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Phonetics: The Sounds of Language

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Phonetics: The Sounds of

Language

Lichin Jennifer Yang

March 20, 2012


Phonetics

! Phonetics is the study of speech

sounds that occur in all human

languages to present meanings.

! p.189


Examples:

Sound Segments

‘cat’ (one sound) /kæt/ 3 sound segments

‘knock’ (one sound) /nɑk/ 3 sound segments

! Linguistics studies the word’s meaning,

not how to spell it.

! p.190, 191


The Phonetic Alphabet

ʘ


The Phonetic Alphabet

(p.192-194)

ʘ


Organs of Articulation


IPA of Consonants

! Let’s draw the chart on the blackboard!


Consonants

! Place of Articulation: bilabial,

labiodental, interdental alveolar,

palatal, velar, uvular, glottal

! Manner of Articulation: oral stop,

fricative, affricate, nasal stop, liquid,

glide


Consonants

! Manner of Articulation

! Voicing: voiceless, voiced

! Aspiration: aspirated, unaspirated

Can you find some examples in English &

Mandarin for the following consonants?

Aspirated voiceless Unaspirated voiceless Voiced

pʰ p b

tʰ t d

kʰ k ɡ


Consonants

! Manner of Articulation

! Approximants

! They are /l/, /r/, /w/ and /j/.

! Trills

! Flaps

! A flap is produced by a flick of the

tongue against the alveolar ridge. (ex:

writer [raIᴅɚ] vs. rider [ra:Iᴅɚ])


Descriptions of Consonants

! voicing + place + aspiration + manner

[pʰ] a voicelss bilabial aspirated (oral) stop

[b] a voiced bilabial oral stop

[p] a voicelss bilabial unaspirated (oral) stop

[ʔ] a glottal (oral) stop

[p,b] bilabial unaspirated oral stop

[x,ɤ] velar fricatives


IPA of Vowels

! Let’s draw the chart on the blackboard!

ʘ


! Tongue Position

! front, central, back

! Tongue Height

! high, mid, low

! Lip Shape

! rounded, unrounded

! Tense & Lax

Vowels

~

! Oral & Nasal (ex: ‘down’ [daUn])


Descriptions of Vowels

! height + position + rounded + tense + vowel

unrounded lax

[i] a high front unrounded tense vowel


Binary Features

! Features of Consonants

! Major Class Features

! syllabic, consonantal

! Manner Features

! sonorant, continuant, nasal, voiced, aspirated,

strident, lateral

! Place Features

! anterior, coronal, labial, high, back, low

! Features of Vowels


Features of Consonants

! high [±high]

-- Place Features

[+high] palatal, velar

! back [±back]

[+back] velar, uvular

! low [±low]

[+low] uvular, glottal


Features of Vowels

! round [±rd] / labial [±lab]

[+rd] ü, Ü, ö, ɔ, u, ʊ, o, ɔ

..

! tense [±tense]

[+tense] i, e, ü, ö, u, o, ɑ, ɰ, a

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