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Queen Mary and Westfield College London University PhD Thesis ...

Queen Mary and Westfield College London University PhD Thesis ...

Queen Mary and Westfield College London University PhD Thesis

Queen Mary and Westfield College London University PhD Thesis BEDLAM REVISITED: A HISTORY OF BETHLEM HOSPITAL c1634-177O By Jonathan Andrews Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy 1991

  • Page 2 and 3: Abstract This thesis takes issue wi
  • Page 4 and 5: Chapter 5 The Rule of 'Sky-Coloured
  • Page 6 and 7: AR BAA BAR BIAR BCGM BGCM BRH BRHA
  • Page 8 and 9: Service and Bethlem's union with th
  • Page 10 and 11: its shocking inversion and contradi
  • Page 12 and 13: no better than a beast' 11 , and ch
  • Page 14 and 15: discussion of the realities of thei
  • Page 16 and 17: if entirely separate entities, rath
  • Page 18 and 19: either whipping or exhibiting the i
  • Page 20 and 21: Numbers The most obvious and yet mo
  • Page 22 and 23: when, on the other hand, staff regu
  • Page 24 and 25: a capacity initially more than doub
  • Page 26 and 27: is the typical madhouse visitor 47.
  • Page 28 and 29: the public eye, which had 'moved so
  • Page 30 and 31: ounds, which if too much indulged,
  • Page 32 and 33: gods blessing and good means' and '
  • Page 34 and 35: through the transmission of Lockean
  • Page 36 and 37: Lockean psychology and enlightened
  • Page 38 and 39: Turning the mirror was a didactic t
  • Page 40 and 41: apartments in Even the frivolous ac
  • Page 42 and 43: His satire points at no defect But
  • Page 44 and 45: Pity so effectually, as when the Sy
  • Page 46 and 47: shopping, dancing, dining, the thea
  • Page 48 and 49: new magazine literature of the eigh
  • Page 50 and 51: scoured through the hospital at a r
  • Page 52 and 53:

    this purpose in mind, 'merely', as

  • Page 54 and 55:

    of contemporary 'reformers', and pr

  • Page 56 and 57:

    eliance on the accounts of educated

  • Page 58 and 59:

    of the enlightenment moral didactic

  • Page 60 and 61:

    Pilgrim, still pleased the generali

  • Page 62 and 63:

    tered, and gradually withdrew from

  • Page 64 and 65:

    amongst visitors, and to respond ac

  • Page 66 and 67:

    In durance, exile, Bedlam, or the M

  • Page 68 and 69:

    to survive at first hand of the rea

  • Page 70 and 71:

    mad were thus not, or not detriment

  • Page 72 and 73:

    in 1755, actually lobbied for the e

  • Page 74 and 75:

    een sentimentalised, the poet now d

  • Page 76 and 77:

    'overpowered...by the solicitations

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    It is merely the ingenuousness of t

  • Page 80 and 81:

    somewhere visitors may 'lurk' or id

  • Page 82 and 83:

    y staff to ply the patients with al

  • Page 84 and 85:

    once more made to the Court 'that s

  • Page 86 and 87:

    tury, John Wesley, George Whitefiel

  • Page 88 and 89:

    of the patients. When, in 1641, the

  • Page 90 and 91:

    What said I, is this the Mad-House

  • Page 92 and 93:

    Plainly not all such gifts were cha

  • Page 94 and 95:

    The conveyance of alcohol into Beth

  • Page 96 and 97:

    increasing assumption of competence

  • Page 98 and 99:

    allegation itself, affirming the ef

  • Page 100 and 101:

    conduct spectators purely as part o

  • Page 102 and 103:

    good intentions, the erection of a

  • Page 104 and 105:

    of Bethiem staff, accepting that st

  • Page 106 and 107:

    the hospital, while ab8enteeism amo

  • Page 108 and 109:

    Von Uffenbach thought 'the females'

  • Page 110 and 111:

    immodest Ophelias 'ought to be kept

  • Page 112 and 113:

    The removal of promiscuous and nake

  • Page 114 and 115:

    one or two poems to each. Seven of

  • Page 116 and 117:

    knew their practice of begging from

  • Page 118 and 119:

    a result. Many visitors who gave ac

  • Page 120 and 121:

    officers of her church, and no more

  • Page 122 and 123:

    critiques by observers from the 174

  • Page 124 and 125:

    slowly) into the spectacle of punis

  • Page 126 and 127:

    are powerfully manifested in the ca

  • Page 128 and 129:

    N .- .- CfJ I- H C Cf C C - C C) C)

  • Page 130:

    N N N cfl H k C ;f) C C Cf CIi 0 0

  • Page 134 and 135:

    8nhi! FiId$ 4oly' Pn r1frt - d s1 "

  • Page 136 and 137:

    - - iv in - - - -- '- ---rn. —- -

  • Page 138 and 139:

    fl I i t _____* — / E!1'j II.i L1

  • Page 140 and 141:

    Introduction Chapter 3 'The Discipl

  • Page 142 and 143:

    adopts an overly monolithic interpr

  • Page 144 and 145:

    Bedding and clothing In order to co

  • Page 146 and 147:

    sheets seem to have been a special

  • Page 148 and 149:

    ears and inevitably elicited a dela

  • Page 150 and 151:

    lay the Governors' dawning sensitiv

  • Page 152 and 153:

    asic and expensive was the provisio

  • Page 154 and 155:

    her'; governors and staff preferred

  • Page 156 and 157:

    Rats too had plagued patients at bo

  • Page 158 and 159:

    Extraordinary Care in Performing hi

  • Page 160 and 161:

    ordered 'small seats' to be install

  • Page 162 and 163:

    There had been a 'washhouse' at Bet

  • Page 164 and 165:

    to throwing them over visitors and

  • Page 166 and 167:

    'Boghouse[s]' or 'Seats for Easemen

  • Page 168 and 169:

    At both Bethiem buildings, visitors

  • Page 170 and 171:

    themselves, who attended periodical

  • Page 172 and 173:

    a problem for asylum administrators

  • Page 174 and 175:

    While the surveillance of cleanline

  • Page 176 and 177:

    deemed its 'two hundred and seventy

  • Page 178 and 179:

    must assuredly have been very dark

  • Page 180 and 181:

    at meal times, when put to bed, or

  • Page 182 and 183:

    cleaner, brighter, and more airy th

  • Page 184 and 185:

    were adopted by most eighteenth cen

  • Page 186 and 187:

    1780207. Patients had, in fact, con

  • Page 188 and 189:

    and inferior staff, and under the p

  • Page 190 and 191:

    patients in so far as it is pertine

  • Page 192 and 193:

    were fed any better at private madh

  • Page 194 and 195:

    conclude, given the combination of

  • Page 196 and 197:

    these extra helpings were actually

  • Page 198 and 199:

    Dinners: Suppers: Suppers: DIET FOR

  • Page 200 and 201:

    vegetables and fruit. The most impo

  • Page 202 and 203:

    (according to Thomas Bowen and Will

  • Page 204 and 205:

    emphasised, by contrast to orthodox

  • Page 206 and 207:

    Cut [the]. ..Victuals and feed...in

  • Page 208 and 209:

    eighteenth century, patients might

  • Page 210 and 211:

    Madhouses Committee Reports 314 . J

  • Page 212 and 213:

    When c1770, Grosley witnessed 'a wh

  • Page 214 and 215:

    eveal that the hospital was still v

  • Page 216 and 217:

    'the poor creatures there [who] are

  • Page 218 and 219:

    confinement and 'restraint' in Beth

  • Page 220 and 221:

    for his discharge, the Court ordere

  • Page 222 and 223:

    Bethlem 6 . Indeed, when restraint

  • Page 224 and 225:

    the former at the hands of the Beth

  • Page 226 and 227:

    The importance of the role of an in

  • Page 228 and 229:

    exigent need to bolster the meagre

  • Page 230 and 231:

    of hospital leases3 . Where conflic

  • Page 232 and 233:

    in pursuit of profits caused severe

  • Page 234 and 235:

    The committee's proposal was 'appro

  • Page 236 and 237:

    (with the assistance of the maid se

  • Page 238 and 239:

    In fact, both officers were soon af

  • Page 240 and 241:

    the galleries when new Bethiem was

  • Page 242 and 243:

    grates of the galleries. Tn 1751 it

  • Page 244 and 245:

    naked, were bedded on straw and hal

  • Page 246 and 247:

    ?". ______ I ir' I I Fig. 3b Detail

  • Page 248 and 249:

    Introduction Chapter 4 Medicine, Me

  • Page 250 and 251:

    adequately located in its context,

  • Page 252 and 253:

    likely benefits of separating the a

  • Page 254 and 255:

    Puritan/Parliamentarian in high ofl

  • Page 256 and 257:

    future President of the College of

  • Page 258 and 259:

    Tyson was Raid to have been 'very w

  • Page 260 and 261:

    ex-Gulstonian Lecturer (1722); Cens

  • Page 262 and 263:

    conclusive signs of disaffection to

  • Page 264 and 265:

    Apprenticeship' under his father at

  • Page 266 and 267:

    to contest for the inferior medical

  • Page 268 and 269:

    informed that, as a governor, he wa

  • Page 270 and 271:

    the attitude of the hospitals' boar

  • Page 272 and 273:

    the Apothecary was to receive £80

  • Page 274 and 275:

    opposition forcing the Governors to

  • Page 276 and 277:

    was required to be resident and to

  • Page 278 and 279:

    was the reaction of the hospital ad

  • Page 280 and 281:

    gone AWOL and to have employed serv

  • Page 282 and 283:

    When, in 1678, the hospital's audit

  • Page 284 and 285:

    esentment when their attendance was

  • Page 286 and 287:

    apologising to some of its members

  • Page 288 and 289:

    Medical officers were also preoccup

  • Page 290 and 291:

    Curing a much greater number of the

  • Page 292 and 293:

    nently involved, in both his capaci

  • Page 294 and 295:

    Undoubtedly, there was a strong vei

  • Page 296 and 297:

    from brute creation and what inhibi

  • Page 298 and 299:

    fallen into disuse 202 . Yet refere

  • Page 300 and 301:

    meetings in conjunction with Willia

  • Page 302 and 303:

    any firm conclusion, and there is n

  • Page 304 and 305:

    hospital's infirmaries were liable

  • Page 306 and 307:

    sufferers on admission. Only from t

  • Page 308 and 309:

    him', and had not even enquired 'ab

  • Page 310 and 311:

    dergo a Course of Physick'; or, if

  • Page 312 and 313:

    unprovided for', with 'a sume of mo

  • Page 314 and 315:

    conducted in 'the spring or autumn,

  • Page 316 and 317:

    of the unhappy patient' and that 'w

  • Page 318 and 319:

    is.. .as manageable [and, by implic

  • Page 320 and 321:

    madness, which Monro had dismissed

  • Page 322 and 323:

    vital, notions of spectacle, enshri

  • Page 324 and 325:

    of 'both hospitals' being 'engaged

  • Page 326 and 327:

    was a virtue in the countenance, be

  • Page 328 and 329:

    Table 4b: BETHLEM & BRIDEWELL PHYSI

  • Page 330 and 331:

    Table 4d: BETHIEM & BRIDEWELL SURGE

  • Page 332 and 333:

    Until very recently, nevertheless,

  • Page 334 and 335:

    Recruitment and Status: Officers Th

  • Page 336 and 337:

    himself, alleged that the Articles

  • Page 338 and 339:

    a weaver. Not surprisingly, given t

  • Page 340 and 341:

    to continue their former occupation

  • Page 342 and 343:

    een a draper (like Langley), but ha

  • Page 344 and 345:

    juncture. Despite persistent and tr

  • Page 346 and 347:

    the hospital), the wives (or, on on

  • Page 348 and 349:

    to have a large hand in the recruit

  • Page 350 and 351:

    During the eighteenth century, ther

  • Page 352 and 353:

    permanently restored to Bethlem in

  • Page 354 and 355:

    made for a successful servant at Be

  • Page 356 and 357:

    een a two horse race only, in which

  • Page 358 and 359:

    outside the hospital 126 . While nu

  • Page 360 and 361:

    where the solitary keeper and siste

  • Page 362 and 363:

    settling the wages of staff, in 175

  • Page 364 and 365:

    of office was also renewed, and the

  • Page 366 and 367:

    that Matthews had ever been permitt

  • Page 368 and 369:

    staff, although not directly a resp

  • Page 370 and 371:

    lie was supposed to check the pantr

  • Page 372 and 373:

    to certain articles of service, but

  • Page 374 and 375:

    eceipt, distribution and thrifty ma

  • Page 376 and 377:

    hospital, the Board initially saw '

  • Page 378 and 379:

    a day; another (Blackburn) observed

  • Page 380 and 381:

    indication that her absence was sup

  • Page 382 and 383:

    testify that most of the Governors'

  • Page 384 and 385:

    of those raised from assistant bask

  • Page 386 and 387:

    Amongst the fourteen porters and si

  • Page 388 and 389:

    front on this issue during the clas

  • Page 390 and 391:

    absolute necessity for the better G

  • Page 392 and 393:

    gathered about them from the hospit

  • Page 394 and 395:

    otherwise, than to 'strictly enjoin

  • Page 396 and 397:

    in their house29° and all their ne

  • Page 398 and 399:

    the Governors accepted the need to

  • Page 400 and 401:

    u Iding, four members of the Bethle

  • Page 402 and 403:

    ex-governor Matthew Benson was regu

  • Page 404 and 405:

    late 1740s, represented the female

  • Page 406 and 407:

    C) .g2 CO CI) c/,c4 > w CO0 -'1C) I

  • Page 408 and 409:

    C') .2 C') C') .- = O) >cXD I- Q) 1

  • Page 410 and 411:

    George Morton (temp) Richard Langle

  • Page 412 and 413:

    Arthur Johnson John Cockery John Wo

  • Page 414 and 415:

    Table 5f: Bethiem Nurses (& Matrons

  • Page 416 and 417:

    ceration. I will proceed to discuss

  • Page 418 and 419:

    Relieving the poor insane or unburd

  • Page 420 and 421:

    maintain them elsewhere'. The polic

  • Page 422 and 423:

    despite its sympathetic reduction i

  • Page 424 and 425:

    It would, however, be caricaturing

  • Page 426 and 427:

    vicissitudes of the times, but also

  • Page 428 and 429:

    there was an acute awareness of the

  • Page 430 and 431:

    the patient is frequently only indi

  • Page 432 and 433:

    Privilege and patronage: reiommendi

  • Page 434 and 435:

    Fielding, were sharply criticising

  • Page 436 and 437:

    and relations' settlements in this

  • Page 438 and 439:

    settlements says as much about the

  • Page 440 and 441:

    persons without settlements), migra

  • Page 442 and 443:

    a hired servant to provide. This wa

  • Page 444 and 445:

    is indicative of the extent of this

  • Page 446 and 447:

    for the sick; often only emerging a

  • Page 448 and 449:

    and the Governors were obliged to d

  • Page 450 and 451:

    'considerac[i]on had of [his]...beh

  • Page 452 and 453:

    (vainly) put to work or even being

  • Page 454 and 455:

    of course. Yet the Governors were i

  • Page 456 and 457:

    Cases like llarri8 and Benjamin Har

  • Page 458 and 459:

    century, was that it required the a

  • Page 460 and 461:

    were only permitted entrance and co

  • Page 462 and 463:

    y alternative means, even by the Co

  • Page 464 and 465:

    standardly received at Bethiem both

  • Page 466 and 467:

    hospital and its clients, however'8

  • Page 468 and 469:

    long as their obligors were willing

  • Page 470 and 471:

    Emerson's suicide and crossroad's b

  • Page 472 and 473:

    committal of such cases to Bethlem

  • Page 474 and 475:

    hauled before a justice if found 'd

  • Page 476 and 477:

    sometimes served as a more secure h

  • Page 478 and 479:

    It was here, too, that hierarchy wa

  • Page 480 and 481:

    were spent in Bethlem) 244. Those l

  • Page 482 and 483:

    described already (chapter 2) how t

  • Page 484 and 485:

    oth the Privy Council, the Board of

  • Page 486 and 487:

    part of the friends, neighbours and

  • Page 488 and 489:

    keepe him at home w[i]th any safety

  • Page 490 and 491:

    in particularly fatalistic terms, r

  • Page 492 and 493:

    there is any occasion for such atte

  • Page 494 and 495:

    Bethlem Physician and application m

  • Page 496 and 497:

    Minutes recorded the discharge of f

  • Page 498 and 499:

    only three to have died, while one

  • Page 500 and 501:

    the time She Continues for Cure in

  • Page 502 and 503:

    increasingly willing, or moreover a

  • Page 504 and 505:

    had refused to cater3. During the s

  • Page 506 and 507:

    It is not until after the hospital'

  • Page 508 and 509:

    hospital's visitable inmates were f

  • Page 510 and 511:

    suffering from both afflictions'. W

  • Page 512 and 513:

    Suicide appears to have been remark

  • Page 514 and 515:

    FIGURE 6 OBLi6G FOR "INCUBLE" PATIE

  • Page 516 and 517:

    Co cD(Q 0 - Cl) cl)C E.2 I-i •1-'

  • Page 518 and 519:

    1 I- 0\ '0 V. Iii ii C b-I IA Ii) U

  • Page 520 and 521:

    '0, 10 7O 60 50 +0 30 £0 F3 c- MoA

  • Page 522 and 523:

    I2> 6° t722-I15° 6 MdNllf : - 2.

  • Page 524 and 525:

    Ui C oc lfl\ C- -o 411 0 a. a 1)1 I

  • Page 526 and 527:

    Table 6a: Patients' Occupations (wh

  • Page 528 and 529:

    Proctor RCP Beadle Refiner Rug Weav

  • Page 530 and 531:

    Labourer(Sweeper) Malster Mariner M

  • Page 532 and 533:

    Seamstress Servant Shipwright Shoem

  • Page 534 and 535:

    0 tco Cl)'- -'4 L0 OQ) I- (I) .I1 O

  • Page 536 and 537:

    ) TAaL.E 6* DU T ION OF' TI'IE BETW

  • Page 538 and 539:

    • I- — 00 — — U — .g S 0

  • Page 540 and 541:

    TA8L L* PATICNTS' TOTAL DURATION or

  • Page 542 and 543:

    T1 BL&n 4L B OF '' URA LE' PATIE4NT

  • Page 544 and 545:

    TA8L n.( cent.) Date Of Died Death/

  • Page 546 and 547:

    Th1 o (c,,tii4ed) 1776-1 BOO Year A

  • Page 548 and 549:

    Table6q Reasons for Admission of Pa

  • Page 550 and 551:

    - I V V. 0 -' .. to .0 5'i4 [ I 1%#

  • Page 552 and 553:

    '-4 U) z 0H U) U) H r I mmNU)WOWOCl

  • Page 554 and 555:

    Short Summary In order to assess ea

  • Page 556 and 557:

    St. Luke's at mid-century; the hosp

  • Page 558 and 559:

    • - fi • ;•F •' '• - -

  • Page 560 and 561:

    Appendix 2a(ii) continued ft /* J I

  • Page 562 and 563:

    •..4 x' Appendix 2b Broadside sol

  • Page 564 and 565:

    1ppendix 2d Jonathan's, the House o

  • Page 566 and 567:

    ?:; • Appendix 3a(ii) Carpenter'e

  • Page 568 and 569:

    •' ''' ito' fi 1i si Ls-d, (o Id

  • Page 570 and 571:

    •J1,.. - /iOii' /(1/((i/ 4 /Le h,

  • Page 572 and 573:

    Th have a proper P eli/ion and Cert

  • Page 574 and 575:

    'I j INST RUTIONS for the ADMISS1O4

  • Page 576 and 577:

    Appendix 61 Petition, dated 1732, f

  • Page 578 and 579:

    Appendix 6k Petition for the admiss

  • Page 580 and 581:

    Appendix 61(11) 1765 petition for a

  • Page 582 and 583:

    1 _ : % the R:kht Warft'i'fal the P

  • Page 584 and 585:

    Appendix 6o Petition for the admiss

  • Page 586 and 587:

    Primar y Sources Manuscripts I) Bet

  • Page 588 and 589:

    Her Majesty's Commission. Report on

  • Page 590 and 591:

    with the Hereticall Opinions held b

  • Page 592 and 593:

    Robert Burton, The Anatomy of Melan

  • Page 594 and 595:

    John Haslam, Observations on Insani

  • Page 596 and 597:

    Robert Plot, Dr. Plot and the Corre

  • Page 598 and 599:

    John Taylor, Records Of My Life (Lo

  • Page 600 and 601:

    ______ and Roger Finlay, London 150

  • Page 602 and 603:

    Jan Goldstein, Console and Classify

  • Page 604 and 605:

    1. S. McClelland, The Crowd and The

  • Page 606 and 607:

    ______ 'Good madness in Christendom

  • Page 608:

    Everett Zimmerman, 'Fragments of hi

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