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Monkey Orange extension manual.pdf - Crops for the Future

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Practical Manual No. 8<br />

MONKEY ORANGE<br />

Strychnos cocculoides<br />

Field Manual <strong>for</strong><br />

Extension Workers and Farmers<br />

2006


Copies of this handbook, as well as related literature, including a monograph and factsheet can<br />

be obtained by writing to <strong>the</strong> address below:<br />

Southampton Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong><br />

School of Civil Engineering and <strong>the</strong><br />

Environment<br />

University of Southampton<br />

OR<br />

Highfield,<br />

Southampton<br />

SO17 1BJ<br />

United Kingdom<br />

International Center <strong>for</strong> Underutilized <strong>Crops</strong><br />

c/o International Water Management Institute<br />

(IWMI)<br />

127, Sunil Mawatha<br />

Pelawatte<br />

Battaramulla<br />

Sri Lanka<br />

ISBN: 085432 8378<br />

© 2005 Southampton Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong><br />

Printed at RPM Print and Design, Chichester, England, UK<br />

Citation: SCUC (2006). <strong>Monkey</strong> <strong>Orange</strong>, Strychnos cocculoides, Field Manual <strong>for</strong> Extension<br />

Workers and Farmers, SCUC, Southampton, UK.<br />

This <strong>manual</strong> was prepared by Dr C. Mwamba, C and E. Peiler, according to an agreed <strong>for</strong>mat.<br />

Photographs: courtesy of Dr. C. Mwamba<br />

Drawings: E. Peiler<br />

THE FRUITS FOR THE FUTURE PROJECT<br />

This publication is an output from a research project funded by <strong>the</strong> United Kingdom<br />

Department <strong>for</strong> International Development (DFID) <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> benefit of developing countries.<br />

The views expressed are not necessarily those of DFID [R7187 Forestry Research Programme].<br />

A series of underutilised fruits are being researched and this is <strong>the</strong> Practical Manual No. 8<br />

dealing specifically with Strychnos cocculoides.


CONTENTS<br />

PREFACE .............................................................................................................................i<br />

1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................ 1<br />

2 WHY GROW MONKEY ORANGE ? ........................................................................... 2<br />

2.1 Nutritional Value................................................................................................. 2<br />

2.2 Socio-economic Value ......................................................................................... 3<br />

2.3 Medicinal Value .................................................................................................. 3<br />

2.4 Fuel and Timber.................................................................................................. 3<br />

2.5 Cultural Value ..................................................................................................... 3<br />

2.6 Ecological and Environmental Value .................................................................... 4<br />

2.7 O<strong>the</strong>r Uses .......................................................................................................... 4<br />

3 WHERE TO GROW MONKEY ORANGE ?.................................................................. 5<br />

3.1 Climatic Requirements <strong>for</strong> Cultivation.................................................................. 5<br />

3.2 Site Requirements................................................................................................ 5<br />

3.3 Symbiotic Associations......................................................................................... 6<br />

3.4 Land-use Systems ................................................................................................. 6<br />

4 WHAT TO GROW ..................................................................................................... 7<br />

4.1 Selected Superior Phenotypes .............................................................................. 7<br />

4.2 Propagule Type................................................................................................... 7<br />

5 HOW TO GROW MONKEY ORANGE ? .................................................................... 8<br />

5.1 Establishment of a planting site ............................................................................ 8<br />

5.2 Propagation by Seeds .......................................................................................... 8<br />

5.2.1 Seed Collection and Handling ...................................................................... 8<br />

5.2.2 Seed Treatment and Germination................................................................. 9<br />

5.2.3 Sowing ........................................................................................................ 9<br />

5.3 Vegetative Propagation ....................................................................................... 9<br />

5.3.1 Coppicing and Root Suckers ......................................................................... 9<br />

5.3.2 Grafting ...................................................................................................... 10<br />

5.3.3 O<strong>the</strong>r Vegetative Propagation Methods........................................................11<br />

5.4 Field Establishment..............................................................................................11<br />

5.4.1 Site Preparation............................................................................................11<br />

5.4.2 Timing ........................................................................................................ 12<br />

5.4.3 Windbreaks................................................................................................. 12<br />

5.4.4 Transplanting.............................................................................................. 12<br />

5.5 Field Management ............................................................................................. 13<br />

5.5.1 Weeding ..................................................................................................... 13<br />

5.5.2 Irrigation..................................................................................................... 13<br />

5.5.3 Fertilising .................................................................................................... 13<br />

5.5.4 Pruning....................................................................................................... 13<br />

5.5.5 Stand Density - Thinning ............................................................................. 14<br />

5.5.6 Intercropping and Soil Conservation............................................................ 14<br />

5.5.7 Protection from Pests and Diseases .............................................................. 14<br />

6 HOW TO HARVEST THE MONKEY ORANGE TREE ? ............................................... 15<br />

6.1 Ripeness and Yield.............................................................................................. 15<br />

6.2 Harvesting Techniques........................................................................................ 15<br />

7 POST-HARVEST HANDLING AND PROCESSING....................................................... 16<br />

7.1 Post-harvest Handling......................................................................................... 16<br />

7.2 Processing and Packaging.................................................................................... 16<br />

8 MARKETING............................................................................................................. 17<br />

8.1 Marketing Potential............................................................................................ 17


8.2 Pricing................................................................................................................ 17<br />

9 SOCIO-ECONOMICS ................................................................................................ 18<br />

APPENDIX 1. MULTIPLE USES OF THE MONKEY ORANGE TREE ................................. 19<br />

APPENDIX 2. MAJOR PESTS AND DISEASES OF THE MONKEY ORANGE TREE .......... 20<br />

APPENDIX 3. HEALTH AND SAFETY WHEN USING CHEMICALS ................................. 21<br />

GLOSSARY....................................................................................................................... 22<br />

REFERENCES ................................................................................................................... 23<br />

TABLES<br />

Table 1: Nutritional composition of fresh fruit pulp of monkey orange ...........................2<br />

Table 2: Climatic requirements <strong>for</strong> cultivation of monkey orange ...................................5<br />

Table 3: Suitable habitats <strong>for</strong> monkey orange .................................................................6<br />

Table 4: Characteristics of selected superior phenotypes of monkey orange ....................7<br />

PART II<br />

Technical Note 1:<br />

Technical Note 2:<br />

Technical Note 3:<br />

Technical Note 4:<br />

Technical Note 5:<br />

Technical Note 6:<br />

Technical Note 7:<br />

Technical Note 8:<br />

Technical Note 9:<br />

Why Grow <strong>the</strong> <strong>Monkey</strong> <strong>Orange</strong> Tree?<br />

How to Grow <strong>the</strong> <strong>Monkey</strong> <strong>Orange</strong> Tree? - Seedlings and Young trees<br />

How to Grow <strong>the</strong> <strong>Monkey</strong> <strong>Orange</strong> Tree? – Propagation by Seed<br />

How to Grow <strong>the</strong> <strong>Monkey</strong> <strong>Orange</strong> Tree? – Vegetative Propagation<br />

Where to Grow <strong>the</strong> <strong>Monkey</strong> <strong>Orange</strong> Tree? – Field Establishment<br />

How to Grow <strong>the</strong> <strong>Monkey</strong> <strong>Orange</strong> Tree? – Field Management<br />

Harvesting and Post-harvest Handling<br />

Processing<br />

Marketing and Economics


PREFACE<br />

‘Fruits <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Future</strong>’ is a programme implemented by <strong>the</strong> International Centre <strong>for</strong><br />

Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong> (ICUC) and its partner organisations - The World Agro<strong>for</strong>estry Centre<br />

(ICRAF) and <strong>the</strong> International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI). This project provides<br />

in<strong>for</strong>mation enabling fur<strong>the</strong>r research on underutilised fruit trees and also provides in<strong>for</strong>mation<br />

on practical techniques that can be used by farmers and rural communities to increase <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

product output and ultimately <strong>the</strong> income from <strong>the</strong>ir land.<br />

The project has now been taken <strong>for</strong>ward by ICUC in consultation with stakeholders and<br />

includes 10 underutilised fruits which have potential <strong>for</strong> immediate development. For each,<br />

ICUC is issuing a monograph summarising known in<strong>for</strong>mation and a <strong>manual</strong> <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> use by<br />

<strong>extension</strong> workers and farmers. This publication is <strong>the</strong> <strong>manual</strong> <strong>for</strong> monkey orange (Strychnos<br />

cocculoides). Demand <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> production of scientific and <strong>extension</strong> materials on monkey<br />

orange has been expressed by local, national and regional stakeholders in meetings with<br />

UTFANET and SEANUC and in discussion with ICRAF, FAO, IPGRI and o<strong>the</strong>r interested<br />

organisations. The opinions expressed in this book are those of <strong>the</strong> authors alone and do not<br />

imply an acceptance or obligation whatsoever on <strong>the</strong> part of ICUC, ICRAF or IPGRI.<br />

The in<strong>for</strong>mation contained within this <strong>manual</strong> is <strong>for</strong> use in <strong>the</strong> field and can be used by <strong>for</strong>estry<br />

and agricultural <strong>extension</strong> staff working with farmers in Central and Sou<strong>the</strong>rn Africa. The<br />

<strong>manual</strong> provides practical advice on propagation techniques, selection of high quality materials<br />

and <strong>the</strong> management of monkey orange trees (Strychnos cocculoides). In<strong>for</strong>mation is also<br />

provided on <strong>the</strong> processing and marketing; however <strong>the</strong> products and market strategies may<br />

vary from farmer to farmer and country to country. This <strong>manual</strong> has been published in English.<br />

Any part of this <strong>manual</strong> can be freely copied or translated into o<strong>the</strong>r languages, in order to aid<br />

effective <strong>extension</strong> work.<br />

The <strong>manual</strong> is presented in two sections. The first section gives background in<strong>for</strong>mation <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

effective utilisation of this tree. The second section is made up of a set of leaflets, each covering<br />

a defined topic. These can be used <strong>for</strong> guidance during work in <strong>the</strong> field, or <strong>for</strong> copying and<br />

distribution. Where S.I. units are used in <strong>the</strong> text, <strong>the</strong>se should be changed to local units where<br />

appropriate. Fur<strong>the</strong>r detailed in<strong>for</strong>mation on monkey orange can also be found in an<br />

accompanying monograph by Mwamba (2006), available from ICUC, Sri Lanka and University<br />

of Southampton, UK.<br />

We would like to express our gratitude to <strong>the</strong> late Dr. Charles Mwamba <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> preparation of<br />

<strong>the</strong> in<strong>for</strong>mation contained within this <strong>manual</strong>. We regret that he was not able to see it<br />

published. The <strong>manual</strong> is dedicated to his memory.<br />

Editors<br />

2005<br />

i


1 INTRODUCTION<br />

Strychnos cocculoides (Baker) belongs to <strong>the</strong> Loganiaceae family and is known by various<br />

names, but <strong>the</strong> most common are “monkey orange” or “bush orange”.<br />

Description:<br />

• It is a semi-deciduous spiny shrub or small woodland tree about 1-8 metres tall with one<br />

or several trunks, spreading branches and a rounded crown. The bark is pale grey to<br />

creamy-brown, thick, corky and ridged. The branches have longitudinal corky ridges and<br />

spines of 1-1.5 cm length. The leaves are up to 6 cm long by 4 cm wide and tend to be<br />

rounded or heart-shaped at <strong>the</strong> base. They have fine hairs on both sides with 1-3 pairs of<br />

secondary veins from <strong>the</strong> base curved along <strong>the</strong> margin.<br />

Flowering:<br />

• <strong>Monkey</strong> orange carries male and female flowers on <strong>the</strong> same tree. Small greenish to<br />

white flowers appear in short dense bunches at <strong>the</strong> end of <strong>the</strong> branches between July<br />

and September in sou<strong>the</strong>rn Africa. The round orange-like fruit ripen to glossy yellow<br />

orange between June to December of <strong>the</strong> following year. The fruit is 6-12 cm in<br />

diameter and has a hard shell.<br />

Distribution:<br />

• <strong>Monkey</strong> orange has a wide distribution in Sub Saharan Africa. It is found throughout<br />

Central and Sou<strong>the</strong>rn tropical Africa, from Gabon to Kenya, South-West Africa and<br />

Natal, drought prone areas and semi-arid Kalahari Sandvelds.<br />

Habitat:<br />

• It occurs from high rainfall tropical <strong>for</strong>ests to more desert climates and is found in a wide<br />

range of altitudes and soils.<br />

Human introduction:<br />

• The species has also been introduced to South America and India; however it is not<br />

exploited in <strong>the</strong>se countries.<br />

Toxicity note:<br />

• All parts of <strong>the</strong> plant contain low concentrations of strychnine, an alkaloid poison. In<br />

particular unripe fruits are poisonous, although <strong>the</strong>y can be used medicinally. Reference<br />

to medicinal use in this <strong>manual</strong> does not constitute medical advice. Advice must be<br />

sought from a medical practitioner.<br />

1


2 WHY GROW MONKEY ORANGE?<br />

<strong>Monkey</strong> orange is a multipurpose tree with numerous values. It is a source of food, timber,<br />

firewood, medicinal extracts and o<strong>the</strong>r components and it can provide a potential economic<br />

return to rural people. The different uses of <strong>the</strong> monkey orange tree are summarised in<br />

Appendix 1 and described below. See Technical Note 1 in Part II<br />

2.1 Nutritional Value<br />

<strong>Monkey</strong> orange is a nutritious fruit providing an important source of food <strong>for</strong> many rural<br />

communities in Central and Sou<strong>the</strong>rn Africa. It has long been used to complement diets. Table 1<br />

gives nutritional composition of <strong>the</strong> fresh monkey orange pulp.<br />

• The pulp of ripe fruits is usually eaten fresh and <strong>the</strong> pips are spat out.<br />

• The pulp can be made into jam, juice and a variety of wines.<br />

See Technical Note 8 in Part II.<br />

Table 1: Nutritional composition of fresh fruit pulp of monkey orange<br />

Energy Value<br />

Moisture<br />

Protein<br />

Fat<br />

Fibre<br />

Carbohydrates<br />

PROPERTY<br />

Calcium (Ca)<br />

Magnesium (Mg)<br />

Iron (Fe)<br />

Sodium (Na)<br />

Potassium (K)<br />

Phosphorus (P)<br />

Copper (Cu)<br />

Zinc (Zn)<br />

Thiamin<br />

Riboflavin<br />

Nicotinic Acid (Niacin)<br />

Vitamin C<br />

FOOD VALUE OF EDIBLE<br />

PORTION<br />

(Fruit weight 400-1200g)<br />

Per 100g<br />

308 kJ<br />

80.4 g<br />

1.3 g<br />

0.1 g<br />

0.9 g<br />

16.8 g<br />

9.41 mg<br />

26.9 mg<br />

0.18 mg<br />

0.89 mg<br />

188 mg<br />

20.2 mg<br />

0.07 mg<br />

0.08 mg<br />

0.03 mg<br />

0.06 mg<br />

0.27 mg<br />

6.7 mg<br />

%RDA<br />

(based on an<br />

adult male)<br />

Per 100g<br />

2.3<br />

0.3<br />

1.3<br />

12.9<br />

0.9<br />

6.4<br />

*2.25/1.0<br />

**<br />

n/a<br />

2.9<br />

7.8<br />

0.7<br />

2.5<br />

4.6<br />

1.7<br />

7.4<br />

Source: Arnold and group (1985)<br />

* Male and female RDA are given here, because female requirement is greater.<br />

** RDA is not calculated <strong>for</strong> this mineral<br />

2


2.2 Socio-economic Value<br />

• Food security during periods of food shortages and in years of famine <strong>for</strong> marginalised<br />

groups in particular, with decreased dependence on arable agriculture, leading to a<br />

reduction in <strong>the</strong> workload <strong>for</strong> women and in reduced environmental degradation.<br />

• Additional income to farmers if incorporated in <strong>the</strong>ir fields or grown on marginal or<br />

unused land through sales of fruits, processed fruit products, timber and medicines in<br />

rural and urban markets, both local and regional. The value of fruit yield from a single<br />

tree could exceed <strong>the</strong> value of a grain harvest from <strong>the</strong> same area <strong>for</strong> a subsistence<br />

farmer.<br />

2.3 Medicinal Value<br />

Nearly all <strong>the</strong> parts of <strong>the</strong> monkey orange tree can be used <strong>for</strong> medicinal purposes. References<br />

to traditional medicines give <strong>the</strong> following local uses <strong>for</strong> parts of <strong>the</strong> plant, but to our<br />

knowledge no clinical in<strong>for</strong>mation is available:<br />

• Green, unripe fruits:<br />

o To induce vomiting - mashed, mixed with water, soaked and drunk.<br />

o As a purgative - prepared as a powder added to milk (in Zambia).<br />

• Pulp of ripe fruits:<br />

o To treat coughing, mixed with sugar or honey.<br />

o As a constituent of eardrops.<br />

• Fresh leaves: <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> treatment of wounds to prevent infection and promote healing -<br />

pounded into a paste, mixed with water, and simmered.<br />

• Bark: to treat stomach pains, a decoction is used.<br />

• Roots:<br />

o To reduce <strong>the</strong> length and severity of heavy menstrual flows.<br />

o To stop diarrhoea.<br />

o To alleviate eczema.<br />

o To treat sexually transmitted infections, <strong>for</strong> example gonorrhoea.<br />

2.4 Fuel and Timber<br />

• Wood has a straight bore and can be used in construction.<br />

• Soft, white, pliable wood can be used in building materials, tool handles, utensils.<br />

2.5 Cultural Value<br />

Several parts of <strong>the</strong> tree have different uses:<br />

• Magical uses, e.g. a hunting charm,<br />

• Art objects.<br />

3


• Traditional percussion musical instruments made from <strong>the</strong> hard outer shell of <strong>the</strong> fruit.<br />

The pulp of <strong>the</strong> fruit is removed through a small hole, <strong>the</strong> seeds are dried and <strong>the</strong>n<br />

reintroduced into <strong>the</strong> shell. The hole is sealed with a part of <strong>the</strong> stem acting as a handle.<br />

2.6 Ecological and Environmental Value<br />

<strong>Monkey</strong> orange has important characterisitcs:<br />

• It is adapted to <strong>the</strong> harsh local environmental conditions and has <strong>the</strong> ability to survive<br />

severe droughts by losing its leaves.<br />

• It is adapted to survive wild fires by having a thick corky bark and capacity to sprout<br />

epicormic and coppice shoots.<br />

• Fruits tend to be held on <strong>the</strong> tree and survive fire, so <strong>the</strong> seeds can regenerate new<br />

plants.<br />

In common with o<strong>the</strong>r trees <strong>the</strong> monkey orange tree has o<strong>the</strong>r environmental benefits:<br />

• Improved soil fertility by production of humus from fallen leaves.<br />

• Tree <strong>for</strong>ms part of <strong>the</strong> nutrient recycling system.<br />

• Weed growth is reduced, when trees are mature, due to competition <strong>for</strong> water, nutrients<br />

and light.<br />

• Root growth improves soil structure.<br />

• Root growth minimises soil loss by wind erosion.<br />

• The tree canopy shades soil preventing overheating.<br />

• The tree canopy absorbs <strong>the</strong> impact of rain minimising soil run-off.<br />

2.7 O<strong>the</strong>r Uses<br />

• Soap <strong>for</strong> washing clo<strong>the</strong>s can be made from fruit pulp due to its saponin content.<br />

• A toxic dye can be extracted from <strong>the</strong> fruit shell which can be used to colour trays and<br />

containers, providing a protective layer against insects.<br />

• Insect repellent made from liquid drained from fresh leaves crushed and soaked in water,<br />

can be used <strong>for</strong> spraying vegetables to repel aphids and scale insects.<br />

4


3 WHERE TO GROW MONKEY ORANGE?<br />

3.1 Climatic Requirements <strong>for</strong> Cultivation<br />

• <strong>Monkey</strong> orange is typically found in areas characterised by two main seasons, a wet one<br />

lasting from November to April and a dry one occurring from May to October, in<br />

central Africa.<br />

• The tree is a generally undemanding species surviving long periods of drought by<br />

shedding its leaves during <strong>the</strong> dry season. It does not break its dormancy until <strong>the</strong> new<br />

rainy season starts.<br />

• The tree is able to access available water and use periodic rainfall quickly and effectively,<br />

due to its extensive rooting system.<br />

The climatic requirements <strong>for</strong> cultivation of monkey orange are summarised in Table 2.<br />

Table 2: Climatic requirements <strong>for</strong> cultivation of monkey orange<br />

CLIMATIC FACTOR MINIMUM MAXIMUM<br />

Altitude (m)<br />

Rainfall (mm)<br />

Temperature (°C)<br />

400<br />

600<br />

14<br />

2,000<br />

1,200<br />

25<br />

3.2 Site Requirements<br />

See Technical Note 5 in Part II.<br />

<strong>Monkey</strong> orange grows in a variety of conditions:<br />

• Soil: It grows best on deep sandy and on well-drained slopes. The general physical soil<br />

requirements of <strong>the</strong> monkey orange tree are shown in Table 3.<br />

5


Table 3: Suitable habitats <strong>for</strong> monkey orange<br />

CHARACTERISTIC<br />

Soil type (texture)<br />

Topography<br />

Rooting depth<br />

Drainage<br />

Terrain<br />

SUITABLE HABITATS<br />

Deep sandy soils<br />

Black to dark-grey clays<br />

Yellow-red loamy sands<br />

Red yellow-red loams<br />

0-13% slope<br />

Restricted by lack of aeration<br />

Restricted by rock outcrops<br />

Well drained<br />

Flat woodlands and savannahs<br />

Hilly woodland slopes<br />

Rocky slopes<br />

Soil pH Acidic, pH 4-6<br />

• Light: The monkey orange tree has a low capacity to endure shade. Since grasses shade<br />

young trees and compete <strong>for</strong> soil resources, <strong>the</strong>y should be removed, from around <strong>the</strong><br />

tree. However in <strong>the</strong> rainy season, grass protects soil from erosion.<br />

3.3 Symbiotic Associations<br />

• <strong>Monkey</strong> orange <strong>for</strong>ms a symbiotic relationship with some beneficial fungi (mycorrhizae),<br />

enhancing <strong>the</strong> plant’s uptake of important nutrients such as phosphorus. For this reason<br />

<strong>the</strong> tree is able to survive on nutritively poor soils.<br />

• In areas where monkey orange has never grown be<strong>for</strong>e, <strong>the</strong> lack of natural mycorrhizal<br />

symbionts in <strong>the</strong> soil can lead to <strong>the</strong>ir failure to establish. You can promote <strong>the</strong> initial<br />

growth of <strong>the</strong> trees by artificial inoculation of seedlings of monkey orange with isolated<br />

cultures of <strong>the</strong> mycorrhizal fungi from soils taken beneath parent trees growing in <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

natural habitat.<br />

3.4 Land-use Systems<br />

• Pioneer tree: <strong>Monkey</strong> orange is found naturally as a pioneer tree on abandoned<br />

cultivation sites and open woodlands. Since it provides a good source of fruits it is<br />

typically left undisturbed and protected on cultivated fields near homesteads.<br />

• Agro<strong>for</strong>estry systems: These are being tested in Botswana, where monkey orange is<br />

interplanted with o<strong>the</strong>r trees such as marula (Sclerocarya birrea) and wild medlar<br />

(Vangueria infausta) and annual crops such as traditional sorghum, cowpea and<br />

watermelon.<br />

• Boundary or barrier tree: Its sharp spines which can stop animals from entering secluded<br />

areas.<br />

6


4.1 Selected Superior Phenotypes<br />

See Technical Note 2 in Part II.<br />

4 WHAT TO GROW<br />

Superior phenotypes of monkey orange have been identified and selected as baseline materials<br />

<strong>for</strong> germplasm collection and <strong>for</strong> crop improvement. The selection of <strong>the</strong>se phenotypes is based<br />

on <strong>the</strong> characteristics summarised in Table 4.<br />

Table 4: Characteristics of selected superior phenotypes of monkey orange<br />

CHARACTERISTIC<br />

REQUIREMENTS<br />

Vigour and health of tree - Vigour<br />

- free from any pests and diseases<br />

Yield - short juvenile period<br />

- 300-400 fruits/tree/season<br />

- Minimal variations in seasonal fruit<br />

production<br />

Fruit size - >10 cm in diameter<br />

- Uni<strong>for</strong>m<br />

Sweetness of fruits - sweet and juicy<br />

- >16°Brix<br />

Seeds - small in proportion to <strong>the</strong> flesh<br />

4.2 Propagule Type<br />

• <strong>Monkey</strong> orange regenerates naturally by seed, coppice or root suckers. Coppices are<br />

readily produced from <strong>the</strong> stumps of trees that have been burnt during bush fires or<br />

have been felled. Root suckers are produced when <strong>the</strong> root is wounded.<br />

• Various methods can be used to artificially propagate trees.<br />

• Seeds:<br />

o Trees grown from seeds generally have deeper roots than those raised from<br />

vegetative propagules, giving firm anchorage to <strong>the</strong> tree, and allowing<br />

exploration of a wider area of soil <strong>for</strong> water and nutrient uptake.<br />

o Offspring produced from seed may differ in <strong>the</strong>ir growth and fruiting<br />

characteristics from <strong>the</strong> parent tree.<br />

• Vegetative propagation:<br />

o Used primarily in order to develop true-to-type clones, avoiding heterogeneity<br />

which results from seed propagation.<br />

o Grafting has been found to be <strong>the</strong> most successful method; budding may also be<br />

used.<br />

7


• New varieties:<br />

o High quality planting material of new varieties can be obtained from:<br />

o Veld Products Research and Development (VPRD)<br />

PO Box 2020 Gaborone, Botswana<br />

Tel: +(267) 347047, Fax: +(267) 347363, Email: enquiries@veldproducts.org<br />

o World Agro<strong>for</strong>estry Centre (ICRAF) under its Sou<strong>the</strong>rn Africa Regional<br />

Programme (SADC) project centres in Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe<br />

at:<br />

SADC-ICRAF Regional Agro<strong>for</strong>estry Programme<br />

PO Box MP 128, Mount Pleasant<br />

Harare, Zimbabwe<br />

Tel: +(263) 4 369122, 369124, Fax: +(263) 4 301327,<br />

Email: f.kwesiga@cgiar.org<br />

5.1 Establishment of a planting site<br />

5 HOW TO GROW MONKEY ORANGE<br />

See Technical Note 5 in Part II <strong>for</strong> siting requirements of monkey orange trees.<br />

This <strong>manual</strong> is intended <strong>for</strong> small-scale planting schemes. For those intending to establish a<br />

larger plantation of monkey orange, please see Mwamba and Williams (2005).<br />

5.2 Propagation by Seeds<br />

See Technical Note 3 in Part II.<br />

5.2.1 Seed Collection and Handling<br />

You should only collect seeds from selected superior phenotypes with identified characteristics<br />

specified in Table 4.<br />

• <strong>Monkey</strong> orange starts to produce fruits between 4 and 6 years of age in open-grown<br />

stands, but it takes several years longer when planted densely.<br />

• Fruits take 8 to 12 months after pollination to mature, from June up to December in<br />

central Africa.<br />

• Pick <strong>the</strong> light green or yellow fruits from <strong>the</strong> tree, or collect <strong>the</strong>m after <strong>the</strong>y have<br />

dropped on <strong>the</strong>ir own at full maturity.<br />

• Crack <strong>the</strong> fruit open by hitting <strong>the</strong>m with a stick or tapping gently on a stone.<br />

• Fruits usually contain 25 to 30 pale seeds. Seed size is variable. Large fruits usually<br />

produce large seeds and those seeds closer to <strong>the</strong> middle of <strong>the</strong> fruit are larger than those<br />

located at <strong>the</strong> edge.<br />

• Seeds are easily removed from <strong>the</strong> pulp since <strong>the</strong>y do not adhere to <strong>the</strong> sides of <strong>the</strong> fruit<br />

shell. Small seeds and those which appear immature should be discarded.<br />

8


• After sorting <strong>the</strong> seeds, clean <strong>the</strong>m by mixing with sand and scraping <strong>the</strong>m over a wire<br />

mesh.<br />

• If seeds are intended <strong>for</strong> storage you should air dry <strong>the</strong>m, to prevent rotting. Seeds<br />

stored under dry conditions <strong>for</strong> 8 to 12 months at room temperature (23-28°C) still<br />

show a good germination rate.<br />

• Seed collected from several trees or several locations, is best stored ei<strong>the</strong>r separately <strong>for</strong><br />

each tree, or from all <strong>the</strong> trees of one location toge<strong>the</strong>r, so that it can be distinguished,<br />

and <strong>the</strong> best used <strong>for</strong> planting.<br />

5.2.2 Seed Treatment and Germination<br />

• The germination rate of freshly harvested seeds usually is 75-80%, but can be lower.<br />

Different pre-treatments have been seen to give variable germination rates. Soaking <strong>the</strong><br />

seed in hot water <strong>for</strong> 24-48 hours immediately after collection may improve<br />

germination.<br />

• Germination takes 4 weeks on average, depending on <strong>the</strong> sowing date, ranging from<br />

80% germination after 3 weeks, if seeds are sown in summer, to more than 9 weeks if<br />

sown in winter, in Botswana.<br />

5.2.3 Sowing<br />

• Sow seeds at a depth of 2-3 cm in pots or in seedbeds.<br />

• Water seedlings twice a day <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> first weeks. Watering should not be excessive, to<br />

avoid fungal infection. This can be reduced later to once a day, in <strong>the</strong> evening.<br />

• Shade seedlings <strong>for</strong> about 7 days after germination followed by partial shade <strong>for</strong> 5-6<br />

days and finally expose to full light after about 14 days.<br />

• Direct sowing of seeds in <strong>the</strong> field is possible but <strong>the</strong>re is great variation in germination<br />

and seedling survival. If direct sowing is practised, plant two seeds per hole. Planting<br />

distance should be 5x5 m. Two months after emergence of <strong>the</strong> seedlings, remove <strong>the</strong><br />

weaker of <strong>the</strong> two seedlings.<br />

5.3 Vegetative Propagation<br />

See Technical Note 4 in Part II.<br />

5.3.1 Coppicing and Root Suckers<br />

• Use of coppicing and root suckers is suitable where older trees are regenerated to<br />

improve <strong>the</strong>ir fruiting capacity.<br />

• Coppice shoots or re-growth develops from <strong>the</strong> stumps following clear felling. This<br />

species should be cut at a height of 10-20 cm above ground. Coppicing at higher levels<br />

renders <strong>the</strong> shoots more liable to be broken off by wind.<br />

• The cut tree also produces numerous root suckers, which can be used <strong>for</strong> propagation –<br />

see below.<br />

9


5.3.2 Grafting<br />

• Grafting involves <strong>the</strong> union of a shoot, called a “scion”, and a compatible stem or<br />

“rootstock”. Grafting allows <strong>the</strong> selection of a root system which is adapted to specific<br />

site conditions and resistant to pests and diseases, and a highly productive shoot, <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

development of true-to-type clones.<br />

• Wedge grafting is a promising grafting method <strong>for</strong> this species. Whip-and tongue grafting<br />

has also been successful.<br />

You will need <strong>the</strong> following materials and equipment:<br />

Grafting materials<br />

• Clean, sharp knife.<br />

• Polyethylene tape (budding tape) (1.5-2.0 cm wide x 30-40cm long) or strips cut from<br />

polyethylene bags.<br />

• Clear plastic bags large enough to cover <strong>the</strong> top of <strong>the</strong> scion.<br />

• Shoot or bud (Scion).<br />

• Rootstock.<br />

Rootstock preparation<br />

A rootstock is raised from seed.<br />

• The young tree is ready <strong>for</strong> grafting when its diameter is approximately 1 cm (pencil size)<br />

at a height of 40-60 cm.<br />

• Clear <strong>the</strong> stem of <strong>the</strong> rootstock of any soil and debris.<br />

• Cut off <strong>the</strong> top at <strong>the</strong> height of 40-60 cm, retaining two or more leaves below <strong>the</strong> cut.<br />

• Make a downwards cut of about 4-5 cm into <strong>the</strong> top of <strong>the</strong> rootstock, at <strong>the</strong> point of<br />

active growth or where <strong>the</strong> bark separates easily from wood.<br />

Scion collection and preparation<br />

Scions should be collected from <strong>the</strong> previous season’s growth of trees which are mature, having<br />

reached fruit bearing age. In addition, <strong>the</strong> scion material should have <strong>the</strong> following<br />

characteristics:<br />

• 5-15 cm long.<br />

• 1 cm in diameter (pencil size).<br />

• Have one or more buds.<br />

Method:<br />

• Select and cut scion material from <strong>the</strong> tree and <strong>the</strong>n remove <strong>the</strong> leaves and young<br />

growth with a sharp knife.<br />

• It is best to use scions quickly. Over 60-80% rate of success in grafting is obtained with<br />

1-2 day old scions.<br />

• If scions are not used immediately, wrap <strong>the</strong>m in a moist cloth or newspaper and place<br />

in a plastic bag to keep <strong>the</strong>m fresh. They can be kept <strong>for</strong> up to one week in a dark cool<br />

space with approximately 45-50% success rate.<br />

10


• Make two 4-5 cm long cuts with a knife at <strong>the</strong> base of <strong>the</strong> scion on ei<strong>the</strong>r side of <strong>the</strong><br />

twig. Do this by placing <strong>the</strong> knife almost parallel to <strong>the</strong> twig and cut in one stroke<br />

providing a completely level surface. The scion should fit exactly and tightly into <strong>the</strong><br />

notch of <strong>the</strong> rootstock.<br />

• Cut away <strong>the</strong> top of <strong>the</strong> scion afterwards to encourage <strong>the</strong> union, leaving at least one<br />

bud. See Technical Note 4 <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> steps of scion preparation.<br />

The Graft Union<br />

• After preparing <strong>the</strong> rootstock and scion, fit <strong>the</strong> two toge<strong>the</strong>r, so that <strong>the</strong> cut surfaces<br />

have firm contact.<br />

• Tightly bind toge<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong> union with plastic tape to avoid drying out of <strong>the</strong> cut surfaces<br />

which may result in union failure. Ensure that <strong>the</strong> wound is entirely covered.<br />

• Cover <strong>the</strong> top of <strong>the</strong> grafted plant with a clear poly<strong>the</strong>ne bag, to prevent loss of<br />

moisture by transpiration. The bag can be removed after 3-4 weeks. Water regularly.<br />

• Once <strong>the</strong> graft union has healed and fresh growth of leaves has occurred on <strong>the</strong> newly<br />

attached portion, <strong>the</strong> graft is said to be successful. This should take approximately 4-6<br />

months. The tape can <strong>the</strong>n be removed to allow fur<strong>the</strong>r growth of <strong>the</strong> grafted plant.<br />

5.3.3 O<strong>the</strong>r Vegetative Propagation Methods<br />

Propagating monkey orange by airlayering, budding and cuttings has been attempted but <strong>the</strong><br />

results have been disappointing. There are no reports yet on <strong>the</strong> application of tissue culture in<br />

this species.<br />

5.4 Field Establishment<br />

See Technical Note 5 in Part II.<br />

<strong>Monkey</strong> orange can be planted around homesteads or home gardens, on agricultural land and<br />

in orchards. Because of its sharp spines, it can also be planted as a boundary or barrier tree,<br />

preventing animals from entering secluded areas.<br />

5.4.1 Site Preparation<br />

• Clear vegetation from <strong>the</strong> planting site.<br />

• Work <strong>the</strong> soil thoroughly to 20-30 cm depth to break up hard soil clods and permit<br />

aeration.<br />

• Remove herbaceous weeds, especially grasses.<br />

• Mark out <strong>the</strong> land in squares <strong>for</strong> planting.<br />

• Dig planting pits of about 60 cm depth and 60 cm width.<br />

• Spacing of 4x4 m spacing provides 625 trees per hectare, 5x5 m provides 400 trees per<br />

hectare, or 10x10 m provides 100 trees per hectare. The spacing depends upon <strong>the</strong> size<br />

of <strong>the</strong> planting site and whe<strong>the</strong>r or not thinning or intercropping will be carried out.<br />

11


5.4.2 Timing<br />

Prepare <strong>the</strong> site just be<strong>for</strong>e <strong>the</strong> onset of <strong>the</strong> rainy season, according to local conditions, to avoid<br />

destroying <strong>the</strong> soil structure and to minimise <strong>the</strong> need <strong>for</strong> watering after transplanting. Land<br />

preparation should not be done earlier than 1-2 weeks be<strong>for</strong>e planting to avoid weed<br />

encroachment.<br />

5.4.3 Windbreaks<br />

A windbreak protects grafted, coppiced and sprouted plants from wind damage. <strong>Monkey</strong><br />

orange is susceptible to damage by fire, when young. A windbreak can also protect trees from<br />

incidences of fire, and encroachment by weeds which, when dry, can become a fire hazard and<br />

limit light.<br />

5.4.4 Transplanting<br />

Transplant <strong>the</strong> seedlings and vegetatively propagated materials at 6 months of age or when<br />

<strong>the</strong>y are at least 10-20 cm in height if planting seedlings.<br />

When transplanting seedlings or grafted trees, pay attention to <strong>the</strong> following concerns:<br />

• Sufficient rainfall should have fallen over a 24 hour period, to bring <strong>the</strong> soil moisture to<br />

field capacity, when excess water has drained away.<br />

• Plant on cloudy days, in <strong>the</strong> morning or late afternoon to minimise water loss from <strong>the</strong><br />

soil and plants.<br />

• The plants must be watered <strong>the</strong> night be<strong>for</strong>e planting.<br />

• Lift plants carefully without damaging <strong>the</strong>ir root systems. A plastic sheet laid underneath<br />

<strong>the</strong> pots will prevent roots growing into <strong>the</strong> soil below and also reduce water loss.<br />

• Handle and transport plants carefully, holding <strong>the</strong>m by <strong>the</strong> pots, not by <strong>the</strong> shoots. Use<br />

boxes <strong>for</strong> transport, whenever possible.<br />

• Loosen <strong>the</strong> soil of <strong>the</strong> pit base and walls to help <strong>the</strong> development of <strong>the</strong> roots. Remove<br />

<strong>the</strong> plastic container and position <strong>the</strong> plant straight in <strong>the</strong> centre of <strong>the</strong> pit with <strong>the</strong> root<br />

collar at ground level. The root collar is <strong>the</strong> bulging ring of tissue at <strong>the</strong> junction of <strong>the</strong><br />

root and shoot. A stick laid across <strong>the</strong> planting hole can be used to line up <strong>the</strong> root<br />

collar with ground level.<br />

• Fill <strong>the</strong> pit to ground level. Remove stones from <strong>the</strong> soil be<strong>for</strong>e filling. If <strong>the</strong>re is not<br />

sufficient soil to fill <strong>the</strong> pit from digging <strong>the</strong> holes, use additional topsoil. Flatten <strong>the</strong> soil<br />

around <strong>the</strong> tree base to ground level.<br />

• If you plant young trees when <strong>the</strong> soil moisture is at field capacity, <strong>the</strong>re is no need <strong>for</strong><br />

watering. However, if <strong>the</strong> soil is drier, apply 1-2 litres of water at <strong>the</strong> base of each tree,<br />

preferably in <strong>the</strong> late afternoon or early evening twice or three times a week during <strong>the</strong><br />

first weeks.<br />

• <strong>Monkey</strong> orange grows very slowly and even 12 months after planting, no increase in<br />

height may be noticed on some sites.<br />

• Growth is enhanced by <strong>the</strong> symbiotic relationship between <strong>the</strong> plant roots and<br />

mycorrhizal fungi, due to improved uptake of important nutrients, particularly<br />

phosphorus, increased tolerance to drought, pests and diseases. Seedlings raised in <strong>the</strong><br />

12


nursery can make contact with indigenous mycorrhizal fungi at <strong>the</strong> planting site. In order<br />

to promote initial plant growth and development and to reduce <strong>the</strong> transplanting shock,<br />

you can add mycorrhizal fungi, found in soil around parent trees, into <strong>the</strong> pit at planting<br />

time.<br />

5.5 Field Management<br />

See Technical Note 5 in Part II.<br />

5.5.1 Weeding<br />

Weeds compete with monkey orange <strong>for</strong> light, nutrients, water and space. In order to protect<br />

new plants, <strong>the</strong> plantation or orchard must be weeded.<br />

• Weed as necessary, between periods of rainfall.<br />

• Normally, 2-3 spot weedings around each plant after planting may be necessary.<br />

• This weeding may be done once a month <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> first three months.<br />

5.5.2 Irrigation<br />

• Watering depends on rainfall and soil conditions, and growth and fruiting of <strong>the</strong> tree.<br />

• <strong>Monkey</strong> orange may need watering particularly in <strong>the</strong> first weeks after transplanting.<br />

Mature trees usually require no irrigation, unless growth or fruiting is poor.<br />

5.5.3 Fertilising<br />

<strong>Monkey</strong> orange grows and generally produces good crops without fertilizer.<br />

• If necessary to improve production, farmyard manure or organic matter can be applied<br />

at <strong>the</strong> time of planting or annually as top dressing, 2.5 cm (1 inch) thick, 15 cm (6 inches)<br />

from <strong>the</strong> tree trunk out to <strong>the</strong> canopy drip line.<br />

• <strong>Monkey</strong> orange responds well to phosphorus and NPK-fertiliser applications but <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

costs may not be covered by increased sales.<br />

• Phosphorus fertiliser can be given as basal dressing at <strong>the</strong> rate of 100-150 g per tree after<br />

planting, in <strong>the</strong> <strong>for</strong>m of super phosphate (guidance on quantities should be given by <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>extension</strong> officer).<br />

• NPK- fertiliser, such as Nitrosol (NPK 8-3-6) is applied at <strong>the</strong> rate of 20-30 g per tree as<br />

top dressing.<br />

• When applying inorganic fertilisers, follow <strong>the</strong> instructions given on <strong>the</strong> label to prevent<br />

nutrient toxicity.<br />

5.5.4 Pruning<br />

<strong>Monkey</strong> orange needs pruning of <strong>the</strong> drooping lower branches to allow better access under <strong>the</strong><br />

tree to collect <strong>the</strong> fruits and to maintain vigour, productivity and quality of <strong>the</strong> fruits.<br />

• Prune only branches which are not carrying any fruits and flowers.<br />

13


• Remove weak, diseased and dead branches, which promote <strong>the</strong> spread of diseases.<br />

• Pruning in <strong>the</strong> dormant period will encourage new growth when <strong>the</strong> rains arrive. Light<br />

pruning during <strong>the</strong> growing period will moderate vigorous growth.<br />

5.5.5 Stand Density - Thinning<br />

• Closely planted trees need to be thinned to create space, to reduce competition between<br />

<strong>the</strong>m <strong>for</strong> resources.<br />

• Plan a thinning regime be<strong>for</strong>e planting, when deciding on <strong>the</strong> spacing between plants.<br />

• Thinning is carried out in <strong>the</strong> second or third year after transplanting.<br />

• Depending on <strong>the</strong> intensity of management and <strong>the</strong> preferable size of <strong>the</strong> canopy at<br />

maturity, thin from <strong>the</strong> original spacing of 5x5 m to 10x5 m or 10x10 m. The intensity of<br />

management includes practices such as application of fertilisers (see section 5.5.3) and<br />

pruning (see section 5.5.4).<br />

5.5.6 Intercropping and Soil Conservation<br />

Intercropping controls <strong>the</strong> weeds, it keeps <strong>the</strong> soil loose <strong>for</strong> proper soil aeration and may<br />

reduce soil erosion.<br />

• If you intend to intercrop monkey orange with o<strong>the</strong>r crops, include this in <strong>the</strong><br />

establishment plans.<br />

• If intercropping is to be done immediately after planting <strong>the</strong> trees, plant at wide spacing<br />

(10x10 m).<br />

• If you plan to intercrop later, space between trees can be created through thinning.<br />

However, <strong>the</strong> field has to be weeded be<strong>for</strong>e planting <strong>the</strong> intercrop.<br />

• Choice of suitable crops depends on <strong>the</strong> area, soil type and climate, and includes maize,<br />

sorghum, millet, sweet potatoes, and melon.<br />

5.5.7 Protection from Pests and Diseases<br />

No serious pests and diseases o<strong>the</strong>r than at germination have been reported in <strong>the</strong> species. Pests<br />

and diseases of minor importance include powdery mildew and termites.<br />

Powdery mildew<br />

• Powdery mildew attacks monkey orange fruits and seeds during storage. The fungi<br />

attack <strong>the</strong> outer skin of <strong>the</strong> fruit and seed, but do not penetrate <strong>the</strong> hard fruit shell or<br />

seed coat.<br />

• Powdery mildew can spread very quickly especially in closely packed fruits and seeds.<br />

• Protect seeds by drying <strong>the</strong>m to low moisture content (less than 10% of fresh weight,<br />

determined by weighing <strong>the</strong>m be<strong>for</strong>e and after drying). Protect <strong>the</strong> fruits by air drying<br />

<strong>the</strong>m thoroughly and using <strong>the</strong>m immediately without over storage.<br />

• Only if <strong>the</strong>re is a serious attack of mildew, is chemical control justified. The following<br />

products can be used:<br />

14


o Thiram.<br />

o Benomyl (trade name Benlate).<br />

o Captan – an older, less effective product.<br />

• Follow <strong>the</strong> instructions on <strong>the</strong> container. See Appendix 3 <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> correct use of pesticides<br />

and environmental impact. Note: At concentrations higher than recommended, <strong>the</strong><br />

chemicals may also be toxic to plants.<br />

Termites<br />

• Termites can be found on young or old plants, or when trees are in poor condition.<br />

Remove weak, diseased and dead branches regularly (see also chapter 5.5.4).<br />

• Usually, <strong>the</strong> insects attack dead bark and do not penetrate <strong>the</strong> live stem, so do not cause<br />

much damage.<br />

Fur<strong>the</strong>r in<strong>for</strong>mation on pests and diseases, along with possible methods of control, are<br />

mentioned in Appendix 2.<br />

6 HOW TO HARVEST THE MONKEY ORANGE TREE<br />

6.1 Ripeness and Yield<br />

See Technical Note 7 in Part II.<br />

• <strong>Monkey</strong> orange produces <strong>the</strong> first fruits 4-5 years following planting, whichever method<br />

of propagation is used.<br />

• Fruits ripen from June to December.<br />

• Fruits have a hard woody shell, which is dark green, speckled or mottled green when<br />

unripe, turning yellow or orange when mature. At maturity, <strong>the</strong> fruit is 6-12 cm in<br />

diameter, depending on soil type, climatic and o<strong>the</strong>r conditions on <strong>the</strong> site.<br />

• The total yield produced per tree depends mainly on <strong>the</strong> genotype. If <strong>the</strong> site conditions<br />

are favourable, a single tree may produce 300-700 fruits in a season, or 40-100 kg in<br />

terms of fruit weight.<br />

6.2 Harvesting Techniques<br />

There are several methods of harvesting fruits:<br />

• You can pick fruits from <strong>the</strong> tree when fully developed but still green and unripe. Bury<br />

fruits in <strong>the</strong> sand <strong>for</strong> several months to ripen slowly, as practised by bushmen in<br />

Botswana. This prevents competition from o<strong>the</strong>r fruit hunters including monkeys and<br />

o<strong>the</strong>r animals.<br />

• You can pick fruits from <strong>the</strong> tree after ripening on <strong>the</strong> canopy, <strong>for</strong> direct consumption or<br />

fur<strong>the</strong>r processing.<br />

• You can collect fruits from <strong>the</strong> ground after <strong>the</strong>y have dropped on <strong>the</strong>ir own. This is<br />

least recommended because <strong>the</strong>y may be damaged or bruised.<br />

15


7 POST-HARVEST HANDLING AND PROCESSING<br />

7.1 Post-harvest Handling<br />

See Technical Note 7 in Part II.<br />

<strong>Monkey</strong> orange fruits are very easily bruised and should <strong>the</strong>re<strong>for</strong>e be handled very carefully.<br />

• Remove unripe and damaged fruits immediately to prevent spoiling of <strong>the</strong> crop.<br />

• The remaining fruits may be graded according to <strong>the</strong>ir size.<br />

• Wash <strong>the</strong> fruits to remove debris or pesticides.<br />

• Fruits can be used immediately <strong>for</strong> direct consumption or fur<strong>the</strong>r processing or can be<br />

stored <strong>for</strong> later use.<br />

• If <strong>the</strong>y are to be stored, first air-dry <strong>the</strong>m thoroughly to prevent surface infection by<br />

powdery mildew and to extend <strong>the</strong> shelf-life.<br />

• Store fruits in gunny bags, grain bags, cloth packs or boxes. Kept under dry conditions at<br />

room temperature (25-30°C), monkey oranges can be stored <strong>for</strong> 2-3 weeks due to <strong>the</strong><br />

hard fruit shell. However, 25 to 50% of fruits can be lost in <strong>the</strong> field or during storage if<br />

not kept under shelter.<br />

• The fruits of monkey orange could be consumed throughout <strong>the</strong> year, but, at present,<br />

<strong>the</strong>y are only consumed during <strong>the</strong> period of 3-4 months of harvest.<br />

7.2 Processing and Packaging<br />

Processing of raw materials from monkey orange can add value. However, so far, mainly <strong>the</strong><br />

fruit pulp is processed into jam, jelly and juice and bottled <strong>for</strong> sale.<br />

• Jam made from monkey oranges has a long shelf-life of up to several months and it is<br />

preferred to jams from o<strong>the</strong>r indigenous fruits.<br />

• Pulp is used to prepare alcoholic drinks in Tanzania and Malawi. Pulp may also be dried<br />

<strong>for</strong> later use, but this method has still to be explored (Phytotrade, 2003).<br />

• O<strong>the</strong>r raw materials of monkey orange are ei<strong>the</strong>r used in <strong>the</strong>ir raw <strong>for</strong>m or are semiprocessed<br />

(see Appendix 1).<br />

• Currently, fruits from monkey orange are rarely processed because of <strong>the</strong><br />

o High price <strong>the</strong> fresh fruits can get on <strong>the</strong> market.<br />

o Lack of capital <strong>for</strong> investment.<br />

o Lack of improved processing techniques.<br />

o Lack of availability of skilled manpower and management expertise.<br />

16


8 MARKETING<br />

8.1 Marketing Potential<br />

See Technical Note 10 in Part II.<br />

Currently, <strong>the</strong> fruits of monkey orange are harvested from farmers’ fields, homestead gardens or<br />

<strong>the</strong>y are collected from natural <strong>for</strong>ests. They are mainly used <strong>for</strong> domestic consumption, leaving<br />

very little <strong>for</strong> sale. This small volume of fruit is mainly sold along <strong>the</strong> roadsides or in local and<br />

urban markets. In Malawi, only about 20% of <strong>the</strong> fruits are sold directly to <strong>the</strong> end-consumer.<br />

The remaining 80% is sold to traders who demand a high mark-up, when reselling <strong>the</strong> fruits to<br />

consumers.<br />

• Farmers and collectors face several problems when marketing fruits from monkey<br />

orange:<br />

o Proximity of markets; transportation represents <strong>the</strong> main marketing cost. The means<br />

of transport used to move <strong>the</strong> fruits from <strong>the</strong> fruit collection points to <strong>the</strong> market<br />

place are headloads, bicycles, oxcarts and public or hired vehicles.<br />

o Uncertainty of <strong>the</strong> price of <strong>the</strong> fruit once it reaches <strong>the</strong> market (see section 8.2).<br />

o Consumer perception; urban populations may prefer not to eat wild fruits. Rural<br />

populations often regard monkey oranges as children’s food or food to be eaten<br />

only in times of famine. However, perception may change. In Gaborone, Botswana,<br />

where <strong>the</strong>re is now a market <strong>for</strong> monkey orange fruits but 20 years ago <strong>the</strong>re was no<br />

demand.<br />

• <strong>Monkey</strong> orange fruits would be suitable <strong>for</strong> export, even over long distances, because of<br />

<strong>the</strong> protection provided by <strong>the</strong> hard shell, which allows <strong>the</strong>m to be stored <strong>for</strong> a<br />

considerably long period of time under ambient temperatures be<strong>for</strong>e <strong>the</strong>y spoil.<br />

However, transport costs may be high because of size and weight of <strong>the</strong> fruit.<br />

• Development of cottage industries is <strong>the</strong> first step in encouraging <strong>the</strong> processing and<br />

marketing of <strong>the</strong> species.<br />

• Expand <strong>the</strong> market base of <strong>the</strong> products by product promotion and encourage fur<strong>the</strong>r<br />

growth of <strong>the</strong> processing industries, as profits begin to accrue.<br />

• If desired to increase consumption and overall market base, high priority has to be given<br />

to policy changes and encourage awareness campaigns.<br />

8.2 Pricing<br />

• Prices vary considerably, depending on <strong>the</strong> season. In general, fresh monkey oranges can<br />

fetch high prices, so that <strong>the</strong>y are ra<strong>the</strong>r sold directly instead of using <strong>the</strong>m <strong>for</strong> fur<strong>the</strong>r<br />

processing.<br />

• In Zimbabwe, selling prices between US$0.31 and US$0.63 per fruit were observed<br />

(Dzingai and group, 1998).<br />

• Fruits from Zimbabwe are fur<strong>the</strong>r exported to Botswana where <strong>the</strong>y are sold <strong>for</strong><br />

US$0.45 each.<br />

17


See Technical Note 10 in Part II.<br />

9 SOCIO-ECONOMICS<br />

• The costs and benefits involved in <strong>the</strong> utilisation of monkey orange fruit depend on<br />

whe<strong>the</strong>r or not <strong>the</strong> species is exploited where it is growing or elsewhere.<br />

If fruits are collected from natural <strong>for</strong>ests, <strong>the</strong> major costs involve:<br />

• Transport to collect fruits and delivery to <strong>the</strong> market or processing plant.<br />

Generally, exploitation of orchard plantations requires ra<strong>the</strong>r large investment involving costs<br />

<strong>for</strong>:<br />

• Nursery establishment and management or purchasing of planting material.<br />

• Orchard establishment and maintenance.<br />

• Transport costs may be lower than <strong>for</strong>est exploitation.<br />

However, if fruits are used <strong>for</strong> fur<strong>the</strong>r processing, costs <strong>for</strong> grading, cleaning, processing,<br />

packaging and storing have to be taken into account in both cases.<br />

• Plantations may be established while fruits are collected from natural neighbouring<br />

<strong>for</strong>ests. Combining exploitation strategies covers costs <strong>for</strong> planting, tending, protection<br />

and waiting <strong>for</strong> trees to start bearing fruits during <strong>the</strong> long juvenile period.<br />

18


APPENDIX 1. MULTIPLE USES OF THE MONKEY ORANGE TREE<br />

Leaves<br />

Fruit and pulp<br />

Bark<br />

Wood<br />

Root<br />

• Fresh leaves are used to prepare a porridge <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> treatment of<br />

wounds to prevent infection and promote healing. They are<br />

pounded into a paste, mixed with water, heated and simmered.<br />

• Fresh leaves are crushed and soaked in water. The drained liquid<br />

is used <strong>for</strong> spraying vegetables to repel insects.<br />

• The pulp of ripe fruits is eaten fresh.<br />

• The pulp of ripe fruits is used to prepare jam, jelly, juice and<br />

alcoholic beverages.<br />

• The pulp of ripe fruits, mixed with sugar or honey is used to treat<br />

coughing and in <strong>the</strong> preparation of eardrops.<br />

• Green, unripe fruits are mashed, mixed with water, soaked and<br />

drunk to induce vomiting.<br />

• Unripe fruits are used to prepare a powder which is mixed with<br />

milk and drunk as a purgative (Zambia).<br />

• The fruit pulp is used <strong>for</strong> soap making<br />

• The hard outer shell of <strong>the</strong> fruit is used is used <strong>for</strong> making art<br />

objects and traditional percussion music instruments.<br />

• A toxic dye extracted from <strong>the</strong> fruit shell is used to colour trays<br />

and containers to protect <strong>the</strong>m against insects.<br />

• A decoction from <strong>the</strong> middle part of <strong>the</strong> bark is used <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

treatment of stomach pains.<br />

• It is used as firewood.<br />

• It is used in local construction.<br />

• It is used in making building materials, tool handles, stirring sticks<br />

and spoons.<br />

• Boiled roots are used by women to reduce <strong>the</strong> length and severity<br />

of heavy menstrual flows.<br />

• Boiled roots are used to stop diarrhoea.<br />

• Roots are chewed to alleviate eczema and as a cure <strong>for</strong><br />

gonorrhoea.<br />

• Roots are used to treat sexually transmitted infections.<br />

19


APPENDIX 2. MAJOR PESTS AND DISEASES OF THE MONKEY<br />

ORANGE TREE<br />

COMMON<br />

NAME<br />

SCIENTIFIC NAME<br />

NATURE OF<br />

ATTACK<br />

BIO-CONTROL<br />

OTHER<br />

CONTROLS<br />

Termites<br />

A range of genera<br />

in <strong>the</strong> order<br />

Isoptera<br />

Feed on dead<br />

bark.<br />

Remove<br />

regularly weak,<br />

diseased and<br />

dead branches.<br />

Termiticides,<br />

e.g. Permethrin,<br />

are available<br />

but not<br />

recommended.<br />

Powdery<br />

mildew<br />

Of <strong>the</strong> genera<br />

Erisiphe,<br />

Spaero<strong>the</strong>ca,<br />

Uncinula,<br />

Phyllactinia,or<br />

Leveillula<br />

Attacks <strong>the</strong> outer<br />

skin of <strong>the</strong> fruit<br />

and seed.<br />

No known biocontrols.<br />

Air-dry fruits<br />

thoroughly<br />

be<strong>for</strong>e storing.<br />

Dry seeds to a<br />

moisture<br />

content of less<br />

than 10%<br />

be<strong>for</strong>e storing.<br />

Standard<br />

fungicides can<br />

be used e.g.<br />

Benlate and<br />

Thiram.<br />

20


APPENDIX 3. HEALTH AND SAFETY WHEN USING CHEMICALS<br />

In general, <strong>the</strong> use of chemicals should be minimised. Where <strong>the</strong>ir use is necessary <strong>the</strong> rules in<br />

<strong>the</strong> box below should be followed.<br />

Rules to follow when using chemicals:<br />

• Do not splash chemicals in <strong>the</strong> eyes, on skin or clo<strong>the</strong>s.<br />

• Do not drink or brea<strong>the</strong> in <strong>the</strong> vapours.<br />

• Do not eat while preparing and applying chemicals.<br />

• Wash hands thoroughly after use.<br />

• Wear protective clothing where available (gloves, overalls, rubber boots, etc.).<br />

• Store chemicals always in <strong>the</strong>ir original containers and keep <strong>the</strong>m away from water<br />

and fire.<br />

• Keep chemicals away from children.<br />

The following chemicals are examples of those that can be used <strong>for</strong> control of powdery mildew<br />

on monkey orange and <strong>the</strong> relevant health and safety advice <strong>for</strong> each. For a complete list of<br />

chemical controls and precautions <strong>for</strong> use, please check with your local <strong>extension</strong> or agricultural<br />

office.<br />

THIRAM<br />

Active ingredients: Thiram<br />

Handling and storage: Users should be careful not to ingest and inhale <strong>the</strong> chemical and always<br />

wash <strong>the</strong>ir hands thoroughly after use. Acute exposure may cause headaches, dizziness, fatigue,<br />

nausea, diarrhoea and o<strong>the</strong>r gastrointestinal complaints. It should be stored in an airtight<br />

container and kept away from water or fire.<br />

Environmental impact: Non-toxic to birds and bees, but highly toxic to fish.<br />

BENLATE<br />

Active ingredients: Benomyl<br />

Handling and storage: Users should wear protective clothing and avoid contact with <strong>the</strong> skin<br />

and eyes. The chemical may irritate <strong>the</strong> eyes, nose throat and skin. It should be stored in an<br />

airtight container and kept away from water or fire.<br />

Environmental impact: relatively non-hazardous to honey bees, but toxic to fish.<br />

21


GLOSSARY<br />

Agro<strong>for</strong>estry -<br />

Airlayering -<br />

Brix -<br />

Bud -<br />

Budding -<br />

Coppice -<br />

Cutting -<br />

Dormancy -<br />

Epicormic -<br />

Field Capacity -<br />

Fungicide -<br />

Genotype -<br />

Germplasm -<br />

Grafting -<br />

Indigenous -<br />

Intercropping -<br />

Mark-up -<br />

Mycorrhiza -<br />

Nursery -<br />

pH -<br />

Phenotype -<br />

Propagation -<br />

Propagule -<br />

a land-use system in which woody perennials are used on <strong>the</strong> same<br />

land management unit as agricultural crops, animals or both, ei<strong>the</strong>r in<br />

some <strong>for</strong>m of spatial arrangement or temporal sequence.<br />

a method of propagation where a cut is made in a woody stem and<br />

surrounded by damp soil or peat moss and held in place with a wrap<br />

(plastic). When roots from <strong>the</strong> plant can be seen <strong>the</strong> stem can be cut and<br />

<strong>the</strong> plant transplanted.<br />

measurement of sugar content. A 1% sugar solution is a solution of<br />

1ºBrix.<br />

a protuberance on <strong>the</strong> stem of a plant that may develop into a flower,<br />

leaf, or shoot.<br />

a type of propagation in which a bud is inserted underneath <strong>the</strong> bark of<br />

a related plant.<br />

<strong>the</strong> tendency of certain tree species to produce a large number of shoots<br />

when a single or few stems are mechanically removed but <strong>the</strong> root<br />

system left intact.<br />

a section of a plant that is cut off and rooted to create a new plant.<br />

temporary stopping of growth.<br />

a shoot that arises from latent or adventitious buds; also know as water<br />

sprouts that occur on stems and branches and suckers that are produced<br />

from <strong>the</strong> base of trees. Epicormic shoots often result from severe<br />

defoliation or radical pruning.<br />

amount of water remaining in a soil after being saturated with water and<br />

after free drainage is negligible.<br />

a substance or chemical that kills fungi.<br />

<strong>the</strong> internally coded, inheritable in<strong>for</strong>mation carried by all living<br />

organisms.<br />

<strong>the</strong> total genetic variability, represented by germ cells or seeds, available<br />

to a particular population of organisms.<br />

method of propagation, by inserting a section of one plant, usually a<br />

shoot, into ano<strong>the</strong>r so that <strong>the</strong>y grow toge<strong>the</strong>r into a single plant.<br />

native; originating or occurring naturally in <strong>the</strong> place specified.<br />

growing two or more crops simultaneously on <strong>the</strong> same field.<br />

<strong>the</strong> amount that is added to <strong>the</strong> cost price to achieve <strong>the</strong> required selling<br />

price.<br />

a symbiotic relationship between beneficial fungi and plants. Mycorrhizal<br />

fungi live in and around <strong>the</strong> roots of some plant species. In exchange <strong>for</strong><br />

sugars and simple carbohydrates, <strong>the</strong> mycorrhizal fungi absorb and pass<br />

on minerals and moisture required <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> plant's growth.<br />

an area or structure set aside <strong>for</strong> growth and protection of young plants.<br />

scale <strong>for</strong> measuring acidity.<br />

<strong>the</strong> physical characteristics of an organism; <strong>the</strong> product of interaction<br />

between genotype and environment.<br />

to produce a new plant, ei<strong>the</strong>r by vegetative means involving <strong>the</strong><br />

rooting or grafting of pieces of <strong>the</strong> plant or by sowing seeds.<br />

any structure having <strong>the</strong> capacity to give rise to a new plant, whe<strong>the</strong>r<br />

through sexual or vegetative reproduction. This includes seeds, spores<br />

and any part of <strong>the</strong> vegetative body capable of independent growth if<br />

detached from <strong>the</strong> parent.<br />

22


Pruning -<br />

Purgative -<br />

Rootstock -<br />

Scion -<br />

Symbiosis -<br />

Tissue culture -<br />

Topography -<br />

Turnover -<br />

removal of live or dead branches from standing trees.<br />

stimulating <strong>the</strong> evacuation of <strong>the</strong> bowels.<br />

<strong>the</strong> root system and lower portion of a woody plant to which a graft of<br />

a more desirable plant is attached.<br />

a cutting from <strong>the</strong> upper portion of a plant, which is <strong>the</strong>n grafted onto<br />

<strong>the</strong> rootstock of ano<strong>the</strong>r plant.<br />

a mutually beneficial relationship between two living organisms of<br />

different species living closely toge<strong>the</strong>r.<br />

a technique in which portions of a plant or animal are grown on an<br />

artificial culture medium (also: in vitro culture).<br />

physical features, such as hills, valleys, and plains that shape <strong>the</strong> surface of<br />

<strong>the</strong> earth.<br />

<strong>the</strong> total amount of income received by a business during a specified<br />

period (usually a year).<br />

REFERENCES<br />

Arnold, T.H., Wells, M.J. and Wehmeyer, A.S. (1985). Khoison Food Plants: Taxa with<br />

potential <strong>for</strong> future economic exploitation. In: Wickens G. E., Goodin, J. R. and Field, D. V.<br />

(Eds). Plants <strong>for</strong> arid lands. London. Allen and Unwin. Pp69-86.<br />

Dzingai, R., Kadzere, I., Marunda, C., Nyoka, I. and Kuwaza, C. (1998). Identification of<br />

priority indigenous fruits <strong>for</strong> domestication by farmers in Zimbabwe. In: Maghembe, J. A.,<br />

Simons, A. J.; Kwesiga, F. and Rarieya, M. (Eds). Selecting indigenous trees <strong>for</strong> domestication in<br />

Sou<strong>the</strong>rn Africa. ICRAF, Nairobi. pp. 72 – 94.<br />

ILO (1990) Tree Nurseries. An illustrated technical guide and training <strong>manual</strong>. Booklet No. 6.<br />

International Labour Office (ILO), Geneva, Switzerland.<br />

Mwamba, C. (2006) <strong>Monkey</strong> <strong>Orange</strong> Strychnos cocculoides. SCUC, Southampton, UK.<br />

Phytotrade (2003) info@phytotradeafrica.com<br />

23


Why Grow <strong>the</strong> <strong>Monkey</strong> <strong>Orange</strong> Tree?<br />

The monkey orange tree is a multipurpose tree. It is a source of food, timber,<br />

firewood, medicinal extracts and o<strong>the</strong>r components and it can give a potential<br />

economic return to rural people.<br />

1. For Nutritious Food<br />

The pulp is rich in sugars, essential vitamins, minerals,<br />

oils and crude proteins.<br />

Eat <strong>the</strong> pulp of ripe fruits.<br />

Use <strong>the</strong> pulp to make jam, juice and wines.<br />

Green unripe monkey orange fruits<br />

Don’t eat green unripe fruits -<br />

<strong>the</strong>y might be toxic!<br />

Ripe monkey orange fruits<br />

B<br />

E<br />

N<br />

E<br />

F<br />

I<br />

T<br />

S<br />

2. For Income<br />

One fruit can fetch an average price of up to US$0.45 !<br />

Processing adds value to <strong>the</strong> fruit to earn more money.<br />

3. For Medicinal Uses<br />

You can use nearly all <strong>the</strong> parts of <strong>the</strong> tree <strong>for</strong> medicinal purposes:<br />

Unripe fruits: use to induce vomiting.<br />

Pulp of ripe fruits: mix with honey or sugar to treat coughing.<br />

Leaves: pound into a paste and use to treat sores.<br />

Bark: cook in water and drink to cure stomach pains.<br />

Roots: chew to treat eczema and gonorrhoea.<br />

1a<br />

© 2005 International Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong>, UK


4. Fuel and Timber<br />

You can use <strong>the</strong> wood <strong>for</strong>:<br />

Firewood;<br />

Building material;<br />

Making tool handles, stirring sticks and spoons.<br />

5. Cultural Value<br />

You can use <strong>the</strong> hard outer shell of <strong>the</strong> fruit to make art objects and<br />

musical instruments.<br />

6. More Uses<br />

Use <strong>the</strong> pulp to make soap.<br />

Use <strong>the</strong> fruit shell to make a dye<br />

<strong>for</strong> containers, which protects<br />

against insects.<br />

Crush fresh leaves and soak <strong>the</strong>m<br />

in water. Use <strong>the</strong> drained liquid<br />

<strong>for</strong> spraying vegetables to repel<br />

insects.<br />

7. Ecological and Environmental Value<br />

The tree is adapted to harsh environmental conditions and can survive droughts.<br />

The tree regenerates easily after fires, because <strong>the</strong> woody fruits survive bushfires.<br />

The tree improves soil fertility and structure.<br />

The tree reduces weed growth and soil erosion.<br />

1b<br />

© 2005 International Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong>, UK


How to Grow <strong>the</strong> <strong>Monkey</strong> <strong>Orange</strong> Tree?<br />

- Growing Seedlings and Young Trees<br />

1. Collecting planting material<br />

Trees should be vigorous.<br />

Trees should be free from pests and diseases.<br />

Trees should produce at least 300-400 fruits per season.<br />

Low variation in seasonal fruit production.<br />

>10 cm<br />

Fruits at least 10 cm across and of uni<strong>for</strong>m size.<br />

Fruits should be sweet and juicy.<br />

Seeds should be small in proportion to <strong>the</strong> flesh.<br />

2. Propagating<br />

By seed (see Technical Note 3) Vegetatively (see Technical Note 4)<br />

Y<br />

O<br />

U<br />

N<br />

G<br />

T<br />

R<br />

E<br />

E<br />

S<br />

3. Collecting potting soil<br />

not too sandy.<br />

not too much clay (Rub moist soil<br />

between thumb and index finger. It<br />

should have <strong>the</strong> consistency of flour,<br />

not sticky or shiny.)<br />

Sand soil<br />

Clay soil<br />

should not contain any rocks.<br />

Soil containing stones<br />

2a<br />

© 2005 International Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong>, UK


4. Symbiotic Associations<br />

Trees may fail to grow in areas where <strong>the</strong>y<br />

have never grown be<strong>for</strong>e due to lack of<br />

beneficial fungi (mycorrhizae). Take <strong>the</strong>se<br />

fungi from soils beneath parent trees and<br />

inoculate seedlings to improve <strong>the</strong>ir initial<br />

growth.<br />

Take soil from beneath monkey orange trees and mix with<br />

potting soil<br />

5. Growing young trees<br />

You need a supply<br />

of water.<br />

Set up seed- and pot-beds as follows:<br />

Path<br />

Earth mound<br />

60 cm 100 cm<br />

Raised seedbeds<br />

1 m wide and 5-10 m long,<br />

paths between <strong>the</strong> beds 60 cm<br />

wide.<br />

Seedbeds:<br />

raised above ground level,<br />

flat surface,<br />

low earth mound around <strong>the</strong><br />

edge.<br />

Potbeds:<br />

level with <strong>the</strong> ground, sunken<br />

or, raised in areas with risk of<br />

waterlogging.<br />

Build frames to keep pots in<br />

an upright position.<br />

Sunken potbeds<br />

Raised potbeds<br />

Build a frame from reeds, bamboo or<br />

wood.<br />

Use shading net or grass <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> roof,<br />

allowing about 30% sunlight to pass<br />

through.<br />

<br />

Good shading<br />

Pots under shade-net<br />

Young plants must be kept free from<br />

weeds throughout <strong>the</strong> year!<br />

Poor shading<br />

2b<br />

Weeding<br />

© 2005 International Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong>, UK


How to grow <strong>the</strong> <strong>Monkey</strong> <strong>Orange</strong> Tree<br />

- Propagation by Seed -<br />

1. Seed Collection and Handling<br />

Collect fruits only from selected trees (see Technical<br />

Note 2a).<br />

The tree starts to produce fruits between 4 and<br />

6 years of age.<br />

Collect mature fruits <strong>for</strong> seed collection June<br />

to December, about 8 to 12 months after pollination.<br />

July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec<br />

Pollination<br />

Picking of fruits<br />

Crack fruits by hitting <strong>the</strong>m with a<br />

stick or using a gentle tap on a<br />

stone.<br />

<br />

Do not use small seeds <strong>for</strong> propagation<br />

Collecting fruits from <strong>the</strong><br />

ground<br />

© 2005 International Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong>, UK<br />

Seeds from monkey orange fruits<br />

Seed collection<br />

Pick <strong>the</strong> light green or yellow mature<br />

fruits from <strong>the</strong> tree, or collect<br />

<strong>the</strong>m after <strong>the</strong>y have dropped on<br />

<strong>the</strong> ground.<br />

Cracking fruits<br />

Separate seeds from <strong>the</strong> pulp and throw<br />

away immature and very small seeds:<br />

• The fruits contain usually 25 to 30 pale<br />

seeds.<br />

• The largest fruits usually contain <strong>the</strong><br />

largest seeds.<br />

• Seeds in <strong>the</strong> middle of <strong>the</strong> fruit are<br />

larger than those at <strong>the</strong> edges.<br />

S<br />

E<br />

E<br />

D<br />

P<br />

R<br />

O<br />

P<br />

A<br />

G<br />

A<br />

T<br />

I<br />

O<br />

N<br />

3a


Clean seeds by scraping <strong>the</strong>m over a wire<br />

mesh with sand and dry <strong>the</strong>m <strong>for</strong> storage.<br />

Cleaning seeds<br />

Drying seeds<br />

Airtight<br />

bottle<br />

Cotton<br />

sack<br />

Store seeds under dry conditions at room temperature<br />

(23-28°C), not longer than 8 - 12 months.<br />

Storage of seeds<br />

2. Seed Treatment and Germination<br />

Seeds have hard coats. It<br />

may help to soak <strong>the</strong>m in<br />

hot water <strong>for</strong> 24-48 hours<br />

be<strong>for</strong>e sowing.<br />

Boil water<br />

Take off fire and immerse<br />

seed <strong>for</strong> 1-2 days<br />

Rinse<br />

2-3 cm<br />

3. Sowing<br />

Sow seeds 2-3 cm deep in seedbeds<br />

or pots (see Technical Note 2).<br />

Sowing depth<br />

2x/day<br />

1x/day<br />

Water plants twice a day <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> first<br />

weeks and later once a day in <strong>the</strong><br />

evening.<br />

First weeks after germination<br />

Later<br />

Shade seedlings <strong>for</strong> 7 days after germination,<br />

<strong>the</strong>n partial shade <strong>for</strong> 5-6<br />

days. Allow full light after 14 days.<br />

Full shade <strong>for</strong> 7 days and <strong>the</strong>n partial shade <strong>for</strong> 5-6 days<br />

You can also sow directly in <strong>the</strong><br />

field, planting two seeds per hole.<br />

Planting distance should be 5 m<br />

apart (see Technical Note 5). Remove<br />

<strong>the</strong> weaker of <strong>the</strong> two seedlings<br />

two months after emergence.<br />

3b<br />

2 seeds/hole<br />

Remove weaker seedling 2<br />

months after emergence<br />

© 2005 International Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong>, UK


How to grow <strong>the</strong> <strong>Monkey</strong> <strong>Orange</strong> Tree<br />

- Vegetative Propagation -<br />

1. Grafting<br />

Wedge grafting is <strong>the</strong> most appropriate way to<br />

propagate <strong>the</strong> monkey orange tree.<br />

You will need:<br />

Shoot (scion) from a superior phenotype:<br />

5-15 cm long,<br />

1 cm thick (pencil size - same as rootstock),<br />

one or more buds.<br />

Rootstock grown from seed of a<br />

desirable plant:<br />

diameter at 40-60 cm height - 1 cm (pencil<br />

size).<br />

Clean sharp budding knife.<br />

Polyethylene tape (1.5-2.0 cm wide and<br />

30-40 cm long) or strips of poly<strong>the</strong>ne.<br />

Clear plastic bags.<br />

40-60 cm<br />

Cut off top at <strong>the</strong> height of 40-60 cm<br />

4-5 cm<br />

Make a cut of 4-5 cm<br />

length<br />

Rootstock prepared<br />

<strong>for</strong> grafting<br />

2. Rootstock Preparation<br />

1. Clear <strong>the</strong> stem of soil and debris.<br />

2. Cut off <strong>the</strong> top at <strong>the</strong> height of 40-60 cm<br />

retaining two or more leaves below <strong>the</strong> cut.<br />

3. Make a slit with a cut of 4-5 cm<br />

length.<br />

© 2005 International Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong>, UK<br />

1 cm 1 cm<br />

5-15 cm long scion with <strong>the</strong> diameter of a pencil<br />

Seedling ready <strong>for</strong><br />

grafting<br />

5-15 cm<br />

80-100 cm height<br />

Diameter should be<br />

pencil size at this height<br />

40-60 cm<br />

Knife Tape Clear plastic<br />

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3. Scion Preparation<br />

1. Place <strong>the</strong> blade of <strong>the</strong> knife almost parallel<br />

to <strong>the</strong> twig to make a level surface of<br />

about 4-5 cm length with one gently<br />

pulling cut. Make two cuts like this at <strong>the</strong><br />

base of <strong>the</strong> scion to fit to <strong>the</strong> rootstock.<br />

Cutting scion at <strong>the</strong> base with one stroke to fit to <strong>the</strong><br />

rootstock<br />

2. Cut off <strong>the</strong> top of <strong>the</strong> scion. At least one<br />

bud should remain.<br />

Growing<br />

zone<br />

4-5 cm<br />

Cutting off <strong>the</strong> top of <strong>the</strong> scion leaving<br />

at least one bud<br />

4. The Graft Union<br />

1. Match <strong>the</strong> cut surfaces of scion and rootstock to one ano<strong>the</strong>r.<br />

Make sure that both growing zones have firm contact.<br />

Matching surfaces of<br />

scion and rootstock<br />

2. Bind scion and rootstock toge<strong>the</strong>r with tape. Take<br />

care not to change <strong>the</strong> position of <strong>the</strong> surfaces.<br />

Scion and rootstock are tied toge<strong>the</strong>r<br />

3. Cover <strong>the</strong> grafted plant with a poly<strong>the</strong>ne bag to prevent<br />

transpiration and loss of moisture.<br />

4. Water plants regularly.<br />

5. Remove bag after 3 to 4 weeks.<br />

Covering grafted<br />

plant with clear<br />

plastic bag<br />

Water plants regularly<br />

6. Remove <strong>the</strong> tape after 4 to 6 months when <strong>the</strong> union has<br />

healed and <strong>the</strong>re is fresh growth on <strong>the</strong> scion.<br />

4b<br />

© 2005 International Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong>, UK<br />

Grafted monkey orange plant<br />

ready <strong>for</strong> transplanting


Where to grow <strong>the</strong> <strong>Monkey</strong> <strong>Orange</strong> Tree<br />

- Field Establishment -<br />

1. Site Characteristics<br />

The tree needs light.<br />

It grows on a wide range of soils.<br />

Plant on relatively flat ground or gentle slopes with<br />

freely drained soil. A south-east aspect.<br />

Don’t plant on hilltops.<br />

Don’t plant in valley bottoms.<br />

Clearing <strong>the</strong> planting site<br />

Ploughing to 20-30 cm depth<br />

Pickaxe and hoe<br />

> 10-20 cm<br />

Pegs<br />

<br />

3. Transplanting<br />

2. Site Preparation<br />

1. Clear all <strong>the</strong> trees and shrubs from <strong>the</strong><br />

planting site. Remove all weeds, especially<br />

grasses.<br />

2. Just be<strong>for</strong>e <strong>the</strong> start of <strong>the</strong> rainy season,<br />

dig over or plough <strong>the</strong> land to 20-30 cm<br />

depth, <strong>the</strong>n disc it, at least 1-2 weeks be<strong>for</strong>e<br />

planting.<br />

3. Dig planting holes 5m apart at regular<br />

spaces. You need <strong>the</strong> following tools:<br />

• pegs and string to mark out <strong>the</strong><br />

site;<br />

• pickaxe or hoe <strong>for</strong> digging planting<br />

holes.<br />

Pay attention to <strong>the</strong> following when transferring seedlings<br />

or grafted plants to <strong>the</strong> field:<br />

Transfer planting stock at 6 months old and at least<br />

10-20 cm in height <strong>for</strong> seedlings.<br />

Sufficient rain should have fallen over a 24 hour period<br />

continuously.<br />

© 2005 International Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong>, UK<br />

Hilltops/steep<br />

Waterlogged or temporarily<br />

5 m<br />

5 m<br />

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Plants should be watered thoroughly <strong>the</strong><br />

night be<strong>for</strong>e taking <strong>the</strong>m to <strong>the</strong> field.<br />

Water plants one night<br />

be<strong>for</strong>e<br />

Handle plants carefully when moving <strong>the</strong>m to<br />

<strong>the</strong> planting site.<br />

Hold <strong>the</strong> bags and not<br />

<strong>the</strong> seedlings<br />

Use trays or boxes <strong>for</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> transport<br />

60 cm<br />

60 cm<br />

Planting hole<br />

Remove plastic bags<br />

from plant<br />

Plant in planting holes 60 cm<br />

deep and 60 cm width.<br />

Plant on cloudy days, early in <strong>the</strong><br />

morning or late afternoon to<br />

reduce water loss from soil and<br />

plants.<br />

Position seedling<br />

straight in <strong>the</strong><br />

centre of <strong>the</strong> pit.<br />

Root collar should be<br />

at ground level. Use a<br />

stick as a guide. Fill<br />

<strong>the</strong> pit.<br />

Flatten <strong>the</strong> soil<br />

around <strong>the</strong> tree base<br />

to ground level.<br />

4. Watering<br />

Watering trees after field planting is not necessary, if <strong>the</strong><br />

soil was wet enough be<strong>for</strong>e planting.<br />

If necessary you may apply 1-2 litres of water at <strong>the</strong><br />

base of each tree in <strong>the</strong> early evening twice or three<br />

times a week.<br />

Water plants 2-3x/week<br />

Water only in <strong>the</strong> early evening<br />

5b<br />

© 2005 International Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong>, UK


How to grow <strong>the</strong> <strong>Monkey</strong> <strong>Orange</strong> Tree<br />

- Field Management -<br />

1. Weeding<br />

Weed <strong>the</strong> plantation once a<br />

month <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> first three months<br />

after planting. 2-3 spot weedings<br />

around each tree may be necessary.<br />

5 year old monkey orange trees -<br />

watering is not necessary<br />

3. Use of Fertilizers<br />

2. Irrigation<br />

Mature trees usually don’t require watering.<br />

<strong>Monkey</strong> orange trees do not require any fertilizer; application is optional to increase<br />

growth.<br />

Organic manure can be added to <strong>the</strong> planting pits to aid transplanting.<br />

Cow manure is dried in <strong>the</strong> sun and added to <strong>the</strong> planting holes<br />

Weeds should be removed around <strong>the</strong> tree<br />

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Inorganic fertilisers can be applied to increase<br />

growth:<br />

• Apply 100-150 g per plant of superphosphate<br />

as basal dressing.<br />

• Apply 20-30g Nitrosol (NPK 8 - 3 - 6 ) p e r<br />

plant as top dressing.<br />

• Follow <strong>the</strong> instructions given on <strong>the</strong> label.<br />

Application of superphosphate<br />

© 2005 International Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong>, UK<br />

Application of Nitrosol<br />

6a


5. Pruning<br />

Remove all weak, diseased and dead branches.<br />

Remove all drooping lower branches.<br />

Pruning of tree<br />

Branches below <strong>the</strong> dotted line<br />

should be removed<br />

Pruned monkey orange tree<br />

8. Protection from Pests and Diseases<br />

The monkey orange tree does not have serious pests and diseases,<br />

but <strong>the</strong>se problems might occur:<br />

Termites can attack dead bark, dry wood, and also weak<br />

nursery seedlings. Remove weak, diseased and dead<br />

branches (see above).<br />

Powdery mildew can attack stored fruits and seeds. Air dry<br />

fruits be<strong>for</strong>e storing (see Technical Note 8a).<br />

<strong>Monkey</strong> orange fruits attacked by<br />

powdery mildew<br />

3. Land-use Systems<br />

The monkey orange tree occurs naturally<br />

as a pioneer tree in old cultivation sites.<br />

You can inter-plant it in natural <strong>for</strong>ests<br />

around homesteads.<br />

You can plant it in orchards<br />

You can intercrop <strong>the</strong> monkey orange<br />

tree with annual crops such as maize,<br />

sorghum, millet, sweet potatoes, water<br />

melon or o<strong>the</strong>rs.<br />

You can plant it as a boundary or barrier<br />

tree.<br />

6b<br />

© 2005 International Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong>, UK


Harvesting<br />

1. Harvesting Time<br />

The tree produces fruits 4-6 years after planting in open-grown stands. When planted<br />

densely it needs several years longer. Harvest <strong>the</strong> monkey orange fruits from June until<br />

November/December depending on site characteristics.<br />

July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec<br />

Pollination<br />

Fruit harvesting<br />

2. Fruit Maturity<br />

At maturity, <strong>the</strong> monkey orange is about 5-10 cm<br />

in diameter. It is usually dark green, speckled or<br />

mottled green when unripe, becoming yellow or<br />

orange when ripe.<br />

Picking of fruits<br />

Collecting fruits from <strong>the</strong> ground<br />

3. Fruit Collection<br />

Ripe monkey orange fruits<br />

Pick <strong>the</strong> unripe green fruits and bury<br />

<strong>the</strong>m under sand <strong>for</strong> several months to<br />

ripen.<br />

Pick ripe fruits from <strong>the</strong> tree and eat<br />

<strong>the</strong>m directly or use <strong>for</strong> processing.<br />

Wait until fruits drop on <strong>the</strong> ground<br />

and <strong>the</strong>n collect <strong>the</strong>m.<br />

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Burying fruits in sand <strong>for</strong> ripening<br />

4. Yields<br />

Harvest from one monkey orange tree per season may be<br />

300-400 fruits or 40-100 kg in terms of fruit weight.<br />

Average harvest/tree/year:<br />

300-400 fruits<br />

7a<br />

© 2005 International Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong>, UK


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7b<br />

1. Post-harvest Handling<br />

Post-harvest Handling<br />

<strong>Monkey</strong> orange fruits bruise easily. Handle <strong>the</strong>m carefully!<br />

1. Remove green, unripe and damaged fruits.<br />

2. Grade <strong>the</strong> remaining fruits according to <strong>the</strong>ir size.<br />

3. Wash <strong>the</strong> fruits with clean water to remove debris.<br />

4. Air dry fruits thoroughly be<strong>for</strong>e storing to prevent fungal<br />

infestation and to extend <strong>the</strong> shelf-life.<br />

5. Pack fruits <strong>for</strong> storage in gunny bags, grain bags, cloth<br />

packs or boxes or,<br />

use <strong>the</strong>m immediately <strong>for</strong> fur<strong>the</strong>r processing.<br />

<br />

3. Processing<br />

2. Storage<br />

Store fruits and products in a cool dry place,<br />

away from direct sunlight.<br />

Fruits: store <strong>for</strong> 2-3 weeks at room temperature<br />

(25-30°C).<br />

Juice, jams and jellies: store <strong>for</strong> several<br />

months.<br />

You can make jam, juice and wines from <strong>the</strong> pulp of ripe fruits. The processing steps to<br />

make jam are explained on <strong>the</strong> back page.<br />

© 2005 International Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong>, UK<br />

Remove unripe fruits<br />

Separate big and small fruits<br />

Wash fruits<br />

with drinking<br />

water<br />

Pack fruits <strong>for</strong> storage<br />

<br />

Air dry fruits


Wash jars<br />

Put jars in a pan<br />

with water<br />

Boil jars <strong>for</strong> 10<br />

minutes<br />

Processing<br />

- Preparation of <strong>Monkey</strong> <strong>Orange</strong> Fruit Jam -<br />

2+3 4<br />

1<br />

I: Sterilisation of jars<br />

1. Wash jars with clean water.<br />

2. Put washed jars in a large pan<br />

with water.<br />

3. Boil <strong>the</strong>m <strong>for</strong> 10 minutes.<br />

4. Remove from <strong>the</strong> water using<br />

tongs or a stick and put <strong>the</strong>m<br />

upside down on a clean tray.<br />

Remove jars<br />

Ripe washed<br />

monkey orange<br />

fruits<br />

Crack fruits<br />

Scoop pulp<br />

including seeds<br />

Mix<br />

Filter<br />

Mix pulp<br />

Heat mixture<br />

while stirring<br />

Continue cooking<br />

mixture<br />

Poor into jars<br />

and seal<br />

Cool at room<br />

temperature<br />

Label<br />

Add some water<br />

Add sugar (1:1)<br />

Add citric acid or<br />

lemon juice<br />

1<br />

2<br />

1. Crack fruits.<br />

© 2005 International Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong>, UK<br />

3<br />

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6+7<br />

9<br />

8<br />

II: Preparation of jam<br />

2. Scoop out pulp and seeds using<br />

a spoon. Discard <strong>the</strong> peel.<br />

3. Put <strong>the</strong> pulp in a pot with a<br />

little water and stir.<br />

4. Filter <strong>the</strong> mixture using a<br />

stainless steel sieve and discard<br />

seeds.<br />

5. Add sugar equal to <strong>the</strong> weight<br />

of pulp (1:1) and mix.<br />

6. Heat mixture in a stainless<br />

steel vessel while stirring continuously.<br />

7. Dissolve 5 g citric acid per kg<br />

pulp in some water and add<br />

to <strong>the</strong> mixture. Alternatively,<br />

lemon juice can be used (50<br />

ml/kg pulp).<br />

8. Continue cooking <strong>the</strong> mixture.<br />

Do a drop test to determine<br />

<strong>the</strong> end of <strong>the</strong> boiling<br />

process: take a small portion<br />

of jam on a spoon, cool it<br />

slightly and drop it into a glass<br />

of water. If <strong>the</strong> drop falls in a<br />

single piece until it reaches <strong>the</strong><br />

bottom, <strong>the</strong> end has been<br />

reached.<br />

9. Pour jam into pre-sterilised<br />

jars and seal.<br />

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1. Marketing Potential<br />

Sell monkey orange fruits<br />

• along roadsides;<br />

• local markets;<br />

• urban markets.<br />

Marketing and Economics<br />

Sell <strong>the</strong> fruits directly to consumers or to<br />

traders.<br />

2. Pricing<br />

Roadside market stand<br />

Trader<br />

Consumer<br />

One monkey orange fruit can fetch prices between US $ 0.31 and 0.63.*<br />

Local market place<br />

Producer/Collector<br />

You might face <strong>the</strong> following problems when marketing monkey orange fruits:<br />

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Storage: if not stored carefully, up to 50% of <strong>the</strong> fruit may spoil.<br />

Transport: fruits are often collected from very distant places. They have to be transported<br />

very carefully and transport costs might be high.<br />

Consumer perception: Urban people may consider it “backward” to eat wild fruits.<br />

Rural people may regard monkey orange fruits as food <strong>for</strong> children or <strong>for</strong> times of<br />

famine.<br />

Pricing: prices of monkey orange fruits vary considerably.<br />

3. Economics<br />

You may get a turnover of<br />

US$ 157.5 per tree per year,<br />

provided you don’t have any postharvest<br />

losses and are able to sell<br />

all <strong>the</strong> fruits. See <strong>the</strong><br />

calculation in <strong>the</strong> box on <strong>the</strong> right.<br />

Example <strong>for</strong> calculation:<br />

Yearly production per tree: 350 fruits<br />

Price per fruit: US$ 0.45<br />

Turnover per tree: 350 fruits/tree x 0.45<br />

US$/fruit = 157.5 US$/tree<br />

Turnover <strong>for</strong> 50 trees: 157.5 US$/tree x 50<br />

trees = 7875 US$<br />

Attention:<br />

You have to deduct <strong>the</strong> costs <strong>for</strong> planting, harvesting and transport of fruits to <strong>the</strong> market<br />

to be able to calculate <strong>the</strong> profit of your monkey orange crop!<br />

* Selling prices were observed in Zimbabwe in 1998. In Botswana fruit prices of US$ 0.45 were reported.<br />

© 2005 International Centre <strong>for</strong> Underutilised <strong>Crops</strong>, UK

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