Biology 10 - General Biology Lecture 14 Circulatory System Blood ...

Biology 10 - General Biology Lecture 14 Circulatory System Blood ...

Biology 10 - General Biology

Lecture 14

Circulatory System

Blood: Fluid residing w/in :

• Composition: Plasma & Blood cells

1. Plasma:


2. Cells:

O 2 & CO 2 , Nutrients & Minerals


a. Erythrocytes:

b. Leukocytes:

c. Thrombocytes:

A. Erythrocytes

Function: Carry:

Quantity: ~5 million/mm 3 blood

Site of Production:


Holds :

HEME: Contains :

Iron + Oxygen =

Blood with a lot of Oxygen is :

98% Saturated w/ :

Blood w/ less Oxygen is :

70% saturated w/ :


. White Blood Cells: Leukocytes


5 different WBCs

(Body’s internal Defense)

Each has a specific function

Recognizing foreign substance

Initiate FIGHT

Eating foreign substances

Increasing blood flow to infection

Remembering an infection

c. Platelets: Thrombocytes


Stops bleeding

Transport Tubes: Blood Vessels

Three Different types:

1. Arteries: Carry blood :

• Transport blood :


Pressure PUSHES blood to :

Correlated with each heart beat

Cause: Blood pushing :


• Usually transports :



2. Veins: Carry blood :

• Transport blood :

NO :

Carries Deoxygenated blood to :

• Usually transports :


Leaves Lungs carrying Oxygenated blood

• Problem: Transport LOW pressure blood

“How does blood get back to the heart?”

Average pressure:

Blood flow:

a. Veins ABOVE the heart:

Blood falls back to heart

b. Veins BELOW the heart:

Veins below heart: Blood is pushed by:

Venous Valves: Prevent :

Blood can NOT fall back to heart

Significance: Varicose Veins: Venous Valve incompetence

3. Capillaries: Connect Arteries to veins

• “Business end”; Cells

Blood Pressure: Pressure exerted by blood on :

Heart: Cardiac contractions create Pressure

Systole : Cardiac

Diastole: Cardiac

Highest pressure in vessel


Systolic Pressure

Lowest pressure in vessel,


Diastolic Pressure


• High Blood Pressure: Hypertension

Cause: Atherosclerosis

Systolic: Greater than

Diastolic: Greater than

Narrowing of Arteries: Due to

• Risks:

• Prevention:

1. Heart Attacks

2. Strokes

3. Blood vessel damage

4. Kidney failure

Reduce cholesterol, saturated & trans fats

Exercise at least :

Study Questions:

1. What is the function of the blood? What are the two main components of blood? Where are the blood cells formed?

2. What is the plasma composed of?

3. What are the most numerous blood cells? What is their function? What is the overall function of the Leukocytes

(WBCs)? What are some of the individual functions of WBC?

4. What is the primary function of thrombocytes (platelets)?

5. What is the function of hemoglobin? What is the difference between oxygenated and deoxygenated blood? What

mineral binds oxygen?


6. Where does blood change from being oxygenated into being deoxygenated?

7. What is thee most important difference when identifying an artery from a vein (hint: think of the flow of blood) What

are the difference between arteries and veins with respect to pressure – which ones pulse?

8. Do arteries ALWAYS carry oxygenated blood? Explain. Which large artery does NOT carry oxygenated blood?

9. If you cut yourself & bright red blood was squirting out of the vessel; what vessels did you cut ; artery or vein?

10. Which vessels allow for the exchange of materials (nutrients and gases) between the blood and the tissue?

11. What is the blood pressure? What is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure? When you feel your pulse,

what are you actually feeling? What causes the blood to pulse?

12. Why is the arterial blood pressurized? Are veins pressurized? Explain what the problem is for these low pressure

vessels. How do the vessels solve this problem? - how does blood get back to the heart from the legs?

13. What is hypertension? What are some of the problems associated with hypertension? What are some things you can

do to reduce your risk of hypertension? What is the blood pressure measurement for someone that is just beginning to be



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