and modes of life. Many species are harmful to crops and stored

products, including food, while others are beneficial to mankind

through preying on agricultural pests or by recycling waste

products. Due to the hardness of their bodies and their

tremendous resistance, variety of shapes, range of size (from 1-160

mm) and amazing colours, the beetles are a favourite group for

many amateur entomologists and collectors (Boeliem, 2008). As a

result of their habitat destruction, several species in Palestine have

become extinct, such as some of the large water beetles; while

others are endangered.

The Coccinellidae are a family of small beetles, ranging from 1 to

10 mm (0.04 to 0.4 inches). They are commonly yellow, orange, or

scarlet with small black spots on their wing covers, with black

legs, heads and antennae. Such colour patterns vary greatly,

however; for example, a minority of species, such as Vibidia

duodecimguttata, a twelve-spotted species, have whitish spots on a

brown background. Coccinellids are found worldwide, with over

5,000 species described (Wikipedia). About 70 species of ladybird

beetles (Coccinellidae) are known in Palestine, and many of them

help to regulate pest populations. Both in Palestine and abroad,

some of the species are employed for biological control of pests.

At the end of spring the beetles migrate to mountain tops, such as

Mount Hermon (Jabal Al Shaykh) and Mount Meron (Jabal Al

Jarmaq), where they mass together. At the beginning of the

following spring they migrate back to the low-lying areas - a

phenomenon that has not yet been fully studied (Boeliem, 2008).

Coccinellidae are known colloquially as ladybirds (in Britain,

Ireland and the Commonwealth), ladybugs (in North America)

or lady cows, among other names. When they need to use a

common name, entomologists widely prefer the names ladybird

beetles or lady beetles as these insects are not true bugs

(Wikipedia).

48


14-Spot Ladybird Beetle (Propylea quattuordecimpunctata) from Palestine.

Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-of-oz.com/coccinellidae.htm

The Coccinellidae are generally considered useful insects, because

many species feed on aphids or scale insects, which are pests in

gardens, agricultural fields, orchards, and similar places. Within

the colonies of such plant-eating pests, they will lay hundreds of

eggs, and when these hatch the larvae will commence feeding

immediately. However, some species do have unwelcome effects.

Among these, the most prominent are the subfamily Epilachninae,

which are plant eaters. Usually, Epilachninae are only mild

agricultural pests, eating the leaves of grain, potatoes, beans, and

various other crops, but their numbers can increase explosively in

years when their natural enemies are few, such

as parasitoid wasps that attack their eggs. When that happens,

they can do major crop damage. They occur in practically all the

49


major crop-producing regions of temperate and tropical countries

(Wikipedia).

18-Spot Ladybird Beetle (Myrrha octodecimguttata) from Palestine. Photo

by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-of-oz.com/coccinellidae.htm

Etymology

Coccinelid is derived from the Latin word coccineus meaning

"scarlet". The name "ladybird" originated in Britain where the

insects became known as 'Our Lady's bird or the Lady beetle.

Mary (Our Lady) was often depicted wearing a red cloak in early

paintings, and the spots of the seven-spot ladybird (the most

common in Europe) were said to symbolise her seven

joys and seven sorrows. In the United States, the name was

adapted to "ladybug". Common names in other European

languages have the same association, for example, the German

50


name ―Marienkäfer‖ translates to ―Marybeetle‖ (Wikipedia). The

Arabic name ―Um Ali‖ أم علً‏ translates to ―Mother of Ali‖. In

some Arabic countries it is called ―Abu Ali‖ أبو علً‏ (Father of

Ali) or ―Um Sulayman‖ أم سلٌمان (Mother of Solomon).

The Cream-Streaked Ladybird or 4-Spot Ladybird Beetle (Harmonia

quadripunctata) from Palestine. Photo by Oz Rittner.

http://www.nature-of-oz.com/coccinellidae.htm

Physical Appearance

Most coccinellids have oval, dome-shaped bodies with six short

legs. Depending on the species, they can have spots, stripes, or no

markings at all. Seven-spotted coccinellids are red or orange with

three spots on each side and one in the middle; they have a black

head with white patches on each side (Wikipedia).

51


As well as the usual yellow and scarlet colorings, many

coccinellid species are mostly, or entirely, black, grey, or brown,

and may be difficult for non-entomologists to recognise as

coccinellids at all. Conversely, non-entomologists might easily

mistake many other small beetles for coccinellids. For example,

the tortoise beetles, like the ladybird beetles, look similar because

they are shaped so that they can cling to a flat surface so closely

that ants and many other enemies cannot grip them (Wikipedia).

Black Sign Louse Ladybird Beetle (Exochomus nigromaculatus) from

Palestine. Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/coccinellidae.htm

Non-entomologists are prone to misidentify a wide variety of

beetle species in other families as "ladybirds", i.e. coccinellids.

Beetles are particularly prone to such misidentification if they are

spotted in red, orange or yellow and black. Examples include the

52


much larger scarabaeid grapevine beetles and spotted species of

the Chrysomelidae, Melyridae and others. Conversely, laymen

may fail to identify unmarked species of Coccinellidae as

"ladybirds". Other beetles that have a defensive hemispherical

shape, like that of the Coccinellidae, (for example the Cassidinae),

also are often taken for ladybirds (Wikipedia).

Spotted Amber Ladybird Beetle (Adonia variegate) from Palestine.

http://www.nature-of-oz.com/coccinellidae.htm

A common myth, totally unfounded, is that the number of spots

on the insect's back indicates its age. In fact, the number, shape,

and placement of the spots all are determined by the species of

53


the beetle, and are fixed by the time it emerges from its pupa. The

same applies to the colour, except it may take some days for the

colour of the adult beetle to mature and stabilise. Generally, the

mature colour tends to be fuller and darker than the colour of

the callow (Wikipedia).

Biology

Coccinellids are best known as predators of Sternorrhyncha such

as aphids and scale insects, but the range of prey species that

various Coccinellidae may attack is much wider. A genus of small

black ladybirds, Stethorus, presents one example of predation on

non-Sternorrhyncha; they specialise in mites as prey, notably

Tetranychus spider mites. Stethorus species accordingly are

important in certain examples of biological control (Wikipedia).

Various larger species of Coccinellidae attack caterpillars and

other beetle larvae. Several genera feed on various insects or their

eggs; for example, Coleomegilla species are significant predators of

the eggs and larvae of moths such as species of Spodoptera and

the Plutellidae. Larvae and eggs of ladybirds, either their own or

of other species, can also be important food resources when

alternative prey are scarce. As a family, the Coccinellidae used to

be regarded as purely carnivorous, but they are now known to be

far more omnivorous than previously thought, both as a family

and in individual species; examination of gut contents of

apparently specialist predators commonly yield residues of pollen

and other plant materials. Besides the prey they favour, most

predatory coccinellids include other items in their diets, including

honeydew, pollen, plant sap, nectar, and various fungi. The

significance of such nonprey items in their diets is still under

investigation and discussion (Wikipedia).

Apart from the generalist aphid and scale predators and

incidental substances of botanical origin, many Coccinellidae do

favour or even specialise in certain prey types. This makes some

54


of them particularly valuable as agents in biological control

programmes. Determination of specialisation need not be a trivial

matter, though; for example the larva of the Vedalia

ladybird Rodolia cardinalis is a specialist predator on a few species

of Monophlebidae, in particular Icerya purchasi, which is the most

notorious of the cottony cushion scale species. However, the

adult R. cardinalis can subsist for some months on a wider range

of insects plus some nectar (Wikipedia).

Nile Striped Ladybird Beetle (Cheilomenes propinqua nilotica) from

Palestine. Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/coccinellidae.htm

Certain species of coccinellids are thought to lay extra infertile

eggs with the fertile eggs, apparently to provide a backup food

source for the larvae when they hatch. The ratio of infertile to

fertile eggs increases with scarcity of food at the time of egg

55


laying. Such a strategy amounts to the production of trophic eggs

(Wikipedia).

Some species in the subfamily Epilachninae are herbivores, and

can be very destructive agricultural pests (e.g., the Mexican bean

beetle). Again, in the subfamily Coccinellinae, members of the

tribe Halyziini and the genus Tythaspis are mycophagous

(Wikipedia).

Spherical or Bullet Ladybird Beetle (Oenopia conglobata) from

Palestine. Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/coccinellidae.htm

While predatory species are often used as biological

control agents, introduced species of coccinellids are not

necessarily benign. Species such as Harmonia axyridis or Coccinella

septempunctata in North America outcompete and displace native

coccinellids and become pests themselves (Wikipedia).

The main predators of coccinellids are usually birds, but they are

also the prey of frogs, wasps, spiders, and dragonflies. The bright

colours of many coccinellids discourage some potential predators

56


from making a meal of them. This phenomenon, called

aposematism, works because predators learn by experience to

associate certain prey phenotypes with a bad taste. A further

defence, known as "reflex bleeding", exists in which an alkaloid

toxin is exuded through the joints of the exoskeleton, triggered by

mechanical stimulation (such as by predator attack) in both larval

and adult beetles, deterring feeding (Wikipedia).

Heather Ladybird Beetle (Chilocorus bipustulatus) from Palestine. Photo

by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-of-oz.com/coccinellidae.htm

Coccinellids in temperate regions enter diapause during the

winter, so they often are among the first insects to appear in the

spring. Some species (e.g., Hippodamia convergens) gather into

groups and move to higher elevations, such as a mountain, to

enter diapause. Most coccinellids overwinter as adults,

aggregating on the south sides of large objects such as trees or

houses during the winter months, dispersing in response to

increasing day length in the spring (Wikipedia).

Predatory coccinellids are usually found on plants which harbour

their prey. They lay their eggs near their prey, to increase the

likelihood the larvae will find the prey easily. In Harmonia

57


axyridis, eggs hatch in three to four days from clutches numbering

from a few to several dozen. Depending on resource availability,

the larvae pass through four instars over 10–14 days, after

which pupation occurs. After a teneral period of several days, the

adults become reproductively active and are able to reproduce

again, although they may become reproductively quiescent

if eclosing late in the season. Total life span is one to two years on

average (Wikipedia).

Ladybird Beetle (Nephus biflammulatus Motschulsky, 1837) from

Palestine. http://www.nature-of-oz.com/coccinellidae.htm

The Seven-Spot Ladybird Beetle (Coccinella septempunctata

Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the most common, familiar and

congenial beetles in Palestine. Its elytra are of a red colour, but

punctuated with three black spots each, with one further spot

being spread over the junction of the two, making a total of seven

spots, from which the species derives both its common and

scientific names (from the Latin septem = "seven" and punctus =

"spot"). In addition to its hemispherical shape (with a length of 5-8

cm) and bright colours (that warn predators of their poisonous

nature) the ladybird is exceptional in its voracity for aphids, a

group of insects that includes many agricultural pests. One beetle

(during both larval and adult stages) can eat thousands of aphids

within its lifetime (Boeliem, 2008).

58


7-Spot Ladybird (Coccinella septempunctata) from Palestine. Photo by Oz

Rittner. http://www.nature-of-oz.com/coccinellidae.htm

Their distinctive spots and attractive colours apparently make

them unappealing to predators. The species can secrete a fluid

from joints in their legs which gives them a foul taste. A

threatened ladybird beetle may both play dead and secrete the

unappetising substance to protect itself. The seven-spot ladybird

synthesizes the toxic alkaloids, N-oxide coccinelline and its free

base precoccinelline; depending on sex and diet, the spot size and

coloration can provide some indication of how toxic the

individual bug is to potential predators (Wikipedia).

In Popular Culture

Coccinellids are, and have been for very many years, a favourite

insect of children. The insects had many regional names (now

59


mostly disused) in English, such as the lady-cows, may-bug,

golden-knop, golden-bugs (Wikipedia).

The 7-Spot Ladybird Beetle (Coccinella septempunctata) Israeli Stamp

from 1994. http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~CH2M-NITU/israele.htm

Many cultures consider coccinellids lucky and have nursery

rhymes or local names for the insects that reflect this. For instance,

the Turkish name for the insect is uğur böceği, literally meaning

"good luck bug". In many countries, including Russia, Turkey,

and Italy, the sight of a coccinellid is either a call to make a wish

or a sign that a wish will soon be granted (Wikipedia).

In Christian areas, coccinellids are often associated with

the Virgin Mary and the name that the insect bears in the various

languages of Europe corresponds to this. Though historically

many European languages referenced Freyja, the fertility goddess

of Norse mythology, in the names, the Virgin Mary has now

largely supplanted her, so that, for example, freyjuhœna (Old

Norse) and Frouehenge have been changed into marihøne

(Norwegian) and Marienkäfer (German), which corresponds with

Our Lady's bird. Sometimes, the insect is referred to as belonging

directly to God (Irish bóín Dé, Polish boża krówka, all meaning

"God's [little] cow"). In Dutch it is called lieveheersbeestje, meaning

"little animal of our Good Lord" (Wikipedia).

60


In both Hebrew and Yiddish, it is called "Moshe Rabbenu's (i.e.

Moses's) little cow" or "little horse", apparently an adaptation

from Slavic languages. Occasionally, it is called "little Messiah"

(Wikipedia).

The Arabic name ―Um Ali‖ أم علً‏ translates to ―Mother of Ali‖. In

some Arabic countries it is called ―Abu Ali‖ أبو علً‏ (Father of Ali)

or ―Um Sulayman‖ أم سلٌمان (Mother of Solomon).

The Seven-spotted Ladybird Beetle (Coccinella septempunctata) Qatari

Stamp from 20.07.1998. http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~ch2mnitu/qatare.htm

References and Internet Websites

14 Spot ladybird - Propylea quattuordecimpunctata.

http://www.naturespot.org.uk/species/14-spot-ladybird

Adonia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) bears maternally

inherited flavobacteria that kill males only.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10028525

Boeliem (2008). Beetles. Israeli Stamps.

http://www.boeliem.com/content/1994/487.html#487c

Cambefort, Yves. Beetles as Religious Symbols.

http://www.insects.org/ced1/beetles_rel_sym.html

Cheilomenes propinqua nilotica.

http://eol.org/pages/13863497/overview

Coccinella septempunctata Sevenspotted Lady Beetle.

http://eol.org/pages/1174745/details

61


Copeland, Dave (Cameraman), NBC News. Insect invasion: Israel

battles plague of locusts. NBC News.

http://worldnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2013/05/13/18233295-

insect-invasion-israel-battles-plague-of-locusts?lite

Department of Entomology. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

http://departments.agri.huji.ac.il/entomology/

Flickr. Insects in Israel.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/zachievenor/sets/721576232207

01942/detail/

Freidberg, A. and Y. Ben-Dov (Editors). (2007). Israel Journal of

Entomology. Vol. 37, 2007. http://www.magnes-

press.com/Book/Israel+Journal+of+Entomology.aspx?code=45-

412004

Granberry, Michael (March 23, 1993). Beetles Imported to Battle

Whiteflies : Agriculture: Imperial Valley farmers hope the pest

that has devastated their crops will be devoured by little brown

insects from Israel. Los Angeles Times.

http://articles.latimes.com/1993-03-23/news/mn-

14191_1_silverleaf-whiteflies

Harmonia quadripunctata Cream-streaked Ladybird Beetle.

http://eol.org/pages/1174379/overview

Heather Ladybird (Chilocorus bipustulatus).

http://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/123596-Chilocorusbipustulatus

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1980). Tabie‘t Al-Talawon fi Al-

Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin.

Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait

University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (In Arabic).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). An Introduction to

the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of

Germany. Number 30, Tenth Year, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (In

Arabic).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to

the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae‘q Al-Nouma‘n (Anemone

62


coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI

(Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental

Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with

Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine.

Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (In Arabic).

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). The Extinct and Endangered

Animals in Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin Home Page. Extinct and Endangered Animals and

Reintroduction. http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das

Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche

Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004. /

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in

Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. ISBN 3-00-

014121-9. Erste Auflage / First Edition, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten /

Pages. Zweite erweiterte Auflage (Second Extended Edition),

August 2004: 460 Seiten / Pages. Norman Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad

Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(Gründer) (seit Juni 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna

Palaestina.

http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Palaestina/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(Gründer) (seit September 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group:

Fauna Arabica.

http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Arabica/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007).

Haywanat Filistin حٌوانات فلسطٌن (Fauna of Palestine). Wikipedia,

Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 69, Twenty-fifth Year,

September 2007 CE, Sha‘ban 1428 AH. pp. 1-4. (in Arabic).

http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8

%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D

8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86

63


Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab

1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina

– Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe

between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine

Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen

1983 – 2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition,

September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali

Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates &

Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010). Der

Hitlerkäfer (Anophthalmus hitleri Scheibel, 1937) / The Hitler‘s

Slovenian Blind Cave Beetle (Anophthalmus hitleri, Scheibel 1937).

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 –

6288. Twenty-eighth Year, Number 97, January 2010 CE,

Muharam 1431 AH. pp. 1-13. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://www.hitler-beetle.webs.com/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010).

Fauna Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab

Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins.

Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate

zwischen 2004 - 2009. ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First

Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: Dr.

Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United

Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik

Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2011).

Khunfusa‗ Hitler خىفساء ‏ٌخهز (The Hitler Beetle). Arab-Wikipedia.

http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AE%D9%86%D9%81%D8%

B3%D8%A7%D8%A1_%D9%87%D8%AA%D9%84%D8%B1

64


Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2012). Fauna Palaestina

– Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 /

Fauna Palaestina - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina

zwischen 1983 – 2009. ISBN 978-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First

Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic

Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al

Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Fauna Palaestina

– Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 /

Fauna Palaestina - Teil Drei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina

zwischen 2005 – 2012. ISBN 978-9950-383-35-7. Erste Auflage /

First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part

350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi

Publishing House, Jerusalem, State of Palestine. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali

Taher (2013). Checklist of the Family Scarabaeidae (Scarab

Beetles) from Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 105, September 2013, Thu Al

Qia‘da 1434 AH. pp. 1-26. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab

Emirates. http://palestine-insects.webs.com/scarab-beetles

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali

Taher (2013). Family Coccinellidae (Ladybird Beetles) in Palestine.

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288.

Number 106, October 2013, Thu Al Hijja 1434 AH. pp. 1-17. Dubai

and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://palestineinsects.webs.com/ladybird-beetles

Ladybird Beetle. http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~ch2mnitu/tentoue.htm

Ladybird Exochomus nigromaculatus (Goeze, 1777) (Coccinellidae) -

atlas of ladybirds of Russia.

http://www.zin.ru/animalia/coleoptera/eng/exonighe.htm

Life history parameters of the coccinellid beetle, Oenopia

conglobata contaminata, an important predator of the common

65


pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae (Hemiptera: Psylloidea).

2004.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09583150410001

682377?journalCode=cbst20#.UiMCIdI3CSo

Nephus biflammulatus (Motschulsky, 1837).

http://kharkov.naturalist.su/gallery/index_class_spec.php?categ

ory=3619&lang=0

Omkar and A. Pervez (2003). Ecology and biocontrol potential of

a scale-predator, Chilocorus nigritus. Biocontrol Science and

Technology 13: 379–390.

Pavlíček, Tomas; Vladimir Chikatunov, Vasily Kravchenko, Petr

Zahradnik & Eviatar Nevo (1999). New records of deathwatch

beetles (Anobiidae) from Israel. Zoology in the Middle East.

Volume 17, Issue 1, 1999. pages 77-78.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09397140.1999.1

0637771#.Uh-KSdI3CSq

Peck, S.B., and M.C. Thomas (1998). A distributional checklist of

the beetles (Coleoptera) of Florida. Arthropods of Florida and

Neighboring Land Areas 16: i–viii + 1-180.

Poorani, J. (2002). An annotated checklist of the Coccinellidae

(Coleoptera) (excluding Epilachninae) of the Indian subregion.

Oriental Insects 36: 307–383. Ptashkovskiy, Yu.A. Beetles of Israel

-illustrated atlas.

http://www.zin.ru/animalia/coleoptera/eng/col_izrb.htm

Rittner, Oz. Coccinellidae of Israel. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/coccinellidae.htm

Springer. Abstracts of papers presented at the 16th conference of

the Entomological Society of Israel Research on thrips in Israel

Dedicated to the Memory of Prof. E. Rivnay on the 100th

Anniversary of his Birth.

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02981466

The Insect World of Israel. Israel‘s Nature Site.

http://www.nature-of-oz.com/scarablist.htm

Thomas, Michael C. and Orland J. Blanchard, Jr. (June 2013).

Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Recently Immigrant

66


to Florida. Entomology Circular Number 428. Florida Department

of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Division of Plant Industry.

Trek Nature. Insects in Israel.

http://www.treknature.com/themes.php?thid=177

Ward, Alex and Steve Nolan (6 March 2013). Locust swarm hits

Israel as a million insects cross border from Egypt . Mail Online.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2288908/Locustswarm-hits-Israel-millions-insects-cross-border-Egypt.html

Wikimedia Commons. Insects of Israel.

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Insects_of_Israel

Wikipedia. Coccinellidae.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coccinellidae

Wikipedia. Coccinella septempunctata.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coccinella_septempunctata

Wikipedia. Da‘souqa دعسوقة (in Arabic).

http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AF%D8%B9%D8%B3%D9%88%D

9%82%D8%A

Wikipedia. Eighteen-spotted Ladybird.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighteen-spotted_Ladybird

Wikipedia. Ladybird.

http://wikipedia.qwika.com/de2en/Marienk%C3%A4fer Wikipedia.

Oenopia congolobata.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oenopia_conglobata

The Seven-spotted Ladybird Beetle (Coccinella septempunctata) Syrian

Stamp from 1982. http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~ch2m-nitu/syriae.htm

67


68


Freshwater Fishes in Palestine

أسماك المٌاه العذبة فً‏ فلسطٌن

By: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

Khalaf-von Jaffa

The Origin of Palestinian Freshwater Fishes

The Ichthyofauna of Palestine‘s inland waters includes 32 indigenous

fish species belonging to eight families and another 14-16 species

introduced by man.

Palestine is a meeting point between Africa and Asia and is close to

southeastern Europe. As a result, its inland water bodies are populated

by fish of diverse origins: Africa, Asia Minor (Anatolia, Iraq, greater

Syria), the Arabian Peninsula (and possibly the African Horn) and

from the sea (probably relicts from the Tethys Sea period).

The inland water system in our area has changed greatly during the

faunal history of the Middle East. Rivers altered their flow direction

and water links between various systems were formed and once again

severed. Fish species of different origins expanded their distribution

areas or were driven out by new invaders. These events shaped the

fish fauna in our country (Goren, 1975).

Fish have penetrated Palestine via diverse routes. African species

arrived in several waves – most via the Pelusiac (or Pelusian) branch of

the Nile River and some possibly via the Mediterranean (Cichlidae).

Fish from the Tigris-Euphrates river system reached Mediterranean

69


aquatic networks, such as the Orontes, at a time when these systems

were linked. From there they spread to the Litani-Jordan river system

when these were connected, which explains how fish from Asia Minor

and the Levant penetrated into Palestine. Aquatic systems in the

western Arabian Peninsula were once much more plentiful than today

and were inter-connected during certain periods. These links reached

as far as the southern Dead Sea and were used as a passage route by

fish (Goren, 1975).

The newly discovered Palestine Doctor Fish subspecies Garra rufa wadiqana

Khalaf, 2013 at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit

Governorate, State of Palestine. Photo by: Ola Mostafa Khalaf. 08.07.2013.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/9500749723/

70


In addition there are a number of freshwater fish of marine origin

(species from the families: Blenniidae, Mugilidae and Anguillidae).

Some consider Salaria fluviatilis, a freshwater blenny species par

excellence throughout the entire Mediterranean region, to be a relic

from the Tethys Sea period (Goren, 1975).

The damage to inland water body habitat

Wetlands are considered extremely sensitive to development processes

and are in danger of extinction throughout the world, particularly in

arid or semiarid countries such as Palestine. Threats to these habitats

result from a number of factors:

1. Increasing exploitation of water sources for human needs.

2. Drainage of wetlands for agriculture or urban development.

3. Accelerated exploitation of groundwater reservoirs that leads to the

drying of surface water bodies.

4. Processes of fragmentation and barrier creation between

neighboring water bodies or water bodies that were previously linked

by continuous flow.

5. Discharge of effluents and wastewater into stream and riverbeds.

6. Pisciculture in natural habitats and deliberate and accidental

stocking of natural habitats with exotic fish species.

The effect of these factors on the populations of aquatic organisms is

also amplified, among other reasons, by the following habitat

characteristics:

a. the dimensions of most terrestrial water bodies are small, with

corresponding small fish populations;

b. many water bodies are regularly or temporarily isolated from

neighboring water bodies;

c. poisons and fertilizers are discharged into water bodies from

71


agricultural and industrial areas and aquatic animals are affected

instantly by pollution.

This combination of sensitivity to detrimental factors and to other side

effects of anthropogenic activity has probably brought wetlands

throughout the world closer to extinction than any other habitat

(Goren, 1975).

Al Auja or Yarkon Bleak (Acanthobrama telavivensis). Photo by: Dr. Menachem

Goren. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/61249/0

Necessary conservation steps

Conservation steps for freshwater fish can only be taken by preserving

their habitats from pollution, drainage and structural modifications.

Establishing survival (or breeding) nuclei for some of the threatened

species should be considered in cases where there is a chance of habitat

improvement in the future. In addition, as a result of objective

problems in assessing the dangers to or the status of the fish

population in a changing environment, a regular fish monitoring

system should be established in the entire Palestinian aquatic system

(Goren, 1975).

72


Status of the class species in Palestine

DD

Data

Deficien

t

LC

Least

Concern

NT

Near

Threate

ned

VU

Vulnerabl

e

EN

Endanger

ed

CR

Criticall

y

Endang

ered

RE

Regionall

y Extinct

Exti

nct

Total

2 18 0 0 0 6 1 5 32

Five fish species have become extinct from freshwater bodies during the 20th century

(Goren, 1975).

List of the Freshwater Fishes in Palestine

Order Family Species Status Name

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Acanthobrama hulensis native Hula Bleak

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Acanthobrama lissneri native Lissner’s

Bleak

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Acanthobrama

telavivensis

native Al Auja or

Yarkon Bleak

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Acanthobrama

terraesanctae

endemic Tiberias or

Kinneret bleak

Acipenseriforme

s

Acipenserida

e

Acipenser sturio native Common

Sturgeon

Anguilliformes Anguillidae Anguilla anguilla introduced European Eel

Cyprinodontifor

mes

Cyprinodontid

ae

Aphanius dispar

richardsoni

native Dead Sea

Killifish

Cyprinodontifor

mes

Cyprinodontid

ae

Aphanius fasciatus native Mediterranean

Killifish

Cyprinodontifor

mes

Cyprinodontid

ae

Aphanius mento native Persian or

Orient Killifish

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Aristichthys nobilis introduced Bighead Carp

Perciformes Cichlidae Astatotilapia

flaviijosephi

native Palestine

Cichlid

Atheriniformes Atherinidae Atherina boyeri native Big-Scale

Sand Smelt

Cypriniformes Balitoridae Barbatula panthera native Panther Loach

Cypriniformes Balitoridae Barbatula tigris native Tiger Loach

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Barbus longiceps native Long-Headed

Barbel

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Capoeta damascina native Damascus

Barbel

73


Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Carasobarbus canis native Jordan Himri

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Carassius auratus

not Goldfish

auratus

established

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Carassius carassius introduced Crucian Carp

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Catla catla not Catla

established

Mugiliformes Mugilidae Chelon labrosus native Thicklip Grey

Mullet

Siluriformes Clariidae Clarias gariepinus native North African

Catfish

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Ctenopharyngodon introduced Grass Carp

idella

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Cyprinus carpio carpio introduced Common Carp

Cyprinodontifor Poeciliidae Gambusia affinis introduced Mosquitofish

mes

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Garra ghorensis native Jordanian Log

Sucker

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Garra rufa native Doctor Fish

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Garra rufa wadiqana native Palestine or

Wadi Qana

Doctor Fish

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Hemigrammocapoeta

nana

native Tiberias or

Jordanian

Barbel

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Hypophthalmichthys

not Silver Carp

molitrix

established

Cypriniformes Catostomidae Ictiobus cyprinellus not

established

Bigmouth

Buffalo

Perciformes Cichlidae Labeotropheus

introduced Blue Mbuna

fuelleborni

Perciformes Latidae Lates calcarifer introduced Barramundi

Mugiliformes Mugilidae Liza aurata native Golden Grey

Mullet

Mugiliformes Mugilidae Liza ramado native Thinlip Mullet

Mugiliformes Mugilidae Liza saliens native Leaping Mullet

Perciformes Cichlidae Melanochromis auratus introduced Golden Mbuna

Perciformes Moronidae Morone saxatilis not Striped Bass

established

Mugiliformes Mugilidae Mugil cephalus native Flathead

Mullet

Cypriniformes Balitoridae Nemacheilus angorae native Angora Loach

Cypriniformes Balitoridae Nemacheilus insignis misidentificat

ion

Palestine

Loach

Cypriniformes Balitoridae Nemacheilus leontinae native Lebanese

Loach

Cypriniformes Balitoridae Nun galilaeus native Galilean Loach

Atheriniformes Atherinopsida Odontesthes

introduced Pejerrey

e

bonariensis

Salmoniformes Salmonidae Oncorhynchus kisutch introduced Coho Salmon

Salmoniformes Salmonidae Oncorhynchus mykiss introduced Rainbow Trout

Perciformes Cichlidae Oreochromis aureus native Blue Tilapia

Perciformes Cichlidae Oreochromis macrochir introduced Longfin Tilapia

74


Perciformes Cichlidae Oreochromis

mossambicus

not

established

Mozambique

Tilapia

Perciformes Cichlidae Oreochromis niloticus questionable Nile Tilapia

niloticus

Perciformes Cichlidae Oreochromis niloticus

vulcani

introduced Turkana

Tilapia

Cyprinodontifor Poeciliidae Poecilia velifera introduced Sail-fin Molly

mes

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Pseudophoxinus

drusensis

native Jebel Druze or

Golan Minnow

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Pseudophoxinus

kervillei

native Jordanian

Minnow

Perciformes Cichlidae Pseudotropheus

introduced Kenyi Cichlid

lombardoi

Perciformes Cichlidae Pseudotropheus

tropheops tropheops

introduced Golden

Tropheops

Perciformes Blenniidae Salaria fluviatilis native Freshwater

Blenny

Salmoniformes Salmonidae Salmo salar not

established

Atlantic

Salmon

Salmoniformes Salmonidae Salmo trutta trutta not Sea Trout

established

Perciformes Cichlidae Sarotherodon galilaeus native Mango Tilapia

galilaeus

Perciformes Sillaginidae Sillago sihama native Silver Sillago

Perciformes Cichlidae Tilapia zillii native Redbelly

Tilapia

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Tinca tinca not Tench

established

Perciformes Cichlidae Tristramella sacra native Long Jaw

Tristramella

Perciformes Cichlidae Tristramella simonis

intermedia

native Hula

Tristramella

Perciformes Cichlidae Tristramella simonis

simonis

native Short Jaw

Tristramella

Cyprinodontifor

mes

Poeciliidae Xiphophorus hellerii introduced Green

Swordtail

After Eli Agbayani (2007) and Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf-von

Jaffa (2013).

References and Internet Websites:

Agbayani, Eli (2007). List of Freshwater Fishes for Israel.

http://fish.mongabay.com/data/Israel.htm

Aronov A. and Goren M. (2008(. Ecology of the Mottled Grouper

75


(Mycteroperca rubra) in the Eastern Mediterranean. Electronic Journal of

Ichthylogy. 2:1-13.

Elron, E., A. Gasith & M. Goren (2005). Reproductive strategy of a

small endemic cyprinid, Acanthobrama telavivensis, in a mediterraneantype

stream. Environmental Biology of Fishes. 77:141–155.

Elron, E., M. Goren, D. Milstein & A. Gasith (2004). Ammonia toxicity

to juvenile Acanthobrama telavivensis (Cyprinidae), a critically

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Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1980). Tabie‘t Al-Talawon fi Al-

Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin.

Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait

University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (In Arabic).

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1981). Fawa'ed Alasmak. (The Benefits

of Fishes). Al-Biology Magazine, Biological Society, Kuwait

University, State of Kuwait. Number 1. Sunday 7.6.1981, 5. Sha'ban

1401. pp. 54-55. (In Arabic).

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1982). Samak Al-Coelacanth (The

Coelacanth Fish). Al-Biology Magazine. Number 2. February 1982.

Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 14-15. (In

Arabic).

Khalaf, Norman (Translator) (1982). Al-Miah Al-Mulawatha Tohaded

Al-Asmak Bi‘ilinqiraad (Water Pollution threatens the Fish Fauna

with Extinction). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 18, Third Year, First

Semester, Saturday 6.11.1982. Biological Society, Kuwait University,

State of Kuwait. pp. 7. (Translation from German into Arabic).

Khalaf, Norman Ali (1983). Al-Samaka Al-‗Auljumiyah Al-Naqaqa fi

Al-Khaleej Al-Arabi [The Toad Fish (Batrachus grunniens) in the

Arabian Gulf]. Bulletin of the Biological Studies Club, Kuwait

University, State of Kuwait. First Year, Number 3, 23 November 1983.

pp. 10-11. (In Arabic).

Khalaf, Norman Ali (Translator) (1983). Al-Tasjeel Al-Hay Al-Awal li-

79


Samaket Kozat Al-Snobar (Monocentris japonicus, Houttuyn) min Al-

Bahr Al-Ahmar [The Pinecone Fish (Monocentris japonicus, Houttuyn),

A First Live Record from the Red Sea] by: Chaim Kropach. Bulletin of

the Biological Studies Club, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. First

Year, Number 4, 7.12.1983. pp. 6-8. (In Arabic).

Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1986). The Schooling of Fishes. Gazelle: The

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 9. Fourth Year. Ramadan

1406. May 1986. Department of Zoology, University of Durham,

Durham, United Kingdom. pp. 1-13.

Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1986). The Fish Fauna in Van Mildert Pond,

Durham City, North East England. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin. Number 9. Fourth Year. Ramadan 1406. May 1986.

Department of Zoology, University of Durham, Durham, United

Kingdom. pp. 14-20.

Khalaf, N.A.B. (1986). The Schooling of Sumatra Barbs (Barbus

tetrazona tetrazona) and Minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus). Dissertation,

Master of Science in Ecology, Departments of Zoology and Botany,

University of Durham, England. September 1986. pps. 59 + iv.

Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1987). The Coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) in

the Science and Natural History Museum, State of Kuwait. Gazelle:

The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 15. Fifth Year. July 1987.

Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Germany. pp. 1-8.

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1987). On a Collection of Devon Period

Animal Fossils from the Saarland, in the Geologische Museum

Saarberg in Saarbrücken, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of

Germany. Number 15, Fifth Year, Thul Qi‘dah 1407 AH, July 1987

AD. pp. 9-10.

Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1987). The Great White Shark (Carcharodon

carcharias) from the State of Kuwait, Arabian Gulf. Gazelle: The

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 16. Fifth Year. Safar 1408 AH.

September 1987 AD. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of

Germany. pp. 1-7.

Khalaf, Norman Ali (1989). Qa‘ema li-ba‘d Asmak Al-Kuwait fi Al-

80


Mathaf Al-‗Ilmi Bi-Dawlat Al-Kuwait (A List of some Kuwaiti Fishes

from the Science & Natural History Museum, State of Kuwait).

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 19. Seventh

Year. December 1989. Bonn 2-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of

Germany. pp. 3. (In Arabic and English).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). A Trip to Zoo Budapest,

Hungary. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad

Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 21, Ninth Year,

January 1991. pp. 1-4.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). The Gulf War and its

effect on the Arabian Ecosystem (Part One). Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of

Germany. Number 23, Ninth Year, July 1991. pp. 1-12.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). The Gulf War and its

effect on the Arabian Ecosystem (Part Two). Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of

Germany. Number 24, Ninth Year, August 1991. pp. 1-10.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). The Gulf War and its

effect on the Arabian Ecosystem (Part Three). Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of

Germany. Number 25, Ninth Year, September 1991. pp. 1-7.

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). Notes on the Biological Ecology of

the Marshes in Southern Iraq. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany.

Number 29, Tenth Year, September 1992. pp. 1-9. (In Arabic).

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). The United Nations Ecological

Report confirms: The Regime of Saddam is destroying the Marshes

(Al-Ahwar) Ecosystem. Sawt Al-Kuwait International Newspaper.

Saturday 17 October 1992, 21 Rabi‘e Al-Thani 1412. pp. 15. (In

Arabic).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). An Introduction to the

Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany.

Number 30, Tenth Year, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (In Arabic).

81


Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali B. (1993). Al-Mushkilatan Al-Ma‘eyah

wa Al-Bi‘eyah fi Al-Dafah Al-Gharbiyah wa Qita‘ Ghaza Al-

Muhtalain (Ka-Juzu‘ min Al-Sharq Al-Awsat) [The Water and the

Ecological Problems in the Occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip (As

Part of the Middle East)]. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.

Number 31. Eleventh Year. December 1993. Bonn, Federal Republic of

Germany. pp. 1- 29. (In Arabic).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to the

Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae‘q Al-Nouma‘n (Anemone coronaria). A

Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for

Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education /

Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General

and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June)

1994. pp. 16-21. (In Arabic).

Acquaintance Card: Majallet Al-Ghazzal (Gazelle Magazine): The

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn, Germany. Shqae‘q Al-Nouma‘n

(Anemone coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program

EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental

Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with

Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4.

Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 51-52. (In Arabic).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali B.(1995). Alasmak fi Filistin (Die Fische

von Palästina / The Fishes of Palestine). Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Number 33. Thirteenth Year. December 1995.

Bonn, Germany. pp.1-35. (In Arabic).

Khalaf, Ali Bassam (1997). Amir Al-Bahar Al-Arabi (The Arabian Sea

Prince) Shihab Al-Deen Ahmad Bin Majed. Magazin der Akademie.

Nummer 1. Zu Elke‘da 1417 H, Maerz 1997. Koenig Fahad Akademie

– Bonn, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Deutschland. pp. 23-24. (in Arabic).

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). The Extinct and Endangered

Animals in Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin

Home Page. Extinct and Endangered Animals and Reintroduction.

http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html

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(seit Juni 2001). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Wale und Delphine.

http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Wale_und_Delphine/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische

Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina,

Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004. / Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and

Europe between 1983 – 2004. ISBN 3-00-014121-9. Erste Auflage /

First Edition, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten / Pages. Zweite erweiterte Auflage

(Second Extended Edition), August 2004: 460 Seiten / Pages. Norman

Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-alikhalaf-books.webs.com/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Der Komoren-Quastenflosser

(Latimeria chalumnae) und der Manado-Quastenflosser (Latimeria

menadoensis). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 38.

Twenty Third Year. February 2005. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

pp. 1-8.

http://quastenflosser.webs.com/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Story of Prophet Musa

(Moses) and the Fish. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third Year,

February 2005. pp. 14-15.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Moses Perch (Lutjanus russelli,

Bleeker 1849). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah,

United Arab Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third Year, February 2005.

pp. 15.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Fish of Musa (Samak Musa).

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab

Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third Year, February 2005. pp. 16.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Samak Al-Luchs (Al-Hamoor) or

the Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) in Palestine

(Mediterranean Sea) and the United Arab Emirates (Arabian Gulf).

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab

Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 1-6.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Jaffa (Yaffa): The History of an

Old Palestinian Arab City on the Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle: The

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Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 7-8.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Andromeda Sea Monster of

Jaffa. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United

Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 8.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Jewfish (Epinephelus itajara)

/ Der Riesenzackenbarsch oder Judenfisch (Epinephelus itajara).

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab

Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 9-12.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Arabian Freshwater Fishes

in the Arabia‘s Wildlife Centre, Sharjah Desert Park, Sharjah, United

Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number

40, Twenty-third Year, April 2005. pp. 1-9. Sharjah, United Arab

Emirates.

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://emi

rati-blind-cave-fish.webs.com/arabianfreshwaterfish.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (Gründer) (seit Juni 2005). Der

Quastenflosser: Coelacanth Latimeria Yahoo! Deutschland Group.

http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Quastenflosser/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Koran Angelfish

(Pomacanthus semicirculatus, Cuvier, 1831). Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Number 44. Twenty-third Year. August 2005.

Jamada Alakhira 1426. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 1-8.

http://koran-angelfish.webs.com/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Aquatica Arabica. An Aquatic

Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980 -

2005 / Aquatica Arabica. Eine Aquatische Wissenschaftliche Reise in

Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980 - 2005. ISBN 3-00-

014835-3. Erste Auflage / First Edition, August 2005: 376 Seiten /

Pages. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik

Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://dr-normanali-khalaf-books.webs.com/aquaticaarabica.htm

Khalaf, N.A.B. (2005). The Schooling of Sumatra Barbs (Barbus

tetrazona tetrazona) and Minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus). [M.Sc.

84


Dissertation in Ecology, Departments of Zoology and Botany,

University of Durham, England. September 1986. pps. 59 + iv]. In:

Aquatica Arabica. An Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia

and Europe between 1980 - 2005. Erste Auflage, August 2005.

Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik

Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 28-93.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Rafah Zoo in the Rafah

Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip, Palestine : A Story of Destruction by the

Israeli Occupation Army. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.

Number 46, Twenty-third Year, October 2005, Ramadan 1426. pp. 1-

11. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (2005). The Qalqilia Zoo and

the Natural History Museum in the City of Qalqilia, West Bank,

Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.

Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 1-

10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (Member of PALESTA) (2005).

Palestinian Scientists and Technologists Abroad (PALESTA). Gazelle:

The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year,

November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 11-12. Sharjah, United Arab

Emirates. (In Arabic).

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Ein

Besuch im Neunkircher Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Deutschland /

A Visit to Neunkirchen Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Germany.

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 59, November

2006. pp. 1-25. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabisch / Arabic).

http://khalaf.homepage24.de/text_88839638_85658724_59480041_de

utsch.html

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer)

(seit Juni 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna Palaestina.

http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Palaestina/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer)

(seit August 2007). Haie – Sharks Yahoo! Deutschland Group.

http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Haie_Sharks/

85


Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer)

(seit September 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna Arabica.

http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Arabica/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007).

Haywanat Filistin حٌوانات فلسطٌن (Fauna of Palestine). Wikipedia, Al-

Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Number 69, Twenty-fifth Year, September 2007

CE, Sha‘ban 1428 AH. pp. 1-4. (in Arabic).

http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7

%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D

9%8A%D9%86

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2007). A Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) caught off the

Kuwaiti Coast: The Second Record from the State of Kuwait, Arabian

/ Persian Gulf. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number

71, November 2007. pp. 1-20. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

(Abstracts in English and Arabic). http://whaleshark.webs.com/whalesharkinkuwait.htm

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2007). Rhiniodon typus Smith, 1828 or Rhincodon typus Smith, 1829:

The Story of a Scientific Name. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 21. Sharjah, United Arab

Emirates. http://whale-shark.webs.com/rhiniodontypus.htm

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian Waters: A Whale Shark

(Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) rescued near the Tantura Beach, Carmel

Coast, North Palestine: The First Record from the Palestinian

Mediterranean Coast. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.

Number 71, November 2007. pp. 22-23. Sharjah, United Arab

Emirates. (Abstracts in English and Arabic). http://whaleshark.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian Waters: Whale Sharks (Rhincodon

typus, Smith 1828) near Um Al-Rashrash (Eilat) Beach, Gulf of Aqaba,

86


South Palestine: First Records from the Palestinian Red Sea Coast.

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November

2007. pp. 23-26. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstract in English

and Arabic). http://whale-shark.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2007). An Ocean Sunfish or Common Mola (Mola mola, Linnaeus

1758) caught off the coast of Gaza: The First Record from Palestine,

East Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.

Number 72, December 2007, pp. 1-16. (Abstracts in English and

Arabic).

https://de.groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Fauna_Palaestina/conve

rsations/messages/37

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2008). Cetacea Palaestina: The Whales and Dolphins in Palestinian

Waters. Cetacean Species Guide for Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Number 83, November 2008, Thu Al-Qi‘ada 1429

AH. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://cetaceapalaestina.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2009). A Longcomb Sawfish (Pristis zijsron Bleeker, 1851) caught off

the coast of Dibba, United Arab Emirates, Gulf of Oman. Gazelle: The

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 88, April 2009, Rabi‘e Al

Thani 1430 AH. pp. 1-14. http://dibba-sawfish.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr.Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2009). Garra barreimiae wurayahi Khalaf, 2009 : A New Blind Cave Fish

Subspecies from Wadi Al Wurayah Pools, Emirate of Fujairah, United

Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178

– 6288. Number 90, June 2009, Jumada Al-Akhera 1430 AH. pp. 1-15.

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://emirati-blind-cavefish.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab

1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-

87


fauna-palestine.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2009). Oreochromis mossambicus bassamkhalafi Khalaf, 2009 : A New

Mozambique Tilapia Subspecies from Wadi Al Wurayah Pools,

Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 92, August 2009,

Sha‘ban 1430 AH. pp. 1-25. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://emirati-tilapia.webs.com/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina

Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe

between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine Zoologische

Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2006. ISBN

978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition, September 2009: 412

Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von

Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler,

Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm

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(2009). Bowmouth Guitarfish (Rhina ancylostoma Bloch & Schneider,

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Year, Number 93, September 2009,

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(2009). Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) Records from the

United Arab Emirates between 1989 - 2009. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Twenty-seventh Year, Number

94, October 2009, Shawal 1430 AH. pp. 1-28. Sharjah, United Arab

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between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins. Zoologische

Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate zwischen 2004 - 2009.

ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First Edition, November 2010:

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Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-

Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland.

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Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 / Fauna

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2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic Part 120 Pages and

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91


Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013: A

New Freshwater Doctor Fish

Subspecies from Wadi Qana Nature

Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of

Palestine

By: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa

The newly discovered Palestine Doctor Fish subspecies Garra rufa

wadiqana Khalaf, 2013 at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana Nature

Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine. Photo by: Ola Mostafa

Khalaf. 08.07.2013.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/9474980975/

92


Abstract: A new subspecies of Doctor Fish of the genus Garra

(Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Wadi Qana Nature Reserve springs

and pools, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine is described. This

subspecies is distinguished from the other six freshwater

subspecies of Garra rufa living in the Middle East by its distinctive

body colouration and the smaller size. It is morphologically and

geographically distinct from the other six subspecies. The new

subspecies was named Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013.

Keywords: Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae, Garra rufa wadiqana,

Freshwater Fish, Doctor Fish, Palestine Doctor Fish, Wadi Qana

Doctor Fish, New Subspecies, Wadi Qana, Nature Reserve,

Springs, Pools, Salfit Governorate, Palestine, State of Palestine,

Near East, Middle East.

The newly discovered Palestine Doctor Fish subspecies Garra rufa

wadiqana Khalaf, 2013 at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana Nature

Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine. Photo by: Ola Mostafa

Khalaf. 08.07.2013.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/9474997501/

93


Introduction:

During a field trip to Wadi Qana, which is an important nature

reserve in the northern West Bank of the Jordan River, Salfit

Governorate, State of Palestine, on Monday the 8 th July 2013,

accompanied by the Palestinian Botanist Banan Al Sheikh, my

wife Ola Mostafa Khalaf and my daughter Nora Norman Ali

Khalaf, I inspected Ain Al Basa Spring عٌن البصة and pools at Wadi

Qana وادي قانا , and saw many Doctor Fish (Garra rufa Heckel, 1843)

swimming in the spring and pool waters. These fish were

observed, examined, measured and photographed.

After examining Garra rufa at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana

Nature Reserve, I began comparing between the different Middle

Eastern Doctor Fish subspecies.

There are six Garra rufa freshwater subspecies living in the Middle

East: The Doctor Fish subspecies Garra rufa rufa Heckel, 1843,

from southern Turkey, northern Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Palestine,

Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Oman; and Garra rufa obtusa

Heckel, 1843, from northern Syria, northern Iraq and the hot

springs at Kangal, Turkey; and Garra rufa turcica Karaman, 1971

from Ceyhan River Basin, Turkey; and the Persian Doctor Fish

subspecies Garra rufa persica Berg, 1914 from Iran; and Garra rufa

gymnothorax Berg, 1949 from Karun River Basin, Iran; and Garra

rufa crenulata Heckel, 1847 from the Qarah Aqaj River and Saadi,

Iran.

Description and Distinctive Features:

Morphology (Key Characters)

Garra rufa wadiqana has a laterally elongated body shape. Two

pairs of barbels are present. The adhesive disc is well developed

with a free anterior margin. Abundant mucous cells in the

epidermis of the disc gives an oily appearance, and with the

dorso-ventrally compressed snout, offers minimal resistance to

94


water currents. Teeth are hooked at the tip. The short gill rakers

number 14-26. The upper lip is delicately fimbriated.

Scales on lateral line: 29 -38. The dorsal fin has 8 branched rays

modally, and the caudal fin 17 branched rays modally. Total

vertebrae in the Palestinian specimens 32-37.

The Palestine Doctor Fish Discovery Team: Zoologist Prof. Dr. Sc.

Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa (right), Ola Mostafa Khalaf

(middle), Botanist Banan Al Sheikh (left) and Nora Norman Ali Khalaf

(Photographer) at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit

Governorate, State of Palestine. 08.07.2013.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/9475081719/

Colour

Overall colour is brownish-olive to dark green with darkly

mottled flanks and a yellowish to whitish belly. The head and

flanks may be a rusty-red, bronze or golden. A dark or bluish-

95


green band runs along the whole flank ending in a spot on the

caudal fin base. Much of the body may be blackish with only the

belly creamy. Others are a light olive-green with lime-green

highlights giving an iridescent effect especially on upper anterior

flank scales. There is a black, greenish-blue, lime-green or duskyblue

spot behind the upper corner of the gill opening, sometimes

extending as a bar to the pectoral fin base where the skin is also

blue.

The newly discovered Palestine Doctor Fish subspecies Garra rufa

wadiqana Khalaf, 2013 at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana Nature

Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine. Photo by: Ola Mostafa

Khalaf. 08.07.2013.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/9475016619/

The Fins can be yellowish with darker margins. The pectoral fins

can be orange-pink dorsally, grey-white or slightly orange-pink

ventrally. The pelvic and anal fins may be orange with the fin rays

yellow posteriorly in the anal fin but yellow mesially in the pelvic

fin. The bases of the pectoral, pelvic and anal fins are orange-red

96


in breeding males and the caudal fin is orange. The caudal fin can

be orange to red ventrally and yellow dorsally. There is a black

spot at the caudal fin base and the upper caudal lobe may have a

few dark grey spots. The dorsal fin is dark green with reddish

pigment at its middle. There is usually a dark spot at the bases of

each of the middle 4-5 dorsal fin rays. In some specimens the

dorsal fin is orange with yellow posterior rays. The pectoral,

dorsal and caudal fin rays may be olive to black rather than

yellow or orange. The iris is bright yellow, orange or red (Coad,

2013).

The newly discovered Palestine Doctor Fish subspecies Garra rufa

wadiqana Khalaf, 2013 at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana Nature

Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine. Photo by: Ola Mostafa

Khalaf. 08.07.2013.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/9500646671/

There is variation in colouration. Some fish are pale while others

are very dark; the spots on the dorsal fin may extend two-thirds

97


of the way up the fin rather than being restricted to the base; and

the flanks may not be mottled. Fish from muddy water are a

sickly grey with the body mottled and the lower caudal lobe dark.

Their colour darkens and becomes brighter after immersion in ice

water. Fish from deep in qanats are very pale (Coad, 2013).

The newly discovered Palestine Doctor Fish subspecies Garra rufa

wadiqana Khalaf, 2013 at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana Nature

Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine. Photo by: Ola Mostafa

Khalaf. 08.07.2013.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/9500749723/

Size

Garra rufa attains 24 cm total length in the Tigris River in Iraq.

Reaches 15.9 cm, over 17 cm according to Heckel (1843). Fish up

98


to 18.5 cm total length are known from Khuzestan, Iran (Coad,

2013). The Palestinian subspecies Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013

is much smaller and attains a measured length of 5-12 cm.

Age

The species Garra rufa can live up to 7 years (Coad, 2013).

The Palestine Doctor Fish Discoverer Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam

Khalaf-von Jaffa examining the fish at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana

Nature Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine. 08.07.2013.

Photograph by: Nora Norman Ali Khalaf.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/9477944356/

99


Sexual Dimorphism

Large males become heavily tuberculate on the front and sides of

the snout and in a band from the eye to the nostril and across to

the other nostril and eye. A deep, tubercle-free groove is apparent

between the upper band of tubercles through the nostrils and the

tubercles on the snout above the mouth.

Reproduction

Sexual maturity at 2-3 years, 10 cm in length and a weight of 50 g

in Iraqi fish. Spawning took place in May and June with eggs

deposited on vegetation and rocks with a relative fecundity up to

542 eggs/g. (Coad, 2013). Ovaries increased in size and weight

from May to July. Different individuals release eggs and sperm at

different times. Average egg diameter was 0.67 mm, maximum

1.98 mm, with highest diameter in May and the lowest in

November. Absolute and relative fecundity were 1179.65 and

109.4 respectively on average. Maximum absolute fecundity

reached 3794 eggs. The Iranian Kangir River fish had a maximum

fecundity of 13,927 eggs and a maximum relative fecundity of

2345.72 eggs/g. Egg diameters reached 1.7 mm. Reproduction

occurred in April-May with the highest average gonadosomatic

index for males of 4.21 in April and for females of 7.85 in May

(Coad, 2013).

Food

Garra rufa is omnivorous and feeds on organic detritus,

filamentous algae, diatoms, copepods, arthropods and insects.

This species is a grazer on aquatic plants, mostly consisting of

benthic cyanobacteria, chrysophytes and phytoplankton with

included rotifers and protozoans. Both season and location in a

stream affects the composition of the diet with season the most

important factor.

100


The Palestine Doctor Fish Discovery Team: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali

Bassam Khalaf (middle), wife Ola Mostafa Khalaf (right), daughter

Nora Norman Ali Khalaf (left) and Banan Al Sheikh (Photographer) at

Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine.

08.07.2013.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/9508408252/

101


Habitat

Found in different habitats such as rivers, lakes, small ponds, and

small muddy streams. Hides under and among stones and

vegetation. Bottom dweller, feeding on aufwuchs.

The newly discovered Palestine Doctor Fish subspecies Garra rufa

wadiqana Khalaf, 2013 at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana Nature

Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine. Photo by: Ola Mostafa

Khalaf. 08.07.2013.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/9505806433/

Distribution

The species Garra rufa lives in the Jordan, Ceyhan, Orontes, and

Tigris-Euphrates river basins. Also in some coastal rivers in

southern Turkey and northern Syria and coastal drainages of the

eastern Mediterranean as well as some springs and pools in

102


Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Oman and Iran. The

Palestinian subspecies Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013 is endemic

to Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of

Palestine.

Human Waste at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit

Governorate, State of Palestine. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam

Khalaf-von Jaffa. 08.07.2013.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/9508650378/

Conservation

Garra rufa is a common species with a wide distribution and is not

under any specific threat. The Palestinian subspecies Garra rufa

wadiqanaa is endemic to Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, State of

Palestine. The Nature Reserve is under protection and the

subspecies is officially protected. Illegal Israeli settlements and

103


human waste was observed at Wadi Qana Nature Reserve. More

attention and protection is needed to protect the flora and fauna

of Wadi Qana from any pollution and destruction.

The Palestine Doctor Fish Discoverer Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam

Khalaf-von Jaffa collecting the fish at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana

Nature Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine. 08.07.2013.

Photograph by: Nora Norman Ali Khalaf.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/9477904306/

Economic Importance

Garra rufa are sometimes referred to as ―doctor fish‖ because they

eat away dead skin found on peoples‘ feet, leaving newer skin

exposed. They have been used as a medical treatment for

individuals with skin diseases, like psoriasis and neurodermitis.

104


Etymology / Derivation of the Scientific Name

The Genus name Garra is native from Burma (Myanmar) and

means a ―big nose‖; the rhino horn fish from Burma. The species

Latin name rufa means ―red‖, referring to the reddish body

colouration. The Arabic subspecies name wadiqana refers to ―Wadi

Qana‖ Nature Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine

where the new subspecies was discovered.

Conclusion:

After studying and examining the Garra rufa Fish at

Wadi Qana Nature Reserve springs and pools, and

comparing with the different Doctor Fish subspecies,

and referring to many zoological references, and

searching the Internet, I came finally to a conclusion

that we are in front of a new Doctor Fish subspecies

from Wadi Qana Nature Reserve springs and pools,

Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine.

I gave it the scientific name Garra rufa wadiqana, new

subspecies. The subspecies name “wadiqana” is for

Wadi Qana, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine.

Garra rufa wadiqana , new subspecies:

Scientific trinomial name: Garra rufa wadiqana

Khalaf, 2013

Authority: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalafvon

Jaffa.

105


Common Names: Palestine Doctor Fish, Wadi Qana

Doctor Fish.

Holotype: Grwq-1, Male, 12.00 cm, Beit Sahour Natural

History Museum Collection, Beit Sahour, State of

Palestine.

Location: Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana Nature

Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine.

Date of capture: 8 th July, 2013.

Taxon profile


Subordinated taxa

Number of records: 4

subspecies Garra rufa obtusa (Heckel, 1843)

subspecies Garra rufa rufa (Heckel, 1843)

subspecies Garra rufa turcica Karaman M. S., 1971

subspecies Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013 - Palestine Doctor Fish

BioLib.cz. Biological Library Classification.

http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id147650/

Acknowledgements: A Special thanks is due to the Palestinian

Botanist Mr. Banan Al Sheikh who showed me Wadi Qana Nature

Reserve, and to my wife Ola Mostafa Khalaf and my daughter

Nora Norman Ali Khalaf, who both assisted me with the shooting

of the photos for this scientific article, and for sharing with me the

field trip to Wadi Qana, and gave me the opportunity to discover

a new Palestinian Doctor Fish Subspecies.

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German into Arabic).

Khalaf, Norman Ali (1983). Al-Samaka Al-‗Auljumiyah Al-

Naqaqa fi Al-Khaleej Al-Arabi [The Toad Fish (Batrachus

grunniens) in the Arabian Gulf]. Bulletin of the Biological Studies

Club, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. First Year, Number 3,

23 November 1983. pp. 10-11. (In Arabic).

Khalaf, Norman Ali (Translator) (1983). Al-Tasjeel Al-Hay Al-

Awal li-Samaket Kozat Al-Snobar (Monocentris japonicus,

Houttuyn) min Al-Bahr Al-Ahmar [The Pinecone Fish

(Monocentris japonicus, Houttuyn), A First Live Record from the

Red Sea] by: Chaim Kropach. Bulletin of the Biological Studies

Club, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. First Year, Number 4,

7.12.1983. pp. 6-8. (In Arabic).

Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1986). The Schooling of Fishes. Gazelle:

The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 9. Fourth Year.

Ramadan 1406. May 1986. Department of Zoology, University of

Durham, Durham, United Kingdom. pp. 1-13.

Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1986). The Fish Fauna in Van Mildert

Pond, Durham City, North East England. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Number 9. Fourth Year. Ramadan 1406. May

1986. Department of Zoology, University of Durham, Durham,

United Kingdom. pp. 14-20.

Khalaf, N.A.B. (1986). The Schooling of Sumatra Barbs (Barbus

tetrazona tetrazona) and Minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus).

Dissertation, Master of Science in Ecology, Departments of

Zoology and Botany, University of Durham, England. September

1986. pps. 59 + iv.

Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1987). The Coelacanth (Latimeria

chalumnae) in the Science and Natural History Museum, State of

Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 15.

111


Fifth Year. July 1987. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Germany. pp. 1-8.

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1987). On a Collection of Devon

Period Animal Fossils from the Saarland, in the Geologische

Museum Saarberg in Saarbrücken, Germany. Gazelle: The

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal

Republic of Germany. Number 15, Fifth Year, Thul Qi‘dah 1407

AH, July 1987 AD. pp. 9-10.

Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1987). The Great White Shark (Carcharodon

carcharias) from the State of Kuwait, Arabian Gulf. Gazelle: The

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 16. Fifth Year. Safar 1408

AH. September 1987 AD. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic

of Germany. pp. 1-7.

Khalaf, Norman Ali (1989). Qa‘ema li-ba‘d Asmak Al-Kuwait fi

Al-Mathaf Al-‗Ilmi Bi-Dawlat Al-Kuwait (A List of some Kuwaiti

Fishes from the Science & Natural History Museum, State of

Kuwait). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 19.

Seventh Year. December 1989. Bonn 2-Bad Godesberg, Federal

Republic of Germany. pp. 3. (In Arabic and English).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). A Trip to Zoo

Budapest, Hungary. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.

Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 21,

Ninth Year, January 1991. pp. 1-4.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). The Gulf War and

its effect on the Arabian Ecosystem (Part One). Gazelle: The

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal

Republic of Germany. Number 23, Ninth Year, July 1991. pp. 1-12.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). The Gulf War and

its effect on the Arabian Ecosystem (Part Two). Gazelle: The

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal

Republic of Germany. Number 24, Ninth Year, August 1991. pp.

1-10.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). The Gulf War and

its effect on the Arabian Ecosystem (Part Three). Gazelle: The

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal

Republic of Germany. Number 25, Ninth Year, September 1991.

112


pp. 1-7.

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). Notes on the Biological

Ecology of the Marshes in Southern Iraq. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of

Germany. Number 29, Tenth Year, September 1992. pp. 1-9. (In

Arabic).

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). The United Nations Ecological

Report confirms: The Regime of Saddam is destroying the

Marshes (Al-Ahwar) Ecosystem. Sawt Al-Kuwait International

Newspaper. Saturday 17 October 1992, 21 Rabi‘e Al-Thani 1412.

pp. 15. (In Arabic).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). An Introduction to

the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of

Germany. Number 30, Tenth Year, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (In

Arabic).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali B. (1993). Al-Mushkilatan Al-

Ma‘eyah wa Al-Bi‘eyah fi Al-Dafah Al-Gharbiyah wa Qita‘ Ghaza

Al-Muhtalain (Ka-Juzu‘ min Al-Sharq Al-Awsat) [The Water and

the Ecological Problems in the Occupied West Bank and Gaza

Strip (As Part of the Middle East)]. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Number 31. Eleventh Year. December 1993.

Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany. pp. 1- 29. (In Arabic).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to

the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae‘q Al-Nouma‘n (Anemone

coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI

(Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental

Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with

Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine.

Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (In Arabic).

Acquaintance Card: Majallet Al-Ghazzal (Gazelle Magazine): The

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn, Germany. Shqae‘q Al-

Nouma‘n (Anemone coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by

the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement).

Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In

113


Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O.,

Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 51-52. (In Arabic).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali B.(1995). Alasmak fi Filistin (Die

Fische von Palästina / The Fishes of Palestine). Gazelle: The

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 33. Thirteenth Year.

December 1995. Bonn, Germany. pp.1-35. (In Arabic).

Khalaf, Ali Bassam (1997). Amir Al-Bahar Al-Arabi (The Arabian

Sea Prince) Shihab Al-Deen Ahmad Bin Majed. Magazin der

Akademie. Nummer 1. Zu Elke‘da 1417 H, Maerz 1997. Koenig

Fahad Akademie – Bonn, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Deutschland. pp.

23-24. (in Arabic).

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). The Extinct and Endangered

Animals in Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin Home Page. Extinct and Endangered Animals and

Reintroduction. http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(Gründer) (seit Juni 2001). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Wale und

Delphine.

http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Wale_und_Delphine/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das

Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche

Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004. /

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in

Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. ISBN 3-00-

014121-9. Erste Auflage / First Edition, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten /

Pages. Zweite erweiterte Auflage (Second Extended Edition),

August 2004: 460 Seiten / Pages. Norman Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad

Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Der Komoren-

Quastenflosser (Latimeria chalumnae) und der Manado-

Quastenflosser (Latimeria menadoensis). Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Number 38. Twenty Third Year. February

2005. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 1-8.

http://quastenflosser.webs.com/

114


The Habitat of the Palestine Doctor Fish subspecies Garra rufa wadiqana

Khalaf, 2013 at Ain Al Basa Spring and Pools, Wadi Qana Nature

Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine. Photo by: Ola Mostafa

Khalaf. 08.07.2013.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/9505934585/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Story of Prophet Musa

(Moses) and the Fish. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third Year,

February 2005. pp. 14-15.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Moses Perch (Lutjanus

russelli, Bleeker 1849). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third Year,

February 2005. pp. 15.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Fish of Musa (Samak

Musa). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah,

United Arab Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third Year, February

2005. pp. 16.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Samak Al-Luchs (Al-

Hamoor) or the Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) in

115


Palestine (Mediterranean Sea) and the United Arab Emirates

(Arabian Gulf). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year,

March 2005. pp. 1-6.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Jaffa (Yaffa): The History of

an Old Palestinian Arab City on the Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle:

The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab

Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 7-8.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Andromeda Sea

Monster of Jaffa. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year,

March 2005. pp. 8.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Jewfish (Epinephelus

itajara) / Der Riesenzackenbarsch oder Judenfisch (Epinephelus

itajara). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah,

United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March

2005. pp. 9-12.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Arabian Freshwater

Fishes in the Arabia‘s Wildlife Centre, Sharjah Desert Park,

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin. Number 40, Twenty-third Year, April 2005. pp. 1-9.

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://

emirati-blind-cave-fish.webs.com/arabianfreshwaterfish.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (Gründer) (seit Juni 2005). Der

Quastenflosser: Coelacanth Latimeria Yahoo! Deutschland Group.

http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Quastenflosser/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Koran Angelfish

(Pomacanthus semicirculatus, Cuvier, 1831). Gazelle: The

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 44. Twenty-third Year.

August 2005. Jamada Alakhira 1426. Sharjah, United Arab

Emirates. pp. 1-8. http://koran-angelfish.webs.com/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Aquatica Arabica. An

Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe

between 1980 - 2005 / Aquatica Arabica. Eine Aquatische

116


Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa

zwischen 1980 - 2005. ISBN 3-00-014835-3. Erste Auflage / First

Edition, August 2005: 376 Seiten / Pages. Norman Ali Khalaf,

Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah,

United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/aquaticaarabica.htm

Khalaf, N.A.B. (2005). The Schooling of Sumatra Barbs (Barbus

tetrazona tetrazona) and Minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus). [M.Sc.

Dissertation in Ecology, Departments of Zoology and Botany,

University of Durham, England. September 1986. pps. 59 + iv]. In:

Aquatica Arabica. An Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine,

Arabia and Europe between 1980 - 2005. Erste Auflage, August

2005. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik

Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 28-93.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Rafah Zoo in the Rafah

Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip, Palestine : A Story of Destruction by

the Israeli Occupation Army. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin. Number 46, Twenty-third Year, October 2005, Ramadan

1426. pp. 1-11. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (2005). The Qalqilia Zoo

and the Natural History Museum in the City of Qalqilia, West

Bank, Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal

1426. pp. 1-10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (Member of PALESTA)

(2005). Palestinian Scientists and Technologists Abroad

(PALESTA). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number

47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 11-12.

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Eine Persönlichkeit

aus Jaffa, Palästina / A Personality from Jaffa, Palestine: Bassam

Ali Taher Khalaf (Abu Ali) (1938-2006). Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Number 56, Twenty-fourth Year, August 2006.

pp. 8-19. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://bassam-ali-taher-khalaf.webs.com/

117


Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006).

Ein Besuch im Neunkircher Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland,

Deutschland / A Visit to Neunkirchen Zoo, Neunkirchen,

Saarland, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.

Number 59, November 2006. pp. 1-25. Sharjah, United Arab

Emirates. (in Arabisch / Arabic).

http://khalaf.homepage24.de/text_88839638_85658724_59480041

_deutsch.html

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(Gründer) (seit Juni 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna

Palaestina.

http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Palaestina/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(Gründer) (seit August 2007). Haie – Sharks Yahoo! Deutschland

Group. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Haie_Sharks/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(Gründer) (seit September 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group:

Fauna Arabica.

http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Arabica/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007).

Haywanat Filistin حٌوانات فلسطٌن (Fauna of Palestine). Wikipedia,

Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 69, Twenty-fifth Year,

September 2007 CE, Sha‘ban 1428 AH. pp. 1-4. (in Arabic).

http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8

%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D

8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2007). A Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) caught off

the Kuwaiti Coast: The Second Record from the State of Kuwait,

Arabian / Persian Gulf. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 1-20. Sharjah, United

Arab Emirates. (Abstracts in English and Arabic). http://whaleshark.webs.com/whalesharkinkuwait.htm

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

118


(2007). Rhiniodon typus Smith, 1828 or Rhincodon typus Smith, 1829:

The Story of a Scientific Name. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 21. Sharjah, United

Arab Emirates. http://whaleshark.webs.com/rhiniodontypus.htm

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian Waters: A Whale Shark

(Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) rescued near the Tantura Beach,

Carmel Coast, North Palestine: The First Record from the

Palestinian Mediterranean Coast. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 22-23.

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstracts in English and Arabic).

http://whale-shark.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian Waters: Whale Sharks

(Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) near Um Al-Rashrash (Eilat) Beach,

Gulf of Aqaba, South Palestine: First Records from the Palestinian

Red Sea Coast. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.

Number 71, November 2007. pp. 23-26. Sharjah, United Arab

Emirates. (Abstract in English and Arabic). http://whaleshark.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2007). An Ocean Sunfish or Common Mola (Mola mola, Linnaeus

1758) caught off the coast of Gaza: The First Record from

Palestine, East Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Number 72, December 2007, pp. 1-16.

(Abstracts in English and Arabic).

https://de.groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Fauna_Palaestina/co

nversations/messages/37

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2008). Cetacea Palaestina: The Whales and Dolphins in

Palestinian Waters. Cetacean Species Guide for Palestine. Gazelle:

The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 83, November 2008,

Thu Al-Qi‘ada 1429 AH. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://cetacea-palaestina.webs.com/

119


Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2009). A Longcomb Sawfish (Pristis zijsron Bleeker, 1851) caught

off the coast of Dibba, United Arab Emirates, Gulf of Oman.

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 88, April

2009, Rabi‘e Al Thani 1430 AH. pp. 1-14. http://dibbasawfish.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr.Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2009). Garra barreimiae wurayahi Khalaf, 2009 : A New Blind Cave

Fish Subspecies from Wadi Al Wurayah Pools, Emirate of

Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 90, June 2009,

Jumada Al-Akhera 1430 AH. pp. 1-15. Sharjah, United Arab

Emirates. http://emirati-blind-cave-fish.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab

1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2009). Oreochromis mossambicus bassamkhalafi Khalaf, 2009 : A New

Mozambique Tilapia Subspecies from Wadi Al Wurayah Pools,

Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 92,

August 2009, Sha‘ban 1430 AH. pp. 1-25. Sharjah, United Arab

Emirates. http://emirati-tilapia.webs.com/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina

– Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe

between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine

Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen

1983 – 2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition,

September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali

Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates &

Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm

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(2009). Bowmouth Guitarfish (Rhina ancylostoma Bloch &

Schneider, 1801) at Sharjah Aquarium, Sharjah, United Arab

Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 –

6288. Twenty-seventh Year, Number 93, September 2009,

Ramadan 1430 AH. pp. 1-18. http://bowmouth-guitarfishemirates.webs.com/bowmouthguitarfishuae.htm

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2009). Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) Records from

the United Arab Emirates between 1989 - 2009. Gazelle: The

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Twenty-seventh

Year, Number 94, October 2009, Shawal 1430 AH. pp. 1-28.

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://whale-shark.webs.com/whalesharkinemirates.htm

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Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010).

Fauna Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab

Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins.

Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate

zwischen 2004 - 2009. ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First

Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: Dr.

Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United

Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik

Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2012). Fauna Palaestina

– Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 /

Fauna Palaestina - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina

zwischen 1983 – 2009. ISBN 978-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First

Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic

Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al

Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-normanali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Fauna Palaestina

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– Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 /

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zwischen 2005 – 2012. ISBN 978-9950-383-35-7. Erste Auflage /

First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part

350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi

Publishing House, Jerusalem, State of Palestine. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm

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http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/9505985037/

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Taher (2013). Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013: A New Freshwater

Doctor Fish Subspecies from Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit

Governorate, State of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 103, July 2013, Ramadan 1434

AH. pp. 1-25. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

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The newly discovered Palestine Doctor Fish subspecies Garra rufa

wadiqana Khalaf, 2013 at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana Nature

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http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/9560817144/

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† Macropomoides palaestina Khalaf,

2013 : A New Coelacanth Fish Fossil

Species from the Anthracothere Hill

in Al-Naqab, Palestine

: نوع جدٌد

ماكروبوموٌدس بلستٌنا

‏ْلحفورة سمكة الج مبٌزة ‏)سٌالكانث(‏ من تل أنثراكوثٌر

فً‏ النقب ، فلسطٌن

3112

خلف ،

By: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa

Abstract: A new fossil species of Coelacanth Fish from

the Early Miocene of the genus Macropomoides (Class

Sarcopterygii, Subclass Crossopterygii, Order

Coelacanthiformes, Suborder Latimerioidei, Family

Latimeriidae) was found at the Anthracothere Hill in Al-

Naqab (Negev), Palestine. The new fossil species is

distinguished from the Lebanese Coelacanth fossil species

Macropomoides orientalis by its slightly different skeletal,

skull and fin features. It is morphologically a distinct

species. The new species was named † Macropomoides

palaestina Khalaf, 2013.

A new fossil species of Coelacanth Fish from the Early Miocene of

the genus Macropomoides (Class Sarcopterygii, Subclass

Crossopterygii, Order Coelacanthiformes, Suborder Latimerioidei,

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Family Latimeriidae) was found at the Anthracothere Hill in Al-

Naqab (Negev), Palestine. It belongs to the Family Latimeriidae

and therefore closely related to the living coelacanth Latimeria.

The new fossil species is distinguished from the Lebanese

Coelacanth fossil species Macropomoides orientalis Woodward, 1942

by its slightly different skeletal, skull and fin features. It is

morphologically a distinct species. The new species was named †

Macropomoides palaestina Khalaf, 2013.

Naomi F. Goldsmith and Ilana Yanai-Inbar (1997) from the

Blaustein Institute and Pathology Department, Ben-Gurion

University of the Negev wrote in the Journal of Vertebrate

Paleontology: ―Using Latimeria chalumnae as reference for the fish

fossils found at Anthracothere Hill in the Negev (south) of Israel,

we test B. Schaeffer's 1977 theorem {Differences in the histology

and gross form of the teeth, dermal skull elements, scales and fin

components obviously have systematic significance. If we are

concerned with extinct animals, we can compare directly only

structure in attempting to infer relationships}."

The corollaries we infer are:

1) If there are no differences, it is likely we are dealing with an

identity, or at best a similarity of incertae sedes...

2) Furthermore, if Latimeria appears in the 20th century off the

east African coast after a 70 Ma absence, it had to have been

somewhere. Intervening coelacanthid specimens in Africa are

found in Madagascar's Trias (Moore 1995), Niger's E. Cretaceous

(Wenz 1975) and the Negev Miocene. The North African sites

were bound by the Tethys Ocean; both also sheltered Lates (Gayet

et al.1983; N.F. Goldsmith et a1.1982). But the major transport

mechanism, as geophysicists Molnar, Royer, and Dyment agree,

was by the northward bound India Plate and the opening of the

Red Sea at Aden (Goldsmith and Yanai-Inbar 1997).

Further tests compare Negev fossils with teeth and bones in the

first Latimeria dissection (Millot, Anthony 1958) and teeth of

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preserved Latimeria at the California Academy of Sciences, San

Francisco, and the Museums of Natural History in Stockholm,

Washington, New York, London and Paris (Goldsmith and Yanai-

Inbar 1997).

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses replicate the results

of Boyde (1972), Meinke (1982), and Smith (1978); the bone shows

sensory canals as demonstrated by Wenz (1975). Q.E.D.

(Goldsmith and Yanai-Inbar 1997).

Genus Macropomoides Woodward 1942

The body is relatively deep and reaches about 300 mm SL. The

head bones are without ornament; a preorbital is absent; the

lachrymojugal is narrow beneath the eye and barely larger than

the enclosed sensory canal; postorbital is deep, expanded dorsally

with a narrow ventral limb; the squamosal is very small and both

the spiracular and the preoperculum may be absent. The

premaxilla carries a few stout teeth. The operculum is rounded

poster-odorsally with a very oblique ventral margin. Sensory

canals open by a few large pores on the parietonasal shield; the

angular and splenial each have four large sensory pores. Teeth

upon the parasphenoid are restricted to the anterior third of the

bone. The principal coronoid has a distinct waist and a

longitudinally expanded head. The gular plates are twice as long

as broad. The anocleithrum is forked dorsally with a narrow

dorsal limb and a broad anterodorsal limb. Short ribs are

developed throughout the posterior half of the abdominal region.

The caudal fin has a rounded posterior margin which encloses the

supplementary lobe. Pointed denticles are present on at least the

first three rays of D1 and the leading rays of the principal caudal

lobes. The pelvic bone is a simple rod with a proximal lateral

expansion and the D1 support has a prominent anteroventrally

directed thickened ridge. The scales are ornamented with many

closely spaced denticles which, like the denticles on the fins, bear

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many fine striations. Those scales beneath and behind the level of

D1 show a prominent central denticle (the only denticle present in

small specimens) (Forey 1997/1998).

Fossil of the Lebanese Coelacanth Macropomoides orientalis

Woodward, 1942 from Lebanon. Photo at the Senckenberg Museum of

Frankfurt, Germany. Photo by Ghedoghedo. 19 August 2011.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Macropomoides_orientalis_-

_Lebanon.jpg

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Conclusion:

After studying the Macropomoides fish fossil specimen

from the Anthracothere Hill in Al-Naqab (Negev),

Palestine and comparing with the Lebanese Coelacanth

fossil species Macropomoides orientalis, and referring to

many zoological references, and searching the Internet, I

came finally to a conclusion that we are in front of a new

Coelacanth fossil species.

I gave it the scientific name † Macropomoides palaestina,

new fossil species. The species name “palaestina” is for

Palestine, from where the fossil specimen was found.

† Macropomoides palaestina, new fossil species:

Scientific Binomial name: † Macropomoides palaestina

Khalaf, 2013

Authority: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von

Jaffa.

Common Names: Palestine Coelacanth, Al-Naqab

Coelacanth, Negev Coelacanth.

Holotype Fossil: MP-1, Blaustein Institute and Pathology

Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.

Origin: Anthracothere Hill in Al-Naqab (Negev), Palestine.

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Taxon profile

>

Taxon Profile: species Palestine Coelacanth Macropomoides palaestina

Khalaf, 2013 †. BioLib. Biological Library.

http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id1075889/

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139


The Ceratosaur Dinosaur Elaphrosaurus

bambergi Janensch, 1920 Tracks from

Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds (Jerusalem),

Occupied Palestine

By: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa

One of the Beit Zeit Dinosaur Footprints from Beit Zeit, West of Al-

Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013. Photo by: Prof. Dr.

Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12155111194/

Palestine's history is mostly known from the Torah, Bible and the

Holy Qur'an. The Holy land is full of historical places, and is

visited by many tourists and pilgrims that want to see the

remarkable beauty of this country with their own eyes. Palestine

is sometimes called "The land were the time began", and it

contains treasures to be seen from the Mesozoic period, which is

140


not so well known. Thanks to Prof. Moshe Avnimelech (Ex-Head

of the Paleontology Department in the Hebrew University of

Jerusalem), who described the dinosaur tracks of the Hebron or

Judean Hills, the historical wealth of Palestine goes further back

in time than anyone ever had expected. In Beit Zeit, just a few

kilometers from the Palestinian Capital City of Al-Quds

(Jerusalem City), ninety to hundred million years old dinosaur

tracks give great insight in the prehistoric life of the Middle East

(Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2006).

The Beit Zeit tracks are of prime scientific value. They record one

of the major links in the biological chain of development on earth.

Map of Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. The

map is showing the Dinosaur Tracks site. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Norman

Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 09.07.2013.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12191054606/

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I visited Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds (Jerusalem), on 09.07.2013 and

examined the Beit Zeit Dinosaur Tracks accompanied with my

beloved wife Ola and my beloved daughter Nora.

The Discovery:

The discovery of the Beit Zeit (Beit Zayit) dinosaur tracks, just a

few kilometers west of Al-Quds (Jerusalem), was made by Mr.

Mordechai Sofer, a former geology student at the Hebrew

University of Jerusalem. During the summer of 1962, Mr.

Mordechai Sofer informed Prof. Moshe Avnimelech that

mysterious imprints were left in the rocks in the garden of Mr.

Schwarzwald, who was as Mr. Sofer, a resident of the Beit Zeit

village. The next day Prof. Moshe Avnimelech visited the

construction site. What he found was a continuous row of tracks,

stretching for some 10 meter. It seemed that the tracks went on

onto the hillock to the east and north of the exposed area. Later

when a further area of 400 sq. m. was uncovered numerous

additional tracks similar in form, pattern and direction were

revealed (Avnimelech and Bervoets; Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2006).

Age of the tracks:

The age of the tracks is fixed by what is known of the geological

structure and history of the Judean Hills, a layer at least 500 meter

thick that constitute a part of a series of strata deposited from the

Early Cretaceous (Barremian Period) to the Late Cretaceous

(Campanian period). The strata were the tracks are found are

usually assigned to the lowest part of the Cenomanian series, but

the possibility that they belong to the Upper Albian may not be

excluded. So, the age may be estimated ninety to hundred million

years (Avnimelech and Bervoets; Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2006).

142


A small Dinosaur inside an egg at Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds

(Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam

Khalaf-von Jaffa. 09.07.2013.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12190931005/

Nature of the rocks:

The nature of the rocks on which the tracks were made indicates a

marine origin, composed out of dolomitic-marly limestone in

regular 10-15 cm. thick layers, with the seams of marl in between.

The fossils in part of the layers are chiefly of marine gastropods of

shallow-water character. Imprints of terrestrial plants were found

in some of the layers, indicating the nearness of the shore. In

certain layers, concentrations may be observed of reddish-brown

earthy material, which is obviously derived from the adjacent

land area (Avnimelech and Bervoets; Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2006).

143


One of the Beit Zeit Dinosaur Footprints from Beit Zeit, West of Al-

Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013. Photo by: Prof. Dr.

Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12191415913/

Form and arrangement:

The form and arrangement of the tracks clearly show that the

tracks were made by a biped. Often only the digits were

imprinted but sometimes even the tarsals were pressed into the

rock surface. The imprints of the tarsals show that these were

elongated, so it is lengthening the foot. The tracks are made by

theropod dinosaurs which were carnivorous, and had four toes of

which the first was short and high (Avnimelech and Bervoets;

Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2006).

144


One of the Beit Zeit Dinosaur Footprints from Beit Zeit, West of Al-

Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013. Photo by: Prof. Dr.

Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12191856676/

Trackmaker:

In general shape and appearance to trackmaker may have been

similar to the North American genus Struthiomimus. It appears

that the trackmaker belongs to one of the families of the group

Coelurosauria, specially the Coeluridae and Ornithomimidae of

which the first seems to fit the tracks more closely. However,

considering the dinosaur remains discovered in eastern and

northern Africa (Tanzania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Egypt)

the possibility cannot be excluded that Elaphrosaurus bambergi

lived once in the vicinity of Beit Zeit, Palestine. The trackmaker

had an estimated length of the hind-limbs up to the waist, 140 cm;

145


the forelimbs were attached to the shoulders at a height of

approximately 150-160 cm. The height of the animal, when

standing upright, was 230-250 cm, and the length of the animal

was from tip to tail about 360-380 cm, and weighted

approximately 150 kg (Avnimelech and Bervoets; Khalaf-von

Jaffa, 2006).

Beit Zeit Dinosaur Footprints from Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds

(Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013. Photo by: Prof. Dr.

Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12191843574/

Types:

The Beit Zeit site is an area of approximately four hundred meters

on which more than two hundred tracks can be seen. Several

types of tracks can be distinguished, which might belong to three

146


species. The most frequent type is characterized by an angle of 70

to 90 degrees between the outhermost digits. The length of these

digits is 18-20 cm while the length of the middle digit (III) is 24-27

cm (Avnimelech and Bervoets; Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2006).

The length and thickness of the tracks vary with the heaviness of

tread and the properties of the soil. A round or rectangular

depression was formed at the place where the digits were joined:

it is bulb-shaped and is evidently the imprint of a tarsal bone or

bones. The outhermost digits of the second type make a broad arc

with their base, giving the footprints the shape of an anchor; and

in this type the length of the central digit is as with the first 40 to

50% greater than that of the outhermost digits (Avnimelech and

Bervoets; Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2006).

The third type differs from the first and second in that the base of

the digits is almost straight. It is however, possible that this is

only accidental, and can be attributed to the mode of the tread.

Several isolated tracks with digits of almost equal length are

totally different. The digits are splayed out at an angle of nearly

120 degrees; the external ones are bent out to form a smooth arc.

These tracks are probably of the fore-limb, which may explain

their rarity. Tracks of different times of passage are also

distinguishable: the earlier are blurred, as they were subsequently

covered by a thin layer of new sediment (Avnimelech and

Bervoets; Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2006).

There are several 10-15 meter long rows of tracks which are made

up of 15 to 20 footprints, and other shorter rows, only 3 to 4 meter

long, consisting of no more than 4 to 6. In general, the direction of

the long rows of tracks which are more prominent than the short

ones - is from south to north or north to south, whereas the

direction of the shorter rows is commonly from northeast to

southwest or vice versa. Only few of the very shortest rows run

approximately east-west or west-east. In the area, it is possible to

make out three long rows which trend north-south, more than a

147


dozen medium rows, and 4-5 short rows which run east-west

(Avnimelech and Bervoets; Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2006).

Ornithomimosaurs:

Ornithomimosaurs ("Bird mimic lizards") or members of the clade

Ornithomimosauria are theropod dinosaurs, like Gallimimus,

which bore a superficial resemblance to modern ostriches. They

were fast, fleet-footed, omnivorous and herbivorous dinosaurs

from the Upper Cretaceous of Laurasia (Asia, Europe and North

America). The skull, sitting atop a long neck, was relatively small

with large eyes. Some primitive species had teeth, but most had

toothless beaks. The arms were long and slender and bore

powerful claws. The limbs were long and powerful, with a long

foot and short, strong toes terminating in hooflike claws.

Ornithomimosaurs were probably among the fastest of all

dinosaurs. Like many other coelurosaurs, the ornithomimid hide

was probably feathered rather than scaly (Wikipedia; Khalaf-von

Jaffa, 2006).

The group first appears in the Lower Cretaceous and persisted

until the Upper Cretaceous. They appear to be related to less

derived coelurosaurian theropods such as Compsognathus and

tyrannosaurids. Primitive members of the group include

Pelecanimimus, Shenzhousaurus, Harpymimus, and probably the

huge Deinocheirus, the arms of which reached eight feet in length.

More advanced species, members of the family ornithomimidae,

include Gallimimus, Archaeornithomimus, Anserimimus,

Struthiomimus, and Ornithomimus (Wikipedia; Khalaf-von Jaffa,

2006).

Ornithomimosaurs probably got most of their calories from plants

but may have eaten small vertebrates and insects as well. Henry

Fairfield Osborn suggested that the long, sloth-like arms may

have been used to pull down branches for ornithomimosaurs to

148


Beit Zeit Dinosaur Tracks from Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds (Jerusalem),

Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam

Khalaf-von Jaffa.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12207228555/

149


feed on; it may also have been a dangerous weapon. The sheer

abundance of ornithomimids — they are the most common small

dinosaurs in North America — are consistent with the idea that

they were plant eaters, as herbivores usually outnumber

carnivores in an ecosystem. The presence of gastroliths in the

stomach of some ornithomimids fit this hypothesis (Wikipedia;

Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2006).

Some paleontologists, like Paul Sereno, consider the enigmatic

alvarezsaurids to be close relatives of the ornithomimosaurs, and

places them together in the superfamily Ornithomimoidea

(Wikipedia; Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2006).

Struthiomimus:

Struthiomimus (―Ostrich-mimic‖) was a long-legged, ostrich-like

dinosaur of the family Ornithomimidae, which lived in Alberta,

Canada during the Late Cretaceous period, about 85 to 80 million

years ago. It was about 1.50 meters (5 feet) tall at the hips and

weighed around 250 kg (500 lbs). Struthiomimus is one of the

more common small dinosaurs in Dinosaur Provincial Park; its

abundance suggests that it was an herbivore or an omnivore

rather than a carnivore. It most likely lived on a diet of lizards,

small mammals, fruits, and seeds, although some scientists

theorize that it may have used its hooked claws to dig up clams

and other shellfish, or possibly eggs (Wikipedia; Khalaf-von Jaffa,

2006).

The legs were long, powerful and seemingly well-suited to rapid

running, like an ostrich. The neck was slender and ended in a

small, beaked skull with relatively large eyes. The 'arms' were

long and fairly strong; the fore limbs were more powerful and the

claws were more strongly hooked than in Ornithomimus. It also

had the typical characteristics of most ornithomimids: a long, stiff

tail and a toothless beak. Predators of Struthiomimus may have

150


included Saurornitholestes, Dromaeosaurus, and the

tyrannosaurs Daspletosaurus and Gorgosaurus. The bestpreserved

skeleton of Struthiomimus is currently on display at the

American Museum of Natural History, in Manhattan, New York.

The best skull is currently on display at the Royal Tyrrell Museum

of Palaeontology, in Drumheller, Alberta, Canada (Wikipedia;

Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2006).

Struthiomimus is also known from the Horseshoe Canyon

Formation of Alberta and the Hell Creek Formation of Montana,

suggesting that the dinosaur may have lived along the river banks

of its day. These animals have not been thoroughly studied yet

but they may represent new species of Struthiomimus (Wikipedia;

Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2006).

Elaphrosaurus:

Elaphrosaurus was one of the earliest ornithomimids (ostrich

dinosaurs), Elaphrosaurus was a relative of Dromiceiomimus,

Gallimimus, Ornithomimus, and Struthiomimus. It was probably

one of the earliest members of that family and fossil bones have

been found that date back to the late Jurassic period. Most "ostrich

dinosaurs" are found from the Cretaceous period. A distant

relative is Ornitholestes, a small dinosaur only half the size of

Elaphrosaurus (Wikipedia; Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2006).

Elaphrosaurus was a carnivore from late Jurassic Tanzania, 145 to

150 million years ago. Scientists aren't sure what its head looked

like, as its skull was never found. Elaphrosaurus was probably a

medium-sized, but lightly built, bipedal, carnivore Ceratosaur

and probably was about 6.2 meters (20 feet) long. It was

discovered by the German paleontologist Werner Janensch, in the

Tendaguru Beds of Tanzania, which has also yielded

Brachiosaurus, Allosaurus, and Kentrosaurus, to name a few

(Wikipedia; Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2006).

151


Beit Zeit Dinosaur Tracks from Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds (Jerusalem),

Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam

Khalaf-von Jaffa.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12207467393/

152


What is known about Elaphrosaurs comes from a nearly complete

skeleton found in the Tendaguru Beds. What is known about it is

that it was a long slender dinosaur, with a long neck, possibly for

digging into carrion. There have been very few theropods

skeletons found there, just bits and pieces, and this was a rare

find. Because the skeleton had no head, the Elaphrosaurus was

displayed with a skull based on Velociraptor. A related animal, or

perhaps the same species, has been found in the Morrison

Formation (Wikipedia; Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2006).

Morphologically, this dinosaur is significant in two ways. First, it

has a relatively long trunk but is very shallow-chested for a

theropod of its size. Second, it has very short hind limbs when

compared to its relatively long trunk. Phylogenetic analysis

indicates that this genus is likely a ceratosaur, and earlier

suggestions that it is a late surviving coelophysoid have been

examined but generally dismissed (Wikipedia).

When it was alive, it would have been about 20 feet long, may be

5 feet tall at the hip, weighing may be 210 kilograms (463 pounds).

It was built as a fast runner, probably running down small prey

on the open plains. Because of its long legs, some think it may

have been the fastest runner of the Jurassic. With long, slender

legs and a stiff tail, Elaphrosaurus would have easily sprinted from

danger. It had keen eyes and a quick brain. Its diet probably

depended on where it lived. Near the sea it might have grubbed

around for shellfish or shoveled sand for tiny creatures. Some

lived far inland and others foraged among woods and forests.

Since it had no teeth, Elaphrosaurus could not have eaten meat

(Wikipedia; Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2006).

153


Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa with the Ceratosaur

Dinosaur Elaphrosaurus bambergi Janensch, 1920 of Beit Zeit, West of

Al-Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013. Photo by my

beloved wife: Ola Mostafa Khalaf.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12128563816/

154


Beit Zeit Dinosaur Footprints from Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds

(Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013. Photo by: Prof. Dr.

Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12208476686/

155


Etymology

The genus name Elaphrosaurus is derived from

the Greek words elaphro (ελαφρός) meaning "light" as in "lightweight",

a reference to its slender frame and "sauros" (σαυρος)

meaning "lizard"; thus, "lightweight lizard". Elaphrosaurus was

described and named by the German paleontologist Werner

Janensch* in 1920 and the type species is Elaphrosaurus bambergi

(Wikipedia).

Description

Elaphrosaurus was long and slender, with a long neck. What is

known about Elaphrosaurus mostly comes from a single nearly

complete skeleton and no skull has been found. It was distinctive

among theropods for being short-legged for its length. Paul (1988)

noted that this was the longest-trunked and shallowestchested

theropod that he has examined. Elaphrosaurus was about

6.2 meters (20 feet) long, 1.46 meter (5 feet) tall at the hip, and

weighed about 210 kilograms (463 pounds). The tibia (shin bone)

of Elaphrosaurus, measured 608 mm was considerably longer than

its femur (thigh bone) that measured 520 mm, which indicates

that it could probably run very fast. Its long tail ended with a rare

downward bend which may be unrelated to taphonomy

(Wikipedia).

Classification

Elaphrosaurus was first described as a coelurid. At the time,

Coeluridae was a wastebasket taxon for small theropods.

Then, Elaphrosaurus was placed in the family Ornithomimidae by

Nopcsa (1928) because of its light frame and the fact that

its humerus is straight and slender. Upon closer examination its

limbs approximate those of Coelophysis. Barsbold, Maryanska

and Osmolska (1990) and other researchers classified it as

an ornithomimid. More recent work by Carrano and Sampson

156


(2008) and Carrano et al. (2012) assign this genus to Ceratosauria.

It is now believed that Limusaurus is its closest relative

(Wikipedia).

* Werner Janensch was a German paleontologist and museum curator

(the Natural History Museum of Berlin) who led an expedition (with

Edwin Hennig) to the Tendaguru Beds in Deutsch-Ostafrika, what is

now Tanzania, Africa. That expedition found many late Jurassic period

dinosaurs, including some Brachiosaurus. Janensch named

Dicraeosaurus (1914) and Elaphrosaurus (1920).

Nomina dubia (dubious names)

The following material was assigned to Elaphrosaurus over the

years, but further study revealed that these assignments were

dubious:

Elaphrosaurus iguidiensis, was described by Lapparent in 1960, and

the material was collected in Algeria, Libya and Niger in Early

Cretaceous sediments. The material consists of over 40 teeth, a

manual ungual, eight caudal vertebrae, a distal femur fragment,

and a complete tibia measuring 350 mm. These specimens

originated in three different localities and do not appear to belong

to the same species.

Elaphrosaurus gautieri, was first described by Lapparent in

1960, and the material was collected at the Tiouraren Formation in

Niger in Middle-Late Jurassic sediments. This material, a

complete neck vertebra, has since been renamed Spinostropheus

gautieri by Sereno et al. (2004).

157


Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa is showing the Beit Zeit

Dinosaur Tracks at Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied

Palestine. 09.07.2013. Photo by my wife: Ola Mostafa Khalaf.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12208133763/

158


Beit Zeit Dinosaur Tracks from Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds (Jerusalem),

Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam

Khalaf-von Jaffa.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12208085473/

159


Elaphrosaurus philtippettensis, was erected by Pickering in 1995

based on USNM 5737, which consists of a tibia, a humerus, some

metatarsals, and the distal portion of a fragmentary pubic bones

recovered from the Morrison Formation of Colorado. Further

research by Carpenter et al. (2005) suggested that the fossils are

not ceratosaurian and are likely referable to the coelurid theropod

Tanycolagreus.

Elaphrosaurus agilis, was described Dale Russel in 1972, based on a

pair of fused pubic bones that O. C. Marsh had earlier

named Coelurus agilis, believing that this specimen represented a

much larger version of the type specimen, Coelurus fragilis. John

Ostrom in 1980 confirmed Charles Gilmore's earlier position that

Coelurus agilis was synonymous with Coelurus fragilis. This means

that Elaphrosaurus agilis is actually the same animal as Coelurus

fragilis.

Elaphrosaurus sp. USNM 8415, was discovered in 1883 and first

referred to the ornithopod Dryosaurus. It was later referred

to Elaphrosaurus by Galton in 1982, based on remains recovered at

the Morrison Formation of Colorado. This material, which is

clearly ceratosaurian, does not bare any morphology that

specifically ties it to Elaphrosaurus. Current knowledge limits the

placement of this material to Ceratosauria incertae sedis.

Elaphrosaurus sp. DMNH 36284, was referred to this genus by

Chure in 2001, based on the proximal portion of a fragmentary

right tibia from the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison

Formation. Phylogenetic analysis by Carrano and Sampson (2008)

showed that it was not ceratosaurian, but instead resembled the

leg bone of an abelisauroid theropod that has yet to be formally

described (Wikipedia).

160


Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa at the Beit Zeit Dinosaur

Site, West of Al-Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013.

Photo by my beloved wife: Ola Mostafa Khalaf.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12265436034/

161


Distinguishing anatomical features

A diagnosis is a statement of the anatomical features of an

organism (or group) that collectively distinguish it from all other

organisms. Some, but not all, of the features in a diagnosis are also

autapomorphies. An autapomorphy is a distinctive anatomical

feature that is unique to a given organism (Wikipedia).

According to Rauhut (2000), Elaphrosaurus can be distinguished

based on the following characteristics:

the cervical vertebrae possess thin latero-ventral laminae,

bordering the posterior pleurocoel ventrally

the cervical vertebrae are strongly concave ventrally, with the

ventral margin arching above the mid-height of the anterior

articular facet at its highest point

the brevis fossa of the ilium is extremely widened, so that

the brevis shelf forms an almost horizontal lateral flange

the distal end of the ischium is strongly expanded into a

triangular boot (Wikipedia).

Paleoecology

Provenance and occurrence

The type specimen of Elaphrosaurus bambergi HMN Gr.S. 38-44

was recovered in the Middle Dinosaur Member of the Tendaguru

Formation in Tanzania. The specimen was collected by Werner

Janensch, I. Salim, H. Reck, and Parkinson in 1910 in gray, green,

red, sandy marl that was deposited during the Kimmeridgian

stage of the Jurassic period, approximately 157 to 152 million

years ago. This specimen is housed in the collection of

the Humboldt Museum in Berlin, Germany (Wikipedia).

A related animal, perhaps the same genus, was found in

162


stratigraphic zones 2-4 of the Morrison Formation. Few theropod

skeletons have been found, most discoveries being fragments

(Wikipedia).

Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa at the Beit Zeit Dinosaur

Site, West of Al-Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013.

Photo by my beloved wife: Ola Mostafa Khalaf.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12265065885/

Fauna and Habitat

Studies suggest that the paleoenvironment of the Tendaguru

Formation was a marginal marine environment with both nonmarine

faunal and floral content. The Middle Dinosaur Member

of the Tendaguru Formation has yielded the sauropods

Giraffatitan, Australodocus, Janenschia, Tornieria and Dicraeosaurus,

theropods similar to Allosaurus and Ceratosaurus, the

163


carcharodontosaurid Veterupristisaurus, the stegosaurid

Kentrosaurus and the iguanodontian Dysalotosaurus. Dinosaurs

shared this paleoenvironment with pterosaurs like Pterodactylus

and Rhamphorhynchus, as well as with early mammals. Paul

(1988) noted that Elaphrosaurus bambergi was too small to prey on

the sauropods and stegosaurs present in its paleoenvironment,

and instead, it likely hunted the small and swift ornithopod

herbivores (Wikipedia).

Ichnology

Dinosaur footprints from the Niger Republic and from Jerusalem

were attributed to Elaphrosaurus. This assignment is considered

inconclusive (Wikipedia).

Ceratosauria

Ceratosaurs are members of a group of theropod dinosaurs

defined as all theropods sharing a more recent common ancestry

with Ceratosaurus than with birds. There is no agreed upon listing

of species or diagnostic characters of Ceratosauria, though they

were less derived anatomically than the more diverse Tetanurae.

According to the latest and most accepted theory, Ceratosauria

includes the Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous theropods

Ceratosaurus, Elaphrosaurus, and Abelisaurus, found primarily

(though not exclusively) in the Southern Hemisphere. Originally,

Ceratosauria included the above dinosaurs plus the Late Triassic

to Early Jurassic Coelophysoidea and Dilophosauridae, implying

a much earlier divergence of ceratosaurs from other theropods.

However, most recent studies have shown that coelophysoids and

dilophosaurids do not form a natural group with other

ceratosaurs, and are excluded from this group (Wikipedia).

164


Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa and his daughter Nora

Norman Ali Khalaf and friends (Abdulla and Raneen Ramadan) at the

Beit Zeit Dinosaur Site, West of Jerusalem, Occupied Palestine.

09.07.2013. Photo by my beloved wife: Ola Mostafa Khalaf.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12264920215/

References and Internet Websites:

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Cenomanian of Jerusalem. Nature, London. 196 (4851): 264.

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Dinosaures dans le Cenomanien inferieur des environs de

Jerusalem. C. R. Soc. Geol. France 1962: 233-235.

Avnimelech, Moshe A. (1963). Discovery of dinosaur tracks of

Lower Cenomanian age in Bet Zait, west of Jerusalem. Israel

Journal of Earth Sciences 12(2):80-81.

165


Beit Zeit Dinosaurs. Israeli Stamps. Issue date 05.12.2000. Id

Michel: 1576-1578. Scott: 1421-1423. Stanley Gibbons: 1501-

1503. Yvert: 1507-1509. Designer: Tuvia Kurz. 3 Stamps. Value

NIS 2.20 x 3. Size 30.8 x 30.8 mm.

http://www.paleophilatelie.eu/images/sets/Israel_2000.jpg

Avnimelech, Moshe A. (1966). Dinosaur Tracks in the Judean

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166


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www.dinodata.net/DNM/Avnimelech.htm

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First dinosaur bones in Saudi Arabia discovered.

http://edition.cnn.com/2014/01/26/world/meast/whendinosaurs-roamed-saudi-arabia/

Foster, John (2007). Jurassic West: The Dinosaurs of the Morrison

Formation and Their World. Indiana University Press.

p. 182. ISBN 978-0-253-34870-8.

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167


Elaphrosaurus bambergi Janensch, 1920. Holotype skeleton mounted

(skull, hands and other elements speculative), Museum für Naturkunde

Berlin. 16.072008. Photo: Aktron.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Berl%C3%ADn,_Mitte,_socha_je%C5

%A1t%C4%9Bra_v_Museum_f%C3%BCr_Naturkunde.jpg

Galton (1982). Elaphrosaurus, an ornithomimid dinosaur from the

Upper Jurassic of North America and Africa. Paläontologische

Zeitschrift. 56, 265-275.

Ginsburg, L., Lapparent, A.F. deLoiret, B.and Taquet, P. (1966).

Empreintes de pas de Vertebres tetrapodes dans les series

continentales a l'Ouest d'Agades, Republique du Niger. Compte

Rendu de l'Academie des Sciences,Paris,263:28-31.

Hooijer, D.A. (1968). A Cretaceous dinosaur from the Syrian Arab

Republic. Proc. K. Nederl. Akad. Wet. B. 71:150-152.

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Megalosaurier aus den Tendaguru Schichten Deutsch-Ostafrikas.

168


Sitzungsberichte der Gessellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu

Berlin (in German) 1920: 225–235.

Janensch, Werner (1925). Die Coelurosauria und Theropoden der

Tendaguru-Schichten Deutsch-Ostafrikas. Palaeontographica, no.

1, Suppl. 7, p. 1-99.

Janensch, Werner. The Top Paleontologists and Dinosaur Hunters

of All Time.

www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/dinosaurs/glossary/Pale

ontologists.shtml

Elaphrosaurus bambergi Janensch, 1920 and Rhamphorynchus.

www.gazelle.8m.net/custom3.html

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1980). Tabie‘t Al-Talawon fi Al-

Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin.

Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait

University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (in Arabic).

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1983). Sea Snakes in Kuwait. Bulletin

of the Biological Studies Club, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait.

First Year, Number 4, 7.12.1983. pp. 1-5. (in Arabic).

169


Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1987). On a Collection of Devon

Period Animal Fossils from the Saarland, in the Geologische

Museum Saarberg in Saarbrücken, Germany. Gazelle: The

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal

Republic of Germany. Number 15, Fifth Year, Thul Qi‘dah 1407

AH, July 1987 AD. pp. 9-10.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). Die Dinosaurier

Ausstellung im Museum Alexander Koenig in Bonn,

Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany.

Number 27, Tenth Year, April 1992. pp. 1-8.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). An Introduction to

the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of

Germany. Number 30, Tenth Year, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (in

Arabic).

Elaphrosaurus bambergi. Head and hands based on Limusaurus. 2009.

FunkMonk (Michael B. H.).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Elaphrosaurus.jpg

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to

the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae‘q Al-Nouma‘n (Anemone

170


coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI

(Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental

Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with

Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine.

Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (in Arabic).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). Palestinian

Ornithomimid Dinosaur Tracks from Beit Zeit, Jerusalem. Gazelle:

The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Home Page. Environmental

Affairs 2 and Dinosaurs. www.gazelle.8m.net/custom3.html

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). Palestinian Legged

Snake Fossil from Ein Yabrud, north of Jerusalem. Gazelle: The

Palestinian Biological Bulletin Home Page. Fossils and Zoos.

http://gazelle.8m.net/shopping_page.html

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (Gründer) (seit Juli 2001).

Dinosaurier Club Yahoo Group.

http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Dinosaurierclub/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das

Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche

Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004. /

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in

Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. ISBN 3-00-

014121-9. Erste Auflage / First Edition, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten /

Pages. Zweite erweiterte Auflage (Second Extended Edition),

August 2004: 460 Seiten / Pages. Norman Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad

Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). The Reptiles in the Arabia‘s

Wildlife Centre in the Sharjah Desert Park, United Arab Emirates.

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 34, 22 nd Year,

August 2004. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 1-8.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Aquatica Arabica. An

Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe

between 1980 - 2005 / Aquatica Arabica. Eine Aquatische

Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa

zwischen 1980 - 2005. ISBN 3-00-014835-3. Erste Auflage, August

171


2005: 376 Seiten. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler,

Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/aquaticaarabica.htm

Beit Zeit Dinosaurs. Philately Day. 05.12.2000.

http://www.paleophilatelie.eu/description/stamps/israel_2000.html

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006).

Ornithomimid Dinosaur Tracks from Beit Zeit, West of Jerusalem,

Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 56,

Twenty-fourth Year, August 2006, Rajab 1427 H. pp. 1-7. Sharjah,

United Arab Emirates.

http://de.dir.groups.yahoo.com/group/Dinosaurier_Club/mess

age/183

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Eine Persönlichkeit

aus Jaffa, Palästina / A Personality from Jaffa, Palestine: Bassam

Ali Taher Khalaf (Abu Ali) (1938-2006). Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Number 56, Twenty-fourth Year, August 2006.

pp. 8-18. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Bassam_Khalaf.html

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007).

Haywanat Filistin حُٕاواث فهسطٕه (Fauna of Palestine). Wikipedia,

Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The

172


Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 69, Twenty-fifth Year,

September 2007 CE, Sha‘ban 1428 AH. pp. 1-4. (in Arabic).

http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8

%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D

8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86

Beit Zeit Dinosaors. Israeli Stamps. 05.12.2000.

http://www.paleophilatelie.eu/images/variations/israel_2000_fdc.jpg

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab

1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina

– Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe

between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine

Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen

1983 – 2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition,

September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali

Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates &

173


Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010).

Fauna Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab

Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins.

Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate

zwischen 2004 - 2009. ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First

Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: Dr.

Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United

Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik

Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm

Beit Zeit Dinosaur. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalafvon

Jaffa. 09.07.2013.

http://i1.ytimg.com/vi/KEtF3FUegOQ/maxresdefault.jpg

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2012). Fauna Palaestina

– Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 /

Fauna Palaestina - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina

zwischen 1983 – 2009. ISBN 978-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First

Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic

Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al

174


Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-normanali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2012). Ornithomimid

Dinosaur Tracks from Beit Zeit, West of Jerusalem, Palestine. In:

Fauna Palaestina – Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine

between 1983 – 2009 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Zwei. Zoologische

Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2009. ISBN 978-9948-16-667-

2. 1. Auflage / First Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. pp. 79-88.

Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Fauna Palaestina

– Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 /

Fauna Palaestina - Teil Drei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina

zwischen 2005 – 2012. ISBN 978-9950-383-35-7. Erste Auflage /

First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part

350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi

Publishing House, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine.

http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali

Taher (2013). Dinosaur Tracks at Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds

(Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013. Youtube Video.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KEtF3FUegOQ

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali

Taher (2014). The Ceratosaur Dinosaur Elaphrosaurus bambergi

Janensch, 1920 Tracks from Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds

(Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 117, September

2014, Thu Al-Qi‘da 1435 AH. pp. 1-33. Dubai and Sharjah, United

Arab Emirates. http://palestine-dinosaur.webs.com/

Kobayashi, Y. & R. Barsbold (2006). Ornithomimids from the

Nemegt Formation of Mongolia. J. Paleont. Soc. Korea. 22(1): 195-

207.

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du Sahara central. Mem. Soc. Geol. France. 88A 1-57.

175


Beit Zeit Dinosaors. Israeli Stamps. 05.12.2000.

http://www.paleophilatelie.eu/images/variations/israel_2000_fdc_ms.jpg

Leonardi, Guiseppe (1985). The oldest tetrapod record known in

the world, and other news. Ichnology Newsletter. 14:15-16.

Liddell, Henry George and Robert Scott (1980). A Greek-English

Lexicon (Abridged Edition). United Kingdom: Oxford University

Press.

Makovicky, P.J.; Y. Kobayashi & P.J. Currie (2004).

Ornithomimosauria. in: The Dinosauria. Second Edition. D.B.

Weishampel, P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds.). University of

California Press, Berkeley: 137-150.

New dinosaur tracks discovered. (Yemen).

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7410032.stm

Nicholls, E. and A. P. Russell (1985). Structure and function of the

pectoral girdle and forelimb of Struthiomimus altus (Theropoda:

Ornithomimidae). Palaeontology. 28(4): 643-677.

176


A large Dinosaur Footprint at Dubailand in Dubai, United Arab

Emirates. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa.

04.02.2014.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12337123304/

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163-188.

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Palestine. http://archive.is/O1C5m

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Osborn, H. F. (1917). Skeletal adaptations of Ornitholestes,

Struthiomimus, Tyrannosaurus. Bulletin of the American Museum of

Natural History. 35: 733-71.

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Schuster,New York.

Palestinian Ornithomimid Dinosaur Tracks from Beit Zeit, Jerusalem.

www.panoramio.com/photo/43628601

Paul, Gregory S. (1988). Genus Elaphrosaurus. Predatory Dinosaurs of

the World. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 265–266. ISBN 0-671-

61946-2.

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Philopatry. A Fractal Scaling in Dinosaurology Project, 2nd revised

printing. Capitola, California. 478 pp.

Probst, Ernst und Windolf, Raymund (1993). Dinosaurier in

Deutschland. C. Bertelsmann Verlag GmbH, München. 316 Seiten.

Rauhut, O.W.M. (2000). The dinosaur fauna from the Guimarota mine.

pp 75-82. In: Martin and Krebs (eds.). Guimarota - A Jurassic

Ecosystem. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München.

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Oldman Formation (Cretaceous) of Alberta. Canadian Journal of Earth

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western Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 9: 375–402.

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landmasses in the Mid-Cretaceous. Proceedings: Biological Sciences.

71(1546), 1325–1330.

Tsrenov, Prof. Eitan (The Hebrew University, Jerusalem). Israel 2000

"Dinosaur, Judean Hills".

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Beit Zeit Dinosaur Footprint. http://allaboutjerusalem.com/galleryimage/dinosaur-footprints-beit-zait-next-jerusalem/204

The Dinosaurs (terrible lizards) constitute two different groups of

extinct reptiles, derived from a common ancestor and together with

other groups like crocodiles, birds and other extinct reptiles, share

unique anatomical features.

The dinosaurs appeared on earth during the Triassic period, 235 million

years ago and continued to exist to the end of the Mesozoic (end of the

Cretaceous) era, when all of them, 65 million years ago, became extinct

together with many other groups of organisms. The common

explanation of this mass extinction is probably due to a massive impact

of an asteroid with the face of the earth, the consequence of which was a

worldwide catastrophe to life (Tsrenov).

During most of their existence on earth (around 170 million years) the

dinosaurs dominated most of the continental habitats, were wide spread

all over the continents and fed on a broad spectrum of diets (from

feeding on leaves to engaging a ferocious predatory behavior). Some of

them became highly socialized, laid eggs in bird-like nests ad protected

their youngsters. Some others achieved huge dimensions of the bodysize

(Tsrenov).

In the moshav settlement of Beit Zayit (Beit Zeit) near Jerusalem,

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footprints of some dinosaurs were found, which belong to a group of

agile animals, running on their hind limbs, which their forelimbs were

relatively very small, never used for locomotion, but rather helped then

to grasp food or prey. The late Prof. Moshe Avnimelech from

the Hebrew University of Jerusalem identified those footprints as

belonging to the genus Struthiomimus (=ostrich-like). Indeed, the

reconstruction of the animal (exhibited in the backyard of

the department of Geology in the Hebrew University) shows a close

artificial similarity with ostriches and their capability for a high-speed

locomotion. Yet, contrary with all other birds, its body was covered

with horny scales, showed no teeth in its jaws, which was covered with

a horny sharp sheath and fed on leaves. The Beit Zeit dinosaur was

relatively small (150 kg, 4 meters long) (Tsrenov).

Related species of the same age were described from North America

and Mongolia. Until now, no dinosaur bones were found in Palestine,

but the footprints of Beit Zeit show that a band of this species ran about

the shoreline of the old Tethys Ocean which, at that time, covered the

coasts of the Middle East (Tsrenov).

Beit Zeit Dinosaurs. Israeli Stamps Booklet.

http://www.paleophilatelie.eu/images/variations/israel_2000_booklet.jpg

180


181


Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta

caretta Linnaeus, 1758) Nesting in

Palestine

تعشيش السالحف البحريت الضخمت الرأس في

فلسطين

By: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa

The Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758),

or Loggerhead, is an oceanic turtle distributed throughout the

world. It is a marine reptile, belonging to the family Cheloniidae.

The average loggerhead measures around 90 cm (35 in) long

when fully grown, although larger specimens of up to 280 cm

(110 in) have been discovered. The adult loggerhead sea turtle

weighs approximately 135 kg (300 lb), with the largest specimens

weighing in at more than 450 kg (1,000 lb). The skin ranges from

yellow to brown in color, and the shell is typically reddish-brown.

No external differences in gender are seen until the turtle becomes

an adult, the most obvious difference being the adult males have

thicker tails and shorter plastrons than the females (Wikipedia,

Khalaf 2013).

The loggerhead sea turtle is found in the Atlantic, Pacific,

and Indian Oceans, as well as the Mediterranean Sea. It spends

most of its life in saltwater and estuarine habitats, with females

briefly coming ashore to lay eggs. The loggerhead sea turtle has a

low reproductive rate; females lay an average of four

egg clutches and then become quiescent, producing no eggs for

two to three years. The loggerhead reaches sexual maturity within

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17–33 years and has a lifespan of 47–67 years (Wikipedia, Khalaf

2013).

The loggerhead sea turtle is omnivorous, feeding mainly on

bottom-dwelling invertebrates. Its large and powerful jaws serve

as an effective tool for dismantling its prey. Young loggerheads

are exploited by numerous predators; the eggs are especially

vulnerable to terrestrial organisms. Once the turtles reach

adulthood, their formidable size limits predation to large marine

animals, such as sharks (Wikipedia, Khalaf 2013).

Hatchling Loggerhead sea turtles near Atlit, south of Haifa, Occupied

Palestine, on their way to the Mediterranean Sea. Photo: Hila Shaked.

August 2010.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6c/Hatchling_L

oggerhead_Sea_Turtles_near_Atlit_Israel.jpg

Loggerheads are considered an endangered species and are

protected by the International Union for the Conservation of

Nature. Untended fishing gear is responsible for many

loggerhead deaths. Turtles may also suffocate if they are trapped

in fishing trawls. Turtle excluder devices have been implemented

in efforts to reduce mortality by providing an escape route for the

turtles. Loss of suitable nesting beaches and the introduction of

183


exotic predators have also taken a toll on loggerhead populations.

Efforts to restore their numbers will require international

cooperation, since the turtles roam vast areas of ocean and critical

nesting beaches are scattered across several countries (Wikipedia,

Khalaf 2013).

Among sea turtle species, the loggerhead (Caretta caretta Linnaeus,

1758) is the most commonly found on the shores of Palestine. The

main nesting grounds for the Mediterranean population of this

species are located along the shores of Greece, Cyprus and Turkey

(I.C.S.E.M. Report 1986). Until quite recently, hundreds of nests

were found each year along the Mediterranean coast of Palestine.

In the 1950's, some 200 nests with a density of about 15 nests per

km were recorded on 15 km of typical beach in the northern

region of Palestine (Sella 1982). The picture has changed,

however, during the last few decades. The latest reports by the

Israeli Nature Reserves Authority (Soffer 1988, Kuler 1990), and

the research results of Silberstein and Dmi'el (1991) show that the

abundance and density of nesting by this species has abruptly

decreased. Along some 55 km of coastline, which includes the

surveyed area mentioned in Sella's report, only 10 nests were

found in 1984, 14 in 1985, 16 in 1986, 16 in 1987, and 11 and 13

nests in the years 1988 and 1989, respectively. Personal Reports

also revealed a similar situation on other Mediterranean beaches

in Palestine (Silberstein and Dmi'el 1991).

In the framework of attempts to recover the loggerhead sea turtle

in Palestine, several aspects of its reproduction were investigated,

with an emphasis on the physical conditions prevailing in the

nests. During the 1986-1989 nesting seasons (mid-May through

July), Silberstein and Dmi'el (1991) surveyed repeatedly, in

collaboration with the rangers of the Nature Reserves Authority,

35 km of beach along the northern Mediterranean coast of

Palestine. A total of 34 loggerhead nests were found in this area

(16 nests were found in 1986, 10 in 1987, 4 in 1988, 4 in 1989). The

earliest clutch was laid on 21 May, the latest on 27 July. Most of

184


the nests were located


poorly located nests, as is done for other sea turtle species (e.g.,

Eckert and Eckert 1990). These eggs should be transplanted over

the shortest practicable distance and reburied under favorable

natural conditions (at a beach hatchery site if necessary). As a last

resort, and only if beach reburial is not possible, eggs may be

artificially incubated in the laboratory. This procedure has been

shown to result in high (90%) hatching success (Silberstein 1988).

In either case, hatchlings should be released immediately to the

sea from the original oviposition site. Other measures should

include the protection of nesting and foraging grounds,

technology to reduce incidental catch, and a concerted effort at

public awareness and education (Silberstein and Dmi'el 1991).

References and Internet Websites

Animal Diversity Web. Caretta caretta Loggerhead.

http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Caretta_care

tta/

Arkive. Loggerhead Turtle (Caretta caretta).

http://www.arkive.org/loggerhead-turtle/caretta-caretta/

Dunya Al Watan دوٕا انُطه (30.08.2013). Animal World: In Pictures ..

بانصُر .. إصطٕاد Sea. Catching a great turtle on the Coast of Gaza

Arabic). Photo by: Ihab Fasfous. (in اة ػماللت ػهّ‏ شاطئ بحز غشة

http://www.alwatanvoice.com/arabic/news/2013/08/30/43050

0.html

Eckert, K. L. and S. A. Eckert (1990). Embryo mortality and hatch

success in in situ and translocated leatherback sea turtle

(Dermochelys coriacea) eggs. Biol. Cons. 53:37-46.

I.C.S.E.M. (1986). Proc. Working Group on Mediterranean Marine

Turtles, Palma de Majorca, October 1986. Intl. Council for the

Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean, Monaco.

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1980). Tabie‘t Al-Talawon fi Al-

Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin.

Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait

University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (In Arabic).

سهحف

186


Khalaf, N.A.B. (1986). The Schooling of Sumatra Barbs (Barbus

tetrazona tetrazona) and Minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus).

Dissertation, Master of Science in Ecology, Departments of

Zoology and Botany, University of Durham, England. September

1986. pps. 59 + iv.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). A Trip to Zoo

Budapest, Hungary. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.

Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 21,

Ninth Year, January 1991. pp. 1-4.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). An Introduction to

the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of

Germany. Number 30, Tenth Year, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (In

Arabic).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to

the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae‘q Al-Nouma‘n (Anemone

coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI

(Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental

Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with

Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine.

Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (In Arabic).

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). The Extinct and Endangered

Animals in Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin Home Page. Extinct and Endangered Animals and

Reintroduction. http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das

Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche

Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004. /

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in

Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. ISBN 3-00-

014121-9. Erste Auflage / First Edition, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten /

Pages. Zweite erweiterte Auflage (Second Extended Edition),

August 2004: 460 Seiten / Pages. Norman Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad

Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/

187


Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Jaffa (Yaffa): The History of

an Old Palestinian Arab City on the Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle:

The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab

Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 7-8.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Andromeda Sea

Monster of Jaffa. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year,

March 2005. pp. 8.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Aquatica Arabica. An

Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe

between 1980 - 2005 / Aquatica Arabica. Eine Aquatische

Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa

zwischen 1980 - 2005. ISBN 3-00-014835-3. Erste Auflage / First

Edition, August 2005: 376 Seiten / Pages. Norman Ali Khalaf,

Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah,

United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/aquaticaarabica.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Rafah Zoo in the Rafah

Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip, Palestine : A Story of Destruction by

the Israeli Occupation Army. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin. Number 46, Twenty-third Year, October 2005, Ramadan

1426. pp. 1-11. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (2005). The Qalqilia Zoo

and the Natural History Museum in the City of Qalqilia, West

Bank, Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal

1426. pp. 1-10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(Gründer) (seit Juni 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna

Palaestina.

http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Palaestina/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(Gründer) (seit September 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group:

Fauna Arabica.

http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Arabica/

188


Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007).

Haywanat Filistin حُٕاواث فهسطٕه (Fauna of Palestine). Wikipedia,

Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 69, Twenty-fifth Year,

September 2007 CE, Sha‘ban 1428 AH. pp. 1-4. (in Arabic).

http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8

%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D

8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86 Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc.

Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian

Waters: A Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) rescued

near the Tantura Beach, Carmel Coast, North Palestine: The First

Record from the Palestinian Mediterranean Coast. Gazelle: The

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp.

22-23. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstracts in English and

Arabic). http://whale-shark.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian Waters: Whale Sharks

(Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) near Um Al-Rashrash (Eilat) Beach,

Gulf of Aqaba, South Palestine: First Records from the Palestinian

Red Sea Coast. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.

Number 71, November 2007. pp. 23-26. Sharjah, United Arab

Emirates. (Abstract in English and Arabic). http://whaleshark.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2007). An Ocean Sunfish or Common Mola (Mola mola, Linnaeus

1758) caught off the coast of Gaza: The First Record from

Palestine, East Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Number 72, December 2007, pp. 1-16.

(Abstracts in English and Arabic).

https://de.groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Fauna_Palaestina/co

nversations/messages/37

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2008). Cetacea Palaestina: The Whales and Dolphins in

Palestinian Waters. Cetacean Species Guide for Palestine. Gazelle:

The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 83, November 2008,

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Thu Al-Qi‘ada 1429 AH. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://cetacea-palaestina.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab

1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina

– Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe

between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine

Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen

1983 – 2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition,

September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali

Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates &

Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010).

Fauna Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab

Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins.

Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate

zwischen 2004 - 2009. ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First

Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: Dr.

Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United

Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik

Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2012). Fauna Palaestina

– Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 /

Fauna Palaestina - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina

zwischen 1983 – 2009. ISBN 978-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First

Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic

Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al

Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Fauna Palaestina

190


– Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 /

Fauna Palaestina - Teil Drei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina

zwischen 2005 – 2012. ISBN 978-9950-383-35-7. Erste Auflage /

First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part

350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi

Publishing House, Jerusalem, State of Palestine. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali

Taher (2013). The Bycatch of a Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta

caretta Linnaeus, 1758) in a fishing net on the Gaza Coast, Gaza,

State of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.

ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 108, December 2013, Safar 1435 AH.

pp. 1-25. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://marine-life-palestine.webs.com/loggerhead-sea-turtlegaza-1

School children watching as volunteers of the Israeli Sea Turtle Rescue Centre

and releasing a Loggerhead Sea Turtle back into the Mediterranean Sea on

Thursday 21.11.2013 in Ga’ash, Central of Occupied Palestine. Photo: Uriel

Sinai, Getty Images. http://blogs.ft.com/photodiary/files/2013/11/TURTLE.jpg

191


Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali

Taher (2014). Records of Dead Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta

caretta Linnaeus, 1758) washed up on the Jaffa Beach, Occupied

Palestine between 2010-2013. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 114, June 2014, Sha‘ban 1435

AH. pp. 1-11. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://marine-life-palestine.webs.com/loggerhead-sea-turtlejaffa

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali

Taher (2014). Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus,

1758) Nesting in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 115, July 2014, Ramadan 1435

AH. pp. 1-9. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://marine-life-palestine.webs.com/loggerhead-turtlepalestine

Kuler, Z. (1990). Summary of the 1989 annual sea turtle nesting

survey. Nature Reserves Authority, Central Region, Israel. 10 pp.

(in Hebrew).

National Geographic. Loggerhead Sea Turtle Caretta caretta.

http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/reptiles/logger

head-sea-turtle/

NOAA Fisheries. Office of Protected Resources. Loggerhead

Turtle (Caretta caretta).

http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/turtles/loggerhead.htm

Sea Turtles 911. Loggerhead Sea Turtle.

http://www.seaturtles911.org/turtle/loggerhead.htm

Sella, I. (1982). Sea turtles in the eastern Mediterranean and

northern Red Sea, p. 417-423. In: Biology and Conservation of Sea

Turtles (K. A. Bjorndal, ed.). Smithsonian Institution Press,

Washington D.C.

Silberstein, D. (1988). The physical conditions prevailing in nests

of the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) and their effect on egg

development. Master of Science thesis, Dept. of Zool., Tel Aviv

University. 71 pp. (in Hebrew with English summary).

192


Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa with a

Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758) carapace at

the Sea Wonders shop, Souk Al Arsa, Sharjah, United Arab

Emirates. 19.12.2013.

انمؤنف مغ صذفت ظٍزٔت نسهحفاة بحزٔت ضخمت انزأص فٓ‏ محم ػجائب انبحار فٓ‏ سُق

انؼزصت ، مىطمت انخزاد ، انشارلت ، دَنت اإلماراث انؼزبٕت انمخحذة . 19.12.2013

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/11792225256/

193


Silberstein, Dalia and Razi Dmi'el (1991). Loggerhead Sea Turtle

Nesting in Israel. Marine Turtle Newsletter 53:17-18, 1991.

http://www.seaturtle.org/mtn/archives/mtn53/mtn53p17.shtm

l

Soffer, A. (1988). Sea turtles nesting in Haifa - Caesarea beach.

Nature Reserves Authority, Jerusalem, Israel. 31 pp. (in Hebrew).

Wikipedia. Loggerhead Sea Turtle.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loggerhead_sea_turtle

حٌوانات فلسطٌن

بقلم : أ.د.‏ نورمان ‏)نعمان(‏ علً‏ بسام خلف الٌافاوي

http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7

%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%

B7%D9%8A%D9%86

.

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195


The Bycatch of a Loggerhead Sea

Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758)

in a fishing net on the Gaza Coast,

Gaza, State of Palestine

إصطٌاد السلحفاة البحرٌة ضخمة الرأس فً‏ شباك

الصٌادٌن فً‏ بحر غزة ، غزة ، دولة فلسطٌن

By: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa

The Loggerhead Sea Turtle which was caught in a fishing net on the

coast of Gaza, Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al

Watan, 2013).

On Wednesday 28.08.2013 a fishermen team from Gaza, State of

Palestine, caught a Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta

Linnaeus, 1758) as a bycatch in their fishing net on the coast of

Gaza.

Fisherman Mr. Abd Al Salam Radwan said that the sea turtle

weighed more than 70 kilogram and is more than 100 years old.

196


The fishermen decided to give the sea turtle to Gaza Zoo to look

after it, after they saw the happiness of children when they caught

it (Dunya Al Watan, 2013).

The Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta), or Loggerhead, is

an oceanic turtle distributed throughout the world. It is a marine

reptile, belonging to the family Cheloniidae. The average

loggerhead measures around 90 cm (35 in) long when fully

grown, although larger specimens of up to 280 cm (110 in) have

been discovered. The adult loggerhead sea turtle weighs

approximately 135 kg (300 lb), with the largest specimens

weighing in at more than 450 kg (1,000 lb). The skin ranges from

yellow to brown in color, and the shell is typically reddish-brown.

No external differences in gender are seen until the turtle becomes

an adult, the most obvious difference being the adult males have

thicker tails and shorter plastrons than the females (Wikipedia).

The Fishermen pulling the fishing net on the coast of Gaza, State of

Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al Watan, 2013).

197


The Fishermen pulling the fishing net on the coast of Gaza, State of

Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al Watan, 2013).

The loggerhead sea turtle is found in the Atlantic, Pacific,

and Indian Oceans, as well as the Mediterranean Sea. It spends

most of its life in saltwater and estuarine habitats, with females

briefly coming ashore to lay eggs. The loggerhead sea turtle has a

low reproductive rate; females lay an average of four

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egg clutches and then become quiescent, producing no eggs for

two to three years. The loggerhead reaches sexual maturity within

17–33 years and has a lifespan of 47–67 years (Wikipedia).

The loggerhead sea turtle is omnivorous, feeding mainly on

bottom-dwelling invertebrates. Its large and powerful jaws serve

as an effective tool for dismantling its prey. Young loggerheads

are exploited by numerous predators; the eggs are especially

vulnerable to terrestrial organisms. Once the turtles reach

adulthood, their formidable size limits predation to large marine

animals, such as sharks (Wikipedia).

Loggerheads are considered an endangered species and are

protected by the International Union for the Conservation of

Nature. Untended fishing gear is responsible for many

loggerhead deaths. Turtles may also suffocate if they are trapped

in fishing trawls. Turtle excluder devices have been implemented

in efforts to reduce mortality by providing an escape route for the

turtles. Loss of suitable nesting beaches and the introduction of

exotic predators have also taken a toll on loggerhead populations.

Efforts to restore their numbers will require international

cooperation, since the turtles roam vast areas of ocean and critical

nesting beaches are scattered across several countries (Wikipedia).

Description

The loggerhead sea turtle is the world's largest hard-shelled

turtle. Adults have an average weight range of 80 to 200 kg (180 to

440 lb) and a length range of 70 to 95 cm (28 to 37 in). The

maximum reported weight is 545 kg (1,200 lb) and the maximum

carapace length is 213 cm (84 in). The head and carapace (upper

shell) range from a yellow-orange to a reddish-brown, while the

plastron (underside) is typically pale yellow. The turtle's neck and

sides are brown on the tops and yellow on the sides and bottom

(Wikipedia).

199


The turtle's shell is divided into two sections: carapace and

plastron. The carapace is further divided into large plates,

or scutes. Typically, 11 or 12 pairs of marginal scutes rim the

carapace. Five vertebral scutes run down the carapace's midline,

while five pairs of costal scutes border them. The nuchal scute is

located at the base of the head. The carapace connects to the

plastron by three pairs of inframarginal scutes forming the bridge

of the shell. The plastron features paired gular, humeral, pectoral,

abdominal, femoral, and anal scutes. The shell serves as external

armor, although loggerhead sea turtles cannot retract their heads

or flippers into their shells (Wikipedia).

The Fishermen pulling the fishing net on the coast of Gaza, State of

Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al Watan, 2013).

Sexual dimorphism of the loggerhead sea turtle is only apparent

in adults. Adult males have longer tails and claws than females.

The males' plastrons are shorter than the females', presumably to

accommodate the males' larger tails. The carapaces of males are

wider and less domed than the females', and males typically have

200


wider heads than females. The sex of juveniles and subadults

cannot be determined through external anatomy, but can be

observed through dissection, laparoscopy (an operation

performed on the abdomen), histological examination (cell

anatomy), and radioimmunological assays (immune study

dealing with radiolabeling) (Wikipedia).

Lachrymal glands located behind each eye allow the loggerhead

to maintain osmotic balance by eliminating the excess salt

obtained from ingesting ocean water. On land, the excretion of

excess salt gives the false impression that the turtle is crying

(Wikipedia).

The Loggerhead Sea Turtle is caught in the fishing net on the coast of

Gaza, State of Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al

Watan, 2013).

Distribution

The loggerhead sea turtle has a cosmopolitan distribution, nesting

over the broadest geographical range of any sea turtle. It inhabits

201


the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans and the Mediterranean

Sea (Wikipedia).

In the Atlantic Ocean, the greatest concentration of loggerheads is

along the southeastern coast of North America and in the Gulf of

Mexico. Very few loggerheads are found along the European and

African coastlines. Florida is the most popular nesting site, with

more than 67,000 nests built per year. Nesting extends as far north

as Virginia, as far south as Brazil, and as far east as the Cape

Verde Islands. The Cape Verde Islands are the only significant

nesting site on the eastern side of the Atlantic. Loggerheads found

in the Atlantic Ocean feed from Canada to Brazil (Wikipedia).

The Loggerhead Sea Turtle is caught in the fishing net on the coast of

Gaza, State of Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al

Watan, 2013).

In the Indian Ocean, loggerheads feed along the coastlines of

Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and in the Arabian Sea. Along the

African coastline, loggerheads nest from Mozambique's Bazaruto

Archipelago to South Africa's St. Lucia estuary. The largest Indian

202


Ocean nesting site is Oman, on the Arabian Peninsula, which

hosts around 15,000 nests, giving it the second largest nesting

population of loggerheads in the world. Western Australia is

another notable nesting area, with 1,000–2,000 nests per year

(Wikipedia).

Pacific loggerheads live in temperate to tropical regions. They

forage in the East China Sea, the southwestern Pacific, and along

the Baja California Peninsula. Eastern Australia and Japan are the

major nesting areas, with the Great Barrier Reef deemed an

important nesting area. Pacific loggerheads occasionally nest

in Vanuatu and Tokelau. Yakushima Island in Japan is the most

important site, with three nesting grounds visited by 40% of all

nearby loggerheads. After nesting, females often find homes in

the East China Sea, while the Kuroshio Current Extension's

Bifurcation region provides important juvenile foraging areas.

Eastern Pacific populations are concentrated off the coast of Baja

California, where upwelling provides rich feeding grounds for

juvenile turtles and subadults. Nesting sites along the eastern

Pacific Basin are rare. mtDNA sequence polymorphism analysis

and tracking studies suggest 95% of the population along the

coast of the Americas hatch on the Japanese Islands in the western

Pacific. The turtles are transported by the prevailing currents

across the full length of the northern Pacific, one of the longest

migration routes of any marine animal. The return journey to the

natal beaches in Japan has been long suspected, although the trip

would cross unproductive clear water with few feeding

opportunities. Evidence of a return journey came from an adult

female loggerhead named Adelita, which in 1996, equipped with

a satellite tracking device, made the 14500-km (9000-mi) trip from

Mexico across the Pacific. Adelita was the first animal of any kind

ever tracked across an ocean basin (Wikipedia).

The Mediterranean Sea is a nursery for juveniles, as well as a

common place for adults in the spring and summer months.

Almost 45% of the Mediterranean juvenile population has

migrated from the Atlantic. Loggerheads feed in the Alboran

203


Sea and the Adriatic Sea. Greece is the most popular nesting site

along the Mediterranean, with more than 3,000 nests per

year. Because of this, Greek authorities do not allow planes to take

off or land at night in Zakynthos due to the nesting turtles. In

addition to the Greek coast, the coastlines of Cyprus and Turkey

are also common nesting sites (Wikipedia).

One record of this turtle was made in Ireland washed ashore on

Ballyhealy Beach in Co. Wexford (Wikipedia).

The Loggerhead Sea Turtle is caught in the fishing net on the coast of

Gaza, State of Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al

Watan, 2013).

Habitat

Loggerhead sea turtles spend most of their lives in the open ocean

and in shallow coastal waters. They rarely come ashore, with the

exception of the females' brief visits to construct nests and deposit

eggs. Hatchling loggerhead turtles live in floating mats

of Sargassum algae. Adults and juveniles live along the continental

shelf, as well as in shallow coastal estuaries. In the northwestern

204


Atlantic Ocean, age plays a factor in habitat preference. Juveniles

are more frequently found in shallow estuarine habitats with

limited ocean access compared to non-nesting adults.

Loggerheads occupy waters with surface temperatures ranging

from 13.3-28.0°C (56-82°F) during non-nesting season.

Temperatures from 27-28°C are most suitable for nesting females

(Wikipedia).

The Loggerhead Sea Turtle is freed from the fishing net on the coast of

Gaza, State of Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al

Watan, 2013).

Juvenile loggerheads share the Sargassum habitat with a variety of

other organisms. The mats of Sargassum contain as many as 100

different species of animals on which the juveniles feed. Some of

the prey, such as ants, flies, aphids, leafhoppers, and beetles, are

carried by the wind to these areas. Endemic prey of the mats

include barnacles, small crab larvae, fish eggs, and hydrozoan

colonies. Marine mammals and commercial fish, such

as tuna, dolphin fish, and amberjacks, also inhabit the mats

(Wikipedia).

205


The Loggerhead Sea Turtle is freed from the fishing net on the coast of

Gaza, State of Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al

Watan, 2013).

Ecology and Behaviour

Loggerhead sea turtles observed in captivity and in the wild are

most active during the day. In captivity, the loggerheads' daily

activities are divided between swimming and resting on the

bottom. While resting, they spread their forelimbs to about midstroke

swimming position. They remain motionless with eyes

open or half-shut and are easily alerted during this state. At night,

captives sleep in the same position with their eyes tightly shut,

and are slow to react. Loggerheads spend up to 85% of their day

submerged, with males being the more active divers than females.

The average duration of dives is 15–30 min, but they can stay

submerged for up to four hours. Juvenile loggerheads and adults

differ in their swimming methods. A Juvenile keeps its forelimbs

pressed to the side of its carapace, and propels itself by kicking

with its hind limbs. As the juvenile matures, its swimming

method is progressively replaced with the adult's alternating-limb

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method. They depend entirely on this method of swimming by

one year old (Wikipedia).

Water temperature affects the sea turtle's metabolic rate.

Lethargy is induced at temperatures between 13 and 15°C (55 and

59°F). The loggerhead takes on a floating, cold-stunned posture

when temperatures drop to around 10°C. However, younger

loggerheads are more resistant to cold and do not become

stunned until temperatures drop below 9°C. The

loggerheads' migration helps to prevent instances of coldstunning.

Higher water temperatures cause an increase in

metabolism and heart rate. A loggerhead's body temperature

increases in warmer waters more quickly than it decreases in

colder water; their critical thermal maximum is currently

unknown (Wikipedia).

A fisherman is carrying the Loggerhead Sea Turtle on the coast of Gaza,

State of Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al Watan,

2013).

207


Female-female aggression, which is especially uncommon in

marine vertebrates, is common among loggerheads. Ritualized

aggression escalates from passive threat displays to combat. This

conflict primarily occurs over access to feeding grounds.

Escalation typically follows four steps. First, initial contact is

stimulated by visual or tactile cues. Second, confrontation occurs,

beginning with passive confrontations characterized by wide

head-tail circling. They begin aggressive confrontation when one

turtle ceases to circle and directly faces the other. Third, sparring

occurs with turtles snapping at each other‘s jaws. The final stage,

separation, is either mutual, with both turtles swimming away in

opposite directions, or involves chasing one out of the immediate

vicinity. Escalation is determined by several factors, including

hormone levels, energy expenditure, expected outcome, and

importance of location. At all stages, an upright tail shows

willingness to escalate, while a curled tail shows willingness to

submit. Because higher aggression is metabolically costly and

potentially debilitating, contact is much more likely to escalate

when the conflict is over access to good foraging grounds. Further

aggression has also been reported in captive loggerheads. The

turtles are seemingly territorial, and will fight with other

loggerheads and sea turtles of different species (Wikipedia).

Feeding

The loggerhead sea turtle is omnivorous, feeding mainly on

bottom-dwelling invertebrates, such as gastropods, bivalves,

and decapods. It has a greater list of known prey than any other

sea turtle. Other food items include sponges, corals, sea

pens, polychaete worms, sea anemones, cephalopods, barnacles,

brachiopods, isopods, insects, bryozoans, sea urchins, sand

dollars, sea cucumbers, starfish, fish (eggs, juveniles, and adults),

hatchling turtles (including members of its own species), algae,

and vascular plants. During migration through the open sea,

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loggerheads eat jellyfish, floating molluscs, floating egg

clusters, squid, and flying fish (Wikipedia).

Loggerheads crush prey with their large and powerful jaws.

Projecting scale points on the anterior margin of the forelimbs

allow manipulation of the food. These points can be used as

"pseudo-claws" to tear large pieces of food in the loggerhead's

mouth. The loggerhead will turn its neck sideways to consume

the torn food on the scale points. Inward-pointing, mucuscovered

papillae found in the fore region of the

loggerhead's esophagus filter out foreign bodies, such as fish

hooks. The next region of the esophagus is not papillated, with

numerous mucosal folds. The digestion rate in loggerheads is

temperature-dependent; it increases as temperature increases

(Wikipedia).

A fisherman is carrying the Loggerhead Sea Turtle on the coast of Gaza,

State of Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al Watan,

2013).

209


A fisherman is carrying the Loggerhead Sea Turtle on the coast of Gaza,

State of Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al Watan,

2013).

210


Predators

Loggerheads have numerous predators, especially early in their

lives. Egg and nestling predators include oligochaete

worms, beetles, fly larvae, ants, parasitoid wasp larvae, flesh flies,

crabs, snakes, gulls, corvids, opossums, bears, rats, armadillos,

mustelids, skunks, canids, procyonids, cats, pigs, and humans.

During their migration from their nests to the sea, hatchlings are

preyed on by dipteran larvae, crabs, toads, lizards, snakes,

seabirds such as frigatebirds, and other assorted birds and

mammals. In the ocean, predators of the loggerhead juveniles

include fish, such as parrotfish and moray eels, and portunid

crabs. Adults are more rarely attacked due to their large size, but

may be preyed on by large sharks, seals, and killer whales.

Nesting females are attacked by flesh flies, feral dogs, and

humans. Salt marsh mosquitos can also pester nesting females

(Wikipedia).

The Loggerhead Sea Turtle on the coast of Gaza, State of Palestine.

28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al Watan, 2013).

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In Australia, the introduction of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) by

English settlers in the 19th century led to significant reductions in

loggerhead sea turtle populations. In one coastal section in eastern

Australia during the 1970s, predation of turtle eggs destroyed up

to 95% of all clutches laid. Aggressive efforts to destroy foxes in

the 1980s and 1990s has reduced this impact; however, it is

estimated that it will be the year 2020 before populations will

experience complete recovery from such dramatic losses

(Wikipedia).

The Loggerhead Sea Turtle on the coast of Gaza, State of Palestine.

28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al Watan, 2013).

Along the southeastern coast of the United States, the raccoon

(Procyon lotor) is the most destructive predator of nesting sites.

Mortality rates of nearly 100% of all clutches laid in a season have

been recorded on some Florida beaches. This is attributed to an

increase in raccoon populations, which have flourished in urban

environments. Aggressive efforts to protect nesting sites by

covering them with wire mesh has significantly reduced the

impact of raccoon predation on loggerhead sea turtle eggs. On

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Bald Head Island in North Carolina, wire mesh screens are used

on every confirmed nest to prevent excavation by resident red

foxes. A new concern with the steel cage technique is interference

with the normal development of the nestlings' magnetic sense due

to the use of ferrous wire, which may disrupt the turtles' ability to

navigate properly. Efforts are underway to find a nonmagnetic

material that will prevent predators gnawing through the barrier

(Wikipedia).

Up to 40% of nesting females around the world have wounds

believed to come from shark attacks (Wikipedia).

A fisherman is kissing the Loggerhead Sea Turtle on the coast of Gaza,

State of Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al Watan,

2013).

Diseases and Parasites

Infectious bacteria such as Pseudomonas and Salmonella attack

loggerhead hatchlings and eggs. Fungi such as Penicillium infect

loggerhead sea turtle nests and cloacae (Wikipedia).

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Fibropapillomatosis disease caused by a form of the herpestype

virus threatens loggerheads with internal and external

tumors. These tumors disrupt essential behaviors and, if on the

eyes, cause permanent blindness. Trematodes of the family

Spirorchiidae inhabit tissues throughout the body of the

loggerhead, including vital organs, such as the heart and the

brain. Trematode infection can be highly debilitating. For

example, inflammatory trematode lesions can cause endocarditis

and neurological disease. A nematode, Angiostoma carettae, also

infects loggerheads, causing histologic lesions in the respiratory

tract (Wikipedia).

More than 100 species of animals from 13 phyla, as well as 37

kinds of algae, live on loggerheads' backs. These parasitic

organisms, which increase drag, offer no known benefit to the

turtle, although the dulling effect of organisms on shell color may

improve camouflage (Wikipedia).

Life History

Early Life

Hatchlings range in colour from light brown to almost black,

lacking the adult's distinct yellows and reds. Upon hatching, they

measure about 4.6 cm (1.8 in) and weigh about 20 g (0.7 oz). The

eggs are typically laid on the beach in an area above the high-tide

line. The eggs are laid near the water so the hatchlings can return

to the sea. The loggerhead's sex is dictated by the temperature of

the underground nest. Incubation temperatures generally range

from 26-32°C (79-90°F). Sea turtle eggs kept at a constant

incubating temperature of 32°C become females. Eggs incubating

at 28°C become males. An incubation temperature of 30°C results

in an equal ratio of male to female hatchlings. Hatchlings from

eggs in the middle of the clutch tend to be the largest, grow the

fastest, and be the most active during the first few days of sea life

(Wikipedia).

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After incubating for around 80 days, hatchlings dig through the

sand to the surface, usually occurs at night, when darkness

increases the chance of escaping predation and damage from

extreme sand surface temperatures is reduced. Hatchlings enter

the ocean by navigating toward the brighter horizon created by

the reflection of the moon and starlight off the water's surface

(Wikipedia).

A fisherman is posing with the Loggerhead Sea Turtle on the coast of

Gaza, State of Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al

Watan, 2013).

Hatchlings can lose up to 20% of their body mass due to

evaporation of water as they journey from nest to ocean. They

initially use the undertow to push them five to 10 m away from

the shore. Once in the ocean, they swim for about 20 hours,

bringing them far offshore. An iron compound, magnetite, in their

brains allows the turtles to perceive the Earth's magnetic field, for

navigation. Many hatchlings use Sargassum in the open ocean as

protection until they reach 45 cm (18 in). Hatchling loggerheads

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live in this pelagic environment until they reach juvenile age, and

then they migrate to nearshore waters (Wikipedia).

A girl is sitting on the Loggerhead Sea Turtle on the coast of Gaza, State

of Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al Watan,

2013).

Maturation

When ocean waters cool, loggerheads must migrate to warmer

areas or hibernate to some degree. In the coldest months, they

submerge for up to seven hours at a time, emerging for only

seven minutes to breathe. Although outdone by freshwater

turtles, these are among the longest recorded dives for any airbreathing

marine vertebrate. During their seasonal migration,

juvenile loggerheads have the ability to use both magnetic and

visual cues. When both aids are available, they are used in

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conjunction; if one aid is not available, the other suffices. The

turtles swim at about 1.6 km/h (0.9 kn; 0.4 m/s) during migration

(Wikipedia).

Like all marine turtles, the loggerhead prepares for reproduction

in its foraging area. This takes place several years before the

loggerhead migrates to a mating area. Female loggerheads first

reproduce at ages 28–33 in Southeastern United States and

Australia, and at ages 17–30 in South Africa. Age at first

reproduction in the Mediterranean, Oman, Japan, and Brazil are

unknown. Nesting loggerheads have a straight carapace length of

70–109 cm (28–43 in). Because of the large range, carapace length

is not a reliable indicator of sexual maturity. Their estimated

maximum lifespan is 47–67 years in the wild (Wikipedia).

Reproduction

Female loggerheads first reproduce between the ages of 17 and

33, and their mating period may last more than six weeks. They

court their mates, but these behaviours have not been thoroughly

examined. Male forms of courtship behaviour include nuzzling,

biting, and head and flipper movements. Studies suggest females

produce cloacal pheromones to indicate reproductive ability.

Before mating, the male approaches a female and attempts to

mount her, while she resists. Next, the male and female begin to

circle each other. If the male has competitors, the female may let

the males struggle with each other. The winner then mounts the

female; the male's curved claws usually damage the shoulders of

the female's shell during this process. Other courting males bite

the male while he is attempting to copulate, damaging his flippers

and tail, possibly exposing bones. Such damage can cause the

male to dismount and may require weeks to heal. While nesting,

females produce an average of 3.9 egg clutches, and then become

quiescent, producing no eggs for two to three years. Unlike other

sea turtles, courtship and mating usually do not take place near

the nesting beach, but rather along migration routes between

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feeding and breeding grounds. Recent evidence indicates

ovulation in loggerheads is mating-induced. Through the act of

mating, the female ovulate eggs which are fertilized by the male.

This is unique, as mating-induced ovulation is rare outside of

mammals. In the Northern Hemisphere, loggerheads mate from

late March to early June. The nesting season is short, between

May and August in the Northern Hemisphere and between

October and March in the Southern Hemisphere (Wikipedia).

Loggerheads may display multiple paternity. Multiple paternity

is possible due to sperm storage. The female can store sperm from

multiple males in her oviducts until ovulation. A single clutch

may have as many as five fathers, each contributing sperm to a

portion of the clutch. Multiple paternity and female size are

positively correlated. Two hypotheses explain this correlation.

One posits that males favor large females because of their

perceived higher fecundity (ability to reproduce). The other states,

because larger females are able to swim more quickly to mating

grounds, they have longer mating periods (Wikipedia).

All sea turtles have similar basic nesting behaviours. Females

return to lay eggs at intervals of 12–17 days during the nesting

season, on or near the beach where they hatched. They exit the

water, climb the beach, and scrape away the surface sand to form

a body pit. With their hind limbs, they excavate an egg chamber

in which the eggs are deposited. The females then cover the egg

chamber and body pit with sand, and finally return to the

sea. This process takes one to two hours, and occurs in open sand

areas or on top of sand dunes. The nesting area must be selected

carefully because it affects characteristics such as fitness,

emergence ratio, and vulnerability to nest predators. Loggerheads

have an average clutch size of 112.4 eggs (Wikipedia).

Taxonomy

Carolus Linnaeus gave the loggerhead its first binomial name,

Testudo caretta, in 1758. Thirty-five other names emerged over the

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following two centuries, with the combination Caretta caretta first

introduced in 1902 by Leonhard Stejneger. The English common

name "loggerhead" refers to the animal's large head. The

loggerhead sea turtle belongs to the family Cheloniidae, which

includes all sea turtles except the leatherback sea turtle. The

subspecific classification of the loggerhead sea turtle is debated,

but most authors consider it a single polymorphic species.

Molecular genetics has confirmed hybridization of the loggerhead

sea turtle with the Kemp's ridley sea turtle, hawksbill sea turtle,

and green sea turtles. The extent of natural hybridization is not

yet determined; however, second-generation hybrids have been

reported, suggesting some hybrids are fertile (Wikipedia).

Evolutionary History

Although evidence is lacking, modern sea turtles probably

descended from a single common ancestor during the Cretaceous

period. Like all other sea turtles except the leatherback,

loggerheads are members of the ancient family Cheloniidae, and

appeared about 40 million years ago. Of the six species of living

Cheloniidae, loggerheads are more closely related to the Kemp's

ridley sea turtle, olive ridley sea turtle, and the hawksbill

turtle than they are to the flatback turtle and the green turtle

(Wikipedia).

Around three million years ago, during the Pliocene epoch,

Central America emerged from the sea, effectively cutting off

currents between the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans. The

rerouting of ocean currents led to climatic changes as the Earth

entered a glacial cycle. Cold water upwelling around the Cape of

Good Hope and reduction in water temperature at Cape

Horn formed cold water barriers to migrating turtles. The result

was a complete isolation of the Atlantic and Pacific populations of

loggerheads. During the most recent ice age, the beaches of

southeastern North America were too cold for sea turtle eggs. As

the Earth began to warm, loggerheads moved farther north,

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colonizing the northern beaches. Because of this, turtles nesting

between North Carolina and northern Florida represent a

different genetic population from those in southern Florida

(Wikipedia).

The distinct populations of loggerheads have unique

characteristics and genetic differences. For example,

Mediterranean loggerheads are smaller, on average, than Atlantic

Ocean loggerheads. North Atlantic and Mediterranean

loggerhead sea turtles are descendants of colonizing loggerheads

from Tongaland, South Africa. South African loggerhead genes

are still present in these populations today (Wikipedia).

Conservation

Many human activities have negative effects on loggerhead sea

turtle populations. The prolonged time required for loggerheads

to reach sexual maturity and the high mortality rates of eggs and

young turtles from natural phenomena compound the problems

of population reduction as a consequence of human activities

(Wikipedia).

Threats

Loggerhead sea turtles were once intensively hunted for their

meat and eggs; consumption has decreased, however, due to

worldwide legislation. Despite this, turtle meat and eggs are still

consumed in countries where regulations are not strictly

enforced. In Mexico, turtle eggs are a common meal; locals claim

the egg is anaphrodisiac. Eating turtle eggs or meat can cause

serious illness due to harmful bacteria, such as Pseudomonas

aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens, and high levels of toxic metals

that build up through bioaccumulation (Wikipedia).

The US West Coast is a critical migratory corridor for the Pacific

loggerheads, in which these turtles swim across the Pacific to

California‘s coast from breeding grounds in Japan. Important

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foraging habitats for juveniles in the central North Pacific have

been revealed through telemetry studies. Along with these

foraging habitats, high levels of bycatch from industrial-scale

fisheries have been found to overlap; with drift gillnets in the past

and longline fisheries presently. Many juvenile loggerheads

aggregate off the coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico, where small

coastal fisheries increase these turtles' mortality risk; fishers have

reported catching dozens of loggerheads with bottom-set gear per

day per boat. The most common commercial fishery that

accidentally takes loggerheads are bottom trawls used for shrimp

vessels in the Gulf of California. In 2000, between 2,600 and 6,000

loggerheads were estimated to have been killed by pelagic

longlining in the Pacific (Wikipedia).

Fishing gear is the biggest threat to loggerheads in the open

ocean. They often become entangled in longlines or gillnets.

According to the 2009 status review of loggerheads by the

Fisheries Service, drowning from entanglement in longline and

gillnet fishing gear is the turtles‘ primary threat in the North

Pacific. They also become stuck in traps, pots, trawls,

and dredges. Caught in this unattended equipment, loggerheads

risk serious injury or drowning. Turtle excluder devices for nets

and other traps reduce the number being accidentally caught

(Wikipedia).

Nearly 24,000 metric tons of plastic are dumped into the ocean

each year. Turtles ingest a wide array of this floating debris,

including bags, sheets, pellets, balloons and abandoned fishing

line. Loggerheads may mistake the floating plastic for jellyfish, a

common food item. The ingested plastic causes numerous health

concerns, including intestinal blockage, reduced nutrient

absorption and malnutrition, suffocation, ulcerations, or

starvation. Ingested plastics release toxic compounds,

including polychlorinated biphenyls, which may accumulate in

internal tissues. Such toxins may lead to a thinning of eggshells,

tissue damage, or deviation from natural behaviors (Wikipedia).

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Artificial lighting discourages nesting and interferes with the

hatchlings' ability to navigate to the water's edge. Females prefer

nesting on beaches free of artificial lighting. On developed

beaches, nests are often clustered around tall buildings, perhaps

because they block out the man-made light sources. Loggerhead

hatchlings are drawn toward the brighter area over the water

which is the consequence of the reflection of moon and star light.

Confused by the brighter artificial light, they navigate inland,

away from the protective waters, which exposes them to

dehydration and predation as the sun rises. Artificial lighting

causes tens of thousands of hatchling deaths per year (Wikipedia).

Destruction and encroachment of habitat by humans is another

threat to loggerhead sea turtles. Optimum nesting beaches are

open-sand beaches above the high-tide line. However, beach

development deprives them of suitable nesting areas, forcing

them to nest closer to the surf. Urbanization often leads to

the siltation of sandy beaches, decreasing their

viability. Construction of docks and marinas can destroy nearshore

habitats. Boat traffic and dredging degrades habitat and can

also injure or kill turtles when boats collide with turtles at or near

the surface (Wikipedia).

Annual variations in climatic temperatures can affect sex ratios,

since loggerheads have temperature-dependent sex

determination. High sand temperatures may skew gender ratios

in favor of females. Nesting sites exposed to unseasonably warm

temperatures over a three-year period produced 87–99% females.

This raises concerns over the connection between rapid global

temperature changes and the possibility of population extinction.

A more localized effect on gender skewing comes from the

construction of tall buildings, which reduce sun exposure,

lowering the average sand temperature, which results in a shift in

gender ratios to favor the emergence of male turtles (Wikipedia).

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Conservation Efforts

Since the loggerhead occupies such a broad range, successful

conservation requires efforts from multiple countries (Wikipedia).

Loggerhead sea turtles are classified as endangered by the

International Union for the Conservation of Nature and are listed

under Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in

Endangered Species, making international trade illegal. In the

United States, the Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine

Fisheries Service classify them as a threatened species under the

Endangered Species Act. Loggerheads are listed as endangered

under both Australia's Environment Protection and Biodiversity

Conservation Act 1999 and Queensland's Nature Conservation

Act 1992. The Convention on Migratory Species works for the

conservation of loggerhead sea turtles on the Atlantic coast of

Africa, as well as in the Indian Ocean and southeast Asia.

Throughout Japan, the Sea Turtle Association of Japan aids in the

conservation of loggerhead sea turtles. Greece's ARCHELON

works for their conservation. The Marine Research Foundation

works for loggerhead conservation in Oman. Annex 2 of the

Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife Protocol of the Cartagena

Convention, which deals with pollution that could harm marine

ecosystems, also protects them. Conservation organizations

worldwide have worked with the shrimp trawling industry to

develop turtle exclusion devices (TEDs) to exclude even the

largest turtles. TEDs are mandatory for all shrimp trawlers

(Wikipedia).

In many places during the nesting season, workers and volunteers

search the coastline for nests, and researchers may also go out

during the evening to look for nesting females for tagging studies

and gather barnacles and tissues samples. Volunteers may, if

necessary, relocate the nests for protection from threats, such as

high spring tides and predators, and monitor the nests daily for

disturbances. After the eggs hatch, volunteers uncover and tally

hatched eggs, undeveloped eggs, and dead hatchlings. Any

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emaining live hatchlings are released or taken to research

facilities. Typically, those that lack the vitality to hatch and climb

to the surface die. Hatchlings use the journey from nest to ocean

to build strength for the coming swim. Helping them to reach the

ocean bypasses this strength-building exercise and lowers their

chances of survival (Wikipedia).

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ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 108, December 2013, Safar 1435 AH.

pp. 1-25. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://marine-life-palestine.webs.com/loggerhead-sea-turtle

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali

Taher (2014). Records of Dead Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta

caretta Linnaeus, 1758) washed up on the Jaffa Beach, Occupied

Palestine between 2010-2013. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 114, June 2014, Sha‘ban 1435

AH. pp. 1-11. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://marine-life-palestine.webs.com/loggerhead-sea-turtlejaffa

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali

Taher (2014). Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus,

1758) Nesting in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 115, July 2014, Ramadan 1435

AH. pp. 1-9. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://marine-life-palestine.webs.com/loggerhead-turtlepalestine

National Geographic. Loggerhead Sea Turtle Caretta caretta.

http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/reptiles/logger

head-sea-turtle/

NOAA Fisheries. Office of Protected Resources. Loggerhead

Turtle (Caretta caretta).

http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/turtles/loggerhead.htm

Sea Turtles 911. Loggerhead Sea Turtle.

http://www.seaturtles911.org/turtle/loggerhead.htm

Wikipedia. Loggerhead Sea Turtle.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loggerhead_sea_turtle

229


230


Records of Dead Loggerhead Sea

Turtles (Caretta caretta Linnaeus,

1758) washed up on the Jaffa Beach,

Occupied Palestine between 2010-2013

حاالت العثور على سالحف البحر الضخمة الرأس المٌتة على

شواطئ مدٌنة ‏ٌافا ، فلسطٌن بٌن اْلعوام

3112

-

3111

By: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa

A Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758) washed up on the

Jaffa Beach, Occupied Palestine on Wednesday 19.05.2010.

http://maannews.net/arb/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=285623

231


الصورة فً‏ الصفحة السابقة : تفاجأ المستحمون فً‏ بحر ‏ٌافا عصر األربعاء 0191..91.1

حٌنما قذفت األمواج سلحفاة بحر كبٌرة إلى الشاطئ،‏ وبدأ عدد من األطفال ‏ٌبتعدون من المكان

خوفاً‏ منها حٌث اقترب المنقذ البحري من السلحفاة،‏ وبعد أن قال انه ‏ٌوجد فً‏ المكان سلحفاة

بحر كبٌرة؛ ترك العشرات من المستحمون المٌاه وتجمعوا حول السلحفاة للنظر إلٌها.‏

واتضح أن السلحفاة السوداء كانت مٌتة لكن عدد من المستحمٌن بدأ بالتقاط الصور للسلحفاة،‏

ولدقائق طوٌلة نسً‏ المستحمون البحر والمٌاه وبقوا متجمهرٌن حولها ‏)وكالة معاً‏ اإلخبارٌة ،

. )91.1..0191

Records of dead Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta Linnaeus,

1758) washed up on the Jaffa Beach, Occupied Palestine was

recorded between 2010 -2013.

A Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758) washed

up on the Jaffa North Beach, Occupied Palestine on Friday

20.07.2012. http://www.panet.co.il/online/articles/1/2/S-

571852,1,2.html

232


A Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758) washed

up on the Jaffa North Beach, Occupied Palestine on Friday

20.07.2012. http://www.panet.co.il/online/articles/1/2/S-

571852,1,2.html

233


A Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758) washed

up on the Jaffa North Beach, Occupied Palestine on Friday

20.07.2012. http://www.panet.co.il/online/articles/1/2/S-

571852,1,2.html

234


A Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758) washed

up on the Jaffa North Beach, Occupied Palestine on Friday

20.07.2012. http://www.panet.co.il/online/articles/1/2/S-

571852,1,2.html

،

الصور الست السابقة : ذكر شهود عٌان لمراسل موقع بانٌت وصحٌفة بانوراما أن عدداً‏ من

المواطنٌن على شاطئ بحر مدٌنة ‏ٌافا الشمالً‏ عثروا على سلحفاة بحرٌة ضخمة نافقة فً‏ ‏ٌوم

حٌث قام المواطنون باٌالغ طواقم البلدٌة والتً‏ بدورها قامت

الجمعة

بإستدعاء طاقم مختص من قبل معهد العلوم البحري للثدٌات .

وقد قام الطاقم المختص بعلوم الثدٌات البحرٌة بأخذ عٌنة من السلحفاة الضخمة إلجراء

األبحاث علٌها ، وقال أحد المختصٌن أن السلحفاة كبٌرة فً‏ السن ، ومن المرجح أنها

خرجت للشاطئ لوضع البٌض ‏)موقع بانٌت ،

. )01.1..0190

01.1..0190

235


A Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758) washed

up on the Jaffa Beach, Occupied Palestine on Thursday 08.08.2013.

http://yomnet.net/Show.php?page=News&id=23766

الصورتان العلوٌتان : قذفت األمواج صباح الٌوم الخمٌس إلى شاطئ بحر ‏ٌافا سلحفاة بحر

. )1..1..0190

كبٌرة.‏ حٌث تجمهر المارة فً‏ المكان ‏)موقع ‏ٌافا الٌوم ،

236


A Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758) washed

up on the Jaffa Beach, Occupied Palestine on Thursday 08.08.2013.

http://www.yaffa48.com/?mod=articles&ID=10730

237


الصورتان فً‏ الصفحة السابقة وصل موقع ‏ٌافا صور لسلحفاة بحرٌة كبٌرة قذفت بها

أمواج البحر على شاطئ ناخوم جولدمان بمدٌنة ‏ٌافا وذلك صباح الخمٌس

حٌث احتشد فً‏ المكان عدد من المواطنٌن لمشاهدة السلحفاة.‏

،1..1..0190

8.

وقد قام بعض المواطنٌن بحمل السلحفاة وإعادتها إلى البحر بعد أن علقت على رمال الشاطئ

لمدة تزٌد عن الساعتٌن ‏)موقع ‏ٌافا

.)91.1..0190 ، 8.

:

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Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004. /

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014121-9. Erste Auflage / First Edition, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten /

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The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab

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Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Andromeda Sea

Monster of Jaffa. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year,

March 2005. pp. 8.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Aquatica Arabica. An

Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe

between 1980 - 2005 / Aquatica Arabica. Eine Aquatische

Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa

zwischen 1980 - 2005. ISBN 3-00-014835-3. Erste Auflage / First

Edition, August 2005: 376 Seiten / Pages. Norman Ali Khalaf,

Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah,

United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/aquaticaarabica.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Rafah Zoo in the Rafah

Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip, Palestine : A Story of Destruction by

the Israeli Occupation Army. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin. Number 46, Twenty-third Year, October 2005, Ramadan

1426. pp. 1-11. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (2005). The Qalqilia Zoo

and the Natural History Museum in the City of Qalqilia, West

Bank, Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal

1426. pp. 1-10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(Gründer) (seit Juni 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna

Palaestina.

http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Palaestina/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(Gründer) (seit September 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group:

Fauna Arabica.

http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Arabica/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007).

Haywanat Filistin حُٕاواث فهسطٕه (Fauna of Palestine). Wikipedia,

Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 69, Twenty-fifth Year,

240


September 2007 CE, Sha‘ban 1428 AH. pp. 1-4. (in Arabic).

http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8

%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D

8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86 Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc.

Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian

Waters: A Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) rescued

near the Tantura Beach, Carmel Coast, North Palestine: The First

Record from the Palestinian Mediterranean Coast. Gazelle: The

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp.

22-23. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstracts in English and

Arabic). http://whale-shark.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian Waters: Whale Sharks

(Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) near Um Al-Rashrash (Eilat) Beach,

Gulf of Aqaba, South Palestine: First Records from the Palestinian

Red Sea Coast. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.

Number 71, November 2007. pp. 23-26. Sharjah, United Arab

Emirates. (Abstract in English and Arabic). http://whaleshark.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2007). An Ocean Sunfish or Common Mola (Mola mola, Linnaeus

1758) caught off the coast of Gaza: The First Record from

Palestine, East Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Number 72, December 2007, pp. 1-16.

(Abstracts in English and Arabic).

https://de.groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Fauna_Palaestina/co

nversations/messages/37

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2008). Cetacea Palaestina: The Whales and Dolphins in

Palestinian Waters. Cetacean Species Guide for Palestine. Gazelle:

The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 83, November 2008,

Thu Al-Qi‘ada 1429 AH. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://cetacea-palaestina.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian

241


Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab

1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina

– Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe

between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine

Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen

1983 – 2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition,

September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali

Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates &

Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010).

Fauna Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab

Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins.

Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate

zwischen 2004 - 2009. ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First

Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: Dr.

Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United

Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik

Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2012). Fauna Palaestina

– Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 /

Fauna Palaestina - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina

zwischen 1983 – 2009. ISBN 978-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First

Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic

Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al

Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Fauna Palaestina

– Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 /

Fauna Palaestina - Teil Drei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina

zwischen 2005 – 2012. ISBN 978-9950-383-35-7. Erste Auflage /

First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part

242


350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi

Publishing House, Jerusalem, State of Palestine. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali

Taher (2013). The Bycatch of a Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta

caretta Linnaeus, 1758) in a fishing net on the Gaza Coast, Gaza,

State of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.

ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 108, December 2013, Safar 1435 AH.

pp. 1-25. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://marine-life-palestine.webs.com/loggerhead-sea-turtlegaza-1

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali

Taher (2014). Records of Dead Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta

caretta Linnaeus, 1758) washed up on the Jaffa Beach, Occupied

Palestine between 2010-2013. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 114, June 2014, Sha‘ban 1435

AH. pp. 1-11. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://marine-life-palestine.webs.com/loggerhead-sea-turtlejaffa

Kuler, Z. (1990). Summary of the 1989 annual sea turtle nesting

survey. Nature Reserves Authority, Central Region, Israel. 10 pp.

(in Hebrew).

National Geographic. Loggerhead Sea Turtle Caretta caretta.

http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/reptiles/logger

head-sea-turtle/

NOAA Fisheries. Office of Protected Resources. Loggerhead

Turtle (Caretta caretta).

http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/turtles/loggerhead.htm

Sea Turtles 911. Loggerhead Sea Turtle.

http://www.seaturtles911.org/turtle/loggerhead.htm

Sella, I. (1982). Sea turtles in the eastern Mediterranean and

northern Red Sea, p. 417-423. In: Biology and Conservation of Sea

Turtles (K. A. Bjorndal, ed.). Smithsonian Institution Press,

Washington D.C.

Silberstein, D. (1988). The physical conditions prevailing in nests

243


of the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) and their effect on egg

development. Master of Science thesis, Dept. of Zool., Tel Aviv

University. 71 pp. (in Hebrew with English summary).

Silberstein, Dalia and Razi Dmi'el (1991). Loggerhead Sea Turtle Nesting

in Israel. Marine Turtle Newsletter 53:17-18, 1991.

http://www.seaturtle.org/mtn/archives/mtn53/mtn53p17.shtml

Soffer, A. 1988. Sea turtles nesting in Haifa - Caesarea beach. Nature

Reserves Authority, Jerusalem, Israel. 31 pp. (in Hebrew).

Wikipedia. Loggerhead Sea Turtle.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loggerhead_sea_turtle

األمواج تقذف سلحفاة بحر بطول متر على شاطئ بحر ‏ٌافا )0191..91.1(

http://maannews.net/arb/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=285623.

من حسٌن العبرة

العثور على سلحفاة بحرٌة ضخمة على شاطىء ‏ٌافا

مراسل موقع بانٌت وصحٌفة بانوراما

.http://www.panet.co.il/online/articles/1/2/S-571852,1,2.html

. )01.1..0190(

العثور على سلحفاة بحرٌة ضخمة على شاطىء ‏ٌافا )0190..01.1(

.http://yoomyoom.com/News-72

العثور على سلحفاة بحرٌة كبٌرة مٌتة على شاطئ بحر ‏ٌافا )0190..1..1(

.http://yomnet.net/Show.php?page=News&id=23766

بالصور:‏ األمواج تقذف سلحفاة بحرٌة ضخمة على شاطئ ناخوم جولدمان )0190..91.1(.

.http://www.yaffa48.com/?mod=articles&ID=10730

أهم الزواحف فً‏ فلسطٌن

.http://www.wafainfo.ps/atemplate.aspx?id=2381

http://www.al- غزٌون ‏ٌأكلون سلحفاة مهددة باإلنقراض ).18.18.011( .

arabeya.net/articles/?artid=87636

.

http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7

%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%

B7%D9%8A%D9%86

244

حٌوانات فلسطٌن

بقلم : أ.د.‏ نورمان ‏)نعمان(‏ علً‏ بسام خلف الٌافاوي


245


Killing Incidents of Wild Animals in

the State of Palestine in 2013

حوادث قتل حٌوانات برٌة فً‏ دولة فلسطٌن فً‏

العام 3112

By: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa

There are so many incidents of the killing of wild animals in the

State of Palestine. Often we hear or see in the news about the

brutal killing or road-kill of wild animals. Some of the wild

animals in Palestine are already on the verge of extinction. If the

population of animals kept on decreasing, some species will

become extinct. One of the problems we are already facing is

poaching, and we have to fight against it to save our fauna. We

hear and see always brutal and insensitive animal torture

incidents happening in Palestine by the villagers and even citypeople.

Wildlife populations depend on their environment or habitat to

receive the basic needs for survival. An ecosystem or habitat

provides populations of wildlife with food, water, shelter and

space. If all four of these basic needs are not available in a suitable

arrangement, populations of wildlife cannot exist (University of

Illinois Extension).

All populations of living things are interrelated. When one

population of animals or plants increases or decreases, other

populations of living things is also affected.

The amount of suitable habitat for a species of wildlife will

determine the number of animals that can survive in the area.

246


Human activity has the greatest impact on the amount and

quality of wildlife habitat in Palestine. Wildlife habitat can be

destroyed or its quality diminished as a result of urban sprawl,

agricultural practices, pollution, sedimentation, or habitat

fragmentation (University of Illinois Extension).

Many endemic organisms have very specific requirements for

their survival that can only be found within a certain ecosystem,

resulting in their extinction.

This can result in the reduction of genetic diversity and perhaps

the production of infertile youths, as these organisms would have

a higher possibility of mating with related organisms within their

population, or different species (Wikipedia).

The Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena) is a species of true hyena

native to North and East Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus,

Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent. It is listed by the IUCN

as near threatened, as the global population is estimated to be

under 10,000 mature individuals which continues to experience

deliberate and incidental persecution along with a decrease in its

prey base such that it may come close to meeting a continuing

decline of 10% over the next three generations (Wikipedia).

The Syrian Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena syriaca) is known from

Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Palestine, where it has disappeared

from the coastal plain and is becoming rare in the Hula (Huleh)

Valley, Upper Galilee, Mount Carmel and the Hebron (Judean)

Hills, south to the Naqab Desert and Wadi Araba (Khalaf-von

Jaffa, 2013).

The Arabian Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena sultana) is known

from southern Arabia. In Palestine, it occurs near the southern

end of the Dead Sea (Neot Hakikar). A specimen in the collection

of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem constitutes the first

geographical record for Palestine. It may be that the Arabian race

intergrades with the Syrian subspecies in the northern part of its

range (Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2013).

247


Men from the Palestinian Village of Jourish have killed a Striped Hyena

(Hyaena hyaena) and cut its head! The men said that this hyena was

living in the area between the Villages of Duma, Qusra and Jourish,

South of Nablus and it killed some sheep in the Village of Duma.

07.02.2013. https://www.paldf.net/forum/showthread.php?t=1081305

248


Men from the Palestinian Village of Jourish have killed a Striped Hyena

(Hyaena hyaena) and cut its head! The men said that this hyena was

living in the area between the Villages of Duma, Qusra and Jourish,

South of Nablus and it killed some sheep in the Village of Duma.

07.02.2013. https://www.paldf.net/forum/showthread.php?t=1081305

The Striped Hyena is the smallest of the true hyenas and retains

many primitive viverrid characteristics lost in larger species,

having a smaller and less specialised skull. Though primarily a

scavenger, large specimens have been known to kill their own

prey, and attacks on humans have occurred on rare instances. The

striped hyena is a monogamous animal, with both males and

females assisting one another in raising their cubs. A nocturnal

249


animal, the striped hyena typically only emerges in complete

darkness, and is quick to return to its lair before sunrise. Though

it has a habit of feigning death when attacked, it has also been

known to stand its ground against larger predators such

as leopards in disputes over food (Wikipedia).

The striped hyena features prominently in Middle Eastern and

Asian folklore. In some areas, its body parts are considered

magical, and are used ascharms or talismans. It is mentioned in

the Hebrew Bible, where it is referred to as tzebua or zevoa, though

the species is absent in some English translations (Wikipedia).

Stop the Killing of Hyenas. Al Quds Newspaper. 11.02.2013.

www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=207110729434704&set=t.1449797

798&type=3&theater

The striped hyena's historical range encompasses Africa north of

and including the Sahel zone, eastern Africa south into Tanzania,

the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East up to the

Mediterranean shores, Turkey, Iraq, the Caucasus (Azerbaijan,

Armenia, Georgia), Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan,

Afghanistan (excluding the higher areas of Hindukush) and

250


the Indian Subcontinent. Today the species' distribution is patchy

in most ranges, thus indicating that it occurs in many isolated

populations, particularly in most of west Africa, most of the

Sahara, parts of the Middle East, the Caucasus and central Asia. It

does however have a continuous distribution over large areas

of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania. Its modern distribution in

Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan is unknown with some sizable

large number in India in open areas of Deccan Peninsula

(Wikipedia).

A Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena) have been killed and tortured at a

Wadi to the East of Nablus, State of Palestine. Photo by: Mohanad

Saaideh. 12.06.2013.

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=530787916978684&set=a.1

13906072000206.12034.100001424415376&type=1&theater

251


Men from the Village of Dura, near Al Khalil (Hebron) have killed a

Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena) on 26.05.2013.

http://www.alquds.com/news/article/view/id/440656

The striped hyena competes with the gray wolf (Canis lupus) in

the Middle East and central Asia. In the latter area, a great portion

of the hyena's diet stems from wolf-killed carcasses. The striped

hyena is dominant over the wolf on a one to one basis, though

252


wolves in packs can displace single hyenas from carcasses. Both

species have been known to share dens on occasion. Red foxes

(Vulpes vulpes) may compete with striped hyenas on large

carcasses. Red foxes may give way to hyenas on unopened

carcasses, as the latter's stronger jaws can easily tear open flesh

which is too tough for foxes. Foxes may harass hyenas, using their

smaller size and greater speed to avoid the hyena's attacks.

Sometimes, foxes seem to deliberately torment hyenas even when

there is no food at stake. Some foxes may mistime their attacks,

and are killed (Wikipedia).

The species frequently scavenges from the kills of felids such

as tigers, leopards, cheetahs and caracals. A caracal can drive a

subadult hyena from a carcass. The hyena usually wins in one-toone

disputes over carcasses with leopards, cheetahs and tiger

cubs, but is dominated by adult tigers (Wikipedia).

A Syrian Stone or Beech Marten (Martes foina syriaca) have been

chased and killed inside the Library of Birzeit University, Birzeit, State

of Palestine. 19.08.2013.

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=561852787184001&set=a.4

31191303583484.87926.128336947202256&type=1&theater

253


Road-killed Palestine Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes palaestina) on Al Jidar

Street, Al Bayarat Area, West of Qaffin, Tulkarm Governorate. Info by:

Ahmad Al Qassem. 05.08 2013.

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=648692595140964&set=a.6

46198855390338.1073741863.199819240028304&type=3&theater

Palestine Common Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes palaestina, Thomas 1920)

[Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 9, 5: 122. Type from Ramleh, near Jaffa,

Palestine. Synonym of Vulpes vulpes aegyptiacus]:

The Palestine Red Fox is distinguished by its gray colour, particularly

along its sides, with a nearly complete suppression of rufous, except the

face. The forelegs are grayish-rufous or fulvous. The underparts are

whitish or black. The upper tail is buffy, washed with black.

Measurements: Head and body 455-625 mm.; ear 83-105 mm.; hind foot

121-148 mm.; tail 305-412 mm.

The Palestinian subspecies Vulpes vulpes palaestina is known from

Lebanon and Palestine, where it is common along the coastal plain and

as far south as Bi’er Al-Sabe’e (Beersheba) (Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2013).

254


Two road-killed Persian Common Badgers (Meles meles canescens) near

the Triangle of Qaffin, Tulkarm Governorate, State of Palestine. Info by:

Ahmad Al Qassem. 30.08.2013.

www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=660595873950636&set=t.1449797

798&type=3&theater

The Common Badger (Meles meles) is the only species of its genus,

and it is widespread throughout Europe and Asia, Tibet, northern

Burma and southern China. The Persian race Meles meles canescens

occurs in Iran, Syria, Lebanon and Palestine, where it is

uncommon but has been recorded in Upper Galilee, Marj Bin

Amer (Jezreel Valley), upper Jordan Valley and the coastal plain

(Khalaf-von Jaffa, 2013).

Badgers are heavily built mustelids. Males are significantly larger

than females. Adult females weigh 5-10 kilogram and adult males

weigh 7-14 kg. The head and body length is 55-85 cm, the tail

255


length is 10-20 cm, and the skull measures 115-140 mm in total

length. The feet are short, with heavy muscles and long claws

adapted for burrowing. The tail is short and stubby. The fur is

coarse and rough with little underfur. The colour is distinctive

with two longitudinal black stripes beginning at the muzzle and

broadening posteriorly. A median white stripe provides a

contrasting pattern on the head. The back is variable in colour

(from brown to buff gray), but the sides and feet are usually black

(Qumsiyeh, 1996).

A trapped Persian Common Badger (Meles meles canescens) which died

from its wounds to the East of Qaffin 1 near Fraseen Area, Tulkarm

Governorate, State of Palestine. Info by: Ahmad Al Qassem, Palestine

Wildlife Society. 20.08.2013.

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=655432797800277&set=a.6

46198855390338.1073741863.199819240028304&type=3&theater

256


A killed Diademed Sand Snake or Awl-headed Snake (Lytorhynchus

diadema) أفؼّ‏ مزلطت مؼٕىٕت انظٍز . Facebook Page: Wildlife of Palestine

.12.09.2013 . انحٕاة انبزٔت فٓ‏ فهسطٕه

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=608850985831845&set=a.6

08850875831856.1073741902.511617522221859&type=1&theater

257


A Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena) killed to the East of Aqraba Town,

Nablus Governorate, State of Palestine. 25.08.2013.

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=599558326761111&set=a.5

11635502220061.129580.511617522221859&type=1&theater

258


Don’t Kill Our Wild Life.

http://www.freevintageposters.com/2012/12/dont-kill-our-wild-lifevintage.html

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%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A8%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%A9-

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1766) in the Department of Zoology, University of Durham,

Durham, England, during the Academic Year 1984-1985.

Supervisor: Dr. Nigel Dunstone. Unpublished scientific research

and data & scientific diary. Research Notebook. pp. 1-52.

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Badger in Kuwait Zoo, State of Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of

Germany. Number 18, Sixth Year, Rabie‘ Alakher 1409 AH,

November 1988 AD. pp. 1-2. (in Arabic).

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lupus) in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.

Bonn- Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 20,

263


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lutra) in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.

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Ninth Year, February 1991. pp. 1-4.

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the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian

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the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae‘q Al-Nouma‘n (Anemone

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(Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental

Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with

Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine.

Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (In Arabic).

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Animals in Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin Home Page. Extinct and Endangered Animals and

Reintroduction. http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das

Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche

Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004. /

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in

Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. ISBN 3-00-

014121-9. Erste Auflage / First Edition, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten /

Pages. Zweite erweiterte Auflage (Second Extended Edition),

August 2004: 460 Seiten / Pages. Norman Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad

Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/

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Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip, Palestine : A Story of Destruction by

the Israeli Occupation Army. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin. Number 46, Twenty-third Year, October 2005, Ramadan

264


1426. pp. 1-11. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).

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and the Natural History Museum in the City of Qalqilia, West

Bank, Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological

Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal

1426. pp. 1-10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).

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the Arabia‘s Wildlife Centre, Sharjah Desert Park, United Arab

Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 48,

Twenty-third Year, December 2005, Thu Alqi‘da 1426. pp. 1-9.

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic).

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Fauna. Pages 32-39. in: Palestine: A Guide. By Mariam Shahin,

Photography by George Azar. Co-Author: Norman Ali Khalaf.

Northampton, Massachusetts: Interlink Publishing Group, 2005,

2006. xi + 471 pages. Appendices to page 500.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2006). Felidae Palaestina: The Wild

Cats of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.

Number 52, April 2006. pp. 1-15. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://web.archive.org/web/20091022043112/http://geocities.c

om/jaffacity/Felidae_Palaestina.html

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Palaestina: The Mammals of Palestine. / Die Säugetiere

Palästinas. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number

55, Twenty-fourth Year, July 2006, Jumada Al-Thania 1427. pp. 1-

46. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://web.archive.org/web/20090401232635/http://www.geoc

ities.com/jaffacity/Mammalia_Palaestina.html

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Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen

1980-2006 / Mammalia Arabica. A Zoological Journey in

Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2006. ISBN 3-00-

017294-7. Erste Auflage (First Edition), Juli 2006, 484 pp. Norman

Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland & Sharjah, United

Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-

265


ooks.webs.com/mammaliaarabica.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). The

Common Weasel (Mustela nivalis, Linnaeus 1766) in Palestine and

the East Mediterranean Region. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Number 57, Twenty-fourth Year, September

2006. pp. 1-7. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://web.archive.org/web/20081016043852/http://www.geoc

ities.com./jaffacity/Weasel_Palestine.html

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(Gründer) (seit Juni 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna

Palaestina.

http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Palaestina/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007).

Haywanat Filistin حٌوانات فلسطٌن (Fauna of Palestine). Wikipedia,

Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 69, Twenty-fifth Year,

September 2007 CE, Sha‘ban 1428 AH. pp. 1-4. (in Arabic).

http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8

%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D

8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007).

Felidae Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and

Europe between 1980-2007 / Felidae Arabica. Eine Zoologische

Reise in Palaestina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980-2007.

ISBN 978-3-00-019568-6. Erste Auflage (First Edition), Juli 2007,

300 pp. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland

& Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic, German and

English). http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/felidaearabica.htm

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2008). Canis aureus palaestina Khalaf, 2008: A New Golden Jackal

Subspecies from the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. Number 80, August 2008, Rajab / Sha‘ban

1429 AH. pp. 1-13. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstract in

English).

266


https://de.groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Raubkatzen/convers

ations/messages/94

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2008). Carnivora Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine,

Arabia and Europe between 2005-2008. / Carnivora Arabica. Eine

Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen

2005-2008. ISBN 978-9948-03-459-9. First Edition: September 2008.

396 Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf, Sharjah, United

Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/carnivoraarabica.htm

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

(2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian

Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab

1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina

– Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe

between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine

Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen

1983 – 2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition,

September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali

Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates &

Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010).

Fauna Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab

Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins.

Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate

zwischen 2004 - 2009. ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First

Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: Dr.

Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United

Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik

Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2012). Fauna Palaestina

267


– Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 /

Fauna Palaestina - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina

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Mus musculus gazaensis Khalaf, 2007 :

A New House Mouse Subspecies from

the Gaza Strip, Palestine

By: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-

Sakerfalke von Jaffa

Abstract: A new subspecies of house mouse of the genus Mus

(Rodentia: Murinae) from the Gaza Strip, Palestine is described.

This subspecies is distinguished from the other subspecies of

Mus by its light and dark brown colouration with white big

patches on the fur. The new subspecies was named Mus

musculus gazaensis Khalaf, 2007.

On 29.05.2007 I received an e-mail (with attached photos) from

Dr. Abdel Fattah Nazmi Abd Rabou from the Biology

Department, Islamic University of Gaza, Gaza Strip, Palestine.

The 2 photos showed a live ―small rodent‖ from the Gaza Strip,

Palestine. Dr. Abd Rabou asked me ―for classification‖. He wrote

that these photos which were taken by him show a ―small rodent

having white spots on its back‖.

Later on 06.06.2007 Dr. Abd Rabou wrote that this ―patched

species was caught in Beit Lahia, North Gaza in an agricultural

field in 2005.‖

My first impression when I saw the photos, was that of a spiny

mouse (Acomys spp.), because it seemed like it was having the stiff

guard hairs on its coat; but this assumption proved to be wrong. I

also thought that it could be a hybrid or a mutant rodent.

272


The most distinctive feature of this rodent is the light and dark

brown colouration with white big patches on the fur.

Dr. Abd Rabou sent the photos also to Prof. Yoram Yom-Tov from

the Zoology Department, Tel Aviv University for Identification.

Prof. Yom-Tov wrote that this rodent ―is a mutant (partial albino)

of house mouse (Mus musculus).‖

Conclusion:

After examining the photos, and referring to many

zoological references, and Middle Eastern zoologists and

wildlife experts, and searching the Internet, I came finally

to a conclusion that we are in front of a new subspecies of

house mouse from the Gaza Strip, Palestine.

I gave it the scientific name Mus musculus gazaensis, new

subspecies. The subspecies name “gazaensis” is Latin for

“Gaza”.

The New Palestinian House Mouse Subspecies Mus musculus gazaensis

Khalaf, 2007 from Beit Lahia, North Gaza Strip. Foto: Dr. Abdel Fattah

Nazmi Abd Rabou, 2005.

273


Mus musculus gazaensis, new subspecies:

Scientific trinomial name: Mus musculus gazaensis

Khalaf, 2007.

Common Name: Gaza House Mouse, Palestine House

Mouse.

Location: Agricultural Field, Beit Lahia, North Gaza

Strip, Palestine.

Date of capture: 2005.

Distinctive Features: The most distinctive feature is the light and

dark brown colouration with white big patches on the fur. No

measurements are available.

The New Palestinian House Mouse Subspecies Mus musculus

gazaensis Khalaf, 2007 from Beit Lahia, North Gaza Strip. Foto: Dr.

Abdel Fattah Nazmi Abd Rabou, 2005.

274


Acknowledgments: Special thanks are due to the Palestinian

Zoologist Dr. Abdel Fattah Nazmi Abd Rabou from the Biology

Department, Islamic University of Gaza, who sent the rodent

photos for identification, and gave me the opportunity to discover

a new Palestinian house mouse subspecies; and my thanks are

also due to the Kuwaiti wildlife expert Eng. Abd Al-Rahman Abd

Allah Al-Sirhan Al-A‘try, the webmaster of the website Wildlife of

Kuwait, and to Prof. Yoram Yom-Tov from the Zoology

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291


The Dorcas Gazelle (Gazella dorcas

Linnaeus, 1758)

By: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa

The Dorcas Gazelle (Gazella dorcas Linnaeus, 1758) at Kuwait Zoo, Al

Omariyah, Kuwait, State of Kuwait. This is one of the smallest Gazelle

species with a weight of 15-20 kg, and lives in the arid areas of the Arabian

Peninsula and Africa. In Palestine, 1500 Dorcas Gazelles live in the Naqab

Desert and Wadi Araba. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam

انغشال انؼفزْ‏ أَ‏ غشال دَركاص فٓ‏ حذٔمت حُٕاواث .21.09.2013 Jaffa. Khalaf-von

انكُٔج . ‏َٔؼخبز ‏ٌذا انغشال مه أصغز أوُاع انغشالن انؼزبٕت حٕذ ‏ٔصم ‏َسوً‏ ما بٕه 02-61

كٕهُجزاماً‏ ، ‏َٔؼٕش فٓ‏ انمىاطك انصحزأَت انجافت فٓ‏ شبً‏ انجشٔزة انؼزبٕت ‏َأفزٔمٕا ، كما ‏ٔؼٕش

فٓ‏ صحزاء انىمب ‏ََادْ‏ ػزبت فٓ‏ فهسطٕه ‏َحصم أػذادي ‏ٌىان إنّ‏ 6122 غشال ‏.حصُٔز : أ.‏ د.‏

وُرمان ‏)وؼمان(‏ ػهٓ‏ بساو ػهٓ‏ طاٌز خهف انٕافاَْ‏ انممذسٓ‏ انفهسطٕىٓ‏ األنماوٓ‏ . 06.29.0262

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/10080759145/

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References and Internet Websites:

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014121-9. Erste Auflage / First Edition, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten /

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Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/

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(2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian

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zwischen 1983 – 2009. ISBN 978-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First

Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic

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Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-normanali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm

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– Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 /

Fauna Palaestina - Teil Drei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina

zwischen 2005 – 2012. ISBN 978-9950-383-35-7. Erste Auflage /

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350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi

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Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali

Taher (2014). The Dorcas Gazelle (Gazella dorcas Linnaeus, 1758).

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin (ISSN 0178 – 6288).

Number 110, February 2014. pp. 1-3. Dubai and Sharjah, United

Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-kuwait.webs.com/dorcasgazelle

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Palaestina – Part Four. Zoological Studies in Palestine between

1983 – 2014 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Vier. Zoologische Studien

in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2014. ISBN 978-9950-383-77-7. Erste

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1.webs.com/faunapalaestina4.htm

294


295


Canis aureus palaestina Khalaf, 2008 :

A New Golden Jackal Subspecies

from the Gaza Strip, Palestine

By: Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa

Abstract: A new subspecies of Golden Jackal of the genus

Canis (Carnivora: Canidae) from the Gaza Strip, Palestine is

described. This subspecies is distinguished from the other three

subspecies of Canis aureus living around Palestine, by its

distinctive colouration on the fur and the moderate size. It is

morphologically and geographically distinct from the other

subspecies. The new subspecies was named Canis aureus

palaestina Khalaf, 2008.

On 10.07.2008, I received an e-mail (with attached photos) from

Assistant Professor Dr. Abdel Fattah Nazmi Abd Rabou from the

Biology Department, Islamic University of Gaza, Gaza Strip,

Palestine.

The first photo showed three Golden Jackals in an enclosure at

Rafah Zoo, Al-Brazil Suburb, Rafah City, Gaza Strip, Palestine.

The second photo showed two Golden Jackals in an enclosure at

Al-Wasat Zoo, Al-Bureij Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip, Palestine.

Description and Distinctive Features:

From the given photos, I began comparing with the other Golden

Jackal subspecies. There are three Jackal subspecies living in the

area around Palestine: The Syrian Golden Jackal (Canis aureus

syriacus Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1833), The Egyptian Golden

296


Jackal (Canis aureus lupaster Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1833) and

the Arabian Golden Jackal (Canis aureus hadramauticus Noack,

1896).

The New Palestinian Golden Jackal Subspecies Canis aureus palaestina

Khalaf, 2008, at Rafah Zoo, Al-Brazil Suburb, Rafah City, Gaza Strip,

Palestine. Foto: Dr. Abdel Fattah Nazmi Abd Rabou, 2008.

The Palestinian Golden Jackal subspecies is morphologically and

geographically distinct from these three subspecies. The

Palestinian Jackal is a small race of the Golden or Asiatic Jackal. It

is smaller than a wolf, with relatively shorter legs and tail. It is

larger than a fox and can be distinguished by its relatively

smaller, rufous ears and shorter, black-tipped tail. It is similar to a

small dog in appearance. The fur is rather short and coarse. The

dorsal colour is usually variable black, yellowish-gray or brownyellowish

tinged with rufous, grayer on the back, which is

297


grizzled with varying amounts of black. A dark band runs along

the back from the nose to the tip of the tail. This mane becomes

wider on the back, extending into the lateral surfaces. There are

two dark bands across the lower throat and upper breast. There is

also a reddish phase. The under parts are almost white or

yellowish-brown. The winter coat is longer and grayer. The tail is

relatively short, usually with a black tip. The size of the

Palestinian Jackal is moderate if compared with the larger

Egyptian Jackal (Canis aureus lupaster) and the smaller Arabian

Jackal (Canis aureus hadramauticus).

Head and body 600-900 mm., female smaller than male; ear 70-89

mm.; hind foot 140-162 mm.; tail 200-300 mm; skull length 148-180

mm; weight 5-12 kg.

Habitat:

The Palestine Golden Jackal lives in hills, plains, around orange

groves, in forests and on the outskirts of towns and villages.

Distribution:

Canis aureus palaestina is common throughout the northern half of

Palestine and Israel to just south of Gaza Strip and Beer Al-Saba‘

(Beersheba).

Conclusion:

After comparing the different jackal subspecies, and examining

the two photos, and referring to many zoological references, and

searching the Internet, I came finally to a conclusion that we are

in front of a new subspecies of the Golden Jackal from the Gaza

Strip, Palestine.

I gave it the scientific name Canis aureus palaestina, new

subspecies. The subspecies name “palaestina” is Latin for

“Palestine”.

298


Canis aureus palaestina, new subspecies:

Scientific trinomial name: Canis aureus palaestina

Khalaf, 2008.

Common Name: Palestine Golden Jackal.

Location: Rafah and Al-Bureij Refugee Camp, Gaza

Strip, Palestine.

Date of capture: 2008.

The New Palestinian Golden Jackal Subspecies Canis aureus palaestina

Khalaf, 2008, at Al-Wasat Zoo, Al-Bureij Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip,

Palestine. Foto: Dr. Abdel Fattah Nazmi Abd Rabou, 2008.

299


Acknowledgment: A Special thanks is due to the Palestinian

Zoologist Assistant Professor Dr. Abdel Fattah Nazmi Abd Rabou

from the Biology Department, Islamic University of Gaza, who

sent the Golden Jackal photos, and gave me the opportunity to

discover a new Palestinian Golden Jackal Subspecies.

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318


The Wolf (Canis lupus) in Palestine

الذئب

( كانٌس لوبوس لٌنٌوس ،

) فً‏ فلسطٌن

1551

By: Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-von

Jaffa

As evidenced by quotations in the Holy Qur'an, the wolf (Canis

lupus Linnaeus, 1758) coexisted with man in the area of Palestine

for thousands of years and was well known as a predator, as we

know it from the story of Prophet Yusuf (Joseph). The

Reverend Tristram (1884) stated that the wolf is found in every

part of Palestine. Wolves still live in over half of Palestine, but

have disappeared during the last 40 years from the more densely

settled areas. It appears, however, that in some areas their

population has increased recently due to easily available food

from garbage dumps (Mendelssohn 1982).

The "Israeli" Wild Animals Protection Law of 1954 completely

protected almost all wild animals in Occupied Palestine except,

among others, the Palestine Golden Jackal (Canis aureus palaestina

Khalaf, 2008), which was later given complete protection.

The human population of ―Israel‖ in 1979 was 3,830,000 in an area

of 20,720 square kilometer, or 185 people per square kilometer.

The northern and central part of the country has a much higher

human density than Al-Naqab (Negev) Desert (the southern arid

part) and the Rift Valley (Jordan Valley, Dead Sea depression and

Wadi Araba), where most of the contemporary wolf population

lives. Already in the 1930s, wolves had disappeared from the

densely settled areas - the coastal plain between Haifa and Jaffa

and the mountains between Nablus and Hebron (Al Khalil).

Palestinian wolves are animals of open areas. They have never

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inhabited the dense Mediterranean scrub forest that covers about

400 square kilometer in Galilee (Jaleel) and on Mount Carmel.

According to Shahi (1977, 1983), the Indian Canis lupus pallipes

Sykes 1831, apparently also do not live in dense forest cover.

Because of Palestine's small size, its nature reserves are also small

and, thus, are of little use to such wide-ranging animals as

wolves. The largest nature reserve in the north, that of Mount

Meron (Jabal Al Jarmaq), has an area of about 90 square

kilometer, which is largely covered by scrub forest and therefore

not suitable for wolves.

Several subspecies of wolves occur in the Middle East. The

smallest of all the wolf subspecies, the Arabian Canis lupus arabs

Pocock, 1934, is found in a large part of the Arabian Peninsula, in

Southern Sinai, in Southern Palestine and probably also in

Southern Jordan. To the north of the distribution of this

subspecies, the Indian Canis lupus pallipes occurs, the distribution

of which extends from Palestine through Syria, Southern Iraq,

Southern Iran, Kuwait to Southern Pakistan and India. In

Palestine two discrete populations of this subspecies have been

found, that differ in size and colour and live in different climatic

regions.

Prof. Dr. Heinrich Mendelssohn (1983) wrote in his article "Status

of the wolf in the Middle East" : "The taxonomic situation of the

wolves of Syria and Turkey is not yet well known. Wolves that

are larger and darker than typical Canis lupus pallipes, but are

different from Canis lupus lupus or Canis lupus campestris, have

been found in the Golan. Similar wolves have recently been

observed in Eastern Lebanon, close to the Syrian border, and it is

possible that the wolves of Turkey and Northern Syria belong to

this form‖.

The existence of wolves in Lebanon is surprising. Lebanon, with a

dense human population and an enormous, unrestricted hunting

pressure, has very little wildlife left. The jackal (Canis aureus) was

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so far supposed to be the largest wild mammal surviving in

Lebanon. In August 1982, however, several wolves were observed

by reliable observers, feeding on garbage dumps in the area of

Lake Karoun, close to the Syrian border. A few days later ten

wolves were seen feeding on a cow carcass in the same area. The

wolves of Northern Iran are similar to Canis lupus campestris

(Mendelssohn 1983).

Wolves still occur, as far as is known, in all the countries of the

Middle East, but are generally rare, and their distribution is not

continuous. They have been eliminated from areas with dense

human population. Apparently, Occupied Palestine is the only

country in this region where wolves are legally protected. Some

countries, such as Jordan, Oman and the United Arab Emirates,

have in recent years introduced some restrictions on hunting. It

seems that in Jordan and in Oman these regulations are quite well

obeyed, but predators are apparently not included in this

protection (Mendelssohn, 1983). Such protection of predators

would not be acceptable to the public as predators are, except in

Palestine, considered generally as pests and killed on sight. Only

smaller species, such as jackals and foxes, are not endangered. All

the larger species that still exist, such as hyenas (Hyaena hyaena),

leopards (Panthera pardus) and wolves, must be considered as

endangered (Mendelssohn 1983).

Prof. Dr. Mendelssohn (1983) continues: "In most countries of the

Middle East, wolves feed mostly on livestock carcasses or have to

prey on domestic animals, as wild ungulates have been

exterminated or are, besides wild pigs (Sus scrofa), so rare that

they cannot present a food base for wolves. Even in Turkey,

where seven species of ruminants were regionally not rare 30

years ago, they are now so rare in most areas, or have been

completely exterminated, that wolves cannot rely on them. Wild

pigs occur in the northern and more humid areas of this region

and are regionally common, but it is not known if wolves prey on

this species." In Palestine wild pigs are common, but there are no

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observations indicating that wolves prey on them.

Scavenging on garbage dumps presents another source of food

and the smaller subspecies of wolves, especially the small Canis

lupus arabs, feed also on rodents and other small animals.

Mendelssohn (1983) writes: "Wolves are endangered by shooting,

as in most countries of this region "everybody carries a gun and

shoots at everything" (Kumerloeve, personal communication) and

wolves are shot on sight. If they prey on livestock, retaliation

poisoning or trapping ensues. Many poisons are available and

widely used: Fluoracetamide (1081), Sodiumfluoracetate (1080),

Strychnine, as well as pesticides, such as Endrin, Parathion, etc.

Rabies is endemic in most countries of the region, and the

veterinary authorities carry out poisoning campaigns, using

mostly strychnine and 1080, in order to eradicate predators and

feral dogs.‖

Thus the life of the wolf in most areas of the Middle East is

precarious because of the unpredictable and unsure supply of

food, persecution and antirabies campaigns. Their survival is due

to the fact that in most areas of this region the density of human

population is still low, and nomadic livestock raising is

widespread, with quite a high rate of mortality in the herds, thus

supplying carcasses. The human population, however, increases

rapidly, and veterinary care of the nomadic herds improves,

causing a decrease in the availability of carcasses (Mendelssohn

1983).

The eventual survival of wolves in the Middle East will depend

on the slowly developing nature conservation ethic, in which

predators ought to be included. As the general attitude is,

however, still strongly anti-predator, extensive conservation

education is extremely urgent. Legal protection alone is

meaningless: In Turkey the leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana) and

the tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) have been protected since 1966,

but still every detected specimen is shot and both subspecies are

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about to be exterminated or have already disappeared

(Kumerloeve 1975, Mendelssohn 1983)."

Dr. David L. Harrison (1981) wrote in his book "Mammals of the

Arabian Gulf" about the Wolf : "Although the Arabian wolf (Canis

lupus arabs) is considerably smaller than its northern Eurasian

relatives, it is nevertheless strikingly larger than the Jackal, with a

total length of about 1140 mm. The general build is like an

Alsatian dog, with rather long legs, a short, bushy tail and large

ears. The coat is rather short and coarse, variably greyish or

yellowish brown on the flanks, with a blackish crest along the

spine. The tip of the tail is also black, while the cheeks and

underside are usually white. Wolves from the more northerly

parts of the peninsula (Canis lupus pallipes) are larger and have

thicker, more luxuriant coats.‖ The desert wolves of Arabia

usually hunt singly or in pairs, and many tales are told by the