the european standard en 14961 for wood chips - Wood Heat ...

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the european standard en 14961 for wood chips - Wood Heat ...

THE EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 14961

FOR WOOD CHIPS AND HOG FUEL

Forest Bioenergy Conference

Eija Alakangas, convenor of CEN/TC WG2

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

eija.alakangas@vtt.fi

www.woodheatsolutions.eu


Multipart standard EN14961

06/09/2010

General requirements – Part 1 (EN 14961-1, published Jan 2010)

Classification of raw material, separate tables for wood chips and hog fuel

Properties to be specified separately from several property classes

Separate product standards (under final approval – November 2010)

Product standards for wood pellets (EN 14961-2), wood briquettes (EN 14961-3), firewood

(EN 14961-5) and non-woody pellets (EN 14961-6)

EN 14961 – 4 Wood chips for non-industrial use

Product standards are targeted for non-industrial use in small-scale appliances, such as,

households and

small commercial and public sector buildings

Properties are bind together to form classes: A1, A2 an B

When EN-standards have been approved, national standards should be withdrawn

or adopted to EN-standards.

2


06/09/2010

EN 14961-1

Solid biofuels – Fuel specification and classes – Part 1: General

requirements

Classification of raw material

Property tables for most traded solid biofuels

3


06/09/2010

Specification and classes (EN 14961-1)

Classification is based on origin and source, major traded forms and

properties

Hierarchical classification system in table format:

1 Woody biomass

1.1 Forest, plantation and other virgin wood

1.2 By-products and residues from wood processing industry

1.3 Used wood

2 Herbaceous biomass

3 Fruit biomass

4 Biomass blends and mixtures

blends = intentional, mixtures = unintentional

Special requirements for chemically treated biomass

Chemical treatment defined as any treatment with chemicals other than air,

heat or water (e.g. glued, painted, coated, lacqued or otherwise treated

wood, without halogeneted compounds and heavy metals)

4


Solid biofuel utilisation chain

Origin/Source Traded form

Fuel

(e.g. wood chip)

production

Biomass

Solid biofuel

Documentation

of origin

(Table 1 in

EN14961-1)

06/09/2010

Tables 3 – 15 with property classes

in EN 14961-1

Fuel Quality Assurance

(EN 15234)

Conversion

Product

declaration

(EN 15234)

5

Bioenergy

use


06/09/2010

1.1 Forest, plantation and other virgin wood

(Table 1, EN 14961-1)

1.1.1 Whole trees without roots

1.1.2 Whole trees with roots

1.1.3 Stemwood

1.1.4 Logging residues

1.1.5 Stumps/roots

1.1.1.1 Broad-leaf

1.1.1.2 Coniferous

1.1.1.3 Short rotation coppice

1.1.1.4 Bushes

1.1.1.5 Blends and mixtures

1.1.2.1 Broad-leaf

1.1.2.2 Coniferous

1.1.2.3 Short rotation coppice

1.1.2.4 Bushes

1.1.2.5 Blends and mixtures

1.1.3.1 Broad-leaf

1.1.3.2 Coniferous

1.1.3.3 Blends and mixtures

1.1.4.1 Fresh/Green, Broad-leaf (including leaves)

1.1.4.2 Fresh/Green, Coniferous (including needles)

1.1.4.3 Stored, Broad-leaf

1.1.4.4 Stored, Coniferous

1.1.4.5 Blends and mixtures

1.1.5.1 Broad-leaf

1.1.5.2 Coniferous

1.1.5.3 Short rotation coppice

1.1.5.4 Bushes

1.1.5.5 Blends and mixtures

1.1.6 Bark (from forestry operations) a

1.1.7 Segregated wood from gardens, parks, roadside maintenance, vineyards and fruit orchards

1.1.8 Blends and mixtures

a includes also cork.

6


06/09/2010

1.2 Wood processing industry by-products and residues and 1.3 Used

wood (Table 1, EN 14961-1)

1.2 By-products and

residues from wood

processing industry

1.3 Used wood

1.4 Blends and mixtures

a Cork is under bark

1.2.1 Chemically untreated

wood residues

1.2.2 Chemically treated

wood residues, fibres and

wood constituents

1.2.3 Blends and mixtures

1.3.1 Chemically untreated

wood

1.3.2 Chemically treated

wood

1.3.3 Blends and mixtures

1.2.1.1 Without bark, Broad-leaf

1.2.1.2 Without bark, Coniferous

1.2.1.3 With bark, Broad-leaf

1.2.1.4 With bark, Coniferous

1.2.1.5 Bark (from industry operations) a

1.2.2.1 Without bark

1.2.2.2 With bark

1.2.2.3 Bark (from industry operations) a

1.2.2.4 Fibres and wood constituents

1.3.1.1 Without bark

1.3.1.2 With bark

1.3.1.3 Bark a

1.3.2.1 Without bark

1.3.2.2 With bark

1.3.2.3 Bark a

Chemically treated wood may not include heavy metals or halogenated compounds as

a result of treatment with wood preservatives or coating (more information see

www.bionorm2.eu)

7


06/09/2010

Flexible classification – EN 14961-1

Classification is ”flexible”, and hence the producer or the consumer

may select property from each property class

This classification does not bind different characteristics with each

other

The fuel supply chain shall be unambiguosly traceble back over the

whole chain

For most commonly traded forms (e.g. wood chips, hog fuel), a table

including property classes

Example M30, means that moisture content has to be less than

30% on average

8


06/09/2010

Flexible classification – EN 14961-1

Some of the properties are normative (mandatory)

origin and source always to be stated

normative properties vary depending on both origin and traded form

moisture content (M), and ash content (A) for all fuels

Some properties are informative (voluntary), but they are

recommended to be stated

9


Specification for traded forms – EN14961-1

Briquettes (Table 3)

Pellets (Table 4)

Wood chips (Table 5)

Hog fuel (Table 6)

Wood logs (Table 7)

Sawdust (Table 8)

Shavings (Table 9)

Bark (Table 10)

Straw bales, reed canary grass bales

and Miscanthus bales (Table 11)

Energy grain (Table 12)

Olive residues (Table 13)

Fruit seed (Table 14)

General master table for others

(Table 15)

06/09/2010

Wood chips Hog fuel

Wood chips (EN 14588- 4.183)

chipped woody biomass in the form of pieces with a

defined particle size produced by mechanical

treatment with sharp tools such as knives

Hog fuel (EN 14588 – 4.94)

Crushed/shredded wood in the form of pieces of

varying size and shape and produced by crushing

with blunt tools such as rollers, hammers, or flails

10


Class

P16A c

P16 B c

P45A c

P45B c

P63 c

P100 c

06/09/2010

Wood chips – Particle size EN 14961-1

Main fraction,

at least 75-w%, mm a

3,15< P < 16 mm

3,15< P < 16 mm

8 < P < 45 mm

8 < P < 45 mm

8 < P < 63 mm

16 < P < 100 mm

Fine fraction,

w-% (63 mm, and max. 3,5 % > 100 mm,

all 63 mm, and max. 3,5 % > 100 mm,

all


75%

06/09/2010

Particle size wood chips - P16 – EN 14961-1

45

30

P16A P16B

Kaikki all


06/09/2010

Particle size of wood chips P45 – EN 14961-1

P45A P45B

Kaikki all

< 120 mm

100 100


75%

06/09/2010

Particle size of wood chips P63 and P100 –

EN 14961-1

100

63

45

16

8

3,15

P63 P100

Kaikki all < 350 mm

200 mm all

< 100 mm

>75%


P16

P45

P63

P100

P125

P200

P300

Main fraction, 75 w-% ,

mm a

3,15< P < 16 mm

3,15< P < 45 mm

3,15< P < 63 mm

3,15


06/09/2010

Wood chips/hogfuel – normative EN 14961-1

Moisture content, M starting from M10 to M55 (5%-unit

difference), M55+ (maximum value to be stated). Analysis

according to EN 14774-2

Ash content for wood chips and hog fuel, A property classes

A0.5, A0.7, A1.0, A1.5, A3.0, A5.0, A7.0, A10 and A10.0+

(maximum value to be stated). Analysis according to EN 14775

Wood chip/hog fuel – normative or

informative

Nitrogen, N, N0.3, N0.5, N1.0, N2.0, N3.0, N3.0+ (maximum

value to be stated). Analysis according to EN 15104

Chlorine, Cl, Cl0.02, Cl0.03, Cl0.07,Cl0.1, Cl0.1+ (maximum

value to be stated). Analysis according to EN 15289

Normative only for chemically treated wood (e.g. plywood,

particle board, and other glued, painted, laqued wood which are

classified in classes 1.2.2; 1.3.2)

16


06/09/2010

Wood chips/hog fuel – EN14961-1

Net calorific value Q (MJ/kg as received) or energy density, E (kWh/bulk-m3 ),

Normative for hog fuel and informative for wood chips

Minimum value to be stated

Can be calculated according moisture (M) and net calorific value for dry

matter (q p,net,dry ), which can be taken from literature or analyse according EN

14918).

Ash melting behaviour (informative)

Deformation temperature to be stated, recommended to state all

temperatures (SST, DT, HT and FT)

17


06/09/2010

Wood chips/hog fuel – informative – EN14961-1

Bulk density, BD (kg/m3 )

Property classes BD150; BD200; BD250; BD300; BD350; BD400 ja

BD450+ (minimum value should be stated)

Recommended to be state if trade by volume basis.

Analysis method EN 15103

18


06/09/2010

EN 14961-4

Solid biofuels; Fuel specification and classes –

Part 4: Wood chips for non-industrial use

Product standard for non-industrial use

19


06/09/2010

Wood chips - Product standard for non-industrial use

EN 14961-4 (final draft for approval June 2010)

Classes A1 and A2 for virgin wood

Excluding class 1.1.1.3 short rotation coppice, if reason to suspect

contamination of land or if planting has been used for the

sequestration of chemicals or wood is fertilized by sewage sludge

(issued from waste water treatment or chemical process.

Class B includes also chemically treated wood or used wood

Threshold values for class B for the following chemicals:

Nitrogen (N1.0), sulphur (S0.1), chlorine (Cl0.05) and ”heavy

metals” : As (


06/09/2010

Wood chips - Product standard for non-industrial use

EN 14961-4 (final draft for approval June 2010)

Bulk density (BD)

Classes A1 and A2; BD150 tai BD200),

Class B: to be specified

Moisture (M)

Class A1;M10 or M25 and class A2; M35,

Class B: to be specified

Ash content

Class A1; A1.0 and class A2; A1.5

Class B; A3.0

Net calorific value as received

Class A1 (> Q13.0 MJ/kg or Q3,6 kWh/kg)

Class A2 (> Q11.0 MJ/kg or Q3,1 kWh/kg)

Class B: to be specified

21


Luokka

P16A

P16B

P31,5

P45A

06/09/2010

Product standard for wood chips

EN 14961-4 – Particle size (P)

Minimum 75 w-% (main

fraction), mm

3,15< P 6mm and maximum 3,5 % > 100 mm,

all < 31,5 mm

cross sectional area for oversized particles

< 5 cm 2

22

Course fraction, w-%

maximum length of particle, mm and

maximum cross sectional area (cm 2 )

Analysis according to EN 15149-1 by using round hole sieves according ISO 3310


How to use classification

06/09/2010

Boiler, burner, chipper or crusher manufacturer can use classification to

inform the properties in the equipment indentification

For bulk material of wood chips and hog fuel

Manufacturer Ariterm Oy

Output 200 kW

tested EN303-5

Fuel Wood chips

EN 14961-4 (A2)

Product declaration according to EN 15234-1 or EN 14234-4

23


06/09/2010

Content of a product declaration – EN 15234 - 1

supplier (body or enterprise) including contact information

traded form (according to the EN 14961-1 e.g. wood chips)

origin and source (according to the EN 14961-1 table 1)

country/countries (locations) of origin

specification of properties (according to the relevant part of EN

14961)

normative properties

informative properties

chemically treated material (yes/no)

24


06/09/2010

Example of a product declaration – Wood chips

for power production

EN 14961-1

Producer

Properties

Producer

Delivery lot

Origin and source

Trade form

Particle size (P)

Moisture (M), w-%

Ash (A), w-% dry matter

Net calorific value, ar (Q), MJ/kg

EAA Biofuels

12345

Wood chips

P45B

M40

A1.5

Q10

25

1.1.1.2 Whole tree without roots,

coniferous


06/09/2010

VTT creates business from

technology

26

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