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Book Fauna Palaestina 4 Year 2014 By Prof Dr Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf von Jaffa ISBN 978-9950-383-77-7

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<strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong><br />

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<strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong><br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong><br />

Part Four / Teil Vier<br />

Zoological Studies in Palestine<br />

between 1983 – <strong>2014</strong><br />

Zoologische Studien in Palästina<br />

zwischen 1983 – <strong>2014</strong><br />

Al Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine<br />

July <strong>2014</strong><br />

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Al Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine<br />

Tel. 00970-2-2340035<br />

info@aljundi.biz<br />

www.aljundi.biz<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> – Part Four<br />

Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – <strong>2014</strong><br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> – Teil Vier<br />

Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – <strong>2014</strong><br />

<strong>By</strong>: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong><br />

First Edition / Erste Auflage . July <strong>2014</strong><br />

<strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong> – <strong>9950</strong> – <strong>383</strong> – <strong>77</strong> - 7<br />

All Rights Reserved / Alle Rechte vorbehalten<br />

Copyright © <strong>2014</strong> by Al Jundi Publishing House. Jerusalem, Palestine<br />

Website of the <strong>Book</strong>:<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> – Part Four. Zoological Studies in Palestine between<br />

1983 – <strong>2014</strong> (<strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-<strong>9950</strong>-<strong>383</strong>-<strong>77</strong>-7):<br />

http://fauna-palaestina-part-1.webs.com/faunapalaestina4.htm<br />

E-mail of the Author: <strong>Jaffa</strong>city@yahoo.de<br />

Tel. of the Author (Palestine): 00970-52-4170202<br />

English / German Cover: A Cheetah at the Emirates Park Zoo, Abu<br />

Dhabi, United Arab Emirates on 16.05.<strong>2014</strong>.<br />

Photograph by Mrs. Ola Mostafa <strong>Khalaf</strong>, Dubai, U.A.E.<br />

Cover Design / Umschlaggestaltung: Mrs. Ola Mostafa <strong>Khalaf</strong>,<br />

Dubai, United Arab Emirates<br />

Printed and bound in Al Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine<br />

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اقْرَأْ‏ بِاسْ‏ مِ‏ رَ‏ بِّكَ‏ الَّذِي خَ‏ لَ‏ ‏َق خَ‏ لَقَ‏ اْلْ‏ ‏ِنسَانَ‏ مِنْ‏ عَلَق اقْرَ‏ أْ‏ وَ‏ رَ‏ بُّكَ‏<br />

اْلْ‏ ‏َكْرَ‏ م الَّذِي عَلَّمَ‏ بِالْقَلَمِ‏ عَلَّمَ‏ اْلْ‏ ‏ِنسَانَ‏ مَا لَمْ‏ ‏ٌَعْ‏ لَمْ‏<br />

.<br />

.<br />

. 5-1<br />

.<br />

.<br />

سورة العلق ، اآلياث<br />

.<br />

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful<br />

Read! In the name of your Lord who created. He<br />

created man from a clinging form. Read! Your<br />

Lord Is the Most Bountiful One. Who taught by<br />

pen. Who taught man what he did not know.<br />

Surah 96 (Al-Alaq), Ayat 1-5<br />

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Contents<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> – Part Four<br />

English Articles<br />

1. Preface .................................................................................... 9<br />

2. About the Author: A Palestinian-German Zoologist ………. 12<br />

3. Checklist of the Family Scarabaeidae (Scarab Beetles) from<br />

Palestine …............................................................................. 15<br />

4. Family Coccinellidae (Ladybird Beetles) in Palestine ……... 47<br />

5. Freshwater Fishes in Palestine ……………………………... 69<br />

6. Garra rufa wadiqana <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013 : A New Freshwater<br />

Doctor Fish Subspecies from Wadi Qana Nature Reserve,<br />

Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine ……………………… 92<br />

7. † Macropomoides palaestina <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013 : A New<br />

Coelacanth Fish Fossil Species from the Anthracothere Hill<br />

in Al-Naqab, Palestine .…………………………………….. 126<br />

8. The Ceratosaur Dinosaur Elaphrosaurus bambergi<br />

Janensch, 1920 Tracks from Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds<br />

(Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine …........................................ 140<br />

9. Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758)<br />

Nesting in Palestine ………………………………………… 182<br />

10. The <strong>By</strong>catch of a Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta<br />

Linnaeus, 1758) in a fishing net on the Gaza Coast, Gaza,<br />

State of Palestine …………………………………………… 691<br />

11. Records of Dead Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta<br />

Linnaeus, 1758) washed up on the <strong>Jaffa</strong> Beach, Occupied<br />

Palestine between 2010 – 2013 …………………………….. 231<br />

12. Killing Incidents of Wild Animals in the State of Palestine<br />

in 2013 ……………………………………………………… 246<br />

13. Mus musculus gazaensis <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2007 : A New House<br />

Mouse Subspecies from the Gaza Strip, Palestine …………. 272<br />

14. The Dorcas Gazelle (Gazella dorcas Linnaeus, 1758) …….. 292<br />

15. Canis aureus palaestina <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2008 : A New Golden<br />

Jackal Subspecies from the Gaza Strip, Palestine ………….. 296<br />

16. The Wolf (Canis lupus) in Palestine ……………………….. 319<br />

17 The Two Wolf Subspecies (Canis lupus arabs Pocock,<br />

1934) and (Canis lupus pallipes Sykes, 1831) in Palestine ... 337<br />

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Contents<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> – Part Four<br />

Arabic Articles<br />

1. Al-Muqadima (Preface) ........................................................... 11<br />

2. The Persian Badger (Meles meles canescens Blanford, 1875)<br />

in Palestine and the Arabian Peninsula ……………………… 16<br />

3. Dinosaurs of Al-Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine …..... 38<br />

4. <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong> Award for Biodiversity in Palestine<br />

2012 / 2013 : Essay and Photography Contest of the Palestine<br />

Sunbird (Cinnyris osea Bonaparte, 1856) …………………... 53<br />

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IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST GRACIOUS, MOST MERCIFUL<br />

PREFACE<br />

Packed into Palestine's small area are snow-covered mountains, parched<br />

deserts, fertile fields, lush woodlands and long stretches of sand dunes.<br />

No less than four different geographical zones are included in Palestine,<br />

and the country's climate ranges from semi-arid to temperate to<br />

subtropical.<br />

All of this makes Palestine home to a stunning variety of plants and<br />

animals. Some 47,000 living species have been identified in Palestine,<br />

with another 4,000 assumed to exist. There are 116 species of mammals<br />

native to Palestine, 511 kinds of birds, 97 types of reptiles and nine types<br />

of amphibians. Some 2,780 types of plants grow countrywide, from<br />

Alpine flowers on northern mountain slopes to bright red coral peonies<br />

and desert papyrus reeds in the south.<br />

My first published scientific article goes back to January 1980, when I<br />

was still a student in the Zoology Department at Kuwait University,<br />

State of Kuwait. The article was about "The Colouration of Animals".<br />

I was especially interested in the Arabian Wildlife, and in particular, in<br />

my Homeland Palestine. My first zoological article about the Palestinian<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> dates back to February 1983. The article was entitled "The<br />

Badger in Palestine and the Arabian Peninsula", and was published<br />

in the Palestinian "Al Khalisah" Bulletin, Kuwait University.<br />

Since that time, I had published many scientific articles in different<br />

scientific books, magazines and bulletins, and established my own<br />

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. In July 1983, "Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin" was created. It was the First Palestinian Scientific<br />

Journal Worldwide (ISSN 0178 – 6288).<br />

My first zoological article in "Gazelle" was about "Order Lagomorpha<br />

in Palestine". Till now 124 "Gazelle" Issues were published; and many<br />

of my articles were about Palestinian Animals.<br />

Finally, and after more than 35 years in Zoological research and studies,<br />

in Palestine and many Arabic and European countries, and after<br />

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publishing many scientific articles in different scientific books,<br />

magazines and bulletins, especially the "Gazelle Bulletin", and after<br />

publishing many articles in the Gazelle Bulletin Web Site, since 2001<br />

under (www.gazelle.8m.net), and after publishing most of my articles<br />

on the internet under (www.webs.com), and after publishing my<br />

zoological books: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin in July<br />

2004, Aquatica Arabica in August 2005, Mammalia Arabica in July<br />

2006, Felidae Arabica in July 2007, Carnivora Arabica in September<br />

2008, <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> – Part One in September 2009, <strong>Fauna</strong><br />

Emiratus – Part One in November 2010, <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> – Part<br />

Two which was published by Dar Al Jundi Publishing House in Al Quds<br />

(Jerusalem), Palestine in July 2012, and my ninth book <strong>Fauna</strong><br />

<strong>Palaestina</strong> – Part Three which was also published by Dar Al Jundi<br />

Publishing House in Al Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine in July<br />

2013; I finally decided to publish my newest scientific book in the Holy<br />

City of Jerusalem, State of Palestine, containing selected "Palestinian"<br />

research and articles which were published between 1983 - <strong>2014</strong>.<br />

It is hard to be optimistic about the future of Wildlife in Palestine. But<br />

recent years have shown the development of official and public interest,<br />

and efforts to conserve the Palestinian <strong>Fauna</strong>. Palestinian animals lived<br />

with humans for thousands of years. There are a lot of stories concerning<br />

Prophets with Palestinian animals, which were mentioned in the Holy<br />

Quran, Bible and Torah.<br />

I hope that I can participate with my new book to our knowledge about<br />

"<strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong>", and to help and to be part in protecting the<br />

endangered Palestinian and Arabian <strong>Fauna</strong>.<br />

<strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>.<br />

Al Quds (Jerusalem), the Capital of the State of Palestine and the Capital<br />

of Arab Culture.<br />

05 th July <strong>2014</strong> (My 52 nd Birthday).<br />

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About the Author :<br />

A Palestinian-German Zoologist<br />

<strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher <strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong><br />

<strong>Jaffa</strong> is a Palestinian-German Zoologist, Ecologist and Geologist. Born<br />

in Saarbrücken, Saarland, Germany in 1962. His family originally comes<br />

from Al Eizariya (Bethany), east of Al Quds (Jerusalem), Palestine. The<br />

family then moved to the financial booming city of <strong>Jaffa</strong>, Palestine in the<br />

beginning of the twentieth century. Finished School in Kuwait. Studied<br />

Zoology, Geology and Ecology for the Bachelor, Master and Doctorate<br />

degrees at the Universities of Kuwait, Durham (England) and Ashwood<br />

(USA). Specialised in Animal Behaviour and Ecology. Done a lot of<br />

work and research in the Universities of Kuwait, Durham and<br />

Saarbrücken; and in the Zoos, Wild Parks and Field Studies in Palestine,<br />

Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Emirates,<br />

Qatar, Oman, Egypt, Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Hungary,<br />

Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg, England, Scotland, Jersey Island,<br />

France, Austria, Switzerland and Germany.<br />

He is the author and publisher of "Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological<br />

Bulletin" (ISSN 0178-6288), the first Palestinian scientific journal<br />

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worldwide (since 1983); and the author of ten books: Gazelle: The<br />

Palestinian Biological Bulletin (2004), Aquatica Arabica (2005),<br />

Mammalia Arabica (2006), Felidae Arabica (2007), Carnivora Arabica<br />

(2008), <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> – Part One (2009), <strong>Fauna</strong> Emiratus – Part One<br />

(2010), <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> – Part Two (2012), <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> – Part<br />

Three (2013), <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> – Part Four (<strong>2014</strong>), and the co-author of<br />

the book "Palestine: A Guide" (2005/2006).<br />

He discovered and scientifically named nine new animal species and<br />

subspecies. Two Palestinian mammal subspecies from the Gaza Strip:<br />

The Gaza or Palestine House Mouse (Mus musculus gazaensis <strong>Khalaf</strong>,<br />

2007) and the Palestine Golden Jackal (Canis aureus palaestina <strong>Khalaf</strong>,<br />

2008); and the Pink Panther or the Pink-hued Leopard (Panthera pardus<br />

roseus <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013) from South Africa; and three freshwater fish<br />

subspecies: The Emirati or Wadi Al Wurayah Blind Cave Fish (Garra<br />

barreimiae wurayahi <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2009), the Emirati or <strong>Bassam</strong><br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>'s Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus bassamkhalafi <strong>Khalaf</strong>,<br />

2009) from the Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates and the<br />

Palestine or Wadi Qana Doctor Fish (Garra rufa wadiqana <strong>Khalaf</strong>,<br />

2013) from Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of<br />

Palestine; and three fossils: the Arabian or Emirati Four-Tusked<br />

Elephant Fossil († Stegotetrabelodon syrticus emiratus <strong>Khalaf</strong>,<br />

2010) from the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; the<br />

Sharjah or Arabian Coelacanth Fish Fossil († Coelacanthus<br />

sharjah <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013) from Sharjah Natural History and Botanical<br />

Museum in Sharjah, Emirate of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates and the<br />

Palestine or Al-Naqab Coelacanth Fish Fossil († Macropomoides<br />

palaestina <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013) from the Anthracothere Hill in Al-Naqab,<br />

Palestine.<br />

He is working now as a free Scientific Researcher, Publisher and Eco-<br />

Tourist Guide in the United Arab Emirates. He is married to Ola <strong>Khalaf</strong><br />

and has one daughter, Nora (15 <strong>Year</strong>s).<br />

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Checklist of the Family Scarabaeidae<br />

(Scarab Beetles) from Palestine<br />

خنافس الج عل فً‏ فلسطٌن<br />

<strong>By</strong>: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong><br />

Propomacrus bimucronatus. <strong>By</strong>: Peter Simon Pallas, 1781.<br />

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Propomacrus_bimucronatus.png<br />

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Family Scarabaeidae<br />

Subfamily Eucheirinae<br />

Propomacrus bimucronatus Pallas, 1781<br />

Subfamily Melolonthinae<br />

Tribe Melolonthini<br />

Anoxia (Anoxia) maculiventris Reitter, 1890<br />

Anoxia (Mesanoxia) cypria Zurcher, 1911<br />

Anoxia (Protanoxia) laevimaculata Petrovitz, 1973<br />

Anoxia (Protanoxia) orientalis Krynicki, 1832<br />

Anoxoides bytinskisalzi Petrovitz, 1971<br />

Cyphonoxia praestabilis Reitter, 1889<br />

Melolontha (Melolontha) albida Frivaldszky, 1835<br />

Polyphylla (Polyphylla) olivieri Laporte, 1840<br />

Tribe Rhizotrogini<br />

Aplidia caesarina Reitter, 1902<br />

Aplidia chaifensis Kraatz, 1882<br />

Aplidia endroedii Baraud, 1988<br />

Aplidia fissa fissa Burmeister, 1855<br />

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Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/Web%20Polyphylla%20olivieri.jpg<br />

Aplidia janczyki Baraud, 1988<br />

Aplidia joannis Baraud, 1988<br />

Aplidia lizleri Keith, 2000<br />

Aplidia nitidula Kraatz, 1882<br />

Aplidia petrovitzi petrovitzi Baraud,1988<br />

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Aplidia villosicollis Kraatz, 1882<br />

Gnaphalostetha bonvoisini Reiche & Saulcy, 1856<br />

Holochelus (Holochelus) setiventris Reitter, 1902<br />

Tribe Pachydemini<br />

Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/Gnaphalostetha%20bonvoisini.jpg<br />

Brenskiella flavomicans Brenske, 1897<br />

Leptochristina pubicavula Reitter, 1902<br />

Tanyproctus (Taniproctocera) sinaiticus Heyden, 1900<br />

Tanyproctus (Taniproctus) kindermanni Reiche, 1861<br />

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Tanyproctus (Taniproctocera) crinitus Petrovitz, 1971<br />

Tanyproctus (Taniproctocera) israeliticus Petrovitz, 1971<br />

Tanyproctus (Taniproctocera) lederi Reiche, 1861<br />

Tanyproctus (Taniproctocera) minutus Petrovitz, 1973<br />

Tanyproctus (Taniproctocera) nabataeus Petrovitz, 1973<br />

Tanyproctus (Taniproctocera) pumilus Petrovitz, 1973<br />

Tanyproctus (Taniproctocera) saulcyi Reiche & Saulcy, 1856<br />

Subfamily Sericinae<br />

Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/web%20tanyproctus%20saulcyi.jpg<br />

Maladera (Cephaloserica) insanabilis Brenske, 1894<br />

Maladera (Eusericula) modesta Fairmaire, 1881<br />

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Maladera (Macroserica) punctatissima Faldermann, 1835<br />

Maladera (Macroserica) syriaca syriaca Petrovitz, 1969<br />

Omaloplia (Acarina) labrata Burmeister, 1855<br />

Paratriodonta olivieri Blanchard, 1850<br />

Paratriodonta tripolitana Brenske, 1889 (?)<br />

http://www.nature-of-oz.com/Maladera%20syriaca%20syriaca.jpg<br />

Subfamily Rutelinae<br />

Tribe Adoretini<br />

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Adoretus granulifrons Fairmaire, 1882<br />

Adoretus irakanus Ohaus, 1928<br />

Tribe Anomalini<br />

Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/Adoretus%20irakanus.jpg<br />

Anisoplia (Anisoplia) signata akbesiana Baraud, 1991<br />

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Anisoplia ferruginipes Petrovitz, 1963 (?)<br />

Brancoplia klapperichi Petrovitz, 1971<br />

Anisoplia pumila Mersuel, 1878<br />

Brancoplia leucaspis leucaspis Laporte, 1840<br />

Brancoplia mesopotamica Pilleri, 1954<br />

Chaetopteroplia obenbergeri Vsetecka 1941<br />

Chaetopteroplia syriaca Burmeister, 1844<br />

Hemichaetoplia gossypiata Fairmaire, 1881<br />

Anomala palaestina Pic, 1905<br />

Asiopertha nazarena Marsuel, 1878<br />

Blitopertha nigripennis Reitter, 1888<br />

Pharaouns varicoloreus Burmeister, 1844<br />

Tribopertha aegyptiaca Blanchard, 1851<br />

Subfamily Dynastinae<br />

Tribe Oryctini<br />

Oryctes nasicornis kuntzeni )Minck,1915(<br />

Oryctes agamemnon sinaicus<br />

(Walker,1871)<br />

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Tribe Pentodontini<br />

Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/Asiopertha%20nazarena.jpg<br />

Heteroninchus licas Klug, 1835<br />

Pentodon algerinum dispar Baudi,1870<br />

Pentodon bidens sulcifrons Kuster, 1848<br />

Pentodon idiota idiota Herbst,1789<br />

Pentodon variolopunctatus deserti Heyden, 1900<br />

Phyllognathus excavatus Forster,1<strong>77</strong>1<br />

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Podalgus cuniculus arabicus Fairmaire, 1895<br />

Temnorhynchus baal Reiche & saulcy, 1856<br />

Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/Oryctes%20agamemnon%20sinaicus.jpg<br />

Subfamily Cetoniinae<br />

Tribe Cetonini<br />

Subtribe Cetonina<br />

Protaetia (Netocia) subpilosa dorchini Legrand & <strong>Dr</strong>umond, 2006<br />

Protaetia (Potosia) cuprea ignicollis<br />

Gory et Percheron 1833<br />

Protaetia (Cetonichema) speciosa jousselini Gory et Percheron, 1833<br />

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Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/Temnorhynchus%20baal.jpg<br />

Protaetia (Foveopotosia) judith Reiche, 1871<br />

Protaetia (Netocia) vidua (Gory et Percheron,1833)<br />

Protaetia funebris funesta (Menetries,1838)<br />

Protaetia (Netocia) afflicta<br />

Gory et Percheron,1833<br />

Protaetia (Eupotosia) afflnis pyrodera (Reitter,1891)<br />

Protaetia (Netocia) trojana syriaca Reitter, 1891<br />

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Protaetia (Eupotosia) mirifica koenigi Reitter, 1894<br />

Cetonia delegrangei Boucard,1893<br />

Aethiessa mesopotamica<br />

Burmeister,1842<br />

Aethiessa floralis (Fabricius,1787)<br />

Stalagmosoma albella (Pallas,1781)<br />

Tropinota (Epicomentis) hirta suturalis Reitter, 1913<br />

Tropinota squalida pilosa<br />

Brulle,1832<br />

Tropinota vittula (Reiche et Saulcy,1857)<br />

Tropinota (Tropinota) ilariae (Dutto, 2007)<br />

Oxythyrea abigail Reiche et Saulcy,1857<br />

Oxythyrea noemi<br />

Reiche et Saulcy,1856<br />

Oxythyrea cinctella (Schaum,1841)<br />

Subfamily Valginae<br />

Valgus hemipterus )Linnaeus,1758(<br />

Subfamily Scarabaeinae<br />

Tribe Coprini<br />

Catharsius sesostris Waterhouse, 1888<br />

Copris (Copris) hispanus cavolinii Petagna, 1792<br />

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Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/Aethiessa%20mesopotamica.jpg<br />

Copris (Copris) lunaris (Linnaeus, 1758)<br />

Tribe Gymnopleurini<br />

Gymnopleurus flagellatus (Fabricius, 1787)<br />

Gymnopleurus geoffroyi geoffroyi (Fuessly, 1<strong>77</strong>5)<br />

Gymnopleurus mopsus ssp. mopsus (Pallas, 1781)<br />

Gymnopleurus sturmii (MacLeay, 1821)<br />

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http://webzoom.freewebs.com/saturnids/Web%20Copris%20hispanu<br />

s%20SERIES.jpg<br />

Tribe Oniticellili<br />

Euoniticellus fulvus (Goeze, 1<strong>77</strong>7)<br />

Euoniticellus pallens (A. G. Olivier, 1789)<br />

Euoniticellus pallipes (Fabricius, 1781)<br />

Tribe Onitini<br />

Bubas bubaloides Janssens, 1938<br />

Cheironitis furcifer (P. Rossi, 1792)<br />

Cheironitis pamphilus (Menetries, 1849)<br />

Cheironitis irroratus (P. Rossi, 1790) ??<br />

Cheironitis ungaricus (Herbst, 1789) ??<br />

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Onitis alexis ssp. septentrionalis Balthasar, 1942<br />

Onitis damoetas Steven, 1806<br />

Onitis ezechias Reiche and Saulcy, 1856<br />

Onitis humerosus (Pallas, 1<strong>77</strong>1)<br />

Onitis ion (A. G. Olivier, 1789) ??<br />

Photo by Oz Rittner.<br />

http://webzoom.freewebs.com/saturnids/Bubas%20bubaloides.jpg<br />

Tribe Onthophagini<br />

Caccobius (Caccobius) histeroides (Menetries, 1832)<br />

Caccobius (Caccobius) mundus (Menetries, 1839)<br />

Caccobius (Caccobius) schreberi (Linnaeus, 1767 )<br />

Caccobius (Caccophilus) pulicarius Harold, 1875<br />

29


Euonthophagus amyntas ssp. alces (Fabricius, 1792)<br />

Euonthophagus atramentarius (Menetries, 1832)<br />

Euonthophagus conterminus Petrovitz, 1971<br />

Euonthophagus gibbosus (Scriba, 1790)<br />

Euonthophagus tissoni (Reitter, 1906)<br />

Onthophagus (Eremonthophagus) transcaspicus Konig, 1889<br />

Onthophagus (Furconthophagus) furcatus (Fabricius, 1781)<br />

Onthophagus (Micronthophagus) melanocephalus Klug, 1845<br />

Onthophagus (Onthophagus) illyricus (Scopoli, 1763)<br />

Onthophagus (Onthophagus) taurus (Schreber, 1759)<br />

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) aerarius Reitter, 1892<br />

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) aleppensis Redtenbacher, 1843<br />

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) andalusicus Waltl, 1835<br />

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) angorensis Petrovitz, 1963<br />

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) bytinskii Balthasar, 1960<br />

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) coenobita (Herbst, 1783)<br />

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) cruciatus Menetries, 1832<br />

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) falzonii Goidanich, 1926<br />

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) fissicornis (Steven, 1809)<br />

30


Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) fissinasus Fairmaire, 1895<br />

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) fracticornis (Preyssler, 1790)<br />

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) hermonensis Baraud, 1982<br />

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) lucidus (Sturm, 1800)<br />

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) marginalis Gebler, 1817<br />

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) muelleri P. Novak, 1921<br />

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) nebulosus Reiche, 1864<br />

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) opacicollis Reitter, 1892<br />

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) ruficapillus Brulle, 1832<br />

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) sericatus Reitter, 1892<br />

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) similis (Scriba, 1790) ??<br />

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) speculifer Solsky, 1876 ??<br />

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) suturellus Brulle, 1832<br />

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) truchmenus ssp.<br />

truchmenus Kolenati, 1846<br />

Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) vacca (Linnaeus, 1767) ??<br />

Tribe Scarabaeini<br />

Ateuchetus puncticollis (Latreille, 1819)<br />

Ateuchetus semipunctatus (Fabricius, 1792)<br />

31


Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/Scarabaeus%20irakensis.jpg<br />

Mnematidium multidentatum (Klug, 1845)<br />

Scarabaeus (Mesoscarabaeus) cristatus Fabricius, 1<strong>77</strong>5<br />

Scarabaeus (Scarabaeus) gangeticus (Castelnau, 1840)<br />

Scarabaeus (Scarabaeus) irakensis Stolfa, 1938<br />

32


Scarabaeus (Scarabaeus) pius (Illiger, 1803)<br />

Scarabaeus (Scarabaeus) sacer Linnaeus, 1758<br />

Scarabaeus (Scarabaeus) typhon (Fischer de Waldheim, 1823)<br />

Tribe Sisyphini<br />

Sisyphus schaefferi boschnakii Fischer de Waldheim, 1824<br />

Subfamily Aphodiinae<br />

Acanthobodilus immundus (Creutzer, 1799)<br />

Acrossus luridus (Fabricius, 1<strong>77</strong>5)<br />

Alocoderus hydrochaeris (Fabricius, 1798)<br />

Alocoderus turbatus (Baudi, 1870)<br />

Amidorus cribrarius (Brulle, 1832)<br />

Amidorus obscurus (Fabricius, 1792)<br />

Aphodius fimetarius (Linne, 1758)<br />

Aphodius foetidus (Herbst, 1783)<br />

Biralus equinus (Faldermann, 1835)<br />

Biralus menetriesi (Menetries, 1847)<br />

Biralus satellitius (Herbst, 1789)<br />

Bodiloides ictericus ssp. ghardimaouensis (Balthasar, 1929)<br />

33


Bodilopsis rufa (Moll, 1782)<br />

Bodilopsis sordida (Fabricius, 1<strong>77</strong>5)<br />

Bodilus lugens (Creutzer, 1799)<br />

Bodilus punctipennis (Erichson, 1848)<br />

Bodilus sabaeus (Peyerhimhoff, 1907)<br />

Calamosternus granarius (Linne, 1767)<br />

Calamosternus hyxos (Petrovitz, 1962)<br />

Calamosternus pseudounicolor (Balthasar, 1960)<br />

Calamosternus trucidatus (Harold, 1863)<br />

Chilothorax discedens (A. Schmidt, 1907)<br />

Chilothorax distinctus (O. F. Muller, 1<strong>77</strong>6)<br />

Chilothorax hieroglyphicus (Klug, 1845)<br />

Chilothorax hucklesbyi (Paulian, 1942)<br />

Chilothorax lineolatus (Illiger, 1803)<br />

Chilothorax melanostictus (W. Schmidt, 1840)<br />

Colobopterus erraticus (Linne, 1758)<br />

Erytus aequalis (A. Schmidt, 1907)<br />

Erytus cognatus (Fairmaire, 1860)<br />

Erytus lindemannae (Balthasar, 1960)<br />

34


Erytus mesopotamicus (Petrovitz, 1961)<br />

Erytus opacior (D. Koshantschikov, 1894)<br />

Erytus pruinosus (Reitter, 1892)<br />

Esymus filitarsis (Reitter, 1898)<br />

Esymus merdarius (Fabricius, 1<strong>77</strong>5)<br />

Esymus ornatulus (Harold, 1866)<br />

Esymus pusillus (Herbst, 1789)<br />

Esymus suturinigra (A. Schmidt, 1916)<br />

Eudolus quadriguttatus (Herbst, 1783)<br />

Euheptaulacus carinatus (Germar, 1824)<br />

Euorodalus longevittatus (A. Schmidt, 1916)<br />

Labarrus digitatus (Harold, 1871)<br />

Labarrus lividus (Olivier, 1789)<br />

Labarrus splendidus (Petrovitz, 1955)<br />

Liothorax isikdagensis (Balthasar, 1952)<br />

Liothorax plagiatus (Linne, 1767)<br />

Loraphodius suarius (Faldermann, 1835)<br />

Mecynodes angulosus (Harold, 1869)<br />

Mecynodes leucopterus (Klug, 1945)<br />

35


Mecynodes trochylus (Reitter, 1892)<br />

Megatelus contractus (Klug, 1845)<br />

Melinopterus consputus (Creutzer,1799)<br />

Melinopterus prodromus (Brahm,1790)<br />

Melinopterus pubescens (Sturm,1805)<br />

Melinopterus punctatosulcatus ssp. hirtipes (Fischer, 1844)<br />

Melinopterus sphacelatus (Panzer, 1798)<br />

Melinopterus tingens (Reitter, 1892)<br />

Mendidaphodius angustatus (Klug, 1845) - Palestine<br />

Mendidaphodius armiger (Harold, 1874) - Palestine, Syria<br />

Mendidaphodius lepidulus (Harold, 1866) - Palestine, Jordan,<br />

Lebanon<br />

Mendidaphodius linearis (Reiche and Saulcy, 1856) -<br />

Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria<br />

Mendidaphodius palaestinensis (Petrovitz, 1963) - Palestine, Jordan<br />

Mendidius assectator (Balthasar, 1961) - Palestine, Jordan, Syria<br />

Mendidius (?) calliger (Sahlberg, 1908) - Palestine, Lebanon, Syria<br />

Mendidius fimbriolatus (Mannerheim, 1849) - Palestine, Jordan,<br />

Syria<br />

Mendidius palmetincolus (Karsch, 1881) - Palestine, Sinai<br />

36


Mesontoplatys arabicus (Harold, 1875) - Palestine, Sinai<br />

Nialosternus sitiphoides (d'Orbigny, 1896) - Palestine, Jordan, Syria<br />

Nialus politus (Mulsant and Rey, 1870) - Palestine, Jordan,<br />

Lebanon, Syria<br />

Nialus varians (Duftschmid, 1805) - Palestine, Jordan<br />

Nimbus contaminatus (Herbst, 1783) - Palestine<br />

Nimbus harpagonis (Reitter, 1890) - Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon,<br />

Syria<br />

Nimbus libanonensis (Petrovitz, 1958) - Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon,<br />

Syria<br />

Nimbus obliteratus (Panzer, 1823) - Palestine<br />

Nobius serotinus (Panzer, 1799) - Palestine<br />

Oxyomus sylvestris (Scopoli, 1763) - Palestine, Syria<br />

Parabodilus wollastoni ssp. iranicus (Balthasar, 1946) - Palestine,<br />

Jordan, Lebanon, Sinai, Syria<br />

Phalacronothus fumigatulus (Reitter, 1892) - Palestine, Jordan,<br />

Lebanon, Syria<br />

Phalacronothus hilaris (Harold, 1869) - Palestine, Jordan, Syria<br />

Phalacronothus quadrimaculatus (Linne, 1761) - Palestine, Jordan,<br />

Lebanon, Syria<br />

Plagiogonus esymoides (Reitter, 1893) - Palestine<br />

37


Plagiogonus nanoides (Balthasar, 1961) - Palestine, Jordan, Syria<br />

Plagiogonus praeustus (Ballion, 1871) - Palestine, Syria<br />

Plagiogonus syriacus (Harold, 1863) - Palestine, Syria<br />

Planolinellus vittatus (Say, 1825) - Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria<br />

Pseudacrossus koshantschikovi (Jakobson, 1911) - Palestine, Jordan,<br />

Lebanon, Syria<br />

Pseudacrossus suffertus (A. Schmidt, 1916) - Palestine, Syria<br />

Pseuderytus chobauti (Clouet, 1896) - Palestine, Jordan<br />

Pseudesymus lucidus (Klug, 1845) - Palestine, Sinai<br />

Sahlbergianus longissimus (Sahlberg, 1908)<br />

Subrinus (?) feculentus (Fairmaire, 1892) - Palestine<br />

Subrinus sturmi (Harold, 1870) - Palestine<br />

Subrinus vitellinus (Klug, 1845) - Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Sinai,<br />

Syria<br />

Volinus (?) signifer (Mulsant and Rey, 1870) - Palestine, Syria<br />

Tribe Eupariini<br />

Ataenius horticola Harold, 1869 - Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria<br />

Tribe Psammodiini<br />

Brindalus porcicollis (Illiger, 1803) - Palestine, Lebanon, Syria<br />

38


http://www.nature-of-oz.com/Subrinus%20sturmi.jpg<br />

Diastictus vulneratus (Sturm, 1805) - Palestine, Lebanon<br />

Leiopsammodius laevicollis (Klug, 1845) - Palestine, Jordan, Syria<br />

Psammodius asper (Fabricius, 1<strong>77</strong>5) – Palestine<br />

Psammodius laevipennis A. Costa, 1844 - Palestine, Lebanon, Syria<br />

Psammodius nocturnus Reitter, 1892 - Palestine, Lebanon, Syria<br />

Tribe Rhyssemiini<br />

Platytomus laevistriatus (Perris, 1869)<br />

39


Psammodius asper (Fabricius, 1<strong>77</strong>5). Source: Darren J. Mann.<br />

http://www.coleoptera.org.uk/scarabaeoidea/psammodius-asper<br />

Platytomus tibialis (Fabricius, 1798)<br />

Pleurophorus anatolicus Petrovitz, 1961<br />

Pleurophorus arabicus Pittino and Mariani, 1986<br />

Pleurophorus caesus (Creutzer, 1796)<br />

Pleurophorus opacus Reitter, 1893<br />

Rhyssemodes orientalis (Mulsant and Godart, 1875)<br />

Rhyssemus beritensis Marseul, 1878<br />

Rhyssemus verrucosus Mulsant, 1842<br />

Trichiorhyssemus setulosus (Reitter, 1892)<br />

40


Rhyssemodes orientalis (Mulsant and Godart, 1875).<br />

http://jcringenbach.free.fr/website/beetles/scarabaeidae/Rhyssemod<br />

es_orientalis.htm<br />

References and Internet Websites:<br />

Cambefort, Yves. Beetles as Religious Symbols.<br />

http://www.insects.org/ced1/beetles_rel_sym.html<br />

Copeland, Dave (Cameraman), NBC News. Insect invasion: Israel<br />

battles plague of locusts. NBC News.<br />

http://worldnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2013/05/13/18233295-<br />

insect-invasion-israel-battles-plague-of-locusts?lite<br />

Department of Entomology. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.<br />

http://departments.agri.huji.ac.il/entomology/<br />

41


Evenor, Zachi. Insects in Israel . Flickr.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/zachievenor/sets/721576232207<br />

01942/<br />

Freidberg, A. and Y. Ben-Dov (Editors). (2007). Israel Journal of<br />

Entomology. Vol. 37, 2007. http://www.magnes-<br />

press.com/<strong>Book</strong>/Israel+Journal+of+Entomology.aspx?code=45-<br />

412004<br />

Israeli Journal of Entomology - Cover photo. (2008). Vol. 38, 2008.<br />

http://www.nature-ofoz.com/apps/photos/photo?photoid=60173104<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1980). Tabie‘t Al-Talawon fi Al-<br />

Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin.<br />

Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait<br />

University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (In Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1992). An Introduction to<br />

the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of<br />

Germany. Number 30, Tenth <strong>Year</strong>, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (In<br />

Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1994). An Introduction to<br />

the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae‘q Al-Nouma‘n (Anemone<br />

coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI<br />

(Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental<br />

Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with<br />

Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine.<br />

Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (In Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2004). Gazelle: Das<br />

Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche<br />

Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004. /<br />

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in<br />

Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. <strong>ISBN</strong> 3-00-<br />

014121-9. Erste Auflage / First Edition, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten /<br />

Pages. Zweite erweiterte Auflage (Second Extended Edition),<br />

August 2004: 460 Seiten / Pages. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>, Bonn-Bad<br />

Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-<br />

42


ooks.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (2007).<br />

Haywanat Filistin حٌوانات فلسطٌن (<strong>Fauna</strong> of Palestine). Wikipedia,<br />

Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The<br />

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 69, Twenty-fifth <strong>Year</strong>,<br />

September 2007 CE, Sha‘ban 1428 AH. pp. 1-4. (in Arabic).<br />

http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8<br />

%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D<br />

8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2009). Flora and <strong>Fauna</strong> in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab<br />

1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2009). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong><br />

– Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe<br />

between 1983 – 2006 / <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> – Teil Eins. Eine<br />

Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen<br />

1983 – 2006. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition,<br />

September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

<strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates &<br />

Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (2010). Der<br />

Hitlerkäfer (Anophthalmus hitleri Scheibel, 1937) / The Hitler‘s<br />

Slovenian Blind Cave Beetle (Anophthalmus hitleri, Scheibel 1937).<br />

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 –<br />

6288. Twenty-eighth <strong>Year</strong>, Number 97, January 2010 CE,<br />

Muharam 1431 AH. pp. 1-13. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

http://www.hitler-beetle.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (2010).<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab<br />

Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / <strong>Fauna</strong> Emiratus – Teil Eins.<br />

Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate<br />

zwischen 2004 - 2009. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First<br />

43


Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: <strong>Dr</strong>.<br />

<strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, Dubai and Sharjah, United<br />

Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik<br />

Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (2011).<br />

Khunfusa‗ Hitler خىفساء ‏ٌخهز (The Hitler Beetle). Arab-Wikipedia.<br />

http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AE%D9%86%D9%81%D8%<br />

B3%D8%A7%D8%A1_%D9%87%D8%AA%D9%84%D8%B1<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2012). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong><br />

– Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 /<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina<br />

zwischen 1983 – 2009. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First<br />

Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic<br />

Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al<br />

Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-normanali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2013). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong><br />

– Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 /<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> - Teil <strong>Dr</strong>ei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina<br />

zwischen 2005 – 2012. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-<strong>9950</strong>-<strong>383</strong>-35-7. Erste Auflage /<br />

First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part<br />

350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi<br />

Publishing House, Jerusalem, State of Palestine. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

Taher (2013). Checklist of the Family Scarabaeidae (Scarab<br />

Beetles) from Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological<br />

Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 105, September 2013, Thu Al<br />

Qia‘da 1434 AH. pp. 1-26. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab<br />

Emirates. http://palestine-insects.webs.com/scarab-beetles<br />

Pavlíček, Tomas; Vladimir Chikatunov, Vasily Kravchenko, Petr<br />

Zahradnik & Eviatar Nevo (1999). New records of deathwatch<br />

beetles (Anobiidae) from Israel. Zoology in the Middle East.<br />

Volume 17, Issue 1, 1999. pages <strong>77</strong>-78.<br />

44


http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09397140.1999.1<br />

063<strong>77</strong>71#.Uh-KSdI3CSq<br />

Ptashkovskiy, Yu.A. Beetles of Israel -illustrated atlas.<br />

http://www.zin.ru/animalia/coleoptera/eng/col_izrb.htm<br />

Springer. Abstracts of papers presented at the 16th conference of the<br />

Entomological Society of Israel Research on thrips in Israel Dedicated to<br />

the Memory of <strong>Prof</strong>. E. Rivnay on the 100th Anniversary of his Birth.<br />

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02981466<br />

The Insect World of Israel. Israel‘s Nature Site.<br />

http://www.nature-of-oz.com/scarablist.htm<br />

Trek Nature. Insects in Israel.<br />

http://www.treknature.com/themes.php?thid=1<strong>77</strong><br />

Ward, Alex and Steve Nolan (6 March 2013). Locust swarm hits Israel as<br />

a million insects cross border from Egypt . Mail Online.<br />

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2288908/Locust-swarmhits-Israel-millions-insects-cross-border-Egypt.html<br />

Wikimedia Commons. Insects of Israel.<br />

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Insects_of_Israel<br />

Wikipedia. Scarabaeidae.<br />

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scarabaeidae<br />

Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/Scarabaeus%20sacer.jpg<br />

45


46


Family Coccinellidae (Ladybird<br />

Beetles) in Palestine<br />

خنافس الدعسوقت في فلسطين<br />

<strong>By</strong>: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>- Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong><br />

7-Spot Ladybird (Coccinella septempunctata) from Palestine. Photo by<br />

Zachi Evenor. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:7-Spotted-Ladybird-<br />

Wiki-Zachi-Evenor-0119.jpg<br />

The Beetles comprise an order of insects characterized by<br />

complete metamorphosis (including a pupal stage between the<br />

larval and adult stages), biting-chewing mouth parts, and two<br />

pairs of wings, of which the hind pair are membranous and used<br />

for flight and the front pair (elytra) are sturdy and used for<br />

protection. The approximately 350,000 known species of beetles in<br />

the world comprise the largest animal group in existence. Only<br />

1% of this number, about 3,500 species, are found in Palestine.<br />

These species represent a wide variety of families, shapes, colours<br />

47


and modes of life. Many species are harmful to crops and stored<br />

products, including food, while others are beneficial to mankind<br />

through preying on agricultural pests or by recycling waste<br />

products. Due to the hardness of their bodies and their<br />

tremendous resistance, variety of shapes, range of size (from 1-160<br />

mm) and amazing colours, the beetles are a favourite group for<br />

many amateur entomologists and collectors (Boeliem, 2008). As a<br />

result of their habitat destruction, several species in Palestine have<br />

become extinct, such as some of the large water beetles; while<br />

others are endangered.<br />

The Coccinellidae are a family of small beetles, ranging from 1 to<br />

10 mm (0.04 to 0.4 inches). They are commonly yellow, orange, or<br />

scarlet with small black spots on their wing covers, with black<br />

legs, heads and antennae. Such colour patterns vary greatly,<br />

however; for example, a minority of species, such as Vibidia<br />

duodecimguttata, a twelve-spotted species, have whitish spots on a<br />

brown background. Coccinellids are found worldwide, with over<br />

5,000 species described (Wikipedia). About 70 species of ladybird<br />

beetles (Coccinellidae) are known in Palestine, and many of them<br />

help to regulate pest populations. Both in Palestine and abroad,<br />

some of the species are employed for biological control of pests.<br />

At the end of spring the beetles migrate to mountain tops, such as<br />

Mount Hermon (Jabal Al Shaykh) and Mount Meron (Jabal Al<br />

Jarmaq), where they mass together. At the beginning of the<br />

following spring they migrate back to the low-lying areas - a<br />

phenomenon that has not yet been fully studied (Boeliem, 2008).<br />

Coccinellidae are known colloquially as ladybirds (in Britain,<br />

Ireland and the Commonwealth), ladybugs (in North America)<br />

or lady cows, among other names. When they need to use a<br />

common name, entomologists widely prefer the names ladybird<br />

beetles or lady beetles as these insects are not true bugs<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

48


14-Spot Ladybird Beetle (Propylea quattuordecimpunctata) from Palestine.<br />

Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-of-oz.com/coccinellidae.htm<br />

The Coccinellidae are generally considered useful insects, because<br />

many species feed on aphids or scale insects, which are pests in<br />

gardens, agricultural fields, orchards, and similar places. Within<br />

the colonies of such plant-eating pests, they will lay hundreds of<br />

eggs, and when these hatch the larvae will commence feeding<br />

immediately. However, some species do have unwelcome effects.<br />

Among these, the most prominent are the subfamily Epilachninae,<br />

which are plant eaters. Usually, Epilachninae are only mild<br />

agricultural pests, eating the leaves of grain, potatoes, beans, and<br />

various other crops, but their numbers can increase explosively in<br />

years when their natural enemies are few, such<br />

as parasitoid wasps that attack their eggs. When that happens,<br />

they can do major crop damage. They occur in practically all the<br />

49


major crop-producing regions of temperate and tropical countries<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

18-Spot Ladybird Beetle (Myrrha octodecimguttata) from Palestine. Photo<br />

by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-of-oz.com/coccinellidae.htm<br />

Etymology<br />

Coccinelid is derived from the Latin word coccineus meaning<br />

"scarlet". The name "ladybird" originated in Britain where the<br />

insects became known as 'Our Lady's bird or the Lady beetle.<br />

Mary (Our Lady) was often depicted wearing a red cloak in early<br />

paintings, and the spots of the seven-spot ladybird (the most<br />

common in Europe) were said to symbolise her seven<br />

joys and seven sorrows. In the United States, the name was<br />

adapted to "ladybug". Common names in other European<br />

languages have the same association, for example, the German<br />

50


name ―Marienkäfer‖ translates to ―Marybeetle‖ (Wikipedia). The<br />

Arabic name ―Um <strong>Ali</strong>‖ أم علً‏ translates to ―Mother of <strong>Ali</strong>‖. In<br />

some Arabic countries it is called ―Abu <strong>Ali</strong>‖ أبو علً‏ (Father of<br />

<strong>Ali</strong>) or ―Um Sulayman‖ أم سلٌمان (Mother of Solomon).<br />

The Cream-Streaked Ladybird or 4-Spot Ladybird Beetle (Harmonia<br />

quadripunctata) from Palestine. Photo by Oz Rittner.<br />

http://www.nature-of-oz.com/coccinellidae.htm<br />

Physical Appearance<br />

Most coccinellids have oval, dome-shaped bodies with six short<br />

legs. Depending on the species, they can have spots, stripes, or no<br />

markings at all. Seven-spotted coccinellids are red or orange with<br />

three spots on each side and one in the middle; they have a black<br />

head with white patches on each side (Wikipedia).<br />

51


As well as the usual yellow and scarlet colorings, many<br />

coccinellid species are mostly, or entirely, black, grey, or brown,<br />

and may be difficult for non-entomologists to recognise as<br />

coccinellids at all. Conversely, non-entomologists might easily<br />

mistake many other small beetles for coccinellids. For example,<br />

the tortoise beetles, like the ladybird beetles, look similar because<br />

they are shaped so that they can cling to a flat surface so closely<br />

that ants and many other enemies cannot grip them (Wikipedia).<br />

Black Sign Louse Ladybird Beetle (Exochomus nigromaculatus) from<br />

Palestine. Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/coccinellidae.htm<br />

Non-entomologists are prone to misidentify a wide variety of<br />

beetle species in other families as "ladybirds", i.e. coccinellids.<br />

Beetles are particularly prone to such misidentification if they are<br />

spotted in red, orange or yellow and black. Examples include the<br />

52


much larger scarabaeid grapevine beetles and spotted species of<br />

the Chrysomelidae, Melyridae and others. Conversely, laymen<br />

may fail to identify unmarked species of Coccinellidae as<br />

"ladybirds". Other beetles that have a defensive hemispherical<br />

shape, like that of the Coccinellidae, (for example the Cassidinae),<br />

also are often taken for ladybirds (Wikipedia).<br />

Spotted Amber Ladybird Beetle (Adonia variegate) from Palestine.<br />

http://www.nature-of-oz.com/coccinellidae.htm<br />

A common myth, totally unfounded, is that the number of spots<br />

on the insect's back indicates its age. In fact, the number, shape,<br />

and placement of the spots all are determined by the species of<br />

53


the beetle, and are fixed by the time it emerges from its pupa. The<br />

same applies to the colour, except it may take some days for the<br />

colour of the adult beetle to mature and stabilise. Generally, the<br />

mature colour tends to be fuller and darker than the colour of<br />

the callow (Wikipedia).<br />

Biology<br />

Coccinellids are best known as predators of Sternorrhyncha such<br />

as aphids and scale insects, but the range of prey species that<br />

various Coccinellidae may attack is much wider. A genus of small<br />

black ladybirds, Stethorus, presents one example of predation on<br />

non-Sternorrhyncha; they specialise in mites as prey, notably<br />

Tetranychus spider mites. Stethorus species accordingly are<br />

important in certain examples of biological control (Wikipedia).<br />

Various larger species of Coccinellidae attack caterpillars and<br />

other beetle larvae. Several genera feed on various insects or their<br />

eggs; for example, Coleomegilla species are significant predators of<br />

the eggs and larvae of moths such as species of Spodoptera and<br />

the Plutellidae. Larvae and eggs of ladybirds, either their own or<br />

of other species, can also be important food resources when<br />

alternative prey are scarce. As a family, the Coccinellidae used to<br />

be regarded as purely carnivorous, but they are now known to be<br />

far more omnivorous than previously thought, both as a family<br />

and in individual species; examination of gut contents of<br />

apparently specialist predators commonly yield residues of pollen<br />

and other plant materials. Besides the prey they favour, most<br />

predatory coccinellids include other items in their diets, including<br />

honeydew, pollen, plant sap, nectar, and various fungi. The<br />

significance of such nonprey items in their diets is still under<br />

investigation and discussion (Wikipedia).<br />

Apart from the generalist aphid and scale predators and<br />

incidental substances of botanical origin, many Coccinellidae do<br />

favour or even specialise in certain prey types. This makes some<br />

54


of them particularly valuable as agents in biological control<br />

programmes. Determination of specialisation need not be a trivial<br />

matter, though; for example the larva of the Vedalia<br />

ladybird Rodolia cardinalis is a specialist predator on a few species<br />

of Monophlebidae, in particular Icerya purchasi, which is the most<br />

notorious of the cottony cushion scale species. However, the<br />

adult R. cardinalis can subsist for some months on a wider range<br />

of insects plus some nectar (Wikipedia).<br />

Nile Striped Ladybird Beetle (Cheilomenes propinqua nilotica) from<br />

Palestine. Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/coccinellidae.htm<br />

Certain species of coccinellids are thought to lay extra infertile<br />

eggs with the fertile eggs, apparently to provide a backup food<br />

source for the larvae when they hatch. The ratio of infertile to<br />

fertile eggs increases with scarcity of food at the time of egg<br />

55


laying. Such a strategy amounts to the production of trophic eggs<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

Some species in the subfamily Epilachninae are herbivores, and<br />

can be very destructive agricultural pests (e.g., the Mexican bean<br />

beetle). Again, in the subfamily Coccinellinae, members of the<br />

tribe Halyziini and the genus Tythaspis are mycophagous<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

Spherical or Bullet Ladybird Beetle (Oenopia conglobata) from<br />

Palestine. Photo by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/coccinellidae.htm<br />

While predatory species are often used as biological<br />

control agents, introduced species of coccinellids are not<br />

necessarily benign. Species such as Harmonia axyridis or Coccinella<br />

septempunctata in North America outcompete and displace native<br />

coccinellids and become pests themselves (Wikipedia).<br />

The main predators of coccinellids are usually birds, but they are<br />

also the prey of frogs, wasps, spiders, and dragonflies. The bright<br />

colours of many coccinellids discourage some potential predators<br />

56


from making a meal of them. This phenomenon, called<br />

aposematism, works because predators learn by experience to<br />

associate certain prey phenotypes with a bad taste. A further<br />

defence, known as "reflex bleeding", exists in which an alkaloid<br />

toxin is exuded through the joints of the exoskeleton, triggered by<br />

mechanical stimulation (such as by predator attack) in both larval<br />

and adult beetles, deterring feeding (Wikipedia).<br />

Heather Ladybird Beetle (Chilocorus bipustulatus) from Palestine. Photo<br />

by Oz Rittner. http://www.nature-of-oz.com/coccinellidae.htm<br />

Coccinellids in temperate regions enter diapause during the<br />

winter, so they often are among the first insects to appear in the<br />

spring. Some species (e.g., Hippodamia convergens) gather into<br />

groups and move to higher elevations, such as a mountain, to<br />

enter diapause. Most coccinellids overwinter as adults,<br />

aggregating on the south sides of large objects such as trees or<br />

houses during the winter months, dispersing in response to<br />

increasing day length in the spring (Wikipedia).<br />

Predatory coccinellids are usually found on plants which harbour<br />

their prey. They lay their eggs near their prey, to increase the<br />

likelihood the larvae will find the prey easily. In Harmonia<br />

57


axyridis, eggs hatch in three to four days from clutches numbering<br />

from a few to several dozen. Depending on resource availability,<br />

the larvae pass through four instars over 10–14 days, after<br />

which pupation occurs. After a teneral period of several days, the<br />

adults become reproductively active and are able to reproduce<br />

again, although they may become reproductively quiescent<br />

if eclosing late in the season. Total life span is one to two years on<br />

average (Wikipedia).<br />

Ladybird Beetle (Nephus biflammulatus Motschulsky, 1837) from<br />

Palestine. http://www.nature-of-oz.com/coccinellidae.htm<br />

The Seven-Spot Ladybird Beetle (Coccinella septempunctata<br />

Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the most common, familiar and<br />

congenial beetles in Palestine. Its elytra are of a red colour, but<br />

punctuated with three black spots each, with one further spot<br />

being spread over the junction of the two, making a total of seven<br />

spots, from which the species derives both its common and<br />

scientific names (from the Latin septem = "seven" and punctus =<br />

"spot"). In addition to its hemispherical shape (with a length of 5-8<br />

cm) and bright colours (that warn predators of their poisonous<br />

nature) the ladybird is exceptional in its voracity for aphids, a<br />

group of insects that includes many agricultural pests. One beetle<br />

(during both larval and adult stages) can eat thousands of aphids<br />

within its lifetime (Boeliem, 2008).<br />

58


7-Spot Ladybird (Coccinella septempunctata) from Palestine. Photo by Oz<br />

Rittner. http://www.nature-of-oz.com/coccinellidae.htm<br />

Their distinctive spots and attractive colours apparently make<br />

them unappealing to predators. The species can secrete a fluid<br />

from joints in their legs which gives them a foul taste. A<br />

threatened ladybird beetle may both play dead and secrete the<br />

unappetising substance to protect itself. The seven-spot ladybird<br />

synthesizes the toxic alkaloids, N-oxide coccinelline and its free<br />

base precoccinelline; depending on sex and diet, the spot size and<br />

coloration can provide some indication of how toxic the<br />

individual bug is to potential predators (Wikipedia).<br />

In Popular Culture<br />

Coccinellids are, and have been for very many years, a favourite<br />

insect of children. The insects had many regional names (now<br />

59


mostly disused) in English, such as the lady-cows, may-bug,<br />

golden-knop, golden-bugs (Wikipedia).<br />

The 7-Spot Ladybird Beetle (Coccinella septempunctata) Israeli Stamp<br />

from 1994. http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~CH2M-NITU/israele.htm<br />

Many cultures consider coccinellids lucky and have nursery<br />

rhymes or local names for the insects that reflect this. For instance,<br />

the Turkish name for the insect is uğur böceği, literally meaning<br />

"good luck bug". In many countries, including Russia, Turkey,<br />

and Italy, the sight of a coccinellid is either a call to make a wish<br />

or a sign that a wish will soon be granted (Wikipedia).<br />

In Christian areas, coccinellids are often associated with<br />

the Virgin Mary and the name that the insect bears in the various<br />

languages of Europe corresponds to this. Though historically<br />

many European languages referenced Freyja, the fertility goddess<br />

of Norse mythology, in the names, the Virgin Mary has now<br />

largely supplanted her, so that, for example, freyjuhœna (Old<br />

Norse) and Frouehenge have been changed into marihøne<br />

(Norwegian) and Marienkäfer (German), which corresponds with<br />

Our Lady's bird. Sometimes, the insect is referred to as belonging<br />

directly to God (Irish bóín Dé, Polish boża krówka, all meaning<br />

"God's [little] cow"). In Dutch it is called lieveheersbeestje, meaning<br />

"little animal of our Good Lord" (Wikipedia).<br />

60


In both Hebrew and Yiddish, it is called "Moshe Rabbenu's (i.e.<br />

Moses's) little cow" or "little horse", apparently an adaptation<br />

from Slavic languages. Occasionally, it is called "little Messiah"<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

The Arabic name ―Um <strong>Ali</strong>‖ أم علً‏ translates to ―Mother of <strong>Ali</strong>‖. In<br />

some Arabic countries it is called ―Abu <strong>Ali</strong>‖ أبو علً‏ (Father of <strong>Ali</strong>)<br />

or ―Um Sulayman‖ أم سلٌمان (Mother of Solomon).<br />

The Seven-spotted Ladybird Beetle (Coccinella septempunctata) Qatari<br />

Stamp from 20.07.1998. http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~ch2mnitu/qatare.htm<br />

References and Internet Websites<br />

14 Spot ladybird - Propylea quattuordecimpunctata.<br />

http://www.naturespot.org.uk/species/14-spot-ladybird<br />

Adonia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) bears maternally<br />

inherited flavobacteria that kill males only.<br />

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10028525<br />

Boeliem (2008). Beetles. Israeli Stamps.<br />

http://www.boeliem.com/content/1994/487.html#487c<br />

Cambefort, Yves. Beetles as Religious Symbols.<br />

http://www.insects.org/ced1/beetles_rel_sym.html<br />

Cheilomenes propinqua nilotica.<br />

http://eol.org/pages/13863497/overview<br />

Coccinella septempunctata Sevenspotted Lady Beetle.<br />

http://eol.org/pages/1174745/details<br />

61


Copeland, Dave (Cameraman), NBC News. Insect invasion: Israel<br />

battles plague of locusts. NBC News.<br />

http://worldnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2013/05/13/18233295-<br />

insect-invasion-israel-battles-plague-of-locusts?lite<br />

Department of Entomology. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.<br />

http://departments.agri.huji.ac.il/entomology/<br />

Flickr. Insects in Israel.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/zachievenor/sets/721576232207<br />

01942/detail/<br />

Freidberg, A. and Y. Ben-Dov (Editors). (2007). Israel Journal of<br />

Entomology. Vol. 37, 2007. http://www.magnes-<br />

press.com/<strong>Book</strong>/Israel+Journal+of+Entomology.aspx?code=45-<br />

412004<br />

Granberry, Michael (March 23, 1993). Beetles Imported to Battle<br />

Whiteflies : Agriculture: Imperial Valley farmers hope the pest<br />

that has devastated their crops will be devoured by little brown<br />

insects from Israel. Los Angeles Times.<br />

http://articles.latimes.com/1993-03-23/news/mn-<br />

14191_1_silverleaf-whiteflies<br />

Harmonia quadripunctata Cream-streaked Ladybird Beetle.<br />

http://eol.org/pages/1174379/overview<br />

Heather Ladybird (Chilocorus bipustulatus).<br />

http://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/123596-Chilocorusbipustulatus<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1980). Tabie‘t Al-Talawon fi Al-<br />

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University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (In Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1992). An Introduction to<br />

the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of<br />

Germany. Number 30, Tenth <strong>Year</strong>, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (In<br />

Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1994). An Introduction to<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2004). Gazelle: Das<br />

Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (2007).<br />

Haywanat Filistin حٌوانات فلسطٌن (<strong>Fauna</strong> of Palestine). Wikipedia,<br />

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– Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe<br />

between 1983 – 2006 / <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> – Teil Eins. Eine<br />

Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen<br />

1983 – 2006. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition,<br />

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<strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates &<br />

Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm<br />

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Hitlerkäfer (Anophthalmus hitleri Scheibel, 1937) / The Hitler‘s<br />

Slovenian Blind Cave Beetle (Anophthalmus hitleri, Scheibel 1937).<br />

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6288. Twenty-eighth <strong>Year</strong>, Number 97, January 2010 CE,<br />

Muharam 1431 AH. pp. 1-13. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

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Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate<br />

zwischen 2004 - 2009. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First<br />

Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: <strong>Dr</strong>.<br />

<strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, Dubai and Sharjah, United<br />

Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik<br />

Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (2011).<br />

Khunfusa‗ Hitler خىفساء ‏ٌخهز (The Hitler Beetle). Arab-Wikipedia.<br />

http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AE%D9%86%D9%81%D8%<br />

B3%D8%A7%D8%A1_%D9%87%D8%AA%D9%84%D8%B1<br />

64


<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2012). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong><br />

– Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 /<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina<br />

zwischen 1983 – 2009. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First<br />

Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic<br />

Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al<br />

Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2013). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong><br />

– Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 /<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> - Teil <strong>Dr</strong>ei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina<br />

zwischen 2005 – 2012. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-<strong>9950</strong>-<strong>383</strong>-35-7. Erste Auflage /<br />

First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part<br />

350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi<br />

Publishing House, Jerusalem, State of Palestine. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

Taher (2013). Checklist of the Family Scarabaeidae (Scarab<br />

Beetles) from Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological<br />

Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 105, September 2013, Thu Al<br />

Qia‘da 1434 AH. pp. 1-26. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab<br />

Emirates. http://palestine-insects.webs.com/scarab-beetles<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

Taher (2013). Family Coccinellidae (Ladybird Beetles) in Palestine.<br />

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288.<br />

Number 106, October 2013, Thu Al Hijja 1434 AH. pp. 1-17. Dubai<br />

and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://palestineinsects.webs.com/ladybird-beetles<br />

Ladybird Beetle. http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~ch2mnitu/tentoue.htm<br />

Ladybird Exochomus nigromaculatus (Goeze, 1<strong>77</strong>7) (Coccinellidae) -<br />

atlas of ladybirds of Russia.<br />

http://www.zin.ru/animalia/coleoptera/eng/exonighe.htm<br />

Life history parameters of the coccinellid beetle, Oenopia<br />

conglobata contaminata, an important predator of the common<br />

65


pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae (Hemiptera: Psylloidea).<br />

2004.<br />

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09583150410001<br />

6823<strong>77</strong>?journalCode=cbst20#.UiMCIdI3CSo<br />

Nephus biflammulatus (Motschulsky, 1837).<br />

http://kharkov.naturalist.su/gallery/index_class_spec.php?categ<br />

ory=3619&lang=0<br />

Omkar and A. Pervez (2003). Ecology and biocontrol potential of<br />

a scale-predator, Chilocorus nigritus. Biocontrol Science and<br />

Technology 13: 379–390.<br />

Pavlíček, Tomas; Vladimir Chikatunov, Vasily Kravchenko, Petr<br />

Zahradnik & Eviatar Nevo (1999). New records of deathwatch<br />

beetles (Anobiidae) from Israel. Zoology in the Middle East.<br />

Volume 17, Issue 1, 1999. pages <strong>77</strong>-78.<br />

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09397140.1999.1<br />

063<strong>77</strong>71#.Uh-KSdI3CSq<br />

Peck, S.B., and M.C. Thomas (1998). A distributional checklist of<br />

the beetles (Coleoptera) of Florida. Arthropods of Florida and<br />

Neighboring Land Areas 16: i–viii + 1-180.<br />

Poorani, J. (2002). An annotated checklist of the Coccinellidae<br />

(Coleoptera) (excluding Epilachninae) of the Indian subregion.<br />

Oriental Insects 36: 307–<strong>383</strong>. Ptashkovskiy, Yu.A. Beetles of Israel<br />

-illustrated atlas.<br />

http://www.zin.ru/animalia/coleoptera/eng/col_izrb.htm<br />

Rittner, Oz. Coccinellidae of Israel. http://www.nature-ofoz.com/coccinellidae.htm<br />

Springer. Abstracts of papers presented at the 16th conference of<br />

the Entomological Society of Israel Research on thrips in Israel<br />

Dedicated to the Memory of <strong>Prof</strong>. E. Rivnay on the 100th<br />

Anniversary of his Birth.<br />

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02981466<br />

The Insect World of Israel. Israel‘s Nature Site.<br />

http://www.nature-of-oz.com/scarablist.htm<br />

Thomas, Michael C. and Orland J. Blanchard, Jr. (June 2013).<br />

Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Recently Immigrant<br />

66


to Florida. Entomology Circular Number 428. Florida Department<br />

of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Division of Plant Industry.<br />

Trek Nature. Insects in Israel.<br />

http://www.treknature.com/themes.php?thid=1<strong>77</strong><br />

Ward, Alex and Steve Nolan (6 March 2013). Locust swarm hits<br />

Israel as a million insects cross border from Egypt . Mail Online.<br />

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2288908/Locustswarm-hits-Israel-millions-insects-cross-border-Egypt.html<br />

Wikimedia Commons. Insects of Israel.<br />

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Insects_of_Israel<br />

Wikipedia. Coccinellidae.<br />

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coccinellidae<br />

Wikipedia. Coccinella septempunctata.<br />

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coccinella_septempunctata<br />

Wikipedia. Da‘souqa دعسوقة (in Arabic).<br />

http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AF%D8%B9%D8%B3%D9%88%D<br />

9%82%D8%A<br />

Wikipedia. Eighteen-spotted Ladybird.<br />

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighteen-spotted_Ladybird<br />

Wikipedia. Ladybird.<br />

http://wikipedia.qwika.com/de2en/Marienk%C3%A4fer Wikipedia.<br />

Oenopia congolobata.<br />

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oenopia_conglobata<br />

The Seven-spotted Ladybird Beetle (Coccinella septempunctata) Syrian<br />

Stamp from 1982. http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~ch2m-nitu/syriae.htm<br />

67


68


Freshwater Fishes in Palestine<br />

أسماك المٌاه العذبة فً‏ فلسطٌن<br />

<strong>By</strong>: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong><br />

The Origin of Palestinian Freshwater Fishes<br />

The Ichthyofauna of Palestine‘s inland waters includes 32 indigenous<br />

fish species belonging to eight families and another 14-16 species<br />

introduced by man.<br />

Palestine is a meeting point between Africa and Asia and is close to<br />

southeastern Europe. As a result, its inland water bodies are populated<br />

by fish of diverse origins: Africa, Asia Minor (Anatolia, Iraq, greater<br />

Syria), the Arabian Peninsula (and possibly the African Horn) and<br />

from the sea (probably relicts from the Tethys Sea period).<br />

The inland water system in our area has changed greatly during the<br />

faunal history of the Middle East. Rivers altered their flow direction<br />

and water links between various systems were formed and once again<br />

severed. Fish species of different origins expanded their distribution<br />

areas or were driven out by new invaders. These events shaped the<br />

fish fauna in our country (Goren, 1975).<br />

Fish have penetrated Palestine via diverse routes. African species<br />

arrived in several waves – most via the Pelusiac (or Pelusian) branch of<br />

the Nile River and some possibly via the Mediterranean (Cichlidae).<br />

Fish from the Tigris-Euphrates river system reached Mediterranean<br />

69


aquatic networks, such as the Orontes, at a time when these systems<br />

were linked. From there they spread to the Litani-Jordan river system<br />

when these were connected, which explains how fish from Asia Minor<br />

and the Levant penetrated into Palestine. Aquatic systems in the<br />

western Arabian Peninsula were once much more plentiful than today<br />

and were inter-connected during certain periods. These links reached<br />

as far as the southern Dead Sea and were used as a passage route by<br />

fish (Goren, 1975).<br />

The newly discovered Palestine Doctor Fish subspecies Garra rufa wadiqana<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013 at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit<br />

Governorate, State of Palestine. Photo by: Ola Mostafa <strong>Khalaf</strong>. 08.07.2013.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/9500749723/<br />

70


In addition there are a number of freshwater fish of marine origin<br />

(species from the families: Blenniidae, Mugilidae and Anguillidae).<br />

Some consider Salaria fluviatilis, a freshwater blenny species par<br />

excellence throughout the entire Mediterranean region, to be a relic<br />

from the Tethys Sea period (Goren, 1975).<br />

The damage to inland water body habitat<br />

Wetlands are considered extremely sensitive to development processes<br />

and are in danger of extinction throughout the world, particularly in<br />

arid or semiarid countries such as Palestine. Threats to these habitats<br />

result from a number of factors:<br />

1. Increasing exploitation of water sources for human needs.<br />

2. <strong>Dr</strong>ainage of wetlands for agriculture or urban development.<br />

3. Accelerated exploitation of groundwater reservoirs that leads to the<br />

drying of surface water bodies.<br />

4. Processes of fragmentation and barrier creation between<br />

neighboring water bodies or water bodies that were previously linked<br />

by continuous flow.<br />

5. Discharge of effluents and wastewater into stream and riverbeds.<br />

6. Pisciculture in natural habitats and deliberate and accidental<br />

stocking of natural habitats with exotic fish species.<br />

The effect of these factors on the populations of aquatic organisms is<br />

also amplified, among other reasons, by the following habitat<br />

characteristics:<br />

a. the dimensions of most terrestrial water bodies are small, with<br />

corresponding small fish populations;<br />

b. many water bodies are regularly or temporarily isolated from<br />

neighboring water bodies;<br />

c. poisons and fertilizers are discharged into water bodies from<br />

71


agricultural and industrial areas and aquatic animals are affected<br />

instantly by pollution.<br />

This combination of sensitivity to detrimental factors and to other side<br />

effects of anthropogenic activity has probably brought wetlands<br />

throughout the world closer to extinction than any other habitat<br />

(Goren, 1975).<br />

Al Auja or Yarkon Bleak (Acanthobrama telavivensis). Photo by: <strong>Dr</strong>. Menachem<br />

Goren. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/61249/0<br />

Necessary conservation steps<br />

Conservation steps for freshwater fish can only be taken by preserving<br />

their habitats from pollution, drainage and structural modifications.<br />

Establishing survival (or breeding) nuclei for some of the threatened<br />

species should be considered in cases where there is a chance of habitat<br />

improvement in the future. In addition, as a result of objective<br />

problems in assessing the dangers to or the status of the fish<br />

population in a changing environment, a regular fish monitoring<br />

system should be established in the entire Palestinian aquatic system<br />

(Goren, 1975).<br />

72


Status of the class species in Palestine<br />

DD<br />

Data<br />

Deficien<br />

t<br />

LC<br />

Least<br />

Concern<br />

NT<br />

Near<br />

Threate<br />

ned<br />

VU<br />

Vulnerabl<br />

e<br />

EN<br />

Endanger<br />

ed<br />

CR<br />

Criticall<br />

y<br />

Endang<br />

ered<br />

RE<br />

Regionall<br />

y Extinct<br />

Exti<br />

nct<br />

Total<br />

2 18 0 0 0 6 1 5 32<br />

Five fish species have become extinct from freshwater bodies during the 20th century<br />

(Goren, 1975).<br />

List of the Freshwater Fishes in Palestine<br />

Order Family Species Status Name<br />

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Acanthobrama hulensis native Hula Bleak<br />

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Acanthobrama lissneri native Lissner’s<br />

Bleak<br />

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Acanthobrama<br />

telavivensis<br />

native Al Auja or<br />

Yarkon Bleak<br />

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Acanthobrama<br />

terraesanctae<br />

endemic Tiberias or<br />

Kinneret bleak<br />

Acipenseriforme<br />

s<br />

Acipenserida<br />

e<br />

Acipenser sturio native Common<br />

Sturgeon<br />

Anguilliformes Anguillidae Anguilla anguilla introduced European Eel<br />

Cyprinodontifor<br />

mes<br />

Cyprinodontid<br />

ae<br />

Aphanius dispar<br />

richardsoni<br />

native Dead Sea<br />

Killifish<br />

Cyprinodontifor<br />

mes<br />

Cyprinodontid<br />

ae<br />

Aphanius fasciatus native Mediterranean<br />

Killifish<br />

Cyprinodontifor<br />

mes<br />

Cyprinodontid<br />

ae<br />

Aphanius mento native Persian or<br />

Orient Killifish<br />

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Aristichthys nobilis introduced Bighead Carp<br />

Perciformes Cichlidae Astatotilapia<br />

flaviijosephi<br />

native Palestine<br />

Cichlid<br />

Atheriniformes Atherinidae Atherina boyeri native Big-Scale<br />

Sand Smelt<br />

Cypriniformes Balitoridae Barbatula panthera native Panther Loach<br />

Cypriniformes Balitoridae Barbatula tigris native Tiger Loach<br />

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Barbus longiceps native Long-Headed<br />

Barbel<br />

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Capoeta damascina native Damascus<br />

Barbel<br />

73


Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Carasobarbus canis native Jordan Himri<br />

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Carassius auratus<br />

not Goldfish<br />

auratus<br />

established<br />

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Carassius carassius introduced Crucian Carp<br />

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Catla catla not Catla<br />

established<br />

Mugiliformes Mugilidae Chelon labrosus native Thicklip Grey<br />

Mullet<br />

Siluriformes Clariidae Clarias gariepinus native North African<br />

Catfish<br />

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Ctenopharyngodon introduced Grass Carp<br />

idella<br />

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Cyprinus carpio carpio introduced Common Carp<br />

Cyprinodontifor Poeciliidae Gambusia affinis introduced Mosquitofish<br />

mes<br />

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Garra ghorensis native Jordanian Log<br />

Sucker<br />

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Garra rufa native Doctor Fish<br />

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Garra rufa wadiqana native Palestine or<br />

Wadi Qana<br />

Doctor Fish<br />

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Hemigrammocapoeta<br />

nana<br />

native Tiberias or<br />

Jordanian<br />

Barbel<br />

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Hypophthalmichthys<br />

not Silver Carp<br />

molitrix<br />

established<br />

Cypriniformes Catostomidae Ictiobus cyprinellus not<br />

established<br />

Bigmouth<br />

Buffalo<br />

Perciformes Cichlidae Labeotropheus<br />

introduced Blue Mbuna<br />

fuelleborni<br />

Perciformes Latidae Lates calcarifer introduced Barramundi<br />

Mugiliformes Mugilidae Liza aurata native Golden Grey<br />

Mullet<br />

Mugiliformes Mugilidae Liza ramado native Thinlip Mullet<br />

Mugiliformes Mugilidae Liza saliens native Leaping Mullet<br />

Perciformes Cichlidae Melanochromis auratus introduced Golden Mbuna<br />

Perciformes Moronidae Morone saxatilis not Striped Bass<br />

established<br />

Mugiliformes Mugilidae Mugil cephalus native Flathead<br />

Mullet<br />

Cypriniformes Balitoridae Nemacheilus angorae native Angora Loach<br />

Cypriniformes Balitoridae Nemacheilus insignis misidentificat<br />

ion<br />

Palestine<br />

Loach<br />

Cypriniformes Balitoridae Nemacheilus leontinae native Lebanese<br />

Loach<br />

Cypriniformes Balitoridae Nun galilaeus native Galilean Loach<br />

Atheriniformes Atherinopsida Odontesthes<br />

introduced Pejerrey<br />

e<br />

bonariensis<br />

Salmoniformes Salmonidae Oncorhynchus kisutch introduced Coho Salmon<br />

Salmoniformes Salmonidae Oncorhynchus mykiss introduced Rainbow Trout<br />

Perciformes Cichlidae Oreochromis aureus native Blue Tilapia<br />

Perciformes Cichlidae Oreochromis macrochir introduced Longfin Tilapia<br />

74


Perciformes Cichlidae Oreochromis<br />

mossambicus<br />

not<br />

established<br />

Mozambique<br />

Tilapia<br />

Perciformes Cichlidae Oreochromis niloticus questionable Nile Tilapia<br />

niloticus<br />

Perciformes Cichlidae Oreochromis niloticus<br />

vulcani<br />

introduced Turkana<br />

Tilapia<br />

Cyprinodontifor Poeciliidae Poecilia velifera introduced Sail-fin Molly<br />

mes<br />

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Pseudophoxinus<br />

drusensis<br />

native Jebel <strong>Dr</strong>uze or<br />

Golan Minnow<br />

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Pseudophoxinus<br />

kervillei<br />

native Jordanian<br />

Minnow<br />

Perciformes Cichlidae Pseudotropheus<br />

introduced Kenyi Cichlid<br />

lombardoi<br />

Perciformes Cichlidae Pseudotropheus<br />

tropheops tropheops<br />

introduced Golden<br />

Tropheops<br />

Perciformes Blenniidae Salaria fluviatilis native Freshwater<br />

Blenny<br />

Salmoniformes Salmonidae Salmo salar not<br />

established<br />

Atlantic<br />

Salmon<br />

Salmoniformes Salmonidae Salmo trutta trutta not Sea Trout<br />

established<br />

Perciformes Cichlidae Sarotherodon galilaeus native Mango Tilapia<br />

galilaeus<br />

Perciformes Sillaginidae Sillago sihama native Silver Sillago<br />

Perciformes Cichlidae Tilapia zillii native Redbelly<br />

Tilapia<br />

Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Tinca tinca not Tench<br />

established<br />

Perciformes Cichlidae Tristramella sacra native Long Jaw<br />

Tristramella<br />

Perciformes Cichlidae Tristramella simonis<br />

intermedia<br />

native Hula<br />

Tristramella<br />

Perciformes Cichlidae Tristramella simonis<br />

simonis<br />

native Short Jaw<br />

Tristramella<br />

Cyprinodontifor<br />

mes<br />

Poeciliidae Xiphophorus hellerii introduced Green<br />

Swordtail<br />

After Eli Agbayani (2007) and <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong><br />

<strong>Jaffa</strong> (2013).<br />

References and Internet Websites:<br />

Agbayani, Eli (2007). List of Freshwater Fishes for Israel.<br />

http://fish.mongabay.com/data/Israel.htm<br />

Aronov A. and Goren M. (2008(. Ecology of the Mottled Grouper<br />

75


(Mycteroperca rubra) in the Eastern Mediterranean. Electronic Journal of<br />

Ichthylogy. 2:1-13.<br />

Elron, E., A. Gasith & M. Goren (2005). Reproductive strategy of a<br />

small endemic cyprinid, Acanthobrama telavivensis, in a mediterraneantype<br />

stream. Environmental Biology of Fishes. <strong>77</strong>:141–155.<br />

Elron, E., M. Goren, D. Milstein & A. Gasith (2004). Ammonia toxicity<br />

to juvenile Acanthobrama telavivensis (Cyprinidae), a critically<br />

endangered endemic fish in the coastal plain of Israel. Israel Jour. Zool.<br />

50:321-331.<br />

Fishelson, L., O. Gon, R., M. Goren & Ben-David-Zaslow (2005). The<br />

oral cavity and bioluminescent organs of the cardinal fish<br />

species Siphamia permutata and S. cephalotes (Perciformes, Apogonidae).<br />

Marine Biology 147: 603–609.<br />

Frenkel, V. & M. Goren (1997). Some environmental factors affecting<br />

the reproduction of Aphanius dispar (Rüppell, 1828). Hydrobiologia.<br />

347: 197-207. Galil, B.S. and M. Goren (1994). The bathyal fauna of the<br />

Levant - new records and rare occurrences. Senckenbergiana Maritima<br />

25, (1/3): 41-52.<br />

Jordanian Log Sucker (Garra ghorensis). Photo by: Nashat A. Hamidan.<br />

http://www.israquarium.co.il/Fish/IsraelFish/<br />

76


Galil, B., M. Goren, R. Ortal (2001). Shiqmona – between Carmel and<br />

Sea. Printed in Tel Aviv University. 70 pp.<br />

Gasith, A. and Goren, M. (2009). Habitat availability, reproduction<br />

and population dynamics of the fresh water blenny Salaria<br />

fluviatilis (asso, 1801) in Lake Kinneret, Israel. Electronic Journal of<br />

Ichthyology. 2: 34 – 46.<br />

Gasith, A., M Goren and S. Gafny (1996). Ecological consequences of<br />

lowering lake Kinneret water level: effect on breeding success of the<br />

Kinneret sardine. In: Preservation of our world in the wake of change,<br />

Vol. VI A/B ISEEQS Pub., Jerusalem, Israel, Ed: Y. Steiuberger: pp.<br />

569-573.<br />

Goren, M. (1972). The populations of Pseudophoxinus zeregi (Heckel) in<br />

Israel and Syria and the status of Pseudophoxinus (Pararhodeus)<br />

drusensis (Pellegrin) (Pisces: Cyprinidae). Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 51, 141-<br />

145.<br />

Goren, Menachem (1975). Freshwater Fishes in Israel.<br />

http://www.teva.org.il/?CategoryID=943<br />

Goren, M. (1975). The freshwater fishes of Israel. Isr. J. Zool. 23,67-<br />

118.<br />

Goren, M. (1980). Development of benthic community on artificial<br />

substratum at Ashdod (Eastern Mediterranean). Oceanol. Acta 3,275-<br />

283.<br />

Goren, M. (1983). The Freshwater Fishes of Israel. Kibbutz Ha'Muhad<br />

Publishing House, Tel Aviv, pp. 102. (in Hebrew).<br />

Goren, M. (1992). Lake Hula, reconstruction of the fauna and<br />

hydrobiology of the lost lake. Isr. J. Zool. 38,147.<br />

Goren, M. (1993). Statistical aspects of the Red Sea ichthyofauna. Isr. J.<br />

Zool. 39,293-298.<br />

Goren, M. (2007). De Situauie van Aphanius Soorten in Israël (The<br />

status of Aphanius species in Israel). Belgische Killifish Vereniging. 35:<br />

21-30. (translation by H. Meeus).<br />

Goren, M. (2008). The fishes of the Red Sea: History of research,<br />

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Goren, M. (2011). Re-introduction of the "Extinct in the Wild" Yarqon<br />

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Goren, M. and A. Baranes (1995). Priolepis goldshmidti (Gobiidae) a<br />

new species from the deep water of the northern Gulf of Aqaba, Red<br />

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Goren, M. and M. Dor (l986). Checklist of the Fishes of the Red Sea.<br />

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Goren, M. and M. Dor (1994). An updated checklist of the fishes of the<br />

Red Sea - CLOFRES II. Israel Academy for Sciences and Humanities.<br />

The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Jerusalem, 120 pp.<br />

Goren, M., L. Fishelson and E. Trewavas (1973). The Cyprinid fishes<br />

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Goren, M. and B.S. Galil (2001). Fish biodiversity in the vermetid reef<br />

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fish from the Gulf of Elat-Red Sea (Pisces, Apogonidae). Zoologische<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1980). Tabie‘t Al-Talawon fi Al-<br />

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Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait<br />

University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (In Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1981). Fawa'ed Alasmak. (The Benefits<br />

of Fishes). Al-Biology Magazine, Biological Society, Kuwait<br />

University, State of Kuwait. Number 1. Sunday 7.6.1981, 5. Sha'ban<br />

1401. pp. 54-55. (In Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1982). Samak Al-Coelacanth (The<br />

Coelacanth Fish). Al-Biology Magazine. Number 2. February 1982.<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> (Translator) (1982). Al-Miah Al-Mulawatha Tohaded<br />

Al-Asmak Bi‘ilinqiraad (Water Pollution threatens the Fish <strong>Fauna</strong><br />

with Extinction). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 18, Third <strong>Year</strong>, First<br />

Semester, Saturday 6.11.1982. Biological Society, Kuwait University,<br />

State of Kuwait. pp. 7. (Translation from German into Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (1983). Al-Samaka Al-‗Auljumiyah Al-Naqaqa fi<br />

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Arabian Gulf]. Bulletin of the Biological Studies Club, Kuwait<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (Translator) (1983). Al-Tasjeel Al-Hay Al-Awal li-<br />

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Samaket Kozat Al-Snobar (Monocentris japonicus, Houttuyn) min Al-<br />

Bahr Al-Ahmar [The Pinecone Fish (Monocentris japonicus, Houttuyn),<br />

A First Live Record from the Red Sea] by: Chaim Kropach. Bulletin of<br />

the Biological Studies Club, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. First<br />

<strong>Year</strong>, Number 4, 7.12.1983. pp. 6-8. (In Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> B. (1986). The Schooling of Fishes. Gazelle: The<br />

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 9. Fourth <strong>Year</strong>. Ramadan<br />

1406. May 1986. Department of Zoology, University of Durham,<br />

Durham, United Kingdom. pp. 1-13.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> B. (1986). The Fish <strong>Fauna</strong> in Van Mildert Pond,<br />

Durham City, North East England. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological<br />

Bulletin. Number 9. Fourth <strong>Year</strong>. Ramadan 1406. May 1986.<br />

Department of Zoology, University of Durham, Durham, United<br />

Kingdom. pp. 14-20.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, N.A.B. (1986). The Schooling of Sumatra Barbs (Barbus<br />

tetrazona tetrazona) and Minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus). Dissertation,<br />

Master of Science in Ecology, Departments of Zoology and Botany,<br />

University of Durham, England. September 1986. pps. 59 + iv.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> B. (1987). The Coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) in<br />

the Science and Natural History Museum, State of Kuwait. Gazelle:<br />

The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 15. Fifth <strong>Year</strong>. July 1987.<br />

Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Germany. pp. 1-8.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1987). On a Collection of De<strong>von</strong> Period<br />

Animal Fossils from the Saarland, in the Geologische Museum<br />

Saarberg in Saarbrücken, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of<br />

Germany. Number 15, Fifth <strong>Year</strong>, Thul Qi‘dah 1407 AH, July 1987<br />

AD. pp. 9-10.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> B. (1987). The Great White Shark (Carcharodon<br />

carcharias) from the State of Kuwait, Arabian Gulf. Gazelle: The<br />

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 16. Fifth <strong>Year</strong>. Safar 1408 AH.<br />

September 1987 AD. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of<br />

Germany. pp. 1-7.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (1989). Qa‘ema li-ba‘d Asmak Al-Kuwait fi Al-<br />

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Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 19. Seventh<br />

<strong>Year</strong>. December 1989. Bonn 2-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of<br />

Germany. pp. 3. (In Arabic and English).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1991). A Trip to Zoo Budapest,<br />

Hungary. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad<br />

Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 21, Ninth <strong>Year</strong>,<br />

January 1991. pp. 1-4.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1991). The Gulf War and its<br />

effect on the Arabian Ecosystem (Part One). Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of<br />

Germany. Number 23, Ninth <strong>Year</strong>, July 1991. pp. 1-12.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1991). The Gulf War and its<br />

effect on the Arabian Ecosystem (Part Two). Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of<br />

Germany. Number 24, Ninth <strong>Year</strong>, August 1991. pp. 1-10.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1991). The Gulf War and its<br />

effect on the Arabian Ecosystem (Part Three). Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of<br />

Germany. Number 25, Ninth <strong>Year</strong>, September 1991. pp. 1-7.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1992). Notes on the Biological Ecology of<br />

the Marshes in Southern Iraq. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological<br />

Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany.<br />

Number 29, Tenth <strong>Year</strong>, September 1992. pp. 1-9. (In Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1992). The United Nations Ecological<br />

Report confirms: The Regime of Saddam is destroying the Marshes<br />

(Al-Ahwar) Ecosystem. Sawt Al-Kuwait International Newspaper.<br />

Saturday 17 October 1992, 21 Rabi‘e Al-Thani 1412. pp. 15. (In<br />

Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1992). An Introduction to the<br />

Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological<br />

Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany.<br />

Number 30, Tenth <strong>Year</strong>, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (In Arabic).<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> B. (1993). Al-Mushkilatan Al-Ma‘eyah<br />

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Muhtalain (Ka-Juzu‘ min Al-Sharq Al-Awsat) [The Water and the<br />

Ecological Problems in the Occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip (As<br />

Part of the Middle East)]. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.<br />

Number 31. Eleventh <strong>Year</strong>. December 1993. Bonn, Federal Republic of<br />

Germany. pp. 1- 29. (In Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1994). An Introduction to the<br />

Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae‘q Al-Nouma‘n (Anemone coronaria). A<br />

Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for<br />

Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education /<br />

Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General<br />

and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June)<br />

1994. pp. 16-21. (In Arabic).<br />

Acquaintance Card: Majallet Al-Ghazzal (Gazelle Magazine): The<br />

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn, Germany. Shqae‘q Al-Nouma‘n<br />

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EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental<br />

Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with<br />

Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4.<br />

Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 51-52. (In Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> B.(1995). Alasmak fi Filistin (Die Fische<br />

<strong>von</strong> Palästina / The Fishes of Palestine). Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. Number 33. Thirteenth <strong>Year</strong>. December 1995.<br />

Bonn, Germany. pp.1-35. (In Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1997). Amir Al-Bahar Al-Arabi (The Arabian Sea<br />

Prince) Shihab Al-Deen Ahmad Bin Majed. Magazin der Akademie.<br />

Nummer 1. Zu Elke‘da 1417 H, Maerz 1997. Koenig Fahad Akademie<br />

– Bonn, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Deutschland. pp. 23-24. (in Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2001). The Extinct and Endangered<br />

Animals in Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin<br />

Home Page. Extinct and Endangered Animals and Reintroduction.<br />

http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (Gründer)<br />

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(seit Juni 2001). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Wale und Delphine.<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2004). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische<br />

Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina,<br />

Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004. / Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and<br />

Europe between 1983 – 2004. <strong>ISBN</strong> 3-00-014121-9. Erste Auflage /<br />

First Edition, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten / Pages. Zweite erweiterte Auflage<br />

(Second Extended Edition), August 2004: 460 Seiten / Pages. <strong>Norman</strong><br />

<strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-alikhalaf-books.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). Der Komoren-Quastenflosser<br />

(Latimeria chalumnae) und der Manado-Quastenflosser (Latimeria<br />

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Twenty Third <strong>Year</strong>. February 2005. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

pp. 1-8.<br />

http://quastenflosser.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). The Story of Prophet Musa<br />

(Moses) and the Fish. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.<br />

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>,<br />

February 2005. pp. 14-15.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). Moses Perch (Lutjanus russelli,<br />

Bleeker 1849). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah,<br />

United Arab Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>, February 2005.<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). The Fish of Musa (Samak Musa).<br />

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab<br />

Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>, February 2005. pp. 16.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). Samak Al-Luchs (Al-Hamoor) or<br />

the Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) in Palestine<br />

(Mediterranean Sea) and the United Arab Emirates (Arabian Gulf).<br />

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab<br />

Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>, March 2005. pp. 1-6.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). <strong>Jaffa</strong> (Yaffa): The History of an<br />

Old Palestinian Arab City on the Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle: The<br />

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Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

Number 39, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>, March 2005. pp. 7-8.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). The Andromeda Sea Monster of<br />

<strong>Jaffa</strong>. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United<br />

Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>, March 2005. pp. 8.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). The Jewfish (Epinephelus itajara)<br />

/ Der Riesenzackenbarsch oder Judenfisch (Epinephelus itajara).<br />

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab<br />

Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>, March 2005. pp. 9-12.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). The Arabian Freshwater Fishes<br />

in the Arabia‘s Wildlife Centre, Sharjah Desert Park, Sharjah, United<br />

Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number<br />

40, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>, April 2005. pp. 1-9. Sharjah, United Arab<br />

Emirates.<br />

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://emi<br />

rati-blind-cave-fish.webs.com/arabianfreshwaterfish.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (Gründer) (seit Juni 2005). Der<br />

Quastenflosser: Coelacanth Latimeria Yahoo! Deutschland Group.<br />

http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Quastenflosser/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). The Koran Angelfish<br />

(Pomacanthus semicirculatus, Cuvier, 1831). Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. Number 44. Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>. August 2005.<br />

Jamada Alakhira 1426. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 1-8.<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). Aquatica Arabica. An Aquatic<br />

Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980 -<br />

2005 / Aquatica Arabica. Eine Aquatische Wissenschaftliche Reise in<br />

Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980 - 2005. <strong>ISBN</strong> 3-00-<br />

014835-3. Erste Auflage / First Edition, August 2005: 376 Seiten /<br />

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<strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik<br />

Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 28-93.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). The Rafah Zoo in the Rafah<br />

Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip, Palestine : A Story of Destruction by the<br />

Israeli Occupation Army. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.<br />

Number 46, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>, October 2005, Ramadan 1426. pp. 1-<br />

11. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2005). The Qalqilia Zoo and<br />

the Natural History Museum in the City of Qalqilia, West Bank,<br />

Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.<br />

Number 47, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 1-<br />

10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (Member of PALESTA) (2005).<br />

Palestinian Scientists and Technologists Abroad (PALESTA). Gazelle:<br />

The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>,<br />

November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 11-12. Sharjah, United Arab<br />

Emirates. (In Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (2006). Ein<br />

Besuch im Neunkircher Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Deutschland /<br />

A Visit to Neunkirchen Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Germany.<br />

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 59, November<br />

2006. pp. 1-25. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabisch / Arabic).<br />

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utsch.html<br />

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(seit Juni 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong>.<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (Gründer)<br />

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(seit September 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: <strong>Fauna</strong> Arabica.<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (2007).<br />

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%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D<br />

9%8A%D9%86<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2007). A Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) caught off the<br />

Kuwaiti Coast: The Second Record from the State of Kuwait, Arabian<br />

/ Persian Gulf. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number<br />

71, November 2007. pp. 1-20. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

(Abstracts in English and Arabic). http://whaleshark.webs.com/whalesharkinkuwait.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2007). Rhiniodon typus Smith, 1828 or Rhincodon typus Smith, 1829:<br />

The Story of a Scientific Name. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological<br />

Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 21. Sharjah, United Arab<br />

Emirates. http://whale-shark.webs.com/rhiniodontypus.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian Waters: A Whale Shark<br />

(Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) rescued near the Tantura Beach, Carmel<br />

Coast, North Palestine: The First Record from the Palestinian<br />

Mediterranean Coast. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.<br />

Number 71, November 2007. pp. 22-23. Sharjah, United Arab<br />

Emirates. (Abstracts in English and Arabic). http://whaleshark.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian Waters: Whale Sharks (Rhincodon<br />

typus, Smith 1828) near Um Al-Rashrash (Eilat) Beach, Gulf of Aqaba,<br />

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South Palestine: First Records from the Palestinian Red Sea Coast.<br />

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November<br />

2007. pp. 23-26. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstract in English<br />

and Arabic). http://whale-shark.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2007). An Ocean Sunfish or Common Mola (Mola mola, Linnaeus<br />

1758) caught off the coast of Gaza: The First Record from Palestine,<br />

East Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.<br />

Number 72, December 2007, pp. 1-16. (Abstracts in English and<br />

Arabic).<br />

https://de.groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/<strong>Fauna</strong>_<strong>Palaestina</strong>/conve<br />

rsations/messages/37<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2008). Cetacea <strong>Palaestina</strong>: The Whales and Dolphins in Palestinian<br />

Waters. Cetacean Species Guide for Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. Number 83, November 2008, Thu Al-Qi‘ada 1429<br />

AH. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://cetaceapalaestina.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2009). A Longcomb Sawfish (Pristis zijsron Bleeker, 1851) caught off<br />

the coast of Dibba, United Arab Emirates, Gulf of Oman. Gazelle: The<br />

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 88, April 2009, Rabi‘e Al<br />

Thani 1430 AH. pp. 1-14. http://dibba-sawfish.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>.Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2009). Garra barreimiae wurayahi <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2009 : A New Blind Cave Fish<br />

Subspecies from Wadi Al Wurayah Pools, Emirate of Fujairah, United<br />

Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178<br />

– 6288. Number 90, June 2009, Jumada Al-Akhera 1430 AH. pp. 1-15.<br />

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://emirati-blind-cavefish.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2009). Flora and <strong>Fauna</strong> in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab<br />

1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-<br />

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fauna-palestine.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2009). Oreochromis mossambicus bassamkhalafi <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2009 : A New<br />

Mozambique Tilapia Subspecies from Wadi Al Wurayah Pools,<br />

Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 92, August 2009,<br />

Sha‘ban 1430 AH. pp. 1-25. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

http://emirati-tilapia.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2009). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> –<br />

Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe<br />

between 1983 – 2006 / <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> – Teil Eins. Eine Zoologische<br />

Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2006. <strong>ISBN</strong><br />

<strong>978</strong>-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition, September 2009: 412<br />

Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong><br />

<strong>Jaffa</strong>, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler,<br />

Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2009). Bowmouth Guitarfish (Rhina ancylostoma Bloch & Schneider,<br />

1801) at Sharjah Aquarium, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle:<br />

The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Twenty-seventh<br />

<strong>Year</strong>, Number 93, September 2009,<br />

Ramadan 1430 AH. pp. 1-18. http://bowmouth-guitarfishemirates.webs.com/bowmouthguitarfishuae.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2009). Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) Records from the<br />

United Arab Emirates between 1989 - 2009. Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Twenty-seventh <strong>Year</strong>, Number<br />

94, October 2009, Shawal 1430 AH. pp. 1-28. Sharjah, United Arab<br />

Emirates.<br />

http://whale-shark.webs.com/whalesharkinemirates.htm<br />

<strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher <strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>,<br />

Zoologist, Ecologist and Geologist : The Scientific References (1980-<br />

2009). http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-references.webs.com/<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (2010). <strong>Fauna</strong><br />

Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab Emirates<br />

between 2004 - 2009. / <strong>Fauna</strong> Emiratus – Teil Eins. Zoologische<br />

Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate zwischen 2004 - 2009.<br />

<strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First Edition, November 2010:<br />

350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong><strong>von</strong><br />

<strong>Jaffa</strong>, Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-<br />

Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland.<br />

http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2012). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> –<br />

Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 / <strong>Fauna</strong><br />

<strong>Palaestina</strong> - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen<br />

1983 – 2009. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First Edition : July<br />

2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic Part 120 Pages and<br />

the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House,<br />

Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2013). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> –<br />

Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 /<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> - Teil <strong>Dr</strong>ei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina<br />

zwischen 2005 – 2012. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-<strong>9950</strong>-<strong>383</strong>-35-7. Erste Auflage / First<br />

Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part 350 Pages<br />

and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing<br />

House, Jerusalem, State of Palestine. http://dr-norman-alikhalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

Taher (2013). Garra rufa wadiqana <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013: A New Freshwater<br />

Doctor Fish Subspecies from Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit<br />

Governorate, State of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological<br />

Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 103, July 2013, Ramadan 1434<br />

AH. pp. 1-25. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

http://palestine-fishes.webs.com/palestine-doctor-fish<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2013). Taxon<br />

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<strong>Prof</strong>ile: Subspecies Garra rufa wadiqana <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013. BioLib.cz.<br />

Biological Library. http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id1059609/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

Taher (2013). Palestine Doctor Fish (Garra rufa wadiqana <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013).<br />

EOL. Encyclopedia of Life. http://eol.org/collections/80813<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

Taher (2013). Freshwater Fishes in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 104, August 2013,<br />

Shawal 1434 AH. pp. 1-17. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

http://palestine-fishes.webs.com/<br />

Manheim, O., A. Freidberg, D. Graur, M. Goren, Y. Bhnayahu, Y.<br />

Yom-Tov and T. Dayan (Editors) (1998). The national collections of<br />

natural history at Tel Aviv university - a National Museum of Natural<br />

History in the making: The first 60 years. Israel Jour. Zool.44: 1-79.<br />

Roll U., T. Dayan, D. Simberloff and M. Goren (2007). Characteristics of the<br />

introduced fish fauna of Israel. Biological Invasions. 9: 813–824.<br />

The Jordan Times. Rare fish face extinction as water pumping, pollution<br />

degrade habitats. http://jordantimes.com/article/rare-fish-face-extinctionas-water-pumping-pollution-degrade-habitats<br />

The Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel. http://natureisrael.org/<br />

Lissner‘s Bleak (Acanthobrama lissneri). Photo by: Y. Oksman.<br />

http://www.israquarium.co.il/Fish/IsraelFish/<br />

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91


Garra rufa wadiqana <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013: A<br />

New Freshwater Doctor Fish<br />

Subspecies from Wadi Qana Nature<br />

Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of<br />

Palestine<br />

<strong>By</strong>: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong><br />

The newly discovered Palestine Doctor Fish subspecies Garra rufa<br />

wadiqana <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013 at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana Nature<br />

Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine. Photo by: Ola Mostafa<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>. 08.07.2013.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/9474980975/<br />

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Abstract: A new subspecies of Doctor Fish of the genus Garra<br />

(Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Wadi Qana Nature Reserve springs<br />

and pools, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine is described. This<br />

subspecies is distinguished from the other six freshwater<br />

subspecies of Garra rufa living in the Middle East by its distinctive<br />

body colouration and the smaller size. It is morphologically and<br />

geographically distinct from the other six subspecies. The new<br />

subspecies was named Garra rufa wadiqana <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013.<br />

Keywords: Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae, Garra rufa wadiqana,<br />

Freshwater Fish, Doctor Fish, Palestine Doctor Fish, Wadi Qana<br />

Doctor Fish, New Subspecies, Wadi Qana, Nature Reserve,<br />

Springs, Pools, Salfit Governorate, Palestine, State of Palestine,<br />

Near East, Middle East.<br />

The newly discovered Palestine Doctor Fish subspecies Garra rufa<br />

wadiqana <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013 at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana Nature<br />

Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine. Photo by: Ola Mostafa<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>. 08.07.2013.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/9474997501/<br />

93


Introduction:<br />

During a field trip to Wadi Qana, which is an important nature<br />

reserve in the northern West Bank of the Jordan River, Salfit<br />

Governorate, State of Palestine, on Monday the 8 th July 2013,<br />

accompanied by the Palestinian Botanist Banan Al Sheikh, my<br />

wife Ola Mostafa <strong>Khalaf</strong> and my daughter Nora <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, I inspected Ain Al Basa Spring عٌن البصة and pools at Wadi<br />

Qana وادي قانا , and saw many Doctor Fish (Garra rufa Heckel, 1843)<br />

swimming in the spring and pool waters. These fish were<br />

observed, examined, measured and photographed.<br />

After examining Garra rufa at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana<br />

Nature Reserve, I began comparing between the different Middle<br />

Eastern Doctor Fish subspecies.<br />

There are six Garra rufa freshwater subspecies living in the Middle<br />

East: The Doctor Fish subspecies Garra rufa rufa Heckel, 1843,<br />

from southern Turkey, northern Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Palestine,<br />

Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Oman; and Garra rufa obtusa<br />

Heckel, 1843, from northern Syria, northern Iraq and the hot<br />

springs at Kangal, Turkey; and Garra rufa turcica Karaman, 1971<br />

from Ceyhan River Basin, Turkey; and the Persian Doctor Fish<br />

subspecies Garra rufa persica Berg, 1914 from Iran; and Garra rufa<br />

gymnothorax Berg, 1949 from Karun River Basin, Iran; and Garra<br />

rufa crenulata Heckel, 1847 from the Qarah Aqaj River and Saadi,<br />

Iran.<br />

Description and Distinctive Features:<br />

Morphology (Key Characters)<br />

Garra rufa wadiqana has a laterally elongated body shape. Two<br />

pairs of barbels are present. The adhesive disc is well developed<br />

with a free anterior margin. Abundant mucous cells in the<br />

epidermis of the disc gives an oily appearance, and with the<br />

dorso-ventrally compressed snout, offers minimal resistance to<br />

94


water currents. Teeth are hooked at the tip. The short gill rakers<br />

number 14-26. The upper lip is delicately fimbriated.<br />

Scales on lateral line: 29 -38. The dorsal fin has 8 branched rays<br />

modally, and the caudal fin 17 branched rays modally. Total<br />

vertebrae in the Palestinian specimens 32-37.<br />

The Palestine Doctor Fish Discovery Team: Zoologist <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc.<br />

<strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong> (right), Ola Mostafa <strong>Khalaf</strong><br />

(middle), Botanist Banan Al Sheikh (left) and Nora <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong><br />

(Photographer) at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit<br />

Governorate, State of Palestine. 08.07.2013.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/9475081719/<br />

Colour<br />

Overall colour is brownish-olive to dark green with darkly<br />

mottled flanks and a yellowish to whitish belly. The head and<br />

flanks may be a rusty-red, bronze or golden. A dark or bluish-<br />

95


green band runs along the whole flank ending in a spot on the<br />

caudal fin base. Much of the body may be blackish with only the<br />

belly creamy. Others are a light olive-green with lime-green<br />

highlights giving an iridescent effect especially on upper anterior<br />

flank scales. There is a black, greenish-blue, lime-green or duskyblue<br />

spot behind the upper corner of the gill opening, sometimes<br />

extending as a bar to the pectoral fin base where the skin is also<br />

blue.<br />

The newly discovered Palestine Doctor Fish subspecies Garra rufa<br />

wadiqana <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013 at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana Nature<br />

Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine. Photo by: Ola Mostafa<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>. 08.07.2013.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/9475016619/<br />

The Fins can be yellowish with darker margins. The pectoral fins<br />

can be orange-pink dorsally, grey-white or slightly orange-pink<br />

ventrally. The pelvic and anal fins may be orange with the fin rays<br />

yellow posteriorly in the anal fin but yellow mesially in the pelvic<br />

fin. The bases of the pectoral, pelvic and anal fins are orange-red<br />

96


in breeding males and the caudal fin is orange. The caudal fin can<br />

be orange to red ventrally and yellow dorsally. There is a black<br />

spot at the caudal fin base and the upper caudal lobe may have a<br />

few dark grey spots. The dorsal fin is dark green with reddish<br />

pigment at its middle. There is usually a dark spot at the bases of<br />

each of the middle 4-5 dorsal fin rays. In some specimens the<br />

dorsal fin is orange with yellow posterior rays. The pectoral,<br />

dorsal and caudal fin rays may be olive to black rather than<br />

yellow or orange. The iris is bright yellow, orange or red (Coad,<br />

2013).<br />

The newly discovered Palestine Doctor Fish subspecies Garra rufa<br />

wadiqana <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013 at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana Nature<br />

Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine. Photo by: Ola Mostafa<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>. 08.07.2013.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/9500646671/<br />

There is variation in colouration. Some fish are pale while others<br />

are very dark; the spots on the dorsal fin may extend two-thirds<br />

97


of the way up the fin rather than being restricted to the base; and<br />

the flanks may not be mottled. Fish from muddy water are a<br />

sickly grey with the body mottled and the lower caudal lobe dark.<br />

Their colour darkens and becomes brighter after immersion in ice<br />

water. Fish from deep in qanats are very pale (Coad, 2013).<br />

The newly discovered Palestine Doctor Fish subspecies Garra rufa<br />

wadiqana <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013 at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana Nature<br />

Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine. Photo by: Ola Mostafa<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>. 08.07.2013.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/9500749723/<br />

Size<br />

Garra rufa attains 24 cm total length in the Tigris River in Iraq.<br />

Reaches 15.9 cm, over 17 cm according to Heckel (1843). Fish up<br />

98


to 18.5 cm total length are known from Khuzestan, Iran (Coad,<br />

2013). The Palestinian subspecies Garra rufa wadiqana <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013<br />

is much smaller and attains a measured length of 5-12 cm.<br />

Age<br />

The species Garra rufa can live up to 7 years (Coad, 2013).<br />

The Palestine Doctor Fish Discoverer <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong><br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong> examining the fish at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana<br />

Nature Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine. 08.07.2013.<br />

Photograph by: Nora <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/94<strong>77</strong>944356/<br />

99


Sexual Dimorphism<br />

Large males become heavily tuberculate on the front and sides of<br />

the snout and in a band from the eye to the nostril and across to<br />

the other nostril and eye. A deep, tubercle-free groove is apparent<br />

between the upper band of tubercles through the nostrils and the<br />

tubercles on the snout above the mouth.<br />

Reproduction<br />

Sexual maturity at 2-3 years, 10 cm in length and a weight of 50 g<br />

in Iraqi fish. Spawning took place in May and June with eggs<br />

deposited on vegetation and rocks with a relative fecundity up to<br />

542 eggs/g. (Coad, 2013). Ovaries increased in size and weight<br />

from May to July. Different individuals release eggs and sperm at<br />

different times. Average egg diameter was 0.67 mm, maximum<br />

1.98 mm, with highest diameter in May and the lowest in<br />

November. Absolute and relative fecundity were 1179.65 and<br />

109.4 respectively on average. Maximum absolute fecundity<br />

reached 3794 eggs. The Iranian Kangir River fish had a maximum<br />

fecundity of 13,927 eggs and a maximum relative fecundity of<br />

2345.72 eggs/g. Egg diameters reached 1.7 mm. Reproduction<br />

occurred in April-May with the highest average gonadosomatic<br />

index for males of 4.21 in April and for females of 7.85 in May<br />

(Coad, 2013).<br />

Food<br />

Garra rufa is omnivorous and feeds on organic detritus,<br />

filamentous algae, diatoms, copepods, arthropods and insects.<br />

This species is a grazer on aquatic plants, mostly consisting of<br />

benthic cyanobacteria, chrysophytes and phytoplankton with<br />

included rotifers and protozoans. Both season and location in a<br />

stream affects the composition of the diet with season the most<br />

important factor.<br />

100


The Palestine Doctor Fish Discovery Team: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

<strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong> (middle), wife Ola Mostafa <strong>Khalaf</strong> (right), daughter<br />

Nora <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong> (left) and Banan Al Sheikh (Photographer) at<br />

Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine.<br />

08.07.2013.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/9508408252/<br />

101


Habitat<br />

Found in different habitats such as rivers, lakes, small ponds, and<br />

small muddy streams. Hides under and among stones and<br />

vegetation. Bottom dweller, feeding on aufwuchs.<br />

The newly discovered Palestine Doctor Fish subspecies Garra rufa<br />

wadiqana <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013 at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana Nature<br />

Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine. Photo by: Ola Mostafa<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>. 08.07.2013.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/9505806433/<br />

Distribution<br />

The species Garra rufa lives in the Jordan, Ceyhan, Orontes, and<br />

Tigris-Euphrates river basins. Also in some coastal rivers in<br />

southern Turkey and northern Syria and coastal drainages of the<br />

eastern Mediterranean as well as some springs and pools in<br />

102


Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Oman and Iran. The<br />

Palestinian subspecies Garra rufa wadiqana <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013 is endemic<br />

to Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of<br />

Palestine.<br />

Human Waste at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit<br />

Governorate, State of Palestine. Photo by: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong><br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>. 08.07.2013.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/9508650378/<br />

Conservation<br />

Garra rufa is a common species with a wide distribution and is not<br />

under any specific threat. The Palestinian subspecies Garra rufa<br />

wadiqanaa is endemic to Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, State of<br />

Palestine. The Nature Reserve is under protection and the<br />

subspecies is officially protected. Illegal Israeli settlements and<br />

103


human waste was observed at Wadi Qana Nature Reserve. More<br />

attention and protection is needed to protect the flora and fauna<br />

of Wadi Qana from any pollution and destruction.<br />

The Palestine Doctor Fish Discoverer <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong><br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong> collecting the fish at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana<br />

Nature Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine. 08.07.2013.<br />

Photograph by: Nora <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/94<strong>77</strong>904306/<br />

Economic Importance<br />

Garra rufa are sometimes referred to as ―doctor fish‖ because they<br />

eat away dead skin found on peoples‘ feet, leaving newer skin<br />

exposed. They have been used as a medical treatment for<br />

individuals with skin diseases, like psoriasis and neurodermitis.<br />

104


Etymology / Derivation of the Scientific Name<br />

The Genus name Garra is native from Burma (Myanmar) and<br />

means a ―big nose‖; the rhino horn fish from Burma. The species<br />

Latin name rufa means ―red‖, referring to the reddish body<br />

colouration. The Arabic subspecies name wadiqana refers to ―Wadi<br />

Qana‖ Nature Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine<br />

where the new subspecies was discovered.<br />

Conclusion:<br />

After studying and examining the Garra rufa Fish at<br />

Wadi Qana Nature Reserve springs and pools, and<br />

comparing with the different Doctor Fish subspecies,<br />

and referring to many zoological references, and<br />

searching the Internet, I came finally to a conclusion<br />

that we are in front of a new Doctor Fish subspecies<br />

from Wadi Qana Nature Reserve springs and pools,<br />

Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine.<br />

I gave it the scientific name Garra rufa wadiqana, new<br />

subspecies. The subspecies name “wadiqana” is for<br />

Wadi Qana, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine.<br />

Garra rufa wadiqana , new subspecies:<br />

Scientific trinomial name: Garra rufa wadiqana<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013<br />

Authority: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong><strong>von</strong><br />

<strong>Jaffa</strong>.<br />

105


Common Names: Palestine Doctor Fish, Wadi Qana<br />

Doctor Fish.<br />

Holotype: Grwq-1, Male, 12.00 cm, Beit Sahour Natural<br />

History Museum Collection, Beit Sahour, State of<br />

Palestine.<br />

Location: Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana Nature<br />

Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine.<br />

Date of capture: 8 th July, 2013.<br />

Taxon profile<br />


Subordinated taxa<br />

Number of records: 4<br />

subspecies Garra rufa obtusa (Heckel, 1843)<br />

subspecies Garra rufa rufa (Heckel, 1843)<br />

subspecies Garra rufa turcica Karaman M. S., 1971<br />

subspecies Garra rufa wadiqana <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013 - Palestine Doctor Fish<br />

BioLib.cz. Biological Library Classification.<br />

http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id147650/<br />

Acknowledgements: A Special thanks is due to the Palestinian<br />

Botanist Mr. Banan Al Sheikh who showed me Wadi Qana Nature<br />

Reserve, and to my wife Ola Mostafa <strong>Khalaf</strong> and my daughter<br />

Nora <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>, who both assisted me with the shooting<br />

of the photos for this scientific article, and for sharing with me the<br />

field trip to Wadi Qana, and gave me the opportunity to discover<br />

a new Palestinian Doctor Fish Subspecies.<br />

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Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche<br />

Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004. /<br />

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in<br />

Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. <strong>ISBN</strong> 3-00-<br />

014121-9. Erste Auflage / First Edition, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten /<br />

Pages. Zweite erweiterte Auflage (Second Extended Edition),<br />

August 2004: 460 Seiten / Pages. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>, Bonn-Bad<br />

Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/<br />

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Quastenflosser (Latimeria chalumnae) und der Manado-<br />

Quastenflosser (Latimeria menadoensis). Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. Number 38. Twenty Third <strong>Year</strong>. February<br />

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The Habitat of the Palestine Doctor Fish subspecies Garra rufa wadiqana<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013 at Ain Al Basa Spring and Pools, Wadi Qana Nature<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>. 08.07.2013.<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). The Story of Prophet Musa<br />

(Moses) and the Fish. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.<br />

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>,<br />

February 2005. pp. 14-15.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). Moses Perch (Lutjanus<br />

russelli, Bleeker 1849). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.<br />

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>,<br />

February 2005. pp. 15.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). The Fish of Musa (Samak<br />

Musa). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah,<br />

United Arab Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>, February<br />

2005. pp. 16.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). Samak Al-Luchs (Al-<br />

Hamoor) or the Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) in<br />

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Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>,<br />

March 2005. pp. 1-6.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). <strong>Jaffa</strong> (Yaffa): The History of<br />

an Old Palestinian Arab City on the Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle:<br />

The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab<br />

Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>, March 2005. pp. 7-8.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). The Andromeda Sea<br />

Monster of <strong>Jaffa</strong>. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.<br />

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>,<br />

March 2005. pp. 8.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). The Jewfish (Epinephelus<br />

itajara) / Der Riesenzackenbarsch oder Judenfisch (Epinephelus<br />

itajara). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah,<br />

United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>, March<br />

2005. pp. 9-12.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). The Arabian Freshwater<br />

Fishes in the Arabia‘s Wildlife Centre, Sharjah Desert Park,<br />

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological<br />

Bulletin. Number 40, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>, April 2005. pp. 1-9.<br />

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

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emirati-blind-cave-fish.webs.com/arabianfreshwaterfish.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (Gründer) (seit Juni 2005). Der<br />

Quastenflosser: Coelacanth Latimeria Yahoo! Deutschland Group.<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). The Koran Angelfish<br />

(Pomacanthus semicirculatus, Cuvier, 1831). Gazelle: The<br />

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 44. Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>.<br />

August 2005. Jamada Alakhira 1426. Sharjah, United Arab<br />

Emirates. pp. 1-8. http://koran-angelfish.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). Aquatica Arabica. An<br />

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between 1980 - 2005 / Aquatica Arabica. Eine Aquatische<br />

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zwischen 1980 - 2005. <strong>ISBN</strong> 3-00-014835-3. Erste Auflage / First<br />

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Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah,<br />

United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/aquaticaarabica.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, N.A.B. (2005). The Schooling of Sumatra Barbs (Barbus<br />

tetrazona tetrazona) and Minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus). [M.Sc.<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). The Rafah Zoo in the Rafah<br />

Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip, Palestine : A Story of Destruction by<br />

the Israeli Occupation Army. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological<br />

Bulletin. Number 46, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>, October 2005, Ramadan<br />

1426. pp. 1-11. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2005). The Qalqilia Zoo<br />

and the Natural History Museum in the City of Qalqilia, West<br />

Bank, Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological<br />

Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>, November 2005, Shawal<br />

1426. pp. 1-10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).<br />

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(2005). Palestinian Scientists and Technologists Abroad<br />

(PALESTA). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number<br />

47, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 11-12.<br />

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aus <strong>Jaffa</strong>, Palästina / A Personality from <strong>Jaffa</strong>, Palestine: <strong>Bassam</strong><br />

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Biological Bulletin. Number 56, Twenty-fourth <strong>Year</strong>, August 2006.<br />

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Ein Besuch im Neunkircher Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland,<br />

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Saarland, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.<br />

Number 59, November 2006. pp. 1-25. Sharjah, United Arab<br />

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(2007). A Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) caught off<br />

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(2007). An Ocean Sunfish or Common Mola (Mola mola, Linnaeus<br />

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(2008). Cetacea <strong>Palaestina</strong>: The Whales and Dolphins in<br />

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(2009). A Longcomb Sawfish (Pristis zijsron Bleeker, 1851) caught<br />

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(2009). Garra barreimiae wurayahi <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2009 : A New Blind Cave<br />

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(2009). Oreochromis mossambicus bassamkhalafi <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2009 : A New<br />

Mozambique Tilapia Subspecies from Wadi Al Wurayah Pools,<br />

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– Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe<br />

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September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

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(2009). Bowmouth Guitarfish (Rhina ancylostoma Bloch &<br />

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(2009). Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) Records from<br />

the United Arab Emirates between 1989 - 2009. Gazelle: The<br />

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<strong>Year</strong>, Number 94, October 2009, Shawal 1430 AH. pp. 1-28.<br />

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The newly discovered Palestine Doctor Fish subspecies Garra rufa<br />

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Doctor Fish Subspecies from Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

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125


† Macropomoides palaestina <strong>Khalaf</strong>,<br />

2013 : A New Coelacanth Fish Fossil<br />

Species from the Anthracothere Hill<br />

in Al-Naqab, Palestine<br />

: نوع جدٌد<br />

ماكروبوموٌدس بلستٌنا<br />

‏ْلحفورة سمكة الج مبٌزة ‏)سٌالكانث(‏ من تل أنثراكوثٌر<br />

فً‏ النقب ، فلسطٌن<br />

3112<br />

خلف ،<br />

<strong>By</strong>: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong><br />

Abstract: A new fossil species of Coelacanth Fish from<br />

the Early Miocene of the genus Macropomoides (Class<br />

Sarcopterygii, Subclass Crossopterygii, Order<br />

Coelacanthiformes, Suborder Latimerioidei, Family<br />

Latimeriidae) was found at the Anthracothere Hill in Al-<br />

Naqab (Negev), Palestine. The new fossil species is<br />

distinguished from the Lebanese Coelacanth fossil species<br />

Macropomoides orientalis by its slightly different skeletal,<br />

skull and fin features. It is morphologically a distinct<br />

species. The new species was named † Macropomoides<br />

palaestina <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013.<br />

A new fossil species of Coelacanth Fish from the Early Miocene of<br />

the genus Macropomoides (Class Sarcopterygii, Subclass<br />

Crossopterygii, Order Coelacanthiformes, Suborder Latimerioidei,<br />

126


Family Latimeriidae) was found at the Anthracothere Hill in Al-<br />

Naqab (Negev), Palestine. It belongs to the Family Latimeriidae<br />

and therefore closely related to the living coelacanth Latimeria.<br />

The new fossil species is distinguished from the Lebanese<br />

Coelacanth fossil species Macropomoides orientalis Woodward, 1942<br />

by its slightly different skeletal, skull and fin features. It is<br />

morphologically a distinct species. The new species was named †<br />

Macropomoides palaestina <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013.<br />

Naomi F. Goldsmith and Ilana Yanai-Inbar (1997) from the<br />

Blaustein Institute and Pathology Department, Ben-Gurion<br />

University of the Negev wrote in the Journal of Vertebrate<br />

Paleontology: ―Using Latimeria chalumnae as reference for the fish<br />

fossils found at Anthracothere Hill in the Negev (south) of Israel,<br />

we test B. Schaeffer's 19<strong>77</strong> theorem {Differences in the histology<br />

and gross form of the teeth, dermal skull elements, scales and fin<br />

components obviously have systematic significance. If we are<br />

concerned with extinct animals, we can compare directly only<br />

structure in attempting to infer relationships}."<br />

The corollaries we infer are:<br />

1) If there are no differences, it is likely we are dealing with an<br />

identity, or at best a similarity of incertae sedes...<br />

2) Furthermore, if Latimeria appears in the 20th century off the<br />

east African coast after a 70 Ma absence, it had to have been<br />

somewhere. Intervening coelacanthid specimens in Africa are<br />

found in Madagascar's Trias (Moore 1995), Niger's E. Cretaceous<br />

(Wenz 1975) and the Negev Miocene. The North African sites<br />

were bound by the Tethys Ocean; both also sheltered Lates (Gayet<br />

et al.1983; N.F. Goldsmith et a1.1982). But the major transport<br />

mechanism, as geophysicists Molnar, Royer, and Dyment agree,<br />

was by the northward bound India Plate and the opening of the<br />

Red Sea at Aden (Goldsmith and Yanai-Inbar 1997).<br />

Further tests compare Negev fossils with teeth and bones in the<br />

first Latimeria dissection (Millot, Anthony 1958) and teeth of<br />

127


preserved Latimeria at the California Academy of Sciences, San<br />

Francisco, and the Museums of Natural History in Stockholm,<br />

Washington, New York, London and Paris (Goldsmith and Yanai-<br />

Inbar 1997).<br />

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses replicate the results<br />

of Boyde (1972), Meinke (1982), and Smith (1<strong>978</strong>); the bone shows<br />

sensory canals as demonstrated by Wenz (1975). Q.E.D.<br />

(Goldsmith and Yanai-Inbar 1997).<br />

Genus Macropomoides Woodward 1942<br />

The body is relatively deep and reaches about 300 mm SL. The<br />

head bones are without ornament; a preorbital is absent; the<br />

lachrymojugal is narrow beneath the eye and barely larger than<br />

the enclosed sensory canal; postorbital is deep, expanded dorsally<br />

with a narrow ventral limb; the squamosal is very small and both<br />

the spiracular and the preoperculum may be absent. The<br />

premaxilla carries a few stout teeth. The operculum is rounded<br />

poster-odorsally with a very oblique ventral margin. Sensory<br />

canals open by a few large pores on the parietonasal shield; the<br />

angular and splenial each have four large sensory pores. Teeth<br />

upon the parasphenoid are restricted to the anterior third of the<br />

bone. The principal coronoid has a distinct waist and a<br />

longitudinally expanded head. The gular plates are twice as long<br />

as broad. The anocleithrum is forked dorsally with a narrow<br />

dorsal limb and a broad anterodorsal limb. Short ribs are<br />

developed throughout the posterior half of the abdominal region.<br />

The caudal fin has a rounded posterior margin which encloses the<br />

supplementary lobe. Pointed denticles are present on at least the<br />

first three rays of D1 and the leading rays of the principal caudal<br />

lobes. The pelvic bone is a simple rod with a proximal lateral<br />

expansion and the D1 support has a prominent anteroventrally<br />

directed thickened ridge. The scales are ornamented with many<br />

closely spaced denticles which, like the denticles on the fins, bear<br />

128


many fine striations. Those scales beneath and behind the level of<br />

D1 show a prominent central denticle (the only denticle present in<br />

small specimens) (Forey 1997/1998).<br />

Fossil of the Lebanese Coelacanth Macropomoides orientalis<br />

Woodward, 1942 from Lebanon. Photo at the Senckenberg Museum of<br />

Frankfurt, Germany. Photo by Ghedoghedo. 19 August 2011.<br />

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Macropomoides_orientalis_-<br />

_Lebanon.jpg<br />

129


Conclusion:<br />

After studying the Macropomoides fish fossil specimen<br />

from the Anthracothere Hill in Al-Naqab (Negev),<br />

Palestine and comparing with the Lebanese Coelacanth<br />

fossil species Macropomoides orientalis, and referring to<br />

many zoological references, and searching the Internet, I<br />

came finally to a conclusion that we are in front of a new<br />

Coelacanth fossil species.<br />

I gave it the scientific name † Macropomoides palaestina,<br />

new fossil species. The species name “palaestina” is for<br />

Palestine, from where the fossil specimen was found.<br />

† Macropomoides palaestina, new fossil species:<br />

Scientific Binomial name: † Macropomoides palaestina<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013<br />

Authority: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong><br />

<strong>Jaffa</strong>.<br />

Common Names: Palestine Coelacanth, Al-Naqab<br />

Coelacanth, Negev Coelacanth.<br />

Holotype Fossil: MP-1, Blaustein Institute and Pathology<br />

Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.<br />

Origin: Anthracothere Hill in Al-Naqab (Negev), Palestine.<br />

130


Taxon profile<br />

><br />

Taxon <strong>Prof</strong>ile: species Palestine Coelacanth Macropomoides palaestina<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2013 †. BioLib. Biological Library.<br />

http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id1075889/<br />

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(<strong>2014</strong>). The Coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) at the Educational Science<br />

Museum, Kuwait City, State of Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 - 6288. Number 112, April <strong>2014</strong>, Jumada<br />

Al Akhera 1435 AH. pp. 1–10. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab<br />

Emirates. http://quastenflosser.webs.com/coelacanthkuwait2013.htm<br />

Macropomoides orientalis Coelacanth Fish Fossil.<br />

http://www.fossilmall.com/EDCOPE_Enterprises/fish/fishfossils1/fis<br />

hfossils-1b.htm<br />

Meinke, D.K. (1987). Morphology and evolution of the dermal skeleton<br />

in lungfishes. In W.E. Bemis, W.W. Burggren, N.E. Kemp (eds) The<br />

biology and evolution of lungfishes. Alan R. Liss., New York. J. Morph.<br />

suppl. 1.:133-149.<br />

Millot, J. and J. Anthony (1958). Anatomie de Latimeria chalumnae. Tome<br />

I. Squelette et Muscles et formations de soutien. Centre National de la<br />

Recherche Scientifique CNRS, Paris (Tome 1):122pp+ill.<br />

Moore, J.A. (2003). p. 1189-1191. In K.E. Carpenter (ed.) FAO species<br />

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the Western Central Atlantic. Vol. 2: Bony fishes part 1 (Acipenseridae<br />

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Nulens, Rik; Lucy Scott , Marc Herbin (2011). An Updated Inventory of<br />

All Known Specimens of the Coelacanth, Latimeria Spp. Smithiana<br />

Special Publication 3. South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity.<br />

52 pages.<br />

http://www.nhbs.com/an_updated_inventory_of_all_known_specime<br />

ns_of_tefno_184079.html<br />

Pitman M.D., Sean D. (April 2012). The Fossil Record.<br />

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Pouyaud, Laurent; Wirjoatmodjo, Soetikno; Rachmatika, Ike;<br />

Tjakrawidjaja, Agus; Hadiaty, Renny; Hadie, Wartono (1999). Une<br />

nouvelle espèce de coelacanthe. Preuves génétiques et morphologiques.<br />

A new species of coelacanth. Comptes rendus de l'Académie des<br />

sciences - Série III - Sciences de la vie / Life Sciences - 1999, 322, 261-267.<br />

www.elsevier.fr/html/news/cras3mars99/pouyaud.html<br />

Schaeffer, B. (19<strong>77</strong>). The dermal skeleton in fishes. In ―Problems<br />

in Vertebrate Evolution,‖ S. M. Andrews, R. S. Miles and A. D. Walker,<br />

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Smith, C.L. )1<strong>978</strong>(. Coral reef fish communities: a compromise view.<br />

Environ. Biol. Fish. 3(1):109-128.<br />

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identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic<br />

(Fishing Area 31). Vol. 3. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome.<br />

Smith, J.L.B. (1939). A surviving fish of the order Actinistia. Trans. R.<br />

Soc. S. Afr. 27: 47-50.<br />

Smith, J.L.B. (1940). A living coelacanthid fish from South Africa. Trans.<br />

R. Soc. S. Afr. 28: 1-106.<br />

Smith, M.M. (1986). Latimeriidae. p. 152-153. In M.M. Smith and P.C.<br />

Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.<br />

Smith, H.T., C.B. Schreck and O.E. Maughan (1<strong>978</strong>). Effect of population<br />

density and feeding rate on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). J.<br />

Fish Biol. 12:449-455.<br />

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. The Coelacanth:<br />

More Living than Fossil.<br />

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Vorobjeva, E.I. and Obruchev, D.V. (1967). Subclass Sarcopterygii, pp.<br />

480-498. In: Obruchev, D.V. (ed.). Fundamentals of Palaeontology,<br />

11, Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations.<br />

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Wendruff, Andrew J. and Mark V.H. Wilson (2013). New Early Triassic<br />

coelacanth in the family Laugiidae (Sarcopterygii: Actinistia) from the<br />

Sulphur Mountain Formation near Wapiti Lake, British Columbia,<br />

Canada. Can. J. Earth Sci., September 2013, v.50:904-910.<br />

http://cjes.geoscienceworld.org/content/50/9/904.full<br />

Wenz, S. (1975). Un nouveau Coelacanthidé du Crétacé inférieur du<br />

Niger, remarques sur la fusion des os dermiques [A new coelacanth<br />

from the Lower Cretaceous of Niger, remarks on fusion of the dermal<br />

bones]. Colloques Internationaux du Centre National de la Recherche<br />

Scientifique, Paris, 1973. Problèmes actuels de Paléontologie (Évolution<br />

des Vertébrés). Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 218:175-<br />

190. http://fossilworks.org/cgibin/bridge.pl?taxon_no=1939<strong>77</strong>&action=basicTaxonInfo<br />

Wiki Project. Paleontology.<br />

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Paleontology<br />

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Woodward, A. S. (1942). Some new and little-known Upper Cretaceous<br />

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Marine Creatures 2 – Coelacanth from Lebanon.<br />

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/chapter/4495<br />

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139


The Ceratosaur Dinosaur Elaphrosaurus<br />

bambergi Janensch, 1920 Tracks from<br />

Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds (Jerusalem),<br />

Occupied Palestine<br />

<strong>By</strong>: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong><br />

One of the Beit Zeit Dinosaur Footprints from Beit Zeit, West of Al-<br />

Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013. Photo by: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>.<br />

<strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12155111194/<br />

Palestine's history is mostly known from the Torah, Bible and the<br />

Holy Qur'an. The Holy land is full of historical places, and is<br />

visited by many tourists and pilgrims that want to see the<br />

remarkable beauty of this country with their own eyes. Palestine<br />

is sometimes called "The land were the time began", and it<br />

contains treasures to be seen from the Mesozoic period, which is<br />

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not so well known. Thanks to <strong>Prof</strong>. Moshe Avnimelech (Ex-Head<br />

of the Paleontology Department in the Hebrew University of<br />

Jerusalem), who described the dinosaur tracks of the Hebron or<br />

Judean Hills, the historical wealth of Palestine goes further back<br />

in time than anyone ever had expected. In Beit Zeit, just a few<br />

kilometers from the Palestinian Capital City of Al-Quds<br />

(Jerusalem City), ninety to hundred million years old dinosaur<br />

tracks give great insight in the prehistoric life of the Middle East<br />

(<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, 2006).<br />

The Beit Zeit tracks are of prime scientific value. They record one<br />

of the major links in the biological chain of development on earth.<br />

Map of Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. The<br />

map is showing the Dinosaur Tracks site. Photo by: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong><br />

<strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>. 09.07.2013.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12191054606/<br />

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I visited Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds (Jerusalem), on 09.07.2013 and<br />

examined the Beit Zeit Dinosaur Tracks accompanied with my<br />

beloved wife Ola and my beloved daughter Nora.<br />

The Discovery:<br />

The discovery of the Beit Zeit (Beit Zayit) dinosaur tracks, just a<br />

few kilometers west of Al-Quds (Jerusalem), was made by Mr.<br />

Mordechai Sofer, a former geology student at the Hebrew<br />

University of Jerusalem. During the summer of 1962, Mr.<br />

Mordechai Sofer informed <strong>Prof</strong>. Moshe Avnimelech that<br />

mysterious imprints were left in the rocks in the garden of Mr.<br />

Schwarzwald, who was as Mr. Sofer, a resident of the Beit Zeit<br />

village. The next day <strong>Prof</strong>. Moshe Avnimelech visited the<br />

construction site. What he found was a continuous row of tracks,<br />

stretching for some 10 meter. It seemed that the tracks went on<br />

onto the hillock to the east and north of the exposed area. Later<br />

when a further area of 400 sq. m. was uncovered numerous<br />

additional tracks similar in form, pattern and direction were<br />

revealed (Avnimelech and Bervoets; <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, 2006).<br />

Age of the tracks:<br />

The age of the tracks is fixed by what is known of the geological<br />

structure and history of the Judean Hills, a layer at least 500 meter<br />

thick that constitute a part of a series of strata deposited from the<br />

Early Cretaceous (Barremian Period) to the Late Cretaceous<br />

(Campanian period). The strata were the tracks are found are<br />

usually assigned to the lowest part of the Cenomanian series, but<br />

the possibility that they belong to the Upper Albian may not be<br />

excluded. So, the age may be estimated ninety to hundred million<br />

years (Avnimelech and Bervoets; <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, 2006).<br />

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A small Dinosaur inside an egg at Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds<br />

(Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. Photo by: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong><br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>. 09.07.2013.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12190931005/<br />

Nature of the rocks:<br />

The nature of the rocks on which the tracks were made indicates a<br />

marine origin, composed out of dolomitic-marly limestone in<br />

regular 10-15 cm. thick layers, with the seams of marl in between.<br />

The fossils in part of the layers are chiefly of marine gastropods of<br />

shallow-water character. Imprints of terrestrial plants were found<br />

in some of the layers, indicating the nearness of the shore. In<br />

certain layers, concentrations may be observed of reddish-brown<br />

earthy material, which is obviously derived from the adjacent<br />

land area (Avnimelech and Bervoets; <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, 2006).<br />

143


One of the Beit Zeit Dinosaur Footprints from Beit Zeit, West of Al-<br />

Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013. Photo by: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>.<br />

<strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12191415913/<br />

Form and arrangement:<br />

The form and arrangement of the tracks clearly show that the<br />

tracks were made by a biped. Often only the digits were<br />

imprinted but sometimes even the tarsals were pressed into the<br />

rock surface. The imprints of the tarsals show that these were<br />

elongated, so it is lengthening the foot. The tracks are made by<br />

theropod dinosaurs which were carnivorous, and had four toes of<br />

which the first was short and high (Avnimelech and Bervoets;<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, 2006).<br />

144


One of the Beit Zeit Dinosaur Footprints from Beit Zeit, West of Al-<br />

Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013. Photo by: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>.<br />

<strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12191856676/<br />

Trackmaker:<br />

In general shape and appearance to trackmaker may have been<br />

similar to the North American genus Struthiomimus. It appears<br />

that the trackmaker belongs to one of the families of the group<br />

Coelurosauria, specially the Coeluridae and Ornithomimidae of<br />

which the first seems to fit the tracks more closely. However,<br />

considering the dinosaur remains discovered in eastern and<br />

northern Africa (Tanzania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Egypt)<br />

the possibility cannot be excluded that Elaphrosaurus bambergi<br />

lived once in the vicinity of Beit Zeit, Palestine. The trackmaker<br />

had an estimated length of the hind-limbs up to the waist, 140 cm;<br />

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the forelimbs were attached to the shoulders at a height of<br />

approximately 150-160 cm. The height of the animal, when<br />

standing upright, was 230-250 cm, and the length of the animal<br />

was from tip to tail about 360-380 cm, and weighted<br />

approximately 150 kg (Avnimelech and Bervoets; <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong><br />

<strong>Jaffa</strong>, 2006).<br />

Beit Zeit Dinosaur Footprints from Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds<br />

(Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013. Photo by: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>.<br />

<strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12191843574/<br />

Types:<br />

The Beit Zeit site is an area of approximately four hundred meters<br />

on which more than two hundred tracks can be seen. Several<br />

types of tracks can be distinguished, which might belong to three<br />

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species. The most frequent type is characterized by an angle of 70<br />

to 90 degrees between the outhermost digits. The length of these<br />

digits is 18-20 cm while the length of the middle digit (III) is 24-27<br />

cm (Avnimelech and Bervoets; <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, 2006).<br />

The length and thickness of the tracks vary with the heaviness of<br />

tread and the properties of the soil. A round or rectangular<br />

depression was formed at the place where the digits were joined:<br />

it is bulb-shaped and is evidently the imprint of a tarsal bone or<br />

bones. The outhermost digits of the second type make a broad arc<br />

with their base, giving the footprints the shape of an anchor; and<br />

in this type the length of the central digit is as with the first 40 to<br />

50% greater than that of the outhermost digits (Avnimelech and<br />

Bervoets; <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, 2006).<br />

The third type differs from the first and second in that the base of<br />

the digits is almost straight. It is however, possible that this is<br />

only accidental, and can be attributed to the mode of the tread.<br />

Several isolated tracks with digits of almost equal length are<br />

totally different. The digits are splayed out at an angle of nearly<br />

120 degrees; the external ones are bent out to form a smooth arc.<br />

These tracks are probably of the fore-limb, which may explain<br />

their rarity. Tracks of different times of passage are also<br />

distinguishable: the earlier are blurred, as they were subsequently<br />

covered by a thin layer of new sediment (Avnimelech and<br />

Bervoets; <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, 2006).<br />

There are several 10-15 meter long rows of tracks which are made<br />

up of 15 to 20 footprints, and other shorter rows, only 3 to 4 meter<br />

long, consisting of no more than 4 to 6. In general, the direction of<br />

the long rows of tracks which are more prominent than the short<br />

ones - is from south to north or north to south, whereas the<br />

direction of the shorter rows is commonly from northeast to<br />

southwest or vice versa. Only few of the very shortest rows run<br />

approximately east-west or west-east. In the area, it is possible to<br />

make out three long rows which trend north-south, more than a<br />

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dozen medium rows, and 4-5 short rows which run east-west<br />

(Avnimelech and Bervoets; <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, 2006).<br />

Ornithomimosaurs:<br />

Ornithomimosaurs ("Bird mimic lizards") or members of the clade<br />

Ornithomimosauria are theropod dinosaurs, like Gallimimus,<br />

which bore a superficial resemblance to modern ostriches. They<br />

were fast, fleet-footed, omnivorous and herbivorous dinosaurs<br />

from the Upper Cretaceous of Laurasia (Asia, Europe and North<br />

America). The skull, sitting atop a long neck, was relatively small<br />

with large eyes. Some primitive species had teeth, but most had<br />

toothless beaks. The arms were long and slender and bore<br />

powerful claws. The limbs were long and powerful, with a long<br />

foot and short, strong toes terminating in hooflike claws.<br />

Ornithomimosaurs were probably among the fastest of all<br />

dinosaurs. Like many other coelurosaurs, the ornithomimid hide<br />

was probably feathered rather than scaly (Wikipedia; <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong><br />

<strong>Jaffa</strong>, 2006).<br />

The group first appears in the Lower Cretaceous and persisted<br />

until the Upper Cretaceous. They appear to be related to less<br />

derived coelurosaurian theropods such as Compsognathus and<br />

tyrannosaurids. Primitive members of the group include<br />

Pelecanimimus, Shenzhousaurus, Harpymimus, and probably the<br />

huge Deinocheirus, the arms of which reached eight feet in length.<br />

More advanced species, members of the family ornithomimidae,<br />

include Gallimimus, Archaeornithomimus, Anserimimus,<br />

Struthiomimus, and Ornithomimus (Wikipedia; <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>,<br />

2006).<br />

Ornithomimosaurs probably got most of their calories from plants<br />

but may have eaten small vertebrates and insects as well. Henry<br />

Fairfield Osborn suggested that the long, sloth-like arms may<br />

have been used to pull down branches for ornithomimosaurs to<br />

148


Beit Zeit Dinosaur Tracks from Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds (Jerusalem),<br />

Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013. Photo by: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong><br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12207228555/<br />

149


feed on; it may also have been a dangerous weapon. The sheer<br />

abundance of ornithomimids — they are the most common small<br />

dinosaurs in North America — are consistent with the idea that<br />

they were plant eaters, as herbivores usually outnumber<br />

carnivores in an ecosystem. The presence of gastroliths in the<br />

stomach of some ornithomimids fit this hypothesis (Wikipedia;<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, 2006).<br />

Some paleontologists, like Paul Sereno, consider the enigmatic<br />

alvarezsaurids to be close relatives of the ornithomimosaurs, and<br />

places them together in the superfamily Ornithomimoidea<br />

(Wikipedia; <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, 2006).<br />

Struthiomimus:<br />

Struthiomimus (―Ostrich-mimic‖) was a long-legged, ostrich-like<br />

dinosaur of the family Ornithomimidae, which lived in Alberta,<br />

Canada during the Late Cretaceous period, about 85 to 80 million<br />

years ago. It was about 1.50 meters (5 feet) tall at the hips and<br />

weighed around 250 kg (500 lbs). Struthiomimus is one of the<br />

more common small dinosaurs in Dinosaur Provincial Park; its<br />

abundance suggests that it was an herbivore or an omnivore<br />

rather than a carnivore. It most likely lived on a diet of lizards,<br />

small mammals, fruits, and seeds, although some scientists<br />

theorize that it may have used its hooked claws to dig up clams<br />

and other shellfish, or possibly eggs (Wikipedia; <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>,<br />

2006).<br />

The legs were long, powerful and seemingly well-suited to rapid<br />

running, like an ostrich. The neck was slender and ended in a<br />

small, beaked skull with relatively large eyes. The 'arms' were<br />

long and fairly strong; the fore limbs were more powerful and the<br />

claws were more strongly hooked than in Ornithomimus. It also<br />

had the typical characteristics of most ornithomimids: a long, stiff<br />

tail and a toothless beak. Predators of Struthiomimus may have<br />

150


included Saurornitholestes, <strong>Dr</strong>omaeosaurus, and the<br />

tyrannosaurs Daspletosaurus and Gorgosaurus. The bestpreserved<br />

skeleton of Struthiomimus is currently on display at the<br />

American Museum of Natural History, in Manhattan, New York.<br />

The best skull is currently on display at the Royal Tyrrell Museum<br />

of Palaeontology, in <strong>Dr</strong>umheller, Alberta, Canada (Wikipedia;<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, 2006).<br />

Struthiomimus is also known from the Horseshoe Canyon<br />

Formation of Alberta and the Hell Creek Formation of Montana,<br />

suggesting that the dinosaur may have lived along the river banks<br />

of its day. These animals have not been thoroughly studied yet<br />

but they may represent new species of Struthiomimus (Wikipedia;<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, 2006).<br />

Elaphrosaurus:<br />

Elaphrosaurus was one of the earliest ornithomimids (ostrich<br />

dinosaurs), Elaphrosaurus was a relative of <strong>Dr</strong>omiceiomimus,<br />

Gallimimus, Ornithomimus, and Struthiomimus. It was probably<br />

one of the earliest members of that family and fossil bones have<br />

been found that date back to the late Jurassic period. Most "ostrich<br />

dinosaurs" are found from the Cretaceous period. A distant<br />

relative is Ornitholestes, a small dinosaur only half the size of<br />

Elaphrosaurus (Wikipedia; <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, 2006).<br />

Elaphrosaurus was a carnivore from late Jurassic Tanzania, 145 to<br />

150 million years ago. Scientists aren't sure what its head looked<br />

like, as its skull was never found. Elaphrosaurus was probably a<br />

medium-sized, but lightly built, bipedal, carnivore Ceratosaur<br />

and probably was about 6.2 meters (20 feet) long. It was<br />

discovered by the German paleontologist Werner Janensch, in the<br />

Tendaguru Beds of Tanzania, which has also yielded<br />

Brachiosaurus, Allosaurus, and Kentrosaurus, to name a few<br />

(Wikipedia; <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, 2006).<br />

151


Beit Zeit Dinosaur Tracks from Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds (Jerusalem),<br />

Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013. Photo by: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong><br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12207467393/<br />

152


What is known about Elaphrosaurs comes from a nearly complete<br />

skeleton found in the Tendaguru Beds. What is known about it is<br />

that it was a long slender dinosaur, with a long neck, possibly for<br />

digging into carrion. There have been very few theropods<br />

skeletons found there, just bits and pieces, and this was a rare<br />

find. Because the skeleton had no head, the Elaphrosaurus was<br />

displayed with a skull based on Velociraptor. A related animal, or<br />

perhaps the same species, has been found in the Morrison<br />

Formation (Wikipedia; <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, 2006).<br />

Morphologically, this dinosaur is significant in two ways. First, it<br />

has a relatively long trunk but is very shallow-chested for a<br />

theropod of its size. Second, it has very short hind limbs when<br />

compared to its relatively long trunk. Phylogenetic analysis<br />

indicates that this genus is likely a ceratosaur, and earlier<br />

suggestions that it is a late surviving coelophysoid have been<br />

examined but generally dismissed (Wikipedia).<br />

When it was alive, it would have been about 20 feet long, may be<br />

5 feet tall at the hip, weighing may be 210 kilograms (463 pounds).<br />

It was built as a fast runner, probably running down small prey<br />

on the open plains. Because of its long legs, some think it may<br />

have been the fastest runner of the Jurassic. With long, slender<br />

legs and a stiff tail, Elaphrosaurus would have easily sprinted from<br />

danger. It had keen eyes and a quick brain. Its diet probably<br />

depended on where it lived. Near the sea it might have grubbed<br />

around for shellfish or shoveled sand for tiny creatures. Some<br />

lived far inland and others foraged among woods and forests.<br />

Since it had no teeth, Elaphrosaurus could not have eaten meat<br />

(Wikipedia; <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, 2006).<br />

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<strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong> with the Ceratosaur<br />

Dinosaur Elaphrosaurus bambergi Janensch, 1920 of Beit Zeit, West of<br />

Al-Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013. Photo by my<br />

beloved wife: Ola Mostafa <strong>Khalaf</strong>.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12128563816/<br />

154


Beit Zeit Dinosaur Footprints from Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds<br />

(Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013. Photo by: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>.<br />

<strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12208476686/<br />

155


Etymology<br />

The genus name Elaphrosaurus is derived from<br />

the Greek words elaphro (ελαφρός) meaning "light" as in "lightweight",<br />

a reference to its slender frame and "sauros" (σαυρος)<br />

meaning "lizard"; thus, "lightweight lizard". Elaphrosaurus was<br />

described and named by the German paleontologist Werner<br />

Janensch* in 1920 and the type species is Elaphrosaurus bambergi<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

Description<br />

Elaphrosaurus was long and slender, with a long neck. What is<br />

known about Elaphrosaurus mostly comes from a single nearly<br />

complete skeleton and no skull has been found. It was distinctive<br />

among theropods for being short-legged for its length. Paul (1988)<br />

noted that this was the longest-trunked and shallowestchested<br />

theropod that he has examined. Elaphrosaurus was about<br />

6.2 meters (20 feet) long, 1.46 meter (5 feet) tall at the hip, and<br />

weighed about 210 kilograms (463 pounds). The tibia (shin bone)<br />

of Elaphrosaurus, measured 608 mm was considerably longer than<br />

its femur (thigh bone) that measured 520 mm, which indicates<br />

that it could probably run very fast. Its long tail ended with a rare<br />

downward bend which may be unrelated to taphonomy<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

Classification<br />

Elaphrosaurus was first described as a coelurid. At the time,<br />

Coeluridae was a wastebasket taxon for small theropods.<br />

Then, Elaphrosaurus was placed in the family Ornithomimidae by<br />

Nopcsa (1928) because of its light frame and the fact that<br />

its humerus is straight and slender. Upon closer examination its<br />

limbs approximate those of Coelophysis. Barsbold, Maryanska<br />

and Osmolska (1990) and other researchers classified it as<br />

an ornithomimid. More recent work by Carrano and Sampson<br />

156


(2008) and Carrano et al. (2012) assign this genus to Ceratosauria.<br />

It is now believed that Limusaurus is its closest relative<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

* Werner Janensch was a German paleontologist and museum curator<br />

(the Natural History Museum of Berlin) who led an expedition (with<br />

Edwin Hennig) to the Tendaguru Beds in Deutsch-Ostafrika, what is<br />

now Tanzania, Africa. That expedition found many late Jurassic period<br />

dinosaurs, including some Brachiosaurus. Janensch named<br />

Dicraeosaurus (1914) and Elaphrosaurus (1920).<br />

Nomina dubia (dubious names)<br />

The following material was assigned to Elaphrosaurus over the<br />

years, but further study revealed that these assignments were<br />

dubious:<br />

Elaphrosaurus iguidiensis, was described by Lapparent in 1960, and<br />

the material was collected in Algeria, Libya and Niger in Early<br />

Cretaceous sediments. The material consists of over 40 teeth, a<br />

manual ungual, eight caudal vertebrae, a distal femur fragment,<br />

and a complete tibia measuring 350 mm. These specimens<br />

originated in three different localities and do not appear to belong<br />

to the same species.<br />

Elaphrosaurus gautieri, was first described by Lapparent in<br />

1960, and the material was collected at the Tiouraren Formation in<br />

Niger in Middle-Late Jurassic sediments. This material, a<br />

complete neck vertebra, has since been renamed Spinostropheus<br />

gautieri by Sereno et al. (2004).<br />

157


<strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong> is showing the Beit Zeit<br />

Dinosaur Tracks at Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied<br />

Palestine. 09.07.2013. Photo by my wife: Ola Mostafa <strong>Khalaf</strong>.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12208133763/<br />

158


Beit Zeit Dinosaur Tracks from Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds (Jerusalem),<br />

Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013. Photo by: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong><br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12208085473/<br />

159


Elaphrosaurus philtippettensis, was erected by Pickering in 1995<br />

based on USNM 5737, which consists of a tibia, a humerus, some<br />

metatarsals, and the distal portion of a fragmentary pubic bones<br />

recovered from the Morrison Formation of Colorado. Further<br />

research by Carpenter et al. (2005) suggested that the fossils are<br />

not ceratosaurian and are likely referable to the coelurid theropod<br />

Tanycolagreus.<br />

Elaphrosaurus agilis, was described Dale Russel in 1972, based on a<br />

pair of fused pubic bones that O. C. Marsh had earlier<br />

named Coelurus agilis, believing that this specimen represented a<br />

much larger version of the type specimen, Coelurus fragilis. John<br />

Ostrom in 1980 confirmed Charles Gilmore's earlier position that<br />

Coelurus agilis was synonymous with Coelurus fragilis. This means<br />

that Elaphrosaurus agilis is actually the same animal as Coelurus<br />

fragilis.<br />

Elaphrosaurus sp. USNM 8415, was discovered in 1883 and first<br />

referred to the ornithopod <strong>Dr</strong>yosaurus. It was later referred<br />

to Elaphrosaurus by Galton in 1982, based on remains recovered at<br />

the Morrison Formation of Colorado. This material, which is<br />

clearly ceratosaurian, does not bare any morphology that<br />

specifically ties it to Elaphrosaurus. Current knowledge limits the<br />

placement of this material to Ceratosauria incertae sedis.<br />

Elaphrosaurus sp. DMNH 36284, was referred to this genus by<br />

Chure in 2001, based on the proximal portion of a fragmentary<br />

right tibia from the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison<br />

Formation. Phylogenetic analysis by Carrano and Sampson (2008)<br />

showed that it was not ceratosaurian, but instead resembled the<br />

leg bone of an abelisauroid theropod that has yet to be formally<br />

described (Wikipedia).<br />

160


<strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong> at the Beit Zeit Dinosaur<br />

Site, West of Al-Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013.<br />

Photo by my beloved wife: Ola Mostafa <strong>Khalaf</strong>.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12265436034/<br />

161


Distinguishing anatomical features<br />

A diagnosis is a statement of the anatomical features of an<br />

organism (or group) that collectively distinguish it from all other<br />

organisms. Some, but not all, of the features in a diagnosis are also<br />

autapomorphies. An autapomorphy is a distinctive anatomical<br />

feature that is unique to a given organism (Wikipedia).<br />

According to Rauhut (2000), Elaphrosaurus can be distinguished<br />

based on the following characteristics:<br />

the cervical vertebrae possess thin latero-ventral laminae,<br />

bordering the posterior pleurocoel ventrally<br />

the cervical vertebrae are strongly concave ventrally, with the<br />

ventral margin arching above the mid-height of the anterior<br />

articular facet at its highest point<br />

the brevis fossa of the ilium is extremely widened, so that<br />

the brevis shelf forms an almost horizontal lateral flange<br />

the distal end of the ischium is strongly expanded into a<br />

triangular boot (Wikipedia).<br />

Paleoecology<br />

Provenance and occurrence<br />

The type specimen of Elaphrosaurus bambergi HMN Gr.S. 38-44<br />

was recovered in the Middle Dinosaur Member of the Tendaguru<br />

Formation in Tanzania. The specimen was collected by Werner<br />

Janensch, I. Salim, H. Reck, and Parkinson in 1910 in gray, green,<br />

red, sandy marl that was deposited during the Kimmeridgian<br />

stage of the Jurassic period, approximately 157 to 152 million<br />

years ago. This specimen is housed in the collection of<br />

the Humboldt Museum in Berlin, Germany (Wikipedia).<br />

A related animal, perhaps the same genus, was found in<br />

162


stratigraphic zones 2-4 of the Morrison Formation. Few theropod<br />

skeletons have been found, most discoveries being fragments<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

<strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong> at the Beit Zeit Dinosaur<br />

Site, West of Al-Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013.<br />

Photo by my beloved wife: Ola Mostafa <strong>Khalaf</strong>.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12265065885/<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> and Habitat<br />

Studies suggest that the paleoenvironment of the Tendaguru<br />

Formation was a marginal marine environment with both nonmarine<br />

faunal and floral content. The Middle Dinosaur Member<br />

of the Tendaguru Formation has yielded the sauropods<br />

Giraffatitan, Australodocus, Janenschia, Tornieria and Dicraeosaurus,<br />

theropods similar to Allosaurus and Ceratosaurus, the<br />

163


carcharodontosaurid Veterupristisaurus, the stegosaurid<br />

Kentrosaurus and the iguanodontian Dysalotosaurus. Dinosaurs<br />

shared this paleoenvironment with pterosaurs like Pterodactylus<br />

and Rhamphorhynchus, as well as with early mammals. Paul<br />

(1988) noted that Elaphrosaurus bambergi was too small to prey on<br />

the sauropods and stegosaurs present in its paleoenvironment,<br />

and instead, it likely hunted the small and swift ornithopod<br />

herbivores (Wikipedia).<br />

Ichnology<br />

Dinosaur footprints from the Niger Republic and from Jerusalem<br />

were attributed to Elaphrosaurus. This assignment is considered<br />

inconclusive (Wikipedia).<br />

Ceratosauria<br />

Ceratosaurs are members of a group of theropod dinosaurs<br />

defined as all theropods sharing a more recent common ancestry<br />

with Ceratosaurus than with birds. There is no agreed upon listing<br />

of species or diagnostic characters of Ceratosauria, though they<br />

were less derived anatomically than the more diverse Tetanurae.<br />

According to the latest and most accepted theory, Ceratosauria<br />

includes the Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous theropods<br />

Ceratosaurus, Elaphrosaurus, and Abelisaurus, found primarily<br />

(though not exclusively) in the Southern Hemisphere. Originally,<br />

Ceratosauria included the above dinosaurs plus the Late Triassic<br />

to Early Jurassic Coelophysoidea and Dilophosauridae, implying<br />

a much earlier divergence of ceratosaurs from other theropods.<br />

However, most recent studies have shown that coelophysoids and<br />

dilophosaurids do not form a natural group with other<br />

ceratosaurs, and are excluded from this group (Wikipedia).<br />

164


<strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong> and his daughter Nora<br />

<strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong> and friends (Abdulla and Raneen Ramadan) at the<br />

Beit Zeit Dinosaur Site, West of Jerusalem, Occupied Palestine.<br />

09.07.2013. Photo by my beloved wife: Ola Mostafa <strong>Khalaf</strong>.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12264920215/<br />

References and Internet Websites:<br />

Avnimelech, Moshe A. (1962). Dinosaur tracks in the lower<br />

Cenomanian of Jerusalem. Nature, London. 196 (4851): 264.<br />

Avnimelech, Moshe A. (1962). Decouverte d'empreintes de pas de<br />

Dinosaures dans le Cenomanien inferieur des environs de<br />

Jerusalem. C. R. Soc. Geol. France 1962: 233-235.<br />

Avnimelech, Moshe A. (1963). Discovery of dinosaur tracks of<br />

Lower Cenomanian age in Bet Zait, west of Jerusalem. Israel<br />

Journal of Earth Sciences 12(2):80-81.<br />

165


Beit Zeit Dinosaurs. Israeli Stamps. Issue date 05.12.2000. Id<br />

Michel: 1576-1578. Scott: 1421-1423. Stanley Gibbons: 1501-<br />

1503. Yvert: 1507-1509. Designer: Tuvia Kurz. 3 Stamps. Value<br />

NIS 2.20 x 3. Size 30.8 x 30.8 mm.<br />

http://www.paleophilatelie.eu/images/sets/Israel_2000.jpg<br />

Avnimelech, Moshe A. (1966). Dinosaur Tracks in the Judean<br />

Hills. Proceedings of the Israel Academy of Sciences and<br />

Humanities, Section of Sciences. Vol.1, pp.1-19.<br />

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Avnimelech, Nirit and Bervoets, Fred. The King's Stone<br />

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www.dinodata.net/DNM/Avnimelech.htm<br />

Barsbold, R; Maryanska, T; & Osmolska, H: Oviraptorosauria.<br />

Weishampel, D B, Dodson, P, & Osmolska, H, editors (1990): The<br />

Dinosauria. University of California Press, Berkeley.<br />

Carpenter, K., Miles, C., and Cloward, K. (2005). New small<br />

theropod from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of<br />

Wyoming. in Carpenter, K. 2005. The Carnivorous Dinosaurs.<br />

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Carrano, M. T. and S. D. Sampson (2008). The phylogeny of<br />

Ceratosauria (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic<br />

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Carrano M. T. & R. B. J. Benson, and S. D. Sampson (2012(. The<br />

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Systematic Palaeontology 10(2):211-300.<br />

Chure (2001). The second record of the African theropod<br />

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Diego Pol & Oliver W. M. Rauhut (2012). A Middle Jurassic<br />

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theropod dinosaurs. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological<br />

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First dinosaur bones in Saudi Arabia discovered.<br />

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Foster, John (2007). Jurassic West: The Dinosaurs of the Morrison<br />

Formation and Their World. Indiana University Press.<br />

p. 182. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-0-253-34870-8.<br />

Foster, J. (2007). "Appendix." Jurassic West: The Dinosaurs of the<br />

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167


Elaphrosaurus bambergi Janensch, 1920. Holotype skeleton mounted<br />

(skull, hands and other elements speculative), Museum für Naturkunde<br />

Berlin. 16.072008. Photo: Aktron.<br />

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Berl%C3%ADn,_Mitte,_socha_je%C5<br />

%A1t%C4%9Bra_v_Museum_f%C3%BCr_Naturkunde.jpg<br />

Galton (1982). Elaphrosaurus, an ornithomimid dinosaur from the<br />

Upper Jurassic of North America and Africa. Paläontologische<br />

Zeitschrift. 56, 265-275.<br />

Ginsburg, L., Lapparent, A.F. deLoiret, B.and Taquet, P. (1966).<br />

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Republic. Proc. K. Nederl. Akad. Wet. B. 71:150-152.<br />

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Megalosaurier aus den Tendaguru Schichten Deutsch-Ostafrikas.<br />

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Sitzungsberichte der Gessellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu<br />

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Tendaguru-Schichten Deutsch-Ostafrikas. Palaeontographica, no.<br />

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of All Time.<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1980). Tabie‘t Al-Talawon fi Al-<br />

Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin.<br />

Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait<br />

University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (in Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1983). Sea Snakes in Kuwait. Bulletin<br />

of the Biological Studies Club, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait.<br />

First <strong>Year</strong>, Number 4, 7.12.1983. pp. 1-5. (in Arabic).<br />

169


<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1987). On a Collection of De<strong>von</strong><br />

Period Animal Fossils from the Saarland, in the Geologische<br />

Museum Saarberg in Saarbrücken, Germany. Gazelle: The<br />

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal<br />

Republic of Germany. Number 15, Fifth <strong>Year</strong>, Thul Qi‘dah 1407<br />

AH, July 1987 AD. pp. 9-10.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1992). Die Dinosaurier<br />

Ausstellung im Museum Alexander Koenig in Bonn,<br />

Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological<br />

Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany.<br />

Number 27, Tenth <strong>Year</strong>, April 1992. pp. 1-8.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1992). An Introduction to<br />

the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of<br />

Germany. Number 30, Tenth <strong>Year</strong>, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (in<br />

Arabic).<br />

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FunkMonk (Michael B. H.).<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1994). An Introduction to<br />

the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae‘q Al-Nouma‘n (Anemone<br />

170


coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI<br />

(Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental<br />

Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with<br />

Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine.<br />

Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (in Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2001). Palestinian<br />

Ornithomimid Dinosaur Tracks from Beit Zeit, Jerusalem. Gazelle:<br />

The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Home Page. Environmental<br />

Affairs 2 and Dinosaurs. www.gazelle.8m.net/custom3.html<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2001). Palestinian Legged<br />

Snake Fossil from Ein Yabrud, north of Jerusalem. Gazelle: The<br />

Palestinian Biological Bulletin Home Page. Fossils and Zoos.<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (Gründer) (seit Juli 2001).<br />

Dinosaurier Club Yahoo Group.<br />

http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Dinosaurierclub/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2004). Gazelle: Das<br />

Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche<br />

Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004. /<br />

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in<br />

Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. <strong>ISBN</strong> 3-00-<br />

014121-9. Erste Auflage / First Edition, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten /<br />

Pages. Zweite erweiterte Auflage (Second Extended Edition),<br />

August 2004: 460 Seiten / Pages. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>, Bonn-Bad<br />

Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2004). The Reptiles in the Arabia‘s<br />

Wildlife Centre in the Sharjah Desert Park, United Arab Emirates.<br />

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 34, 22 nd <strong>Year</strong>,<br />

August 2004. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 1-8.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). Aquatica Arabica. An<br />

Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe<br />

between 1980 - 2005 / Aquatica Arabica. Eine Aquatische<br />

Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa<br />

zwischen 1980 - 2005. <strong>ISBN</strong> 3-00-014835-3. Erste Auflage, August<br />

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2005: 376 Seiten. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>, Rilchingen-Hanweiler,<br />

Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/aquaticaarabica.htm<br />

Beit Zeit Dinosaurs. Philately Day. 05.12.2000.<br />

http://www.paleophilatelie.eu/description/stamps/israel_2000.html<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (2006).<br />

Ornithomimid Dinosaur Tracks from Beit Zeit, West of Jerusalem,<br />

Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 56,<br />

Twenty-fourth <strong>Year</strong>, August 2006, Rajab 1427 H. pp. 1-7. Sharjah,<br />

United Arab Emirates.<br />

http://de.dir.groups.yahoo.com/group/Dinosaurier_Club/mess<br />

age/183<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (2006). Eine Persönlichkeit<br />

aus <strong>Jaffa</strong>, Palästina / A Personality from <strong>Jaffa</strong>, Palestine: <strong>Bassam</strong><br />

<strong>Ali</strong> Taher <strong>Khalaf</strong> (Abu <strong>Ali</strong>) (1938-2006). Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. Number 56, Twenty-fourth <strong>Year</strong>, August 2006.<br />

pp. 8-18. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

www.geocities.com/jaffacity/<strong>Bassam</strong>_<strong>Khalaf</strong>.html<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (2007).<br />

Haywanat Filistin حُٕاواث فهسطٕه (<strong>Fauna</strong> of Palestine). Wikipedia,<br />

Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The<br />

172


Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 69, Twenty-fifth <strong>Year</strong>,<br />

September 2007 CE, Sha‘ban 1428 AH. pp. 1-4. (in Arabic).<br />

http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8<br />

%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D<br />

8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86<br />

Beit Zeit Dinosaors. Israeli Stamps. 05.12.2000.<br />

http://www.paleophilatelie.eu/images/variations/israel_2000_fdc.jpg<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2009). Flora and <strong>Fauna</strong> in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab<br />

1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2009). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong><br />

– Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe<br />

between 1983 – 2006 / <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> – Teil Eins. Eine<br />

Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen<br />

1983 – 2006. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition,<br />

September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

<strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates &<br />

173


Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (2010).<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab<br />

Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / <strong>Fauna</strong> Emiratus – Teil Eins.<br />

Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate<br />

zwischen 2004 - 2009. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First<br />

Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: <strong>Dr</strong>.<br />

<strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, Dubai and Sharjah, United<br />

Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik<br />

Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm<br />

Beit Zeit Dinosaur. Photo by: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong><strong>von</strong><br />

<strong>Jaffa</strong>. 09.07.2013.<br />

http://i1.ytimg.com/vi/KEtF3FUegOQ/maxresdefault.jpg<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2012). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong><br />

– Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 /<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina<br />

zwischen 1983 – 2009. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First<br />

Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic<br />

Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al<br />

174


Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-normanali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2012). Ornithomimid<br />

Dinosaur Tracks from Beit Zeit, West of Jerusalem, Palestine. In:<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> – Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine<br />

between 1983 – 2009 / <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> - Teil Zwei. Zoologische<br />

Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2009. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-16-667-<br />

2. 1. Auflage / First Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. pp. 79-88.<br />

Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2013). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong><br />

– Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 /<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> - Teil <strong>Dr</strong>ei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina<br />

zwischen 2005 – 2012. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-<strong>9950</strong>-<strong>383</strong>-35-7. Erste Auflage /<br />

First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part<br />

350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi<br />

Publishing House, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine.<br />

http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

Taher (2013). Dinosaur Tracks at Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds<br />

(Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013. Youtube Video.<br />

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KEtF3FUegOQ<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

Taher (<strong>2014</strong>). The Ceratosaur Dinosaur Elaphrosaurus bambergi<br />

Janensch, 1920 Tracks from Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds<br />

(Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 117, September<br />

<strong>2014</strong>, Thu Al-Qi‘da 1435 AH. pp. 1-33. Dubai and Sharjah, United<br />

Arab Emirates. http://palestine-dinosaur.webs.com/<br />

Kobayashi, Y. & R. Barsbold (2006). Ornithomimids from the<br />

Nemegt Formation of Mongolia. J. Paleont. Soc. Korea. 22(1): 195-<br />

207.<br />

Lapparent (1960). Les dinosauriens du "Continental intercalaire"<br />

du Sahara central. Mem. Soc. Geol. France. 88A 1-57.<br />

175


Beit Zeit Dinosaors. Israeli Stamps. 05.12.2000.<br />

http://www.paleophilatelie.eu/images/variations/israel_2000_fdc_ms.jpg<br />

Leonardi, Guiseppe (1985). The oldest tetrapod record known in<br />

the world, and other news. Ichnology Newsletter. 14:15-16.<br />

Liddell, Henry George and Robert Scott (1980). A Greek-English<br />

Lexicon (Abridged Edition). United Kingdom: Oxford University<br />

Press.<br />

Makovicky, P.J.; Y. Kobayashi & P.J. Currie (2004).<br />

Ornithomimosauria. in: The Dinosauria. Second Edition. D.B.<br />

Weishampel, P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds.). University of<br />

California Press, Berkeley: 137-150.<br />

New dinosaur tracks discovered. (Yemen).<br />

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7410032.stm<br />

Nicholls, E. and A. P. Russell (1985). Structure and function of the<br />

pectoral girdle and forelimb of Struthiomimus altus (Theropoda:<br />

Ornithomimidae). Palaeontology. 28(4): 643-6<strong>77</strong>.<br />

176


A large Dinosaur Footprint at Dubailand in Dubai, United Arab<br />

Emirates. Photo by: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>.<br />

04.02.<strong>2014</strong>.<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12337123304/<br />

Nopcsa, F. (1928). The genera of reptiles: Paleobiologica, 1, pp.<br />

163-188.<br />

Ornithomimid Dinosaur Tracks from Beit Zeit, West of Jerusalem,<br />

Palestine. http://archive.is/O1C5m<br />

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Osborn, H. F. (1917). Skeletal adaptations of Ornitholestes,<br />

Struthiomimus, Tyrannosaurus. Bulletin of the American Museum of<br />

Natural History. 35: 733-71.<br />

Paul, G.S. (1988). Predatory Dinosaurs of the World.Simon &<br />

Schuster,New York.<br />

Palestinian Ornithomimid Dinosaur Tracks from Beit Zeit, Jerusalem.<br />

www.panoramio.com/photo/43628601<br />

Paul, Gregory S. (1988). Genus Elaphrosaurus. Predatory Dinosaurs of<br />

the World. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 265–266. <strong>ISBN</strong> 0-671-<br />

61946-2.<br />

Pickering (1995). Jurassic Park: Unauthorized Jewish Fractals in<br />

Philopatry. A Fractal Scaling in Dinosaurology Project, 2nd revised<br />

printing. Capitola, California. 478 pp.<br />

Probst, Ernst und Windolf, Raymund (1993). Dinosaurier in<br />

Deutschland. C. Bertelsmann Verlag GmbH, München. 316 Seiten.<br />

Rauhut, O.W.M. (2000). The dinosaur fauna from the Guimarota mine.<br />

pp 75-82. In: Martin and Krebs (eds.). Guimarota - A Jurassic<br />

Ecosystem. Verlag <strong>Dr</strong>. Friedrich Pfeil, München.<br />

Russell, D. A. (1969). A new specimen of Stenonychosaurus from the<br />

Oldman Formation (Cretaceous) of Alberta. Canadian Journal of Earth<br />

Sciences.6: 595-612.<br />

Russell, Dale A. (1972). Ostrich dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of<br />

western Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 9: 375–402.<br />

Sereno, Wilson and Conrad (2004). New dinosaurs link southern<br />

landmasses in the Mid-Cretaceous. Proceedings: Biological Sciences.<br />

71(1546), 1325–1330.<br />

Tsrenov, <strong>Prof</strong>. Eitan (The Hebrew University, Jerusalem). Israel 2000<br />

"Dinosaur, Judean Hills".<br />

http://www.paleophilatelie.eu/description/stamps/israel_2000.html<br />

Wikipedia. Ceratosauria.<br />

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceratosauria<br />

Wikipedia. Elaphrosaurus.<br />

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elaphrosaurus<br />

Wikipedia. Ornithomimidae.<br />

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ornithomimidae<br />

Wikipedia. Ornithomimosauria.<br />

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ornithomimosauria<br />

Wikipedia. Struthiomimus.<br />

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Struthiomimus<br />

178


Beit Zeit Dinosaur Footprint. http://allaboutjerusalem.com/galleryimage/dinosaur-footprints-beit-zait-next-jerusalem/204<br />

The Dinosaurs (terrible lizards) constitute two different groups of<br />

extinct reptiles, derived from a common ancestor and together with<br />

other groups like crocodiles, birds and other extinct reptiles, share<br />

unique anatomical features.<br />

The dinosaurs appeared on earth during the Triassic period, 235 million<br />

years ago and continued to exist to the end of the Mesozoic (end of the<br />

Cretaceous) era, when all of them, 65 million years ago, became extinct<br />

together with many other groups of organisms. The common<br />

explanation of this mass extinction is probably due to a massive impact<br />

of an asteroid with the face of the earth, the consequence of which was a<br />

worldwide catastrophe to life (Tsrenov).<br />

During most of their existence on earth (around 170 million years) the<br />

dinosaurs dominated most of the continental habitats, were wide spread<br />

all over the continents and fed on a broad spectrum of diets (from<br />

feeding on leaves to engaging a ferocious predatory behavior). Some of<br />

them became highly socialized, laid eggs in bird-like nests ad protected<br />

their youngsters. Some others achieved huge dimensions of the bodysize<br />

(Tsrenov).<br />

In the moshav settlement of Beit Zayit (Beit Zeit) near Jerusalem,<br />

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footprints of some dinosaurs were found, which belong to a group of<br />

agile animals, running on their hind limbs, which their forelimbs were<br />

relatively very small, never used for locomotion, but rather helped then<br />

to grasp food or prey. The late <strong>Prof</strong>. Moshe Avnimelech from<br />

the Hebrew University of Jerusalem identified those footprints as<br />

belonging to the genus Struthiomimus (=ostrich-like). Indeed, the<br />

reconstruction of the animal (exhibited in the backyard of<br />

the department of Geology in the Hebrew University) shows a close<br />

artificial similarity with ostriches and their capability for a high-speed<br />

locomotion. Yet, contrary with all other birds, its body was covered<br />

with horny scales, showed no teeth in its jaws, which was covered with<br />

a horny sharp sheath and fed on leaves. The Beit Zeit dinosaur was<br />

relatively small (150 kg, 4 meters long) (Tsrenov).<br />

Related species of the same age were described from North America<br />

and Mongolia. Until now, no dinosaur bones were found in Palestine,<br />

but the footprints of Beit Zeit show that a band of this species ran about<br />

the shoreline of the old Tethys Ocean which, at that time, covered the<br />

coasts of the Middle East (Tsrenov).<br />

Beit Zeit Dinosaurs. Israeli Stamps <strong>Book</strong>let.<br />

http://www.paleophilatelie.eu/images/variations/israel_2000_booklet.jpg<br />

180


181


Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta<br />

caretta Linnaeus, 1758) Nesting in<br />

Palestine<br />

تعشيش السالحف البحريت الضخمت الرأس في<br />

فلسطين<br />

<strong>By</strong>: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong><br />

The Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758),<br />

or Loggerhead, is an oceanic turtle distributed throughout the<br />

world. It is a marine reptile, belonging to the family Cheloniidae.<br />

The average loggerhead measures around 90 cm (35 in) long<br />

when fully grown, although larger specimens of up to 280 cm<br />

(110 in) have been discovered. The adult loggerhead sea turtle<br />

weighs approximately 135 kg (300 lb), with the largest specimens<br />

weighing in at more than 450 kg (1,000 lb). The skin ranges from<br />

yellow to brown in color, and the shell is typically reddish-brown.<br />

No external differences in gender are seen until the turtle becomes<br />

an adult, the most obvious difference being the adult males have<br />

thicker tails and shorter plastrons than the females (Wikipedia,<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong> 2013).<br />

The loggerhead sea turtle is found in the Atlantic, Pacific,<br />

and Indian Oceans, as well as the Mediterranean Sea. It spends<br />

most of its life in saltwater and estuarine habitats, with females<br />

briefly coming ashore to lay eggs. The loggerhead sea turtle has a<br />

low reproductive rate; females lay an average of four<br />

egg clutches and then become quiescent, producing no eggs for<br />

two to three years. The loggerhead reaches sexual maturity within<br />

182


17–33 years and has a lifespan of 47–67 years (Wikipedia, <strong>Khalaf</strong><br />

2013).<br />

The loggerhead sea turtle is omnivorous, feeding mainly on<br />

bottom-dwelling invertebrates. Its large and powerful jaws serve<br />

as an effective tool for dismantling its prey. Young loggerheads<br />

are exploited by numerous predators; the eggs are especially<br />

vulnerable to terrestrial organisms. Once the turtles reach<br />

adulthood, their formidable size limits predation to large marine<br />

animals, such as sharks (Wikipedia, <strong>Khalaf</strong> 2013).<br />

Hatchling Loggerhead sea turtles near Atlit, south of Haifa, Occupied<br />

Palestine, on their way to the Mediterranean Sea. Photo: Hila Shaked.<br />

August 2010.<br />

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6c/Hatchling_L<br />

oggerhead_Sea_Turtles_near_Atlit_Israel.jpg<br />

Loggerheads are considered an endangered species and are<br />

protected by the International Union for the Conservation of<br />

Nature. Untended fishing gear is responsible for many<br />

loggerhead deaths. Turtles may also suffocate if they are trapped<br />

in fishing trawls. Turtle excluder devices have been implemented<br />

in efforts to reduce mortality by providing an escape route for the<br />

turtles. Loss of suitable nesting beaches and the introduction of<br />

183


exotic predators have also taken a toll on loggerhead populations.<br />

Efforts to restore their numbers will require international<br />

cooperation, since the turtles roam vast areas of ocean and critical<br />

nesting beaches are scattered across several countries (Wikipedia,<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong> 2013).<br />

Among sea turtle species, the loggerhead (Caretta caretta Linnaeus,<br />

1758) is the most commonly found on the shores of Palestine. The<br />

main nesting grounds for the Mediterranean population of this<br />

species are located along the shores of Greece, Cyprus and Turkey<br />

(I.C.S.E.M. Report 1986). Until quite recently, hundreds of nests<br />

were found each year along the Mediterranean coast of Palestine.<br />

In the 1950's, some 200 nests with a density of about 15 nests per<br />

km were recorded on 15 km of typical beach in the northern<br />

region of Palestine (Sella 1982). The picture has changed,<br />

however, during the last few decades. The latest reports by the<br />

Israeli Nature Reserves Authority (Soffer 1988, Kuler 1990), and<br />

the research results of Silberstein and Dmi'el (1991) show that the<br />

abundance and density of nesting by this species has abruptly<br />

decreased. Along some 55 km of coastline, which includes the<br />

surveyed area mentioned in Sella's report, only 10 nests were<br />

found in 1984, 14 in 1985, 16 in 1986, 16 in 1987, and 11 and 13<br />

nests in the years 1988 and 1989, respectively. Personal Reports<br />

also revealed a similar situation on other Mediterranean beaches<br />

in Palestine (Silberstein and Dmi'el 1991).<br />

In the framework of attempts to recover the loggerhead sea turtle<br />

in Palestine, several aspects of its reproduction were investigated,<br />

with an emphasis on the physical conditions prevailing in the<br />

nests. During the 1986-1989 nesting seasons (mid-May through<br />

July), Silberstein and Dmi'el (1991) surveyed repeatedly, in<br />

collaboration with the rangers of the Nature Reserves Authority,<br />

35 km of beach along the northern Mediterranean coast of<br />

Palestine. A total of 34 loggerhead nests were found in this area<br />

(16 nests were found in 1986, 10 in 1987, 4 in 1988, 4 in 1989). The<br />

earliest clutch was laid on 21 May, the latest on 27 July. Most of<br />

184


the nests were located


poorly located nests, as is done for other sea turtle species (e.g.,<br />

Eckert and Eckert 1990). These eggs should be transplanted over<br />

the shortest practicable distance and reburied under favorable<br />

natural conditions (at a beach hatchery site if necessary). As a last<br />

resort, and only if beach reburial is not possible, eggs may be<br />

artificially incubated in the laboratory. This procedure has been<br />

shown to result in high (90%) hatching success (Silberstein 1988).<br />

In either case, hatchlings should be released immediately to the<br />

sea from the original oviposition site. Other measures should<br />

include the protection of nesting and foraging grounds,<br />

technology to reduce incidental catch, and a concerted effort at<br />

public awareness and education (Silberstein and Dmi'el 1991).<br />

References and Internet Websites<br />

Animal Diversity Web. Caretta caretta Loggerhead.<br />

http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Caretta_care<br />

tta/<br />

Arkive. Loggerhead Turtle (Caretta caretta).<br />

http://www.arkive.org/loggerhead-turtle/caretta-caretta/<br />

Dunya Al Watan دوٕا انُطه (30.08.2013). Animal World: In Pictures ..<br />

بانصُر .. إصطٕاد Sea. Catching a great turtle on the Coast of Gaza<br />

Arabic). Photo by: Ihab Fasfous. (in اة ػماللت ػهّ‏ شاطئ بحز غشة<br />

http://www.alwatanvoice.com/arabic/news/2013/08/30/43050<br />

0.html<br />

Eckert, K. L. and S. A. Eckert (1990). Embryo mortality and hatch<br />

success in in situ and translocated leatherback sea turtle<br />

(Dermochelys coriacea) eggs. Biol. Cons. 53:37-46.<br />

I.C.S.E.M. (1986). Proc. Working Group on Mediterranean Marine<br />

Turtles, Palma de Majorca, October 1986. Intl. Council for the<br />

Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean, Monaco.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1980). Tabie‘t Al-Talawon fi Al-<br />

Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin.<br />

Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait<br />

University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (In Arabic).<br />

سهحف<br />

186


<strong>Khalaf</strong>, N.A.B. (1986). The Schooling of Sumatra Barbs (Barbus<br />

tetrazona tetrazona) and Minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus).<br />

Dissertation, Master of Science in Ecology, Departments of<br />

Zoology and Botany, University of Durham, England. September<br />

1986. pps. 59 + iv.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1991). A Trip to Zoo<br />

Budapest, Hungary. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.<br />

Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 21,<br />

Ninth <strong>Year</strong>, January 1991. pp. 1-4.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1992). An Introduction to<br />

the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of<br />

Germany. Number 30, Tenth <strong>Year</strong>, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (In<br />

Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1994). An Introduction to<br />

the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae‘q Al-Nouma‘n (Anemone<br />

coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI<br />

(Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental<br />

Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with<br />

Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine.<br />

Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (In Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2001). The Extinct and Endangered<br />

Animals in Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological<br />

Bulletin Home Page. Extinct and Endangered Animals and<br />

Reintroduction. http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2004). Gazelle: Das<br />

Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche<br />

Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004. /<br />

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in<br />

Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. <strong>ISBN</strong> 3-00-<br />

014121-9. Erste Auflage / First Edition, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten /<br />

Pages. Zweite erweiterte Auflage (Second Extended Edition),<br />

August 2004: 460 Seiten / Pages. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>, Bonn-Bad<br />

Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/<br />

187


<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). <strong>Jaffa</strong> (Yaffa): The History of<br />

an Old Palestinian Arab City on the Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle:<br />

The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab<br />

Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>, March 2005. pp. 7-8.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). The Andromeda Sea<br />

Monster of <strong>Jaffa</strong>. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.<br />

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>,<br />

March 2005. pp. 8.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). Aquatica Arabica. An<br />

Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe<br />

between 1980 - 2005 / Aquatica Arabica. Eine Aquatische<br />

Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa<br />

zwischen 1980 - 2005. <strong>ISBN</strong> 3-00-014835-3. Erste Auflage / First<br />

Edition, August 2005: 376 Seiten / Pages. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>,<br />

Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah,<br />

United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/aquaticaarabica.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). The Rafah Zoo in the Rafah<br />

Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip, Palestine : A Story of Destruction by<br />

the Israeli Occupation Army. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological<br />

Bulletin. Number 46, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>, October 2005, Ramadan<br />

1426. pp. 1-11. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2005). The Qalqilia Zoo<br />

and the Natural History Museum in the City of Qalqilia, West<br />

Bank, Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological<br />

Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>, November 2005, Shawal<br />

1426. pp. 1-10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(Gründer) (seit Juni 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: <strong>Fauna</strong><br />

<strong>Palaestina</strong>.<br />

http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/<strong>Fauna</strong>_<strong>Palaestina</strong>/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(Gründer) (seit September 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group:<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> Arabica.<br />

http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/<strong>Fauna</strong>_Arabica/<br />

188


<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (2007).<br />

Haywanat Filistin حُٕاواث فهسطٕه (<strong>Fauna</strong> of Palestine). Wikipedia,<br />

Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The<br />

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 69, Twenty-fifth <strong>Year</strong>,<br />

September 2007 CE, Sha‘ban 1428 AH. pp. 1-4. (in Arabic).<br />

http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8<br />

%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D<br />

8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86 <strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc.<br />

<strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian<br />

Waters: A Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) rescued<br />

near the Tantura Beach, Carmel Coast, North Palestine: The First<br />

Record from the Palestinian Mediterranean Coast. Gazelle: The<br />

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp.<br />

22-23. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstracts in English and<br />

Arabic). http://whale-shark.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian Waters: Whale Sharks<br />

(Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) near Um Al-Rashrash (Eilat) Beach,<br />

Gulf of Aqaba, South Palestine: First Records from the Palestinian<br />

Red Sea Coast. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.<br />

Number 71, November 2007. pp. 23-26. Sharjah, United Arab<br />

Emirates. (Abstract in English and Arabic). http://whaleshark.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2007). An Ocean Sunfish or Common Mola (Mola mola, Linnaeus<br />

1758) caught off the coast of Gaza: The First Record from<br />

Palestine, East Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. Number 72, December 2007, pp. 1-16.<br />

(Abstracts in English and Arabic).<br />

https://de.groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/<strong>Fauna</strong>_<strong>Palaestina</strong>/co<br />

nversations/messages/37<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2008). Cetacea <strong>Palaestina</strong>: The Whales and Dolphins in<br />

Palestinian Waters. Cetacean Species Guide for Palestine. Gazelle:<br />

The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 83, November 2008,<br />

189


Thu Al-Qi‘ada 1429 AH. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

http://cetacea-palaestina.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2009). Flora and <strong>Fauna</strong> in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab<br />

1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2009). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong><br />

– Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe<br />

between 1983 – 2006 / <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> – Teil Eins. Eine<br />

Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen<br />

1983 – 2006. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition,<br />

September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

<strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates &<br />

Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (2010).<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab<br />

Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / <strong>Fauna</strong> Emiratus – Teil Eins.<br />

Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate<br />

zwischen 2004 - 2009. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First<br />

Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: <strong>Dr</strong>.<br />

<strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, Dubai and Sharjah, United<br />

Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik<br />

Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2012). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong><br />

– Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 /<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina<br />

zwischen 1983 – 2009. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First<br />

Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic<br />

Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al<br />

Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2013). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong><br />

190


– Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 /<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> - Teil <strong>Dr</strong>ei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina<br />

zwischen 2005 – 2012. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-<strong>9950</strong>-<strong>383</strong>-35-7. Erste Auflage /<br />

First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part<br />

350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi<br />

Publishing House, Jerusalem, State of Palestine. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

Taher (2013). The <strong>By</strong>catch of a Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta<br />

caretta Linnaeus, 1758) in a fishing net on the Gaza Coast, Gaza,<br />

State of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.<br />

ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 108, December 2013, Safar 1435 AH.<br />

pp. 1-25. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

http://marine-life-palestine.webs.com/loggerhead-sea-turtlegaza-1<br />

School children watching as volunteers of the Israeli Sea Turtle Rescue Centre<br />

and releasing a Loggerhead Sea Turtle back into the Mediterranean Sea on<br />

Thursday 21.11.2013 in Ga’ash, Central of Occupied Palestine. Photo: Uriel<br />

Sinai, Getty Images. http://blogs.ft.com/photodiary/files/2013/11/TURTLE.jpg<br />

191


<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

Taher (<strong>2014</strong>). Records of Dead Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta<br />

caretta Linnaeus, 1758) washed up on the <strong>Jaffa</strong> Beach, Occupied<br />

Palestine between 2010-2013. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological<br />

Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 114, June <strong>2014</strong>, Sha‘ban 1435<br />

AH. pp. 1-11. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

http://marine-life-palestine.webs.com/loggerhead-sea-turtlejaffa<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

Taher (<strong>2014</strong>). Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus,<br />

1758) Nesting in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological<br />

Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 115, July <strong>2014</strong>, Ramadan 1435<br />

AH. pp. 1-9. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

http://marine-life-palestine.webs.com/loggerhead-turtlepalestine<br />

Kuler, Z. (1990). Summary of the 1989 annual sea turtle nesting<br />

survey. Nature Reserves Authority, Central Region, Israel. 10 pp.<br />

(in Hebrew).<br />

National Geographic. Loggerhead Sea Turtle Caretta caretta.<br />

http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/reptiles/logger<br />

head-sea-turtle/<br />

NOAA Fisheries. Office of Protected Resources. Loggerhead<br />

Turtle (Caretta caretta).<br />

http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/turtles/loggerhead.htm<br />

Sea Turtles 911. Loggerhead Sea Turtle.<br />

http://www.seaturtles911.org/turtle/loggerhead.htm<br />

Sella, I. (1982). Sea turtles in the eastern Mediterranean and<br />

northern Red Sea, p. 417-423. In: Biology and Conservation of Sea<br />

Turtles (K. A. Bjorndal, ed.). Smithsonian Institution Press,<br />

Washington D.C.<br />

Silberstein, D. (1988). The physical conditions prevailing in nests<br />

of the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) and their effect on egg<br />

development. Master of Science thesis, Dept. of Zool., Tel Aviv<br />

University. 71 pp. (in Hebrew with English summary).<br />

192


<strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong> with a<br />

Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758) carapace at<br />

the Sea Wonders shop, Souk Al Arsa, Sharjah, United Arab<br />

Emirates. 19.12.2013.<br />

انمؤنف مغ صذفت ظٍزٔت نسهحفاة بحزٔت ضخمت انزأص فٓ‏ محم ػجائب انبحار فٓ‏ سُق<br />

انؼزصت ، مىطمت انخزاد ، انشارلت ، دَنت اإلماراث انؼزبٕت انمخحذة . 19.12.2013<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/11792225256/<br />

193


Silberstein, Dalia and Razi Dmi'el (1991). Loggerhead Sea Turtle<br />

Nesting in Israel. Marine Turtle Newsletter 53:17-18, 1991.<br />

http://www.seaturtle.org/mtn/archives/mtn53/mtn53p17.shtm<br />

l<br />

Soffer, A. (1988). Sea turtles nesting in Haifa - Caesarea beach.<br />

Nature Reserves Authority, Jerusalem, Israel. 31 pp. (in Hebrew).<br />

Wikipedia. Loggerhead Sea Turtle.<br />

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loggerhead_sea_turtle<br />

حٌوانات فلسطٌن<br />

بقلم : أ.د.‏ نورمان ‏)نعمان(‏ علً‏ بسام خلف الٌافاوي<br />

http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7<br />

%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%<br />

B7%D9%8A%D9%86<br />

.<br />

194


195


The <strong>By</strong>catch of a Loggerhead Sea<br />

Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758)<br />

in a fishing net on the Gaza Coast,<br />

Gaza, State of Palestine<br />

إصطٌاد السلحفاة البحرٌة ضخمة الرأس فً‏ شباك<br />

الصٌادٌن فً‏ بحر غزة ، غزة ، دولة فلسطٌن<br />

<strong>By</strong>: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong><br />

The Loggerhead Sea Turtle which was caught in a fishing net on the<br />

coast of Gaza, Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al<br />

Watan, 2013).<br />

On Wednesday 28.08.2013 a fishermen team from Gaza, State of<br />

Palestine, caught a Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta<br />

Linnaeus, 1758) as a bycatch in their fishing net on the coast of<br />

Gaza.<br />

Fisherman Mr. Abd Al Salam Radwan said that the sea turtle<br />

weighed more than 70 kilogram and is more than 100 years old.<br />

196


The fishermen decided to give the sea turtle to Gaza Zoo to look<br />

after it, after they saw the happiness of children when they caught<br />

it (Dunya Al Watan, 2013).<br />

The Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta), or Loggerhead, is<br />

an oceanic turtle distributed throughout the world. It is a marine<br />

reptile, belonging to the family Cheloniidae. The average<br />

loggerhead measures around 90 cm (35 in) long when fully<br />

grown, although larger specimens of up to 280 cm (110 in) have<br />

been discovered. The adult loggerhead sea turtle weighs<br />

approximately 135 kg (300 lb), with the largest specimens<br />

weighing in at more than 450 kg (1,000 lb). The skin ranges from<br />

yellow to brown in color, and the shell is typically reddish-brown.<br />

No external differences in gender are seen until the turtle becomes<br />

an adult, the most obvious difference being the adult males have<br />

thicker tails and shorter plastrons than the females (Wikipedia).<br />

The Fishermen pulling the fishing net on the coast of Gaza, State of<br />

Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al Watan, 2013).<br />

197


The Fishermen pulling the fishing net on the coast of Gaza, State of<br />

Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al Watan, 2013).<br />

The loggerhead sea turtle is found in the Atlantic, Pacific,<br />

and Indian Oceans, as well as the Mediterranean Sea. It spends<br />

most of its life in saltwater and estuarine habitats, with females<br />

briefly coming ashore to lay eggs. The loggerhead sea turtle has a<br />

low reproductive rate; females lay an average of four<br />

198


egg clutches and then become quiescent, producing no eggs for<br />

two to three years. The loggerhead reaches sexual maturity within<br />

17–33 years and has a lifespan of 47–67 years (Wikipedia).<br />

The loggerhead sea turtle is omnivorous, feeding mainly on<br />

bottom-dwelling invertebrates. Its large and powerful jaws serve<br />

as an effective tool for dismantling its prey. Young loggerheads<br />

are exploited by numerous predators; the eggs are especially<br />

vulnerable to terrestrial organisms. Once the turtles reach<br />

adulthood, their formidable size limits predation to large marine<br />

animals, such as sharks (Wikipedia).<br />

Loggerheads are considered an endangered species and are<br />

protected by the International Union for the Conservation of<br />

Nature. Untended fishing gear is responsible for many<br />

loggerhead deaths. Turtles may also suffocate if they are trapped<br />

in fishing trawls. Turtle excluder devices have been implemented<br />

in efforts to reduce mortality by providing an escape route for the<br />

turtles. Loss of suitable nesting beaches and the introduction of<br />

exotic predators have also taken a toll on loggerhead populations.<br />

Efforts to restore their numbers will require international<br />

cooperation, since the turtles roam vast areas of ocean and critical<br />

nesting beaches are scattered across several countries (Wikipedia).<br />

Description<br />

The loggerhead sea turtle is the world's largest hard-shelled<br />

turtle. Adults have an average weight range of 80 to 200 kg (180 to<br />

440 lb) and a length range of 70 to 95 cm (28 to 37 in). The<br />

maximum reported weight is 545 kg (1,200 lb) and the maximum<br />

carapace length is 213 cm (84 in). The head and carapace (upper<br />

shell) range from a yellow-orange to a reddish-brown, while the<br />

plastron (underside) is typically pale yellow. The turtle's neck and<br />

sides are brown on the tops and yellow on the sides and bottom<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

199


The turtle's shell is divided into two sections: carapace and<br />

plastron. The carapace is further divided into large plates,<br />

or scutes. Typically, 11 or 12 pairs of marginal scutes rim the<br />

carapace. Five vertebral scutes run down the carapace's midline,<br />

while five pairs of costal scutes border them. The nuchal scute is<br />

located at the base of the head. The carapace connects to the<br />

plastron by three pairs of inframarginal scutes forming the bridge<br />

of the shell. The plastron features paired gular, humeral, pectoral,<br />

abdominal, femoral, and anal scutes. The shell serves as external<br />

armor, although loggerhead sea turtles cannot retract their heads<br />

or flippers into their shells (Wikipedia).<br />

The Fishermen pulling the fishing net on the coast of Gaza, State of<br />

Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al Watan, 2013).<br />

Sexual dimorphism of the loggerhead sea turtle is only apparent<br />

in adults. Adult males have longer tails and claws than females.<br />

The males' plastrons are shorter than the females', presumably to<br />

accommodate the males' larger tails. The carapaces of males are<br />

wider and less domed than the females', and males typically have<br />

200


wider heads than females. The sex of juveniles and subadults<br />

cannot be determined through external anatomy, but can be<br />

observed through dissection, laparoscopy (an operation<br />

performed on the abdomen), histological examination (cell<br />

anatomy), and radioimmunological assays (immune study<br />

dealing with radiolabeling) (Wikipedia).<br />

Lachrymal glands located behind each eye allow the loggerhead<br />

to maintain osmotic balance by eliminating the excess salt<br />

obtained from ingesting ocean water. On land, the excretion of<br />

excess salt gives the false impression that the turtle is crying<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

The Loggerhead Sea Turtle is caught in the fishing net on the coast of<br />

Gaza, State of Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al<br />

Watan, 2013).<br />

Distribution<br />

The loggerhead sea turtle has a cosmopolitan distribution, nesting<br />

over the broadest geographical range of any sea turtle. It inhabits<br />

201


the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans and the Mediterranean<br />

Sea (Wikipedia).<br />

In the Atlantic Ocean, the greatest concentration of loggerheads is<br />

along the southeastern coast of North America and in the Gulf of<br />

Mexico. Very few loggerheads are found along the European and<br />

African coastlines. Florida is the most popular nesting site, with<br />

more than 67,000 nests built per year. Nesting extends as far north<br />

as Virginia, as far south as Brazil, and as far east as the Cape<br />

Verde Islands. The Cape Verde Islands are the only significant<br />

nesting site on the eastern side of the Atlantic. Loggerheads found<br />

in the Atlantic Ocean feed from Canada to Brazil (Wikipedia).<br />

The Loggerhead Sea Turtle is caught in the fishing net on the coast of<br />

Gaza, State of Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al<br />

Watan, 2013).<br />

In the Indian Ocean, loggerheads feed along the coastlines of<br />

Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and in the Arabian Sea. Along the<br />

African coastline, loggerheads nest from Mozambique's Bazaruto<br />

Archipelago to South Africa's St. Lucia estuary. The largest Indian<br />

202


Ocean nesting site is Oman, on the Arabian Peninsula, which<br />

hosts around 15,000 nests, giving it the second largest nesting<br />

population of loggerheads in the world. Western Australia is<br />

another notable nesting area, with 1,000–2,000 nests per year<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

Pacific loggerheads live in temperate to tropical regions. They<br />

forage in the East China Sea, the southwestern Pacific, and along<br />

the Baja California Peninsula. Eastern Australia and Japan are the<br />

major nesting areas, with the Great Barrier Reef deemed an<br />

important nesting area. Pacific loggerheads occasionally nest<br />

in Vanuatu and Tokelau. Yakushima Island in Japan is the most<br />

important site, with three nesting grounds visited by 40% of all<br />

nearby loggerheads. After nesting, females often find homes in<br />

the East China Sea, while the Kuroshio Current Extension's<br />

Bifurcation region provides important juvenile foraging areas.<br />

Eastern Pacific populations are concentrated off the coast of Baja<br />

California, where upwelling provides rich feeding grounds for<br />

juvenile turtles and subadults. Nesting sites along the eastern<br />

Pacific Basin are rare. mtDNA sequence polymorphism analysis<br />

and tracking studies suggest 95% of the population along the<br />

coast of the Americas hatch on the Japanese Islands in the western<br />

Pacific. The turtles are transported by the prevailing currents<br />

across the full length of the northern Pacific, one of the longest<br />

migration routes of any marine animal. The return journey to the<br />

natal beaches in Japan has been long suspected, although the trip<br />

would cross unproductive clear water with few feeding<br />

opportunities. Evidence of a return journey came from an adult<br />

female loggerhead named Adelita, which in 1996, equipped with<br />

a satellite tracking device, made the 14500-km (9000-mi) trip from<br />

Mexico across the Pacific. Adelita was the first animal of any kind<br />

ever tracked across an ocean basin (Wikipedia).<br />

The Mediterranean Sea is a nursery for juveniles, as well as a<br />

common place for adults in the spring and summer months.<br />

Almost 45% of the Mediterranean juvenile population has<br />

migrated from the Atlantic. Loggerheads feed in the Alboran<br />

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Sea and the Adriatic Sea. Greece is the most popular nesting site<br />

along the Mediterranean, with more than 3,000 nests per<br />

year. Because of this, Greek authorities do not allow planes to take<br />

off or land at night in Zakynthos due to the nesting turtles. In<br />

addition to the Greek coast, the coastlines of Cyprus and Turkey<br />

are also common nesting sites (Wikipedia).<br />

One record of this turtle was made in Ireland washed ashore on<br />

Ballyhealy Beach in Co. Wexford (Wikipedia).<br />

The Loggerhead Sea Turtle is caught in the fishing net on the coast of<br />

Gaza, State of Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al<br />

Watan, 2013).<br />

Habitat<br />

Loggerhead sea turtles spend most of their lives in the open ocean<br />

and in shallow coastal waters. They rarely come ashore, with the<br />

exception of the females' brief visits to construct nests and deposit<br />

eggs. Hatchling loggerhead turtles live in floating mats<br />

of Sargassum algae. Adults and juveniles live along the continental<br />

shelf, as well as in shallow coastal estuaries. In the northwestern<br />

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Atlantic Ocean, age plays a factor in habitat preference. Juveniles<br />

are more frequently found in shallow estuarine habitats with<br />

limited ocean access compared to non-nesting adults.<br />

Loggerheads occupy waters with surface temperatures ranging<br />

from 13.3-28.0°C (56-82°F) during non-nesting season.<br />

Temperatures from 27-28°C are most suitable for nesting females<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

The Loggerhead Sea Turtle is freed from the fishing net on the coast of<br />

Gaza, State of Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al<br />

Watan, 2013).<br />

Juvenile loggerheads share the Sargassum habitat with a variety of<br />

other organisms. The mats of Sargassum contain as many as 100<br />

different species of animals on which the juveniles feed. Some of<br />

the prey, such as ants, flies, aphids, leafhoppers, and beetles, are<br />

carried by the wind to these areas. Endemic prey of the mats<br />

include barnacles, small crab larvae, fish eggs, and hydrozoan<br />

colonies. Marine mammals and commercial fish, such<br />

as tuna, dolphin fish, and amberjacks, also inhabit the mats<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

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The Loggerhead Sea Turtle is freed from the fishing net on the coast of<br />

Gaza, State of Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al<br />

Watan, 2013).<br />

Ecology and Behaviour<br />

Loggerhead sea turtles observed in captivity and in the wild are<br />

most active during the day. In captivity, the loggerheads' daily<br />

activities are divided between swimming and resting on the<br />

bottom. While resting, they spread their forelimbs to about midstroke<br />

swimming position. They remain motionless with eyes<br />

open or half-shut and are easily alerted during this state. At night,<br />

captives sleep in the same position with their eyes tightly shut,<br />

and are slow to react. Loggerheads spend up to 85% of their day<br />

submerged, with males being the more active divers than females.<br />

The average duration of dives is 15–30 min, but they can stay<br />

submerged for up to four hours. Juvenile loggerheads and adults<br />

differ in their swimming methods. A Juvenile keeps its forelimbs<br />

pressed to the side of its carapace, and propels itself by kicking<br />

with its hind limbs. As the juvenile matures, its swimming<br />

method is progressively replaced with the adult's alternating-limb<br />

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method. They depend entirely on this method of swimming by<br />

one year old (Wikipedia).<br />

Water temperature affects the sea turtle's metabolic rate.<br />

Lethargy is induced at temperatures between 13 and 15°C (55 and<br />

59°F). The loggerhead takes on a floating, cold-stunned posture<br />

when temperatures drop to around 10°C. However, younger<br />

loggerheads are more resistant to cold and do not become<br />

stunned until temperatures drop below 9°C. The<br />

loggerheads' migration helps to prevent instances of coldstunning.<br />

Higher water temperatures cause an increase in<br />

metabolism and heart rate. A loggerhead's body temperature<br />

increases in warmer waters more quickly than it decreases in<br />

colder water; their critical thermal maximum is currently<br />

unknown (Wikipedia).<br />

A fisherman is carrying the Loggerhead Sea Turtle on the coast of Gaza,<br />

State of Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al Watan,<br />

2013).<br />

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Female-female aggression, which is especially uncommon in<br />

marine vertebrates, is common among loggerheads. Ritualized<br />

aggression escalates from passive threat displays to combat. This<br />

conflict primarily occurs over access to feeding grounds.<br />

Escalation typically follows four steps. First, initial contact is<br />

stimulated by visual or tactile cues. Second, confrontation occurs,<br />

beginning with passive confrontations characterized by wide<br />

head-tail circling. They begin aggressive confrontation when one<br />

turtle ceases to circle and directly faces the other. Third, sparring<br />

occurs with turtles snapping at each other‘s jaws. The final stage,<br />

separation, is either mutual, with both turtles swimming away in<br />

opposite directions, or involves chasing one out of the immediate<br />

vicinity. Escalation is determined by several factors, including<br />

hormone levels, energy expenditure, expected outcome, and<br />

importance of location. At all stages, an upright tail shows<br />

willingness to escalate, while a curled tail shows willingness to<br />

submit. Because higher aggression is metabolically costly and<br />

potentially debilitating, contact is much more likely to escalate<br />

when the conflict is over access to good foraging grounds. Further<br />

aggression has also been reported in captive loggerheads. The<br />

turtles are seemingly territorial, and will fight with other<br />

loggerheads and sea turtles of different species (Wikipedia).<br />

Feeding<br />

The loggerhead sea turtle is omnivorous, feeding mainly on<br />

bottom-dwelling invertebrates, such as gastropods, bivalves,<br />

and decapods. It has a greater list of known prey than any other<br />

sea turtle. Other food items include sponges, corals, sea<br />

pens, polychaete worms, sea anemones, cephalopods, barnacles,<br />

brachiopods, isopods, insects, bryozoans, sea urchins, sand<br />

dollars, sea cucumbers, starfish, fish (eggs, juveniles, and adults),<br />

hatchling turtles (including members of its own species), algae,<br />

and vascular plants. During migration through the open sea,<br />

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loggerheads eat jellyfish, floating molluscs, floating egg<br />

clusters, squid, and flying fish (Wikipedia).<br />

Loggerheads crush prey with their large and powerful jaws.<br />

Projecting scale points on the anterior margin of the forelimbs<br />

allow manipulation of the food. These points can be used as<br />

"pseudo-claws" to tear large pieces of food in the loggerhead's<br />

mouth. The loggerhead will turn its neck sideways to consume<br />

the torn food on the scale points. Inward-pointing, mucuscovered<br />

papillae found in the fore region of the<br />

loggerhead's esophagus filter out foreign bodies, such as fish<br />

hooks. The next region of the esophagus is not papillated, with<br />

numerous mucosal folds. The digestion rate in loggerheads is<br />

temperature-dependent; it increases as temperature increases<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

A fisherman is carrying the Loggerhead Sea Turtle on the coast of Gaza,<br />

State of Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al Watan,<br />

2013).<br />

209


A fisherman is carrying the Loggerhead Sea Turtle on the coast of Gaza,<br />

State of Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al Watan,<br />

2013).<br />

210


Predators<br />

Loggerheads have numerous predators, especially early in their<br />

lives. Egg and nestling predators include oligochaete<br />

worms, beetles, fly larvae, ants, parasitoid wasp larvae, flesh flies,<br />

crabs, snakes, gulls, corvids, opossums, bears, rats, armadillos,<br />

mustelids, skunks, canids, procyonids, cats, pigs, and humans.<br />

During their migration from their nests to the sea, hatchlings are<br />

preyed on by dipteran larvae, crabs, toads, lizards, snakes,<br />

seabirds such as frigatebirds, and other assorted birds and<br />

mammals. In the ocean, predators of the loggerhead juveniles<br />

include fish, such as parrotfish and moray eels, and portunid<br />

crabs. Adults are more rarely attacked due to their large size, but<br />

may be preyed on by large sharks, seals, and killer whales.<br />

Nesting females are attacked by flesh flies, feral dogs, and<br />

humans. Salt marsh mosquitos can also pester nesting females<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

The Loggerhead Sea Turtle on the coast of Gaza, State of Palestine.<br />

28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al Watan, 2013).<br />

211


In Australia, the introduction of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) by<br />

English settlers in the 19th century led to significant reductions in<br />

loggerhead sea turtle populations. In one coastal section in eastern<br />

Australia during the 1970s, predation of turtle eggs destroyed up<br />

to 95% of all clutches laid. Aggressive efforts to destroy foxes in<br />

the 1980s and 1990s has reduced this impact; however, it is<br />

estimated that it will be the year 2020 before populations will<br />

experience complete recovery from such dramatic losses<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

The Loggerhead Sea Turtle on the coast of Gaza, State of Palestine.<br />

28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al Watan, 2013).<br />

Along the southeastern coast of the United States, the raccoon<br />

(Procyon lotor) is the most destructive predator of nesting sites.<br />

Mortality rates of nearly 100% of all clutches laid in a season have<br />

been recorded on some Florida beaches. This is attributed to an<br />

increase in raccoon populations, which have flourished in urban<br />

environments. Aggressive efforts to protect nesting sites by<br />

covering them with wire mesh has significantly reduced the<br />

impact of raccoon predation on loggerhead sea turtle eggs. On<br />

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Bald Head Island in North Carolina, wire mesh screens are used<br />

on every confirmed nest to prevent excavation by resident red<br />

foxes. A new concern with the steel cage technique is interference<br />

with the normal development of the nestlings' magnetic sense due<br />

to the use of ferrous wire, which may disrupt the turtles' ability to<br />

navigate properly. Efforts are underway to find a nonmagnetic<br />

material that will prevent predators gnawing through the barrier<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

Up to 40% of nesting females around the world have wounds<br />

believed to come from shark attacks (Wikipedia).<br />

A fisherman is kissing the Loggerhead Sea Turtle on the coast of Gaza,<br />

State of Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al Watan,<br />

2013).<br />

Diseases and Parasites<br />

Infectious bacteria such as Pseudomonas and Salmonella attack<br />

loggerhead hatchlings and eggs. Fungi such as Penicillium infect<br />

loggerhead sea turtle nests and cloacae (Wikipedia).<br />

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Fibropapillomatosis disease caused by a form of the herpestype<br />

virus threatens loggerheads with internal and external<br />

tumors. These tumors disrupt essential behaviors and, if on the<br />

eyes, cause permanent blindness. Trematodes of the family<br />

Spirorchiidae inhabit tissues throughout the body of the<br />

loggerhead, including vital organs, such as the heart and the<br />

brain. Trematode infection can be highly debilitating. For<br />

example, inflammatory trematode lesions can cause endocarditis<br />

and neurological disease. A nematode, Angiostoma carettae, also<br />

infects loggerheads, causing histologic lesions in the respiratory<br />

tract (Wikipedia).<br />

More than 100 species of animals from 13 phyla, as well as 37<br />

kinds of algae, live on loggerheads' backs. These parasitic<br />

organisms, which increase drag, offer no known benefit to the<br />

turtle, although the dulling effect of organisms on shell color may<br />

improve camouflage (Wikipedia).<br />

Life History<br />

Early Life<br />

Hatchlings range in colour from light brown to almost black,<br />

lacking the adult's distinct yellows and reds. Upon hatching, they<br />

measure about 4.6 cm (1.8 in) and weigh about 20 g (0.7 oz). The<br />

eggs are typically laid on the beach in an area above the high-tide<br />

line. The eggs are laid near the water so the hatchlings can return<br />

to the sea. The loggerhead's sex is dictated by the temperature of<br />

the underground nest. Incubation temperatures generally range<br />

from 26-32°C (79-90°F). Sea turtle eggs kept at a constant<br />

incubating temperature of 32°C become females. Eggs incubating<br />

at 28°C become males. An incubation temperature of 30°C results<br />

in an equal ratio of male to female hatchlings. Hatchlings from<br />

eggs in the middle of the clutch tend to be the largest, grow the<br />

fastest, and be the most active during the first few days of sea life<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

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After incubating for around 80 days, hatchlings dig through the<br />

sand to the surface, usually occurs at night, when darkness<br />

increases the chance of escaping predation and damage from<br />

extreme sand surface temperatures is reduced. Hatchlings enter<br />

the ocean by navigating toward the brighter horizon created by<br />

the reflection of the moon and starlight off the water's surface<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

A fisherman is posing with the Loggerhead Sea Turtle on the coast of<br />

Gaza, State of Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al<br />

Watan, 2013).<br />

Hatchlings can lose up to 20% of their body mass due to<br />

evaporation of water as they journey from nest to ocean. They<br />

initially use the undertow to push them five to 10 m away from<br />

the shore. Once in the ocean, they swim for about 20 hours,<br />

bringing them far offshore. An iron compound, magnetite, in their<br />

brains allows the turtles to perceive the Earth's magnetic field, for<br />

navigation. Many hatchlings use Sargassum in the open ocean as<br />

protection until they reach 45 cm (18 in). Hatchling loggerheads<br />

215


live in this pelagic environment until they reach juvenile age, and<br />

then they migrate to nearshore waters (Wikipedia).<br />

A girl is sitting on the Loggerhead Sea Turtle on the coast of Gaza, State<br />

of Palestine. 28.08.2013. Photo by Ihab Fasfous (Dunya Al Watan,<br />

2013).<br />

Maturation<br />

When ocean waters cool, loggerheads must migrate to warmer<br />

areas or hibernate to some degree. In the coldest months, they<br />

submerge for up to seven hours at a time, emerging for only<br />

seven minutes to breathe. Although outdone by freshwater<br />

turtles, these are among the longest recorded dives for any airbreathing<br />

marine vertebrate. During their seasonal migration,<br />

juvenile loggerheads have the ability to use both magnetic and<br />

visual cues. When both aids are available, they are used in<br />

216


conjunction; if one aid is not available, the other suffices. The<br />

turtles swim at about 1.6 km/h (0.9 kn; 0.4 m/s) during migration<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

Like all marine turtles, the loggerhead prepares for reproduction<br />

in its foraging area. This takes place several years before the<br />

loggerhead migrates to a mating area. Female loggerheads first<br />

reproduce at ages 28–33 in Southeastern United States and<br />

Australia, and at ages 17–30 in South Africa. Age at first<br />

reproduction in the Mediterranean, Oman, Japan, and Brazil are<br />

unknown. Nesting loggerheads have a straight carapace length of<br />

70–109 cm (28–43 in). Because of the large range, carapace length<br />

is not a reliable indicator of sexual maturity. Their estimated<br />

maximum lifespan is 47–67 years in the wild (Wikipedia).<br />

Reproduction<br />

Female loggerheads first reproduce between the ages of 17 and<br />

33, and their mating period may last more than six weeks. They<br />

court their mates, but these behaviours have not been thoroughly<br />

examined. Male forms of courtship behaviour include nuzzling,<br />

biting, and head and flipper movements. Studies suggest females<br />

produce cloacal pheromones to indicate reproductive ability.<br />

Before mating, the male approaches a female and attempts to<br />

mount her, while she resists. Next, the male and female begin to<br />

circle each other. If the male has competitors, the female may let<br />

the males struggle with each other. The winner then mounts the<br />

female; the male's curved claws usually damage the shoulders of<br />

the female's shell during this process. Other courting males bite<br />

the male while he is attempting to copulate, damaging his flippers<br />

and tail, possibly exposing bones. Such damage can cause the<br />

male to dismount and may require weeks to heal. While nesting,<br />

females produce an average of 3.9 egg clutches, and then become<br />

quiescent, producing no eggs for two to three years. Unlike other<br />

sea turtles, courtship and mating usually do not take place near<br />

the nesting beach, but rather along migration routes between<br />

217


feeding and breeding grounds. Recent evidence indicates<br />

ovulation in loggerheads is mating-induced. Through the act of<br />

mating, the female ovulate eggs which are fertilized by the male.<br />

This is unique, as mating-induced ovulation is rare outside of<br />

mammals. In the Northern Hemisphere, loggerheads mate from<br />

late March to early June. The nesting season is short, between<br />

May and August in the Northern Hemisphere and between<br />

October and March in the Southern Hemisphere (Wikipedia).<br />

Loggerheads may display multiple paternity. Multiple paternity<br />

is possible due to sperm storage. The female can store sperm from<br />

multiple males in her oviducts until ovulation. A single clutch<br />

may have as many as five fathers, each contributing sperm to a<br />

portion of the clutch. Multiple paternity and female size are<br />

positively correlated. Two hypotheses explain this correlation.<br />

One posits that males favor large females because of their<br />

perceived higher fecundity (ability to reproduce). The other states,<br />

because larger females are able to swim more quickly to mating<br />

grounds, they have longer mating periods (Wikipedia).<br />

All sea turtles have similar basic nesting behaviours. Females<br />

return to lay eggs at intervals of 12–17 days during the nesting<br />

season, on or near the beach where they hatched. They exit the<br />

water, climb the beach, and scrape away the surface sand to form<br />

a body pit. With their hind limbs, they excavate an egg chamber<br />

in which the eggs are deposited. The females then cover the egg<br />

chamber and body pit with sand, and finally return to the<br />

sea. This process takes one to two hours, and occurs in open sand<br />

areas or on top of sand dunes. The nesting area must be selected<br />

carefully because it affects characteristics such as fitness,<br />

emergence ratio, and vulnerability to nest predators. Loggerheads<br />

have an average clutch size of 112.4 eggs (Wikipedia).<br />

Taxonomy<br />

Carolus Linnaeus gave the loggerhead its first binomial name,<br />

Testudo caretta, in 1758. Thirty-five other names emerged over the<br />

218


following two centuries, with the combination Caretta caretta first<br />

introduced in 1902 by Leonhard Stejneger. The English common<br />

name "loggerhead" refers to the animal's large head. The<br />

loggerhead sea turtle belongs to the family Cheloniidae, which<br />

includes all sea turtles except the leatherback sea turtle. The<br />

subspecific classification of the loggerhead sea turtle is debated,<br />

but most authors consider it a single polymorphic species.<br />

Molecular genetics has confirmed hybridization of the loggerhead<br />

sea turtle with the Kemp's ridley sea turtle, hawksbill sea turtle,<br />

and green sea turtles. The extent of natural hybridization is not<br />

yet determined; however, second-generation hybrids have been<br />

reported, suggesting some hybrids are fertile (Wikipedia).<br />

Evolutionary History<br />

Although evidence is lacking, modern sea turtles probably<br />

descended from a single common ancestor during the Cretaceous<br />

period. Like all other sea turtles except the leatherback,<br />

loggerheads are members of the ancient family Cheloniidae, and<br />

appeared about 40 million years ago. Of the six species of living<br />

Cheloniidae, loggerheads are more closely related to the Kemp's<br />

ridley sea turtle, olive ridley sea turtle, and the hawksbill<br />

turtle than they are to the flatback turtle and the green turtle<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

Around three million years ago, during the Pliocene epoch,<br />

Central America emerged from the sea, effectively cutting off<br />

currents between the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans. The<br />

rerouting of ocean currents led to climatic changes as the Earth<br />

entered a glacial cycle. Cold water upwelling around the Cape of<br />

Good Hope and reduction in water temperature at Cape<br />

Horn formed cold water barriers to migrating turtles. The result<br />

was a complete isolation of the Atlantic and Pacific populations of<br />

loggerheads. During the most recent ice age, the beaches of<br />

southeastern North America were too cold for sea turtle eggs. As<br />

the Earth began to warm, loggerheads moved farther north,<br />

219


colonizing the northern beaches. Because of this, turtles nesting<br />

between North Carolina and northern Florida represent a<br />

different genetic population from those in southern Florida<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

The distinct populations of loggerheads have unique<br />

characteristics and genetic differences. For example,<br />

Mediterranean loggerheads are smaller, on average, than Atlantic<br />

Ocean loggerheads. North Atlantic and Mediterranean<br />

loggerhead sea turtles are descendants of colonizing loggerheads<br />

from Tongaland, South Africa. South African loggerhead genes<br />

are still present in these populations today (Wikipedia).<br />

Conservation<br />

Many human activities have negative effects on loggerhead sea<br />

turtle populations. The prolonged time required for loggerheads<br />

to reach sexual maturity and the high mortality rates of eggs and<br />

young turtles from natural phenomena compound the problems<br />

of population reduction as a consequence of human activities<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

Threats<br />

Loggerhead sea turtles were once intensively hunted for their<br />

meat and eggs; consumption has decreased, however, due to<br />

worldwide legislation. Despite this, turtle meat and eggs are still<br />

consumed in countries where regulations are not strictly<br />

enforced. In Mexico, turtle eggs are a common meal; locals claim<br />

the egg is anaphrodisiac. Eating turtle eggs or meat can cause<br />

serious illness due to harmful bacteria, such as Pseudomonas<br />

aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens, and high levels of toxic metals<br />

that build up through bioaccumulation (Wikipedia).<br />

The US West Coast is a critical migratory corridor for the Pacific<br />

loggerheads, in which these turtles swim across the Pacific to<br />

California‘s coast from breeding grounds in Japan. Important<br />

220


foraging habitats for juveniles in the central North Pacific have<br />

been revealed through telemetry studies. Along with these<br />

foraging habitats, high levels of bycatch from industrial-scale<br />

fisheries have been found to overlap; with drift gillnets in the past<br />

and longline fisheries presently. Many juvenile loggerheads<br />

aggregate off the coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico, where small<br />

coastal fisheries increase these turtles' mortality risk; fishers have<br />

reported catching dozens of loggerheads with bottom-set gear per<br />

day per boat. The most common commercial fishery that<br />

accidentally takes loggerheads are bottom trawls used for shrimp<br />

vessels in the Gulf of California. In 2000, between 2,600 and 6,000<br />

loggerheads were estimated to have been killed by pelagic<br />

longlining in the Pacific (Wikipedia).<br />

Fishing gear is the biggest threat to loggerheads in the open<br />

ocean. They often become entangled in longlines or gillnets.<br />

According to the 2009 status review of loggerheads by the<br />

Fisheries Service, drowning from entanglement in longline and<br />

gillnet fishing gear is the turtles‘ primary threat in the North<br />

Pacific. They also become stuck in traps, pots, trawls,<br />

and dredges. Caught in this unattended equipment, loggerheads<br />

risk serious injury or drowning. Turtle excluder devices for nets<br />

and other traps reduce the number being accidentally caught<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

Nearly 24,000 metric tons of plastic are dumped into the ocean<br />

each year. Turtles ingest a wide array of this floating debris,<br />

including bags, sheets, pellets, balloons and abandoned fishing<br />

line. Loggerheads may mistake the floating plastic for jellyfish, a<br />

common food item. The ingested plastic causes numerous health<br />

concerns, including intestinal blockage, reduced nutrient<br />

absorption and malnutrition, suffocation, ulcerations, or<br />

starvation. Ingested plastics release toxic compounds,<br />

including polychlorinated biphenyls, which may accumulate in<br />

internal tissues. Such toxins may lead to a thinning of eggshells,<br />

tissue damage, or deviation from natural behaviors (Wikipedia).<br />

221


Artificial lighting discourages nesting and interferes with the<br />

hatchlings' ability to navigate to the water's edge. Females prefer<br />

nesting on beaches free of artificial lighting. On developed<br />

beaches, nests are often clustered around tall buildings, perhaps<br />

because they block out the man-made light sources. Loggerhead<br />

hatchlings are drawn toward the brighter area over the water<br />

which is the consequence of the reflection of moon and star light.<br />

Confused by the brighter artificial light, they navigate inland,<br />

away from the protective waters, which exposes them to<br />

dehydration and predation as the sun rises. Artificial lighting<br />

causes tens of thousands of hatchling deaths per year (Wikipedia).<br />

Destruction and encroachment of habitat by humans is another<br />

threat to loggerhead sea turtles. Optimum nesting beaches are<br />

open-sand beaches above the high-tide line. However, beach<br />

development deprives them of suitable nesting areas, forcing<br />

them to nest closer to the surf. Urbanization often leads to<br />

the siltation of sandy beaches, decreasing their<br />

viability. Construction of docks and marinas can destroy nearshore<br />

habitats. Boat traffic and dredging degrades habitat and can<br />

also injure or kill turtles when boats collide with turtles at or near<br />

the surface (Wikipedia).<br />

Annual variations in climatic temperatures can affect sex ratios,<br />

since loggerheads have temperature-dependent sex<br />

determination. High sand temperatures may skew gender ratios<br />

in favor of females. Nesting sites exposed to unseasonably warm<br />

temperatures over a three-year period produced 87–99% females.<br />

This raises concerns over the connection between rapid global<br />

temperature changes and the possibility of population extinction.<br />

A more localized effect on gender skewing comes from the<br />

construction of tall buildings, which reduce sun exposure,<br />

lowering the average sand temperature, which results in a shift in<br />

gender ratios to favor the emergence of male turtles (Wikipedia).<br />

222


Conservation Efforts<br />

Since the loggerhead occupies such a broad range, successful<br />

conservation requires efforts from multiple countries (Wikipedia).<br />

Loggerhead sea turtles are classified as endangered by the<br />

International Union for the Conservation of Nature and are listed<br />

under Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in<br />

Endangered Species, making international trade illegal. In the<br />

United States, the Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine<br />

Fisheries Service classify them as a threatened species under the<br />

Endangered Species Act. Loggerheads are listed as endangered<br />

under both Australia's Environment Protection and Biodiversity<br />

Conservation Act 1999 and Queensland's Nature Conservation<br />

Act 1992. The Convention on Migratory Species works for the<br />

conservation of loggerhead sea turtles on the Atlantic coast of<br />

Africa, as well as in the Indian Ocean and southeast Asia.<br />

Throughout Japan, the Sea Turtle Association of Japan aids in the<br />

conservation of loggerhead sea turtles. Greece's ARCHELON<br />

works for their conservation. The Marine Research Foundation<br />

works for loggerhead conservation in Oman. Annex 2 of the<br />

Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife Protocol of the Cartagena<br />

Convention, which deals with pollution that could harm marine<br />

ecosystems, also protects them. Conservation organizations<br />

worldwide have worked with the shrimp trawling industry to<br />

develop turtle exclusion devices (TEDs) to exclude even the<br />

largest turtles. TEDs are mandatory for all shrimp trawlers<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

In many places during the nesting season, workers and volunteers<br />

search the coastline for nests, and researchers may also go out<br />

during the evening to look for nesting females for tagging studies<br />

and gather barnacles and tissues samples. Volunteers may, if<br />

necessary, relocate the nests for protection from threats, such as<br />

high spring tides and predators, and monitor the nests daily for<br />

disturbances. After the eggs hatch, volunteers uncover and tally<br />

hatched eggs, undeveloped eggs, and dead hatchlings. Any<br />

223


emaining live hatchlings are released or taken to research<br />

facilities. Typically, those that lack the vitality to hatch and climb<br />

to the surface die. Hatchlings use the journey from nest to ocean<br />

to build strength for the coming swim. Helping them to reach the<br />

ocean bypasses this strength-building exercise and lowers their<br />

chances of survival (Wikipedia).<br />

References and Internet Websites<br />

Animal Diversity Web. Caretta caretta Loggerhead.<br />

http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Caretta_care<br />

tta/<br />

Arkive. Loggerhead Turtle (Caretta caretta).<br />

http://www.arkive.org/loggerhead-turtle/caretta-caretta/<br />

Dunya Al Watan دنٌا الوطن (30.08.2013). Animal World: In Pictures<br />

بالصور .. إصطٌاد Sea. .. Catching a great turtle on the Coast of Gaza<br />

Arabic). Photo by: Ihab Fasfous. (in سلحفاة عمالقة على شاطئ بحر غزة<br />

http://www.alwatanvoice.com/arabic/news/2013/08/30/43050<br />

0.html<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1980). Tabie‘t Al-Talawon fi Al-<br />

Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin.<br />

Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait<br />

University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (In Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, N.A.B. (1986). The Schooling of Sumatra Barbs (Barbus<br />

tetrazona tetrazona) and Minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus).<br />

Dissertation, Master of Science in Ecology, Departments of<br />

Zoology and Botany, University of Durham, England. September<br />

1986. pps. 59 + iv.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1991). A Trip to Zoo<br />

Budapest, Hungary. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.<br />

Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 21,<br />

Ninth <strong>Year</strong>, January 1991. pp. 1-4.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1992). An Introduction to<br />

224


the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of<br />

Germany. Number 30, Tenth <strong>Year</strong>, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (In<br />

Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1994). An Introduction to<br />

the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae‘q Al-Nouma‘n (Anemone<br />

coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI<br />

(Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental<br />

Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with<br />

Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine.<br />

Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (In Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2001). The Extinct and Endangered<br />

Animals in Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological<br />

Bulletin Home Page. Extinct and Endangered Animals and<br />

Reintroduction. http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2004). Gazelle: Das<br />

Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche<br />

Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004. /<br />

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in<br />

Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. <strong>ISBN</strong> 3-00-<br />

014121-9. Erste Auflage / First Edition, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten /<br />

Pages. Zweite erweiterte Auflage (Second Extended Edition),<br />

August 2004: 460 Seiten / Pages. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>, Bonn-Bad<br />

Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). <strong>Jaffa</strong> (Yaffa): The History of<br />

an Old Palestinian Arab City on the Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle:<br />

The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab<br />

Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>, March 2005. pp. 7-8.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). The Andromeda Sea<br />

Monster of <strong>Jaffa</strong>. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.<br />

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>,<br />

March 2005. pp. 8.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). Aquatica Arabica. An<br />

Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe<br />

225


etween 1980 - 2005 / Aquatica Arabica. Eine Aquatische<br />

Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa<br />

zwischen 1980 - 2005. <strong>ISBN</strong> 3-00-014835-3. Erste Auflage / First<br />

Edition, August 2005: 376 Seiten / Pages. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>,<br />

Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah,<br />

United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/aquaticaarabica.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). The Rafah Zoo in the Rafah<br />

Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip, Palestine : A Story of Destruction by<br />

the Israeli Occupation Army. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological<br />

Bulletin. Number 46, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>, October 2005, Ramadan<br />

1426. pp. 1-11. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2005). The Qalqilia Zoo<br />

and the Natural History Museum in the City of Qalqilia, West<br />

Bank, Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological<br />

Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>, November 2005, Shawal<br />

1426. pp. 1-10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(Gründer) (seit Juni 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: <strong>Fauna</strong><br />

<strong>Palaestina</strong>.<br />

http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/<strong>Fauna</strong>_<strong>Palaestina</strong>/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(Gründer) (seit September 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group:<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> Arabica.<br />

http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/<strong>Fauna</strong>_Arabica/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (2007).<br />

Haywanat Filistin حٌوانات فلسطٌن (<strong>Fauna</strong> of Palestine). Wikipedia,<br />

Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The<br />

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 69, Twenty-fifth <strong>Year</strong>,<br />

September 2007 CE, Sha‘ban 1428 AH. pp. 1-4. (in Arabic).<br />

http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8<br />

%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D<br />

8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86 <strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc.<br />

<strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian<br />

Waters: A Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) rescued<br />

226


near the Tantura Beach, Carmel Coast, North Palestine: The First<br />

Record from the Palestinian Mediterranean Coast. Gazelle: The<br />

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp.<br />

22-23. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstracts in English and<br />

Arabic). http://whale-shark.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian Waters: Whale Sharks<br />

(Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) near Um Al-Rashrash (Eilat) Beach,<br />

Gulf of Aqaba, South Palestine: First Records from the Palestinian<br />

Red Sea Coast. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.<br />

Number 71, November 2007. pp. 23-26. Sharjah, United Arab<br />

Emirates. (Abstract in English and Arabic). http://whaleshark.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2007). An Ocean Sunfish or Common Mola (Mola mola, Linnaeus<br />

1758) caught off the coast of Gaza: The First Record from<br />

Palestine, East Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. Number 72, December 2007, pp. 1-16.<br />

(Abstracts in English and Arabic).<br />

https://de.groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/<strong>Fauna</strong>_<strong>Palaestina</strong>/co<br />

nversations/messages/37<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2008). Cetacea <strong>Palaestina</strong>: The Whales and Dolphins in<br />

Palestinian Waters. Cetacean Species Guide for Palestine. Gazelle:<br />

The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 83, November 2008,<br />

Thu Al-Qi‘ada 1429 AH. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

http://cetacea-palaestina.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2009). Flora and <strong>Fauna</strong> in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab<br />

1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://florafauna-palestine.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2009). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong><br />

– Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe<br />

between 1983 – 2006 / <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> – Teil Eins. Eine<br />

227


Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen<br />

1983 – 2006. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition,<br />

September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

<strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates &<br />

Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (2010).<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab<br />

Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / <strong>Fauna</strong> Emiratus – Teil Eins.<br />

Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate<br />

zwischen 2004 - 2009. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First<br />

Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: <strong>Dr</strong>.<br />

<strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, Dubai and Sharjah, United<br />

Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik<br />

Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2012). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong><br />

– Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 /<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina<br />

zwischen 1983 – 2009. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First<br />

Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic<br />

Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al<br />

Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-normanali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2013). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong><br />

– Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 /<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> - Teil <strong>Dr</strong>ei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina<br />

zwischen 2005 – 2012. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-<strong>9950</strong>-<strong>383</strong>-35-7. Erste Auflage /<br />

First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part<br />

350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi<br />

Publishing House, Jerusalem, State of Palestine. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

Taher (2013). The <strong>By</strong>catch of a Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta<br />

caretta Linnaeus, 1758) in a fishing net on the Gaza Coast, Gaza,<br />

228


State of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.<br />

ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 108, December 2013, Safar 1435 AH.<br />

pp. 1-25. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

http://marine-life-palestine.webs.com/loggerhead-sea-turtle<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

Taher (<strong>2014</strong>). Records of Dead Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta<br />

caretta Linnaeus, 1758) washed up on the <strong>Jaffa</strong> Beach, Occupied<br />

Palestine between 2010-2013. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological<br />

Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 114, June <strong>2014</strong>, Sha‘ban 1435<br />

AH. pp. 1-11. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

http://marine-life-palestine.webs.com/loggerhead-sea-turtlejaffa<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

Taher (<strong>2014</strong>). Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus,<br />

1758) Nesting in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological<br />

Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 115, July <strong>2014</strong>, Ramadan 1435<br />

AH. pp. 1-9. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

http://marine-life-palestine.webs.com/loggerhead-turtlepalestine<br />

National Geographic. Loggerhead Sea Turtle Caretta caretta.<br />

http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/reptiles/logger<br />

head-sea-turtle/<br />

NOAA Fisheries. Office of Protected Resources. Loggerhead<br />

Turtle (Caretta caretta).<br />

http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/turtles/loggerhead.htm<br />

Sea Turtles 911. Loggerhead Sea Turtle.<br />

http://www.seaturtles911.org/turtle/loggerhead.htm<br />

Wikipedia. Loggerhead Sea Turtle.<br />

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loggerhead_sea_turtle<br />

229


230


Records of Dead Loggerhead Sea<br />

Turtles (Caretta caretta Linnaeus,<br />

1758) washed up on the <strong>Jaffa</strong> Beach,<br />

Occupied Palestine between 2010-2013<br />

حاالت العثور على سالحف البحر الضخمة الرأس المٌتة على<br />

شواطئ مدٌنة ‏ٌافا ، فلسطٌن بٌن اْلعوام<br />

3112<br />

-<br />

3111<br />

<strong>By</strong>: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong><br />

A Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758) washed up on the<br />

<strong>Jaffa</strong> Beach, Occupied Palestine on Wednesday 19.05.2010.<br />

http://maannews.net/arb/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=285623<br />

231


الصورة فً‏ الصفحة السابقة : تفاجأ المستحمون فً‏ بحر ‏ٌافا عصر األربعاء 0191..91.1<br />

حٌنما قذفت األمواج سلحفاة بحر كبٌرة إلى الشاطئ،‏ وبدأ عدد من األطفال ‏ٌبتعدون من المكان<br />

خوفاً‏ منها حٌث اقترب المنقذ البحري من السلحفاة،‏ وبعد أن قال انه ‏ٌوجد فً‏ المكان سلحفاة<br />

بحر كبٌرة؛ ترك العشرات من المستحمون المٌاه وتجمعوا حول السلحفاة للنظر إلٌها.‏<br />

واتضح أن السلحفاة السوداء كانت مٌتة لكن عدد من المستحمٌن بدأ بالتقاط الصور للسلحفاة،‏<br />

ولدقائق طوٌلة نسً‏ المستحمون البحر والمٌاه وبقوا متجمهرٌن حولها ‏)وكالة معاً‏ اإلخبارٌة ،<br />

. )91.1..0191<br />

Records of dead Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta Linnaeus,<br />

1758) washed up on the <strong>Jaffa</strong> Beach, Occupied Palestine was<br />

recorded between 2010 -2013.<br />

A Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758) washed<br />

up on the <strong>Jaffa</strong> North Beach, Occupied Palestine on Friday<br />

20.07.2012. http://www.panet.co.il/online/articles/1/2/S-<br />

571852,1,2.html<br />

232


A Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758) washed<br />

up on the <strong>Jaffa</strong> North Beach, Occupied Palestine on Friday<br />

20.07.2012. http://www.panet.co.il/online/articles/1/2/S-<br />

571852,1,2.html<br />

233


A Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758) washed<br />

up on the <strong>Jaffa</strong> North Beach, Occupied Palestine on Friday<br />

20.07.2012. http://www.panet.co.il/online/articles/1/2/S-<br />

571852,1,2.html<br />

234


A Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758) washed<br />

up on the <strong>Jaffa</strong> North Beach, Occupied Palestine on Friday<br />

20.07.2012. http://www.panet.co.il/online/articles/1/2/S-<br />

571852,1,2.html<br />

،<br />

الصور الست السابقة : ذكر شهود عٌان لمراسل موقع بانٌت وصحٌفة بانوراما أن عدداً‏ من<br />

المواطنٌن على شاطئ بحر مدٌنة ‏ٌافا الشمالً‏ عثروا على سلحفاة بحرٌة ضخمة نافقة فً‏ ‏ٌوم<br />

حٌث قام المواطنون باٌالغ طواقم البلدٌة والتً‏ بدورها قامت<br />

الجمعة<br />

بإستدعاء طاقم مختص من قبل معهد العلوم البحري للثدٌات .<br />

وقد قام الطاقم المختص بعلوم الثدٌات البحرٌة بأخذ عٌنة من السلحفاة الضخمة إلجراء<br />

األبحاث علٌها ، وقال أحد المختصٌن أن السلحفاة كبٌرة فً‏ السن ، ومن المرجح أنها<br />

خرجت للشاطئ لوضع البٌض ‏)موقع بانٌت ،<br />

. )01.1..0190<br />

01.1..0190<br />

235


A Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758) washed<br />

up on the <strong>Jaffa</strong> Beach, Occupied Palestine on Thursday 08.08.2013.<br />

http://yomnet.net/Show.php?page=News&id=23766<br />

الصورتان العلوٌتان : قذفت األمواج صباح الٌوم الخمٌس إلى شاطئ بحر ‏ٌافا سلحفاة بحر<br />

. )1..1..0190<br />

كبٌرة.‏ حٌث تجمهر المارة فً‏ المكان ‏)موقع ‏ٌافا الٌوم ،<br />

236


A Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758) washed<br />

up on the <strong>Jaffa</strong> Beach, Occupied Palestine on Thursday 08.08.2013.<br />

http://www.yaffa48.com/?mod=articles&ID=10730<br />

237


الصورتان فً‏ الصفحة السابقة وصل موقع ‏ٌافا صور لسلحفاة بحرٌة كبٌرة قذفت بها<br />

أمواج البحر على شاطئ ناخوم جولدمان بمدٌنة ‏ٌافا وذلك صباح الخمٌس<br />

حٌث احتشد فً‏ المكان عدد من المواطنٌن لمشاهدة السلحفاة.‏<br />

،1..1..0190<br />

8.<br />

وقد قام بعض المواطنٌن بحمل السلحفاة وإعادتها إلى البحر بعد أن علقت على رمال الشاطئ<br />

لمدة تزٌد عن الساعتٌن ‏)موقع ‏ٌافا<br />

.)91.1..0190 ، 8.<br />

:<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1991). A Trip to Zoo<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (1992). An Introduction to<br />

the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

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the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae‘q Al-Nouma‘n (Anemone<br />

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Bulletin Home Page. Extinct and Endangered Animals and<br />

Reintroduction. http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2004). Gazelle: Das<br />

Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche<br />

Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004. /<br />

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in<br />

Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. <strong>ISBN</strong> 3-00-<br />

014121-9. Erste Auflage / First Edition, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten /<br />

Pages. Zweite erweiterte Auflage (Second Extended Edition),<br />

August 2004: 460 Seiten / Pages. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>, Bonn-Bad<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). <strong>Jaffa</strong> (Yaffa): The History of<br />

an Old Palestinian Arab City on the Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle:<br />

The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab<br />

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239


<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). The Andromeda Sea<br />

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Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>,<br />

March 2005. pp. 8.<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). Aquatica Arabica. An<br />

Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe<br />

between 1980 - 2005 / Aquatica Arabica. Eine Aquatische<br />

Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa<br />

zwischen 1980 - 2005. <strong>ISBN</strong> 3-00-014835-3. Erste Auflage / First<br />

Edition, August 2005: 376 Seiten / Pages. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>,<br />

Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah,<br />

United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/aquaticaarabica.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2005). The Rafah Zoo in the Rafah<br />

Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip, Palestine : A Story of Destruction by<br />

the Israeli Occupation Army. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological<br />

Bulletin. Number 46, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>, October 2005, Ramadan<br />

1426. pp. 1-11. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2005). The Qalqilia Zoo<br />

and the Natural History Museum in the City of Qalqilia, West<br />

Bank, Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological<br />

Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>, November 2005, Shawal<br />

1426. pp. 1-10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(Gründer) (seit Juni 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: <strong>Fauna</strong><br />

<strong>Palaestina</strong>.<br />

http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/<strong>Fauna</strong>_<strong>Palaestina</strong>/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(Gründer) (seit September 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group:<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> Arabica.<br />

http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/<strong>Fauna</strong>_Arabica/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (2007).<br />

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Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 69, Twenty-fifth <strong>Year</strong>,<br />

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September 2007 CE, Sha‘ban 1428 AH. pp. 1-4. (in Arabic).<br />

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%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D<br />

8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86 <strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc.<br />

<strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian<br />

Waters: A Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) rescued<br />

near the Tantura Beach, Carmel Coast, North Palestine: The First<br />

Record from the Palestinian Mediterranean Coast. Gazelle: The<br />

Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp.<br />

22-23. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstracts in English and<br />

Arabic). http://whale-shark.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian Waters: Whale Sharks<br />

(Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) near Um Al-Rashrash (Eilat) Beach,<br />

Gulf of Aqaba, South Palestine: First Records from the Palestinian<br />

Red Sea Coast. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.<br />

Number 71, November 2007. pp. 23-26. Sharjah, United Arab<br />

Emirates. (Abstract in English and Arabic). http://whaleshark.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2007). An Ocean Sunfish or Common Mola (Mola mola, Linnaeus<br />

1758) caught off the coast of Gaza: The First Record from<br />

Palestine, East Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. Number 72, December 2007, pp. 1-16.<br />

(Abstracts in English and Arabic).<br />

https://de.groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/<strong>Fauna</strong>_<strong>Palaestina</strong>/co<br />

nversations/messages/37<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2008). Cetacea <strong>Palaestina</strong>: The Whales and Dolphins in<br />

Palestinian Waters. Cetacean Species Guide for Palestine. Gazelle:<br />

The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 83, November 2008,<br />

Thu Al-Qi‘ada 1429 AH. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

http://cetacea-palaestina.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2009). Flora and <strong>Fauna</strong> in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

241


Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab<br />

1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2009). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong><br />

– Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe<br />

between 1983 – 2006 / <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> – Teil Eins. Eine<br />

Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen<br />

1983 – 2006. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition,<br />

September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

<strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates &<br />

Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (2010).<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab<br />

Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / <strong>Fauna</strong> Emiratus – Teil Eins.<br />

Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate<br />

zwischen 2004 - 2009. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First<br />

Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: <strong>Dr</strong>.<br />

<strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, Dubai and Sharjah, United<br />

Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik<br />

Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2012). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong><br />

– Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 /<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina<br />

zwischen 1983 – 2009. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First<br />

Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic<br />

Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al<br />

Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2013). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong><br />

– Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 /<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> - Teil <strong>Dr</strong>ei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina<br />

zwischen 2005 – 2012. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-<strong>9950</strong>-<strong>383</strong>-35-7. Erste Auflage /<br />

First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part<br />

242


350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi<br />

Publishing House, Jerusalem, State of Palestine. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

Taher (2013). The <strong>By</strong>catch of a Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta<br />

caretta Linnaeus, 1758) in a fishing net on the Gaza Coast, Gaza,<br />

State of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin.<br />

ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 108, December 2013, Safar 1435 AH.<br />

pp. 1-25. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

http://marine-life-palestine.webs.com/loggerhead-sea-turtlegaza-1<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

Taher (<strong>2014</strong>). Records of Dead Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta<br />

caretta Linnaeus, 1758) washed up on the <strong>Jaffa</strong> Beach, Occupied<br />

Palestine between 2010-2013. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological<br />

Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 114, June <strong>2014</strong>, Sha‘ban 1435<br />

AH. pp. 1-11. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

http://marine-life-palestine.webs.com/loggerhead-sea-turtlejaffa<br />

Kuler, Z. (1990). Summary of the 1989 annual sea turtle nesting<br />

survey. Nature Reserves Authority, Central Region, Israel. 10 pp.<br />

(in Hebrew).<br />

National Geographic. Loggerhead Sea Turtle Caretta caretta.<br />

http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/reptiles/logger<br />

head-sea-turtle/<br />

NOAA Fisheries. Office of Protected Resources. Loggerhead<br />

Turtle (Caretta caretta).<br />

http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/turtles/loggerhead.htm<br />

Sea Turtles 911. Loggerhead Sea Turtle.<br />

http://www.seaturtles911.org/turtle/loggerhead.htm<br />

Sella, I. (1982). Sea turtles in the eastern Mediterranean and<br />

northern Red Sea, p. 417-423. In: Biology and Conservation of Sea<br />

Turtles (K. A. Bjorndal, ed.). Smithsonian Institution Press,<br />

Washington D.C.<br />

Silberstein, D. (1988). The physical conditions prevailing in nests<br />

243


of the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) and their effect on egg<br />

development. Master of Science thesis, Dept. of Zool., Tel Aviv<br />

University. 71 pp. (in Hebrew with English summary).<br />

Silberstein, Dalia and Razi Dmi'el (1991). Loggerhead Sea Turtle Nesting<br />

in Israel. Marine Turtle Newsletter 53:17-18, 1991.<br />

http://www.seaturtle.org/mtn/archives/mtn53/mtn53p17.shtml<br />

Soffer, A. 1988. Sea turtles nesting in Haifa - Caesarea beach. Nature<br />

Reserves Authority, Jerusalem, Israel. 31 pp. (in Hebrew).<br />

Wikipedia. Loggerhead Sea Turtle.<br />

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loggerhead_sea_turtle<br />

األمواج تقذف سلحفاة بحر بطول متر على شاطئ بحر ‏ٌافا )0191..91.1(<br />

http://maannews.net/arb/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=285623.<br />

من حسٌن العبرة<br />

العثور على سلحفاة بحرٌة ضخمة على شاطىء ‏ٌافا<br />

مراسل موقع بانٌت وصحٌفة بانوراما<br />

.http://www.panet.co.il/online/articles/1/2/S-571852,1,2.html<br />

. )01.1..0190(<br />

العثور على سلحفاة بحرٌة ضخمة على شاطىء ‏ٌافا )0190..01.1(<br />

.http://yoomyoom.com/News-72<br />

العثور على سلحفاة بحرٌة كبٌرة مٌتة على شاطئ بحر ‏ٌافا )0190..1..1(<br />

.http://yomnet.net/Show.php?page=News&id=23766<br />

بالصور:‏ األمواج تقذف سلحفاة بحرٌة ضخمة على شاطئ ناخوم جولدمان )0190..91.1(.<br />

.http://www.yaffa48.com/?mod=articles&ID=10730<br />

أهم الزواحف فً‏ فلسطٌن<br />

.http://www.wafainfo.ps/atemplate.aspx?id=2381<br />

http://www.al- غزٌون ‏ٌأكلون سلحفاة مهددة باإلنقراض ).18.18.011( .<br />

arabeya.net/articles/?artid=87636<br />

.<br />

http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7<br />

%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%<br />

B7%D9%8A%D9%86<br />

244<br />

حٌوانات فلسطٌن<br />

بقلم : أ.د.‏ نورمان ‏)نعمان(‏ علً‏ بسام خلف الٌافاوي


245


Killing Incidents of Wild Animals in<br />

the State of Palestine in 2013<br />

حوادث قتل حٌوانات برٌة فً‏ دولة فلسطٌن فً‏<br />

العام 3112<br />

<strong>By</strong>: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong><br />

There are so many incidents of the killing of wild animals in the<br />

State of Palestine. Often we hear or see in the news about the<br />

brutal killing or road-kill of wild animals. Some of the wild<br />

animals in Palestine are already on the verge of extinction. If the<br />

population of animals kept on decreasing, some species will<br />

become extinct. One of the problems we are already facing is<br />

poaching, and we have to fight against it to save our fauna. We<br />

hear and see always brutal and insensitive animal torture<br />

incidents happening in Palestine by the villagers and even citypeople.<br />

Wildlife populations depend on their environment or habitat to<br />

receive the basic needs for survival. An ecosystem or habitat<br />

provides populations of wildlife with food, water, shelter and<br />

space. If all four of these basic needs are not available in a suitable<br />

arrangement, populations of wildlife cannot exist (University of<br />

Illinois Extension).<br />

All populations of living things are interrelated. When one<br />

population of animals or plants increases or decreases, other<br />

populations of living things is also affected.<br />

The amount of suitable habitat for a species of wildlife will<br />

determine the number of animals that can survive in the area.<br />

246


Human activity has the greatest impact on the amount and<br />

quality of wildlife habitat in Palestine. Wildlife habitat can be<br />

destroyed or its quality diminished as a result of urban sprawl,<br />

agricultural practices, pollution, sedimentation, or habitat<br />

fragmentation (University of Illinois Extension).<br />

Many endemic organisms have very specific requirements for<br />

their survival that can only be found within a certain ecosystem,<br />

resulting in their extinction.<br />

This can result in the reduction of genetic diversity and perhaps<br />

the production of infertile youths, as these organisms would have<br />

a higher possibility of mating with related organisms within their<br />

population, or different species (Wikipedia).<br />

The Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena) is a species of true hyena<br />

native to North and East Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus,<br />

Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent. It is listed by the IUCN<br />

as near threatened, as the global population is estimated to be<br />

under 10,000 mature individuals which continues to experience<br />

deliberate and incidental persecution along with a decrease in its<br />

prey base such that it may come close to meeting a continuing<br />

decline of 10% over the next three generations (Wikipedia).<br />

The Syrian Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena syriaca) is known from<br />

Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Palestine, where it has disappeared<br />

from the coastal plain and is becoming rare in the Hula (Huleh)<br />

Valley, Upper Galilee, Mount Carmel and the Hebron (Judean)<br />

Hills, south to the Naqab Desert and Wadi Araba (<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong><br />

<strong>Jaffa</strong>, 2013).<br />

The Arabian Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena sultana) is known<br />

from southern Arabia. In Palestine, it occurs near the southern<br />

end of the Dead Sea (Neot Hakikar). A specimen in the collection<br />

of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem constitutes the first<br />

geographical record for Palestine. It may be that the Arabian race<br />

intergrades with the Syrian subspecies in the northern part of its<br />

range (<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, 2013).<br />

247


Men from the Palestinian Village of Jourish have killed a Striped Hyena<br />

(Hyaena hyaena) and cut its head! The men said that this hyena was<br />

living in the area between the Villages of Duma, Qusra and Jourish,<br />

South of Nablus and it killed some sheep in the Village of Duma.<br />

07.02.2013. https://www.paldf.net/forum/showthread.php?t=1081305<br />

248


Men from the Palestinian Village of Jourish have killed a Striped Hyena<br />

(Hyaena hyaena) and cut its head! The men said that this hyena was<br />

living in the area between the Villages of Duma, Qusra and Jourish,<br />

South of Nablus and it killed some sheep in the Village of Duma.<br />

07.02.2013. https://www.paldf.net/forum/showthread.php?t=1081305<br />

The Striped Hyena is the smallest of the true hyenas and retains<br />

many primitive viverrid characteristics lost in larger species,<br />

having a smaller and less specialised skull. Though primarily a<br />

scavenger, large specimens have been known to kill their own<br />

prey, and attacks on humans have occurred on rare instances. The<br />

striped hyena is a monogamous animal, with both males and<br />

females assisting one another in raising their cubs. A nocturnal<br />

249


animal, the striped hyena typically only emerges in complete<br />

darkness, and is quick to return to its lair before sunrise. Though<br />

it has a habit of feigning death when attacked, it has also been<br />

known to stand its ground against larger predators such<br />

as leopards in disputes over food (Wikipedia).<br />

The striped hyena features prominently in Middle Eastern and<br />

Asian folklore. In some areas, its body parts are considered<br />

magical, and are used ascharms or talismans. It is mentioned in<br />

the Hebrew Bible, where it is referred to as tzebua or zevoa, though<br />

the species is absent in some English translations (Wikipedia).<br />

Stop the Killing of Hyenas. Al Quds Newspaper. 11.02.2013.<br />

www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=207110729434704&set=t.1449797<br />

798&type=3&theater<br />

The striped hyena's historical range encompasses Africa north of<br />

and including the Sahel zone, eastern Africa south into Tanzania,<br />

the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East up to the<br />

Mediterranean shores, Turkey, Iraq, the Caucasus (Azerbaijan,<br />

Armenia, Georgia), Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan,<br />

Afghanistan (excluding the higher areas of Hindukush) and<br />

250


the Indian Subcontinent. Today the species' distribution is patchy<br />

in most ranges, thus indicating that it occurs in many isolated<br />

populations, particularly in most of west Africa, most of the<br />

Sahara, parts of the Middle East, the Caucasus and central Asia. It<br />

does however have a continuous distribution over large areas<br />

of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania. Its modern distribution in<br />

Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan is unknown with some sizable<br />

large number in India in open areas of Deccan Peninsula<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

A Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena) have been killed and tortured at a<br />

Wadi to the East of Nablus, State of Palestine. Photo by: Mohanad<br />

Saaideh. 12.06.2013.<br />

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=530787916<strong>978</strong>684&set=a.1<br />

13906072000206.12034.100001424415376&type=1&theater<br />

251


Men from the Village of Dura, near Al Khalil (Hebron) have killed a<br />

Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena) on 26.05.2013.<br />

http://www.alquds.com/news/article/view/id/440656<br />

The striped hyena competes with the gray wolf (Canis lupus) in<br />

the Middle East and central Asia. In the latter area, a great portion<br />

of the hyena's diet stems from wolf-killed carcasses. The striped<br />

hyena is dominant over the wolf on a one to one basis, though<br />

252


wolves in packs can displace single hyenas from carcasses. Both<br />

species have been known to share dens on occasion. Red foxes<br />

(Vulpes vulpes) may compete with striped hyenas on large<br />

carcasses. Red foxes may give way to hyenas on unopened<br />

carcasses, as the latter's stronger jaws can easily tear open flesh<br />

which is too tough for foxes. Foxes may harass hyenas, using their<br />

smaller size and greater speed to avoid the hyena's attacks.<br />

Sometimes, foxes seem to deliberately torment hyenas even when<br />

there is no food at stake. Some foxes may mistime their attacks,<br />

and are killed (Wikipedia).<br />

The species frequently scavenges from the kills of felids such<br />

as tigers, leopards, cheetahs and caracals. A caracal can drive a<br />

subadult hyena from a carcass. The hyena usually wins in one-toone<br />

disputes over carcasses with leopards, cheetahs and tiger<br />

cubs, but is dominated by adult tigers (Wikipedia).<br />

A Syrian Stone or Beech Marten (Martes foina syriaca) have been<br />

chased and killed inside the Library of Birzeit University, Birzeit, State<br />

of Palestine. 19.08.2013.<br />

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=561852787184001&set=a.4<br />

31191303583484.87926.128336947202256&type=1&theater<br />

253


Road-killed Palestine Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes palaestina) on Al Jidar<br />

Street, Al Bayarat Area, West of Qaffin, Tulkarm Governorate. Info by:<br />

Ahmad Al Qassem. 05.08 2013.<br />

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=648692595140964&set=a.6<br />

46198855390338.1073741863.199819240028304&type=3&theater<br />

Palestine Common Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes palaestina, Thomas 1920)<br />

[Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 9, 5: 122. Type from Ramleh, near <strong>Jaffa</strong>,<br />

Palestine. Synonym of Vulpes vulpes aegyptiacus]:<br />

The Palestine Red Fox is distinguished by its gray colour, particularly<br />

along its sides, with a nearly complete suppression of rufous, except the<br />

face. The forelegs are grayish-rufous or fulvous. The underparts are<br />

whitish or black. The upper tail is buffy, washed with black.<br />

Measurements: Head and body 455-625 mm.; ear 83-105 mm.; hind foot<br />

121-148 mm.; tail 305-412 mm.<br />

The Palestinian subspecies Vulpes vulpes palaestina is known from<br />

Lebanon and Palestine, where it is common along the coastal plain and<br />

as far south as Bi’er Al-Sabe’e (Beersheba) (<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, 2013).<br />

254


Two road-killed Persian Common Badgers (Meles meles canescens) near<br />

the Triangle of Qaffin, Tulkarm Governorate, State of Palestine. Info by:<br />

Ahmad Al Qassem. 30.08.2013.<br />

www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=660595873950636&set=t.1449797<br />

798&type=3&theater<br />

The Common Badger (Meles meles) is the only species of its genus,<br />

and it is widespread throughout Europe and Asia, Tibet, northern<br />

Burma and southern China. The Persian race Meles meles canescens<br />

occurs in Iran, Syria, Lebanon and Palestine, where it is<br />

uncommon but has been recorded in Upper Galilee, Marj Bin<br />

Amer (Jezreel Valley), upper Jordan Valley and the coastal plain<br />

(<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, 2013).<br />

Badgers are heavily built mustelids. Males are significantly larger<br />

than females. Adult females weigh 5-10 kilogram and adult males<br />

weigh 7-14 kg. The head and body length is 55-85 cm, the tail<br />

255


length is 10-20 cm, and the skull measures 115-140 mm in total<br />

length. The feet are short, with heavy muscles and long claws<br />

adapted for burrowing. The tail is short and stubby. The fur is<br />

coarse and rough with little underfur. The colour is distinctive<br />

with two longitudinal black stripes beginning at the muzzle and<br />

broadening posteriorly. A median white stripe provides a<br />

contrasting pattern on the head. The back is variable in colour<br />

(from brown to buff gray), but the sides and feet are usually black<br />

(Qumsiyeh, 1996).<br />

A trapped Persian Common Badger (Meles meles canescens) which died<br />

from its wounds to the East of Qaffin 1 near Fraseen Area, Tulkarm<br />

Governorate, State of Palestine. Info by: Ahmad Al Qassem, Palestine<br />

Wildlife Society. 20.08.2013.<br />

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=6554327<strong>978</strong>002<strong>77</strong>&set=a.6<br />

46198855390338.1073741863.199819240028304&type=3&theater<br />

256


A killed Diademed Sand Snake or Awl-headed Snake (Lytorhynchus<br />

diadema) أفؼّ‏ مزلطت مؼٕىٕت انظٍز . Facebook Page: Wildlife of Palestine<br />

.12.09.2013 . انحٕاة انبزٔت فٓ‏ فهسطٕه<br />

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=608850985831845&set=a.6<br />

08850875831856.1073741902.511617522221859&type=1&theater<br />

257


A Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena) killed to the East of Aqraba Town,<br />

Nablus Governorate, State of Palestine. 25.08.2013.<br />

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=599558326761111&set=a.5<br />

11635502220061.129580.511617522221859&type=1&theater<br />

258


Don’t Kill Our Wild Life.<br />

http://www.freevintageposters.com/2012/12/dont-kill-our-wild-lifevintage.html<br />

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the Arabia‘s Wildlife Centre, Sharjah Desert Park, United Arab<br />

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Twenty-third <strong>Year</strong>, December 2005, Thu Alqi‘da 1426. pp. 1-9.<br />

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Common Weasel (Mustela nivalis, Linnaeus 1766) in Palestine and<br />

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Biological Bulletin. Number 57, Twenty-fourth <strong>Year</strong>, September<br />

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Europe between 1980-2007 / Felidae Arabica. Eine Zoologische<br />

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<strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-3-00-019568-6. Erste Auflage (First Edition), Juli 2007,<br />

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Arabia and Europe between 2005-2008. / Carnivora Arabica. Eine<br />

Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen<br />

2005-2008. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-03-459-9. First Edition: September 2008.<br />

396 Pages. Self Publisher: <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>, Sharjah, United<br />

Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/carnivoraarabica.htm<br />

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(2009). Flora and <strong>Fauna</strong> in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab<br />

1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2009). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong><br />

– Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe<br />

between 1983 – 2006 / <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> – Teil Eins. Eine<br />

Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen<br />

1983 – 2006. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition,<br />

September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

<strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates &<br />

Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (2010).<br />

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Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / <strong>Fauna</strong> Emiratus – Teil Eins.<br />

Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate<br />

zwischen 2004 - 2009. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First<br />

Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: <strong>Dr</strong>.<br />

<strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, Dubai and Sharjah, United<br />

Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2012). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong><br />

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Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic<br />

Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al<br />

Jundi Publishing House, Al Quds (Jerusalem), Palestine.<br />

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<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2013). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong><br />

– Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 /<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> - Teil <strong>Dr</strong>ei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina<br />

zwischen 2005 – 2012. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-<strong>9950</strong>-<strong>383</strong>-35-7. Erste Auflage /<br />

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350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi<br />

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Mus musculus gazaensis <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2007 :<br />

A New House Mouse Subspecies from<br />

the Gaza Strip, Palestine<br />

<strong>By</strong>: <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<br />

Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong><br />

Abstract: A new subspecies of house mouse of the genus Mus<br />

(Rodentia: Murinae) from the Gaza Strip, Palestine is described.<br />

This subspecies is distinguished from the other subspecies of<br />

Mus by its light and dark brown colouration with white big<br />

patches on the fur. The new subspecies was named Mus<br />

musculus gazaensis <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2007.<br />

On 29.05.2007 I received an e-mail (with attached photos) from<br />

<strong>Dr</strong>. Abdel Fattah Nazmi Abd Rabou from the Biology<br />

Department, Islamic University of Gaza, Gaza Strip, Palestine.<br />

The 2 photos showed a live ―small rodent‖ from the Gaza Strip,<br />

Palestine. <strong>Dr</strong>. Abd Rabou asked me ―for classification‖. He wrote<br />

that these photos which were taken by him show a ―small rodent<br />

having white spots on its back‖.<br />

Later on 06.06.2007 <strong>Dr</strong>. Abd Rabou wrote that this ―patched<br />

species was caught in Beit Lahia, North Gaza in an agricultural<br />

field in 2005.‖<br />

My first impression when I saw the photos, was that of a spiny<br />

mouse (Acomys spp.), because it seemed like it was having the stiff<br />

guard hairs on its coat; but this assumption proved to be wrong. I<br />

also thought that it could be a hybrid or a mutant rodent.<br />

272


The most distinctive feature of this rodent is the light and dark<br />

brown colouration with white big patches on the fur.<br />

<strong>Dr</strong>. Abd Rabou sent the photos also to <strong>Prof</strong>. Yoram Yom-Tov from<br />

the Zoology Department, Tel Aviv University for Identification.<br />

<strong>Prof</strong>. Yom-Tov wrote that this rodent ―is a mutant (partial albino)<br />

of house mouse (Mus musculus).‖<br />

Conclusion:<br />

After examining the photos, and referring to many<br />

zoological references, and Middle Eastern zoologists and<br />

wildlife experts, and searching the Internet, I came finally<br />

to a conclusion that we are in front of a new subspecies of<br />

house mouse from the Gaza Strip, Palestine.<br />

I gave it the scientific name Mus musculus gazaensis, new<br />

subspecies. The subspecies name “gazaensis” is Latin for<br />

“Gaza”.<br />

The New Palestinian House Mouse Subspecies Mus musculus gazaensis<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2007 from Beit Lahia, North Gaza Strip. Foto: <strong>Dr</strong>. Abdel Fattah<br />

Nazmi Abd Rabou, 2005.<br />

273


Mus musculus gazaensis, new subspecies:<br />

Scientific trinomial name: Mus musculus gazaensis<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2007.<br />

Common Name: Gaza House Mouse, Palestine House<br />

Mouse.<br />

Location: Agricultural Field, Beit Lahia, North Gaza<br />

Strip, Palestine.<br />

Date of capture: 2005.<br />

Distinctive Features: The most distinctive feature is the light and<br />

dark brown colouration with white big patches on the fur. No<br />

measurements are available.<br />

The New Palestinian House Mouse Subspecies Mus musculus<br />

gazaensis <strong>Khalaf</strong>, 2007 from Beit Lahia, North Gaza Strip. Foto: <strong>Dr</strong>.<br />

Abdel Fattah Nazmi Abd Rabou, 2005.<br />

274


Acknowledgments: Special thanks are due to the Palestinian<br />

Zoologist <strong>Dr</strong>. Abdel Fattah Nazmi Abd Rabou from the Biology<br />

Department, Islamic University of Gaza, who sent the rodent<br />

photos for identification, and gave me the opportunity to discover<br />

a new Palestinian house mouse subspecies; and my thanks are<br />

also due to the Kuwaiti wildlife expert Eng. Abd Al-Rahman Abd<br />

Allah Al-Sirhan Al-A‘try, the webmaster of the website Wildlife of<br />

Kuwait, and to <strong>Prof</strong>. Yoram Yom-Tov from the Zoology<br />

Department, Tel Aviv University, for their valuable comments on<br />

the photos.<br />

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290


291


The Dorcas Gazelle (Gazella dorcas<br />

Linnaeus, 1758)<br />

<strong>By</strong>: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong><br />

The Dorcas Gazelle (Gazella dorcas Linnaeus, 1758) at Kuwait Zoo, Al<br />

Omariyah, Kuwait, State of Kuwait. This is one of the smallest Gazelle<br />

species with a weight of 15-20 kg, and lives in the arid areas of the Arabian<br />

Peninsula and Africa. In Palestine, 1500 Dorcas Gazelles live in the Naqab<br />

Desert and Wadi Araba. Photo by: <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong><br />

انغشال انؼفزْ‏ أَ‏ غشال دَركاص فٓ‏ حذٔمت حُٕاواث .21.09.2013 <strong>Jaffa</strong>. <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong><br />

انكُٔج . ‏َٔؼخبز ‏ٌذا انغشال مه أصغز أوُاع انغشالن انؼزبٕت حٕذ ‏ٔصم ‏َسوً‏ ما بٕه 02-61<br />

كٕهُجزاماً‏ ، ‏َٔؼٕش فٓ‏ انمىاطك انصحزأَت انجافت فٓ‏ شبً‏ انجشٔزة انؼزبٕت ‏َأفزٔمٕا ، كما ‏ٔؼٕش<br />

فٓ‏ صحزاء انىمب ‏ََادْ‏ ػزبت فٓ‏ فهسطٕه ‏َحصم أػذادي ‏ٌىان إنّ‏ 6122 غشال ‏.حصُٔز : أ.‏ د.‏<br />

وُرمان ‏)وؼمان(‏ ػهٓ‏ بساو ػهٓ‏ طاٌز خهف انٕافاَْ‏ انممذسٓ‏ انفهسطٕىٓ‏ األنماوٓ‏ . 06.29.0262<br />

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/10080759145/<br />

292


References and Internet Websites:<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2004). Gazelle: Das<br />

Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche<br />

Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004. /<br />

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in<br />

Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. <strong>ISBN</strong> 3-00-<br />

014121-9. Erste Auflage / First Edition, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten /<br />

Pages. Zweite erweiterte Auflage (Second Extended Edition),<br />

August 2004: 460 Seiten / Pages. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>, Bonn-Bad<br />

Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher (2006). Mammalia<br />

<strong>Palaestina</strong>: The Mammals of Palestine / Die Säugetiere Palästinas.<br />

Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 55, Twentyfourth<br />

<strong>Year</strong>, July 2006, Jumada Al-Thania 1427. pp. 1-46. Sharjah,<br />

United Arab Emirates. http://archive.is/xmclD<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> (2006). Mammalia Arabica. Eine<br />

Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen<br />

1980-2006 / Mammalia Arabica. A Zoological Journey in<br />

Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2006. <strong>ISBN</strong> 3-00-<br />

017294-7. Erste Auflage, Juli 2006, 484 pp. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>,<br />

Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab<br />

Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/mammaliaarabica.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> Taher<br />

(2009). Flora and <strong>Fauna</strong> in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian<br />

Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab<br />

1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.<br />

http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2009). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong><br />

– Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe<br />

between 1983 – 2006 / <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> – Teil Eins. Eine<br />

Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen<br />

1983 – 2006. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition,<br />

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September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong><br />

<strong>Bassam</strong> <strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates &<br />

Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2012). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong><br />

– Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 /<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina<br />

zwischen 1983 – 2009. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First<br />

Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic<br />

Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al<br />

Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-normanali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-<strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Dr</strong>. <strong>Norman</strong> <strong>Ali</strong> <strong>Bassam</strong> (2013). <strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong><br />

– Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 /<br />

<strong>Fauna</strong> <strong>Palaestina</strong> - Teil <strong>Dr</strong>ei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina<br />

zwischen 2005 – 2012. <strong>ISBN</strong> <strong>978</strong>-<strong>9950</strong>-<strong>383</strong>-35-7. Erste Auflage /<br />

First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part<br />

350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi<br />

Publishing House, Jerusalem, State of Palestine. http://drnorman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm<br />

<strong>Khalaf</strong>-Sakerfalke <strong>von</strong> <strong>Jaffa</strong>, <strong>Prof</strong>. <strong>Dr</strong>. Sc. <str