saxelmZRvanelo gamoicema euTos erovnul umciresobaTa ...

cciir.ge

saxelmZRvanelo gamoicema euTos erovnul umciresobaTa ...

saxelmZRvanelo gamoicema euTos erovnul umciresobaTa umaRlesi

komisris ofisis mxardaWeriT proeqtis `multilingvuri ganaTlebis

reformis mxardaWera saqarTveloSi~ farglebSi.

saxelmZRvaneloSi wamodgenili mosazrebebi ekuTvnis `samoqalaqo

integraciisa da erovnebaTSorisi urTierTobebis centrs~ da SesaZloa

ar emTxveodes euTos euuk-is Tvalsazriss.

The textbook is published in the framework of the project `Supporting Multilingual

Educational Reform in Georgia`. The project is funded by the office of

OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities. The contents of this publication

are the sole responsibility of Center for Civil Integration and inter-Ethnic Relations

(CCIIR) and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the OSCE High

Commissioner on National Minorities.

redaqtori:

Salva tabataZe

2


ISBN 978-9941-0-3084-0

levan axvlediani

maia inasariZe

nino SaraSeniZe

kaxa gabunia

enisa da sagnis integrirebuli swavleba

zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolebis

sabazo da saSualo safexurebze

UDC(uak)37.016+37.016:81-02831 e-688

Tbilisi

2010 weli

3


Sinaarsi

Sesavali . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Tavi I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

1. enis swavlebis roli da mniSvneloba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2. mSobelTa CarTuloba bilingvuri swavlebis procesSi . . . . . . . 14

3. ra midgomebi arsebobs enis swavlebaSi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

4. meore enis swavleba sagnobriv Sinaarsze dafuZnebiT . . . . . . . . 20

5. moswavleTaTvis enis aTvisebis procesSi

gamosayenebeli ZiriTadi principebi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6. enis aTvisebis xelSemwyobi da xelis SemSleli aqtorebi . . . . . 29

7. pedagogTa TanamSromloba bilingvuri swavlebis procesSi . . . . 31

8. mSobliuri enis roli bilingvuri ganaTlebis procesSi . . . . . . 34

Tavi 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

1. teqstebze muSaoba bilingvuri ganaTlebis procesSi . . . . . . . . . 39

2. grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

3. Secdomebze muSaoba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

4. bilingvuri gakveTilis Sefaseba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Tavi 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

1. bilingvuri gakveTilis dagegmva . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

2. bilingvuri gakveTilis dagegmvis etapebi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Tavi 4: qarTuli enisa da istoriis integrirebuli swavlebis

sanimuSo gakveTilebi da Tematika. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

danarTi (rekomendebuli funqciuri frazebi

sagnis maswavleblebisTvis) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

bibliografia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

4

27

81

194


Sesavali

winamdebare wigni bilingvuri ganaTlebis maswav-

leblebisTvisaa gankuTvnili. misi mizania meToduri daxmareba

gauwios sabazo da saSualo skolis pedagogebs bilingvur

klasebSi saswavlo masalis Tematur dagegmvaSi, gakveTilebis

dagegmvasa da SefasebaSi.

gzamkvlevis am nawilSi mimoxilulia is sakiTxebi, romlebic

maswavlebelma saswavlo masalis dagegmvisa da swavlebis procesSi

unda gaiTvaliswinos. es aris moswavlis swavlis stili da

inteleqtis saxeebi, aseve motivaciis xelSemwyobi faqtorebi. aqve

maswavleblebi gaecnobian Tematur dagegmvis komponentebsa da

gakveTilis dagegmvis zogad principebs; aqve iqneba rekomendaciebi

da axsna-ganmartebebi Sefasebis miznebze, tipebze, saxeebsa da

meTodebze.

saxelmZRvanelos meore nawilSi Cven maswavleblebs

SevTavazebT bilingvuri gakveTilebis scenarebs.

5

* * *

ganaTlebis sistemam aucileblad unda gaiTvaliswinos

enobrivi politikis sakiTxebi. ganaTlebis procesi, romelic,

codnis SeZenasTan erTad, moicavs socialuri da kulturuli

faseulobebis dauflebas, xorcieldeba enis saSualebiT.

enis matarebelTa transnacionaluri ganlagebis gamo, erTi da

igive ena erT qveyanaSi SeiZleba warmoadgendes saxelmwifo enas,

meoreSi ki _ erovnul umciresobaTa enas (magaliTad, somxuri da

azerbaijanuli enebi, romlebic saqarTvelos teritoriaze

umciresobaTa enebia, somxeTsa da azerbaijanSi ki - saxelmwifo


enebi). garda amisa, arsebobs adgilobriv eTnikur umciresobaTa

garkveuli raodenoba, romlebic sakmaod mcirericxovanni arian da

saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi cxovroben SezRudul teritoriaze

(magaliTad, afxazebi, bacbebi). xsenebuli jgufebis warmomavloba

da enebi gansxvavdeba umravlesobis eTnikuri warmomavlobisa da

enisagan.

udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba qveynis moqalaqeTa cxovrebaSi

saxelmwifo enis flobas: urTierToba saxelmwifo instituciebTan,

oficialuri dokumentebis Sedgena, diskusiebi da debatebi

parlamentsa Tu sxva saxelmwifo dawesebulebebSi - saxelmwifo

enaze mimdinareobs; Sesabamisad, umciresobaTa piradi karieris

ganviTarebisa Tu, sazogadod, qveynis cxovrebaSi CarTulobis

uzrunvelyofis TvalsazrisiT, qarTuli enis daufleba uaRresad

saWiro da aucilebelia. Tumca, faqtia, rom dResdReobiT, kvlav

problemaa umciresobebiT kompaqturad dasaxlebul regionebSi

saxelmwifo enis swavla-swavlebis sakiTxi.

saxelmwifo doneze seriozulad dgeba erovnul umciresobaTa

warmomadgenelTa mozardebisTvis Tanamedrove ganaTlebis sistemis

farglebSi saxelmwifo enis iseT doneze swavlebis sakiTxi, rom

maT SeZlon Sromis bazarze arsebul konkurenciaSi mSobliuri

enis matareblebTan Tanabar pirobebSi miiRon monawileoba.

Tumca, saxelmwifo prioritetebi ar SeiZleba iyos wminda

ekonomikuri. maT unda hqondeT socialuri mimarTuleba im mizniT,

rom mosaxleobas gauadvildes adaptacia socialur-ekonomikuri

reorganizaciis periodSi. is garemoeba, rom mosaxleobis did

jgufebs ar SeuZliaT srulfasovani monawileobis miReba

ekonomikur an socialur cxovrebaSi enobrivi problemebis gamo,

adasturebs enobrivi kompetenciebis gavlenas saxelmwifos

socialur erTianobaze. erTi mxriv, socialuri da politikuri

xasiaTis problemebs SeuZliaT daayenon dRis wesrigSi saxelmwifo

6


enis Seswavla im doneze, rom mosaxleobam ar igrZnos Tavi

ganaTlebasa da profesiul karieraSi daCagrulad. meore mxriv,

igive problemebi axdens regionul da erovnul umciresobaTa

enebis Seswavlis stimulirebas.

bevri mSobeli da Temi miiCnevs, rom Tu bavSvis ganaTlebis

procesSi didi dro eTmoba meore da mesame enas, aman SeiZleba

iqonios uaryofiTi gavlena bavSvis pirvel enaze da mis zogad

ganviTarebaze. mSobliuri enis mniSvnelobis SegrZneba exmareba

adamians imis gansazRvraSi, Tu ra adgili ukavia mas sazogadoebaSi.

ena eTnikuri kuTvnilebis TvalsaCino niSania, amitomac is yvelaze

advilad iqceva xolme ama Tu im eTnikuri jgufis simbolod da

ZiriTad Taviseburebad konfliqtur situaciaSi. gamokvlevebi

aCvenebs, rom konfliqturi situaciis warmoqmnis mizezi xdeba ara

ena, aramed sul sxva problemebi. im dros, rodesac socialuri, da

politikuri faqtorebi SeiZleba gaxdes konfliqtis mizezi, enebi

warmoadgenen araTu problemas, aramed misi gadawyvetis

saSualebasac.

unda ganvasxvavoT erTmaneTisagan is programebi, romlebic

Seqmnilia umciresobaTaTvis im qveynis saxelmwifo enis

swavlebisTvis, sadac isini cxovroben da, meore mxriv, ucxo enebis

swavlebis programebi. meore enis swavleba / Seswavlis saboloo

mizania, umciresobaTa warmomadgenlebma aqtiuri monawileoba

qveynis sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi.

multikulturul sazogadoebaSi yvela wevri unda iyos

Tanasworuflebiani - yvelas (miuxedavad eTnikuri, religiuri Tu

enobrivi sxvaobisa) unda mieces konkurentunarian, Tanaswor

garemoSi arsebobis ufleba.

7


* * *

dResdReobiT saqarTvelos saganmanaTleblo sivrceSi

swavlebis erTaderT formad monolingvuri modeli rCeba:

monolingvuria rogorc dominant (saxelmwifo) enaze mimdinare

swavleba, aseve, eTnikur umciresobaTa warmomadgenlebis enebze

mimdinare swavlebis forma: qarTul skolebSi swavlebis ena erTia

(qarTuli); ucxo ena iswavleba, rogorc sagani; aseve, mxolod erT

enaze mimdinareobs swavleba rusul, somxur, azerbaijanul, osur

skolebSi - saxelmwifo ena iswavleba, rogorc sagani, iseve,

rogorc sxva (ucxo) enebi.

es iyo (da dRemde rCeba) sabWouri modeli. ra Tqma unda,

saTanado pirobebis SeqmniT (garemo, ojaxSi salaparako ena,

meTodikurad momzadebuli pedagogebi da sxva) SesaZlebelia

moswavlem garkveul doneze aiTvisos esa Tu is ena, magram,

samwuxarod, arc aseTi pirobebi gvaqvs (gansakuTrebiT, eTnikuri

umciresobebiT kompaqturad dasaxlebul regionebSi) da amocanac

(igulisxmeba konkurenciis gaweva erTian erovnul gamocdebSi -

qarTul enaSi) araadekvaturia. maSin, rodesac ganaTlebis sistemis

reforma mowodebulia, saerTod aRmofxvras repetitorobis

instituti, am problemis arseboba Zalauneburad xels uwyobs

(metic - erTaderT SesaZleblobad tovebs) socialuri

TvalsazrisiT gaumarTlebel movlenas.

Sesabamisad, unda vifiqroT institucionalur cvlilebebze -

modelze, romelic principulad Secvlis midgomas saskolo

sivrceSi enobrivi ganaTlebis TvalsazrisiT.

8


9

* * *

saskolo mravalenovani ganaTleba nebismieri bavSvis

momzadebis elementia multikulturul sazogadoebaSi, amasTan,

bavSvis mSobliuri kulturuli garemo ki ar iTrguneba, aramed

viTardeba da ukeT warmoCindeba meore enis garemosTan Sedarebis

fonze.

mravalenovani ganaTlebis (bilingvuri ganaTleba

mravalenovani ganaTlebis konkretuli saxea) ZiriTadi gansxvaveba

monolingvurisgan is aris, rom swavlebis ena mxolod saSualeba ki

ar aris, aramed mizanic. aqedan gamomdinare, orive miznis

(pirobiTad - sagnobrivi da enobrivi) misaRwevad saWiroa

gamudmebuli balansireba sagnobriv Sinaarsze fokusirebul

gakveTilsa da specifikuri enobrivi mimarTulebis gakveTils

Soris.

dasavleTis wamyvan qveynebSi miRebuli forma xdeba meore enis

swavleba Sinaarsze dafuZnebiT (content-based second language teaching),

anu sagnobrivi Sinaarsisa da enis integrirebuli swavleba _

swavlebis meTodika, romelic afarToebs enobriv kompetencias

iseTi konkretuli sagnebis (sabunebismetyvelo, sazogadoebrivi,

esTetikuri) Sinaarsze dayrdnobiT, romelic scildeba enis

swavlebis Cveulebriv, tradiciul gakveTils. maswavlebeli,

konkretuli sagnis swavlebasTan erTad, im enis codnis

gaRrmavebaSic exmareba moswavles, romel enazec xorcieldeba

sagnis swavleba.

sagnobrivi Sinaarsisa da enis integrirebuli swavlebis

mizani, erTi mxriv, saxelmwifo enis saTanado doneze aTviseba,

meore mxriv ki - umciresobaTa enebis SenarCunebasa da

ganviTarebaze zrunvaa. aseTi konceptualuri midgoma umciresobaTa

warmomadgenlebs uxsnis enobrivi da masze, ase vTqvaT, `gadabmuli~

erovnuli TviTidentifikaciis dakargvis safrTxis SegrZnebas da


motivacias umaRlebs Semswavlelebsa da maT mSoblebs, Seiswavlon

saxelmwifo ena: maTTvis cxadi xdeba, rom saskolo bilingvuri

ganaTleba mozardis momzadebis instrumentia misi karieruli

winsvlisa da socialur-ekonomikur Tu politikur sferoebSi

warmatebis misaRwevad, amasTan, bavSvis mSobliuri kulturuli

garemo ki ar iTrguneba, aramed viTardeba da ukeT warmoCindeba

meore enis garemosTan Sedarebis fonze.

ganaTlebis tradiciuli sistema umciresobis warmomadgenel

bavSvebs sTavazobs arCevans: an ganaTlebas mSobliur enaze,

romelsac Tan axlavs saxelmwifo enis formaluri swavleba, rac

bavSvebs ar aZlevs saxelmwifo enis srulyofilad Seswavlis

SesaZleblobas, an ganaTlebas saxelmwifo enaze, rac iwvevs

umciresobis mSobliuri enis codnis simwires.

bilingvuri ganaTleba umciresobaTa warmomadgenel bavSvebs

sTavazobs orive enis myari codnis SeZenis SesaZleblobas ise, rom

maT es enebi yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi gamoiyenon.

10


Tavi I

1. enis swavlebis roli da mniSvneloba

enis roli adamianis cxovrebaSi ganusazRvrelia: ena ganasxva-

vebs mas cxovelisgan, qmnis adamianad. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom enam

Seqmna adamiani.

adamians sxva cocxal arsebaTagan ganasxvavebs, upirveles yov-

lisa, is, rom mas SeuZlia gamoiyenos sxvaTa mier mopovebuli (war-

sulSi dagrovebuli) codna. es ki enis gareSe warmoudgenelia.

ena xalxis, eris arsebobis upirvelesi niSania. ena ar aris erTi

adamianis, konkretuli piris kuTvnileba - igi sazogadoebrivi mov-

lenaa. metic - ena erovnuli msoflxedvaa, samyaros Taviseburi aRq-

ma-Secnoba.

enas ori ZiriTadi funqcia (daniSnuleba) aqvs: upirveles yovli-

sa, igi azrovnebis iaraRia (enis eqspresiuli funqcia); magram

azrovneba warmoudgenelia sazogadoebasTan, xalxTan urTierTobis

gareSe. ase rom, enis meore funqcia uSualod ukavSirdeba pirvels

- igi imavdroulad urTierTobis saSualebaa (enis komunikaciuri

funqcia).

rogorc zemoT iTqva, yoveli ena samyaros Tavisebur xedvas

gvTavazobs da sxvadasxvagvarad aSuqebs cnebebs. erTi da imave cne-

bis or sxvadasxva enaze Seswavla mis sxvadasxva kuTxiT ganxilvas

gulisxmobs. `ramdenic meti ena ici, miT meti kaci xaro~... gadmogv-

cems Zveli qarTuli sibrZne.

saxelmwifo enis dauflebis saSualebebis SeTavazebiT, sax-

elmwifo Tavis moqalaqeebs codnasa da CarTulobas sTavazobs.

11


amasTanave, gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, rom SeTavazeba moxdes

ara mxolod ritorikul doneze, aramed gegmazomieri RonisZiebebis

saxiT. zogadsaganmanaTleblo etapze saxelmwifo enis codnis

uzrunvelyofa erT-erTi pirveli da realisturi amocanaa; amasTa-

nave, cxadia, rom mizanmimarTuli RonisZiebebi mxolod am etapiT

ar unda Semoifarglos. saxelmwifo enis Seswavla yvela asakobrivi

jgufisaTvis unda gaxdes SesaZlebeli, rac uwyveti ganaTlebis

saerTaSoriso mimarTulebasac Tanxvdeba. Tumca dReisaTvis sax-

elmwifo enis swavlebis gaZlierebisaTvis yvelaze bunebrivi

sivrce, rasakvirvelia, skolaa. aq imTaviTve igulisxmeba, rom im

skolebSic, sadac mTeli saswavlo procesi moswavleTa mSobliur,

xolo rusulenovani skolebis SemTxvevaSi _ rusul enaze mimdina-

reobs, qarTuli ena da literatura savaldebulo sagania. Sesabami-

sad, gansakuTrebuli organizaciuli da finansuri Zalisxmevis ga-

reSe problemis gadaWra swored am etapidan aris SesaZlebeli.

Tumca faqtia, rom, iSviaTi gamonaklisebis garda, moswavleebi

skolas ver amTavrebdnen enis codniT aRWurvilebi. aq Tavis rols

TamaSobda qarTuli enobrivi garemos ararseboba, yofiT situa-

ciebSi enis gavrcelebis simwire.

enis Seswavla metad xangrZlivi procesia da did dros moiT-

xovs. yuradReba unda mivaqcioT erT mniSvnelovan detals: sazoga-

dod, ganasxvaveben enobrivi kompetenciis or dones. erTi moicavs

sabazo enobriv kompetencias interpersonaluri komunikaciisaTvis

(siku _ sabazo interpersonaluri sakomunikacio unarebi _ es aris

enis Sre, romelsac viyenebT yofiT situaciebSi da yoveldRiur

urTierTobaSi. enis am Sres bavSvebi iTviseben ezoSi TamaSis,

transportiT mgzavrobis, telefonze saubris, skolaSi

moswavleebTan urTierTobis dros. socialuri urTierTobebi

konteqstSia Casmuli da, rogorc wesi, damxmare saSualebebiTaa

ganmtkicebuli _ Jesti, mimika da sxv. isini funqcionaluria da

12


naklebad moiTxovs kognitur daZabulobas. ena naklebad aris

datvirTuli specifikuri leqsikuri erTeulebiT); meore ki -

kognitur-akademiuri rangis enobriv kompetencias (kalu _

kognitur-akademiuri enobrivi unarebi; kalu aris formaluri

akademiuri swavlis ena. is moicavs mosmenas, laparaks, kiTxvas da

weras sagnobrivi Sinaarsis garSemo).

skola is adgilia, sadac enis orive Sre intensiurad

moqmedebs. swavlisa da cxovrebis sxvadasxva viTarebaSi

moswavleebs orive enobrivi kompetencia esaWiroebaT. enis

efeqturad aTvisebisaTvis, sazogadod, pirvel etapze sabazo

sakomunikacio unarebi unda ganviTardes, rac aratradiciuli

instruqtaJiT ukeT miiRweva.

enebis swavlebis arsebuli, dRes moqmedi saskolo-saswavlo

kursiT SesaZlebelia mxolod pirveli donis (siku) kompetenciebis

daufleba, meore donis (kalu) enobrivi kompetenciis

dasaufleblad ki gacilebiT meti dro da Tvisebrivad sxva tipis

saswavlo strategiis SemuSaveba da damkvidrebaa saWiro; iseTi

strategiisa, romelic moswavles daexmareba am enaze saazrovno

operaciebis Sesrulebas.

swored aseT strategias warmoadgens bilingvuri swavleba.

moswavles uwevs meore enaze konkretuli sagnis Seswavla, rac imas

niSnavs, rom mas uwevs am enaze azrovneba.

13


2. mSobelTa CarTuloba bilingvuri swavlebis procesSi

skola da ojaxi erTmaneTze axdens pirdapir gavlenas da

skolisa da ojaxis TanamSromloba qmnis maqsimalurad efeqtur

saswavlo garemos. bilingvuri ganaTlebis procesSi viTardeba

orenovneba da ormagi wigniereba, radgan skolisa da ojaxis

interesi emTxveva erTmaneTs.

mSoblebs SeuZliaT zegavlena moaxdinon saskolo

urTierTobebze, raTa skolam upasuxos maT moTxovnebs. samwuxarod,

umciresobis moswavleTa mSoblebi gacilebiT iSviaTad

erTiandebian da ayeneben moTxovnebs, realurad ki bilingvizmisa da

bilingvuri ganaTlebis mxardasaWerad maTi xma uaRresad

mniSvnelovania...

skola, ojaxi da Temi urTierTdamokidebuli organizmia da

erTmaneTTan TanamSromlobiT funqcionirebs. mSoblebs mravali

funqcia aqvT; isini arian moxaliseebi, ase vTqvaT, skolis

`arasruli ganakveTis TanamSromlebi~, maswavleblebi saxlSi,

zrdasruli moswavleebi da damxmareebi. ojaxebs SeuZliaT

uzrunvelyon maswavleblebi `codnis fondiT~, rac gulisxmobs

codnasa da informacias, kulturul gamocdilebas, romlis

meSveobiTac es ojaxebi Tavs irCenen, winaurdebian da warmatebebs

aRweven... ojaxis codna, romelic SeiZleba skolam gamoiyenos,

moicavs informacias yvavilebis, xeebis, nargavebis, mcenareTa

Teslebis, soflis meurneobis, wylis ganawilebisa da sanavigacio

sistemebis, administrirebisa da marTvis, cxovelebze zrunvis da

veterinariis, medicinis, manqanaTmSeneblobis, sasoflo

meurneobebis, rewvis, xaliCebis warmoebis eleqtrifikaciis,

xalxuri tradiciebis, simRerebisa da cekvis, saxalxo da bunebrivi

saSualebebiT mkurnalobis, arqeologiis, farikaobis, maTematikisa

14


da biologiis da agreTve uamravi enisa da damwerlobis Sesaxeb.

mSoblebsa da maswavleblebs Soris SesaZlebelia imdenad mWidro

urTierTobebi ganviTardes, rom maswavleblebi iqcnen mSobelTa

socialuri qselis nawilad, rac kidev metad gazrdis mSobelTa

CarTulobas da saswavlo procesis efeqturobas.

aRsaniSnavia, rom Zalian xSirad maswavlebelTa da mSobelTa

urTierToba problematuria, isini xSirad ar TanamSromloben, ver

ugeben erTmaneTs da yalibdeba antagonizmi skolasa da ojaxs

Soris. skolisa da ojaxis urTierTobebis gaanalizebiT xSirad

SesaZlebeli xdeba umciresobaTa moswavleebis akademiuri

CamorCenis mizezebis povna da axsna.

mSoblebma aucileblad unda gaacnobieron, rom maT gaaCniaT

uflebebi da valdebulebebi da agreTve Zalaufleba, rom gavlena

moaxdinon sakuTari Svilis ganaTlebis procesze: yvelaze mTavaria

mSoblis dadebiTi damokidebuleba im faqtis mimarT, rom misi

Svili swavlobs or an sam enaze. miuxedavad imisa, rom mSoblebma

SesaZloa ar icodes romelime maTgani, mas mainc Tavisuflad

SeuZlia daexmaros bavSvs, Seiswavlos es enebi. amisaTvis mSobeli

regularulad unda ekiTxebodes bavSvs, ra Temaze saubroben

skolaSi sxvadasxva gakveTilze, ra iyo misTvis mniSvnelovani, ra

ainteresebs da aRelvebs... amiT bavSvi igrZnobs, rom rasac is

akeTebs skolaSi, mniSvnelovani da seriozulia, igi dainteresdeba

ufro metad. kargi iqneba, mSobelma gamoiyenos SesaZlebloba da

iswavlos sakuTari Svilisgan is ena, romelsac ver flobs... es

daexmareba bavSvs TviTSefasebaSi, swavlaSi da, rasakvirvelia,

ganaviTarebs Tavad mSoblis enobriv SesaZleblobebsac.

bevri miiCnevs, rom bavSvs unda elaparakon aramSobliur

enaze, Tu is swavlobs mravalenovan klasSi. sinamdvileSi es ase ar

aris. Tu mSobeli bavSvTan yovelTvis saubrobda mSobliur enaze

da uceb daiwyebs saubars sxva enaze _ warmoiqmneba arabunebrivi

15


situacia, bavSvica da mSobelic igrZnoben Tavs uxerxulad da

Sedegi iqneba sawinaaRmdego... amitom aucilebelia, saxlSi

gaagrZeloT laparaki im enaze, romelzec saubrobdiT adre. bavSvi

sxva enebs mSoblis Carevis gareSec kargad iswavlis mravalenovan

jgufSi.

mSoblebisTvis saukeTeso rCevaa, daamyaron mWidro kontaqti

maswavleblebTan. maswavleblebi iqnebian maTi madlierebi, Tu isini

dausvamen kiTxvebs da mouyvebian, ra problemebi aqvT; aseve,

mizanSewonilia saubari Svilis warmatebebze. erTad unda

ganixilebodes sirTuleebi saSinao davalebebis Sesrulebisas da,

aseve, erTad gamoinaxos gamosavali. bavSvebi da maswavleblebi

iqnebian mSoblebis madlierebi, Tu isini dainteresdebiT, ra xdeba

skolaSi. mSoblebma aucileblad unda miiRon monawileoba

sxvadasxva saxis RonisZiebebSi da daeswron mSobelTa krebebs.

16


3. ra midgomebi arsebobs enis swavlebaSi

zogadad enis Seswavlis (dauflebis) meTodebi SeiZleba

dayvanil iqnes Semdeg nusxamde:

a) ucxo enis originalur wyarosTan Sexeba:

enis matarebelTan urTierToba;

enis matarebelTa metyvelebis mosmena;

radios, magnitofonis, Canawerebis mosmena;

televizoris, videos yureba;

daumuSavebeli da araadaptirebuli teqstebis kiTxva

(Jurnal-gazeTebi, reklamebi, firniSebi da a. S.);

kompiuteruli programebis gamoyeneba;

kompiuterTan urTierToba interaqtiur da avtonomiur

reJimSi;

kursis mosmena, sadac swavleba mocemul ucxo enaze

mimdinareobs.

b) ucxo enaze arsebuli specialurad SerCeuli zepiri

gamoTqmebis an werilobiTi teqstebis gamoyeneba („xelmisawvdomi

informacia“ sawyis etapze);

g) enis matarebelTan uSualo dialogi. magaliTad,

kompetentur mosaubresTan dialogSi monawileoba;

d) ucxo enaze specialurad SemuSavebul da Seqmnil

davalebebSi uSualo monawileoba („gasagebi informacia“

damamTavrebel etapze);

e) TviTswavleba (vinmes xelmZRvanelobiT), dasaxuli miznis

ganxorcieleba da xelmisawvdom saswavlo saSualebaTa gamoyeneba.

kvlevebma gviCvena, rom enebis swavlebis tradiciuli,

gramatikisa da leqsikis dazepirebaze dafuZnebuli moZvelebuli

oficialuri meTodebi, ar aris sakmarisi da rom bavSvebi ukeTesad

swavloben interaqtiuri meTodebiT, roca isini ki ar izepireben,

17


uSualod iyeneben enas. mravalenovani ganaTlebis kidev erTi win

gadadgmuli nabijia, roca igi sxvadasxva enas iyenebs saswavlo

kursis sxvadasxva nawilis Sesaswavlad. amis meSveobiT moswavleebs

aqvT imis SesaZlebloba da stimuli, rom Tavisuflad flobdnen

enebs. mravalenovan swavlebas safuZvlad udevs Zalian moqnili

koncefcia, romelic sxvadasxva modelis gamoyenebas uSvebs,

magaliTad, imis dadgenaSi, Tu saswavlo kursis ra moculoba unda

iswavlebodes TiToeul enaze. gansxvavebuli SeiZleba iyos agreTve

klasebis Semadgenlobac, magaliTad, klasSi garkveul

gakveTilebze SeiZleba iyvnen umciresobisa da umravlesobis

warmomadgeneli bavSvebi. amas didi upiratesoba aqvs sxvadasxva

jgufebis bavSvebis dasaaxloeblad: am gziT uSualod

stimulirdeba integrireba, Semcirdeba erTmaneTis mimarT mtrobis

riski da dasustdeba uaryofiTi stereotipebi, romlebsac zogjer

sxvadasxva saskolo sistema warmoSobs. umravlesobis

warmomadgenel bavSvebs amiT umciresobis warmomadgenel

klaselebTan daaxloebisa da maTi enisa Tu kulturis gacnobis

SesaZleblobac eZlevaT. aqedan gamomdinare, maTSi gaRvivdeba sxva

kulturisa da enis pativiscema iseve, rogorc sakuTarisa. aseTi

bavSvebi ara mxolod ufro tolerantulebi gaizrdebian

mravalferovnebis mimarT, aramed isini ukeTesad gaigeben

mravalferovani sazogadoebis upiratesobas. Semdegi sakiTxi exeba

asakis SerCevas - romeli asakidan SeiZleba mravalenovani

ganaTlebis dawyeba. es is sakiTxia, romelTan dakavSirebiTac

mTeli rigi qveynebis gamocdilebam gviCvena amgvari ganaTlebis

adreul asakSi dawyebis upiratesoba. am dros ZiriTadi aqcenti

gadatanilia patara bavSvebis mier enebis advilad Seswavlis

unarze.

Zalian efeqturad miiCneven mkvlevrebi transenobriv meTods.

transenobrivi meTodi gulisxmobs, rom kiTxva da mosmena

xorcieldeba erT enaze, xolo producireba (laparaki da wera) -

meore enaze da swavlebis procesSi enebis funqciebi xSirad

18


icvleba. magaliTad, gakveTilze moswavleebi kiTxuloben

inglisurad, xolo diskusia am sakiTxze mimdinareobs espanurad,

xolo maswavlebeli diskusiis procesSi akeTebs dazustebebs

inglisurad. gakveTi-lis bolos moswavleebi asruleben weriT

davalebas espanurad. meore gakveTilze enebis daniSnuleba

icvleba, inglisuri gamoiyeneba producirebisTvis, xolo espanuri

_ mosmenisa da kiTxvis unarebis gansaviTareblad...

19


4. meore enis swavleba sagnobriv Sinaarsze dafuZnebiT

saswavlo sagnis Sinaarsisa da enis aTvisebis integrireba

bilingvuri saswavlo procesis erT-erTi mTavari amocanaa,

romelic maswavlebelma unda Seasrulos, raTa Tavisi sagnis

qarTulad swavlebaze warmatebulad gadasvla SeZlos. es marTlac

rTuli problemaa, romlis gadaWrac mxolod maswavlebelTa

TanamSromlobis Sedegad aris SesaZlebeli. aq, upirvelesad,

igulisxmeba qarTulis, rogorc meore enis, maswavleblebsa da sxva

saswavlo sagnebis maswavleblebs Soris aqtiuri da regularuli

TanamSromloba.

bilingvuri ganaTlebis winaaRmdeg erT-erTi mTavari

argumenti is mosazrebaa, TiTqos moswavleebi saswavlo sagans ver

iTviseben meore enis SezRuduli codnis gamo _ maT saswavlo

sagani unda aiTvison enaze, romelic jer kidev aTvisebis

stadiaSia. marTlac, kvlevebi adasturebs, rom akademiuri da

rTuli enis gamoyeneba saswavlo sagnis aTvisebis dros gadaulaxav

sirTuleebs uqmnis im moswavleebs, romelTac swavlebis enis mwiri

codna aqvT. aseve, ar SeiZleba saswavlo sagnis Sinaarsis

Seswavlis gadadeba _ es iwvevs CamorCenas swavlaSi tolebTan

SedarebiT da swavlis survils ukargavs moswavles (ievina, 2009,

gv.79). amas garda, sagnobrivi pedagogebi SiSoben, integrirebul

gakveTilze enobrivi kompetenciebis amaRlebisTvis garkveuli

drois daTmoba daazaralebs erovnul saswavlo gegmas mocemul

saganSi (maTematikaSi, fizikaSi, geografiaSi da a.S.), romlis

dafarvac savaldebuloa...

swavlebis enisa da saswavlo sagnobrivi Sinaarsis

integrireba niSnavs enobrivi komponentebis sagnobriv gakveTilebSi

CarTvas. integrirebuli midgoma agebs xids meore enis gakveTilebsa

20


da sagnobriv gakveTilebs Soris. am midgomis gamoyenebis Sedegad

ori dadebiTi Sedegi miiRweva: meore enisa da sxva saswavlo sagnis

masalis (sagnobrivi Sinaarsis) aTviseba.

saswavlo sagnis gakveTilze maswavlebeli saswavlo masalas

moswavlis Semecnebis donis Sesabamisad aswavlis, xolo moswavlis

enis codnis donis Sesabamisad irCevs sakomunikacio aqtivobebs; ase

rom, ena iqceva masalis aTvisebis saSualebad, instrumentad da ara

swavlebis sagnad.

enisa da sagnobrivi Sinaarsis integrirebuli swavleba

ramdenime umniSvnelovanesi unaris ganviTarebas moiTxovs

pedagogisgan: es erTnairad exeba rogorc meore enis pedagogs, aseve

sxva sagnebis maswavleblebsac:

mravalferovani informaciis matareblebis gamoyeneba _

raTa meore enis masala SeZlebisdagvarad martivad aRsaqmeli

gaxdes, maswavlebelma informacia Semecnebis mravalferovani

masalis gamoyenebiT unda miawodos moswavleebs: realuri sagnebis,

cxrilebis, gamosaxulebebis, diagramebis, aseve demonstrirebis,

winaswar wakiTxvisa da weris strategiebis gamoyenebiT.

moswavleebze orientirebuli swavlebis procesis

organizeba _ swavlebis centrSi unda iyos moswavle, misi

interesebi da saWiroebebi. moswavle aris aqtiuri obieqti,

maswavleblis funqciaa, moswavleebis TanamSromlobasa da

TiToeuli moswavlis codnis miRebis procesSi aqtiur CarTvas

Seuwyos xeli. maswavlebelma samuSao ise unda dagegmos, rom

moswav-les analizis unari ganuviTaros, rac asaTvisebeli masalis

SemdgomSi gamoyenebisTvis aris aucilebeli (ievina, 2010, gv. 82).

integrirebuli gakveTilis Catarebas seriozuli momzadeba

esaWiroeba: upirvelesad, gansasazRvria rogorc sagnobrivi, aseve

enobrivi miznebi. gasaazrebeli da dasagegmia TiToeuli aqtivoba _

dasazustebelia SerCeul aqtivobaSi TiToeuli enis _

21


mSobliurisa Tu meore enis _ funqcia (magaliTad, terminebs,

sqemebs, TvalsaCinoebas vadgenT qarTul enaze, aseve, qarTulad

vaZlevT martiv instruqciebs: `upasuxe~, `moyevi gakveTili~,

`Seasrule davaleba~ da sxva); rac Seexeba narativs (magaliTad,

moswavlis mier davalebis moyola), am etapze ar unda vaiZuloT

moswavle, meore enaze daZlios es rTuli davaleba.

integrirebuli midgomis dagegmvisTvis upriania momzadebis

Semdegi xerxi: sanam integrirebuli meTodis gamoyenebas daiwyebdes,

sagnis maswavlebelma unda icodes, Tu ra xerxebs iyenebs meore

enis pedagogi Tavis gakveTilebze. am informaciis misaRebad

maswavleb-lebi erTmaneTis gakveTilebs unda daeswron da klasSi

muSaobis process daakvirdnen. rasakvirvelia, kargia, Tuki sagnisa

da enis maswavleblebi winaswar iqnebian momzadebulebi trenirebis

gziT.

enisa da sxva saswavlo sagnis maswavleblebma, erTad

muSaobis dros, unda daadginon enobrivi sirTuleebi da

moswavlisTvis saWiro unarebi, romlebic Sesabamisi sagnis masalis

aTvisebisTvis aris aucilebeli (magaliTad, saxelmZRvanelos

wakiTxvis unari; savarjiSoebis rveulSi davalebis Sesrulebis

unari; sxvadasxva terminis mniSvnelobis garkvevis unari; sakuTari

azris gamoTqmisa da dasabuTebis unari da sxva).

Semdegi nabiji sagnobrivi da enis maswavleblis erToblivi

muSaobis procesSi im problemebis dadgenaa, romlebic SesaZloa

SeeqmnaT moswavleebs ama Tu im masalis (igulisxmeba sagnobrivi

masala) aTvisebisas. aseTi saxis problemebi SeiZleba warmoiSvas,

magaliTad, imis gamo, rom saxelmZRvaneloebis an sxva, damxmare

teqstebis leqsika zedmetad rTulia. aseT SemTxvevebSi meore enis

maswavlebeli exmareba sagnobriv pedagogs TvalsaCinoebebis

SedgenaSi, sadac maqsimalurad gamartivebuli iqneba Sesaswavli

aucilebeli terminebi da is martivi enobrivi konstruqciebi,

22


omelTa gamoyenebiTac moswavle SeZlebs codnis gamovlenas meore

enaze, ZiriTadi saTqmelis gadmocemas qarTulad.

sagnobrivma maswavlebelma unda daadginos Tavisi sagnis

swavlebis procesSi yvelaze xSirad gamosayenebeli sityvebis

CamonaT-vali. meore enis maswavlebelTan TanamSromlobiT unda

uzrunvelyos am sityvebis sworad gamoyenebis unari. SesaZloa,

Zalian gamoadgeT ZiriTadi sityvebis moswavleebisaTvis winaswar

gacnoba. maswavlebels SeuZlia, gakveTilis ganmavlobaSi

gansakuTrebuli yuradReba gaamaxvilos iseT sityvebze, romelTac

SeuZliaT moswavleTa azrovneba swori mimarTulebiT waiyvanon,

daexmaron mizezSedegobrivi kavSiris povnasa da pasuxebis

moZiebaSi.

integrirebuli gakveTilis axsnisas aucilebelia

mravalferovani vizualuri masalis gamoyeneba; magaliTad, SeiZleba

qaRaldze amowerili da amoWrili, qarTul enaze Sesrulebuli

saWiro terminebis mikroba. es damatebiTi informacia garkveuli

periodis ganmavlobaSi SeiZleba darCes vizualur masalaze

ganTavsebuli. roca darwmundebiT, rom moswavleebma axali

terminebi aiTvises, mikrobili furclebis moxsna SegiZliaT. aseve,

maswavlebelma unda Seqmnas situaciebi, romlebSic mas SeuZlia

darwmundes, rom moswavleebi axal terminebs srulad daeuflnen.

gakveTilis dagegmvisas maswavlebelma unda daisaxos

umniSvnelovanesi miznebi da swored maT moargos Sesabamisi masala,

raTa gamousadegari wvrilmanebisa da detalebis swavlebas

aaridos Tavi. sagnis maswavlebels SeuZlia moZebnos

alternatiuli saswavlo wignebi an sxva masala, romelTa

ganmartebebic ufro Seesabameba meore enis aTvisebis procesSi myof

moswavleebs. maswavlebels, aseve, SeuZlia ukve arsebuli teqstebis

moswavlis enis codnis donis Sesabamisad adaptireba; ar unda

dagvaviwydes, rom saWiroa pirvel rigSi Zalian martivad aRsaqmeli

23


masalis momzadeba axali Temis saswavleblad, xolo Semdeg

gakveTilebze enobrivi mraval-ferovnebis TandaTanobiTi zrda,

sanam Tema srulad iqneba aTvisebuli.

Zalian mniSvnelovania, gakveTilis dasawyisSi miznebi dafaze

daiweros da qarTul enaze xmamaRla davasaxeloT (SesaZlebelia,

moswavleebsac gavameorebinoT es miznebi). sasargeblo iqneba aseve

imis ganmarteba, rom es gakveTili wina da Semdeg gakveTilebTan

mWidro kavSirSia.

sanam moswavleebi raime samuSaos Sesrulebas Seudgebodnen,

maswavlebelma maT savarjiSos sruli aRwera unda gaacnos:

sasurvelia, pedagogma SeZlos am aRweris qarTul enaze wardgena,

Tumca, gaviTvaliswinoT, rom pirobis gageba umniSvnelovanesi

komponentia da mSobliuri enis gamoyenebis SezRudva am

komponentSi mizanSeuwonelia. amis Semdeg maswavlebels SeuZlia

moswavleebs misces ufleba, es davaleba safexurebad Tavad

Seasrulon. es xerxi gansakuTrebiT maTematikisa da sxva zusti

mecnierebebis savarjiSoebis SesrulebisTvisaa xelsayreli.

saWiroa, rom moswavleebs TanamSromlobisa da klasSi

samuSaod urTierTkavSirisTvis winapiroba SevuqmnaT. yovlad

dauSvebelia, rom maswavlebelma mxolod leqciis formati

gamoiyenos _ TviTon ilaparakos bevri, xolo moswavleebi

pasiurebi iyvnen; moswavleebis damoukidebel, wyvilebSi an

jgufebSi muSaoba saukeTeso formaa integrirebuli swavlebisaTvis.

isini aqtiurad unda iyvnen CarTulni gakveTilis yvela monakveTSi.

am SemTxvevaSi moswavleebi kargad aiTviseben rogorc sagnobriv

masalas, aseve, gaiumjobeseben enis codnas. maswavlebelma

xelovnurad unda Seqmnas situaciebi, romlebSic moswavleebs

SesaZlebloba miecemaT, sagnis Sesabamisi leqsika gamoiyenon da

sagnobrivi Sinaarsis Sesaxeb sakiTxebze isaubron, aseve,

werilobiT gamoTqvan azri qarTul enaze.

24


enis aTvisebis procesSi moswavleebi saubrisas Secdomebs

uSveben. es bunebrivi movlenaa. bilingvali maswavlebeli

darwmunebuli unda iyos, rom moswavleebs esmiT informacia da ar

unda miaqcios gadaWarbebiT didi yuradReba orTografiisa da

stilistikis aspeqtebs. ra Tqma unda, maswavlebelma Tavad swori

forma unda SesTavazos, magram misgan gamarTuli metyvelebis

moTxovna gaumarTlebelia. mTavari roli enis sworad gamoyenebis

aTvisebaSi enis maswavlebels uWiravs da ara ama Tu im sagnis

pedagogs.

integrirebuli gakveTilis warmatebuli SedegisaTvis didi

mniSvneloba eniWeba sworad da gemovnebiT SerCeul aqtivobebs.

airCieT aqtivobebi, romlebic moswavleebs daexmareba, Tavad

aRmoaCinon axali informacia; maswavlebeli exmareba moswavleebs

informaciis organizebaSi da Sesasrulebeli moqmedebebis

Tanmimdevrobas ugegmavs. sabunebismetyvelo mimarTulebis an

socialur mecnierebaTa gakveTilebze didi warmatebiT SeiZleba im

xerxebis gamoyeneba, romlebSic moswavleebi proeqtis meTodiT

ikvleven Tavisive arCeul Temas. maswavlebeli moqmedebs rogorc

koordinatori _ moswavle gansazRvravs problemas, eZebs mis

mizezebs, atarebs kvlevebs an eqsperiments da problemis

gadawyvetis gzebs eZebs. enis codnis done, azris gasagebad

gamoTqmis unari da proeqtis SemuSavebis procesSi sxvebis azris

gageba iZens konkretul praqtikul mniSvnelobas. am dros

SesaZlebelia qarTuli enis _ rogorc informaciis mogrovebis,

monacemTa damuSavebis, argumentirebis saSualebad gamoyeneba.

rekomendebulia, maswavlebelma gamoiyenos aqtivobebi,

romlebSic moswavleebisTvis nakluli informaciis moZieba iqneba

saWiro: am tipis aqtivobebs miekuTvneba roluri TamaSebi,

situaciuri, kiTxva-pasuxebis savarjiSoebi, problemebis gadawyveta.

TiToeul moswavles (klasSi an jgufSi) aqvs erTi an ori

25


informaciis fragmenti, romlebic savarjiSos Sesasruleblad aris

aucilebeli, magram ar aris saWiro informaciis srulad miwodeba.

moswavleebma erTad unda imuSaon, unda gacvalon informacia. am

xerxiT maTi metyvelebis da azrovnebis unaris gavarjiSeba da enis

donis gaumjobeseba SeiZleba.

26


5. moswavleTaTvis enis aTvisebis procesSi

gamosayenebeli ZiriTadi principebi

gakveTilze gamoyenebuli terminebi, axali sityvebi da

frazebi gaxadeT moswavleTaTvis gasagebi: moaxdineT maTi peri-

frazireba, gaamartiveT isini, gamoiyeneT Jestikulacia, konteqsti,

realizmi da a.S.

gaxsovdeT, rom gageba (gacnobiereba) da warmoTqma (gadmoce-

ma) ar aris erTi da igive. ar DdaaZaloT moswavleebs, gansakuTre-

biT sawyiss etapze, kiTxvebze pasuxis gacema da sityvebis axsna.

mieciT maT imis saSualeba, rom qceviT da moqmedebebiT moaxdinon

reagireba Tqvens naTqvamze.

praqtikuloba

gadaamowmeT winadadebebi, romelTa warmoTqmasac apirebT

gakveTilze sakuTari TavisaTvis ori SekiTxvis dasmis gziT: vi-

tyodi Tu ara rodesme (davsvamdi Tu ara aseT SekiTxvas) Cems

mSobliur enaze? Cem mier warmoTqmuli azri/SekiTxva dakavSire-

bulia Tu ara im codnasTan da unarebTan, romelTa aTvisebasac va-

pirebT programis mixedviT?

interesunarianoba

moerideT iseTi kiTxvebis dasmas, romelTa pasuxebi winaswar

aris nagulisxmevi.

27


mimzidveloba

airCieT mimzidveli Sinaarsis masala da aseve muSaobis

gasarTobi forma. rodesac maswavleblis mizania moswavlisaTvis

enis ganviTareba, xSirad kiTxvebi da davalebebi warmodgenelia

primitiuli saxiT, inteleqtualuri datvirTvis gareSe.

moswavleebs esaWiroebaT axali, ucnobi masalebi, Secdomebze

swavlis SesaZlebloba. iseTi davaleba, romelic moiTxovs

problemis gadaWras, sadac aris moulodnelobebi, saubrisaTvis

ufro met stimuls warmoadgens, gramatikul savarjiSoebTan

SedarebiT.

mieciT moswavleebs sakmarisad bevri Ria tipis davaleba,

raTa aman gamoiwvios axali daugegmavi sityvebi da struqturis

gadmocemis aucilebloba.

SearCieT iseTi davaleba, romelic moiTxovs erTdroulad

ramdenime unaris CarTvas, gaaerTianeT enobrivi Semoqmedeba da

informatiuli elementebi.

Tanmimdevruloba

gakveTilis dagegmvis procesSi, orientireba moaxdineT

moswavleTa gamocdilebaze, aRwereT, Tu rogor SeuZlia moswavles

axlad SeZenili codnisa da unarebis gamoyeneba, da ramdenad

sasargeblo iqneba maTi gamoyeneba momdevno gakveTilze axali

masalisa da unarebis aTvisebis procesSi.

28


6. swavla-swavlebis principebi zogadsaganmanaTleblo

skolebis sabazo da saSualo safexurebze

bilingvuri swavlebis warmatebiT warmarTvisaTvis aucilebelia

swavla/swavlebis principebis gaTvaliswineba sabazo da saSualo

skolaSi.

principi 1. moswavle swavlobs ukeT, roca iTvaliswineben mis in-

dividualur Taviseburebebs.

amisaTvis maswavlebelma unda:

SearCios swavlebis iseTi meTodebi, romlebic Seesatyvise-

ba moswavlis asakobriv Taviseburebebs;

SesTavazos moswavleebs mravalferovani aqtivobebi, sa-

varjiSoebi, davalebebi maTi individualur TaviseburebaTa

gaTvaliswinebiT (xasiaTi, swavlis stili, inteleqtualuri

unarebi, Zlieri da susti mxareebi).

aRWurvos moswavle saswavlo strategiebiT, romlebic mas

swavlas gauadvilebs da ufro damoukidebels gaxdis.

principi 2. moswavle ukeT iswavlis, Tu mas miecema pirovnuli po-

tencialis ganviTarebis saSualeba.

amisaTvis maswavlebelma unda:

gamoumuSavos moswavleebs dadebiTi damokidebuleba sa-

kuTari Tavis, sxvebis, swavlis, garemomcveli samyaros,

saxelmwifo enis mimarT;

Camouyalibos moswavleebs konstruqciuli damokidebule-

ba Secdomis mimarT da gaacnobierebinos mas, rom Secdoma

29


swavlis procesis ganuyofeli nawilia (Secdomebis gamo-

vlena da gaanalizeba ganapirobebs winsvlas);

mkafiod ganusazRvros moswavles, Tu ras elian misgan;

Seqmnas ndobis atmosfero, sadac iqneba TanamSromloba

da ara konkurencia, Sejibri.

principi 3. moswavle ukeT swavlobs enas, rodesac igi motivirebu-

lia.

amisaTvis maswavlebelma unda:

misces moswavles saSualeba daakvirdes asaTvisebel

masalas damoukideblad, gamoTqvas varaudebi, aRmoaCi-

nos, mixvdes, amoicnos, Seadaros, rasac Tanamedrove

pedagogika codnis konstruirebas, agebas uwodebs;

swavlebis Sinaarsi miusadagos moswavleTa interesebs;

Seqmnas iseTi sakomunikacio, realuri situaciebi, ro-

mlebic mimzidveli iqneba moswavleebisaTvis;

dausaxos moswavleebs realisturi, daZlevadi amoca-

nebi da miznebi, raTa moswavleebma igrZnon warmatebis

gemo;

waaxalisos warmateba, daafasos da Seafasos winsvla.

mniSvnelovania im asakobrivi Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswinebac,

romlebic mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs warmatebas swavlebasa da

swavlaSi.

am etapze gasaTvaliswinebeli asakobrivi Taviseburebebia:

fizikuri da fsiqikuri puberteti (momwifeba). 11-12 wlidan

individis sulieri organizaciis iseTi cvlileba iCens Tavs,

romelic, pirvel rigSi, mis moqmedebaTa Tu gancdaTa stiqiurad

aRkveTaSi vlindeba. mozardis damokidebuleba movlenebTan da

30


sagnebTan, iseve rogorc socialur sinamdvilesTan, sxvagvaria,

vidre bavSvobis xanaSi. igi SemecnebiTia da ara gulubryvilo.

mozardi cdilobs gaiazros movlenebi, swored amitom am asakSi

iwyeba da Semdeg Zlierdeba mozardis fsiqologiuri da

filosofiuri azrovneba. ganviTarebis am safexurze ”mes” manamde

ramdenadme gaurkveveli cnobiereba icvleba cxadi da

gamokveTili TviTcnobierebiT. masSi iRviZebs kritikuli

damokidebuleba sakuTari Tavis mimarT da ara marto sakuTari

Tavis, aramed sxvebis mimarTac. amitom masTan uxeSi

damokidebuleba, mis kritikaze mZafri reagireba konfliqtis

warmoSobis pirobad iqceva. am konfliqtma SeiZleba

gamousworebebli ziani miayenos mozards. mas yvelaze da

yvelaferze sakuTari Sexeduleba gaaCnia da es maswavlebelma

unda gamoiyenos swavlebisa da swavlis procesSi. misces mas

azris Tavisuflad gamoxatvis saSualeba, maT Soris meore

enazec, ar miaqcios yuradReba aseT dros enobriv Secdomebs.

am periodSi aRmocendeba sakuTari pirovnebis socialuri

aRiarebisadmi Zlieri miswrafeba. mozards uCndeba Zlieri

moTxovnileba, hqondes wona socialur garemoSi. amitom am dros

gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba waxalisebas, sxvebis TvalSi

misi avtoritetis amaRlebas, misi SesaZleblobebis maqsimalur

warmoCenas. am etapze kvlav aqtualuria roluri TamaSebisa da

situaciuri amocanebis gamoyeneba saswavlo procesSi, magram ise,

rom moswavlem ar igrZnos sakuTari ususuroba enaSi. amisaTvis

maswavlebelma winaswar unda moamzados moswavleebi, miawodos

mas is enobrivi konstruqciebi da Sesabamisi leqsika, romlebic

moswavles am amocanebis daZlevaSi daexmareba.

gardamavali asakis erT-erT damaxasiaTebel movlenas

warmoadgens SromiTi unarianobis daqveiTeba. gansakuTrebiT es

SeimCneva vaJebTan. magram amis gadalaxvac SeiZleba, Tu

31


maswavlebeli gamonaxavs swor gzas. erT-erTi piroba,

davaZlevinoT mozards es sirTule, aris is, rom moswavlis

Sroma, Tundac minimaluri SedegiT, dafasebuli da mowonebuli

iqneba. mozardebisaTvis aucilebelia ufrosebis aRiareba, maSin

maT xalisi uCndebaT gaamarTlon maswavlebelTa pozitiuri

Sexeduleba. sakmarisia mozards daakisron ufrosis funqcia

umcrosebis mimarT, rom maT Secvalon swavlisadmi (Sromisadmi)

damokidebuleba. magaliTad, daxmaros umcrosklaselebs

saswavlo proeqtis ganxorcielebaSi, speqtaklis dadgmaSi an

Tundac waukiTxos maT saintereso moTxrobebi / zRaprebi

qarTul enaze.

kidev erTi damaxasiaTebeli Tavisebureba am asakisaTvis aris ara

ubralod urTierTobis moTxovnileba, aramed Zlieri survili _

ipovos gageba sxvebSi. yovel mozardSi Zlieria tendencia iyos

aRiarebuli, gaugon da ar datovon gverdze.

gardamavali asakis, gansakuTrebiT ki misi bolo fazisaTvis

damaxasiaTebelia interesTa sruliad axali wris aRmoceneba.

saxeldobr, mozards uCndeba interesi cxovrebis sxvadasxva

sferos mimarT, gansakuTrebiT ekonomikuri sferos mimarT. man

kargad icis qonebis an karieris mniSvneloba. aqedan gamomdinare,

imis gacnobireba, rom keTildReobis miRweva da cxovrebaSi

adgilis damkvidreba saxelmwifo enis dauflebiT SeiZleba, mas

uRvivebs motivacias da es unda iyos mxardaWerili

maswavleblebis mier.

32


7. enis aTvisebis xelSemwyobi da xelis SemSleli

faqtorebi

xelSemwyobi faqtorebi:

Tavisufali garemo

moswavleebs SeuZliaT icinon, isxdnen TavianT sayvarel po-

zaSi, gadaadgildnen klasSi, saswavlo procesidan miiRon siamovne-

ba.

gariskvis survili

adamianebs, romlebsac uyvarT gariskva, aseve uyvarT gamoc-

noba. isini ar eridebian sasacilo mdgomareobaSi Cavardnas da

Tvlian., rom ,, vinc ar riskavs, is ver imarjvebs.

warmatebaSi darwmunebuli.

1. moswavleebi, romlebic darwmunebulni arian TavianT

warmatebaSi, advilad moiZieben sxva gzas, im SemTxeve-

vaSi, Tu pirveli cda ar gaamarTlebs.

2. moTmineba da gacnobiereba imisa, rom erTbaSad

yvelafris gageba SeuZlebelia.

3. moswavle, romelic martivad miiRebs im faqts, rom

yvelafris gageba erTbaSad SeuZlebelia, im

SemTxvevaSic aqtiurad iTanamSromlebs, Tu davalebis

Sinaarsi Tavidan ar iqneba misTvis srulebiT naTeli.

33


xelisSemSleli faqtorebi:

aRelveba, nerviuloba

yvelaze Zlieri filtri aris nerviuloba. Tu bavSvi nerviulobs,

wrialebs, oflianobs, fexebs iqnevs, es niSnavs, rom enobrivi

informaciis miRebas xvdeba ,,filtri''.

gariskvis survilis arqona.

adamianebi, romlebsac ar uyvarT riski, advilad ikargebian. maT

eSiniaT Secdomebis daSvebis sxvebis TvalSi sasacilod gamoCenis.

warmatebaSi daeWveba.

moswavleebi, romlebsac sakuTari Tavis rwmena ar gaaCniaT,

arc cdiloben, da amas imiT xsnian, rom mainc ar gamouvaT. isini

yovel Secdomas aRiqvamen ara rogorc axlis swavlis

SesaZleblobas, aramed rogorc sakuTar nakls, rom maT ar

SeuZliaT swavla.

didi moculobis informaciasTan Tavis garTmevis

SeuZlebloba.

moswavle romelsac ar SeuZlia imasTan Segueba, rom yvela-

fris erTad gageba SeuZlebelia, maswavleblis mxridan moiTxovs

gamudmebiT axsnas da amJRavnebs mouTmenlobas, Tu maswavlebeli

myisierad ar uxsnis yvela sityvis mniSvnelobas.

34


8. pedagogTa TanamSromloba bilingvuri swavlebis

procesSi

bilingvuri swavlebis procesis warmatebuli realizebisTvis

aucilebelia TanamSromloba moswavleebs Soris, aseve,

maswavleblebs Soris da moswavleTa da maswavleblebs Soris.

aucilebelia, rom am TanamSromlobis mniSvneloba bilingvuri

ganaTlebis mTavarma realizatorebma gaiazron: ara mxolod

qarTulis, rogorc meore enis, maswavleblebma, aramed sxva sagnebis

maswavleblebmac erovnul umciresobaTa skolebSi. bilingvuri

swavlebis procesis warmatebuli realizeba SeuZlebelia manam,

sanam TiToeuli maswavlebeli mxolod Tavis sagans uRrmavdeba da

imis Semdeg, roca igi gadis klasidan, ar interesdeba romelime

konkretuli klasis mdgomareobiT, ar iqneba informirebuli imis

Sesaxeb, Tu ras da rogor swavloben moswavleebi sxva

gakveTilebze, gansakuTrebiT qarTulis, rogorc meore enis,

gakveTilebze. ramdenime sagnis qarTul enaze swavlis dawyebis

Semdeg izrdeba moswavlis datvirTva. maswavleblebisTvis

sasargeblo iqneboda, xSirad Seikribon da isaubron imaze, Tu ras

swavloben konkretuli klasis moswavleebi TiToeul saganSi. aseTi

saxis informaciis gacvla aucileblad Seuqmnis maT samuSaos

erTmaneTSi SeTanxmebisa da gaiolebis safuZvels. aseve,

maswavleblebs SeuZliaT erTmaneTis gakveTilebs daeswron, raTa

moswavleebis enis codnis doneSi darwmundnen. es TanamSromloba

momgebiani iqneba maswavleblisTvisac, radganac kolegebs Soris

TanamSromloba axali codnis SeZenas uwyobs xels da afarToebs

TiToeuli maswavleblis warmodgenas Teoriisa da praqtikis

gakveTilebze Sefardebis Sesaxeb.

35


Cveulebrivi daxmareba ar niSnavs TanamSromlobas (rac, ra

Tqma unda aseve aucilebelia), es aris samuSao procesis

urTierTSeTanxmeba da kolegisTvis saswavlo gegmis

daregulirebaSi daxmareba. Tu moswavleebi ver xedaven, rom mas-

wavleblebi gundurad muSaoben, verc TviTon moaxerxeben amas.

TanamSromloba unda ganixilebodes rogorc saSualeba, ro-

melic moswavleTa urTierTkontaqts uzrunvelyofs, igi swavlebis

socialuri mxarea. moswavle swavlebis procesSi erTveba, matu-

lobs misi TviTSegneba da Tavdajereba, igi mzad aris riskisTvis,

radganac klasSi dadebiTi socialur emociuri atmosfero sufevs.

aseTi midgomisTvis Sesabamisi garemos Seqmnas, romlis

centrSic moswavlea moqceuli, upirveles yovlisa, gaazreba sWir-

deba, Tu ra unda gakeTdes imisaTvis, rom miRweul iqnes Tanam-

Sromloba viwro gagebiT. es ara mxolod saubars iTvaliswinebs,

aramed kompleqsur midgomas yvela unaris asaTviseblad. magaliTad,

SesaZlebelia, teqsti TiToeulma moswavlem damoukideblad waikiT-

xos, xolo Semdgom wyvilebSi ganixilon igi da mxolod amis Sem-

deg daiwyon imaves ufro did jgufebSi keTeba da, sabolood,

mTelma klasma erTad ganixilos... aseve, weriTi savarjiSoebis Se-

sruleba nebismier safexurze SeiZleba. wakiTxvis an mosmenis win

SesaZlebelia Temis zogadad ganxilva, raTa moswavleebs gavacnoT

da gavuRvivoT interesi.

jgufebSi da wyvilebSi muSaoba moswavleebs Soris Tanam-

Sromlobas zrdis da maswavleblis mTel klasTan saubris auci-

leblobis dros amcirebs. TanamSromlobis gamoyenebiT swavleba

moswavles ayenebs yuradRebis centrSi da radikalurad cvlis

klasikuri swavlebis models, roca maswavlebeli iwyebs saubars,

moswavle mas pasuxobs, Sedegad maswavlebeli mis pasuxs afasebs.

mcirericxovan jgufebSi muSaoba enis Sesaswavlad uaRresad

mniSvnelovania. gasaTvaliswinebelia komunikaciuri swavlebis far-

36


To SesaZleblobebi: uSualo garemo, Tavisufleba da moswavleTa

CarTuloba, aseve, davalebebis diferenciaciis SesaZlebloba. mci-

rericxovan jgufSi iqmneba bunebrivi dialogisTvis ukeTesi piro-

bebi, vidre klasis organizebis nebismieri sxva xerxis gamoyenebis

dros - moswavleebis organizebis es modeli, maswavleblisTvis mi-

sawvdomi meTodebidan, erT-erTi yvelaze moqnili da pozitiuri,

amasTan, integrirebis SesaZleblobis momcemia: jgufSi samuSao

SeiZleba savarjiSoebze iyos koncentrirebuli, rac aviTarebs ro-

gorc sworad, aseve Tavisuflad metyvelebis unars. mas SeuZlia

sworad metyvelebis unaris ganviTarebis swavlebis efeqturobis

gazrdac da moswavleebs jgufurad organizebuli samuSaos Segue-

baSic daexmareba im donemde, rom maT SeZlon Tavisufali metyve-

lebis savarjiSoebis Sesruleba erToblivad. pozitiur Sedegs aZ-

lierebs maswavlebeli `CareviT~ (araformaluri swavlebiT), Ti-

Toeul jgufTan misvliT, rac moswavleebs enis codnis faseul

informacias aZlevs.

37


9. mSobliuri enis roli bilingvuri ganaTlebis procesSi

bilingvurad muSaobis dros ori ena gamoiyeneba, rogorc swav-

lebis saSualeba anu instrumenti: moswavlis mSobliuri (umcire-

sobis) ena da oficialuri (saxelmwifo) ena; an oficialuri ena da

romelime ucxo ena. es ki imas niSnavs, rom maswavleblebi, romle-

bic TavianT sagans moswavleebs bilingvurad aswavlian, muSaoben

erT gundSi: gegmaven saswavlo masalas ara mxolod romelime kon-

kretuli klasisTvis, aramed TiToeuli konkretuli TemisTvis, Se-

saZlebelia raime konkretuli sakiTxisTvisac. am gziT saswavlo

masalis zedmet gameorebas aridebs Tavs, SeTanxmebulia masalis

Tanmimdevroba, aseve saswavlo masalis Seswavlis procesSi gamoye-

nebadi ori enis urTierTTanamSromloba. aseve, mniSvnelovania

swavlebis meTodebis gaazreba. im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki pedagogebi

namdvilad profesionalurad zrunaven TavianTi moswavleebis cod-

nasa da unarebze, yvela maswavleblis samuSao urTierTSeTanxme-

bulia. amis Sedegad gakveTilisTvis gamoyofili dro efeqturad

aris gamoyenebuli.

swavlebis procesSi, ori enis gamoyenebis dros, ZiriTadi

yuradReba unda mieqces konkretuli sagnis masalis aTvisebis pro-

cess. enebi mxolod instrumentebia. mxolod dargis specialists

SeuZlia Tavisi dargis Sesabamisi leqsikis swavleba. enis pedagogs

- arc mSobliuri enis, arc meore enisas - ar SeuZlia iwinaswarme-

tyvelos, SesTavazos da aswavlos yvelaferi romelime konkretuli

enis farglebSi sxvadasxva mecnierebis sferoSi. amitom saswavlo

sagnis maswavlebeli iyenebs, iribad amdidrebs moswavlis leqsikas

da nawilobriv enasac aswavlis maT, imisda miuxedavad, es aris

moswavleebis mSobliuri ena Tu swavlebis procesSi gamoyenebuli

sxva ena.

38


ar aris SemTxveviTi, rom bilingvuri swavlebis meTodolo-

giis sakiTxebis Seswavlisas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba swavlebis

procesSi, gakveTilis msvlelobis dros, enis gamoyenebas eqceva.

enis arCevis ramdenime midgoma arsebobs. maswavlebels gaazrebuli

unda hqondes, anu winaswar unda dagegmos enis gamoyenebis gegma

gakveTilzec, moswavlis damoukidebeli muSaobis drosac, magali-

Tad, saxlSi.

enebis dagegmarebis meTods bevri aspeqti ganapirobebs.

moswavlis asaki, zogadi ganviTareba, mSobliuri enis flobi-

sa da meore enis aTvisebis done, socialuri gamocdileba,

enis praqtikuli gamoyenebis gamocdileba, SesaZleblobebi,

arsebuli codna da unarebi ganapirobebs imas, Tu ra raode-

nobiT unda gamoviyenoT erTi an meore ena.

saswavlo miznebi, davalebebi ganapirobebs, Tu romel enaze

unda tardebodes esa Tu is mecadineoba Tu samuSao.

dabalansebuli saswavlo masalis aTvisebisTvis gamoyofili

drois monakveTis dagegmva ganapirobebs imas, Tu rodis da

romeli ena unda gamoviyenoT axali Temis swavlis, gameore-

bis, ukve naswavli masalis ganmtkicebis an saSinao davalebis

Sesrulebisa Tu Semowmebis dros.

swavlebis meTodebis arCevani ganapirobebs, Tu ras da ra

enaze aswavlis maswavlebeli, Tu rogor da ra enaze muSao-

ben moswavleebi. mniSvnelovania, Tu ramdenad kargad icnobs

maswavlebeli enis swavlebis meTodebs da ramdenad Seswevs

maTi gamoyenebis unari.

saswavlo sagnis Sinaarsi, misi sirTulis safexuri (Teori-

ulica da yoveldRiur praqtikaSi gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba),

sxva saswavlo sagnebTan kavSirSi, SesaZlebelia saswavlo

masalis nawilis yofaSi aTviseba, aseve, meore enaSi, ganapi-

robebs, Tu rodis unda gamoviyenoT erTi an meore ena.

39


gamoyenebuli saswavlo literatura, masala, masSi gamoyene-

buli enis specifika (bavSvebis asakisTvis damaxasiaTebeli

Tvisebebisa da enis ganviTarebis donis Sesabamisi - rogorc

mSobliur enaSi, aseve meore enaSi) gansazRvravs, Tu rogor

da rodis unda daexmaroT moswavleebs ara mxolod saswavlo

masalis aTvisebaSi, aramed, aseve, mis gagebaSi meore enaze.

sxva sagnebSi enis gamoyenebis gamocdileba (maswavleblis

dagegmili) gansazRvravs, Tu ra ician ukve da ra SeuZliaT

moswavleebs meore enis gamoyenebis dros.

moswavlis saWiroebani ganaTlebis miRebis Semdgom procesSi.

aq naxsenebia enebis (mSobliuri Tu meore) gamoyenebis (dagegma-

rebis) mxolod zogierTi aspeqti, romelTa gaTvaliswineba mniSv-

nelovania bilingvuri swavlebisa da swavlis dros. Tumca, kidev

arsebobs TiToeuli saswavlo sagnis aTvisebis pirobebi. mudmivad

unda vadevnoT Tvalyuri imas, Tu ramdenad iTviseben moswavleebi

swavlebis sagans, izrdeba Tu ara meore enis gamoyeneba, umjobesde-

ba Tu ara maTi mSobliuri enis codna.

aqsiomaturia, rom yvelaze kargia swavlebis enad mSobliuri

enis gamoyeneba. fsiqologiuri TvalsazrisiT, mniSvnelovania,

radgan bavSvi avtomaturad iazrebs da unari aqvs, gamoxatos

sakuTari mosazrebebi, roca procesi misTvis nacnob enaze

mimdinareobs. socialurad mniSvnelovania, radgan moswavle

sakuTari Tavis identificirebas axdens sakuTar TemTan.

saganmanaTleblo kuTxiT, is swavlobs ufro swrafad da kargad

mSobliur enaze, vidre misTvis ucxo enaze.

mniSvnelovania, rom sruli Zalisxmeva mivmarToT, raTa bavSvebma

SeZlon mSobliur enaze ganaTlebis miReba... ganaTlebis kuTxiT,

mniSvnelovania, rom rac SeiZleba met xans gagrZeldes swavlebis

procesSi mSobliuri enis gamoyeneba. swavlis dawyebis pirvel

etapze ki umniSvnelovanesia, moswavle mSobliur enaze swavlobdes,

40


adgan, erTi mxriv, kargad gebulobs am enaze da, meore mxriv,

mSobliur enaze swavleba amcirebs im stress, rac moswavleSi

Cndeba ojaxidan skolaSi Sesvlis dros.

roca swavlebis procesSi ar xdeba mSobliuri enis gamoyeneba,

moswavleebi sakuTar Tavs aRiqvamen CamorCenilebad,

arasrulfasovnebad da sulelebad. maTi kultura Seuracxyofili,

xolo moswavleebi SeSinebulebi, dabneulebi da travmirebulni

xdebian. am yovelives SeiZleba hqondes grZelvadiani efeqtic.

mSobliuri enis codna xels uwyobs meore enis aTvisebas.

kvlevebma daadastures, rom moswavleebs, romlebic flobdnen

mSobliur enas, ufro kargad hqondaT ganviTarebuli werisa da

zepirmetyvelebis unarebi meore enaSi mSobliuri enis armcodne

moswavleebTan SedarebiT. mSobliuri enis codna xels uwyobs

unarebis transfers meore enis Seswavlisas.

enobrivi kodebis Secvla (gadasvla mSobliuri enis

gamoyenebidan - meore enis gamoyenebaze da piriqiT) farTod aris

gavrcelebuli bilingvur klasSi. enobrivi kodebis Secvla ara

mxolod gavrcelebulia umravles saganmanaTleblo situaciaSi,

aramed bunebrivi procesicaa, radgan warmoadgens Seqmnili

siZnelisadmi pragmatul pasuxs, radganac aseTi siZneleebi xSirad

gvxvdeba, roca moswavleebi sagnobriv Sinaars swavloben im enaze,

romelsac srulyofilad ver floben. swavleba moiTxovs Zalian

did yuradRebas, xolo yuradRebis misapyrobad enis Secvla xSirad

gauTviTcnobiereblad xdeba. maswavleblebi xSirad verc

acnobiereben, rodis moaxdines enis Secvla, an saerTod Secvales

Tu ara ena klasSi.

enebis Secvlas klasSi moepoveba pedagogiuri da socialuri

funqciebi mkvlevarTa dakvirvebiT, bilingvur klasSi mimdinare

saubrebi da enebis cvlilebebi kargad asaxavs skolaSi arsebul

konteqstsa da tradiciebs. magaliTad, maswavleblis mier enobrivi

41


kodebis gamocvla SeiZleba niSnavdes gakveTilis dawyebas,

gakveTilis sakiTxze gadasvlas, moswavlesTan specifikur

interaqcias an gakveTilis Sinaarsidan saklaso menejmentze

gadasvlas.

klasSi enis gamoyeneba ganpirobebulia 3 faqtoriT: 1)

maswavleblis enisadmi damokidebulebiT; 2) moswavlis enobrivi

kompetenciiTa da enisadmi damokidebulebiT; 3) moswavlesa da

maswavlebels Soris SeTanxmebiT. sawyis etapze enebis arCevani

ganpirobebulia moswavleTa saWiroebebiT. maswavleblebi xSirad

mimarTaven moswavlisaTvis nacnob enas masalis miwodebisas, Tumca

am SemTxvevebSic did rols TamaSobs ganaTlebis sistemisa Tu

skolis politika, romelic SeiZleba krZalavdes romelime enis

gamoyenebas an piriqiT _ axalisebdes moswavlisaTvis gasageb enaze

masalis miwodebas.

saklaso oTaxSi enis gamoyeneba kidev ramdenime faqtoriTaa

ganpirobebuli, kerZod, enebs Soris arsebuli statusiT, ori enis

TanmimdevrobiTa da sinqronizaciiT, moswavlisa da maswavleblis

SeTanxmebiT da a. S. saklaso oTaxSi mimdinare orenovani procesis

gaazreba da axsna SesaZlebeli xdeba mxolod Temis, ekonomikuri,

istoriuli, socialuri da politikuri konteqstis

gaTvaliswinebiT.

42


Tavi II

1. teqstebze muSaoba bilingvuri ganaTlebis procesSi

bilingvuri swavlebis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani sakiTxia

teqstze muSaoba. ramdenadac bilingvuri klasebisaTvis specialuri

saxelmZRvaneloebi ar arsebobs, amdenad ZiriTad saswavlo saSua-

lebad erTenovani saxelmZRvaneloebi gamoiyeneba. am saxelmZRva-

neloebis moxmareba bilingvuri klasebisaTvis garkveuli meTodikis

gaTva;liswinebas moiTxovs, rac teqstze muSaobis principebs gu-

lisxmobs.

teqstze muSaoba ramdenime etapad unda daiyos. pirveli etapi

gulisxmobs maswavleblis muSaobas teqstze. maswavlebeli winaswar

amzadebs teqsts klasisaTvis. amisaTvis igi iTvaliwinebs klasis

enobriv dones, winaswar aanalizebs im problemebs, romlebic

klasSi SeiZleba gaCndes teqstis damuSavebis procesSi. pirvel

rigSi, unda moxdes teqstis enobrivi damuSaveba. amisaTvis maswav-

lebelma sasurvelia gamoyos ramdenime mimarTuleba:

terminebi

da cnebebi

zogadi

leqsika

frazebi konstruqciebi funqciuri

43

frazebi

gakveTilis enac yoveli etapisaTvis winaswar unda daigegmos.

maswavlebelma winaswar unda gaiazros, Tu romeli sakiTxis Sesax-


eb romel enaze isaubrebs an rogor miawodebs dasamuSavebel masa-

las _ TargmaniT, sqemiT, zepiri ganmartebiT Tu sxva saSualebiT.

ganvixiloT TiToeuli mimarTuleba:

terminebi da cnebebi

rogorc aRiniSna, maswavlebelma teqsti winaswar unda daamu-

Saos. teqstis damuSavebisas calke unda gamoiyos is terminebi da

cnebebi, romlebic mniSvnelovania axali sakiTxisaTvis. misi miwo-

deba klasisaTvis SeiZleba saTanado ganmartebebiT moswavlis

mSobliur enazec, magram umjobesia terminebisa da cnebebisaTvis

grafikuli organizatorebis, sqemebis an cxrilebis gamoyeneba. es

efeqturi saSualeba moswavles daexmareba ara marto terminebisa

da cnebebis aTvisebaSi, aramed masalis kargad gaanalizebasac Seu-

wyobs xels, radgan sagakveTilo procesis dasrulebis Semdeg an

momdevno gakveTilze es masala saSualebas miscems moswavles, im-

sjelos ganxilul sakiTxze sayrdeni sityvebis, gaanalizebuli

cnebebisa da terminebi gamoiyenebiT. Tu arsebobs specialuri

TvalsaCinoeba mocemul sakiTxze, sasurvelia maswavlebelma misi

terminebi da cnebebi aseve calke daamuSavebinos klass, raTa,

TvalsaCinoebaze dayrdnobiT, moswavlem advilad SeZlos termine-

bis aTviseba da maTi msjelobaSi gamoyeneba.

zogadi leqsika

calke unda imuSaos maswavlebelma im sityvebze, romlebic

uSualodaa dakavSirebuli sakiTxTan, magram warmoadgens zogad

leqsikas, anu isini sxva sakiTxebze an sagnebSi msjelobisasac das-

Wirdeba moswavles. maTi aTviseba aamaRlebs moswavleTa enobriv

kompetencias. amgvari leqsika sasurvelia klass miewodos rogorc

TargmaniT, ise ganmartebiTi axsniT, sinonimiTa da antonimiT. leq-

sikis aTvisebisaTvis amgvari sqema SeiZleba gamoviyenoT.

44


sityva

frazebi

sityva

gavrcelebuli

sityvaTSexameba

ganmarteba

teqstis winadadeba

axali winadadeba

sinonimi

antonimi

aseve, calke dasamuSavebelia frazebi, anu is Sesityvebebi,

romlebic Temis analizisas da msjelobisas gamoadgeba moswavles.

isini sayrdeni frazebis rols Seasruleben, amitom sasurvelia

teqstidan calke amoviRoT isini da mivawodoT moswavles saTanado

ganmartebiT (aq SesaZlebelia misi mSobliuri enac davixmaroT).

unda gvaxsovdes, rom teqstis Targmna araefeqturi gzaa; amdenad,

rac ufro metad damuSavdeba teqsti frazebis TvalsazrisiT da

gamoiyofa calkeuli elementebi sagakveTilo procesSi, miT ufro

45


gauadvildebaT maT SemdgomSi rogorc konkretul, mocemul masa-

laze, ise sxva sakiTxebze msjeloba. calkeuli frazebi safuZvlia-

nad unda damuSavdes, radgan isini im enobriv saSualebaTa ricxvs

ganekuTvnebian, romlebic zrdis moswavlis mier enis akademiuri

flobis dones da zogadad amaRlebs mis enobriv kompetencias. sa-

survelia garkveuli frazebis gamoyenebiT Seiqmnas axali teqsti,

rogorc werilobiT, ise zepirad, daisvas SekiTxvebi da ase Semdeg.

konstruqciebi

calkea dasamuSavebeli enobrivi konstruqciebi. maTSi igu-

lisxmeba is gramatikuli sakiTxebi, romlebic metad mniSvnelovania

gamarTuli msjelobisaTvis. mSobliuri enis matareblisaTvis es

sruliad arasaWiro sferoa, magram enis SemswavlelisaTvis ki me-

tad mniSvnelovani, radgan man momavalSi SeZlos ara marto sakiT-

xis Sesaxeb azris gamoxatva, aramed SeZlos gamarTuli, salitera-

turo enis normebis dacviT agebuli msjeloba, sworad gamoiyenos

saxelis brunvis, zmnis, Tandebulis, ricxvis formebi... yovelive es

sakiTxebze msjelobisas unda miewodos enis Semswavlels, radgan

calkeul gramatikul sakiTxebze msjeloba misi gamoyenebis praqti-

kul mxares ar gulisxmobs. aseTi konstruqciebi calke unda damu-

Savdes, raTa moswavlem kargad gaacnobieros romeli enobrivi

forma (brunva, ricxvi, Tandebuli, zmnis dro, sxva gramatikuli ka-

tegoria) unda gamoiyenos konkretul SemTxvevaSi. aseTi konstruq-

ciebis miwodebisas, ra Tqma unda, gramatikul sakiTxebze ki ar ga-

maxvildeba yuradReba, aramed enobriv formebze, rogorc azris ga-

moxatvis saSualebaze. konstruqciebSi maswavlebelma yuradReba

unda gaamaxvilos imaze, rom es konkretuli konstruqcia moiTxovs

konkretul brunvas, mocemul Tandebuls, Sesabamis ricxvis formas

da ase Semdeg, Tumca sruliadac araa saWiro gramatikuli terminis

gamoyeneba. aseTi konstruqciebi calke unda amoiweros da mos-

wavles unda ganemartos, rom swori da gamarTuli msjelobisaTvis

46


saWiroa maTi Seucvlelad gamoyeneba, radgan winaaRmdeg SemTxveva-

Si azri damaxinjdeba an Seicvleba. magaliTisaTvis: am garemoebam

gamoiwvia, sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT mniSvnelovania, am problemis

Taobaze, am movlenebma gamoiwvia saTanado Sedegi... calke gamota-

nili aseTi konstruqciebi xels Seuwyobs moswavleTa gamarTuli

metyvelebis unar-Cvevebis gamomuSavebas.

funqciuri frazebi

aseve calke unda damuSavdes da moswavleebs miewodoT is

funqciuri frazebi, romlebic maswavlebels dasWirdeba sakiTxis

axsnisas. magaliTad: vnaxoT cxrilze, daxazeT cxrili, SeavseT

cxrili, SeusabameT swori forma, daakavSireT, daajgufeT, moaxdi-

neT klasifikacia, miuwereT qarTuli Sesatyvisebi, sqemis / cxrilis

mixedviT imsjeleT... da ase Semdeg. maTi ganmartebis gareSe mos-

wavle ver SeZlebs davalebis sworad Sesrulebas. amdenad, maswav-

lebelma winaswar unda gaTvalos, rogor warimarTeba teqstze mu-

Saoba da moswavleebs specialurad, axsna-ganmartebiT unda miawo-

dos is funqciuri frazebi, romlebic sagakveTilo procesSi das-

WirdebaT, raTa aman SemdgomSi ar gamoiwvios Seferxeba.

bilingvuri swavlebis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi sakiTxia

teqstze muSaoba, radgan swored teqstia moswavlisaTvis sagnobri-

vi codnis mimcemi da amave dros igi aris misi enobrivi kompeten-

ciis amaRlebis umTavresi saSualeba, radgan enis akademiuri flo-

bis dones mxolod am gziT vaRwevT. sxva SemTxvevaSi ena mxolod

komunikaciis saSualebad darCeba enis SemswavlelisaTvis. amdenad,

Tu teqstze muSaoba sworad ar warimarTa mizani verc erT sferoSi

ver Sesruldeba da Tavad bilingvuri swavlebis formac safrTxis

qveS dadgeba. es kargad unda axsovdes maswavlebels.

47


2. grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba

ian amos komenskim Tavis naSromSi `didi didaqtika~ didaqtikis

erT-erT umTavresad TvalsaCinoebis principi miiCnia: `oqros kano-

nad unda iqces piroba: moswavleebs unda meceT ufleba, SeigrZnon

yvelaferi, rac ki SesaZlebelia SeigrZnon SegrZnebebis doneze:

xilvadi - mxedvelobiT, xma - smeniT, suni - ynosviT, gemo - gemoTi,

Sesaxebi - SexebiT.~

ratom aris xilvadoba ase mniSvnelovani?

komenskis azriT, ra enasac ar unda vaswavlideT _ mSobliur

enasac ki _ unda vaCvenoT nivTebi, romelTa ganmartebac sityvebia

da unda vaswavloT sityvebiT gamoTqma yvelafrisa, rasac vxedavT,

rasac vexebiT, rasac vWamT, raTa metyvelebis procesi da azri yo-

velTvis paralelurad mimdinareobdes da orive viTardebodes er-

Tad. aravis ar SeiZleba wavakiTxoT is, rac mas ar esmis, an movT-

xovoT imis ganxilva, ris gamoTqmac mas sityvebiT ar SeuZlia.

vizualuri saSualebebi damxmare saswavlo saSualebebia, ro-

melTac aCveneben, demonstrirebas ukeTeben gakveTilze, raTa ufro

gasagebi da advilad aRsaqmeli gaxdes saswavlo masala, miwodebu-

li informacia, Teoriuli azri da ase Semdeg. vizualur saSuale-

bebs, Cveulebriv, saswavlo procesis garkveuli safexuris saWiroe-

bebisa da moTxovnebis, aseve moswavleebis asakidan gamomdinare

Tvisebebis Sesabamisad amzadeben. maT ajgufeben bunebriv, xelovnur

da simbolur vizualur masalad.

vizualuri masala SeiZleba iyos:

a) bunebis obieqtebi (demonstrirebis dros, eqskursiebze da gaseir-

nebis dros),

48


) specialurad Seqmnili saSualebebi (plakatebi, sqemebi, gamosax-

ulebebi, foto suraTebi, naxatebi, geometriuli figurebi, muliaJe-

bi, grafikuli cxrilebi, tabulebi),

g) simboluri saSualebebi (rukebi, globusebi),

d) modelebi (aparatebi, xelsawyoebi),

e) saekrano saSualebebi (kino filmebi, diafilmebi, diapozitivebi

da sxva),

v) audiovizualuri saSualebebi (video Canawerebi, audio Canawere-

bi).

jgufi:

tradiciulad gamoiyeneba vizualuri swavlebis meTodis ori

ilustrirebis meTodi (saswavlo masalis amsaxvel saSuale-

bebTan dakavSirebuli - plakatebis, rukebis, naxazebis, sqeme-

bis, gamosaxulebebis, fotosuraTebis, grafikebis, diagrame-

bis, tabulebis - gamoyenebasTan);

demonstrirebis meTodi (raTa naCvenebi iyos sivrciTi sas-

wavlo saSualebebi);

ilustrireba procesia, romlis mizania Teoriis garkveuli ka-

noni an movlena ukeT gasagebi gaxados magaliTis, vizualuri saSu-

alebebis, sityvieri ganmartebebis, moZraobis da ase Semdeg daxma-

rebiT.

demonstrireba SesaZlebelia vizualuri masalis damzadebis

dros, saswavlo eqsperimentebis dros maT Sesaxeb Sefasebebis da

ganmartebebis gziT, anu maswavleblis, moswavlis an sxva pirovnebis

mier naTqvamis gamoyenebiT. demonstrireba Sesaswavli nivTis, ob-

ieqtis, movlenis cocxlad dakvirvebis SesaZleblobas uzrunve-

lyofs, amgvarad, Sesabamisi saswavlo masalis Sinaarsis ukeTesad

gaazrebas da aTvisebas uwyobs xels.

49


vizualuri saswavlo masalis gamoyeneba rom efeqturi

gaxdes, mniSvnelovania gvaxsovdes da gaviTvaliswinoT ramdenime

piroba da moTxovna.

saswavlo procesSi vizualuri meTodebis gamoyeneba moswav-

leebis vizualur mxatvruli azrovnebis ganviTarebas uwyobs

xels; aaqtiurebs yuradRebas da Semecnebis unars; konkreti-

zacias ukeTebs saswavlo an gamosakvlev Teoriul sakiTxebs;

nanax movlenebs ukeTebs sistematizebasa da klasificirebas;

swavlisadmi interess ukeTebs stimulirebas (Sesabamisad, po-

zitiuri motivaciis Camoyalibebas uwyobs xels); procesis da

movlenebis modelirebis SesaZleblobas iZleva, romelTa

realur droSi dakvirveba SeuZlebelia; saswavlo masalis

aTvisebis donis Sesaxeb konkretuli informaciis miRebis Se-

saZleblobas iZleva;

ar SeiZleba xilvadoba TviTmiznad iqces. vizualuri masalis

optimalurad gamoyeneba niSnavs amis mizandasaxulad keTebas,

saswavlo gakveTilis mizanTan da ZiriTad davalebasTan kav-

Siris gaTvaliswinebiT. xilvadobis meTodi unda daba-

lansdes sxva meTodebis gamoyenebiT.

xilvadoba SeiZleba axali saswavlo masalis axsnis dros

iyos gamoyenebuli, aseve ukve naswavlis ganmtkicebisTvis da

Sefasebis dros. mniSvnelovania gvaxsovdes rom vizualuri

masalis gamoyeneba gakveTilisTvis gamoyofili dros

sagrZnoblad dazogvaSi gvexmareba.

vizualuri masalis damzadeba SeuZlia maswavlebels (gamoye-

nebis win an gamoyenebis dros) da aseve moswavleebs (indivi-

dualurad an jgufebSi, wyvilebSi muSaobaSi). damzadebul

masalaSi maswavlebels Tavisufali adgilebis datoveba

SeuZlia, romelic Semdgom moswavles SeeZleba Seavsos (miax-

atos, miaweros rame, an raimes saxeli daarqvas).

50


vizualuri masalis gamoyenebis dros unda darwmundeT, rom

mas yvela moswavle kargad xedavs.

mniSvnelovania moswavleebis asakobrivi jgufisTvis damax-

asiaTebeli Tvisebebis gaTvaliswineba, mexsierebis dominanti

saxeobebi.

bilingvuri swavlisa da swavlebis dros gansakuTrebiT

mniSvnelovania grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba. es xerxi

kargad Seesabameba ori saswavlo sagnis swavlebis miznebs (meore

enisa da raime sxva sagnisa). grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyene-

biT, maswavlebeli uzrunvelyofs rogorc sagnis masalis, aseve

enis aTvisebis warmatebulobas.

grafikuli organizatorebi da maTi funqciebi:

grafikuli organizatorebi informaciis struqturirebis

xerxia _ mowesrigebis (dajgufebis) uniSvnelovanesi xerxi.

grafikuli organizatorebi informacias vizualurad gvaCve-

neben.

grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba aqtiur swavlas

uwyobs xels. magaliTad: saSinao davalebis (savarjiSoebis)

Sesrulebis dros, moswavleebi im enas iyeneben, romelzec

laparakoben, kiTxuloben, weren, ismenen, fiqroben, xolo in-

formaciis grafikulad ganlagebis dros isini iyeneben ro-

gorc nacnob, aseve ucnob informacias.

grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba maswavlebels da

moswavles Soris TanamSromlobas, anu kooperatiul swavle-

bas, uwyobs xels,.

grafikuli organizatorebi gvexmareba teqstis vizualurad

mowesrigebaSi (mis gagebaSi). maTi gamoyeneba SeiZleba:

1) teqstis an axali masalis wakiTxvis win,

51


2) wakiTxvis Semdeg,

3) weris an davalebis werilobiT Sesrulebis win,

4) teqstis an davalebis ganxilvis dros,

5) diskusiis dros,

6) daskvnebis gakeTebis procesSi da a.S.

grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba moswavlis saswavlo

Temis Sesaxeb arsebuli codnis dadgenaSi (gaazrebaSi) gvex-

mareba, aseve _ axali codnis aTvisebisTvis moswavleebis

momzadebaSi.

grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyenebis dros, moswavle da

maswavlebeli erTmaneTisgan swavloben (masalasac, erTmane-

Tis gagebas da erTmaneTTan urTierTobas). bilingvuri swav-

lis procesSi aseT TanamSromlobas gansakuTrebuli mniSv-

neloba aqvs. moswavleebi sakuTari codnis struqturirebas

swavloben da aqedan gamomdinare swavlis sakuTar strate-

gias irCeven.

grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba rogorc vizualuri,

aseve sityvieri (verbaluri) informaciis gamoyenebas ganapi-

robebs. es moswavleebs SesaZleblobas aZlevs airCion, vari-

reba gaukeTon swavlis stils, sakuTari SesaZleblobebis

gaTvaliswinebiT.

grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyenebis upiratesobebi:

SegviZlia gamoviyenoT iseT auditoriaSi, romelSic

moswavleebis enis codnis done sxvadasxvaa.

SegviZlia gamoviyenoT iseT auditoriaSi, romelSic

moswavleebis aTvisebis unaris done sxvadasxvaa.

SegviZlia ganvaviTaroT da gavafarTooT leqsikuri

maragi.

52


moswavlis codnas awesrigebs, xels uwyobs misi disku-

siis unarisa da SesaZleblobis ganviTarebas, aseve sa-

kuTari azris da mis xelT arsebuli informaciis ga-

moTqmis.

im moswavleTa azrisa da enis integrirebas uwyobs

xels, romelTac gansxvavebuli (sxvadasxva) swavlis

stili aqvT.

ufro xelmisawvdoms xdis nebismieri saxis (esoden

rTul, specifikur da ucxo) informacias (saswavlo sa-

gans).

ras unda mivaqcioT yuradReba grafikuli organizatorebis gamoye-

nebis dros?

yuradReba unda mieqces mTavar informacias, cnebebs, azrebs:

mTavari unda gamoikveTos (ufro didi asoebi an naxatebi,

ufro mkveTri feriT gaxazuli an gaferadebuli), naklebad

mniSvnelovani ufro patara asoebiT, an sxvanairad unda dai-

weros (weris mimarTulebis Secvla SeiZleba).

grafikuli organizatorebi sxvadasxva moswavlis individua-

luri gamocdilebisa da codnis dadgenis SesaZleblobas

gvaZlevs, Semdgom am informaciaze dayrdnobiT axali codnis

miRebis SesaZleblobas. es swavlis process realurad amar-

tivebs da aadvilebs.

xeli SeuwyveT cnebebis da zogadi saxelebis ganviTarebas!

grafikuli organizatorebi gviCveneben mTavar azrs, Sesabami-

si leqsikis daxmarebiT. daexmareT moswavleebs cnebebis Se-

madgeneli nawilebis (atributebis) danaxvaSi. mizani aris ga-

geba da swavla, amitom gamoiyeneT iseTi sityvebis maragi,

53


omlebic ganmartavs, azustebs, ilustrirebas ukeTebs in-

formacias.

xSirad gamoiyeneT wera, kiTxva, azrovneba!

moswavleebs rom grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba an

Sedgena SeeZloT, maT bevri unda ikiTxon, ifiqron da weron.

roca moswavleebi grafikulad asaxaven informacias an kama-

Toben mis Sesaxeb, maT uwevT masalis gadakiTxva, erTmaneTSi

molaparakeba, saubari, damtkiceba, Sesabamisad xedaven movle-

naTa urTierT kavSirs, urTierTobas, movlenebis ganviTare-

bas, mizezebsa da Sedegebs.

wera exmareba da xelSemwyobia dagegmarebisa da ganxilvisa!

grafikuli organizatorebi efeqturi saSualebaa diskusiis

principiT muSaobis, gegmis Sedgenis, weris organizebis dros.

yvelafris Caweris Semdeg SegviZlia naSromis Sinaarsis daj-

gufeba da gadaxarisxeba.

ganaviTareT mimdinare diskusia!

grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba azrebs mimarTulebas

aZlevs. moswavleebi avTentur enas xmaroben - interpretire-

bis, analizis, problemis gadawyvetis, daTanxmebis, ardaTanx-

mebis, TanamSromlobis, Secdomebis daSvebis dros - saswavlo

masalidan romelime specifikuri Temis Seswavlis procesSi.

instruqciebis an grafikuli organizatorebis micemis dros

Tqven exmarebiT dagegmvaSi.

grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyenebiT maswavlebeli mos-

wavleebs aCvenebs mTavars raime Temis, cnebis Sesaxeb da

xerxs, Tu rogor SeiZleba axali informaciis aTviseba. igi

faqtobrivad rCevas an instruqcias iZleva, Tu rogor SeiZ-

leba swavlis gagrZeleba (rogor SeiZleba am Temis aTviseba).

54


grafikuli organizatorebi Sefasebis instrumentia. grafi-

kuli organizatorebi moswavlis codnis, Segnebis, swavlis,

fiqris donis obieqturad Sefasebis SesaZleblobas iZleva.

55


3. Secdomebze muSaoba

enis Seswavlis procesSi Secdomebi gardauvalia. igi enis aT-

visebis Tanamdevi movlenaa. Sesaswavl enaze metyvelebis unaris

ganviTareba aucileblad iwvevs Secdomebs, romlebic sxvadasxva

faqtorebiTaa ganpirobebuli: rTulia Sesaswavli enis fonematuri

struqturis srulad aTviseba da misi realizeba, sawarmoTqmo apa-

ratis morgeba axali enis monacemebTan, aseve xdeba mSobliuri enis

yalibis meqanikuri gadatana axal enobriv sistemaSi, an adgili aqvs

konstruqciis arasrulad aTvisebas da miRebuli codnis arasrul-

fasovnad gadatanas praqtikaSi. es da sxva mravali sakiTxi gansa-

kuTrebulad TvalsaCinoa saklaso muSaobisas. rogor unda moiqces

maswavlebeli? reagirebis gareSe datovos Secdomebi Tu meyseulad

mianiSnos masze moswavles? mxolod gausworos Secdoma Tu imsje-

los TiToeul maTganze? ra dro dauTmos Secdomebis analizs? Se-

moitanos axali masala Tu isev imuSaos im masalaze, romelic jer

kidev ar auTvisebia moswavles ise, rom ar dauSvas Secdoma? yvela

Secdomaze hqondes reaqcia maswavlebels Tu mxolod zogierTze an

SerCeviT imsjelos TiToeulze? ra dro dauTmos Secdomebis ana-

lizs da rogor miawodos is klass? individualurad unda moxdes

moswavleTa mier daSvebuli Secdomebis analizi Tu igi saklaso

ganxilvis sagani unda gaxdes? _ es kiTxvebi da maTze pasuxis ga-

cema mniSvnelovania saswavlo procesis srulyofilad agebisaTvis

da sagakveTilo procesSi maswavleblis qmedebis sworad warmarT-

visaTvis.

pirveli da mniSvnelovani piroba, romelic unda Sesruldes,

aris is, rom moswavle, romelic cdilobs Sesaswavl enaze martivi

komunikaciis agebas da axerxebs Tundac elementarul komunikacias,

56


ar unda SevaferxoT; anu am SemTxvevaSi uSecdomo metyveleba an

Secdomebis analizi ki araa mTavari, aramed is, rom Sesaswavl

enaze metyvelebis survili gavuCinoT enis Semswavlels / mos-

wavles. es metad mniSvnelovani fsiqologiuri faqtoria, radgan

enis Seswavlisas yvelas uviTardeba kompleqsi imisa, rom igi aras-

worad an arasrulyofilad gadmoscems azrs. Tu maswavlebeli am

SemTxvevaSi yovel Secdomaze reagirebs, sasurveli Sedegis nac-

vlad, rom moswavlem gamarTulad ilaparakos, SesaZloa sruliad

sapirispiro Sedegi miviRoT _ moswavles daekargeba Sesaswavl

enaze metyvelebis survili.

aRsaniSnavia is, rom Secdomebi mosalodnelia yvela doneze,

magram sxvadasxva doneze Secdomebi sxvadasxvagvari iqneba. enis

Seswavlis pirvelive safexurze Cndeba sawarmoTqmo problemebi. Se-

saswavli enis fonematuri struqtura erTbaSad Zneli aRsaqmeli da

warmosaTqmelia. miT ufro, es exeba specifikuri bgerebis sworad

gamoTqmas. Semdgom etapze Tavs iCens sxvadasxvagvari gramatikuli

sakiTxi. Secdomebi mudmivad vlindeba weraSi. yvela am sakiTxs

etapobrivad da mizanmimarTulad unda damuSaveba. Secdomebze mu-

Saoba saswavlo procesis ganuyofel nawilad unda iqces. enis

swavlebisas Secdomebi gardauvalia, amdenad saswavlo procesis

sworad dagegmva gulisxmobs Secdomebze specialur muSaobas. amg-

varad dagegmili saqmianoba ki safuZveli gaxdeba, erTi mxriv, enis

komunikaciuri aspeqtis ganviTarebisa, xolo meore mxriv, igi gana-

viTarebs da aamaRlebs enis akademiuri flobis dones.

Secdomebze muSaoba warmoTqmaSi

sawarmoTqmo problemebi Tavs iCens enis swavlebis pirvelive

dRidan, magram maTi gamosworeba mcire droSi ar moxdeba, rac ar

unda gaZlierebuli da intensiuri muSaoba Catardes am mxriv. enis

codnis donis amaRlebasTan erTad sawarmoTqmo problemebic mcir-

57


deba, magram igi yovelTvis SeiZleba darCes aqcentis saxiT, anu

srulyofilad swori warmoTqmac verasodes ganxorcieldes. ramde-

nadac es SeiZleba ganvixiloT mkveTrad individualuri Tvisebebisa

da unarebis gamovlenad, amdenad misi srulad daZleva mxolod in-

dividis SesaZleblobebs SeiZleba mivandoT. zogierTi individi bu-

nebrivi smenisa da sxva unar-Cvevebis Sedegad enis aTvisebis para-

lelurad axerxebs sawarmoTqmo aparatis srulyofas da uaqcento

metyvelebas, zogisaTvis ki es mudmiv maxasiaTeblad rCeba, Tumca

SesaZloa, misi enobrivi kompetencia maRalic ki iyos. amdenad, sa-

warmoTqmo problemebis analizisas unda moxdes mxolod ZiriTad

problemebze aqcentireba. rogorc cnobilia, bgeris umTavresi max-

asiaTebeli misi sityvaTganmasxvavebeli funqciaa _ bgeraTa Canac-

vlebiT SeiZleba miviRoT sruliad gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobis si-

tyva. amitom enis SemswavlelTan gansakuTrebulad unda mieqces yu-

radReba amgvar problemebs enaSi da masze specialurad Seiqmnas

savarjiSoebi, raTa sawarmoTqmo problema ar gadaizardos enobriv

problemaSi. amisaTvis:

specialurad damuSavdes Sesaswavli enis fonematuri struq-

tura enis Semswavlelis mSobliur enasTan mimarTebiT da ga-

moiyos gansxvavebuli bgerebi; am bgeraTa gamoyenebiT Seiqmnas

winadadebebi da mcire zomis martivi, araavTenturi teqstebi,

romlebsac gamoviyenebT rogorc sawarmoTqmo miznebisaTvis,

ise karnaxisa da werisaTvis. yoveli nacionaluri jgufisaT-

vis unda ganisazRvros SecdomaTa mosalodneli tipebi. maga-

liTad, Turqul da azerbaijanulenovan moswavleebs, agreTve

evropuli enebis umravles warmomadgenlebs uZneldebaT qar-

Tuli enis yru mkveTr TanxmovanTa warmoTqma, rogorebicaa: p,

t, k; rusulenovan enis Semswavlels gauWirdeba yru fSvin-

vierebis warmoTqma: f, T, q. aseve rTulia afrikatebis (Z, c, w,

j, C, W) warmoTqma zemoTCamoTvlili enebis warmomadgenle-

58


isTvis, magram somxurenovani moswavlisaTvis es ar warmoad-

gens gansakuTrebul problemas. qarTulisaTvis specifikuria

enisZirismieri y Tanxmovani da misi sworad warmoTqma

xangrZliv, SesaZloa dauZlevel problemadac ki darCes qar-

Tuli enis SemswavlelisaTvis. amdenad am problemebze auci-

leblad unda gamaxvildes yuradReba, magram srulyofili

warmoTqmis survilma ar unda Seaferxos enis Seswavlis

procesi da arc enis Semswavlels unda gauCndes iseTi gan-

wyoba, rom es dauZleveli procesia. Tu Secdomebi ar cvlis

sityvis mniSvnelobas, maTze specialurad yuradRebis gamax-

vileba arcaa saWiro, radgan amgvari problemebi enobrivi

kompetenciis amaRlebasTan erTad TandaTan Semcirdeba.

gamoiyos iseTi bgerebi, romelTa araswori gamoyeneba gamoiw-

vevs sityvis mniSvnelobis cvlas. qarTulisaTvis aseTia: p -

f: papa - fafa, piri _ firi, puri _ furi, poni _ foni, paqti _

faqti... T _ t: Tari _ tari, Taro _ taro, TuSi _ tuSi... q _

k: qudi _ kudi, qari _ kari, qera _ kera, qula _ kula... c _

w: celi _ weli, curavs _ wuravs... C _ W: Ciri _ Wiri, Cala _

Wala... g _ R: gori _ Rori, gvari _ Rvari, gomi _ Romi, go-

nieri _ Ronieri... R - y: Ria _ yia, Rele _ yeli... da ase Sem-

deg. sasurvelia, enis Semswavlels sakiTxav da sawarmoTqmo

masalad winaswar mivawodoT aseTi sityvebi, raTa man, erTi

mxriv, yuradReba gaamaxvilos maT sworad warmoTqmaze da

meore mxriv, Tavad icodes mosalodneli Secdomis arseboba.

am sityvaTa gamoyenebiT sasurvelia, Seiqmnas winadadebebi an

mcire moculobis teqstebi, romelTa gamoyeneba SeiZleba sa-

kiTxavad, smenisa da gagebis unaris gasaumjobeseblad, kar-

naxiT werisaTvis. aseve mizanSewonili iqneba Casasmeli sa-

varjiSoebis miwodebac, romlebSic Tavad unda gansazRvros

sityvis konteqsturi mniSvneloba da Tavad unda SearCios

59


mocemul sityvaTagan erT-erTi. aseve mniSvnelovania specia-

luri mizniT Seqmnili audio masalis miwodeba an maswav-

leblis mier warmoTqmuli calkeuli sityvebisa da teqstebis

demonstrireba.

momzaddes specialuri savarjiSoebi sawarmoTqmo aparatis

dasaxvewad; amisaTvis SeiZleba misaRebi iyos `enis gasatexeb-

ic~, magram aq unda gaviTvaliswinoT is, rom enis gasatexis

yvela sityva advilad asaxsneli da gasagebi unda iyos enis

SemswavlelisaTvis.

swavlebis procesSi sasurvelia maswavlebelma CainiSnos is

Secdomebi, romlebsac warmoTqmisas uSveben moswavleebi da

Semdgom Seqmnas specialuri savarjiSoebi maTTvis. amgvari

savarjiSoebis SesaZlo tipebis: TvalsaCinoeba, romelzedac

moxdeba swori da araswori formebis gamijvna (ra aris ga-

moxatuli suraTze: qari Tu kari?, romelia wigni da romeli

ciga?...), demonstrirebaze dayrdnobiT gameoreba, simReris an

leqsis audioCanaweris mosmena da Semdgom moswavleebis mier

imave teqstis gameoreba... es ukanaskneli SesaZloa xSirad Ta-

vad maswavlebelma Seasrulos: mis mier wakiTxul an war-

moTqmul teqsts imeoreben moswavleebi.

moiZebnos masala (leqsebi, simRerebi...), romlebic gamosadegi

iqneba sawarmoTqmo daniSnulebiT.

aseve didi mniSvneloba eqneba multiplikaciuri da mxatvru-

li filmebis naxvas specialuri davalebebiT (magaliTad,

kiTxva-pasuxi: ra Tqva am gmirma? ra upasuxa meorem?...).

Secdomebze muSaoba zepirmetyvelebaSi

rogorc ukve iTqva, maswavleblis pirveli rigis amocanaa, rom

ar Seawyvetinos moswavles metyveleba daSvebuli Secdomebis gamo.

magram amave dros:

60


maswavlebelma unda CainiSnos Secdomebi;

maswavlebelma unda moaxdinos SecdomaTa klasifikacia;

unda ganisazRvros SecdomaTa tipebi enis kompetenciis mixed-

viT, anu moxdes im sakiTxebis gamoyofa, romelzedac yura-

dRebis miqceva SesaZlebeli iqneba enis flobis konkretuli

donisaTvis;

Seiqmnas specialuri savarjiSoebi, testebi mosalodneli

Secdomebis gamosasworeblad;

asakisa da enis flobis donis mixedviT daigegmos samuSaoebi

klasSi Sesasruleblad (maswavleblis saubari, specialuri

ganmarteba, axsna, analizi...).

gramatikul Secdomebze muSaoba

gramatikuli Secdomebis gamosworeba metad xangrZlivi pro-

cesia da igi gansakuTrebul muSaobas moiTxovs rogorc maswav-

leblis, ise enis Semswavlelis mxridan.

maswavlebelma unda CainiSnos yvela is Secdoma, romelsac

moswavleebi uSveben zepirmetyvelebisas Tu werisas. magram yvela

Secdomis analizi, bunebrivia, ver moxdeba erTbaSad, radgan igi

moiTxovs rogorc enobrivi kompetenciis garkveul dones, ise ga-

saTvaliswinebelia asakobrivi sakiTxic, radgan arsebobs Secdoma-

Ta meqanikuri da gaazrebuli daZlevis gzebi. dawyebiTi klasebis

moswavleebs sasurvelia mxolod swori forma mivawodoT xSirad

daSvebuli Secdomebis sanacvlod da specialuri analizis gareSe

mivaRwioT maT gamosworebas. asakobrivi da enobrivi kompetenciis

zrdasTan erTad TandaTanobiT moxdeba enobrivi struqturisa da

enobrivi meqanizmebis gaazreba da SecdomaTa safuZvlian analizs

mxolod am SemTxvevaSi eqneba azri.

gramatikuli Secdomebis analizisas mniSvneloba eniWeba imas,

Tu ra iwvevs am tipis Secdomas. am SemTxvevaSi ramdenime aspeqti

61


unda gaviTvaliswinoT: Secdoma SeiZleba gamowveuli iyos mSobli-

uri enis analogiT, radgan enis Semswavlels pirdapir gadmoaqvs

Tavisi enisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli konstruqcia Sesaswavl enaSi;

gramatikul Secdomebs iwvevs enobrivi kompetenciis dabali done,

anu Sesaswavli enis struqturis arcodna da enobrivi meqanizmebis

gauTvaliswinebloba.

rogor unda vimuSaoT gramatikul Secdomebze?

pirvel rigSi unda moxdes SecdomaTa klasifikacia, magali-

Tad: Secdomebi piris formaTa sworad gamoyenebis sakiTxSi,

zmnis droTa formebis warmoebaSi, Secdomebi zmnur kon-

struqciebSi, anu zmnasTan dakavSirebul saxelTa formebis

sworad gamoyeneba, rTuli winadadebebis konstruqciebis

Sedgena Tu sxva tipisa...

sasurvelia Seiqmnas TvalsaCinoeba _ sqemebi, cxrilebi...

romlebic asaxaven, rogorc Sesaswavli enis Taviseburebebs,

aseve moaxdenen mosalodnel SecdomaTa sapirispirod swori

formebis gaaqtiurebas;

unda Seiqmnas specialuri savarjiSoebi TiToeuli sakiTxi-

saTvis: Casma, swori formis SerCeva, areuli Tanmimdevrobis

dalageba, zmnis, winadadebis, teqstis gadayvana sxva drois /

piris formaSi, kiTxva-pasuxi pirTa formebis gaaqtiurebiT,

minidialogis Sedgena mocemuli formebis gamoyenebiT, situ-

aciuri TamaSebi Sesaswavli formebis gamoyenebiT, gamonakli-

sebze specialuri muSaoba da ase Semdeg...

mocemuli formebis gamoyenebiT winadadebebi an teqstis Sed-

gena;

informaciis gameoreba da axali winadadebis / informaciis

damateba;

dialogis Sedgena mocemuli an gansaxilveli formebis ga-

moyenebiT (wyvilebSi muSaoba)...

62


gramatikuli Secdomebze muSaobis erT-erTi efeqturi gzaa

funqciuri gramatikis sakiTxebis miwodeba enis SemswavlelTaT-

vis. igi gansakuTrebulad avlens gramatikis praqtikul daniS-

nulebas da amave dros aviTarebs enobriv kompetenciebs komuni-

kaciuri situaciebis mixedviT.

Secdomebze muSaoba weris mimarTulebiT

weriTi davalebebi metad mniSvnelovania rogorc uSualod

weris unar-Cvevis, ise zogadad enobrivi kompetenciis ganviTarebi-

saTvis. weris procesi metyvelebasTan SedarebiT nela da pasiuri

codnis gaaqtiurebiT mimdinareobs, ramdenadac enis Semswavlels /

moswavles sakmarisi dro aqvs azris gadmosacemad mis mier aTvise-

buli masalidan gaazrebulad SearCios formebi. amdenad werisas

daSvebuli Secdomebi saukeTeso indikatoria gaazrebuli codnis

doneze arsebul problemaTa gamosavlenad. Tu weriT namuSevarSi

Secdomebi mravladaa, es aSkarad aCvenebs, rom enis Semswavleli-

saTvis garkveuli sakiTxebi jer kidev dauZlevelia. amdenad, weri-

sas daSvebul Secdomebze mizanmimarTulad unda imuSaos rogorc

enis Semswavlelmac, aseve maswavlebelma.

weriTi davalebebis saxiT moswavles SesaZloa sxvadasxva sa-

muSao mieces da TiToeuli maTgani Tavisebur midgomasa da muSao-

bas moiTxovs. upirveles yovlisa ki unda aRiniSnos, rom didi

mniSvneloba eniWeba weriTi namuSevris kargad gamoyenebas Secdoma-

Ta analizisaTvis. amitom maswavlebelma aucileblad unda mianiS-

nos yvela Secdomaze, xolo Semdgom gamokveTilad unda miuTiTos

swori forma an azris gamoxatvis swori enobrivi saSualebebi. vi-

zualizaciis es xerxi kargi saSualebaa moswavlisaTvis sakuTar

SecdomaTa gasaanalizeblad.

dawyebiT safexurze efeqturia karnaxi, radgan igi avlens im

problemebs, romlebic mosmenis, gagebis, enis fonematuri struqtu-

63


isa da orTografiis gaazrebis dones avlens. karnaxi kargad ga-

moavlens, ra problemebia bgeraTa aRqmisa da sworad weris Tval-

sazrisiT.

weriTi davalebis erT-erTi saxeobas warmoadgens winadadebe-

bisa da teqstebis Sedgena. am SemTxvevaSi vlindeba gramatikuli

problemebi, rac aseve unda gaxdes Secdomebis gasworebisa da ana-

lizi safuZveli. rveulSi, specialur adgilze, gamokveTilad, um-

jobesia sqematurad da TvalsaCinod, saTiTaod unda gamoikveTos

yvela Secdoma swori variantis CvenebiT.

M metad efeqturi saSualebaa, moswavleTa mier Secdome-

bis gasworeba. amisaTvis rveulSi unda gamoiyos adgili Secdomebis

gasworebisaTvis, sadac moswavle Tavadve dawers Secdomis sanac-

vlod swor, gamarTul variants.

mokled, Secdomebis analizi weris mimarTulebiT amgvarad

SeiZleba warmovidginoT:

karnaxi da misi analizi;

weriTi davaleba da misi analizi;

naweris gasworebisas mieniSnos yvela Secdoma swori formis

miTiTebiT;

gamoiyos specialuri adgili Secdomebis gasworebisaTvis;

Seiqmnas specialuri davalebebi, teqstebi tipur SecdomaTa

gaanalizebisaTvis.

dasasrul, kidev erTxel mivubrundeT im SekiTxvebs, romleb-

ic daisva da sakiTxis gaTvaliswinebiT maT mokled gavceT pa-

suxi:

amdenad, Secdomebi reagirebis gareSe ar unda darCes, magram

TiToeul maTganze dauyovneblivi reagireba Seaferxebs moswav-

lis metyvelebis process. amitom sasurvelia, maswavlebelma Cai-

niSnos Secdomebi, moaxdinos maTi klasifikacia da Semdgom

gaaanalizos isini. enis Seswavlis sawyis safexurze SeiZleba

64


mxolod mieniSnos swori formis Sesaxeb. aseve efeqturi iqneba

TvalsaCinoebebis, gansakuTrebiT ki sqemebis, gamoyeneba. enobrivi

kompetenciis zrdasTan erTad ki sasurvelia SecdomaTa analizi

da maTze garkveuli msjeloba. SecdomaTa klasifikaciis Semdeg

maswavlebelma enis aTvisebis procesSi TandaTanobiT unda gaaa-

nalizos Secdomebi da igi etapobrivad miawodos klass. araa

aucilebeli Secdomebis analizs mTeli sagakveTilo procesi

daeTmos, an garkveuli TanamimdevrobiT moxdes maTze msjeloba.

piriqiT, maTi gaanalizeba SeniSvnis xasiaTs unda atarebdes.

aseve aucilebelia specialuri savarjiSoebis Sedgena, romleb-

Sic ukve gaanalizebuli Secdomebis praqtikaSi gadatana moxde-

ba. es kidev erTxel gamoavlens imas, ramdenad sworad iyeneben

ganxilul formebs. sasurvelia Secdomebi mTel klasTan erTad

gaanalizdes da ara individualurad, Tumca weris mimarTulebiT

amas mainc individualuri xasiaTi eZleva.

65


4. bilingvuri gakveTilis Sefaseba

B bilingvuri swavlebis procesis Sefasebisas gansakuTrebuli

yuradReba eqceva Tavad swavlebis processa da swavlebis

strategiebs (formatuli Sefaseba) da Sedegebs (Semajamebeli

Sefaseba). amisaTvis gamoiyeneba sxvadasxva xerxi, kerZod:

dakvirveba, interviu, testebi da sxva. producirebis unarebis

Sefaseba gulisxmobs pasuxs Semdeg kiTxvebze:

ra informaciis / sametyvelo funqciis gamoyeneba Seu-

ZliaT mSobliur da meore enaze moswavleebs Secdome-

biT Tu uSecdomod (dasaxuli amocanebis Sesrulebis

Sefaseba)?

visTan _ maswavleblebTan, TanatolebTan da stumrebTan

_ SeuZliaT urTierTqmedeba (komunikaciis problema)?

rogoria maTi lingvisturi unarebi (enobrivi konstruq-

ciebis aTvisebis donis Sefaseba da ara Secdomebis aR-

nusxva)?

SemfasebelTa amocanebSi unda Sediodes saswavlo procesis

analizi (dakvirveba klasSi), maswavleblis / moswavleebis /

mSoblebis urTierTobebi, saswavlo masalebi, aseve moswavleTa

kompetenciebis testireba (formatuli / Semajamebeli). klasSi

dakvirvebisas yuradReba unda mieqces ara marto moswavleebis,

aramed maswavleblis qcevasac: ra gavlenas axdens is moswavleebze

da rodis da rogor iyenebs enebs? rogor qmnis motivacias? rogor

reagirebs Secdomebze? Secdomebis gasworebis rogor formebs

iyenebs: modelirebas (swori formis Tanamimdevruli da xSiri

gameoreba Secdomebis pirdapiri Sesworebis gareSe) Tu xelaxla

66


formulirebas (moswavlis SecdomiT naTqvamis sworad da gasagebad

formulireba)? rogor aris organizebuli saswavlo procesi?

moswavleTa progresis Sesafaseblad bilingvur skolaSi

yuradReba unda mieqces maT miRwevebs saganSi. bilingvur skolaSi

moswavles xuTi weli mainc sWirdeba imisaTvis, rom igi daeuflos

meore enas sagnebis Sesaswavlad. Aam xangrZlivobis gamo moswavles

SeiZleba gauCndes sakuTari ususurobis gancda, Camouyalibdes

dabali TviTSefaseba. am problemis gadasawyvetad arsebobs ori

gza: pirveli _ bilingvuri klasis moswavleTa Sefaseba

specialurad maTTvis Sedgenili standartebis mixedviT. am midgomam

SeiZleba mSoblebisa da sagnebis maswavlebelTa gamoiwvios, radgan

maTi survilia, moswavlis Sedegebi Seesabamebodes saxelmwifo

standarts. amis gamo aucilebeli xdeba Cveulebrivi skolebisaTvis

kuTvnili testebis gamoyeneba. Mmagram, amasTan, unda vifiqroT

testebSi garkveuli cvlilebebis Setanis Sesaxeb. magaliTad, aseTi

SeiZleba iyos orenovani testi. aseve SeiZleba moswavleebs

SeiZleba mieceT damatebiTi dro, neba davrToT, isargeblon

leqsikonebiT an gavumartivoT testuri davalebebis pirobebi.

vafasebT ra bilingvur programebs, ar unda

SemovifargloT mxolod enobrivi unarebis SefasebiT. unda

Sefasdes Sinaarsi, mizani da meTodika.

ras

vafasebT?

qvemoT gTavazobT savaraudo CamonaTvalis cxrils:

moswavleTa

Sefaseba

kompetencias

mSobliur enaSi;

kompetencias sa-

ganSi;

67

bilingvuri

swavlebis

komponentebis

Sefaseba

swavlebis meTodika;

saswavlo Sinaarsi;

maswavlebelTa ur-

TierToba moswavle-

bilingvuri

modelis

Sefaseba

modelis efeq-

turoba;

bilingvuri

swavlebis mas-


vin

afasebs?

kompetencias meore

enaSi;

motivacias;

sxva kompetenciebi

(kognituri unare-

bi, socialuri un-

arebi, sxva saswav-

lo una-rebi);

maswavleble-bi;

saatestacio / saga-

mocdo komisia.

mizani moswavleTa Zlieri

rogor

vafasebT?

da susti mxare-

ebis gamovlena;

standartis Sede-

gebis miRweva;

informacia mSo-

belTaTvis;

SerCeva.

kiTxvarebi;

testebi;

interviu;

dakvirveba.

ebTan. wavlebelTa

damkvirvebelTa jgufi.

xarisxis kontroli;

masalebis gadamuSa-

veba;

maswavlebelTa mom-

zadebis done.

interviu;

dakvirveba klasSi

Catarebul samuSa-

oebze;

zepirmetyvelebis

analizi;

saswavlo masalebis

analizi.

68

momzadeba.

gare monitor-

ingis jgufi.

gadawyvetilebis

miReba modelis

SenarCuneba /

arSenarCunebaze,

ganviTarebaze.

saswavlo prog-

ramebisanali- zi;

kiTxvarebi;

kvlevebi.

gakveTilis Sefasebisas, rekomendebulia, rom maswavleblebma

upasuxon Semdeg kiTxvebs:

miRweuli iyo Tu ara gakveTilis gamokveTili miznebi?


SerCeuli strategiebis saSualebiT ramdenad moxerxda gakveTi-

lis winaSe dasmuli amocanebis gadaWra?

Seesabameba Tu ara gakveTilisaTvis gamoyofili drois gadana-

wileba realur SesaZleblobebs da moswavleTa moTxovnebs?

rogor gamoiyeneben moswavleebi gakveTilze miRebul codnas

momavalSi?

ra SeiZleboda gakeTebuliyo sxvagvarad?

TviTSefaseba

imisaTvis, rom moswavle SeeCvios sakuTari pasuxis Semowme-

bas, Camouyalibdes Secdomis mimarT swori damokidebuleba, daZ-

lios SiSi Secdomis winaSe, xSirad unda mivceT sakuTari namuSev-

ris Sefasebis saSualeba. TviTSefaseba mas exmareba imis gacnobie-

rebaSi, rom Secdomebis aRiareba da gamosworeba winsvlis aucile-

beli pirobaa. TviTSefasebiT igi grZnobs met valdebulebas da

cdilobs iyos maqsimalurad obieqturi.

TviTSefasebis ramdenime xerxi arsebobs. yvelaze gavrcele-

bulia swor pasuxebTan moswavleebis pasuxebis Sedareba. moswav-

leebi am Sedarebis gziT Tavad aRmoaCenen sakuTar Secdomebs da

Semdeg aanalizeben, ratom dauSves es Secdomebi, ris codna da-

akldaT, ra ver gaiTvaliswines, iqneb koncentracia ver moaxerxes

sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT an marTebuli gza ar airCies da sxva.

TviTSefasebis procesSi mniSvnelovani swored sakuTari saq-

mianobis refleqsiis procesia. es aRmoaCeninebs moswavles sakuTar

sust mxareebs, romelTa dasaZlevadac unda mimarTos sakuTari Za-

lisxmeva. Sedegiania TviTSefasebis iseTi xerxi, roca moswavle

winaswar SemuSavebuli Sefasebis sqemis mixedviT afasebs sakuTar

naSroms, Semdeg ucvlis mewyviles da erTmaneTis namuSevrebs afa-

69


seben, bolos ki maswavlebeli afasebs. am SemTxvevaSic mniSvnelo-

vania analizis procesi. ra daemTxva Sefasebis am sam SemTxvevaSi

erTmaneTs, ra _ ara da ratom? ris codna ar eyo moswavles Tavad

an mis Tanaklasels obieqturi SefasebisaTvis.

70


Tavi III

1. bilingvuri gakveTilis dagegmva

riT gansxvavdeba bilingvuri gakveTili meore enis swavlebis

gakveTilisgan?

enis gakveTili gakveTili, romelzedac

viTardeba ena

programa yuradReba maxvildeba yuradReba sagnis

enaze da enis Seswav- Sinaarsa da enobriv

lis miznebze (codna unarebze (sagnis

enaze da enis codna) codna da enis

dagegmva

gamoyeneba)

yuradReba enaze, mis yuradReba enis ga-

struqturaze, enis moyenebaze, vsaubrobT

Seswavlis kontrolsa ra sagnis Sinaarsze;

da praqtikul samu- yuradReba im Si-

Saoze enaSi

naarsze,

wignSia.

romelic

aqtivobebi yuradReba producire- yuradReba sagnis Sibaze

orientirebul naarsidangamomdi- aqtivobebze, savarji- nare savarjiSoebze;

Soebi, romlbic unda aqcenti vizualur

da SeiZleba kon- saSualebebze da matroldebodes.salis

CarTva kiTxvisa

da werisaTvis.

enis arCeva maswavlebeli da moswavle iyenebs

moswavleebi (SeZlebis- enas, romelic Seedagvarad)

mTel sabameba mis codnas;

gakveTilze urTi- maswavlebeli iyenebs

erToben samizne enaze. enas mkacrad gegmiurad,

fiqrobs ra

moswavlesa

ganze.

da sa-

71


gakveTilis dagegmvisas, upiratesoba unda mieniWos iseT sis-

temas, sadac gamoyenebulia kritikuli azrovnebis principebi.

sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, gakveTilis TiToeul fazaSi garkveuli

problemis dasma unda moxdes. aucilebelia imis damaxsovreba, rom

mecadineobis TiToeul fazaSi saWiroa Sesabamisi meTodisa da

strategiis gamoyeneba. swavlebis strategiisa, Tu meTodis SerCevi-

sas mniSvnelovania gakveTilis miznis da Sefasebis kriteriumebis

gaTvaliswineba.

gakveTilis dagegmvisas, pirvel rigSi saWiroa gakveTilze ga-

mokveTili miznebis Sefaseba da am miznebis ganxorcielebis Se-

saZleblobis gansazRvra gakveTilisaTvis gamoyofili drois gan-

mavlobaSi.

aseve saWiroa gakveTilis TiToeuli fazisaTvis strategiis

SemuSaveba. Tumca, unda gvaxsovdes, rom strategia aris mxolod

saSualeba, romelic gvexmareba dagegmili Sedegebis miRwevaSi.

gakveTilis Semdeg saWiroa miRweuli Sedegebis analizi da

maTi Sesabamisobis dadgena winaswar SemuSavebul miznebTan. es

maswavlebels aZlevs imis saSualebas, rom iswavlos sakuTar

gamocdilebaze da ukeTesad dagegmos yoveli momdevno gakveTili.

bilingvuri gakveTili:

maswavleblis ena enis dagegmva masalebi sayrdeni masala

moswavleTaTvis

rogor leqsika da romel enas ra masala ra daxmareba

frazebia saWiro enas rodis damWirdeba dasWirdeba yve-

moswavleTa

gamoviyeneb? da romel las da ra _

organizebisaTvis? enis romeli enaze? calkeuls?

saganTan

kompetencia

dakavSirebuli

leqsika

ganviTardeba?

72


2. bilingvuri gakveTilis dagegmvis etapebi

a. gakveTilis Tema.

b. motivacia.

risTvis aris saWiro es gakveTili?

ramdenad aris dakavSirebuli gakveTilis Tema im codnasTan,

romlis SeZenac sxva gakveTilebis Sedegad moxda?

dakavSirebulia Tu ara gakveTilis Tema adre miRebul

codnasTan da momavalSi misaReb masalasTan?

ramdenad aris gakveTilis Tema dakavSirebuli moswavleTa

pirad gamocdilebasTan da maT interesebTan?

rogor moxerxdeba am gakveTilis saSualebiT swavlis swavla

da kritikuli azrovnebis ganviTareba?

ra saxis informacias miiReben moswavleebi am gakveTilis

saSualebiT?

rogor unda moxdes gakveTilis gegmis SemuSaveba imgvarad,

rom gaiRviZos TiToeuli moswavlis personalurma interesma?

ra saxis kiTxvebis dasma moxdeba moswavleTaTvis, rogor

gaarTmeven Tavs axali Temis gagebas, rogor SeZleben

axali informaciis gaanalizebas, ideebis sinTezirebas da

a.S.

rogor SeiZleba gakveTilis Temis gamoyeneba imgvarad, rom

ganviTardes kiTxvebis dasmis, analizis, diskusiis SesaZ-

lebloba?

Temis rogori aspeqtebiT aris SesaZlebeli moswavleTaTvis

Semdgomi kvleviTi muSaobisaTvis xelSewyoba?

73


ogor moxdeba aRniSnuli gakveTilis saSualebiT meore enis

aTviseba da rogor Camouyalibebs moswavles dadebiT damoki-

debulebas meore enis mimarT?

ra saxis TanamSromloba iqneba sagnis maswavlebelsa da enis

maswavlebels Soris?

gakveTilis romel etapze da ra mizniT moxdeba mSobliuri

enis da meore enis gamoyeneba?

romeli sityvebis SeTvisebaa aucilebeli meore enidan,

moswavlis leqsikonidan romeli sityvebis aqtivizaciaa

aucilebeli?

swavlebis ra saxis meTodebi da meTodologiuri xerxebi

iqneba gamoyenebuli imisaTvis, rom moswavleSi ganaviTaros

zepirsityvieri da werilobiTi saxiT meore enaze azris da

grZnobis gadmocema?

rogor ganxorcieldeba moswavleTa TanamSromloba da maT

mier axalad aTvisebuli leqsikis gamoyeneba?

g. gakveTilis miznebi

yoveli gakveTilisaTvis saWiroa ramdenime miznis win wamoweva:

mizani, romelic dakavSirebulia aTvisebuli masalis SinaarsTan;

mizani, romelic aviTarebs moswavlis kritikul azrovnebas da

misi swavlebis SesaZleblobebs;

mizani, romelic aviTarebs meore enis SesaZleblobebs da iZleva

kulturul garemoSi integrirebis saSualebas;

d. winaswar wayenebuli pirobebi

aucilebelia imis Sefaseba, Tu ra unda icodes da SeeZlos

moswavles imisaTvis, rom warmatebiT gaarTvas Tavi axal masalas.

ra winaswari codna gaaCnia moswavles Temis irgvliv?

74


imisaTvis rom codna SenarCunebuli da xangrZlivi iyos,

aucilebelia misi SeTviseba ukve nacnob da gasageb konteqstSi,

amitom TiToeuli Temis aTvisebamde saWiroa rom moswavle

flobdes winaswar informacias aRniSnuli Temis Sesaxeb.

gvaZlevs Tu ara moswavleTa niWierebis done, azrovneba da

swavlis unari imis saSualebas, rom maT daZlion maswavlebelTa

mier gakveTilisaTvis SemuSavebuli masala?

Tu xdeba swavlebis axali meTodis gamoyeneba,

moswavleebisaTvis aucilebelia informaciis miwodeba. Tu

gakveTilze gegmavT axali meTodis Setanas, maSin moswavleTa

interesis gamowveva aRniSnuli meTodis mimarT SesaZlebelia

kiTxvebis dasmiT. imis aucilebloba, rom Tavidanve ganviTardes

swavlebis SesaZlebloba, Seexeba moswavleTa jgufur muSaobasac

da swavlebis SesaZleblobis gaTavisebas

ra donezea warmodgenili qarTuli enis codna da bilingvurad

swavlebis mzaoba?

maswavleblisaTvis aucilebelia Seafasos klasSi moswavleTa

mier meore enis codnis done. agreTve aucilebelia imis damaxso-

vreba, rom bilingvur meTodebSi mTavar princips warmoadgens ara

gadaTargmna, aramed Sedareba.

e. gakveTilis Sefaseba

Sefasebis dros mniSvnelovania gvaxsovdes gakveTilis gamokve-

Tili miznebi. fasdeba Semdegi:

rogor aris aTvisebuli saswavlo masala;

iswavles Tu ara moswavleebma fiqri da swavla;

Seivses Tu ara moswavleebma meore enis codna;

Sefasebis warmarTva SesaZlebelia sxvadasxva meTodebis

gamoyenebis gziT. Tu Sefasebis procesSi CarTulebi arian

moswavleebi, maT unda icodnen, Tu romeli davaleba fasdeba

dadebiTad. amisaTvis aucilebelia naTlad Camoyalibdes da

75


Seiqmnas im kriteriumebis formulireba, romelTa saSualebiTac

moxdeba davalebis Sefaseba. Sefasebis kriteriumebis SemuSaveba

umjobesia moswavleebTan erTad, uSualod Sesafasebeli davalebis

Sesrulebis win.

v. droisa da masalebis gadanawileba

gakveTilis dawyebamde saWiroa imis gansazRvra, gakveTilis

msvlelobisas saWiro iqneba Tu ara damxmare masalebi da

xelsawyoebi. ufro rTulia drois gadanawileba. drois

mizanmimarTuli gadanawileba warmoadgens erTgvar winapirobas

imisaTvis, rom swavlebis procesi iyos dinamiuri, kargad

mofiqrebuli, efeqturi, raTa maswavlebelma moaxerxos yvela

winaswar dagegmili ideis ganxorcieleba.

76


3. gakveTilis mimdinareobis dagegmva

gakveTilis safuZvels warmoadgens swavlebisa da swavlis

samsafexuriani meTodi

a. gamxnevebis/waxalisebis faza

waxalisebis fazis dagegmvisas aucilebelia iseTi strategiis

SemuSaveba, romelic ukeT moaxerxebs:

Temis irgvliv winaswari codnis gaerTianebas

moswavleTa waxalisebas, swavlis mowadinebas.

b. codnis gaTavisebis faza

codnis gaTavisebis fazis dagegmvisas, unda moxdes imis Sefase-

ba, Tu rogor moxerxdeba SerCeuli strategiis Sedegad gakveTilze

miRebuli codnis gaTaviseba da rogor ganviTardeba TanamSromlo-

bisa da damoukideblad muSaobis unari.

g. ukukavSiris faza

mocemuli fazis dagegmvisas, saWiroa imis gansazRvra, Tu ro-

gor moxdeba SerCeuli strategiis Sedegad codnis SeTviseba,

agreTve rogor imoqmedebs es strategia miRebuli codnis Semoqme-

debiTad gamoyenebis procesze.

kooperatiuli swavlebis mniSvneloba bilingvur ganaTlebaSi

kvlevebi bilingvur ganaTlebaSi amtkicebs, rom jgufuri

kooperatiuli swavlebis organizebisas:

arsebobs Sinaarsis konteqstidan gagebis SesaZlebloba, agreTve

upiratesoba arsebobs bevri drois TvalsazrisiTac da enis

77


srulyofilad gamoyenebis saSualebiTac; Sinaarsisa da koncef-

ciis ukeTesad gasagebad SesaZlebelia mSobliuri enis gamoyene-

bac;

meore enaSi garkveuli unarebis ganviTarebisas, SesaZlebelia

mSobliuri enis codnis sistemiT operireba;

xdeba moswavleTa stimulireba codnisa da enis aTvisebis

procesSi aqtiurad CasarTavad;

warmoCenilia da gamoyenebulia axali saswavlo masalebi;

swavlebis procesSi yuradReba maxvildeba moswavleTa

gansxvavebul Tvisebebze da stilze da viTardeba maTi

mravalmxrivi SesaZleblobebi;

icvleba maswavleblis roli - informaciis mimwodebeli

adamianisgan, is gadaiqceva informaciis SeTvisebis

organizatorad;

tradiciuli gakveTilis msvlelobisas umeteswilad saubrobs

maswavlebeli. aseTi gakveTilis tipuri sqema SegviZlia

warmovadginoT Semdegi saxiT: maswavleblis SekiTxva-moswavlis

,,swori pasuxi am SekiTxvaze. amavdroulad, TvalsaCinoa droSi

SezRudva. Tu moswavle myisierad ver pasuxobs SekiTxvaze, is eZebs

Sesaferis sityvas, aseT SemTxvevaSi ki maswavlebeli mas ar aZlevs

dros da ekiTxeba sxva moswavles. jgufSi muSaobis dros

aucilebelia da SesaZlebelia enis mravalmxrivi funqciebis

gamoyeneba. rodesac moswavleebi saubroben erTmaneTSi, da ara

mxolod maswavlebelTan, mkveTrad izrdeba enis funqciebis

gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba. arsebobs TanamSromlobis meti

variantebi, rac, Tavis mxriv, iZleva enis gavarjiSebis met

saSualebas. mniSvnelovania isic, rom, rodesac moswavleebi

saintereso problemis gadaWras cdiloben, am dros isini enas

iyeneben ara imitom, rom saxelmZRvanelos tradiciuli davaleba -

,,SeadgineT winadadeba'' Seasrulon, aramed srulad iyeneben

78


codnas meore enaSi. miuxedavad imisa, rom maTi saubari yovelTvis

gramatikulad gamarTuli ar aris, am gziT moswavleebs aqvT azris

gadmocemis saSualeba.

aseve SeiZleba Seicvalos tradiciuli karnaxi, rodesac

maswavlebeli dgas klasis winaSe da mTel klass karnaxobs

garkveul teqsts. misi gardaqmna kooperatiul swavlebad

SesaZlebelia moswavleTa dawyvilebis an jgufebad dayofis gziT,

romlis drosac moswavleebi rig-rigobiT karnaxoben erTmaneTs

srul teqsts, an gamotovebul sityvebs. am gziT mcirdeba stresi,

moswavleebi koncentrirebas axdenen davalebaze da aqtiurad

usmenen erTmaneTs. izrdeba TanamSromlobiTi damokidebuleba da

individualuri pasuxismgeblobis grZnoba.

yoveldRiuri urTierTobisas sakmarisia SezRuduli raodenobis

sityvebis maragi da gramatikuli struqtura; sxvadasxva sakiTxTan

dakavSirebiT sakuTari azris dafiqsirebisas moswavleebs

uviTardebaT farTo leqsikis da enis gansxvavebuli modelebis

gamoyenebis moTxovnileba.

maswavleblebi xSirad sifrTxiliT ekidebian jgufebSi

muSaobas. ase, magaliTad: `rogor SeiZleba viyo darwmunebuli,

rom moswavleebi ar daiwyeben saubars mSobliur enaze? vifiqroT

imaze, Tu rogor mivaRwioT sasurvel Sedegs martivi gziT: mkacri

discipliniT Tu mizanmimarTuli davalebebis SedgeniT?~

specialurad konstruirebuli davaleba, sadac yvela moswavles

aqvs raRac nawili informaciisa da davalebis Sesruleba

SesaZlebelia mxolod am informaciis SegrovebiT, iZleva

pirdapiri reagirebis, individualuri pasuxismgeblobisa da

aqtiuri mosmenis saSualebas.

nuTu saocari ar aris is faqti, rom aTeuli wlebis

ganmavlobaSi moswavleebi wyvilebad isxdnen merxebTan da,

miuxedavad amisa, maT ar hqondaT emociis gaziarebisa da

79


erTmaneTis daxmarebis saSualeba. jgufSi muSaobisas dabali

enobrivi SesaZleblobis mqone moswavles aqvs saSualeba,

SeekiTxos sxvas mSobliur enaze, xolo moswavle, romelic

warmatebulia meore enaSi, moaxdens sakiTxebis perifrazirebas da

amiT moaxdens saubris ganviTarebas.

bilingvur ganaTlebaSi izrdeba maswavleblis roli.

tradiciuli sagnis maswavlebeli zogjer fiqrobs: ,,me var sagnis

maswavlebeli, CemTvis mniSvnelovania, Tu rogor aiTvisa moswavlem

sagnobrivi masala. me vafaseb Sinaarss da ara enas. `bilingvuri

ganaTlebis dros TiToeuli maswavleblis roli farTovdeba da is

gadaiqceva aseve enis maswavleblad. pirvel rigSi, yvela

maswavlebeli xdeba enis momxmarebeli, xSirad ki tardeba Semdegi

principi: ,,viswavloT erTad~.

80


Tavi IV

qarTuli enisa da istoriis

integrirebuli swavlebis

sanimuSo gakveTilebi da Tematika

81


Tema

dro da

welTaRricxva

adamianis Sromi-

Ti saqmianoba da

yofa Zvel droSi.

bunebrivi garemo

da uZvelesi civilizaciebis

warmoSoba.

1

2

VII klasi

# Temis mizani enobrivi mizani

o moswavles esmis

welTaRricxvis sistema;

o akavSirebs istoriul

movlenebsa da

faqtebs Sesabamis

istoriul epoqebTan;

o istoriul movlenebs

gadmoscems qronologiuriTanmimdevrobiT;

o drois erTeulebs

ufardebs erTmaneTs;

o asaxelebs im saukunesa

da aTaswleuls,

romelTac miekuTvneba

konkretuli

TariRi.

o moswavle xsnis, Tu

ra gavlenas axdens

bunebrivi pirobebi

dasaxlebis tipebsa

da meurneobis ganvi-

Tarebaze;

o msjelobs sxvadasxva

garemoSi mosaxlebis

gansaxlebis Taviseburebebis

Sesaxeb;

o msjelobs bunebrivi

resursebis racionalur

gamoyenebaze;

o akavSirebs sayofacxovrebo

moxmarebis

sagnebs resursebis

tipTan;

82

o moswavles SeuZlia

TemisaTvis mniSvnelovani

terminebis

qarTulad dasaxeleba,

icis am terminTa

qarTuli ganmartebebi,

SeuZlia sinonimuri

sityvebiTa da

aRweriTi msjelobiT

terminTa Secvla da

maTi meSveobiT mosazrebis

gadmocema.

o moswavles SeuZlia

sworad gamoiyenos

is konstruqciebi,

romlebic sakiTxze

msjelobisas dasWirdeba.

saWiroebis Sem-

TxvevaSi ki SeuZlia

erTi gramatikuli

konstruqciis sxva

konstruqciiT Secvla

ise, rom aagos

swori da gramatikulad

gamarTuli

msjeloba.

o moswavlem icis yvela

im funqciuri

frazis mniSvneloba,

rac Temaze muSaobisas

sWirdeba da

SeuZlia am frazebis

Tavad gamoyenebac.

o moswavles esmis

yvela instruqcia,


a aris religia?

pirvelyofili

religiebi;

warmarToba;

monoTeisturi

religiebi;

religiebi

saqarTveloSi

Zveli samyaro:

uZvelesi saxelmwifos

warmoSoba;

Zv. aRmosavleTis

imperiebi;

berZnuli polisi

– sparta da

aTeni; demokratia

da tirania;

berZen-sparselTa

omebi;

aleqsandre makedoneli;

3

4

o msjelobs bunebriv

faqtorebze, romlebmac

didi roli

iTamaSes uZvelesi

civilizaciebis warmoSobaSi.

o moswavle aanalizebs,

Tu ra mniSvneloba

aqvs religias

sazogadoebis

cxovrebaSi;

o romelime qveynis magaliTze

msjelobs

religiuri tolerantobis

Sesaxeb;

o rukaze uCvenebs

misTvis cnobili

religiebis warmo-

Sobisa da gavrcelebis

arealebs;

o mopovebuli informaciis

safuZvelze

saubrobs saqarTveloSi

mcxovrebi

erovnebebis religiuri

dResaswaulebis

Sesaxeb da adarebs

erTmaneTs;

o sxvadasxva religiebs

adarebs erTma-

neTs.

o moswavle xsnis, Tu

ra gavlenas axdens

bunebrivi pirobebi

dasaxlebis tipebsa

da meurneobis ganvi-

Tarebaze;

o aanalizebs ekonomikasa

da bunebaSi

mecnierul-teqnikuri

progresiT gamowveul

cvlilebebs;

o axasiaTebs da adarebs

erTmaneTs

83

rac Temis irgvliv

arsebuli savarji-

SoebisTvis sWirdeba

da Tavadac SeuZlia

amgvari instruqciebis

ageba.

o moswavle Tavisuflad

asrulebs

tests an sxva specifikur

davalebebs

sakiTxis irgvliv da

Tavadac SeuZlia

amgvari davalebis

Seqmna instruqciebis,

Sesabamisi funqciuri

frazebisa da

konstruqciebis gamoyenebiT.


omi respublikis

epoqaSi;

romis armia;

yofa romSi

romi imperiis

epoqaSi;

romis gaqristianeba;

dasavleT romis

imperiis dacema

dasavleTi da

aRmosavleTi Sua

saukuneebSi:

xalxTa didi gadasaxleba

bizantiis imperia;

arabebi;

frankTa saxelmwifo;

feodalizmi;

kaTolikuri eklesia

da saero

xelisufleba;

monRolebi;

absoluturi monarqia;

parlamentarizmis

warmoSoba;

saqarTvelo Zvel

epaqasa da Sua

saukuneebSi;

5

6

gansxvavebul saxelmwifommarTvelobis

formebs;

o msjelobs politikuri

moRvawis mniSvnelobaze

qveynis istoriaSi;

o axasiaTebs da adarebs

erTmaneTs

gansxvavebul socialurstruqtu-

rebs.

o moswavle xsnis, Tu

ra gavlenas axdens

bunebrivi pirobebi

dasaxlebis tipebsa

da meurneobis ganvi-

Tarebaze;

o aanalizebs ekonomikasa

da bunebaSi

mecnierul-teqnikuri

progresiT gamowveul

cvlilebebs;

o axasiaTebs da adarebs

erTmaneTs

gansxvavebul saxelmwifommarTvelobis

formebs;

o msjelobs politikuri

moRvawis mniSvnelobaze

qveynis istoriaSi;

o axasiaTebs da adarebs

erTmaneTs

gansxvavebul socialurstruqtu-

rebs.

o moswavle xsnis, Tu

ra gavlenas axdens

bunebrivi pirobebi

dasaxlebis tipebsa

da meurneobis ganvi-

Tarebaze;

o aanalizebs ekonomikasa

da bunebaSi

84


axali da uaxlesi

epoqa;

saqarTvelo axal

da uaxless

epoqaSi

ra aris

samarTali?

danaSauli da

sajeli;

sasjelis saxeebi

xalxur samar-

TalSi;

qali da samar-

Tali; bavSvi da

samarTali;

sasamarTlo;

bavSvis uflebebi.

7

mecnierul-teqnikuri

progresiT gamowveul

cvlilebebs;

o axasiaTebs da adarebs

erTmaneTs

gansxvavebul saxelmwifommarTvelobis

formebs;

o msjelobs politikuri

moRvawis mniSvnelobaze

qveynis istoriaSi;

o axasiaTebs da adarebs

erTmaneTs

gansxvavebul socialurstruqturebs;

o aanalizebs kolonializmis

dadebiT

da uaryofiT Sedegebs;

o erTmaneTs adarebs

saxelmwifo mowyobis

demokratiul

da totalitarul

modelebs.

o msjelobs gansxvavebul

kulturebsa da

epoqebSi damkvidrebul

wesebze, normebsa

da kanonebze.

85


gakveTili 1

Tema – istoriuli dro

gakveTilis mizani - moswavleebi gaecnobian istoriuli drois

erTeulebsa da SeZleben maT erTmaneTTan

dakavSirebas.

Sesaswavli leqsika - dro, weli, aTwleuli, saukune,

aTaswleuli, istoriuli dro, geologiuri dro,

aTvlis sistema, cxrili, flifCarti, religia, islami,

teqnika, kalendari.

enobrivi mizani - moswavle Seiswavlis istoriuli periodebis

aRmniSvnel ZiriTad terminebs - mag. Zveli

welTaRricxva, axali welTaRricxva; aseve gaecnoba

istoriis periodebad dayofis aRmniSvnel terminebs -

Zveli dro, Sua saukuneebi, axali dro.

funqciuri frazebi - gadaixazeT, iyofa, iwyeba, mTavrdeba,

dro - 45 wuTi.

gamoiangariSeT, gansazRvreT, SeavseT, CawereT,

daviwyoT Temis zogadi ganxilviT, axla gagacnobT

gakveTilis Temasa da mizans, ras SeviswavliT am

gakveTilze, gadaSaleT saxelmZRvaneloebi, waikiTxeT

(gaecaniT), SekiTxvebi xom ar gaqvT? wera

dasrulebulia - CamabareT nawerebi.

resursebi - maswavlebeli - didi formatis qaRaldi (flifCarti),

dafa, carci; moswavleebi - saxelmZRvanelo me-7

klasi (moswavlis wigni), rveuli, kalmistari, saxatavi

furclebi.

86


aqtivoba 1

aqtivobebi:

maswavlebeli amowmebs saSinao davalebas:

aTvalierebs SerCeviT moswavleTa rveulebs da aseve zepirad

gamoikiTxavs davalebas.

saSinao davaleba

cnoba 1. geologiuri da istoriuli droebi

გეოლოგიური დრო ისტორიული დრო

დედამიწისა და ცოცხალი ბუნების

წარმოშობა-განვითარება

87

ადამიანის მოღვაწეობა

rveulSi gadaixazeT geologiuri da istoriuli drois

cxrili (cnoba 1). qveda, cariel grafebSi CawereT TiTo- TiTo

iseTi movlena, romelsac geologiuri da istoriuli droiT

angariSoben.

(ix - me- 7 klasi saxelmZRvanelo, paragrafi 1 - ”dro da istoria”).

aqtivobas maswavlebeli zepiri komentarebiT afasebs.

Sefasebisas iyenebs Semdeg gamoTqmebs: kargia, saintereso

mosazebaa, cxrili kargad Segivsia, Sens saubars aklia

argumetacia, cxrili bolomde ar gaqvs Sevsebuli da a.S.

aqtivobas eTmoba - 5 wT.


aqtivoba 2

maswavlebeli moswavleebs acnobs Sesaswavli gakveTilis

Temasa da mizans da wers dafaze. is saubrobs istoriuli drois

mniSvnelobaze.

aqtivobas eTmoba - 5 wT.

aqtivoba 3

maswavlebeli avalebs moswavleebs gaecnon Sesaswavli

gakveTilis 1-el qveTavs (ix. -me- 7 klasi saxelmZRvanelo,

paragrafi 2 - ”istoriuli dro”) da svams SekiTxvebs, romlebsac

moswavleebi adgilidan pasuxoben.

SekiTxvebi:

o Tqveni azriT, ratom sWirdebaT istorikosebs erTiani

aTvlis sistema?

o im SemTxvevSi, Tu istorikosebi gamoiyenebdnen

sxvadasxva aTvlis sistemebs, ra moxdeboda?

am aqtivobas maswavlebeli zepiri komentarebiT afasebs.

Sefasebis kriteriumebi:

o azris sainteresod Camoyalibeba;

o sakuTari mosazrebis argumentireba.

aqtivobas eTmoba - 10 wT.

88


aqtivoba 4

maswavlebeli mokled saubrobs istoriuli drois

erTeulebze da winaswar momzadebuli flifCartis demonstrirebas

axdens an (Tu flifCarti ar aqvs), wers dafaze:

1 weli;

100 weli - 10 aTwleuli - 1 saukune;

1000 weli - 100 aTwleuli - 1 aTaswleuli.

maswavlebeli saubrisas ganumartavs moswavleebs, rom

1-eli saukune grZeldeba 1-eli wlidan 100 wlis CaTvliT,

me-2 saukune 101 wlidan 200 wlis CaTvliT da a.S.

aseve uxsnis aTaswleulebs:

1-eli aTaswleuli _ 1-eli wlidan 1000 CaTvliT,

me-2 aTaswleuli _ 1001 wlidan 2000 wlis CaTvliT da a.S. da wers

dafaze an winaswar aqvs momzadebuli flifCartze.

drois erTeulebis axsnis Semdeg moswavleebma SesaZlebelia

dasvan SekiTxvebi - maswavlebeli pasuxobs.

aqtivobas eTmoba 10 wT.

aqtivoba 5

maswavlebeli moswavleebs aZlevs klasSi Sesasrulebel

davalebas (savarjiSo #1 da savarjiSo #2 - ix. danarTi # 1)). am

davalebis teqsti mas winaswar aqvs dawerili flifCartze (akravs

dafaze), an dabeWdili aqvs Tabaxis furclebze (personalurad

urigebs moswavleebs).

maswavlebeli davalebas amowmebs gakveTilebis Semdeg:

89


maswavlebeli # 1 savarjiSos Sesrulebas afasebs qulebiT.

TiToeuli testuri SekiTxva fasdeba 1 quliT, maqsimalri qulebis

raodenoba 24.

maswavlebeli # 2 savarjiSos Sesrulebas afasebs qulebiT.

TiToeul grafaSi Cawerili swori pasuxi fasdeba 1 quliT. qulebis

maqsimaluri raodenoba 20.

aqtivobas eTmoba 15 wuTi.

gakveTilis dasasruli.

90


savarjiSo # 1

CawereT wlebi xazis zeviT.

91

danarTi #1

mag. 3 saukune = 300 wels mag. 4 aTaswleuli = 40 saukune

a) 5 saukune = - wels a) 3 aTaswleuli = - saukunes

b) 12 saukune = - wels b) 14 aTaswleuli = - saukunes

g) 27 saukune = - wels g) 21 aTaswleuli = - saukunes

d) 35 saukune = - wels d) 38 aTaswleuli = - saukunes

mag. 400 weli = 4 saukunes; mag. 20 saukune = 2 aTaswleuls

a) 800 weli = - saukunes a) 70 saukune = - aTaswleuls

b) 1700 weli = - saukunes b) 130 saukune = - aTaswleuli

g) 23 400 weli = - saukunes g) 250 saukune = - aTaswleuli

d) 43 800 weli = - saukunes d) 460 saukune = - aTaswleuli

mag. 7 aTwleuli = 70 weli; mag. 8 saukune = 80 aTwleuls

a) 135 aTwleuli = - a) 4 saukune = - aTwleuls

b) 187 aTwleuli = - b) 12 saukune = - aTwleuls

g) 230 aTwleuli = - g) 210 saukune = - aTwleuls

d) 343 aTwleuli = - d) 305 saukune = - aTwleuls

maswavlebeli # 1 savarjiSos Sesrulebas afasebs qulebiT.

TiToeuli testuri SekiTxva fasdeba 1 quliT, maqsimalri qulebis

raodenoba 24.


savarjiSo # 2

SeavseT cxrili

TariRebi aTaswleuli saukune aTwleuli wlebi

1553 erTi xuTi xuTi sami

478

1839

2324

3258

4721

maswavlebeli # 2 savarjiSos Sesrulebas afasebs qulebiT.

TiToeul grafaSi Cawerili swori pasuxi fasdeba 1 quliT. qulebis

maqsimaluri raodenoba 20.

92


gakveTili 2

Tema – saxalifo _ arabTa imperia

gakveTilis mizani - rukaze muSaoba. moswavleebi gaecnobian

arabTa saxalifos da gaigeben, Tu ra teritorias

moicavda es imperia. gaigeben, Tu ra politikas awar-

moebdnen arabebi dapyrobili xalxebis, kerZod, qris-

tianebis da iudevlebis mimarT.

Sesaswavli leqsika - saxalifo, imperia, dapyroba, politika,

qristianebi, iudevelebi, muslimebi, wyaro, samxreTi,

CrdiloeTi, dasavleTi, aRmosavleTi, axlo aRmosav-

leTi, fizikuri ruka, politikuri ruka, vaWroba, gza,

zRva, yure, okeane, naxevarkunZuli, qaravani, saqaravno

gza, transporti. poliTeisturi da monoTeisturi re-

ligia, islami, amira, uflebebi da movaleobebi, mesa-

qonle, miwaTmoqmedi, momTabare, binadari.

enobrivi mizani - moswavleebi gaecnobian islamis, sxva religie-

bis daxasiaTebisas da rukaze muSaobisas gamosayene-

bel cnebebs.

funqciuri frazebi - gadaixazeT, daakvirdiT, SeavseT, CawereT, Ca-

mowereT, daasaxeleT, SeadareT erTmaneTs, gadaSaleT

rveulebi, vin daexmareba amxanags? rogor migaCniaT,

romel ........., aCveneT rukaze ........., CamoTvaleT, daviwyoT

Temis zogadi ganxilviT, axla gagacnobT gakveTilis

Temasa da mizans, ras SeviswavliT am gakveTilze, ga-

daSaleT saxelmZRvaneloebi, ras niSnavs ...........? romel

saukuneSi ............? vin iyo ...............? waikiTxeT (gaecaniT),

93


dro - 45 wuTi.

SekiTxvebi xom ar gaqvT? wera dasrulebulia - Camaba-

reT nawerebi.

resursebi - dafa, carci; msoflios fizikuri da Tanamedrove po-

aqtivoba 1

litikuri ruka, an axlo aRmosavleTis Tanamedrove

politikuri da fizikuri ruka, saxelmZRvanelo (mos-

wavlis wigni), rveuli, kalmistari.

aqtivobebi

maswavlebeli gamoikiTxavs 1-el saSinao davalebas: is da-

fasTan rigrigobiT iZaxebs moswavleebs da sTxovs wina gakveTilSi

mocemul rukaze (paragrafi 51, ”arabebi me-6 saukuneSi” - wyaro a)

naCvenebi savaWro gzebis fizikur rukaze Cvenebas da svams Se-

kiTxvebs:

o romel zRvaze, yureze, okeaneze da naxevarkunZulze

gadiodnen rukaze mocemuli saqaravno gzebi?

o rogor migaCniaT, romeli transportis gamoyeneba iqne-

boda aq yvelaze moxerxebuli da ratom?

aseve, sTxovs moswavleebs, Tanamedrove politikur rukaze aC-

venon da daasaxelon is Tanamedrove qveynebi, romlebzec gadioda

rukaze naCvenebi saqaravno gzebi.

Tu gamoZaxebuli moswavlebi ver pasuxoben dasmul amocanasa

da SekiTxvebs an maTi pasuxi moiTxovs damatebas, maswavlebeli

klass sTxovs daxmarebas. SesaZlebelia, transportTan dakavSire-

94


iT, moswavleebs Soris gaimarTos diskusia, rac maswavlebelma

unda waaxalisos.

maswavlebeli aqtivobas afasebs ganmsazRvreli SefasebiT da

mopasuxe moswavleebs uwers qulebs.

aqtivobas eTmoba 10 wuTi.

aqtivoba 2

maswavlebeli gamoikiTxavs me-2 saSinao davalebas:

maswavlebeli usvams moswavleebs im SekiTxvebs, romlebic wina

gakveTilze Caawerina. moswavleebs SekiTxvebze werilobiT unda

epasuxaT saSinao davalebis rveulebSi. es SekiTxvebi exeba 64-e pa-

ragrafs - ”islami~:

SekiTxvebi:

o ras niSnavs sityva islami?

o romel saukuneSi Seiqmna islami?

o vin iyo muhamadi?

o rogori religiaa islami, poliTeisturi Tu monoTeis-

turi, daasabuTeT?

o rogoria alahi muslimTa rwmeniT, msjelobisas daeyr-

deniT paragrafis teqsts?

o paragrafSi (me-20 paragrafs - ”islami”) mocemuli

teqstis mixedviT gansazRvreT, ra aqvT saerTo da gan-

masxvavebeli islamsa da qristianobas? am SekiTxvaze

pasuxisTvis moswavleebs unda SeevsoT qvemoT moce-

muli cxrili.

95


cxrili # 1

ისლამი

განსხვავებები

საერთო

96

ქრისტიანობა

განსხვავებები

kiTxvebze pasuxma moswavleebs Soris SeiZleba gamoiwvios

diskusia, rac maswavlebelma unda waaxalisos.

maswavlebeli aqtivobas afasebs komentarebiT da qulebiT:

Sefasebis kriteriumebi:

a) faqtologiuri masalis codna;

b) azris sainteresod Camoyalibeba;

g) argumentirebuli msjeloba.

aqtivobas eTmoba 15 wuTi.

aqtivoba 3

maswavlebeli xsnis axal gakveTils.

is acnobs moswavleebs Sesaswavli Temis saTaursa da mizans.

moswavleebs sTavazobs gaecnon 97-e paragrafSi ”saxalifo -

arabTa imperia” mocemul cnoba 1-s.

maswavlebeli dafaze wers testebs, romlebic moswavleebma

unda gadaiweron sakuTar rveulebSi da gamotovebuli adgilebi

Seavson (Caweron TiTo sityva):

o arabTa saxelmwifos saxalifo ewoda imitom, rom mas

marTvdnen .........................

o sityva xalifa qarTulad niSnavs ...............................

o amirebi xelmZRvanelobdnen .............................


davalebis dasrulebis Semdeg, moswavleebi adgilidan

kiTxoleben sakuTar pasuxebs.

moswavleTa pasuxebis Sefasebisas maswavlebeli iyenebs

Semdeg gamoTqmebs: kargia; teqsti dakvirvebiT wagikiTxavs; aba kidev

erTxel Caxede cnoba 1-s, xom ar gamogrCa rame, vin Seusworebs am

moswavlis pasuxs da a.S.

aqtivobas eTmoba 5 wuTi.

aqtivoba 4

maswavlebeli moswavleebs urigebs qseroqsze amobeWdil

Tanamedrove politikur rukas (danarTi 1). romelic maT unda

Seadaron 97-e paragrafSi ”saxalifo - arabTa imperia” mocemul

rukas - wyaro a. am Sedarebis safuZvelze moswavleebma rveulebSi

unda Camoweron im Tanamedrove saxelmwifoebis sia, romelTa

teritorias moicavda saxalifo me-7-me-8 saukuneebSi. samuSaos

damTavrebis Semdeg, maswavleblis mier gamoZaxebuli moswavle

kiTxulobs Sedgenil sias da wers dafaze. Tu moswavle srulad

ver Seasrulebs davalebas, siis Sevsebas sxva moswavleebi

agrZeleben.

maswavlebeli umaRles qulas uwers im moswavleebs,

romlebmac yvelaze meti saxelmwifo daasaxeles sworad.

davalebis Sesasruleblad gamoyofilia 5 wuTi.

aqtivobas eTmoba 10 wuTi.

97


aqtivoba 5

dafaze:

maswavlebeli klass aZlevs saSinoa davalebas da wers

waikiTxeT paragrafi 97 - e saxalifo - arabTa imperia

mocemuli b, g da d wyaroebi da CamowereT punqtebad, Tu ra

uflebebi da movaleobebi hqondaT dapyrobil xalxebs arabTa

saxalifoSi.

aqtivobas eTmoba 5 wuTi.

gakveTilis dasasruli.

98


VIII klasi

Tema # Temis mizani enobrivi mizani

regionalizmi:

kavkasia,

balkaneTi

konfliqtebi da

maTi mogvareba

1

2

o moswavle akavSirebs

istoriul movlenebsa

da faqtebs Sesabamis

istoriul epoqebTan.

o moswavle axasiaTebs

kavkasiis regions.

o moswavle msjelobs

saxelmwifoSi mmarTvelobis

formisa da

politkurireJimis

urTierTkavSiris Sesaxeb.

o moswavle ikvlevs sazogadoebisganviTarebis

kulturul safuZvlebs.

o moswavle akavSirebs

istoriul movlenebsa

da faqtebs Sesabamis

istoriul epoqebTan

o moswavle Seiswavlis

konfliqtebis mizezebs,

ganviTarebasa da

Sedegebs.

o moswavle adarebs

sxvadasxva periodis

omebis dros gamoyenebul

iaraRs (mag.: mobilurobis,efeqtianobis,

warmoebisa da

Senaxvis xarjebis

mixedviT);

o moswavle irCevs erTerT

brZolas (an saomar

kampanias) da werilobiT

msjelobs

100

o moswavles SeuZlia

TemisaTvis mniSvnelovani

terminebis

qarTulad dasaxeleba,

icis am terminTa

qarTuli ganmartebebi,

SeuZlia sinonimuri

sityvebiTa da

aRweriTi msjelobiT

terminTa Secvla da

maTi meSveobiT mosazrebis

gadmocema.

o moswavles SeuZlia

sworad gamoiyenos

is konstruqciebi,

romlebic sakiTxze

msjelobisas dasWirdeba.

saWiroebis Sem-

TxvevaSi ki SeuZlia

erTi gramatikuli

konstruqciis sxva

konstruqciiT Secvla

ise, rom aagos

swori da gramatikulad

gamarTuli

msjeloba.

o moswavlem icis yvela

im funqciuri

frazis mniSvneloba,

rac Temaze muSaobisas

sWirdeba da

SeuZlia am frazebis

Tavad gamoyenebac.

o moswavles esmis

yvela instruqcia,

rac Temis irgvliv


migraciebi

komunikaciebis

ganviTareba

3

4

masSi mxedarTmTavris

rolze;

o moswavle aanalizebs

adamianis uflebebis

safuZvlebs da maTi

ganviTarebis istoriul

pirobebs.

o moswavle axasiaTebs

sazogadoebaSi mSvidobianiTanaarsebobisTvis

saWiro piro-

bebs.

o moswavle akavSirebs

istoriul movlenebsa

da faqtebs Sesabamis

istoriul epoqebTan.

o moswavle axasiaTebs

urbanizaciis process.

o moswavle axasiaTebs

mniSvnelovan mogzaurobebsa

da maT Sedegebs.

o moswavle msjelobs

mniSvnelovani politikuri

da ekonomikuri

procesebiT gamowveul

socialur

cvlilebebze

o aanalizebs ekonomikasa

da bunebaSi mecnierul-teqnikuri

progresiT gamowveul

cvlilebebs;

o moswavle akavSirebs

istoriul movlenebsa

da faqtebs Sesabamis

istoriul epoqebTan.

o moswavle msjelobs

komunikaciebis ganvi-

Tarebaze uZvelesi

droidan dRemde.

o irCevs erT-erT umniSvnelovanes

sava-

Wro-saxmeleTo gzas

da werilobiT aRwers

101

arsebuli savarji-

SoebisTvis sWirdeba

da Tavadac SeuZlia

amgvari instruqciebis

ageba.

o moswavle Tavisuflad

asrulebs

tests an sxva specifikur

davalebebs

sakiTxis irgvliv da

Tavadac SeuZlia

amgvari davalebis

Seqmna instruqciebis,

Sesabamisi funqciuri

frazebisa da

konstruqciebis gamoyenebiT.


kultura da

ganaTleba

5

mogzaurTa sakomunikacio

sirTuleebsa

da am gzis socialurekonomikurmniSvnelobas;

o moswavle adgens

sxvadasxva tipis damwerlobis

sias; saubrobs

maT warmoSobasa

da weris meTodSi

momxdar cvlilebebze;

o moswavle Seiswavlis

xelovnebisa da ganaTlebisganviTarebis

safuZvlebs

o ilustraciebis gamoyenebiT

cxrilSi

ajgufebs da ganasxvavebs

sxvadasxva stiliT

nageb arqiteqturis

Zeglebs;

o msjelobs ganaTlebis

miRebis uTanabrobaze

sxvadasxva epoqebsa

da qveynebSi; miuTi-

Tebs am uTanabrobis

mizezebs;

o moswavle ikvlevs sazogadoebisganviTarebis

kulturul safuZvlebs.

o adarebs sxvadasxva

religiebis normebisa

da kanonebis gavlenas

sazogadoebis ganvi-

Tarebaze.

102


gakveTili 1

Tema – saxalifo _ arabTa imperia

gakveTilis Tema - savaWro - saxmeleTo gzebi Zvel drosa da Sua

saukuneebSi.

gakveTilis mizani - moswavleebi gaecnobian warsulis

umniSvnelovaness savaWro - satranzito gzas. aseve,

Seiswavlian kavkasiis da saqarTvelos rols

saerTaSoriso vaWrobaSi. gaecnobian da Seadareben

sxvadasxva epoqis rukebs.

Sesaswavli leqsika - didi abreSumis gza, savaWro - saxmeleTo

gza, tranziti, evropa, azia, xmelTaSuazRvispireTi,

Sua azia, SuamdinareTi, samxreT kavkasia, mcire azia,

aRmosavleT evropa, atlasi, Sua saukuneebi, zepiri

komentari, werilobiTi komentari, komunikacia,

satransporto komunikacia, mogzauri, fragmenti,

dedaqalaqi, CineTis didi kedeli, Savi zRva, mcxeTa,

abreSumi, faifuri, laqi, qsovili, xaliCa, mina, Rvino,

yurZeni, safeiqro nawarmi, imperia, rukis legenda,

samxreTi, CrdiloeTi, dasavleTi, aRmosavleTi,

fizikuri ruka, politikuri ruka, vaWroba, gza, zRva,

okeane, qaravani, saqaravno gza, qarvasla, transporti.

enobrivi mizani - moswavleebi Seiswavlian istoriul-geografiul

rogorc qarTul, aseve saerTaSoriso terminebs,

gaecnobian savaWro terminologias da vaWrobis

sagnebs, romelic istoriuli warsulis Seswavlisas

103


gamoyeneba. moswavleebi Seiswavlian rukaze muSaobisas

gamosayenebel cnebebs.

funqciuri frazebi - daakvirdiT, waikiTxeT, gaecaniT, CamowereT

dro - 45 wuTi.

....... ganmasxvavebeli niSani, daasaxeleT, gaaferadeT,

daitaneT rukaze, SeadareT erTmaneTs, gadaSaleT

rveulebi, vin mipasuxebs, vin daexmareba amxanags?

aCveneT rukaze ........., CamoTvaleT, daviwyoT Temis

zogadi ganxilviT, axla gagacnobT gakveTilis Temasa

da mizans, ras SeviswavliT am gakveTilze, gadaSaleT

saxelmZRvaneloebi, ras niSnavs ...........? romel

saukuneSi ............? vin iyo ...............? waikiTxeT (gaecaniT),

SekiTxvebi xom ar gaqvT? wera dasrulebulia -

CamabareT nawerebi.

resursebi - maswavlebeli - dafa, carci; msoflios Tanamedrove

politikuri ruka. moswavleebi - saxelmZRvanelo me-8

klasi (moswavlis wigni), rveuli, kalmistari, feradi

fanqrebi an flomasterebi, konturuli ruka.

104


aqtivoba 1

aqtivobebi

maswavlebeli gakveTilis Temasa da mizans wers dafaze,

xolo Semdeg mokled mimoixilavs abreSumis gzis mniSvnelobas

warsul epoqebSi.

aqtivoba 2

aqtivobas eTmoba 5 wuTi.

maswavlebeli avalebs moswavleebs gaecnon paragrafSi

mocemul (paragrafi 66 ”savaWro - saxmeleTo gzebi Zvel drosa da

Sua saukuneebSi”) wyaro a-s da wyaro b-s Tavisi komentarebiT da

sakuTar rveulebSi Camoweron 3 ganmasxvavebeli niSani Zvel

atlassa da Tanamedrove rukas Soris.

miniSneba maswavleblisTvis:

gansxvaveba 1. - Zveli atlasi gadatvirTulia naxatebiT, rac rukis

aRqmas arTulebs.

gansxvaveba 2. - Zvel atlass ar aqvs rukis legenda

gansxvaveba 3. - Zvel atlasi esTeturi TvalsazrisiT ufro

gamomsaxvelia, vidre axali ruka da a.S

davalebis Sesrulebis Semdeg, moswavleebi adgilidan

rigrigobiT pasuxoben . erT-erTi moswavle dafaze wers am pasuxebs.

maswavlebeli sTxovs moswavleebs ar gaimeoron sxvaTa versiebi.

aseve, sTxovs moswavleebs sakuTar rveulebSi gadaiweron

pasuxebis nusxa da momavali gakveTilisTvis kidev daamaton

pasuxebi.

105


maswavlebeli me - 2 aqtivobas afasebs Semdegi komentarebiT:

sainteresoa, Tu SeiZleba daasabuTe, Sens pasuxs argumentacia

aklia, SemdgomSi meti yuradReba miaqcie, ase Tu imuSave, Sors ver

waxval da a.S.

aqtivoba 3

aqtivobas eTmoba 10 wuTi.

maswavlebeli avalebs moswavleebs wyaro b - s mixedviT

konturul rukaze (danarTi #1)

cisfrad gaaferadon tbebi, zRvebi da okeaneebi, daitanon

wiTeli feriT didi abreSumis gza, xolo Savi fanqriT, punqtiriT

_ misi ganStoebebi.

moswavleebma TviTon SeimuSaon CineTis kedlis aRmniSvneli

pirobiTi niSani da daitanon rukaze.

aseve, moswavleebma sxvadasxva feriT gaaferadon Tanamedrove

saxelmwifoebi da miaweron dasaxeleba.(amisTvis gamoiyenon

saxelmZRvanelos boloSi darTuli danarTi #1 ”msoflios

politikuri ruka”).

samuSaos dasrulebis Semdeg, maswavlebeli iZaxebs erTi-or

moswavles da sTxovs, kedelze gakrul msoflios politikur

rukaze, warmoadginon sakuTari namuSevrebi.

Tu gamoZaxebuli moswavle uSvebs Secdomebs, maswavlebeli

mimarTavs klass an TviTon usworebs Secdomas

maswavebeli me - 3 aqtivobas afasebs ganmszRvreli SefasebiT

da wers qulebs.

aqtivobas eTmoba 25 wuTi.

106


aqtivoba 4

maswavlebeli moswavleebs aZlevs saSinao davalebas :

waikiTxeT paragrafi 66 ”savaWro - saxmeleTo gzebi Zvel

drosa da Sua saukuneebSi ” da werilobiT gaeciT pasuxi Semdeg

SekiTxvas (wers dafaze) :

1. ra SehqondaT Cinel vaWrebs dasavleTis qveynebSi?

2. ra SehqondaT dasavlel bizantiel da Sua aziel vaWrebs

CineTSi?

3. ratom dakninda abreSumis gzis mniSvneloba?

4.

wyaro g - Si gamosaxuli rukis mixedviT, CamowereT, romel,

imdroindel qveynebze gadioda savaWro gzebi?

aqtivobas eTmoba 5 wuTi.

gakveTilis dasasruli

107


108

danarTi


gakveTili 2

Tema – rogor warmoiSva sporti?

gakveTilis mizani - moswavleebi gaecnobian sportis warmoSobisa

da misi ganviTarebis tendenciebs.

Sesaswavli leqsika - sporti, sportis saxeobebi, fizikuri

aRzrda, sulieri aRzrda, xeTebi, Sumerebi, egviptelebi,

kretelebi, etruskebi, berZnebi, Cinelebi, indoelebi,

miwis samuSaoebi, mwyemsoba, nadiroba, Tevzaoba,

sakulto ritualebi, SromiT procesi, sabrZolo

moqmedebebi, keramika, skulptura, ferwera, poezia,

lelo, ragbi, alpinizmi, doRi, farikaoba keWnaoba,

banqo.

enobrivi mizani - moswavleebi Seiswavlian sportis saxeobebis

rogorc qarTul, aseve saerTaSoriso terminebs,

gaecnobian xelovnebis dargebis qarTul

teminologias, aseve Seiswavlian adamianis uZvelesi

saqmianobebis aRmniSvnel terminebs qarTulad.

moswavleebi Seiswavlian Zveli xalxebis dasaxelebas

qarTulad.

funqciuri frazebi - daakvirdiT, waikiTxeT, gaecaniT, CamowereT

....... ganmasxvavebeli niSani, daasaxeleT, gadaSaleT

rveulebi, vin mipasuxebs, romel Tqvengans surs? dRes

Cven jgufebSi vimuSavebT, daiyaviT samwevrian

jgufebad! movaleobebi jgufSi dainawileT,airCieT

109


dro - 45 wuTi.

prezentatori, vin daexmareba amxanags? CamoTvaleT,

daviwyoT Temis zogadi ganxilviT, axla gagacnobT

gakveTilis Temasa da mizans, ras SeviswavliT am

gakveTilze, gadaSaleT saxelmZRvaneloebi, ras niSnavs

...........? vin iyo ...............? waikiTxeT (gaecaniT), SekiTxvebi

xom ar gaqvT? wera dasrulebulia - CamabareT nawerebi.

resursebi - maswavlebeli - dafa, carci; flifCarti, markeri.

aqtivoba - 1

moswavleebi - saxelmZRvanelo me-8 klasi (moswavlis

wigni), rveuli, kalmistari, fanqari, saxazavi.

aqtivobebi

maswavlebeli gakveTilis Temasa da mizans wers dafaze,

xolo Semdeg mokled mimoixilavs sportis ganviTarebis istorias.

gonebrivi ieriSi

maswavlebeli svams SekiTxvas: `sportis romels saxeobebs

icnobT? gTxovT daasaxeloT~.

moswavleebi pasuxoben. erT-erTi moswavle (maswavlebeli mas

winaswar iZaxebs dafasTan) dafaze wers moswavleebis pasuxebs.

dgeba sportis saxeobebis nusxa.

maswavlebeli am aqtivobas afasebs komentarebiT: kargia,

kidev vin daamatebs, sainteresoa, es ar aris sporti da a.S.

aqtivobas eTmoba 10 wuTi.

110


aqtivoba 2

maswavlebeli sTxovs moswavleebs waikiTxon paragrafi 150-is

(`rogor warmoiSva sporti?”) 1-eli qvesaTauri da mocemuli

teqstis mixedviT Seasrulon Semdegi davaleba:

romel konkretul moZraobebs iyenebda adamiani Zvelad

SromiTi, sabrZolo da saritualo moqmedebebis dros? pasuxi

warmoadgineT cxrilis saxiT. maswavlebeli cxrils dafaze an

flifCartze xazavs, romelSic Camowers mxolod sami saxis

moqmedebas (ix. cxrili - 1)

10 wuTs.

maswavlebeli moswavleebs davalebis Sesasruleblad aZlevs

moswavleebi erTiandebian jgufeSi (TiTo jgufSi sami

moswavle). jgufis TiToeuli wevri avsebs ”moqmedebebis” gaswvriv

mxolod erT grafas (mag. jgufis erTi wevri avsebs mxolod

”sakulto ritualebis aRsrulebis” Sesabamiss ”fizikur

moZraobebs” da a.S. ). moswavleebs SeuZliaT, jgufis SigniT,

erTmaneTis daxmareba. grafebis Sevsebis Semdeg, jgufis wevrebi

aerTianeben sakuTar namuSevars erT cxrilSi da aucileblad

miaweren sakuTar saxelebs. moswavleebma grafaSi - fizikuri

moZraoba - unda Caweron ara marto is moZraobebi, romlebic

miTiTebulia saxelmZRvaneloSi, aramed damoukidebladac

moifiqron.

cxrili 1

მოქმედებები ფიზიკური მოძრაობა

საკულტო რიტუალების აღსრულება მაგ. რიტმული მოძრაობები

შრომით პროცესი

საბრძოლო მოქმედებები

111


jgufebSi muSaobis dasrulebis Semdeg moswavleebs

ekrZalebaT raime miamaton sakuTar namuSevars.

davalebis Sesrulebis Semdeg, jgufis romelime wevri

warmoadgens jgufis namuSevars. moswavleTa pasuxebs maswavlebeli

(an maswavleblis mier SerCeuli moswavle) wers dafaze an

flifCartze winaswar daxazul cxrilSi. maswavlebeli sTxovs

moswavleebs, aRar gaimeoron wina gamomsvlelis versia. dgeba

klasis erTiani namuSevari.

aqtivoba 2 fasdeba Semdegnairad: maswavlebeli krebs

jgufur namuSevrebs (maT aucileblad unda eweroT jgufis

wevrebis vinaoba) da afasebs momdevno gakveTilisTvis. namuSevris

Sefaseba xdeba qulebiT. TiToeuli swori fasuxi fasdeba 1 quliT.

aqtivoba 3

aqtivobas eTmoba 20 wuTi.

maswavlebeli avalebs moswavleebs 150-e paragrafis ”rogor

warmoiSva sporti” pirveli qvesaTauris im nawilis wakiTxvas,

sadac Zvel berZnul sportzea saubari.

maswavlebeli moswavleebs aZlevs Semdeg davalebas:

paragrafi 150 - Si wyaro a-Si warmodgenili xelovnebis nimuSebis

(8 suraTis) mixedviT daadginon sportis identuri Tanamedrove

saxeobebi da Seavson cxrili, romelsac is xazavs dafaze

(umjobesia cxrili winaswar hqondes daxazuli flifCartze).

moswavleebi cxrils ixazaven rveulebSi da avseben.

cxrili 2

სურათები სპორტის თანამედროვე სახეობები

სურათი - 1 მაგ. სირბილი

სურათი - 2

112


სურათი - 3

სურათი - 4

სურათი - 5

სურათი - 6

სურათი - 7

სურათი - 8

davalebis dasrulebis Semdeg maswavlebeli moswavleebs

sTxovs adgilidan warmoadginon sakuTari namuSevrebi.

maswavlebeli an mis mier arCeuli moswavle dafaze wers

moswavleTa pasuxebs. maswavlebeli sTxovs moswavleebs ar

gaimeoron pasuxebi. dafaze dgeba erTiani sia.

aqtivoba 3 fasdeba Semdegnairad: maswavlebels SeuZlia im

moswavles, romelic warmoadgens yvelaze met swor pasuxs

dauweros umaRlesi Sefaseba, Tumca, SesaZlebelia, Semoifarglos

mxolod sityvieri SefasebiT: kargia, kargad gimuSavia, SegeZlo

meti sportis saxeobebi Camogewera. zogierTi Seni pasuxi ar aris

swori da a.S.

aqtivobas eTmoba 15 wuTi.

gakveTilis dasasruli

113


Tema

preistoriuli

periodi

saqarTvelo Zvel

droSi

(Zv. w. VI saukunidan

- ax. w IV

saukunemde)

IX klasi

# Temis mizani enobrivi mizani

1

2

o moswavle aanalizebs

sxvadasxva

epoqaSi saqarTveloSi

ekonomikuri

urTierTobebis ganviTarebas;

o msjelobs, Tu rogor

icvleboda saqarTvelosteritoriaze

soflis

meurneoba sasoflo_sameurneoteqnikis

ganviTarebas-

Tan erTad.

o moswavle akavSirebs

istoriul

movlenebsa da faqtebs

Sesabamis istoriul

epoqebTan;

o msjelobs sxvadasxva

epoqaSi saqarTvelosekonomikis

regionTan, imperiasa

da msoflio

ekonomikasTan

integraciaze (mag.

saqarTvelo da kavkasia,

saqarTvelo

da sabWoTa kavSiri,

saqarTvelo da

msoflio);

o moswavle aanalizebs

sxvadasxva

epoqaSi saqarTveloSi

ekonomikuri

urTierTobebis gan-

114

o moswavles SeuZlia

TemisaTvis mniSvnelovaniterminebis

qarTulad dasaxeleba,

icis am

terminTa qarTuli

ganmartebebi,

SeuZlia sinonimuri

sityvebiTa da aRweriTi

msjelobiT

terminTa Secvla

da maTi meSveobiT

mosazrebis gadmocema.

o moswavles SeuZlia

sworad gamoiyenos

is konstruqciebi,

romlebic sakiTxze

msjelobisas das-

Wir-deba. saWiroebis

Sem-TxvevaSi ki

SeuZlia erTi gramatikulikonstruqciis

sxva

konstruqciiT Secvla

ise, rom aagos

swori da gramatikulad

gamarTuli

msjeloba.

o moswavlem icis

yvela im funqciuri

frazis mniSvneloba,

rac Temaze mu-

Saobisas sWirdeba

da SeuZlia am

frazebis Tavad ga


viTarebas;

o msjelobs saqarTvelos

ekonomikaSi

ucxo qveynis

mmarTvelobiT gamowveul

dadebiT

da uaryofiT mxareebze;

o msjelobs, Tu rogor

icvleboda saqarTveloSisoflis

meurneoba sasoflo_sameurneo

teqnikis ganviTarebasTan

erTad;

o msjelobs, Tu rogor

icvleboda savaWrourTierTobebi

saqarTveloSi

transportis ganvi-

TarebasTan erTad;

o aanalizebs saqarTveloSimmarTvelobiTi

struqturebs

uZvelesi droidan

dRemde;

o moswavle ikvlevs

saqarTveloSi socialururTierTobebs

uZvelesi

droidan dRemde;

o aanalizebs sagareo

da saSinao faqtorebis

gavlenas

qarTuli saxelmwifos

warmoSobasa

da ganviTarebaze;

o ikvlevs saqarTveloSi

arsebul religiebs;

o ikvlevs qarTul

kulturas uZvelesi

droidan dRemde.

o moswavle akavSirebs

istoriul

115

moyenebac.

o moswavles esmis

yvela instruqcia,

rac Temis irgvliv

arsebuli savarji-

SoebisTvis sWirdeba

da Tavadac

SeuZlia amgvari instruqciebis

ageba.

o moswavle Tavisuflad

asrulebs

tests an sxva specifikurdavalebebs

sakiTxis

irgvliv da Tavadac

SeuZlia amgvari

davalebis Seqmna

instruqciebis, Sesabamisi

funqciuri

frazebisa da konstruqciebisgamoyenebiT.


saqarTvelo Sua

saukuneebSi

(ax. w. IV saukunidan

- XVIII saukunis

CaTvliT)

3

movlenebsa da faqtebs

Sesabamis istoriul

epoqebTan;

o msjelobs sxvadasxva

epoqaSi saqarTvelosekonomikis

regionTan, imperiasa

da msoflio

ekonomikasTan

integraciaze (mag.

saqarTvelo da kavkasia,

saqarTvelo

da sabWoTa kavSiri,

saqarTvelo da

msoflio);

o moswavle aanalizebs

sxvadasxva

epoqaSi saqarTveloSi

ekonomikuri

urTierTobebis ganviTarebas;

o msjelobs saqarTvelos

ekonomikaSi

ucxo qveynis

mmarTvelobiT gamowveul

dadebiT

da uaryofiT mxareebze;

o msjelobs, Tu rogor

icvleboda saqarTveloSisoflis

meurneoba sasoflo_sameurneo

teqnikis ganviTarebasTan

erTad;

o msjelobs, Tu rogor

icvleboda savaWrourTierTobebi

saqarTveloSi

transportis ganvi-

TarebasTan erTad;

o aanalizebs saqarTveloSimmarTvelobiTi

struqturebs

116


4

uZvelesi

dRemde;

droidan

o moswavle ikvlevs

saqarTveloSi socialururTierTobebs

uZvelesi

droidan dRemde;

o aanalizebs sagareo

da saSinao faqtorebis

gavlenas

qarTuli saxelmwifos

warmoSobasa

da ganviTarebaze;

o ikvlevs saqarTveloSi

arsebul religiebs;

o ikvlevs qarTul

kulturas uZvelesi

droidan dRemde.

o erTmaneTs adarebs

gansxvavebul epoqebSi

saqarTvelos

sxvadasxva kuTxeSi

soflis meurneobis

tradiciuli dargebis

ganviTarebas;

o konturul rukaze

aRniSnavs saqarTvelos

industriul

centrebs da axasiaTebs

erT-erT

maTgans. erTmaneTs

adarebs gegmiur da

sabazro ekonomikas

da msjelobs saqarTveloSigegmiuri

ekonomikidan

sabazroze gadasvliT

gamowveul

cvlilebebze;

o msjelobs sxvadasxva

epoqaSi sa-

117


saqarTvelo axal

axal droSi

(XIX – XX s.s.)

qarTvelos ekonomikis

regionTan, imperiasa

da msoflio

ekonomikasTan

integraciaze (mag.

saqarTvelo da kavkasia,

saqarTvelo

da sabWoTa kavSiri,

saqarTvelo da

msoflio);

o moswavle aanalizebs

sxvadasxva

epoqaSi saqarTveloSi

ekonomikuri

urTierTobebis ganviTarebas;

o msjelobs saqarTvelos

ekonomikaSi

ucxo qveynis

mmarTvelobiT gamowveul

dadebiT

da uaryofiT mxareebze;

o msjelobs, Tu rogor

icvleboda saqarTveloSisoflis

meurneoba sasoflo_sameurneo

teqnikis ganviTarebasTan

erTad;

o msjelobs, Tu rogor

icvleboda savaWrourTierTobebi

saqarTveloSi

transportis ganvi-

TarebasTan erTad;

o aanalizebs saqarTveloSimmarTvelobiTi

struqturebs

uZvelesi droidan

dRemde;

o moswavle ikvlevs

saqarTveloSi so-

118


cialur urTierTobebs

uZvelesi

droidan dRemde;

o aanalizebs sagareo

da saSinao faqtorebis

gavlenas

qarTuli saxelmwifos

warmoSobasa

da ganviTarebaze;

o ikvlevs saqarTveloSi

arsebul religiebs;

o ikvlevs qarTul

kulturas uZvelesi

droidan dRemde.

119


gakveTili 1

Tema – giorgi brwyinvalis epoqa

gakveTilis mizani - moswavleebi gaecnobian, Tu rogor dasrulda

monRolTa batonoba saqarTveloSi. ra faqtorebma

Seuwyves xeli saqarTvelos xelaxal gaerTianebas.

enobrivi mizani - moswavleebi Seiswavlian istoriul warsulSi

saqarTvelos nawilebisa da saqarTvelos mosazRvre

teritoriebis aRmniSvnel terminebs, agreTve gaecnobian

monRolTa saxelmwifosTvis damaxasiaTebel cnebebs.

nacnobi cnebebi - ajanyeba, laSqroba, imperia, momTabareebi,

ilxanTa samefo, ulusi.

Sesaswavli cnebebi - avtonomia, lixTimereTi, lixTamereTi,

Sesaswavli leqsika - qarTlis cxovreba, ajanyeba, samefo, samTa-

vro, laSqroba, imperia, momTabareebi, ilxanTa samefo,

ulusi, avtonomia, lixTimereTi, dasavleT saqarTvelo,

lixTamereTi, aRmosavleT saqarTvelo, samcxe, somxeTi,

trapizonis samefo, mameluqebi, sazRvari, mdinare, de-

daqalaqi, feodali.

funqciuri frazebi - daakvirdiT, waikiTxeT, gaecaniT, gaZlevT

testur davalebas, SeavseT testebi, SemoxazeT swori

pauxebi, amoikiTxeT saxelmZRvaneloSi is frazebi,

romlebic Tqven pasuxs adastureben, daukavSireT isre-

biT, daasaxeleT, waawereT, gadaSaleT rveulebi, vin mi-

pasuxebs, romel Tqvengans surs? vin daexmareba amxa-

120


dro - 45 wuTi.

nags? CamoTvaleT, daviwyoT Temis zogadi ganxilviT,

axla gagacnobT gakveTilis Temasa da mizans, ras Se-

viswavliT am gakveTilze, gadaSaleT saxelmZRvaneloe-

bi, ras niSnavs ...........? vin iyo ...............? waikiTxeT (gaeca-

niT), SekiTxvebi xom ar gaqvT? wera dasrulebulia - Ca-

mabareT nawerebi.

resursebi - maswavlebeli - dafa, carci; flifCarti, markeri.

aqtivoba 1

moswavleebi - saxelmZRvanelo me-9 klasi (moswavlis

wigni), rveuli, kalmistari,Savi fanqari, feradi fanqre-

bi an flomastrebi.

aqtivobebi

maswavlebeli mokled uxsnis moswavleebs gakveTilis Temasa

da mizans (wers dafaze) da sTxovs moswavleebs waikiTxon 52 para-

grafis - ”giorgi brwyinvales epoqa” Sesavali (pirveli ori abza-

ci).

maswavlebels winaswar wers dafaze an flifCartze testur

SekiTxvebs. moswavleebi sakuTar rveulebSi iweren am tests. SesaZ-

lebelia maswavlebelma testebi winaswar dabeWdos da daurigos

individualurad moswavleebs.

maswavlebeli aZlevs instruqcias moswavleebs:

wakiTxuli teqstis mixedviT, SemoxazeT swori pasuxebi.

121


tonoba?

ratom iyo mZime saqarTvelos mosaxleobisTvis monRolTa ba-

swori pasuxebi: 1; 3.

1. xarkis gadaxdis gamo

2. monebiT vaWrobis gamo

3. monRolTa laSqrobebSi monawileobis gamo

4. qarTuli mosaxleobis sxva tertoriebze gada

saxlebis gamo

ramden nawilad daiyo saqarTvelo?

swori pasuxi : 3.

1. xuT nawilad

2. or nawilad

3. sam nawilad

4. oTx nawilad

romeli samefoebis mefeebi iyvnen (daukavSireT isrebiT)?

daviT narini aRmosavleT saqarTvelo

ulu daviTi samcxe

122

dasavleT saqarTvelo

swori pasuxebi: daviT narini - dasavleT saqarTvelo

ulu daviTi - aRmosavleT saqarTvelo.

davalebis dasrulebis Semdeg, maswavlebeli amorCeviT iZax-

ebs moswavleebs da adgilidan sTxovs testur SekiTxvebze pasuxis

gacemas. aseve, avalebs am pasuxebis sisworis dasadastureblad


saxelmZRvanelos teqstidan (Sesavali, pirveli ori abzaci) waikiT-

xon Sesabamisi frazebi.

aqtivoba 2

aqtivoba 1 fasdeba ganmsazRvreli SefasebiT.

aqtivobas eTmoba 15 wuTi.

maswavlebeli avalebs moswavleebs waikiTxon cnoba 1. mas-

wavlebels winaswar wers dafaze an flifCartze testur SekiTxvas.

moswavleebi sakuTar rveulebSi iweren am tests. maswavlebeli

sTxovs moswavleebs teqstis (cnoba 1) mixedviT gamotovebul adgi-

lebSi Caweron sityvebi:

lixTimereTi aris .................................................................

lixTamereTi aris ................................................................

dasavleT da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos Soris sazRvars war-

moadgens ...............................................................................

swori pasuxebi: 1. dasavleT saqarTvelo; 2aRmosavleT saqarTvelo;

3 lixis qedi.

davalebis dasrulebis Semdeg, moswavleebi adgilidan kiT-

xuloben pasuxebs da sakuTar pasuxebs amyareben teqstidan motani-

li citatebiT.

aqtivoba 2 fasdeba Semdegnairad: maswavlebeli akeTebs komentarebs:

kargia. davaleba srulyofilad ar Segisrulebia. citatebi ar See-

sabameba pasuxs da a.S.

aqtivobas eTmoba 10 wuTi.

123


aqtivoba 3

maswavlebeli moswavleebs indivdualurad urigebs kontu-

rul rukas (danarTi #1) da sTxovs moswavlebs wyaro g-s (ruka -

saqarTvelo XIII – XIV saukuneebis mijnaze) mixedviT, konturul

rukaze:

a) waaweron saxelwodebebi samefoebis/samTavros dedaqalaqebs;

b) waaweron saxelwodebebi qalaqebs;

g) waaweron saxelwodebebi im mdinareebs, romelTa saxelwodebeb-

ic mocemulia rukaze;

d) waaweron saxelwodebebi zRvebs;

e) rukaze daitanon ajanyebis adgilebi da waaweron maTi TariRebi;

davalebis dasrulebis Semdeg, maswavlebeli sTxovs moswav-

leebs waaweron sakuTar namuSevrebs saxeli da gvari da krebs maT.

is gakveTilis Semdeg asworebs am namuSevrebs.

aqtivoba 3 fasdeba Semdegnairad: maswavlebeli afasebs namu-

Sevris sizustesa da akuratulobas da wers qulebs.

aqtivoba 4

dafaze:

aqtivobas eTmoba 18 wuTi.

maswavlebeli moswavleebs aZlevs saSinao davalebas da wers

waikiTxeT 52 paragrafis ”giorgi brwyinvales epoqa” bolo

qveTavi ”giorgi brwyinvale” da dawere patara ese - ”ratom Searqves

Tanamedroveebma giorgi V-s ”brwyinvale”?

aqtivobas eTmoba - 2 wuTi.

gakveTilis dasasruli.

124


125

danarTi


gakveTili 2

Tema – daviT IV aRmaSeneblis epoqa

gakveTilis mizani - moswavleebi gaecnobian daviT aRmaSeneblis

moRvaweobas. saqarTvelos gaTavisuflebas selCukTa

batonobisgan da mis gadaqcevas maxlobeli

aRmosavleTis erT-erT uZlieress saxelmwifod.

enobrivi mizani - moswavleebi Seiswavlian me-12 saukunis

saqarTvelos istoriul - geografiul terminologias,

aseve gaecnobian sxvadasxva iaraRis qarTul

dasaxelebas.

Sesaswavli leqsika - qarTlis cxovreba, selCukebi, sasulTno,

jvarosnebi, momTabareebi, samefo elita, mesiis

maxvili, yivCaRebi, aRmaSenebeli, veluri, akademia, kaxeT-

hereTi, samefo, samTavro, xarkis gadaxda, laSqroba,

imperia, momTabareebi, kaspiis zRva, Savi zRva, lixis

qedi, sazRvaris gafarToeba, dedaqalaqi, feodali,

iaraRi, xmali javSani, muzaradi, rkinis niRabi, gelaTis

da iyalTos akademiebi,monasteri.

funqciuri frazebi - daakvirdiT, waikiTxeT, gaecaniT, gaZlevT

testur davalebas, SeavseT testebi, SemoxazeT swori

pauxebi, aageT drois xazi, romelzec daitanT,

daasaxeleT, gadaSaleT rveulebi, vin mipasuxebs, romel

Tqvengans surs? vin daexmareba amxanags? CamoTvaleT,

daviwyoT Temis zogadi ganxilviT, axla gagacnobT

gakveTilis Temasa da mizans, ras SeviswavliT am

gakveTilze, gadaSaleT saxelmZRvaneloebi, SeavseT

gamotovebuli adgilebi, ras niSnavs ...........? vin iyo

126


...............? vin metyvis? vin mipasuxebs? waikiTxeT (gaecaniT),

SekiTxvebi xom ar gaqvT? wera dasrulebulia - CamabareT

nawerebi.

dro - 45 wuTi

resursebi - maswavlebeli - dafa, carci. saqarTvelos fizikuri

aqtivoba 1

ruka. moswavleebi - saxelmZRvanelo me-9 klasi (mos-

wavlis wigni), rveuli, kalmistari. saweri furclebi.

aqtivobebi

maswavlebeli moswavleebs acnobs gakveTilis Temasa da mi-

zans, wers dafaze da sTxovs maT:

waikiTxeT 38 paragrafis Sesavali, daakvirdiT saqarTvelos fizi-

kur rukas, gaixseneT geografiidan saqarTvelos reliefuri age-

buleba da gaeciT Semdeg SekiTxvas pasuxi:

- ratom uWirdaT selCuk momTabare dampyroblebs aRmosavleT

saqarTvelodan dasavleT saqarTveloSi gadasvla, daasabuTeT?

(am pasuxisTvis moswavleebma unda gaixsenon, Tu rogor geogra-

fiul garemoSi cxovrobdnen momTabareebi. SesaZlebelia maswavle-

belma ganumartos qarTuli sityva ”veluris” mniSvneloba. sityva

”veluri” momdinareobs qarTuli sityva velidan e.i. velis macxo-

vrebeli).

swori pasuxi maswavleblisTvis: aRmosavleT saqarTvelodan

dasavleT saqarTveloSi gadasvla selCukebisTvis rTuli iyo imis

gamo, rom am or regions hyofs lixis qedi. lixis qedi, qarTvele-

127


is mier, yovelTvis kargad iyo gamagrebuli cixeebiTa da sxva

TavdacviTi nagebobebiT. amave dros, selCukebis samSoblo cen-

traluri aziis stepebebs moicavda, sadac uzarmazari gaSlili

velebi da mindvrebia. mTebi am adgilebSi naklebad gvxdeba. amis

gamo, maT ZiriTad damrtymel Zalas cxenosnebi warmoadgendnen.

amitom momTabare selCukebi ar iyvnen miCveulebi mTebSi da vi-

wro xeobebSi brZolas.

maswavlebeli garkveul dros aZlevs moswavleebs mosafi-

qreblad. maswavlebeli sTxovs mopasuxes gamovides dafasTan da

pasuxis gacemisas aCvenos rukaze lixis qedi.

Tu moswavle srulad ver gascems SekiTxvas, SesaZlebelia,

maswavlebelma sxva moswavleebi daixmaros.

aqtivoba 1 fasdeba ganmsazRvreli SefasebiT - maswavlebeli mos-

wavles afasebs qulebiT.

aqtivoba 2

aqtivobas eTmoba 10 wuTi.

maswavlebeleli sTxovs moswavleebs waikiTxon paragrafi 38-

is ”daviT IVaRmaSeneblis epoqa” avtoriseuli teqstis is monakve-

Ti, sadac saubaria XI s-is 90-iani wlebis Sesaxeb.

maswavlebeli svams SekiTxvas:

ratom gaxda SesaZlebeli selCukebisTvis xarkis Sewyveta XI

s-is 90-iani wlebSi? daasaxeleT ori sagareo faqtori.

moswavleebi adgilidan pasuxoben.

swori pasuxi maswavleblisTvis: selCukTa sasulTno areu-

lobam moicva da daiSala;

selCukebs dasavleTidan jvarosnebma Seuties.

128


aqtivoba 2 fasdeba Semdegnairad: maswavlebeli akeTebs komentarebs:

kargia, pasuxi daasabuTe saelmZRvanelos teqstis mixedviT, pasuxi

ar aris srulyofili da a.S.

aqtivoba 3

aqtivobas eTmoba 5 wuTi.

maswavlebeli sTxovs moswavleebs daakvirdnen wyari d-s, sa-

dac gamosaxulia sxvadsxva xalxebis iaraRi. moswavleebma unda

Seadaron erTmaneTs yivCaRuri (2) da jvarosnuli maxvilebi (4) da

gascen pasuxi Semdeg SekiTxvas:

Tqveni azriT, romeli maxvili ufro mosaxerxebelia brZo-

lisTvis? pasuxi daasabuTe.

moswavleebi adgilidan pasuxoben.

moswavleebma am SekiTxva SeiZleba sxvadasxvanairad upasuxon.

mTavaria maTi pasuxi iyos argumentirebuli.

aqtivoba 3 fasdeba Semdegnairad: maswavlebeli akeTebs komentarebs:

kargia, pasuxs aklia argumentacia, saintereso mosazrebaa, me ver

gaviziareb Sens mosazrebas, Tumca is mainc sainteresoa da a. S.

aqtivobas eTmoba 10 wuTi.

129


aqtivoba 4

maswavlebeli sTxovs moswavleebs waikiTxon paragrafi 38-is

”daviT IVaRmaSeneblis epoqa” avtoriseuli teqstis is monakveTi,

sadac saubaria daviTis mier akademiebis daarsebaze.

maswavlebeli wers dafaze Semdeg SekiTxvebs:

a) daviT aRmaSenebelma daaarsa ........................... da .............................. akademiebi;

b) gelaTis akademiaSi aswavlidnen Semdeg sagnebs: ..................................,

........................................, ........................................, ........................................, ........................................

da a.S.

g) saqarTvelos romel kuTxeSi mdebaroebdnen iyalTos da gela-

Tis akademiebi?

gelaTis akademia mdebareobda ...........................................

iyalTos akademia mdebareobda ..............................................

maswavlebeli aZlevs miTiTebas moswavleebs:

SeavseT gamotovebuli adgilebi!

maswavleblis davalebiT, moswavleebi furclebze iweren SekiTx-

vebs da iwyeben muSaobas.

davalebis damTavrebis Semdeg, maswavlebeli krebs nawerebs

da asworebs gakveTilis Semdeg. moswavleTa namuSevrebze aucileb-

lad unda iyos dawerili maTi gvari da saxeli.

aqtovoba 4 fasdeba ganmsazRvreli SefasebiT.

aqtivobas eTmoba 10 wuTi.

aqtivoba - 5

maswavlebeli sTxovs moswavlebs paragrafi 38 - Si ”daviT

IVaRmaSeneblis epoqa” gaecnon wyari e - s, romelzec datanilia

daviTis epoqis saqarTvelos ruka.

130


srulebas:

maswavlebeli moswavleebs avalebs Semdegi davalebis Se-

wyaro e - s mixedviT, aageT drois xazi, romelzec daitanT

daviTis mier qalaqebis aRebis da SemoerTebis TariRebs.

moswavleebi samuSaos furclebze asruleben. moswavleTa na-

muSevrebze aucileblad unda iyos dawerili maTi gvari da saxeli.

maswavlebeli krebs nawerebs da asworebs gakveTilis Semdeg.

aqtovoba 4 fasdeba ganmsazRvreli SefasebiT.

aqtivobas eTmoba 10 wuTi.

gakveTilis dasasruli.

131


X klasi

Tema # Temis mizani enobrivi mizani

ra aris istoria?

ratom vswavlobT

istorias?

berZeni da romaeli

istorikosebi

Sua saukuneebis istoriografia

axali drois

istorikosebi

1

o moswavle aanalizebs

da afasebs

erTi da imave istoriulimovlenis

gansxvavebul

interpretaciebs.

o adarebs or wyaros,

romlebic

konkretul istoriul

movlenaze

(pirovnebaze)

gvawvdis gansxvavebulinformacias

(an gvaZlevs

erTi da imave istoriulimovlenis

an pirovnebis

gansxvavebul Sefasebas);msjelobs

im faqtorebze,

romlebmac

ganapiroba konkretuli

movlenis

gansxvavebuli interpretaciebis

arseboba (mag.: istoriuli

wyaros

Seqmnis epoqa da

garemo, avtoris

erovneba, misi politikuri

Tu religiuriorientacia,

socialuri

statusi da sxv.);

o adarebs konkretul

istoriul

132

o moswavles SeuZlia

TemisaTvis

mniSvnelovani

terminebis qar-

Tulad dasaxeleba,

icis am terminTa

qarTuli

ganmartebebi,

SeuZlia sinonimuri

sityvebiTa da

aRweriTi msjelobiT

terminTa Secvla

da maTi meSveobiT

mosazrebis

gadmocema.

o moswavles SeuZlia

sworad gamoiyenos

is konstruqciebi,romlebic

sakiTxze

msjelobisas das-

Wir-deba. saWiroebis

Sem-TxvevaSi ki

SeuZlia erTi

gramatikuli konstruqciis

sxva

konstruqciiT

Secvla ise, rom

aagos swori da

gramatikulad gamarTulimsjeloba.

o moswavlem icis

yvela im funqciuri

frazis mniSvneloba,

rac Te-


movlenaze (pirovnebaze)

arsebul

ori (an sami) istorikosis

gansxvavebul

Tvalsazriss, afasebs

mas da ayalibebs

sakuTar Sexedulebas

am istoriulimovlenis

(pirovnebis)

Sesaxeb;

o aanalizebs pirvelad

da meorad

wyaroebs;

o gamoTqvams saku-

Tar mosazrebas

istoriuli wyaros

avtoris Sesaxeb

da kritikulad

afasebs, Tu

ramdenad sandoa

igi (mag.: ikvlevs

iyo Tu ara avtori

movlenis

TviTmxilveli, Tu

sargeblobda

sxvaTa informaciiT;

moqmedebda

Tu ara cenzura

wyaros avtorze).

o moswavle aanalizebs

da afasebs

erTi da imave istoriulimovlenis

gansxvavebul

interpretaciebs.

o adarebs konkretul

istoriul

movlenaze (pirovnebaze)

arsebul

ori (an sami) istorikosis

gansxvavebul

Tvalsazriss, afa-

133

maze muSaobisas

sWirdeba da

SeuZlia am frazebis

Tavad gamoyenebac.

o moswavles esmis

yvela instruqcia,

rac Temis

irgvliv arsebuli

savarjiSoebisTvis

sWirdeba da Tavadac

SeuZlia amgvariinstruqciebis

ageba.

o moswavle Tavisuflad

asrulebs

tests an sxva specifikurdavalebebs

sakiTxis

irgvliv da Tavadac

SeuZlia amgvari

davalebis

Seqmna instruqciebis,

Sesabamisi

funqciuri frazebisa

da konstruqciebisgamoyenebiT.


ogor vswavlobT

istorias?

2

sebs mas da ayalibebs

sakuTar Sexedulebas

am istoriulimovlenis

(pirovnebis)

Sesaxeb;

o ganasxvavebs istoriul

faqts

istoriuli interpretaciisagan;

msjelobs, ramdenad

aris dakavSirebuli

isini

erTmaneTTan;

o aanalizebs pirvelad

da meorad

wyaroebs;

o kritikulad afasebs,

Tu ramdenad

sandoa wyaro (mag.:

ikvlevs, iyo Tu

ara avtori movlenisTviTmxilveli,

Tu sargeblobda

sxvaTa informaciiT;moqmedebda

Tu ara

cenzura wyaros

avtorze);

o istoriuli wyarodan

zusti Sinaarsis

gamotanis

mizniT adgens istoriulimovlenis

monawileebs,

misi ganviTarebis

adgilsa da dros,

gamomwvev faqtorebsa

da Sedegebs;

o adgens istoriuli

wyaros mTavar sakiTxs;

o wyaroebze muSaobisas

mxedveloba-

Si iRebs istori-

134


uli movlenis monawileebis

gansxvavebul faseulobebs,interesebs,Sexedulebebs,

motivebsa da

sxva adamianur

mxareebs;

o istoriul wyaroebze

muSaobisas

adgens mizez-

Sedegobriv kavSirebs;

msjelobs

pirovnebis rolze

istoriaSi, ideebis

gavlenasa da

SemTxveviTobis

faqtorze;

o istoriuli wyarodan

gamotanil

informacias ajgufebssazogadoebrivicxovrebis

sxvadasxva

sferos (politika,

ekonomika, kultura,

religia, socialuri

urTier-

Tobebi) mixedviT;

o kiTxulobs istoriul

rukas istoriulimovlenis

ganviTarebis

adgilze geografiuliinformaciis

mopovebis

mizniT.

o moswavle gegmavs

da atarebs istoriul

kvlevas;

o damoukideblad an

maswavleblis

daxmarebiT irCevs

sakvlevad misTvis

saintereso isto-

135


ogor gadmovcemT

istorias?

3

riul sakiTxs;

o kvlevis interesebidan

gamomdinare,

maswavleblis

daxmarebiT moi-

Ziebs, ecnoba da

afasebs pirvelad

wyaroebs;

o wers istoriul

Temas;

o istoriuli Temis

daweris mizniT

irCevs misTvis

saintereso sakiTxs

da TandaTan

akonkretebs mas;

o istoriuli Temis

daweris mizniT

irCevs misTvis

saintereso sakiTxs

da TandaTan

akonkretebs mas;

o adgens Temis daweris

gegmas, rac

gulisxmobs: a)

gegmis Sedgenis

dros ufro mniSvnelovani

ideebis

erT jgufSi gan-

Tavsebas, SedarebiT

naklebad

mniSvnelovnisas ki

_ meoreSi da a.S.;

o citatis motanisas,parafrazirebisas

an sxvisi

mosazrebis gamoyenebisasaucileblad

uTiTebs

wyaros;

o Temas daurTavs

gamoyenebuli literaturis

sias;

o axdens gverdebis

danomvras;

136


o meore (an mesame

variantis) daweris

Semdeg axdens Temis

redaqtirebas;

o Temis saboloo

variantis wardgenis

win kidev

erTxel kiTxulobsredaqtirebul

variants.

gakveTili 1

Tema – muSaoba sxvadasxva tipis wyaroebze; erTi ambavi da

sxvadasxva wyaro

gakveTilis mizani - moswavleebi aanalizeben da afaseben erTi

da imave istoriuli movlenis gansxvavebul

interpretaciebs. adareben konkretul istoriul

movlenaze arsebul ori (an sami) istorikosis

gansxvavebul Tvalsazriss da afaseben mas.

enobrivi mizani - moswavleebi Seiswavlian istoriuli wyaros

sxvadsxva tipebis aRmniSvnel terminologias.

Sesaswavli leqsika - istoriuli wyaro, istoriuli kvleva,

wyaroebis klasifikacia, nivTieri wyaro, werilobiTi

wyaro, pirveladi wyaro, meoradi wyaro.

funqciuri frazebi - daakvirdiT, waikiTxeT, gaecaniT, SemoxazeT

swori pauxebi, aageT drois xazi, romelzec daitanT,

daasaxeleT, mocemuli wyaroebis mixedviT daadgineT,

gadaSaleT rveulebi, vin mipasuxebs, romel Tqvengans

137


dro - 45 wuTi.

surs? vin daexmareba amxanags? CamoTvaleT, daviwyoT

Temis zogadi ganxilviT, pasuxi saWiroebs

argumentacias, daasabuTeT, axla gagacnobT gakveTilis

Temasa da mizans, ras SeviswavliT am gakveTilze,

gadaSaleT saxelmZRvaneloebi, SeavseT gamotovebuli

adgilebi, ras niSnavs ...........? vin iyo ...............? vin metyvis?

vin mipasuxebs? waikiTxeT (gaecaniT), SekiTxvebi xom ar

gaqvT? wera dasrulebulia - CamabareT nawerebi.

resursebi - maswavlebeli - dafa, carci. moswavleebi -

aqtivoba 1

saxelmZRvanelo me-10 klasi (moswavlis wigni), rveuli,

kalmistari.

aqtivobebi

maswavlebeli acnobs moswavleebs gakveTilis Temasa da

mizans da mokled saubrobs sxvadasxva tipis istoriuli wyaroebis

mniSvnelobaze.

maswavlebeli sTxovs moswavleebs davaleba sakuTar

rveulebSi Seasrulon, xolo Semdeg aZlevs am davalebis

instruqcias:

- waikiTxeT, 13 paragrafis ”muSaoba sxvadasxva tipis

wyaroebze; erTi ambavi da sxvadasxva wyaro”, Sesavali, wyaro 1, 2

da 5.

138


- wyaro 1, 2 da 5 Sinaarsis mixedviT SeasruleT Semdegi

davaleba:

maswavlebeli SekiTxvebs wers dafaze.

CamowereT wyaroebSi naxsenebi yvela istoriuli piris

saxeli;

dawereT wyaroebSi naxsenebi RmerTis saxeli;

dawereT wyaroebSi naxsenebi geografiuli saxelebi.

swori pasuxebi:

amuliusi, numitori, romulusi, remusi;

marsi;

tibri, romi.

maswavlebeli sTxovs moswavleebs adgilidan upasuxon.

aqtivoba 1 fasdeba Semdegnairad: maswavlebeli TiTo swor pasuxSi

wers TiTo qulas.

aqtivoba 2

aqtivobas eTmoba 10 wuTi.

maswavlebeli sTxovs moswavleebs davaleba sakuTr

rveulebSi Seasrulon, xolo am davalebis instruqcias zepirad

eubneba:

- sqemis mixedviT warmosaxeT wyaro 1, 2 da 5 naxsenebi

istoriuli pirebis naTesauri kavSirebi:

1. am pirebis saxelebi CasviT CarCoebSi

2. kavSirebis aRsaniSnavad gamoiyeneT isrebi.

erT-erTi SesaZlo swori pasuxi:

139


samuSaos damTavrebis Semdeg maswavlebeli Camoivlis merxebs

Soris da akvirdeba namuSevrebs da erT-erT moswavles, romelmac

davaleba kargad Seasrula, sTxovs dafaze daxazos sqema.

aqtivoba 2 fasdeba Semdegnairad: maswavlebeli akeTebs

zepir komentarebs: kargia, kargad gimuSavia, naxazi ar aris

srulyofili, wyaroebSi miTiTebuli yvela piris saxeli ar Cans

naxazSi da a.S.

aqtivoba 3

amuliusi

(Zma)

aqtivobas eTmoba 10 wuTi.

maswavlebeli sTxovs moswavleebs, zepirad, adgilidan gascen

pasuxi Semdeg SekiTxvebs.

paragrafSi mocemuli wyaroebis mixedviT daadgineT:

1. aris Tu ara liviusi Tanamedrove im movlenebisa, romelzec

is wyaro 2 - Si saubrobs? daasabuTeT.

swori pasuxi: ar aris, radganac liviusi moRvaweobda Zv.w I -

ax. w I saukuneebSi, xolo romis daarseba wyaro me-5 - is Tanaxmad

moxda Zv.w VIII saukuneSi.

romulusi

(SviliSvili)

2. romeli wyaroebia nivTieri da werilobiTi?

swori pasuxi: nivTieri - 3, 4; werilobiTi - 1,2,5.

3. romel wyaroSia gadmocemuli mecnierTa varaudi?

140

numitori

(papa)

remusi

(SviliSvili)


swori pasuxi: me- 5 - Si.

moswavleebi adgilidan pasuxoben. SekiTvebze pasuxebis

gacemisas SeiZleba moswavleebs Soris gaimarTos diskusia, rasac

maswavlebelma xeli unda Seuwyos.

aqtivoba 3 fasdeba Semdegnairad: maswavlebeli akeTebs zepir

komentarebs: kargia, sainteresoa, zustad gaeci pasuxi, pasuxi ar

aris srulyofili, vin daamatebs da a.S.

aqtivoba 4

aqtivobas eTmoba 10 wuTi.

maswavlebeli moswavleebs aZlevs Semdeg or davalebas:

- sakuTar rveulebSi werolobiT, ramdenime winadadebiT

gaeciT pasuxi Semdeg SekiTxvas (pasuxi unda iyos ramdenime):

1. davaleba.

ratom aris aucilebeli mravali wyaros gamoyeneba erTi

istoriuli faqtis dasadgenad? pasuxi daasabuTeT

savaraudo swori pasuxebi:

a) wyaroebi sxvadasxva dros aris Seqmnili. (sakuTari azris

dasacavad moswavlem ganvlili masalidan aucileblad

argumentebi da magaliTebi unda moiyvanos).

b) wyaros Semqmneli SeiZleba iyos mikerZoebuli (iyos

opozicioneri an xelisuflebis warmomadgeneli), an

simarTles ver werdes cenzuris gamo da sxva. amitom

aucilebelia sxva wyaroebiT gadamowmeba. (sakuTari azris

dasacavad moswavlem ganvlili masalidan aucileblad

argumentebi da magaliTebi unda moiyvanos).

141


g) wyaros Semqmnels SeiZleba cudi mTxrobelebi

(informatorebi) hyavda, romlebic sxvadasva mizeziT

damaxinjebul informacias awvdidnen, amitom aucilebelia

sxva wyaroebiT gadamowmeba. (sakuTari azris dasacavad

moswavlem ganvlili masalidan aucileblad argumentebi da

magaliTebi unda moiyvanos).

d) sxvadsxva adamianebi erTsa da imave movlenas

sxvadasxvanairad afaseben da a.S.

(sakuTari azris dasacavad moswavlem ganvlili masalidan

aucileblad argumentebi da magaliTebi unda moiyvanos).

2. davaleba

numeraciis mixedviT ganalageT paragraSi mocemuli 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

wyaroebi uZvelesidan uaxlesamde

swori pasuxi:

1 4 3 2 5

maswavlebeli krebs rveulebs da namuSevrebs asworebs

gakveTilis Semdeg.

aqtivoba 4 fasdeba Semdegnairad: maswavlebels afasebs

naSroms -1. davalebas qulebis meSveobiT winaswar SemuSavebuli

kriteriumebis mixedviT.

kriteriumebi

o ayalibebs Tezisebs;

o amyarebs Teziss saTanado argumentebiT;

o magaliTebi adekvaturad mohyavs;

o enobrivad gamarTulia.

142


2. davaleba fasdeba qulebis mixedviT.

aqtivobas eTmoba 15 wuTi.

gakveTilis dasasruli.

143


gakveTili 2

Tema – ruka, rogorc istoriuli wyaro

gakveTilis mizani - moswavleebi gaecnobian rukas, rogorc

istoriul wyaros, Seiswavlian rukis elementebs da

misi meSveobiT SesZleben garkveuli informaciis

mopovebas.

Sesaswavli leqsika - istoriuli ruka, rukis legenda, rukis

saxelwodeba, cnobebi Semsruleblis Sesaxeb,

informacia gamocemis adgilisa da drois Sesazeb,

toponimi, kartografia.

enobrivi mizani - moswavleebi Seiswavlian istoriul rukis

Semadgeneeli elementebis dasaxelebebs

funqciuri frazebi - daakvirdiT, waikiTxeT, gaecaniT, SeavseT

dro - 45 wuTi.

testi, daasaxeleT, danarTi ............, vin mipasuxebs,

romel Tqvengans surs? vin daexmareba amxanags?

imuSaveT wyvilebSi, vin warmoadgens Tavisi wyvilis

namuSevars? CamoTvaleT, daviwyoT Temis zogadi

ganxilviT, pasuxi saWiroebs argumentacias, samuSao

furclebs daawereT Tqveni saxeli da gvari,

daasabuTeT, axla gagacnobT gakveTilis Temasa da

mizans, ras SeviswavliT am gakveTilze, gadaSaleT

saxelmZRvaneloebi, vin metyvis? vin mipasuxebs?

waikiTxeT (gaecaniT), SekiTxvebi xom ar gaqvT? wera

dasrulebulia - CamabareT nawerebi.

144


esursebi - maswavlebeli - dafa, carci; msoflios politikuri

aqtivoba 1

da fizikuri rukebi, umjobesia romelime istoriuli

ruka. danarTebi #1 da #2, romlebsac individulurad

urigebs maswavlebeli moswavleebs. moswavleebi -

saxelmZRvanelo me-10 klasis (moswavlis wigni),

rveuli, kalmistari.

aqtivobebi

maswavlebeli moswavleebs acnobs gakveTilis (paragrafi 31,

ruka, rogorc istoriuli wyaro) mizansa da Temas. dafaze gakruli

rukis magaliTze, is umartavs moswavleebs rukis elementebs

(saTaurs, masStabs, legendas, zogierTs pirobiT niSans da a.S. ) da

saubrobs rukis mniSvnelobaze istoriis Seswavlis procesSi.

Semdeg, sTxovs moswavleebs gaecnon (paragrafi 31, ruka, rogorc

istoriuli wyaro) Sesavals.

aqtivoba 2

aqtivobas eTmoba 10 wuTi.

maswavlebeli aZlevs moswavleebs Semdeg davalebas:

- daakvirdiT wyaro 1-s da wyaro 3 - s (budizmis da

induizmis gavrceleba 500 wlisTvis da islamis gavrceleba)

da SeavseT testi, romelic mocemulia #1 danarTSi.

- danarTSi ”saxeli da gvari” - is gaswvriv

aucileblad CawereT Tqveni saxeli da gvari

davalebis dasrulebis Semdeg maswavlebeli krebs testebs da

gakveTilis Semdeg asworebs.

145


aqtivoba 2 fasdeba Semdegnairad: maswavlebeli TiToeul

swor pasuxSi wers TiTo qulas

aqtivoba 3

aqtivobas eTmoba 15 wuTi.

maswavlebeli aZlevs moswavleebs Semdeg davalebas:

imuSaveT wyvilebSi. mewyvileebi eTaTbirebian da dasmul

SekiTxvebze Sejerebul pasuxs scemen.

daakvirdiT wyaro 2-s (qristianobis gavrceleba evropaSi) da

gaeciT pasuxebi SekiTxvebs, romlebic mocemulia #2 danarTSi

danarTSi ”saxeli da gvaris” gaswvriv aucileblad

CawereT mewyvileebis saxeli da gvari

davalebis dasrulebis Semdeg, maswavlebeli krebs

moswavleTa namuSevrebs. es imisTvis keTdeba, rom moswavlebs ar

hqondeT sakuTar namuSevarSi Secdomebis Casworebis

SesaZlebloba.

amis Semdeg maswavlebeli amorCeviT iZaxebs erT- erT

moswavles dafasTan (msoflios politikur rukasTan) da sTxovs

sakuTari wyvilis pasuxebis gacnobas klasisTvis.

maswavlebeli ubrunebs mopasuxes sakuTar namuSevars.

(mewyvileebi TviTon irCeven prezentators)

prezentatori pasuxobs.

SesaZlebelia, moswavlem arasworad upasuxos, maSin

maswavlebeli mimarTavs klass.

SesaZlebelia moswavlis pasuxma gamoiwvios TanaklaselebSi

azrTa sxvadasxvaoba. maswavlebelma amgvar diskusias xeli unda

Seuwyos.

afasebs

prezentatoris poziciis dacvis ufleba aqvs mis mewyviles.

moswavleTa namuSevrebs maswavlebeli gakveTilis Semdeg

146


aqtivoba 3 fasdeba Semdegnairad: maswavlebeli TiToeul

swor pasuxSi wers TiTo qulas. am quliT is afasebs orive

mewyviles.

aqtivobas eTmoba 20 wuTi.

gakveTilis dasasruli

147


148

danarTi # 1

saxeli da gvari ....................................... ...........................................................

SemoxazeT swori pasuxi:

1. budizmi warmoiSva:

a) CineTSi; b) indoeTSi; g) iaponiaSi; d) nepalSi.

2. budizmi gavrcelda:

swori pasuxi: b)

a) tibetSi, iaponiaSi, k.Sri-lankaze, arabeTSi;

b) CineTSi, indoneziaSi, iranSi, koreaSi;

g) CineTSi, iaponiaSi, koreaSi, k.Sri- lankaze;

d) arc erTi pasuxi ar aris swori.

swori pasuxi: g)

CawereT gamotovebul adgilas swori pasuxi.

3. budizmi iaponiaSi uSualod ........................ Sevida.

4. induizmi gavrcelebulia:

swori pasuxi: koreidan

a) indoeTSi, iaponiaSi, k. sumatraze, CineTSi;

b) samxreT - aRmosavleT aziaSi, indoeTSi, birmaSi, k.Sri-

lankaze;

g) indoeTSi, CineTSi, koreaSi, avRaneTSi;

d) samxreT - aRmosavleT aziaSi, birmaSi, k.Sri- lankaze,

iaponiaSi.

swori pasuxi: b)

5. rukaze (wyaro 1) datanebuli patara rukis mixedviT,

induizmi da budizmi gavrcelebulia:

a) aRmosavleT aziaSi;

b) dasavleT aziaSi;


g) axlo aRmosavleTSi;

d) arc erTi pasuxi ar aris swori.

daakvirdiT wyaro 3 -s.

6. islami warmoiSva:

a) apeninis naxevarkunZulze;

b) indostanis naxevarkunZulze;

g) balkaneTis naxevarkunZulze;

d) arabeTis naxevarkunZulze.

swori pasuxi: a)

swori pasuxi: d)

7. muslimTa batonobis qveS espaneTi moeqca:

a) 622- dan - 630 - wlamde;

b) 632 - dan - 661 - wlamde;

g) 661 - dan - 750 - wlamde;

d) arc erTi pasuxi ar aris swori.

swori pasuxi: g)

8. muslimTa batonobis qveS qveS 661-dan - 750 wlamde

moeqca:

a) somxeTi, saqarTvelo, saberZneTi;

b) azerbaijani, somxeTi, egvipte;

g) saqarTvelo, somxeTi, azerbaijani.

d) saqarTvelo, azerbaijani, italia.

swori pasuxi: g)

9. muslimTa batonobis qveS qveS 632-dan - 661- wlamde

moeqca:

a) egvipte, irani;

b) Crdilo afrika, irani;

g) egvopte, espaneTi

d) arc erTi pasuxi ar aris swori.

swori pasuxi: a)

149


10. rukaze (wyaro 3) datanebuli patara rukis mixedviT,

islami gavrcelebulda:

a) afrikaSi, samxreT amerikaSi, aziaSi;

b) aziaSi, evropaSi, avstraliaSi;

g) aziaSi, afrikaSi, CrdiloeT amerikaSi;

d) aziaSi, afrikaSi, evropaSi.

swori pasuxi: d)

150


151

danarTi # 2

saxeli da gvari ....................................... ...........................................................

gaeciT werilobiT pasuxi Semdeg SekiTxvebs.

a) daasaxeleT evropis Tanamedrove sami qveyana, romlebic

ZiriTadad 486 wlisTvis gaqristiandnen;

..........................................., ..........................................., ............................................... .

erT-erTi swori pasuxi: safrangeTi, italia, irlandia.

b) daasaxeleT evropis Tanamedrove sami qveyana, romlebic

ZiriTadad 486 - dan 1050 wlemde gaqristiandnen;

..........................................., ..........................................., ................................................ .

erT-erTi swori pasuxi: norvegia, Sotlandia, ruseTi.

g) wyaro 2 - Tan erTad daixmareT Tanamedrove politikuri

ruka da gansazRvreT is Tanamedrove sami qveyana, romlebSic

yvelaze monastebi iyo (wyaro #2 - Si es monastrebi wreSi

Caxatuli jvriT aris gamosaxuli)

..............................................., ..........................................., ................................................ .

erT-erTi swori pasuxi: belgia, Sveicaria, germania.

d) romeli evropuli qveyana iyo muslimTa gavlenis qveS?

........................................... .

swori pasuxi: espaneTi.

e) romel kontinentebze gavrcelda qristianoba 1050

wlisTvis?

.................................................... , ................................................ .

swori pasuxi: evropa da afrika.


XI klasi

Tema # Temis mizani enobrivi mizani

winare istoriuli

epoqa

1

o moswavle

aanalizebs

pirvelyofil

sazogadoebaSi

momxdar

mniSvnelovan

ekonomikur

cvlilebebs;

o irCevs erT-erT ekonomikuriurTierTobebis

formas da

adarebs saqarTvelosa

da sxva romelime

qveyanaSi (regionSi)

mis Camoyalibebasa

da ganvi-

Tarebas;

o irCevs erT-erT epoqas

da msjelobs

teqnologiuri

cvlilebebisa da

ekonomikis ganviTarebisurTierTgavlenaze;

o moswavle aanalizebs

religiis gavlenas

materialur

da sulier kulturaze;

o adarebs saqarTvelosa

da sxva qveynebiswinaqristianul

religiur warmodgenebs

da maT

gavlenas xelovnebasa

da yofaze;

152

o moswavles SeuZlia

TemisaTvis

mniSvnelovani

terminebis qar-

Tulad dasaxeleba,

icis am

terminTa qar-

Tuli ganmartebebi,

SeuZlia

sinonimuri sityvebiTa

da aRweriTi

msjelobiT

terminTa Secvla

da maTi

meSveobiT mosazrebisgadmocema.

o moswavles SeuZlia

sworad gamoiyenos

is konstruqciebi,romlebic

sakiTxze

msjelobisas

dasWirdeba. sa-

Wiroebis Sem-

TxvevaSi ki Seu-

Zlia erTi gramatikulikonstruqciis

sxva

konstruqciiT

Secvla ise, rom

aagos swori da

gramatikulad

gamarTuli msjeloba.

o moswavlem icis

yvela im funq-


Zveli msoflio da

saqarTvelo

2

o moswavle

aanalizebs Zvels

msoflioSi momxdar

mniSvnelovan

ekonomikur

cvlilebebs;

o irCevs ekonomikuri

urTierTobebis erTerT

formas da

adarebs saqarTvelosa

da sxva

romelime qveyanaSi

(regionSi) mis

Camoyalibebasa da

ganviTarebas;

o irCevs erT-erT

epoqas da msjelobs

teqnologiuri

cvlilebebisa da

ekonomikis

ganviTarebis

urTierTgavlenaze;

o cxrilSi ajgufebs

aRmosavluri da

dasavluri

ekonomikuri

urTierTobebisTvis

damaxasiaTebel

niSnebs da

msjelobs maT Soris

arsebul

msgavsebebsa da

gansxvavebebze;

o aanalizebs mmarTvelobiTistruqturebisCamoyalibebasada

cvlilebebs.

o msjelobs konkretul

epoqaSi saxelmwifosmmarTvelobiT

struqtureb-

Si cvlilebebis Sesaxeb;

o ikvlevs socialuri

struqturebis ur-

153

ciuri frazis

mniSvneloba,

rac Temaze mu-

Saobisas sWirdeba

da SeuZlia

am frazebis Tavad

gamoyenebac.

o moswavles esmis

yvela instruqcia,

rac Temis

irgvliv arsebuli

savarji-

SoebisTvis

sWirdeba da Tavadac

SeuZlia

amgvari instruqciebis

ageba.

o moswavle Tavisufladasrulebs

tests an

sxva specifikur

davalebebs sakiTxis

irgvliv

da Tavadac

SeuZlia amgvari

davalebis Seqmna

instruqciebis,

Sesabamisi funqciuri

frazebisa

da konstruqciebis

gamoyenebiT.


3

TierTmimarTebebs

o adarebs erTi da

igive epoqis ori an

sami qveynis socialur

struqturebs

da miuTiTebs

gansxvavebebsa da

msgavsebebze;

o moswavle aanalizebs

religiis gavlenas

materialur

da sulier kulturaze.

o adarebs saqarTvelosa

da sxva qveynebiswinaqristianul

religiur warmodgenebs

da maT

gavlenas xelovneba-

sa da yofaze;

o moswavle

aanalizebs Zvels

msoflioSi momxdar

mniSvnelovan

ekonomikur

cvlilebebs.

o irCevs erT-erT ekonomikuriurTierTobebis

formas da

adarebs saqarTvelosa

da sxva romelime

qveyanaSi (regionSi)

mis Camoyalibebasa

da ganvi-

Tarebas

o irCevs erT-erT epoqas

da msjelobs

teqnologiuri

cvlilebebisa da

ekonomikis ganviTarebisurTierTgavlenaze;

o cxrilSi ajgufebs

aRmosavluri da dasavluriekonomiku-

154


Sua saukuneebi da

saqarTvelo

ri urTierTobebisTvis

damaxasiaTebel

niSnebs da msjelobs

maT Soris arsebul

msgavsebebsa

da gansxvavebebze;

o aanalizebs mmarTvelobiTistruqturebisCamoyalibebasada

cvlilebebs.

o msjelobs konkretul

epoqaSi saxelmwifosmmarTvelobiT

struqtureb-

Si cvlilebebis Sesaxeb;

o ikvlevs socialuri

struqturebis ur-

TierTmimarTebebs

o adarebs erTi da

igive epoqis ori an

sami qveynis socialur

struqturebs

da miuTiTebs

gansxvavebebsa da

msgavsebebze;

o moswavle aanalizebs

religiis gavlenas

materialur

da sulier kulturaze.

o msjelobs, Tu ra

gavlena moaxdina

qristianobam qarTveli

xalxis xelovnebasa

da yofaze;

avlebs paralelebs

sxva romelime qristianul

qveyanasTan;

o msjelobs, Tu rogor

icvleboda ur-

TierTdamokidebuleba

saero da sasulieroxelisuflebas

Soris.

155


4

o sxvadasxva epoqebsa

da qveynebSi da ra

gavlenas axdenda es

cvlilebebi qveynis

kulturul ganvi-

Tarebaze;

o irCevs qarTul

sakulto Tu saero

daniSnulebis

Zeglebs da avlebs

paralelebs

analogiuri

daniSnulebis mqone

sxva qveynebis

Zeglebis

arqiteqturasTan.

o moswavle aanalizebs

Zvel msoflioSi

momxdar

mniSvnelovan

ekonomikur

cvlilebebs.

o irCevs ekonomikuri

urTierTobebis erTerT

formas da adarebs

saqarTvelosa

da sxva romelime

qveyanaSi (regionSi)

mis Camoyalibebasa

da ganviTarebas;

o irCevs erT-erT epoqas

da msjelobs

teqnologiuri

cvlilebebisa da

ekonomikis ganviTarebisurTierTgavlenaze;

o cxrilSi ajgufebs

aRmosavluri da dasavluriekonomikuriurTierTobebisTvis

damaxasiaTebel

niSnebs da msjelobs

maT Soris arsebul

msgavsebebsa da

156


axali

msoflio

da

saqarTvelo

gansxvavebebze;

o aanalizebs mmarTvelobiTistruqturebisCamoyalibebasada

cvlilebebs.

o • msjelobs konkretul

epoqaSi saxelmwifosmmarTvelobiT

struqtureb-

Si cvlilebebis Sesaxeb;

o ikvlevs socialuri

struqturebis ur-

TierTmimarTebebs

o adarebs erTi da

igive epoqis ori an

sami qveynis socialur

struqturebs

da miuTiTebs

gansxvavebebsa da

msgavsebebze;

o moswavle aanalizebs

religiis gavlenas

materialur da

sulier kulturaze.

o msjelobs, Tu ra

gavlena moaxdina

qristianobam qarTveli

xalxis xelovnebasa

da yofaze;

avlebs paralelebs

sxva romelime qristianul

qveyanasTan;

o msjelobs, Tu rogor

icvleboda ur-

TierTdamokidebuleba

saero da sasulieroxelisuflebas

Soris sxvadasxva

epoqebsa da qveynebSi

da ra gavlenas

axdenda es

cvlilebebi qveynis

kulturul ganviTarebaze.

157


o irCevs qarTul sakulto

Tu saero

daniSnulebis Zeglebs

da avlebs paralelebsanalogiuri

daniSnulebis

mqone sxva qveynebis

Zeglebis arqiteqturasTan.

o adarebs mTisa da

baris socialur

struqturebs da

poulobs msgavsebebsa

da gansxvavebebs

o irCevs erT-erT saxelmwifos

da msjelobs,

Tu ra gavlenas

axdens am qveynis

ekonomikur prioritetebze

is nedleuli,

romelic mis

teritoriaze moipoveba.

o irCevs or revolucias

da adarebs maT

gamomwvev mizezebs,

mimdinareobis processa

da Sedegebs;

am analizis safuZvelze

klasSi jgufuri

muSaobisas

qmnis revoluciis

zogad models.

o irCevs romelime

konkretul epoqas,

gamohyofs qarTuli

saxelmwifos (saxelmwifoebis)interesebs

da msjelobs

gadadgmuli politikur

nabijebis Sesaxeb.

o irCevs or imperias

da erTmaneTs adarebs

maT ekonomikur

158


politikas periferiebsa

da koloniebSi

(mag. inglisisa

da espaneTis politika

maT koloniebSi);

o irCevs erT-erT ekonomikur

Teorias da

msjelobs, Tu ra

gavlena moaxdina man

ama Tu im qveynis

(regionis) ekonomikur

ganviTarebaze.

159


gakveTili 1

Tema – aleqsandre makedoneli

gakveTilis mizani - moswavleebi gaecnobian aleqsandre

makedonelis moRvaweobas, gaanalizeben misi samxedro

taqtikis siaxleebs, Seadareben sxvadsxva

moazrovneebisa da mecnierTa mosazrebebs aleqsandres

pirovnebis Sesaxeb.

enobrivi mizani - moswavleebi Seiswavlian elinisturi

saxelmwifoebis da istoriul - geografiul

dasaxelebebs. aseve gaecnobian aleqsandre

makedonelis epoqis sajariso danayofebisa da

SeiaraRebis rigorc qarTul, aseve saerTaSoriso

istoriul terminologias.

Sesaswavli leqsika - aqamenianTa dinastia, elinizmi,

diadoqosebi, elinisturi saxelmwifoebi:

ptolemaiosebis samefo, selevkidebis samefo,

makedoniis samefo, pontos samefo, pergamonis samefo,

dinastia, imperatori, avantiuristi, geniosi,

saxelmwifo moRvawe, sardali, brZolis sqema, sajariso

danayofebi, sajariso danayofebis tipebi, falanga,

qveiTi meomari, cxenosani meomari, sabrZolo etlebi,

funqciuri frazebi - daakvirdiT, waikiTxeT, gaecaniT,

daasaxeleT, gadaixazeT dafidan cxrili, SeavseT

cxrilis grafebi, warmoadgineT Tqveni mosazrebebi

werilobiT, daasabuTeT Tqveni pasuxi, samuSao

160


dro - 45 wuTi.

furclebs daawereT Tqveni saxeli da gvari, daviwyoT

Temis zogadi ganxilviT, axla gagacnobT gakveTilis

Temasa da mizans, ras SeviswavliT am gakveTilze,

gadaSaleT saxelmZRvaneloebi, SekiTxvebi xom ar

gaqvT? wera dasrulebulia - CamabareT nawerebi.

resursebi - maswavlebeli - dafa, carci. moswavleebi -

aqtivoba 1

saxelmZRvanelo me-11 klasi (moswavlis wigni), rveuli,

saweri furclebi, kalmistari.

aqtivobebi:

maswavlebeli acnobs moswavleebs gakveTilis Temasa da

mizans da zogadad axsenebs Zv.w. me-5 - me-4 saukuneebSi berZnul-

sparsul samyaroSi mimdinare politikur procesebs. maswavlebeli

sTxovs moswavleebs:

- sawer furclebze dawereT Tqveni saxelebi da gvarebi

- waikiTxeT 11 paragrafis ”aleqsandre makedoneli”

Sesavali. aseve, gaecaniT gavgamelasTan brZolis sqemas da

suraTebze gamosaxul berZen-sparsel meomarTa aRWurvilobas.

161


davaleba I

- 11 paragrafis Sesavlis da am paragrafis bolos arsebuli

rukis mixedviT, CamowereT aziis da afrikis is teritoriebi,

romlebic daipyro aleqsandre makedonelma.

swori pasuxi: mcire azia, mesopotamia, xmelTaSua zRvis

aRmosavleTi sanapiro, egvipte, dRevandeli iranis teritoria, Sua

azia da indoeTis nawili.

davaleba II

- gadaixazeT dafidan cxrili (maswavlebeli winaswar

xazavs am cxrils) da gavgamelasTan brZolis sqemis mixedviT,

SeavseT cxrilis oTxive grafa.

1. pirvel grafaSi CawerT aleqsandre makedonelis sajariso

danayofebis tipebs,

2. meore grafaSi sparselTa sajariso danayofebis tipebs,

3. xolo mesame da meoTxe grafaSi CawerT saerTos da

gansxvavebuls am jarebis sajariso danayofebis tipebs Soris.

swori pasuxi:

ალექსანდრე

მაკედონელის

ჯარი

1. ცხენოსნები

2. მძიმე ქვეითი

ჯარი

3. მსუბუქი

ქვეითი ჯარი

სპარსელთა ჯარი მსგავსება განსხავება

1. ცხენოსნები

2. ქვეითი ჯარი

3. ეტლები

4. სპილოები

162

1. ცხენოსნები

2. ქვეითი ჯარი

1. ეტლები

2. სპილოები


davaleba III

- daakvirdiT suraTebs da mokled, ramdenime winadadebiT,

SeadareT makedoneli da sparseli meomrebis samxedro

arWurviloba, CamowereT mxolod gansxvavebebi.

ramdenime swori pasuxi:

makedonelebisgan gansxvavebiT sparselebs hqondaT mSvild-isari;

gansxvavebuli iyo maTi Cafxutebi (muzaradebi);

sparselebs suraTis mixedviT ar hqondaT farebi da a.S.

davalebis dasrulebis Semdeg, moswavleebi furclebs

abareben maswavlebels.

aqtivoba 1-is fasdeba Semdegnairad: maswavlebeli qulebiT

afasebs moswavleebs.

aqtivoba 2

aqtivobas eTmoba 20 wuTi.

maswavlebeli moswavleebs aZlevs Semdeg davalebas:

maswavlebeli dafaze xazavs cxrils

- gaecaniT 11 paragrafis ”aleqsandre makedoneli” - a), b),

g), d), e), v), z), T), i), k), l) wyaroebs.

- gadaxazeT cxrili sawer furclebze da daawereT Tqveni

saxeli da gvari.

- cxrilis saTanado grafaSi daajgufeT wyaroebi imis

mixedviT, Tu rogor afasebdnen istorikosebi aleqsandre

makedonelis pirovnebas, dadebiTad an uaryofiTad.

163


swori pasuxi:

დადებითი შეფასება უარყოფითი შეფასება

ა) - პლუტარქე

დ) - პოლიბიოსი

ე) - ფლავიუს არიანე

ზ) - იოჰან გუსტავ დროიზენი

თ) - უილიამ ტარნი

კ) - რობინ ფოქსი

164

ბ) - არისტოტელე

გ) - დემადესი

ვ) - ჯორჯ გროტი

ი) - პიტერ გრინი

კ) - პოლ კოლტრეჯი

davalebis dasrulebis Semdeg maswavlebeli krebs furclebs

da asworebs namuSevrebs gakveTilis Semdeg.

aqtivoba 2 - is Sefaseba xdeba Semdegnairad: maswavlebeli

wers qulebs - TiToeuli swori pasuxi fasdeba erTi quliT.

aqtivoba 3

aqtivobas eTmoba 23 wuTi.

maswavlebeli moswavleebs aZlevs saSinao davalebas:

saSinao davaleba - 1

- Tqven mier wakiTxuli wyaroebidan - (a), b), g), d), e), v), z),

T), i), k), l)) - romels emxrobiT da romels ara. azris

gasamyareblad moiyvaneT argumentebi.

- warmoadgineT Tqveni mosazrebebi werilobiT.

aqtivobas eTmoba 2 wuTi.

gakveTilis dasasruli.


gakveTili 2

Tema – georgievskis traqtati

gakveTilis mizani - moswavleebi gaecnobian georgievskis

traqtatis muxlebs da imsjeleben qarTl-kaxeTisa da

ruseTisTvis mis dadebiT da uaryofiT Sedegebze. aseve

gaecnobian qarTvel istorikosTa Sexedulebebs am

sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT da Seadareben maT Tvalsazriss

erTmaneTs. gamoxataven sakuTar pozicias am istoriuli

movlenis mimrT.

enobrivi mizani - moswavleebi Seiswavlian qarTul da

saerTaSoriso diplomatiur terminebs, aseve gaecnobian

im cnebebs, romlebic marTlmadidebluri eklesiis

mowyobisas gamoiyeneba.

Sesaswavli leqsika - nacnobi cnebebi - aRmosavleTis sakiTxi,

saeklesio ierarqia, batalioni, xelSekruleba,

traqtati, traqtatis muxlebi, amierkavkasia, qarTl -

kaxeTi, diplomatia, samSvidobo xelSekruleba,

mfarveloba, ruseTis wminda sinodi, patriarqi,

imperatori.

funqciuri frazebi - daakvirdiT, waikiTxeT, gaecaniT,

daasaxeleT, vin mipasuxebs, romel Tqvengans surs? vin

daexmareba amxanags? imuSaveT jgufebSi, airCieT

jgufis lideri, vin warmoadgens Tavisi jgufis

namuSevars? daasabuTeT Tqveni pasuxi, pasuxi

saWiroebs argumentacias, samuSao furclebs daawereT

165


dro - 45 wuTi.

Tqveni saxeli da gvari, naSromebi Sefasdeba winaswar

mocemuli kriteriumebis mixedviT, daviwyoT Temis

zogadi ganxilviT, axla gagacnobT gakveTilis Temasa

da mizans, ras SeviswavliT am gakveTilze, gadaSaleT

saxelmZRvaneloebi, vin metyvis? vin mipasuxebs?

daexmareT mopasuxes, Tu arsebobs sxva mosazreba,

SekiTxvebi xom ar gaqvT? wera dasrulebulia -

CamabareT nawerebi.

resursebi - maswavlebeli - dafa, carci. moswavleebi -

aqtivoba 1

saxelmZRvanelo me-11 klasi (moswavlis wigni), saweri

furclebi, rveuli, kalmistari.

aqtivobebi

maswavlebeli acnobs moswavleebs gakveTilis Temasa da mizans

da mokled mimoixilavs me-18 saukunis me- 2 naxevris saqarTvelosa

da amierkavkasiis mdgomareobas. is sTxovs moswavleebs waikiTxon

66 paragrafis `georgievskis traqtatis” Sesavali (gamuqebuli

SriftiT dabeWdili) da upasuxon wina paragrafidan Semdeg

SekiTxvas:

- ra iyo aRmosavleTis sakiTxi?

erT-erTi moswavle pasuxobs.

aqtivobas. eTmoba 5 wuTi.

166


aqtivoba 2

maswavlebeli sTxovs moswavleebs, Seqmnan oTxwevriani jgufebi

da am jgufis wevrebi indivdualurad gaecnon 66-e paragrafis

`georgievskis traqtati~ wyaro a)-s.

- wyaros gacnobis Semdeg, daxazeT cxrili (cxrili # 1)

Tqvens sawer furclebze. (maswavlebeli am cxrils dafaze xazavs).

- jgufebSi airCieT lideri, romlis daniSnuleba iqneba

samuSoas ganawileba(jgufis wevrebTan moTaTbirebis Semdeg),

jgufis wevrebisTvis daxmarebis gaweva da naSromis prezentacia.

- jgufis TiToeuli wevri individualurad (SesaZlebelia

lideris daxmarebiT) avsebs cxrilis mxolod erT grafas.

- grafebis Sevsebis Semdeg, lideri, jgufis wevrebTan

SeTanxmebiT, aerTianebs maT namuSevars erT cxrilSi.

- sawer furclebs aucileblad miawereT jgufis wevrebis

saxeli da gvari

cxrili # 1

რომელი მუხლები იყო

ქართლ-კახეთისთვის

სასარგებლო?

რომელი მუხლები იყო

რუსეთისთვის

სასარგებლო?

167

რომელი მუხლები იყო

ორივე მხარისთვის

სასარგებლო?

- samuSaos dasrulebis Semdeg, lideri akeTebs jgufis

namuSevris prezentacias klasis winaSe.

- prezentaciis dros prezentators evaleba muxlebis

CamoTvlisas maTi argumentebiT gamyareba.

- aqtivobis dasrulebis Semdeg Sefasdeba prezentatori,

diskusiaSi aqtiurad monawileni da zogierTi jgufis wevri -

jgufur muSaobaSi Setanili wvlilisTvis


maswavlebeli winaswar acnobs moswavleebs Sefasebis

kriteriumebs

muSaobis proceSi maswavlebeli dadis merxebs Soris,

rCevebiT exmareba moswavleebs da akvirdeba maT muSaobas, raTa

SesaZlebloba mieces Seafasos moswavlebis jgufuri muSaoba.

maswavlebeli amorCeviT iZaxebs erT- erTi jgufis

prezentators.

prezentaciis dros, TiToeuli muxlis wakiTxvis Semdeg,

maswavlebeli ekiTxeba sxva jgufis liderebs:

- gaqvT Tu ara gansxvavebuli versia, daasaxeleT?

- migaCniaT Tu ara, rom prezentatoris argumentebi moisustebs,

ratom?

prezentaciis dros SesaZlebelia gaimarTos diskusia, rasac

maswavlebelma xeli unda Seuwyos.

aqtivoba 2 fasdeba Semdegnairad:

maswavlebeli afasebs moswavleebs sxvadasxva parametriT:

1. jgufuri muSaobaSi Setanili wvlilisTvis;

2. prezentaciisTvis

3. dikusiaSi monawileobisTvis

maswavlebeli afasebs jgufis wevrebis muSaobas Semdegi

kriteriumebiT:

კრიტერიუმები 1 2 3 4

მასზე დაკისრებულ დავალებას გაართვა თავი

უსმენდა სხვებს და იცავდა რიგითობას

საკუთარ იდეებს აცნობდა სხვებს

ეხმარებოდა სხვებს

168


cxrilSi 1, 2, 3, 4 aRniSnavs jgufis wevrebs. am grafis qveviT,

TiToeul kriteriumSi iwereba qula.

maswavlebeli afasebs prezentators Semdegi kriteriumebiT:

კრიტერიუმები ქულები

საუბრობს გამართულად და თავდაჯერებულად

საუბარი არგუმენტირებულია

თავს ართმევს კრიტიკულ შეკითხვებს

იღებს კრიტიკულ შენიშვნებს

იცავს საუბრისას დროის ლიმიტს

maswavlebeli afasebs diskusiaSi monawiles Semdegi kriteriumebiT:

კრიტერიუმები ქულები

საუბრობს გამართულად და თავდაჯერებულად

საუბარი არგუმენტირებულია

იცავს დისკუსიის წესებს და თანაკლასელის მიმართ

კორექტულია

იცავს საუბრისას დროის ლიმიტს

aqtivobas eTmoba 25 wuTi.

169


aqtivoba 3

maswavlebeli sTxovs moswavleebs:

- gaecaniT wyaro: b), g), d), e), da v)-s da SeavseT cxrili

(maswavlebeli cxrils winaswar xazavs dafaze):

- wyaros gacnobis Semdeg, daxazeT cxrili (cxrili # 2)

Tqvens sawer furclebze.

- am furclebze dawereT Tqveni saxeli da gvari

- cxrilis Sevsebisas, saTanado grafaSi unda CaweroT:

cxrili # 2

romeli politikuri moRvawe da mecnieri Tvlida

georgievskis traqtatis dadebas da mis Sedegebs

dadebiTad da romeli uaryofiTad.

პოლიტიკური

მოღვაწეები და

წყარო ბ)

მეცნიერები

გრიგოლ პოტიომკინი

წყარო გ)

გერონტი ქიქოძე

წყარო დ)

სარგის კაკაბაძე

წყარო ე)

საქართველოს

ისტორიის ნარკვევები

წყარო ვ)

ივანე ჯავახიშვილი

ტრაქტატის დადების და

მისი შედეგების

დადებითი შეფასება

170

ტრაქტატის დადების

და მისი შედეგების

უარყოფითი შეფასება


davalebis dasrulebis Semdeg, maswavlebeli krebs rveulebs

da asworebs gakveTilis Semdeg.

aqtivoba 3 fasdeba Semdegnairad: maswavlebeli TiToeul swor

pasuxSi wers 2 qulas.

e. i 2× 5 = 10

aqtivobas eTmoba 15 wuTi.

gakveTilis dasasruli.

171


XII klasi

Tema # Temis mizani enobrivi

mizani

o msjelobs

o moswavles Se-

teqnologiuri

uZlia TemisaTvis

cvlilebebisa da mniSvnelovani

saqarTvelo da

msoflio XX

saukunis dasawyisSi

da I msoflio omi

ekonomikis

ganviTarebis

urTierTgavlenaze;

o msjelobs romelime

konfliqtis (omis)

ekonomikur

winapirobebsa da

Sedegebze;

o msjelobs, Tu

rogor icvleboda

sxvadasxva epoqaSi

saxelmwifos roli

qveynebis

ekonomikuri

terminebis qar-

Tulad dasaxeleba,

icis am

terminTa qarTuli

ganmartebebi,

SeuZlia sinonimuri

sityvebiTa

da aRweriTi

msjelobiT terminTa

Secvla da

maTi meSveobiT

mosazrebis gadmocema.

urTierTobebis o moswavles SeuganviTarebaSi;

Zlia sworad

o irCevs erT-erT gamoiyenos is

ekonomikur Teorias konstruqciebi,

da msjelobs, Tu ra romlebic saki-

1

gavlena moaxdina man

ama Tu im qveynis

(regionis)

ekonomikur

ganviTarebaze;

o msjelobs saqarTvelos

ekonomikis

regionis, imperiisa

da msoflio

ekonomikasTan

integraciaze (mag.

saqarTvelo da

kavkasia, saqarTvelo

da ruseTis imperia,

saqarTvelo da

msoflio).

172

Txze msjelobisas

dasWirdeba.

saWiroebis Sem-

TxvevaSi ki

SeuZlia erTi

gramatikuli

konstruqciis

sxva konstruqciiT

Secvla

ise, rom aagos

swori da gramatikulad

gamar-

Tuli msjeloba.

o moswavlem icis

yvela im fun-


o adarebs saxelmwifo

mmarTvelobis

sxvadasxva sistemas

(monarqiuli,

konstituciur_monar

qiuli,

saparlamento,

saprezidento,

avtoritaruli

respublika); iZleva

sakuTar Sefasebas

TiToeulis

negatiuri da

pozitiuri mxareebis

Sesaxeb;

o adarebs saxelmwifo

mowyobis

gansxvavebul

sistemebs

(unitaruli,

federaciuli,

konfederaciuli),

iZleva sakuTar

Sefasebas

TiToeulis

negatiuri da

pozitiuri mxareebis

Sesaxeb; msjelobs,

Tu romeli sistema

iqneboda saukeTeso

Tanamedrove

saqarTvelosTvis.

o gamoTqvams sakuTar

mosazrebas

pirovnebis qonebriv

da socia-lur

mdgomareobas Soris

urTierTmimar-Tebis

Sesaxeb.

o adarebs ori an sami

qveynis socialur

struqturebs da miu-

TiTebs

gansxvavebebsa da

msgavsebebze;

173

qciuri frazis

mniSvneloba, rac

Temaze muSaobisas

sWirdeba

da SeuZlia am

frazebis Tavad

gamoyenebac.

o moswavles esmis

yvela instruqcia,

rac Temis

irgvliv arsebulisavarjiSoebisTvis

sWir-

deba da Tavadac

SeuZlia amgvari

instruqciebis

ageba.

o moswavle Tavisuflad

asrulebs tests

an sxva specifikurdavalebebs

sakiTxis

irgvliv da Tavadac

SeuZlia

amgvari davalebis

Seqmna instruqciebis,Sesabamisi

funqciuri

frazebisa da

konstruqciebis

gamoyenebiT.


saqarTvelo da

msoflio or

msoflio oms

Soris

bolSevizmi

msoflio

ekonomikuri

2

o aanalizebs saqarTveloSi

politikur

par-tiebsa da

sxvadasxva

socialur fenas

Soris urTierTmimarTebas;

avlebs

paralelebs evropis

qveynebTan;

o irCevs erT-erT

revolucias da wers

Temas mmarTvelobiT

da socialur struqtrurebSi

am revoluciiT

gamowveul

cvlilebebze

o msjelobs saerTaSoriso

terorizmze da

am problemis gadaWris

gzebze.

o saklaso diskusiisas

msjelobs evropuli

da aRmosavluri

kul-turebis

urTierTmi-marTebaze

da TiTo-eulis

gavlenaze XX

saukunis qarTul

kulturaze.

o moswavle msjelobs

msoflio da

qarTuli kulturis

ganviTarebis

tendenciebze.

o msjelobs teqnologiuricvlilebebisa

da ekonomikis

ganviTarebis

urTierTgavlenaze;

o msjelobs romelime

konfliqtis (omis)

ekonomikur winapirobebsa

da Sedegebze;

o msjelobs, Tu rogor

icvleboda

174


krizisi

faSizmi

• demokratiuli

qveynebi

sxvadasxva epoqaSi

saxelmwifos roli

qveynebis ekonomikuriurTierTobebis

ganviTarebaSi;

o irCevs erT-erT

ekonomikur Teorias

da msjelobs, Tu ra

gavlena moaxdina man

ama Tu im qveynis

(regionis) ekonomikur

ganviTarebaze;

o msjelobs saqarTvelos

ekonomikis

regionis, imperiisa

da msoflio ekonomikasTan

integraciaze

(mag. saqarTvelo da

kavkasia, saqarTvelo

da ruseTis imperia,

saqarTvelo da

msoflio).

o adarebs saxelmwifo

mmarTvelobis sxvadasxva

sistemas (monarqiuli,konstituciur_monarqiuli,

saparlamento, saprezidento,avtoritaruli

respublika);

iZleva sakuTar

Sefasebas TiToeulis

negatiuri da

pozitiuri mxareebis

Sesaxeb;

o adarebs saxelmwifo

mowyobis gansxvavebul

sistemebs

(unitaruli, federaciuli,konfederaciuli),

iZleva

sakuTar Sefasebas

TiToeulis negatiuri

da pozitiuri

mxareebis Sesaxeb;

175


msjelobs, Tu romeli

sistema iqneboda

saukeTeso

Tanamedrove saqar-

TvelosTvis;

o gamoTqvams sakuTar

mosazrebas pirovnebis

qonebriv da

socialur mdgomareobas

Soris urTierTmimarTebisSesaxeb;

o adarebs ori an sami

qveynis socialur

struqturebs da

miuTiTebs gansxvavebebsa

da msgavsebebze;

o aanalizebs saqarTveloSi

politikur

partiebsa da sxvadasxva

socialur

fenas Soris urTierTmimarTebas;

avlebs paralelebs

evropis qveynebTan;

o irCevs erT-erT

revolucias da wers

Temas mmarTvelobiT

da socialur struqtrurebSi

am revoluciiT

gamowveul

cvlilebebze

o msjelobs saerTa-

Soriso terorizmze

da am problemis

gadaWris gzebze.

o saklaso diskusiisas

msjelobs evropuli

da aRmosavluri

kulturebis urTierTmimarTebaze

da

TiToeulis gavlenaze

XX saukunis

qarTul kulturaze.

176


saqarTvelo da

msoflio civi omis

epoqaSi

3

o moswavle msjelobs

msoflio da

qarTuli kulturis

ganviTa-rebis

tendenciebze.

o msjelobs, Tu

rogor icvleboda

sxvadasxva epoqaSi

saxelmwifos roli

qveynebis ekonomikuriurTierTobebis

ganviTarebaSi;

o msjelobs saerTaSoriso

terorizmze da

am problemis gada-

Wris gzebze.

o msjelobs teqnologiuri

cvlilebebisa

da ekonomikis ganvi-

Tarebis urTierTgavlenaze;

o msjelobs romelime

konfliqtis (omis)

ekonomikur winapirobebsa

da Sedegebze;

o irCevs erT-erT

ekonomikur Teorias

da msjelobs, Tu ra

gavlena moaxdina man

ama Tu im qveynis

(regionis) ekonomikur

ganviTarebaze;

o msjelobs saqarTvelos

ekonomikis

regionis, imperiisa

da msoflio ekonomikasTanintegraciaze

(mag. saqarTvelo

da kavkasia, saqarTvelo

da ruseTis

imperia, saqarTvelo

da msoflio);

o adarebs saxelmwifo

mmarTvelobis sxva-

177


dasxva sistemas

(monarqiuli, konstituciur_monarqiuli,

saparlamento, saprezidento,avtoritaruli

respublika);

iZleva sakuTar

Sefasebas TiToeulis

negatiuri da

pozitiuri mxareebis

Sesaxeb;

o adarebs saxelmwifo

mowyobis gansxvavebul

sistemebs (unitaruli,federaciuli,konfederaciuli),

iZleva saku-

Tar Sefasebas TiToeulis

negatiuri da

pozitiuri mxareebis

Sesaxeb; msjelobs,

Tu romeli sistema

iqneboda saukeTeso

Tanamedrove saqar-

TvelosTvis;

o gamoTqvams sakuTar

mosazrebas pirovnebis

qonebriv da

socialur mdgomareobas

Soris

urTierTmimarTebis

Sesaxeb;

o adarebs ori an sami

qveynis socialur

struqturebs da

miuTiTebs gansxvavebebsa

da msgavsebebze;

o aanalizebs saqarTveloSi

politikur

partiebsa da sxvadasxva

socialur

fenas Soris urTier-

TmimarTebas; avlebs

paralelebs evropis

178


qveynebTan;

o irCevs erT-erT

revolucias da wers

Temas mmarTvelobiT

da socialur struqtrurebSi

am revoluciiT

gamowveul

cvlilebebze

o msjelobs saerTa-

Soriso terorizmze

da am problemis

gadaWris gzebze.

o saklaso diskusiisas

msjelobs evropuli

da aRmosavluri

kulturebis urTierTmimarTebaze

da

TiToeulis gavlenaze

XX saukunis

qarTul kulturaze;

o moswavle msjelobs

msoflio da qar-

Tuli kulturis

ganviTarebis tendenciebze.

o msjelobs qalaqisa

da soflis xvedriT

wilze Tanamedrove

saqarTvelosa da

sxva qveynebis ekonomikaSi;

o gamohyofs Tanamedrove

saqarTvelos

saxelmwifo interesebs

da msjelobs

mis mier gadadgmuli

politikuri nabijebis

Sesaxeb;

o msjelobs saerTa-

Soriso terorizmze

da am problemis

gadaWris gzebze;

o msjelobs, Tu

rogor icvleboda

sxvadasxva epoqaSi

179


sabWoTa kavSiris

daSla da

saqarTvelos

gaTavisufleba

4

saxelmwifos roli

qveynebis ekonomikuriurTierTobebis

ganviTarebaSi;

o msjelobs saerTa-

Soriso terorizmze

da am problemis

gadaWris gzebze;

o msjelobs teqnologiuri

cvlilebebisa

da ekonomikis ganvi-

Tarebis urTierTgavlenaze;

o msjelobs romelime

konfliqtis (omis)

ekonomikur winapirobebsa

da Sedegebze;

o irCevs erT-erT

ekonomikur Teorias

da msjelobs, Tu ra

gavlena moaxdina man

ama Tu im qveynis

(regionis) ekonomikur

ganviTarebaze;

o msjelobs saqarTvelos

ekonomikis

regionis, imperiisa

da msoflio ekonomikasTanintegraciaze

(mag. saqar-

Tvelo da kavkasia,

saqarTvelo da

ruseTis imperia,

saqarTvelo da

msoflio);

o adarebs saxelmwifo

mmarTvelobis sxvadasxva

sistemas (monarqiuli,konstituciur_monarqiuli,

saparlamento, saprezidento,avtoritaruli

respublika);

iZleva sakuTar

180


Sefasebas TiToeulis

negatiuri da

pozitiuri mxareebis

Sesaxeb;

o adarebs saxelmwifo

mowyobis gansxvavebul

sistemebs

(unitaruli, federaciuli,konfederaciuli),

iZleva saku-

Tar Sefasebas TiToeulis

negatiuri da

pozitiuri mxareebis

Sesaxeb; msjelobs,

Tu romeli sistema

iqneboda saukeTeso

Tanamedrove saqar-

TvelosTvis;

o gamoTqvams sakuTar

mosazrebas pirovnebis

qonebriv da

socialur mdgomareobas

Soris ur-

TierTmimarTebis Sesaxeb;

o adarebs ori an sami

qveynis socialur

struqturebs da

miuTiTebs gansxvavebebsa

da msgavsebebze;

o aanalizebs saqarTveloSi

politikur

partiebsa da sxvadasxva

socialur fenas

Soris urTierTmimarTebas;

avlebs

paralelebs evropis

qveynebTan;

o irCevs erT-erT

revolucias da wers

Temas mmarTvelobiT

da socialur struqtrurebSi

am revoluciiT

gamowveul

181


cvlilebebze;

o msjelobs saer-

TaSoriso terorizmze

da am problemis

gadaWris gzebze;

o saklaso diskusiisas

msjelobs evropuli

da aRmosavluri

kulturebis urTierTmimarTebaze

da

TiToeulis gavlenaze

XX saukunis

qarTul kulturaze;

o moswavle msjelobs

msoflio da qar-

Tuli kulturis

ganviTarebis tendenciebze.

182


gakveTili 1

Tema – pirveli msoflio omis dasasruli da Sedegebi

gakveTilis mizani - moswavleebi gaecnobian, ra SedegebiT dam-

Tavrda pirveli msoflio omi. imsjeleben am omiT

miyenebuli zaralisa da msxverplis odenobaze. aseve

gaecnibian omis Sedegad evropis politikuri rukis

cvlilebas da erTa ligis Seqmnis process .

enobrivi mizani - moswavleebi gaecnobian pirveli msoflio omis

Sedegebis Seswavlisas gamosayenebel qarTul da

saerTasoriso terminlogias.

Sesaswavli leqsika - pirveli msoflio omi, antanta, samTa kavSi-

ri, mobilizacia, reparacia, zavi, erTa liga, evakua-

cia, qvemexi, tyviamfrqvevi, naRmtyorcni, aeroplani,

funqciuri frazebi - daakvirdiT, waikiTxeT, gaecaniT, daasax-

dro - 45 wuTi.

eleT, vin mipasuxebs, romel Tqvengans surs? vin

daexmareba amxanags? gadaixazeT dafidan cxrili,

SeavseT cxrilis grafebi, warmoadgineT Tqveni

mosazrebebi werilobiT, samuSao furclebs daawe-

reT Tqveni saxeli da gvari, daviwyoT Temis zogadi

ganxilviT, axla gagacnobT gakveTilis Temasa da mi-

zans, ras SeviswavliT am gakveTilze, gadaSaleT sax-

elmZRvaneloebi, vin metyvis? vin mipasuxebs? daexmareT

mopasuxes, Tu arsebobs sxva mosazreba, SekiTxvebi xom

ar gaqvT? wera dasrulebulia - CamabareT nawerebi.

183


esursebi - maswavlebeli - dafa, carci. winaswar dabeWdili

aqtivoba 1

SekiTxvebi. moswavleebi - saxelmZRvanelo me-12 klasi

(moswavlis wigni), rveuli, saweri furclebi, kalmis-

tari.

aqtivobebi

maswavlebeli acnobs moswavleebs gakveTilis Temasa da mi-

zans. maswavlebeli svams SekiTxvebs pirveli msoflio dawye-

bis mizezebis da misi mimdinareobis Sesaxeb. moswavleebi pasux-

oben.

maswavlebeli sTxovs moswavleebs:

- TiToeulma Tqvenganma sawer furclebze daweros sakuTari

saxeli da gvari.

- waikiTxeT 11 paragrafis ”pirveli msoflio omis (II gakve-

Tili) omis dasasruli da Sedegebi” Savi SriftiT gamoyo-

fili Sesavali da werilobiT gaeciT pasuxi Semdeg SekiTx-

vebs:

maswavlebeli winaswar wers dafaze am SekiTxvebs an TiToeul

moswavles urigebs dabeWdili saxiT.

1. ramdeni qveyana iRebda monawileobas pirvel msoflio

omSi?

2. romeli qveynebi danebdnen? CamowereT rigiTobis mixed-

viT.

184


3. ramdeni adamiani daiRupa da ramdeni dasaxiCrda pirvel

msoflio omSi?

4. ramdeni saxelmwifo iyo Cabmuli pirvel msoflio om-

Si?

weris dasrulebis Semdeg, maswavlebeli amorCeviT iZaxebs

erT moswavles da avalebs:

- gaacani klass Seni pasuxebi.

- Tu gamomsvleli sworad ver pasuxobs, maswavlebeli ekiTxeba

sxva moswavleebs.

aqtivoba 1 fasdeba Semdegnairad: maswavlebeli qulebiT afa-

sebs moswavleebs.

aqtivobas eTmoba 15 wuTi.

aqtivoba 2

maswavlebeli sTxovs moswavleebs:

- TiToeulma Tqvenganma sawer furclebze daweros sakuTari

saxeli da gvari.

- gaecaniT 11 paragrafSi ”pirveli msoflio omis (II gakve-

Tili) omis dasasruli da Sedegebi” mocemul cxrils - ro-

melSic asaxulia pirvel msoflio omSi daRupuli adamiane-

bis raodenoba.

- am cxrilis mixedviT pasuxi gaeciT Semdeg SekiTxvebs

maswavlebeli am SekiTxvebs winaswar wers dafaze an Ti-

Toeul moswavles urigebs dabeWdili saxiT.

1. 1. CamowereT xuTi qveyana, romelTac yvelaze meti ada-

mianis hyavda mobilizebuli I msoflio omSi.

2. CamowereT xuTi qveyana, romlesac yvelaze meti adamiani

daeRupa I msoflio omSi.

185


3. CamowereT xuTi qveyana, romlesac yvelaze meti adamiani

daeWra I msoflio omSi.

4. CamowereT xuTi qveyana, romlesac yvelaze meti adamiani

hyavda ugzo-ukvlod dakarguli I msoflio omSi.

5. 1, 2, 3, 4 SekiTxvebze pasuxebis gaTvaliswinebiT upasuxeT -

adamianuri resursebis gaTvaliswinebiT, romelma qveyanam

ganicada yvelaze metad zarali?

davalebis dasrulebis Semdeg, maswavlebeli krebs furclebs

da asworebs gakveTilis Semdeg,

aqtivoba 2 fasdeba Semdegnairad: maswavlebeli yovel pa-

suxebs afasebs qulebiT.

aqtivobas eTmoba 10 wuTi.

aqtivoba 3

maswavlebeli sTxovs moswavleebs:

- gaecaniT 11 paragrafis ”pirveli msoflio omis (II gakve-

Tili) omis dasasruli da Sedegebi” qveTavs - erTa liga.

moswavleebis mier am qveTavis gacnobis Semdeg, maswavlebeli

svams SekiTxvebs, romelTac moswavleebi adgilidan pasuxoben:

1. ra funqcia daekisra erTa ligas?

2. vin iyo erTa ligis Seqmnis ideis avtori?

moswavleebi adgilidan pasuxoben

aqtivoba 3 fasdeba Semdegnairad: maswavlebeli moswavleTa

pasuxebs afasebs komentarebiT: kargia, teqsti dakvirvebiT wai-

kiTxe, Seni pasuxi ara aris sruli, garda saxelmZRvaneloSi wa-

kiTxulisa, raimes xom ar daamatebdi.

aqtivobas eTmoba 5 wuTi

186


aqtivoba 4

maswavlebeli sTxovs moswavleebs:

- TiToeulma Tqvenganma sawer furclebze daweros sakuTari

saxeli da gvari.

- daakvirdiT 11 paragrafSi ”pirveli msoflio omis (II gak-

veTili) omis dasasruli da Sedegebi” mocemul or rukas da

SeavseT cxrili.

maswavlebeli Sesavseb cxrils xazavs dafaze.

- cxrilis pirvel grafaSi CamowereT evropis is saxelmwifoe-

bi, romelTa teritoriazec omis damTavrebis Semdeg war-

moiSvnen axali saxelmwifoebi.

- cxrilis meore grafaSi CawerT omis Semdeg wamoSobili axa-

li saxelmwifoebi.

სახელმწიფოები, რომელთა

ტერიტორიაზეც ომის

დამთავრების შემდეგ

წარმოიშვნენ ახალი

სახელმწიფოები

მაგ. ავსტრო-უნგრეთი

”............................”

187

ომის შემდეგ წამოშობილი ახალი

სახელმწიფოები

მაგ. ჩეხოსლოვაკია

”..........................”

”...........................”

”...........................”

”...........................”

”...........................”


”...........................”

188

”.............................”

”..............................”

davalebis dasrulebis Semdeg, maswavlebeli krebs furclebs

da asworebs gakveTilis Semdeg,

aqtivoba 4 fasdeba Semdegnairad: maswavlebeli yovel

pasuxebs afasebs qulebiT.

aqtivobas eTmoba 15 wuTi.

gakveTilis dasasruli


gakveTili 2

Tema – meore msoflio omis Sedegebi

gakveTilis mizani - moswavleebi gaecnobian, ra SedegebiT

damTavrda meore msoflio omi. imsjeleben am omiT

miyenebuli zaralisa da msxverplis odenobaze. aseve

gaecnibian niurnbegis procesis Sedegebs.

enobrivi mizani - moswavleebi gaecnobian meore msoflio omis

Seswavlisas gamosayenebel qarTul da saerTaSoriso

terminlogias.

Sesaswavli leqsika - meore msoflio omi, genocidi, leningradis

blokada, nacizmi, niurnbergis procesi, kolonia,

msoflio ruka.

funqciuri frazebi - daakvirdiT, waikiTxeT, gaecaniT, daasax-

dro - 45 wuTi.

eleT, vin mipasuxebs, romel Tqvengans surs? vin daex-

mareba amxanags? sqemis mixedviT pasuxi gaeciT Semdeg

SekiTxvebs, SeavseT cxrilis grafebi, warmoadgineT

Tqveni mosazrebebi werilobiT, samuSao furclebs

daawereT Tqveni saxeli da gvari, daviwyoT Temis zo-

gadi ganxilviT, axla gagacnobT gakveTilis Temasa da

mizans, ras SeviswavliT am gakveTilze, gadaSaleT sax-

elmZRvaneloebi, vin metyvis? vin mipasuxebs? daexmareT

mopasuxes, Tu arsebobs sxva mosazreba, SekiTxvebi xom

ar gaqvT? wera dasrulebulia - CamabareT nawerebi, sa-

Sinao davaleba geqnebaT ...

189


esursebi - maswavlebeli - dafa, carci. winaswar dabeWdili

aqtivoba 1

SekiTxvebi Tanamedrove msoflios politikuri ruka.

moswavleebi - saxelmZRvanelo me-12 klasi (moswavlis

wigni), rveuli, saweri furclebi, kalmistari.

aqtivobebi

maswavlebeli acnobs moswavleebs gakveTilis Temasa da mi-

zans. maswavlebeli svams SekiTxvebs meore msoflio omis mizezeb-

sa da mis mimdinareobis Sesaxeb. moswavleebi pasuxoben.

maswavlebeli sTxovs moswavleebs:

- TiToeulma Tqvenganma sawer furclebze daweros sakuTari

saxeli da gvari.

- waikiTxeT 41 paragrafis ”meore msoflio omis Sedegebi” Sa-

vi SriftiT gamoyofili Sesavali da werilobiT gaeciT pa-

suxi Semdeg SekiTxvebs:

maswavlebeli winaswar wers dafaze am SekiTxvebs an TiToeul mos-

wavles urigebs dabeWdili saxiT.

1. ramdeni qveyana iRebda monawileobas meore msoflio omSi?

2. msoflios romel teritoriebze mimdinareobda omi?

3. romeli koloniebi gaxdnen damoukidebeli saxelmwifoebi?

4. germaniis romeli teritoriebi gadaeca poloneTsa da safran-

geTs?

5. ra teritoriebi Caigdo xelSi ssrk -ma?

6. sul ramdeni milioni adamiani daiRupa am omSi? aqedan ramdeni

iyo samxedro da ramdeni mSvidobiani moqalaqe?

190


weris dasrulebis Semdeg, maswavlebeli amorCeviT iZaxebs erT mos-

wavles da avalebs:

- gaacani klass Seni pasuxebi.

- 2, 3, 4, da 5 SekiTxvebze pasuxis gacemisas gamoiyene ruka.

Tu gamomsvleli sworad ver pasuxobs, maswavlebeli ekiTxeba

sxva moswavleebs.

aqtivoba 1 fasdeba Semdegnairad: maswavlebeli qulebiT afa-

sebs moswavleebs.

aqtivobas eTmoba 15 wuTi.

aqtivoba 2

maswavlebeli svams SekiTxvas, romelsac moswavleebma adgi-

lidan unda upasuxon:

- Tu SevadarebT I da II msoflio omebs, davinaxavT, rom mSvi-

dobiani mosaxleobis msxverpli, rogorc raodenobrivad,

aseve procentulad bevrad meti iyo II msoflio omSi, vidre

- I -Si. ratom? gaixseneT wina gakveTilebi.

maswavlebeli pasuxis mosafiqreblad moswavleebs garkveul

dros aZlevs.

mosafiqrebeli drois gasvlis Semdeg, maswavlebeli amorCeviT

iZaxebs erT moswavles.

pasuxis gacemisas SesaZlebelia moswavleebs Soris gaimarTos

diskusia, rasac maswavlebelma xeli unda Seuwyos

aqtivoba 2 fasdeba Semdegnairad: maswavlebeli moswavleebs

Semdegi kriteriumebiT afasebs (am kriteriumebs maswavlebeli wi-

naswar acnobs moswavleebs) da am kriteriumebis mixedviT wers qu-

lebs, iyenebs aTqulian sistemas:

კრიტერიუმები ქულები

პრობლემის განხილვამდე აყალიბებს ძირითად

თეზისს

191


მსჯელობა გამყარებულია არგუმენტებით

საუბრობს ლოგიკურად და დამაჯერებლად

aqtivoba 3

aqtivobas eTmoba 15 wuTi.

maswavlebeli sTxovs moswavleebs:

- TiToeulma Tqvenganma sawer furclebze daweros sakuTari

saxeli da gvari.

- gaecaniT 41 paragrafSi ”meore msoflio omis Sedegebi”

mocemul sqemas - ”meore msoflio omSi daRupuli

adamianebis raodenoba”

- am sqemis mixedviT pasuxi gaeciT Semdeg SekiTxvebs:

- maswavlebeli am SekiTxvebs winaswar wers dafaze an

TiToeul moswavles urigebs dabeWdili saxiT.

1. CamowereT xuTi qveyana, romlesac yvelaze meti

adamiani daeRupa:

raodenobrivad

procentulad

2. CamowereT xuTi qveyana, romlesac yvelaze meti

samxedro daeRupa.

3. CamowereT xuTi qveyana, romlesac yvelaze meti

mSvidobiani moqalaqe daeRupa.

4. romel qveyanaSi daiRupa yvelaze meti ebraeli?

5. romeli kontinentis mosaxleoba daiRupa yvelaze meti?

- gaiTvaliswineT 1-el SekiTxvaSi raodenobrivi da

procentuli maCveneblebi SeiZleba erTmaneTs ar daemTxves.

davalebis dasrulebis Semdeg, maswavlebeli krebs furclebs da

asworebs gakveTilis Semdeg,

192


aqtivoba 3 fasdeba Semdegnairad: maswavlebeli yovel

pasuxebs afasebs qulebiT.

aqtivoba 4

aqtivobas. eTmoba 13 wuTi.

maswavlebeli moswavleebs aZlevs saSinao davalebas:

- Tqven gevalebaT saxlSi daweroT Txzuleba;

- gaecnaiT 41 paragrafSi ”meore msoflio omis Sedegebi”

ganTavsebul suraTebs da waikiTxeT am paragrafis bolo

monakveTi, romelSic saubaria niurnbergis procesze. aseve

gadaavleT Tvali wina paragrafebs, romelSic saubaria

nacistur germaniaze da dawereT Txzuleba (igi minimum

erTi gverdi unda iyos). am Txzulebis saTauria:

”imsaxurebdnen Tu ara nacizmis liderebi sikvdiliT

dasjas?”

aqtivoba 4 fasdeba Semdegnairad: maswavlebeli moswavleTa

nawerebs Semdegi kriteriumebiT afasebs (am kriteriumebs

maswavlebeli winaswar acnobs moswavleebs) da am kriteriumebis

mixedviT wers qulebs, iyenebs aTqulian sistemas:

კრიტერიუმები ქულები

თხზულების შესავალში აყალიბებს ძირითად

თეზისს

მსჯელობა გამყარებულია არგუმენტებით

მსჯელობს ლოგიკურად

მსჯელობა ობიექტურია

aqtivobas. eTmoba 2 wuTi.

gakveTilis dasasruli.

193


ekomendebuli funqciuri frazebi sxvadasxva

sagnis maswavleblebisTvis

1. misalmeba da socialuri kontaqti

_ dila mSvidobisa!

_ gamajobaT! rogor brZandebiT?

_ gamarjobaT, bavSvebo! dasxediT!

_ gamajobaT! daviwyoT muSaoba!

_ mogesalmebiT! daikaveT Tqveni adgilebi!

2. moswavlis gamokiTxva, misi gamoZaxebis gziT

_ ... (moswavlis saxeli), modi, geTayva, mogviyevi ... !

_ ... (moswavlis saxeli), gTxov, gamodi dafasTan!

194

danarTi

_ ... (moswavlis saxeli), SegiZlia ganmarto / Camoayalibo / daa-

saxelo / dawero / gvaCveno ... ?

_ ... (moswavlis saxeli), gTxov, ganmarte / Camoayalibe / daasax-

ele / CamoTvale / dawere / gvaCvene ... !

3. movaleobebis gadanawileba

_ msurvelebi xom ar arian?

_ mWirdeba damxmare, romelic... .

_ romel Tqvengans surs?

_ aris vinme, vinc mzad iqneboda... ?

_ Tu arc erTs ar surs, maSin gTxov Sen, ... (moswavlis saxeli),

moitane / gaarkvie... !

_ me gavanawileb movaleobebs.


_ kargi, ... (moswavlis saxeli), gTxov moitane...! xolo Sen, ...

(moswavlis saxeli), unda gawmindo dafa!

_ Semdeg kviraSi ... (moswavlis saxeli) da ... (moswavlis saxeli)

Seasruleben Semdeg movaleobebs: ...

_ Semdeg kviraSi morigeebi iqnebian ... (moswavlis saxeli) da ...

(moswavlis saxeli).

_ ... (moswavlis saxeli), gTxov, daarige furclebi / gawminde

dafa / moitane wignebi / daalage klasi / gaaRe fanjara!

neli!

_ ... (moswavlis saxeli), Sen iqnebi TamaSis wamyvani / xelmZRva-

4. gancxadebebi

_ dRes viwyeb axal Temas ... -is Sesaxeb.

_ gakveTilis bolos Catardeba testi / Tavisufal Temaze ... .

_ axla gagacnobT sakontrolo samuSaos Sedegebs.

_ Semdeg gakveTilze muzeumSi mivdivarT eqskursiaze.

_ xval mokle gakveTili iqneba, radganac skolaSi Tojinebis

Teatris speqtakli / sportuli Sejibri / maswavlebelTa kreba

tardeba.

_ momaval kviraSi / Semdeg gakveTilze sakontrolo weraa.

_ paraskevs, 18 saaTze mSobelTa krebaa.

_ yuradReba! gakveTilebis cxrili Seicvala!

_ am gakveTilis Semdeg ... .

5. saSinao davalebebis akreba

_ gadaSaleT Tqveni rveulebi.

_ saSinao davaleba yvelam ukve dawera / Seasrula / gaakeTa /

gaigo / SeZlo dasruleba.

195


6. wina gakveTilis Temis gameoreba

_ gasul / wina gakveTilze Cven vsaubrobdiT / davwereT ... .

_ gavimeoroT mTavari cnebebi!

_ gaixseneT cnebebi, romelic ganvixileT ... !

_ ra darCa TqvenTvis gaugebari wina gakveTilze axsnili

masalidan?

_ gavixsenoT ramdenime faqti / TariRi / cneba / wesi / mizezebi /

warmoqnis mizezebi!

_ daasaxeleT wina gakveTilze naswavli terminebi!

_ CamoayalibeT ...!

_ gadaSaleT wignebi da gaimeoreT ...!

7. axali Temis wardgena

_ am kviraSi ganvagrZob saubars ...-is Sesaxeb.

_ dRes gavecnobiT ... .

_ daviwyoT ... Temis ganxilva / Seswavla.

_ dRes SevavsebT ... -is Sesaxeb Semajamebel cxrils.

_ aseTi problemis gadawyvetas SevecdebiT: ... .

_ Tqven ras fiqrobT, ra aris ... ?

_ dRes wina gakveTilze dawyebul Temis ... Sesaxeb gavagrZelebT

musaobas / saubars.

8. Temis, konkretuli detalebis ganmarteba:

8.1. SekiTxvebi

Txovna, gamoTqvan azri:

_ ras fiqrob am sakiTxze / Temaze / mosazrebaze?

_ ra azri / warmodgena gaqvs am sakiTxze?

_ ras fiqrob ...-ze?

_ eTanxmebi am mosazrebas / gamonaTqvams?

196


_ safuZvlianad geCveneba es Tu ara?

_ Sen ra mosazreba gaqvs?

_ eTanxmebi amas?

_ Sen rogor geCveneba?

SekiTxvebi faqtebis Sesaxeb:

_ romelia udidesi ... ?

_ ra aris umTavresi ... ?

_ rodis daiwyo / dasrulda ... ?

_ sad mdebareobs ... ?

_ ra simaRlisaa... ?

_ romel jgufs miekuTvneba ... ?

_ sad gaemgzavra ... ?

_ ramden xans iarseba ... ?

_ ra iyo ... ?

Txovna, ganmarton:

_ es rogor xdeba?

_ Seni sityvebiT agvixseni!

_ ra aris am moqmedebis mizezebi / Sedegebi?

_ risTvis iqneboda es sasargeblo ... ?

_ ratom moxda ... ?

_ rogor gaxda ... ?

Txovna, daamtkicon:

_ SegiZlia ganmarto amwuTas naTqvami?

_ SegiZlia daamtkico Seni mosazreba / gamonaTqvami?

_ SegiZlia raime dokumentis / avtoritetuli avtoris citireba?

_ es mosazreba safuZvlianad geCveneba?

ras fiqroben danarCenebi?

197


daskvnis gakeTebis Txovna

_ gTxov, miTxari ra aris am TavSi / naSromSi ZiriTadi /

mniSvnelovani?

_ ra iyo am Tavis / naSromis mTavari azri?

_ gTxov, am Tavis / naSromis / Temis Sesaxeb Sesaxeb mokle

Sinaarsi dawere!

_ rogor ggonia, ra iyo umniSvnelovanesi TariRebi / movlenebi /

adgilebi am ... ?

8.2. plakatebis da sxva vizualuri masalis

gamoyeneba

_ plakatze gamosaxulia / naCvenebia ... .

_ dRevandel gakveTilze gamoviyenebT plakats / sqemas / films,

raTa vnaxoT ... .

_ ras adasturebs es eqsperimenti / es savarjiSoebi...?

_ wignSi mocemuli naxatebi / gamosaxulebebi / cxrilebi

gvaZlevs informacias ... .

_ rukaze / wignSi / cxrilSi / koleqciaSi / cxrilSi SegiZliaT

ixiloT ... .

_ ra saintereso faqtebi / movlenebi naxeT am ... ?

8.3. terminologia

_ gavimeoroT aTvisebuli terminebi!

_ amoiwere terminebi teqstidan! ganmarte isini!

_ ipove teqstSi terminis aseTi ganmarteba: ... !

_ es sityva ... TargmanSi niSnavs ... .

_ es termini rveulSi CaviniSnoT!

198


8.4. mniSvnelobis, Targmanis Sesaxeb SekiTxvebi

_ ra aris am sityvis mniSvneloba / cnebis definicia?

_ es cneba Seni sityvebiT ganmarte!

_ rogor iTargmneba es ... enaze?

_ rogor iTqmis es ... enaze?

8.5. kiTxva

_ waikiTxe teqsti wignis ... gverdze!

_ ra aris teqstis mTavari azri / dedaazri?

_ waikiTxe teqsti da dawere gegma / mokle Sinaarsi!

_ ipove teqstSi aseT kiTxvebze pasuxebi: ... !

8.6. Temebis dakavSireba axali Temis axsnis dros

movlenebis Tanmimdevroba

_ pirvel rigSi, ... , Semdeg ... .

_ daviwyoT imiT, rom ... .

_ upirveles yovlisa ... .

_ Tavidan ... .

_ daaxloebiT 2000 wels ... .

_ maSin ... da Semdeg ... .

_ ese igi ... amis Sedegad ... .

_ am drois ganmavlobaSi ... .

_ da bolos ... .

_ dasasrul ... .

movlenebis mniSvneloba:

_ yvelaze mniSvnelovani, rac unda gavigoT, aris ... .

_ mTavari problema is iyo, rom ... .

199


_ kidev ufro mniSvnelovani is iyo, rom ... .

_ gasaocari is iyo, rom ... .

azris gamoTqma:

_ Cemi azriT, ... .

_ me vfiqrob, rom ... .

_ me mimaCnia, rom ... .

_ me vityodi, rom ... .

_ SesaZlebelia, ise iyos, rom ... ?

_ SesaZlebelia, rom ... .

_ me maqvs eWvi, rom ... .

_ me vgrZnob, rom ... .

_ veWvob, rom ... .

_ oficialuri azri aris - ... .

SeTavazeba:

_ me maqvs SemoTavazeba ... .

_ SegviZlia ... .

_ iqneb SegviZlia ... ?

_ erTi xerxi, romlis daxmarebiTac SegviZlia situaciis gaum-

jobeseba, aris ... .

_ ar SegviZlia ... ?

_ iqneb mogvesinja ... .

_ Tqvens adgilze me movsinjavdi ... .

_ adre Cven yovelTvis ... .

_ tradiciuli midgoma aseTia: ... .

_ ase moviqceT: ... .

_ xom ar ajobebda, rom ... ?

200


aime TemaSi CaRrmaveba:

_ aqve ... .

_ kidev ... .

_ kidev ufro ... .

_ aq gviCndeba SekiTxva ... .

_ Tumca, ZiriTadi azri isaa, rom ... .

_ am faqtma SeiZleba aseT sakiTxze dagva-

fiqros: ... .

_ mindoda Tqveni yuradReba kidev erTi aspeqtisTvis /

garemoebisTvis / faqtisTvis / sakiTxisTvis mimeqcia.

_ ara mxolod es, aramed aseT ... .

_ garda imisa, rom ... .

_ aqve davZendi, rom ... .

mizezebis ganmarteba:

_ es im mizezebis gamo moxda: ... .

_ amitomac ... .

_ am mizeziT ... .

_ imasTan dakavSirebiT ... .

_ amis gamo ... .

_ ase ... .

_ amis Sedegad ... .

_ Sesabamisad ... .

_ amgvarad ... .

_ es aris imis mizezi, rom ... .

winaswar gansazRvruli situaciebi, winapirobebi:

Tu ase moxdeba, maSin ... .

roca ase xdeba, Cveulebriv ... .

201


ogorc ki es moxdeba, SegviZlia davelodoT ... .

Tu rodesme aseTi situaciis mowmeni gaxdebiT, yuradRebiT daak-

virdiT, rom ... .

nu eliT, rom ... , sanam, upirveles yovlisa, ar iqneba ... .

analizi:

es aris ...-is magaliTi.

es adasturebs, rom ... .

es gavfiqrebinebs, rom ... .

es SeiZleba niSnavdes, rom ... .

es SeiZleba iyos ... SemTxveva. es amtkicebs, rom ... .

amis interpretireba SeiZleba, rogorc ... .

moswavlis naTqvamis gameoreba:

_ axla Sen ambob, rom ... .

_ sxva sityvebiT vityodi, ... .

_ Tu sworad gagige, gindoda geTqva, rom ... .

_ Seni naTqvamis gameorebiT ... .

_ Sen migaCnia, rom ... .

wina naTqvamSi Sesworebebis Setana:

_ amiT mindoda meTqva, rom ... .

_ amis safuZvelze vfiqrob, rom ... .

_ vcdilob giTxraT, rom ... .

_ imaves vityvi sxva sityvebiT: ... .

roca mimzidvelad gamoiyureba:

_ gamoiyureba ise, TiTqos ... , magram sinamdvileSi ... .

_ erTi SexedviT SesaZloa ase mogeCvenebaT ... , magram, faqtobri-

vad ... .

202


upiratesoba:

_ me mirCevnia, rom ... .

_ me ufro momwons, roca Tqven ... .

eWvis gamoTqma:

_ eg SesaZlebelia, magram ... .

_ eg simarTlea, magram Tu dafiqrebulxar, rom ... .

_ geTanxmebi, magram gaiTvaliswine, rom ... .

_ eg kargi azria, erTaderTi ... .

_ ki, oRond gaxsovdes, rom ... .

_ eg SesaZlebelia, magram Tu gaiTvaliswine is faqti, rom ... .

sakiTxis sxva aspeqtze yuradRebis gadatana:

_ SesaZlebelia, magram ... .

_ ar dagaviwydes, rom ... .

_ rasac Sen ambob, marTalia, Tumca ... .

_ me mainc mgonia, rom ... .

ganmartebis Txovna:

_ SegiZlia ganmarto, rogor ... ?

_ gTxov gangvimarte Seni pasuxi / azri!

_ SegiZlia ganmarto, ratom airCie es pasuxi?

_ gTxov, gaSale Seni pasuxi!

_ es imas niSnavs, Sen fiqrob, rom ... ?

ganzogadeba:

_ saerTod ... .

_ zogadad Tu ganvixileT ... .

_ zogadad saubrisas ... .

203


ame?

_ Cveulebriv ... .

_ rogorc yovelTvis ... .

_ tipobrivia is, rom ... .

8.9. codnis Semowmeba da gasameorebeli kiTxvebi

_ yvelaferi gaigeT?

_ SekiTxvebi xom ar gaqvT?

_ ... wakiTxvis / mosmenis / yurebis Semdeg gaugebari xom ar aris

_ ras niSnavs es termini / cneba / warmodgena?

_ gTxovT, Tqveni sityvebiT gadmosceT!

_ am TavSi / naSromSi / TemaSi romelia sami mTavari nawili?

_ ra iyo amis naklovaneba / gamomwvevi mizezebi / safuZveli?

_ rogori Sedegebi gamoiwvia arCevnebma / skandalma / gamoyofam

/ gaerTianebam?

saxeb.

_ rogori gamoxmaureba / Sedegebi mohyva am movlenebs?

9. miTiTebebi samuSaos organizebis Sesaxeb

jgufuri samuSao

_ dRes Cven jgufebSi / wyvilebSi vmuSaobT!

_ daiyaviT patara jgufebad 3-dan 5-mde adamiani jgufSi!

_ danarCens wyvilebSi muSaobiT SevasrulebT!

_ davaleba jgufSi waikiTxeT!

_ dawereT ... , ris Sesaxebac SeTanxmdiT!

_ dainawileT movaleobebi jgufSi!

_ 15 wuTis Semdeg unda moyveT Tqveni samuSaos / miRwevebis Se-

_ jgufidan erTi adamiani gamoyaviT / airCieT jgufSi erTi ada-

miani, romelic Tqvens azrs gagvacnobs da erTi - romelic infor-

macias Caiwers!

204


miTiTebebi jgufSi diskusiis dros

_ pirvel rigSi, daiyaviT jgufebad!

_ pirvel jgufs eqneba Tema ... , meore jgufs eqneba ... da mesame

jgufs eqneba ... .

_ airCieT erTi, vinc ilaparakebs da erTi adamiani, vinc yvela-

fers Caiwers!

_ TiToeulma moswavlem unda moamzados moTxroba Tavisi idee-

bis / faqtebis da maTi CarTviT / maT gaacnos danarCenebi.

_ gTxov, Cvenc gagvacani Seni azri!

_ Sen ra azris xar?

_ Sen rogor fiqrob?

_ mogviyevi!

_ Seadare Seni mosazreba jgufis mosazrebas!

_ isaubre da sakiTxi ganixile Seni jgufis wevrebTan!

_ daasabuTe Seni mosazreba magaliTebis / konkretuli faqtebis

daxmarebiT!

_ roca Tqvens jgufebSi yvelani mzad iqnebiT, mogviyveT, Tu ra

gaakeTeT, Cven yuradRebiT mogismenT.

_ Seni referati / aRmoCena yvelas gagvacani!

_ daakonkrete Seni ideebi!

_ sxvebsac SesTavaze azri gamoTqvan da SekiTxvebi dasvan!

TamaSebi rolebis ganawilebiT

_ dRe rolebSi TamaSi monawileobas miiReben ... .

_ gTxovT, gadiT da derefanSi daicadeT!

_ rolebis CamonaTvali waikiTxeT!

_ TamaSi wamyvani iqneba ... .

_ airCieT da gainawileT rolebi Tqvens jgufSi!

_ mayureblebo, daaxasiaTeT msaxiobebi!

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individualuri davalebebi

_ amjerad individualurad vmuSaobT!

_ yuradRebiT waikiTxe davaleba!

_ damoukideblad Seavse / Seasrule ... !

_ ipove ... / Seadare ... / daadgine ... / daaskveni ... / gvanaxe ... /

daamtkice, rom ... / ipove ... / Camoayalibe ... / daajgufe ... / aRniSne ...

/ moniSne ... / gamoikvlie ... / demonstrireba gaakeTe ... / aRwere ... !

_ Sens gankargulebaSi 10 wuTia.

_ SeTxze ambavi am sityvebis gamoyenebiT!

_ waSale zedmeti sityvebi!

_ gamoiyene cxrili / ruka / atlasi / sayrdeni sityvebi!

_ ipove / moZebne saxelmZRvaneloSi / ... gverdze / rukaze ... !

_ daajgufe ... warmoSobis / zomis / simaRlis / mniSvnelovnebis

mixedviT!

_ Seadare sididis / farTis mixedviT!

_ mocemuli gegmis mixedviT aRwere ... !

_ Seadgine ... sqema!

_ gaarkvie ... wyoba / funqciebi!

sakontrolo samuSaoebi da gamocdebi

_ airCieT / moniSneT swori pasuxi!

_ gadaxazeT araswori debuleba / sityvebi!

_ teqstis wakiTxvis Semdeg upasuxeT kiTxvebs da SeavseT

tabula!

_ wereT fanqriT / pastiT!

_ am davalebis Sesrulebis dros ar SeiZleba koreqtoris /

leqsikonis / saxelmZRvanelos gamoyeneba.

_ moifiqreT da uwodeT gamosaxulebas saxeli!

_ ganmarteT am sityvaTa mniSvneloba!

206


saSinao davalebebi

_ gadaSaleT dRiurebi da CaiwereT ... !

_ Semdegi kviris ganmavlobaSi dawereT Tema ... Sesaxeb!

_ dawereT moTxrobis / statiis / Tavis gegma!

_ gaxazeT mTavari!

_ saxlSi unda iswavloT ... Tavis mexuTedan meSvide gverdamde.

10. aTvisebuli Temis mokle Sinaarsi

_ dRes Tqven gaigeT ... .

_ dRevandeli Temis umTavresi nawili iyo ... .

_ axla Tamamad SegviZlia ganvacxadoT, rom ... .

_ warmodgena SeviqmeniT ... Sesaxeb.

_ mokled rom vTqvaT, ... .

_ yovelive naTqvamis gaTvaliswinebiT, ... .

_ adre naswavlis gameorebis Sedegad, ... .

11. klasis gakontroleba

_ gTxovT yuradRebas!

_ nu laparakobT!

_ imuSaveT damoukideblad!

_ gTxovT, nu xmaurobT!

_ wynarad isxediT!

_ imuSaveT odnav Cumad!

_ iyaviT yuradRebiT!

_ usafrTxoebis wesebi daicaviT!

_ nu uSli sxvebs!

12. Sefaseba

_ gmadlobT samuSaosTvis!

207


daT!

_ Zalian kargi namuSevaria.

_ dRes kargi Sedegebi gvqonda!

_ es Sen / Tqven Zalian kargad / kargad gamogivida / gamogivi-

_ mSvenieria! brwyinvalea! sakmaod kargia!

_ brwyinvale naSromia!

_ mSvenieri azria!

_ kargi pasuxia!

_ Tqveni naSromebi Sinaarsiani da sainteresoa.

_ yvelaferi SevZeliT, rac gvqonda dagegmili.

_ dRes Tqven kargad imuSaveT!

_ ratom ar aris yvela piroba Sesrulebuli?

_ rogor moxda, rom ar aris ... ?

_ Tqven zedapirulad imuSaveT.

_ ratom ar gadaamowmeT faqtebi?

_ es saerTod ar Seexeba am Temas.

_ ase Tu imuSaveT, Sors ver wavalT.

_ am naSroms azri saerTod ar aqvs.

_ darwmunebuli var ukeT SegeZlo.

_ SemdgomSi meti yuradReba miaqcie ... .

_ Sengan ukeTes / ufro moculobiT pasuxs velodi.

_ unda Seecado da kidev ukeTesi gamova.

_ ise, ara uSavs, magram dagaviwyda dagewera / gagexaza /

gamogeTvala / dagemtkica ... .

13. dasasruli

_ raime SekiTxvebi xom ar gaqvT?

_ yvelaferi gasagebia?

_ Semdeg gakveTilze gavagrZelebT.

_ momeciT dRiurebi, niSnebs CagiwerT!

208


_ Semdeg gakveTilze moitaneT ... .

_ yvelaze kargi Sedegebi dRes ... hqondaT.

_ gaxsovdeT, rom xval unda wamoiRoT ... !

_ ar dagaviwydeT, rom xval gakveTili 09:45 -ze daiwyeba!

14. damSvidobeba

_ momaval Sexvedramde!

_ SevxvdebiT Semdeg gakveTilze!

_ warmatebiT!

_ gmadlobT, dReisTvis sul es aris.

_ Tavisuflebi xarT.

_ gmadlobT yuradRebisTvis.

_ kargad iyaviT, Semdeg Sexvedramde!

209


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Tareba (2006).

kolin beikeri, bilingvizmisa da bilingvuri ganaTlebis

safuZvlebi. ,,samoqalaqo integraciisa da

erovnebaTSorisi urTierTobebis centris’’ 2010 wlis

qarTuli versiis gamocema.

bilingvuri ganaTleba, samagido wigni maswavleblebisTvis;

Tbilisi, 2009.

kaxa gabunia, enisa da sagnobrivi Sinaarsis integrirebuli swavlebis

Taviseburebebi bilingvur klasSi; bilingvuri

ganaTleba, # 1, 2010.

nino doborjginiZe, maia inasariZe, mosmenisa da zepirmetyvelebis

unaris ganviTareba (2006).

maia inasariZe, maia naWyebia, qarTuli enisa da literaturis swavlebis

Tanamedrove meTodebi; Tbilisi, 2006.

maia inasariZe, nino doborjginiZe, kiTxvis unar-CvevaTa ganviTareba

(2006).

meTodikuri miTiTebani qarTulis, rogorc meore enis swavlebis

procesSi (maswavlebelTa gzamkvlevi); Tbilisi, 2007.

maia meliqiZe, Wabuki qiria, qarTuli enis gramatikis swavleba

(2006).

multilingvuri ganaTlebis programis debuleba, 2010, saqarTvelos

ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministro.

marika oZeli, zurab baRaSvili, komunikaciuri kompetenciis ganvi-

Tareba (2006).

saqarTvelos erovnuli saswavlo gegmebisa da Sefasebis centri,

erovnuli saswavlo gegma; http://www.ncac.ge/index.php?m=854

Salva tabataZe, maia inasariZe, qeTevan CaCxiani, Wabuki qiria

interkulturuli ganaTlebis praqtikuli

saxelmZRvanelo maswavleblebisTvis; Tbilisi, 2010.

Wabuki qiria, maia meliqiZe, leqsikaze muSaobis meTodika meore enis

swavlebisas (2006).

nino SaraSeniZe, Secdomebis analizi da maTze muSaoba enis

aTvisebis procesSi; bilingvuri ganaTleba, # 3, 2010.

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skolaSi (2006).

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Education

English Language Arts 6-9: A Bibliography for the Middle Level

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základných školách na Slovensku. - In: Studia Academica Slovaca. 30.

Prednášky XXXVII. letného seminára slovenského jazyka a kultúry.

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Tibinská, Eva, Základné zásady didaktiky a metodiky vyučovania slovenčiny ako cudzieho

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gamomcemloba

`saimedo~

212

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