Maori Leadership in Governance - Unitec

Maori Leadership in Governance - Unitec

Maori Leadership in Governance - Unitec


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Scop<strong>in</strong>g Paper:<br />

<strong>Maori</strong> <strong>Leadership</strong> <strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>Governance</strong><br />

Professor Hir<strong>in</strong>i Mead<br />

Te Whare Wananga o Awanuiarangi Council<br />

Shaan Stevens & John Third<br />

Gu<strong>in</strong>ness Gallagher<br />

Dr Brad Jackson & Dale Pfeifer<br />

Centre for the Study of <strong>Leadership</strong><br />

Victoria University of Well<strong>in</strong>gton

<strong>Maori</strong> <strong>Leadership</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>Governance</strong><br />

Table of Contents<br />

Page<br />

1.0 Background and Sett<strong>in</strong>g the Scene 3<br />

2.0 Traditional Pr<strong>in</strong>ciples of <strong>Maori</strong> <strong>Leadership</strong> 4<br />

3.0 International perspectives on Strategic 12<br />

<strong>Leadership</strong> Development and Corporate<br />

<strong>Governance</strong><br />

4.0 Situational Analysis <strong>in</strong> New Zealand 24<br />

5.0 Bridg<strong>in</strong>g the Gaps 30<br />

6.0 Recommendations 34<br />

Please refer all comments to:<br />

Dale Pfeifer<br />

Centre for the Study of <strong>Leadership</strong><br />

Victoria University<br />

(04) 463 5141<br />

Dale.Pfeifer@vuw.ac.nz<br />

__________________________________________________________________<br />

Hui Taumata <strong>Leadership</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>Governance</strong> Scop<strong>in</strong>g Paper 2

1.0 Background and sett<strong>in</strong>g the scene<br />

The 2005 Hui Taumata made a strong call for develop<strong>in</strong>g effective leadership and<br />

governance throughout <strong>Maori</strong>dom. This is echoed <strong>in</strong> the Summary Report (2005) that<br />

advocates for:<br />

“… nurtur<strong>in</strong>g leadership potential <strong>in</strong> everyone, and grow<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> particular<br />

the leadership potential of all our Rangatahi.” (page 15)<br />

“… resourc<strong>in</strong>g a leadership component <strong>in</strong> vocational education<br />

pathways.” (page 15)<br />

“… resources to establish a <strong>Maori</strong> <strong>Leadership</strong> <strong>in</strong>stitution and leadership<br />

<strong>in</strong>cubators.”<br />

“… demystify<strong>in</strong>g governance for whanau, to encourage their participation and<br />

<strong>in</strong>volvement.”<br />

A project team was convened by the Hui Taumata Task force to conduct research and<br />

author a scop<strong>in</strong>g paper that <strong>in</strong>vestigated how it might best move forward on these<br />

objectives. The project team was comprised of Professor Hir<strong>in</strong>i Mead, Chairman of<br />

the Te Whare Wananga o Awanuiarangi Council; Shaan Stevens and John Third of<br />

Gu<strong>in</strong>ess Gallagher Account<strong>in</strong>g; and Dr Brad Jackson and Dale Pfeifer from the Centre<br />

for the Study of <strong>Leadership</strong>, Victoria University of Well<strong>in</strong>gton. The project team<br />

took a partnership approach so that expertise could be freely drawn from the<br />

members’ diverse backgrounds <strong>in</strong> order to develop “a model that <strong>in</strong>corporates tikanga<br />

<strong>Maori</strong> <strong>in</strong>to leadership <strong>in</strong> governance tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g”.<br />

Over a period of three months the project team met on several occasions. The project<br />

team was <strong>in</strong> strong agreement that the scop<strong>in</strong>g paper be grounded <strong>in</strong> a thorough<br />

understand<strong>in</strong>g of traditional pr<strong>in</strong>ciples of <strong>Maori</strong> leadership. Moreover, the relevance<br />

and validity of these pr<strong>in</strong>ciples should be critically assessed aga<strong>in</strong>st the current and<br />

future needs of <strong>Maori</strong>dom (refer to Section 2 of the report). The project team also<br />

thought it was important that the paper take account of the key debates regard<strong>in</strong>g<br />

leadership and governance best practice that are tak<strong>in</strong>g place with<strong>in</strong> the <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

realm (refer to Section 3).<br />

Hav<strong>in</strong>g considered traditional <strong>Maori</strong> pr<strong>in</strong>ciples and <strong>in</strong>ternational governance and<br />

leadership models, the project team then <strong>in</strong>vestigated current generic leadership and<br />

governance development practices <strong>in</strong> New Zealand from with<strong>in</strong> the public, private<br />

and tertiary sectors (refer to Section 4). Based on the understand<strong>in</strong>g ga<strong>in</strong>ed from<br />

Sections 2, 3 and 4 of the paper, the project team was then <strong>in</strong> a position to identify the<br />

most significant gaps <strong>in</strong> the provision of leadership and governance tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g and<br />

development for <strong>Maori</strong> <strong>in</strong> Section 5 of the report. The clos<strong>in</strong>g section of the paper<br />

(section 6) summarises the key recommendations for future action that the project<br />

team wishes to make for the consideration of the Hui Taumata Task Force.<br />

__________________________________________________________________<br />

Hui Taumata <strong>Leadership</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>Governance</strong> Scop<strong>in</strong>g Paper 3

2.0 Traditional pr<strong>in</strong>ciples of <strong>Maori</strong> leadership<br />

2.1 Introduction<br />

Recently the notion of leadership has become very important and is now the subject of<br />

many conferences around the world. Many conferences are concerned about<br />

governance issues and so discussions about leadership are allied to concerns about<br />

governance. Terms such as mandate, accountability and transparency are common<br />

political issues that <strong>in</strong>evitably come down to how money is managed. While these are<br />

also matters of concern to <strong>Maori</strong> communities the <strong>in</strong>terest <strong>in</strong> leadership is more<br />

fundamental and much broader than concerns focuss<strong>in</strong>g only on corporate matters. In<br />

our world we tend not to talk about leaders but rather we focus upon chiefs or<br />

rangatira. The word ‘rangatira’, mean<strong>in</strong>g ‘chief’ is gender free but when we use the<br />

English word ‘chief’ most people immediately assume that the word refers to a male.<br />

It is important to make this po<strong>in</strong>t at the outset, namely that <strong>in</strong> the traditional sett<strong>in</strong>g a<br />

rangatira could be male or female (Williams 1957:323). Most often however rangatira<br />

were male. Rangatira are leaders but not all leaders are regarded as rangatira. This is<br />

because the <strong>Maori</strong> system of leadership is based on cultural criteria such as k<strong>in</strong>ship<br />

ties, alliances with other k<strong>in</strong>ship groups, appropriate whakapapa (genealogy) and<br />

upon spiritual assets such as mana and tapu. The cultural criteria are still important<br />

today, but they are not applied as strictly as used to be the case.<br />

Survival <strong>in</strong> the contemporary world requires us now to consider the broad range of<br />

other ideas about leadership because we are now part of the modern world. Be<strong>in</strong>g a<br />

leader today is much more difficult and complicated. As a response to the different<br />

cultural, social, political and economic environment <strong>in</strong> which we live there are now a<br />

range of leaders rather than one all powerful s<strong>in</strong>gle leader such as an ariki (paramount<br />

chief) of traditional times. There are very few of them left today. Nonetheless many of<br />

the values held to be essential <strong>in</strong> traditional times are still mean<strong>in</strong>gful today.<br />

2.2 What are the pr<strong>in</strong>ciples of traditional <strong>Maori</strong> leadership?<br />

<strong>Maori</strong> leaders often did not know how they were regarded by their people until they<br />

died. Then they are exalted and lauded <strong>in</strong> song and likened to a waka whakarei, an<br />

ornamented canoe, as some beautiful object that the people could admire. Or the<br />

leader might be described as a rata whakaruruhau, that is, as shelter<strong>in</strong>g rata tree, as<br />

leaders whose contribution was metaphorically described as provid<strong>in</strong>g protection and<br />

sustenance for the people. Such leaders provided stability <strong>in</strong> their communities and<br />

while active gave people a feel<strong>in</strong>g of security. There was no doubt that good<br />

leadership was recognised and appreciated by their communities and their families.<br />

For example, consider these words of praise for Te Haupa, a high chief of Ngati Paoa<br />

of Hauraki, <strong>in</strong> waiata 228 of Nga Moteatea (Ngata and Te Hur<strong>in</strong>ui, Part 3, 1990,<br />

pp126-129):<br />

Taku ate hoki ra,taku rata tutahi, taku whakamarumaru, taku whare kii<br />

tonu, taku tiketike ka riro, unuhia noatia te taniwha i te rua.<br />

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Hui Taumata <strong>Leadership</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>Governance</strong> Scop<strong>in</strong>g Paper 4

You were my heart, my solitary rata tree, my shelter<strong>in</strong>g place, my<br />

house of plenty, my elevated one now departed, withdrawn now is the<br />

dragon from its lair.<br />

These are powerful statements that give an <strong>in</strong>dication of the values held about<br />

leadership and the judgements made about <strong>in</strong>dividual leaders. The composer of<br />

waiata 228, Puakitawhiti, a sister of the chief, specified one particular result of<br />

admired leadership <strong>in</strong> these words:<br />

No korua ra, nana i hora iho ka pai te whenua, ka moe nga patu ki te<br />

whare.<br />

It was you two who set about to calm the land and put weapons to<br />

rest with<strong>in</strong> the house.<br />

The image of the shelter<strong>in</strong>g rata tree emphasises the great value placed upon service<br />

to the community that results <strong>in</strong> provid<strong>in</strong>g a sense of security and certa<strong>in</strong>ty for the<br />

people, and allow<strong>in</strong>g families to get on with their lives. Essentially it is about<br />

engender<strong>in</strong>g good feel<strong>in</strong>gs about themselves, hav<strong>in</strong>g pride <strong>in</strong> their whanau, hapu and<br />

iwi and be<strong>in</strong>g confident about life and the future.<br />

Another image often used is that of the much admired and highly valued totara tree.<br />

In waiata 233 (Ngata and Te Hur<strong>in</strong>ui, Part 3, 1990, pp 158- 163) the great chief<br />

Tuk<strong>in</strong>o Te Heuheu of Ngati Tuwharetoa is likened to a totara tree <strong>in</strong> this way:<br />

Ka ngaro ra, e nga totara whakahae o te wao!<br />

Gone alas are the cherished totara trees of the forest.<br />

The totara tree was regarded as a strong and beautiful tree that often grew to great<br />

heights. The tree was favoured for build<strong>in</strong>g canoes, both for war and domestic<br />

transport purposes and for the carv<strong>in</strong>gs that were essential for a fully decorated<br />

meet<strong>in</strong>g house, a whare whakairo. Thus a leader should portray strength and when<br />

fully costumed should present an awesome sight. Thus Tuk<strong>in</strong>o Te Heuheu was<br />

portrayed <strong>in</strong> waiata 60 (Ngata 1959, Part 1, pp 190-195):<br />

Haere ra e te nui, haere ra e te wehi.<br />

Farewell, oh mighty one; farewell oh feared one.<br />

When composers wanted to stress the values of steadfastness and commitment the<br />

image used was that of a rock dashed by the waves of the ocean day <strong>in</strong> and day out<br />

but still it stands. It is a strik<strong>in</strong>g image. Consider the l<strong>in</strong>es <strong>in</strong> waiata 60:<br />

Korero i o tohu, te kura takai puni,<br />

Te toka tu moana, i te tukutahi whakarere;<br />

Speak about your accomplishments, is it to be the onward charge,<br />

The rock that stands <strong>in</strong> the ocean, aga<strong>in</strong>st a tumultuous headlong rush;<br />

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Hui Taumata <strong>Leadership</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>Governance</strong> Scop<strong>in</strong>g Paper 5

Another image often used <strong>in</strong> talk<strong>in</strong>g about chiefs is that of the canoe. The loss of a<br />

leader is likened to a canoe float<strong>in</strong>g unevenly, or lean<strong>in</strong>g dangerously to one side. Or<br />

it is said that canoe is cast upon the beach as its work is done. It may be upended to<br />

emphasise the po<strong>in</strong>t. There are <strong>in</strong>stances where the leaders’ canoe becomes his<br />

memorial. The canoe is cut <strong>in</strong> half and <strong>in</strong>serted <strong>in</strong>to the ground near the grave as a<br />

rem<strong>in</strong>der to everyone that the tribe has lost a valuable leader.<br />

In the case of the whare whakairo, the carved house, the notion of the chief be<strong>in</strong>g<br />

regarded as the symbol of the tribe is further emphasised. The chief is the totara tree<br />

and the chief is also the tribe. The chief is the mounta<strong>in</strong> and the mounta<strong>in</strong> is also the<br />

tribe. Consistent with this th<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g the chief is also the carved house that he lived <strong>in</strong><br />

and the house is also the tribe. Formerly upon the death of the chief the house was<br />

abandoned and allowed to crumble and die. A truly magnificent chief’s house was<br />

recorded and pa<strong>in</strong>ted by the artist-ethnographer G. F. Angas 1847 and he talks about<br />

one of the houses he pa<strong>in</strong>ted at Te Kuiti, <strong>in</strong> Volume 2 of his book Savage Life and<br />

Scenes, pages 87 -89. These images po<strong>in</strong>t to a very dynamic relationship between the<br />

leader and the people who provided the mandate, the workforce, the army and the<br />

supporters of the leader.<br />

Aga<strong>in</strong> the language of metaphor <strong>in</strong> songs and <strong>in</strong> orations emphasised the importance<br />

to a group of people such as a whanau, or a hapu, or a tribe or the <strong>Maori</strong> people <strong>in</strong><br />

general of hav<strong>in</strong>g dedicated leadership to guide them through the challenges of life.<br />

The loss of a great leader is a tragedy and composers of songs used very strik<strong>in</strong>g<br />

images to carry the message. The light<strong>in</strong>g flashes, the thunder resounds and these<br />

images very clearly signal that the loss of a leader is an earthshak<strong>in</strong>g event that causes<br />

uncerta<strong>in</strong>ty about the future and may plunge the tribe <strong>in</strong>to a period of <strong>in</strong>ternal unrest<br />

dur<strong>in</strong>g which there is bicker<strong>in</strong>g and jockey<strong>in</strong>g for positions.<br />

The traditional values referred to <strong>in</strong> traditional songs can be treated as pr<strong>in</strong>ciples.<br />

These are:<br />

1. A leader is a shelter<strong>in</strong>g rata tree. This means:<br />

a) dedicat<strong>in</strong>g ones life for the good of all the people<br />

b) ensur<strong>in</strong>g stability for the people<br />

c) encourag<strong>in</strong>g confidence about the future<br />

d) stand<strong>in</strong>g tall at all times regardless of the challenges<br />

e) be<strong>in</strong>g a person who cares about people.<br />

2. A leader is a totara tree stand<strong>in</strong>g tall <strong>in</strong> the forest. This means:<br />

a) stand<strong>in</strong>g tall as a leader<br />

b) present<strong>in</strong>g oneself as a leader<br />

c) dress<strong>in</strong>g up rather than down<br />

d) be<strong>in</strong>g a source of pride for the people because of skills and appearance<br />

e) never sacrific<strong>in</strong>g the people for personal ga<strong>in</strong>.<br />

3. A leader is a rock that is dashed by the waves of the sea. This means:<br />

a) be<strong>in</strong>g steadfast and strong<br />

b) be<strong>in</strong>g fully committed<br />

c) go<strong>in</strong>g the extra mile and burn<strong>in</strong>g the midnight oil when required<br />

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Hui Taumata <strong>Leadership</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>Governance</strong> Scop<strong>in</strong>g Paper 6

d) able to handle difficult situations and endure a fair bit of stress<br />

4. A leader is a waka. This means:<br />

a) ensur<strong>in</strong>g essential services are ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>ed<br />

b) ensur<strong>in</strong>g that the status of the community is such that the people can<br />

feel proud to belong<br />

c) ensur<strong>in</strong>g that the whole whanau, hapu or iwi is functional and able to<br />

hold their own aga<strong>in</strong>st or <strong>in</strong> comparison with others<br />

d) ensur<strong>in</strong>g that the symbols and icons of the group are respected,<br />

ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>ed and enhanced.<br />

2.2.1 The Pumanawa or Talents<br />

There are two sources of traditional <strong>in</strong>formation about the eight talents required and<br />

expected of chiefs. One is Te Rangikaheke of Ngati Rangiwewehi, Te Arawa. He<br />

wrote “Te Tikanga o tenei mea te rangatiratanga o te tangata <strong>Maori</strong>” (The Pr<strong>in</strong>ciples<br />

of chiefta<strong>in</strong>ship of <strong>Maori</strong> Society) submitted to Sir George Grey <strong>in</strong> 1850. The eight<br />

pr<strong>in</strong>ciples are clearly set out <strong>in</strong> a Masters thesis submitted by the late Colonel Neil<br />

Grove to Victoria University of Well<strong>in</strong>gton <strong>in</strong> 1985. The other source was an article<br />

entitled “Nga Pumanawa e Waru” written by Himiona Tikitu of Ngati Awa <strong>in</strong> 1897<br />

and published by Elsdon Best (1898: 242, 1901: 8).<br />

Both authors listed eight talents or pumanawa. The number eight has a symbolic<br />

significance attached to it and the phrase ‘Nga pumanawa e waru” has a r<strong>in</strong>g of<br />

authority about it. Both authors emphasised that the talents were <strong>in</strong>herited and came<br />

from ‘te kopu o tona whaea’ (from the mother’s womb) accord<strong>in</strong>g to Tikitu, Te<br />

Rangikaheke attributed the talents to,<br />

“Na te moenga rangatira ena mea.”<br />

Those th<strong>in</strong>gs come out of the chiefly marriage bed”. (Best 1898)<br />

That is, the talents are <strong>in</strong>herited from a properly arranged marriage at the chiefly<br />

level. The talents are not present among commoners. For Te Rangikaheke the<br />

notion of the “chiefly marriage bed” is all important and is the source of <strong>in</strong>herited<br />

talents.<br />

On the other hand Himiona Tikitu was not so sure about this. He said that four of the<br />

talents can be found among commoners but he did not say which ones. Children<br />

com<strong>in</strong>g out of a chiefly marriage bed and out of the mother’s womb are able to <strong>in</strong>herit<br />

all eight of the talents. And so while a child born of chiefly parents had the advantage<br />

of becom<strong>in</strong>g a leader <strong>in</strong> later life, a commoner <strong>in</strong>herit<strong>in</strong>g only four of the talents had a<br />

much more difficult task of becom<strong>in</strong>g a leader. But a commoner could become a<br />

leader, accord<strong>in</strong>g to Tikitu although it is fair to say he did not say so <strong>in</strong> his text.<br />

The two chiefly writers are <strong>in</strong> general agreement about some of the listed talents.<br />

They differ ma<strong>in</strong>ly <strong>in</strong> order of priority and <strong>in</strong> levels of <strong>in</strong>tensity. In order to<br />

understand the lists it is preferable to deal with them separately and to provide some<br />

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Hui Taumata <strong>Leadership</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>Governance</strong> Scop<strong>in</strong>g Paper 7

ackground to the events affect<strong>in</strong>g the lives of the people at the time the two chiefs<br />

put their thoughts <strong>in</strong> writ<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

This is not really the place to elaborate and compare. Instead what is proposed is to<br />

focus upon Tikitu’s list and make some observations about the items he listed. Both<br />

lists are presented and it will be noticed that Tikitu’s list is more clearly expla<strong>in</strong>ed<br />

than the other and more specific.<br />

Te Rangikaheke’s List 1850<br />

1. He toa, bravery<br />

2. Korero taua, war speeches<br />

3. Mahi kai, food procurement<br />

4. Tangohanga, feasts of celebration<br />

5. Pupuri pahi, restra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g the departure of visit<strong>in</strong>g parties<br />

6. Korero Runanga, council speeches<br />

7. Korero manuhiri, welcome guests<br />

8. Atawhai pahi, iti, rahi, look<strong>in</strong>g after visitors small or large.<br />

Himiona Tikitu’s List 1897<br />

1. He kaha ki te mahi kai, <strong>in</strong>dustrious <strong>in</strong> obta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g or cultivat<strong>in</strong>g food<br />

2. He kaha ki te whakahaere i nga raruraru, abled <strong>in</strong> settl<strong>in</strong>g disputes, able to<br />

manage and mediate<br />

3. He toa, bravery, courage <strong>in</strong> war<br />

4. He kaha ki te whakahaere i te riri, good leader <strong>in</strong> war, good strategist<br />

5. He mohio ki te whakairo, an expert <strong>in</strong> the arts especially wood carv<strong>in</strong>g<br />

6. He atawhai tangata, hospitability generous<br />

7. He mohio ki te hanga whare rimu, waka ranei, clever at build<strong>in</strong>g houses,<br />

fortified sites or canoes<br />

8. He mohio ki nga rohe whenua, good knowledge of the boundaries of tribal<br />

lands.<br />

It will be appreciated that the pumanawa (talents) held to be important are mean<strong>in</strong>gful<br />

<strong>in</strong> terms of the prevail<strong>in</strong>g of social, economic and political background. Te<br />

Rangikaheke for example, gave priority to courage <strong>in</strong> times of war and the ability to<br />

persuade others to follow the leader. Dur<strong>in</strong>g the time he wrote his words the country<br />

was <strong>in</strong> a state of war over land. Food procurement was listed as number three <strong>in</strong> his<br />

list. On the other hand the talents stressed by Tikitu were first, the ability to cultivate<br />

and obta<strong>in</strong> food and feed the people. He was writ<strong>in</strong>g at a time after the land wars<br />

when many <strong>Maori</strong> communities were f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g it difficult to get food. Their lands had<br />

either been sold or confiscated and their sources of food severely curtailed. An<br />

important po<strong>in</strong>t is made here, namely that the priorities are sensitive to the survival<br />

needs of the people. In other words there is a level of pragmatism evident here. The<br />

list is not a wish list that bears no relationship to the needs of the people.<br />

His second priority stressed the need for leaders to manage the people, to settle<br />

disputes and to mediate where necessary. Aga<strong>in</strong> this is a pragmatic response to a felt<br />

need. <strong>Maori</strong> communities were struggl<strong>in</strong>g to survive and they had begun to squabble<br />

over land and resources. Many sub-tribes and family groups were decimated by<br />

disease, demoralised by Government policies and fractionalised by arguments before<br />

the Native Land Court. A leader needed to keep his or her followers together.<br />

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Hui Taumata <strong>Leadership</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>Governance</strong> Scop<strong>in</strong>g Paper 8

His third and fourth talents related to war, to the chief be<strong>in</strong>g able to lead <strong>in</strong> times of<br />

war, to be courageous and to be a good strategist and w<strong>in</strong> battles. Tikitu’s fifth talent<br />

requires the leader to be knowledgeable <strong>in</strong> the arts and to have some ability <strong>in</strong> this<br />

field. Chiefs were often wood carvers and tohunga-ta-moko (expert tattooists). The<br />

important po<strong>in</strong>t be<strong>in</strong>g made here is that leaders need to know about culture and have a<br />

broader knowledge than know<strong>in</strong>g about warfare and food. This is <strong>in</strong> fact, a very<br />

important pumanawa even though it is listed as number five. It is expected that the<br />

leader is an educated person who is able to articulate the aspirations of the people.<br />

For the sixth talent the chief is required to be hospitable and generous, a requirement<br />

also listed by Te Rangikaheke. So although leaders are expected to be able to fight<br />

and if necessary to kill <strong>in</strong> the context of warfare, when they behave <strong>in</strong> a domestic<br />

situation they are required to be hospitable, generous and car<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

The seventh talent is also about knowledge and the development of skills. The chief<br />

should be able to manage and complete large-scale undertak<strong>in</strong>gs such as build<strong>in</strong>g<br />

meet<strong>in</strong>g houses, build<strong>in</strong>g canoes and construct<strong>in</strong>g fight<strong>in</strong>g sites. This stresses the<br />

ability to rally a work force and of keep<strong>in</strong>g them on the job for both short term and<br />

long term projects. It also h<strong>in</strong>ts at the necessity to learn and acquire skills and<br />

experience so one would know what to do.<br />

We now come to Tikitu’s eighth pumanawa. Knowledge is aga<strong>in</strong> the issue here; he<br />

identified the field of knowledge as knowledge of tribal boundaries. But this field is<br />

but a sub- division of cultural knowledge. A leader should know the history of the<br />

people, the stories told, the songs sung, the proverbs and even the life stories of<br />

important men and women of the community. So this talent and the one referr<strong>in</strong>g to<br />

the arts means that a leader is expected to be well versed <strong>in</strong> matauranga <strong>Maori</strong>, who<br />

well educated and well schooled <strong>in</strong> the branches of knowledge current <strong>in</strong> their day.<br />

Neither Te Rangikaheke or Himiona Tikitu wrote about the wider context <strong>in</strong> which<br />

leaders must act. They probably regarded as self-evident facts, that leaders act <strong>in</strong><br />

accordance with the norms of their society with the rules and regulations that we call<br />

tikanga and with the values that are held to be important such as manaakitanga,<br />

whakapapa, respect for mana and tapu, aroha ki te tangata, car<strong>in</strong>g for people and so<br />

on. Work<strong>in</strong>g with<strong>in</strong> the religious system of <strong>Maori</strong> society is also a given part of the<br />

background.<br />

2.3 In the contemporary context, which pr<strong>in</strong>ciples are the most critical?<br />

2.3.1 The Pumanawa today<br />

There are several ways of look<strong>in</strong>g at the traditional list of talents that Tikitu<br />

identified. The list could be dismissed as be<strong>in</strong>g relevant to circumstances and a time<br />

long passed. It should be discarded and forgotten, like the cast off fish<strong>in</strong>g net left to<br />

rot on the beach. Another option is to recast the language of each pumanawa <strong>in</strong> order<br />

to fit the circumstances of today. A third way is to re-prioritise the list and to<br />

modernise the language used to describe each pumanawa.<br />

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The third option is preferred here because what we are deal<strong>in</strong>g with <strong>in</strong> Tikitu’s list are<br />

values and pr<strong>in</strong>ciples that are held to be important and valid today. Perhaps they are<br />

held to be almost <strong>in</strong> the nature of covenants because our ancestors believed <strong>in</strong> them<br />

and used them as guid<strong>in</strong>g pr<strong>in</strong>ciples to plot their way through some challeng<strong>in</strong>g and<br />

treacherous byways. We are here today because of their aspirations, their hopes, their<br />

beliefs and their values.<br />

2.3.2 The Eight Talents for Today<br />

1. The ability to manage, mediate and settle disputes <strong>in</strong> the community so as to<br />

uphold the unity of the whanau, hapu, iwi.<br />

2. The leaders of whanau are able to ensure that every member of the unit is<br />

provided with food that is geared to their needs and ensures their growth.<br />

Leaders need to be able to look after their own families and meet this<br />

obligation as well as lead<strong>in</strong>g the community.<br />

3. Bravery and courage are required to uphold the rights of the hapu and the iwi.<br />

The current fields of struggle and challenges are the <strong>Maori</strong> Land Court, the<br />

High Court, the Waitangi Tribunal, Parliament and relevant divisions of the<br />

United Nations. (It should be po<strong>in</strong>ted out that there is always a field of<br />

struggle and challenges because people are always struggl<strong>in</strong>g for a better way<br />

of life, for peace and security.)<br />

4. Generalship is now a matter of lead<strong>in</strong>g the community forward, of improv<strong>in</strong>g<br />

its stand<strong>in</strong>g, its economic base and its mana.<br />

5. Knowledge of the arts stresses the need for a leader to have a wider vision and<br />

have a more general education than is required for every day matters.<br />

6. The leader of today is still required to reflect the value of manaakitanga <strong>in</strong> the<br />

way they work with the people and relate to others. Hospitability is still<br />

important, not just for the leader but for the hapu or sub-tribe. These groups<br />

still feel the stigma of whakama or shame when their hospitality is found to be<br />

want<strong>in</strong>g, for example runn<strong>in</strong>g out of food to feed the people at an important<br />

hui.<br />

7. The leader is able to lead the community to undertake and successfully<br />

complete big projects such as build<strong>in</strong>g a marae, a wharekai, a wharenui, or a<br />

waka ama, or a waka hourua, establish a kohanga reo, or a kura kaupapa.<br />

8. A leader knows the traditions of their people, their culture, their reo, their<br />

proverbs and have a good idea of the traditions of other iwi. They are well<br />

versed <strong>in</strong> matauranga <strong>Maori</strong>.<br />

2.3.3 Matters of Assessment<br />

These talents as rephrased here have a mean<strong>in</strong>g for us today. They represent values or<br />

pr<strong>in</strong>ciples <strong>in</strong> addition to those already described above. Clearly a leader is a person<br />

who is given the mandate to lead, by the people. The people become the client base<br />

as it were and the supporters. While it is a great honour to have the support of the<br />

people and to be ‘called’ by them to be their leader the honour has to be measured<br />

aga<strong>in</strong>st the demands of the position. The leader has to work at reta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g the support of<br />

the community. The mandate provided by the people comes with a heavy<br />

responsibility that has to be carried for many years, and usually for life or when the<br />

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health of a leader fails. Dur<strong>in</strong>g the term of one’s tenure as a leader, clear signals are<br />

given when performance fails to meet the needs of the people.<br />

Accountability is obviously towards the community, to the mandat<strong>in</strong>g group. As long<br />

as the leader is of the people and for the people that person can expect the support of<br />

the community. Dissatisfaction with performance may be shown by failure to stand<br />

up to s<strong>in</strong>g a waiata for the leader or the people fail to give their support when<br />

requested. The community could be tolerant of faults and lack of dedication but only<br />

up to a po<strong>in</strong>t. This was true <strong>in</strong> traditional times when all the people had to do was fail<br />

to support their chief <strong>in</strong> a critical battle. Today dissatisfaction is shown by<br />

withhold<strong>in</strong>g support or by open criticisms at a meet<strong>in</strong>g. Members of the community<br />

tended to speak up to criticise rather than to praise their leader. This phenomenon is<br />

often described as ‘crab antics’ as it has been noticed that when crabs are placed <strong>in</strong> a<br />

basket or bucket they pull down and the crab that tries to escape and they tend to be<br />

mean to one another. Crab behaviour is a metaphor for the ways <strong>in</strong> which some<br />

groups can be cruel to their leaders and to one another.<br />

The matter of transparency is not generally an issue about what the group and the<br />

leader are do<strong>in</strong>g at their marae. Here be<strong>in</strong>g seen is an often articulated value. It is<br />

stated as kanohi-ki-te-kanohi, face to face, kia kite a-kanohi to be seen face to face.<br />

Most activities at a marae are of this nature. But there are other matters where<br />

transparency is not so obvious. Deal<strong>in</strong>g with money has been a problem for some<br />

groups and cont<strong>in</strong>ues to be an issue <strong>in</strong> some localities and especially with Trusts of<br />

various sorts such as Whanau Trusts.<br />

What this means is that discussions about leadership can be very useful <strong>in</strong> provid<strong>in</strong>g<br />

clearer goals and <strong>in</strong> guid<strong>in</strong>g us through the challenges of the modern world.<br />

<strong>Leadership</strong> is an ongo<strong>in</strong>g matter and it is ever chang<strong>in</strong>g. A proverb makes this po<strong>in</strong>t<br />

when it states mate atu he tetekura ara mai he tetekura, when the leaders die, other<br />

leaders emerge. So there are always new personalities emerg<strong>in</strong>g with their own<br />

unique styles of leadership. Those who led before are no longer seen and memories<br />

then fade. The community turns its attention to work<strong>in</strong>g with the new leadership <strong>in</strong><br />

address<strong>in</strong>g the fields of struggle and challenges before them. Life goes on.<br />

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3.0 International perspectives on leadership and governance<br />

3.1 Introduction<br />

Develop<strong>in</strong>g leadership is a complex and uncerta<strong>in</strong> process. It’s a phenomenon that<br />

every one has an op<strong>in</strong>ion on but no one can agree what exactly it really is. Bernard<br />

Bass (1990) has famously observed that, “there are almost as many different<br />

def<strong>in</strong>itions of leadership as there are persons who have attempted to def<strong>in</strong>e it”. Best<br />

estimates <strong>in</strong>dicate that we can f<strong>in</strong>d well over 5,000 different def<strong>in</strong>itions of leadership<br />

<strong>in</strong> the burgeon<strong>in</strong>g leadership literature.<br />

Judg<strong>in</strong>g by the number of books on leadership that are currently on the market, there<br />

has never been greater <strong>in</strong>terest <strong>in</strong> understand<strong>in</strong>g and acquir<strong>in</strong>g leadership skills. For<br />

example, Gr<strong>in</strong>t (2005) notes that there were 14,139 items relat<strong>in</strong>g to ‘<strong>Leadership</strong>’ on<br />

Amazon.co.uk on October 29, 2003. On January 17, 2006, just over two years later,<br />

this had <strong>in</strong>creased to 19,625 items. The hunger and quest for leadership knowledge<br />

appears to be <strong>in</strong>satiable. It would appear that the more we learn about leadership the<br />

more we realise what we have and want to learn. However, for the purpose of this<br />

report, address<strong>in</strong>g the entire contents of this large body of literature would not be<br />

particularly useful.<br />

This section will scope the <strong>in</strong>ternational terra<strong>in</strong> for some of the ripest fruit for<br />

nurtur<strong>in</strong>g successful <strong>Maori</strong> leadership and corporate governance. While recognis<strong>in</strong>g<br />

its importance to the broader <strong>Maori</strong> community, this report will only focus on<br />

develop<strong>in</strong>g strategic leadership and corporate governance. This was recognised by<br />

Materoa Dodd (2004) when she suggested, “strategic leadership is key to creat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>Maori</strong> social and economic development success.” As good strategic leaders will<br />

nurture leadership with<strong>in</strong> others, both with<strong>in</strong> their organisation and the wider<br />

community, it is envisaged that develop<strong>in</strong>g these leaders will lead to enhanced<br />

leadership throughout <strong>Maori</strong>dom.<br />

In this section you will f<strong>in</strong>d some of the current key debates on strategic leadership<br />

and corporate governance and will explore:<br />

• leadership and strategic leadership;<br />

• strategic leadership development;<br />

• corporate governance;<br />

• strategies to <strong>in</strong>tegrate leadership and governance.<br />

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3.2 <strong>Leadership</strong> and strategic leadership<br />

3.2.1 <strong>Leadership</strong><br />

A widely used def<strong>in</strong>ition amongst leadership scholars is that leadership is “the process<br />

of <strong>in</strong>fluenc<strong>in</strong>g the activities of an organized group <strong>in</strong> its efforts toward goal sett<strong>in</strong>g<br />

and goal achievement” (Elk<strong>in</strong> et al, 2004). There are three key components of this<br />

def<strong>in</strong>ition that are worth emphasis<strong>in</strong>g: it is an <strong>in</strong>terpersonal process between one<br />

person and a group; you cannot have ‘leaders’ without ‘followers’; and the criterion<br />

for effective leadership is goal achievement.<br />

It is especially important to see leadership as someth<strong>in</strong>g that is produced and jo<strong>in</strong>tly<br />

created by leaders and followers. Leaders obviously play a central role <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>itiat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

and foster<strong>in</strong>g this relationship, but we should not lose sight of the important role that<br />

followers need to play <strong>in</strong> creat<strong>in</strong>g leadership.<br />

Gr<strong>in</strong>t (2005) suggests that leadership has traditionally been understood <strong>in</strong> four quite<br />

different ways:<br />

• <strong>Leadership</strong> as Person: is it WHO ‘leaders’ are that makes them leaders?<br />

• <strong>Leadership</strong> as Results: is it WHAT ‘leaders’ achieve that makes them leaders?<br />

• <strong>Leadership</strong> as Position: is it WHERE ‘leaders’ operate that makes them<br />

leaders?<br />

• <strong>Leadership</strong> as Process: is it HOW ‘leaders’ get th<strong>in</strong>gs done that makes them<br />

leaders?<br />

In his view, each of these ways of th<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g about leadership is valid and potentially<br />

useful. However, the fact that we look at leadership <strong>in</strong> these different ways goes some<br />

way towards expla<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g why we have so much trouble expla<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g leadership, try<strong>in</strong>g to<br />

understand it and try<strong>in</strong>g to teach or reward it.<br />

Paradoxically, the importance of leadership tends to be both over-estimated as well as<br />

under-estimated (Jackson & Parry, 2001). On the one hand, we tend to exaggerate the<br />

importance of a leader’s <strong>in</strong>terventions at either end of the success or failure spectrum.<br />

When th<strong>in</strong>gs are go<strong>in</strong>g either very well or when they are go<strong>in</strong>g very badly we look to<br />

leaders for the causes when perhaps extenuat<strong>in</strong>g circumstances beyond the leader’s<br />

control might have been more significant. This attributional process has been dubbed<br />

the ‘Romance of <strong>Leadership</strong>’ by Me<strong>in</strong>dl et al (1985).<br />

One school of thought suggests that we over-emphasis the importance of <strong>in</strong>dividual<br />

leaders and an <strong>in</strong>dividual might step up and display leadership characteristics or step<br />

back and let someone else take the lead depend<strong>in</strong>g on the moment. In this way,<br />

leadership is broadly distributed amongst organisational members who ga<strong>in</strong> their<br />

platform to lead due to their unique perspectives, capabilities, and knowledge (Pearce<br />

and Conger, 2002).<br />

Additionally, the constantly evolv<strong>in</strong>g organisational context impacts significantly on<br />

leadership. In fact, Perrow (1970) put forward that ‘leadership style is a dependent<br />

variable… the sett<strong>in</strong>g or task is the <strong>in</strong>dependent variable’. This suggests that<br />

leadership will be extensively shaped by organisational characteristics.<br />

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While the importance of the role of <strong>in</strong>dividual leaders tends to be over-estimated the<br />

significance of leadership itself should never be underestimated. Gr<strong>in</strong>t (2005)<br />

believes we have become overly pre-occupied with <strong>in</strong>dividual leaders when, <strong>in</strong> fact,<br />

we should have been focus<strong>in</strong>g more on leadership. As a result he urges us to “put the<br />

ship back <strong>in</strong>to leadership”.<br />

An important means of do<strong>in</strong>g this is to recognize that leadership is a dynamic<br />

relationship between leaders and followers that is constantly be<strong>in</strong>g negotiated,<br />

ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>ed, challenged, threatened and dissipated. It is not someth<strong>in</strong>g that, once it<br />

has been created, has been achieved. <strong>Leadership</strong> can be both a very fragile and a<br />

highly durable th<strong>in</strong>g. Much depends on the followers. As a result, the <strong>in</strong>fluence of a<br />

leader can be felt both before they assume the role and long after they have left it.<br />

This tendency has been graphically displayed on a global basis with the recent pass<strong>in</strong>g<br />

of Pope John Paul II.<br />

3.2.2 The chang<strong>in</strong>g nature of leadership<br />

As our environment, both locally and globally, is constantly <strong>in</strong> a state of flux leaders<br />

require a diverse range of competencies to successfully negotiate their way. Leaders<br />

are required that are able to walk <strong>in</strong> many worlds, constructively engag<strong>in</strong>g with<br />

diverse stakeholders that hold quite different cultural values and norms without<br />

compromis<strong>in</strong>g their cultural philosophies. Graen and Hui (1999) argue that the<br />

perceptions of what it means to be a ‘global leader’ are chang<strong>in</strong>g. No longer are<br />

‘geocentric globetrotters’ who are transferred from country to country to manage<br />

foreign operations seen as be<strong>in</strong>g the exemplar of the global leader. Instead, they<br />

argue that the new global leader will need to be what they describe as a ‘transcultural<br />

creative leader’.<br />

In societies such as New Zealand which have become <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>gly culturally diverse<br />

it is important that this new generation of leader be developed to not only work<br />

<strong>in</strong>ternationally but also with<strong>in</strong> their own national contexts (Thomas, 2001).<br />

Transcultural creative leaders are people who can learn how to transcend their<br />

childhood acculturation and respect very different cultures; they can build crosscultural<br />

partnerships of mutual trust, respect, and obligation; they actively engage <strong>in</strong><br />

cross-cultural problem-solv<strong>in</strong>g conflicts; and they help to construct new cultures <strong>in</strong><br />

various operations.<br />

<strong>Maori</strong> leaders have the added challenge of negotiat<strong>in</strong>g the dynamically <strong>in</strong>teract<strong>in</strong>g<br />

<strong>in</strong>fluences of traditional <strong>Maori</strong> values and leadership pr<strong>in</strong>ciples and those of<br />

ma<strong>in</strong>stream contemporary society. With the benefit of a lifetime negotiat<strong>in</strong>g a plural<br />

existence <strong>in</strong> NZ, <strong>Maori</strong> may have built considerable capacity <strong>in</strong> the area. Anecdotal<br />

evidence suggests that <strong>Maori</strong> exporters for example have ga<strong>in</strong>ed traction more quickly<br />

due to their transcultural creative leadership capabilities. Whatever the case, <strong>Maori</strong><br />

that lead through traditional pr<strong>in</strong>ciples while manag<strong>in</strong>g this <strong>in</strong>terface may be the mark<br />

of leadership success.<br />

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3.2.3 Traditional pr<strong>in</strong>ciples <strong>in</strong> contemporary leadership<br />

If we are go<strong>in</strong>g to consider <strong>in</strong>ternational leadership models to help develop <strong>Maori</strong><br />

leaders, it is important to access these models to see where they fall short along these<br />

pr<strong>in</strong>ciples. Possibly the most impressive contemporary <strong>in</strong>ternational leadership model<br />

was developed by the GLOBE Project (House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta,<br />

2004). It attempts to develop a truly <strong>in</strong>ternational theory of leadership, measur<strong>in</strong>g<br />

culture (along n<strong>in</strong>e dimensions) and its impact on leadership (which is measured<br />

along with six major dimensions and 21 sub-scales). A representation of the GLOBE<br />

model can be seen below 1 .<br />

Figure 1. The GLOBE leadership model<br />

Although not a direct fit, some of the GLOBE’s dimension and sub-scales may have<br />

some aff<strong>in</strong>ity to the Pumanawa model as described <strong>in</strong> section 2.0. Some aspects of the<br />

Pumanawa model have not been considered by the GLOBE model, which <strong>in</strong>dicates a<br />

possible contribution that <strong>Maori</strong> leadership th<strong>in</strong>k<strong>in</strong>g can make to <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

leadership theory.<br />

1 The Charismatic III (self sacrificial) sub-scale is not <strong>in</strong>cluded <strong>in</strong> this diagram.<br />

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Comparison between the Pumanawa model and the GLOBE model<br />

The Pumanawa model<br />

The GLOBE model<br />

1 Manage, mediate and settle disputes to<br />

uphold unity of the group<br />

2 Ensure every member of the group is<br />

provided base needs and ensures their<br />

growth<br />

3 Bravery and courage to uphold the<br />

rights of hapu and iwi<br />

4 Lead<strong>in</strong>g the community forward,<br />

improv<strong>in</strong>g its economic base and its<br />

mana<br />

5 Need for a wider vision and a more<br />

general education than is required for<br />

every day matters<br />

Diplomatic: W<strong>in</strong>/w<strong>in</strong> problem solver<br />

and mediator.<br />

Collaborative team orientation: Grouporientated,<br />

collaborative, consultative<br />

and mediator<br />

Visionary: Foresight, future orientation,<br />

prepared, anticipatory, plans ahead,<br />

able to anticipate<br />

Visionary: Foresight, future orientation,<br />

prepared, anticipatory, plans ahead,<br />

able to anticipate<br />

6 Hospitality Humane orientation: Generous<br />

7 Led and successfully complete Adm<strong>in</strong>istratively competent<br />

community projects<br />

8 Know the traditions and culture of their Team <strong>in</strong>tegrator: Informed<br />

people, and the wider community<br />

Peter Cammock, a New Zealand scholar captures the essence of leadership that future<br />

leaders will need to recognise and master when he states, “<strong>Leadership</strong> is a dance, <strong>in</strong><br />

which leaders and followers jo<strong>in</strong>tly respond to the rhythm and call for a particular<br />

social context, with<strong>in</strong> which leaders draw from deep wells of collective experience<br />

and energy, to engage followers around transform<strong>in</strong>g visions of change and lead them<br />

<strong>in</strong> the collective creation of compell<strong>in</strong>g futures” (2002).<br />

3.2.4 Strategic leadership<br />

Strategic leaders are those situated at the organisational apex, with overall<br />

responsibility for the organisation, its members, and its relationship with the wider<br />

community. This <strong>in</strong>cludes the CEO, directors, top-level managers and board<br />

members. Only a small proportion of the leadership research (less than 5%) explores<br />

executive-level leadership - most focus on leadership at lower organisational levels<br />

assum<strong>in</strong>g the process of leadership is the same at both levels (Zaccaro and Horn,<br />

2003). However, what it suggests is that strategic leadership is dist<strong>in</strong>ct and needs to be<br />

approached differently.<br />

One key difference is that the strategic leadership process is usually carried out by a<br />

team, not a s<strong>in</strong>gle leader (Story, 2005). Driven by the realisation that one person may<br />

not possess all the required knowledge, this team leads collectively. Different team<br />

members take the lead depend<strong>in</strong>g on the moment and their areas of expertise. In this<br />

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way, the leadership practices of the whole leadership team supports the figurehead of<br />

the organisation.<br />

This concept of leadership as a collective process br<strong>in</strong>gs to the forefront a new set of<br />

issues for leadership effectiveness. Paramount is the leader’s fit, both formally and<br />

<strong>in</strong>formally with<strong>in</strong> the collective. Fit <strong>in</strong>cludes both complementary areas of expertise<br />

and the <strong>in</strong>terpersonal relationships between team members. This is made more<br />

difficult as due to an organisation’s ambiguous environment, the high stakes that are<br />

played for these relationships are typically contentious and conflict often arises.<br />

Handl<strong>in</strong>g conflict <strong>in</strong> a healthy, open manner by facilitat<strong>in</strong>g appropriate debate is an<br />

essential for leadership effectiveness.<br />

Healthy relationships between members of the leadership team are also pivotal to the<br />

strategic leadership process. This is particularly important as the need for strategic<br />

leadership is often discussed <strong>in</strong> terms of status and character a leader can br<strong>in</strong>g to an<br />

organisation. Story (2005) refers to this as reputation capital and suggests that how<br />

stakeholders perceive an organisation’s figurehead can have a marked effect on<br />

organisation performance. In this respect leadership’s significance is difficult to<br />

overstate. The social construction of these leaders through role-modell<strong>in</strong>g and<br />

distance leadership (symbolic behaviour, stories, myths and rhetorical skills) is<br />

critical, and the leadership team plays an essential role by engag<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> distance<br />

leadership and image build<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

3.3 Strategic leadership development<br />

‘Are leaders born or made?’ This fundamental question still stimulates debate with<strong>in</strong><br />

the leadership community, and the jury is still out. However, explor<strong>in</strong>g this question<br />

doesn’t help us move forward on the issue at hand: namely, how to go about<br />

develop<strong>in</strong>g the next generation of leaders?<br />

With respect to the ways <strong>in</strong> which leadership is developed, it is widely acknowledged<br />

that leadership is someth<strong>in</strong>g that can be learned, primarily through experience. While<br />

often unobserved, past leadership tasks and relationship experiences mould leadership<br />

capacity, knowledge acquisition and the way leaders engage <strong>in</strong> the leadership process.<br />

Unfortunately, there are no short cuts when it comes to experience, although it’s clear<br />

that some experiences can be managed <strong>in</strong> such a way that leaders can ga<strong>in</strong> more<br />

<strong>in</strong>sight and knowledge.<br />

<strong>Leadership</strong> development has become a multi-billion global <strong>in</strong>dustry, with estimates of<br />

between $36 and $60 billion US dollars expended annually on management and<br />

leadership development (Burgoyne, 2004). However only a small proportion of this<br />

seems to be directed at strategic-level managers who are much less likely to undertake<br />

leadership development than their more junior colleagues (Zaccaro and Horn, 2003).<br />

The evaluation of the impact of this tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g is scant, and the research that has<br />

attempted to do just this has by no means been def<strong>in</strong>itive <strong>in</strong> its evaluation of the<br />

effectiveness of leadership development or able to isolate what types of leadership<br />

development are most effective. What’s more, no general models for the<br />

development of leadership skills exist.<br />

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<strong>Leadership</strong> development with<strong>in</strong> organisations has tended to take two major<br />

approaches: (1) formal <strong>in</strong>tervention (2) <strong>in</strong>formal activities.<br />

3.3.1 Formal <strong>in</strong>terventions<br />

Formal leadership development strategies take two approaches.<br />

1. Behavioural skills and awareness tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g that often <strong>in</strong>corporates behavioural<br />

psychology and <strong>in</strong>cludes develop<strong>in</strong>g effective communication, <strong>in</strong>terpersonal<br />

behaviour, decision-mak<strong>in</strong>g and attitude.<br />

2. Management development education that <strong>in</strong>cludes courses such as MBAs,<br />

executive programmes, short courses, coach<strong>in</strong>g, mentor<strong>in</strong>g, 360-degree<br />

appraisal mentor<strong>in</strong>g, experiential development, action learn<strong>in</strong>g and<br />

organisational development.<br />

It’s important to recognize that you cannot tra<strong>in</strong> leaders. You can, however, help to<br />

develop certa<strong>in</strong> behaviours and skills that can assist <strong>in</strong>dividuals <strong>in</strong> lead<strong>in</strong>g others.<br />

Tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>terpersonal communication skills, presentations skills, decision-mak<strong>in</strong>g<br />

skills and facilitation skills can be very helpful. But these are merely means to an end.<br />

Many leaders have got by without fully (or even partially!) develop<strong>in</strong>g these skills.<br />

What’s really important is the ability to cont<strong>in</strong>ually learn from ones experiences.<br />

Education can play a part here <strong>in</strong> that it can provide us with new and challeng<strong>in</strong>g<br />

ways of look<strong>in</strong>g and conceptualis<strong>in</strong>g our and other’s experiences. But, like tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g,<br />

it’s better treated as a means not an end to leadership development. It also needs to be<br />

situated <strong>in</strong> a planned and <strong>in</strong>tegrated model of leadership development (Cacioppe,<br />

1998).<br />

There has been a move towards leadership development that focuses on <strong>in</strong>terpersonal<br />

development with<strong>in</strong> organisations, particularly that which fosters frequent activity and<br />

<strong>in</strong>teraction (Day, 2000). Such development emphasises an ‘anywhere-any time’<br />

approach (James & Burgoyne, 2001), and <strong>in</strong>cludes processes that ensure that learn<strong>in</strong>g<br />

is organisationally focused and aligned with corporate strategy (Fulmer & Wagner,<br />

1999; Fulmer et al. 2000) such as: action learn<strong>in</strong>g, coach<strong>in</strong>g and mentor<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

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Key formal leadership development <strong>in</strong>terventions<br />

Mentor<strong>in</strong>g Mentor<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>volves leaders receiv<strong>in</strong>g support, either formally or<br />

<strong>in</strong>formally, from someone who has more experience or knowledge<br />

with<strong>in</strong> the organisation or community. Research <strong>in</strong>dicates that those<br />

who are mentored subsequently ga<strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong> competency (Wales, 2003) and<br />

get more promotions (Darw<strong>in</strong>, 2000). Ways that mentors pave the way<br />

for their protégés’ success <strong>in</strong>clude: provid<strong>in</strong>g them with opportunities,<br />

suggest<strong>in</strong>g strategies to achieve work objectives, help<strong>in</strong>g them avoid<br />

situations that might be risky for their careers, offer<strong>in</strong>g emotional<br />

support and build<strong>in</strong>g their confidence.<br />

Coach<strong>in</strong>g Coach<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>volves custom-tailored one-on-one leadership development.<br />

This may be aimed at address<strong>in</strong>g a specific issue or as an on-go<strong>in</strong>g<br />

cont<strong>in</strong>uous process. It usually <strong>in</strong>volves an assessment of the leader’s<br />

strengths and weaknesses along with a comprehensive plan for<br />

improvement. Research suggests that follow<strong>in</strong>g up a standardised<br />

tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g programme with customised one-on-one coach<strong>in</strong>g is highly<br />

beneficial (Olivero, Bane & Chapman, Best).<br />

Action Action learn<strong>in</strong>g is a cont<strong>in</strong>uous process of learn<strong>in</strong>g and reflection that is<br />

Learn<strong>in</strong>g supported by organisational stakeholders. Its emphasis is on gett<strong>in</strong>g<br />

th<strong>in</strong>gs done by focus<strong>in</strong>g leadership learn<strong>in</strong>g on real organisational<br />

scenarios (Marquardt). Its underly<strong>in</strong>g assumption is that leaders<br />

develop most effectively when they are work<strong>in</strong>g on real organisational<br />

problems. Action learn<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>volves a leader com<strong>in</strong>g together with a<br />

group of colleagues and work<strong>in</strong>g on a real problem fac<strong>in</strong>g the<br />

organisation. After a solution is agreed upon, the leader puts it <strong>in</strong>to<br />

action. A coach often facilitates this process.<br />

3.3.2 Informal activities<br />

Much of the skills essential for effective leadership are learned from experience rather<br />

than formal tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g programes (McCall et al, 1988). This on-the-job leadership<br />

learn<strong>in</strong>g may be through experiences encountered due to leadership roles,<br />

responsibilities and tasks, or naturalist learn<strong>in</strong>g through emergent or un<strong>in</strong>tended<br />

events. Several studies have shown that learn<strong>in</strong>g from experience is affected by the<br />

amount of challenge, variety of task or assignments, and the quality of feedback that<br />

is received by the participants. Organisations that facilitate diverse experiences,<br />

people to observe, and roles to enact excel provide a good backdrop for <strong>in</strong>formal<br />

leadership learn<strong>in</strong>g (Conger, 2004).<br />

Three major activities that facilitate leadership learn<strong>in</strong>g experiences have been<br />

identified by McCall, Morrison and Lombardo (1988): job assignments (60% of<br />

lessons), notable people (20% of lessons) and hardship (20% of lessons).<br />

Contextualis<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>formal leadership learn<strong>in</strong>g with formal <strong>in</strong>terventions such as<br />

mentor<strong>in</strong>g or coach<strong>in</strong>g is likely to result <strong>in</strong> effective leadership development and to<br />

enhance learn<strong>in</strong>g (James & Burgoyne, 2001).<br />

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Informal activities that facilitate leadership learn<strong>in</strong>g<br />

Job<br />

assignments<br />

Notable<br />

people<br />

Hardship<br />

<strong>Leadership</strong> development often occurs when leaders are given tasks<br />

beyond their current capabilities (Smith and Morphey). Receiv<strong>in</strong>g<br />

challeng<strong>in</strong>g job assignments requires leaders to learn and extend their<br />

current knowledge or skill base to meet the requirements of the<br />

assignment. The more challeng<strong>in</strong>g the job assignment, the more likely<br />

the leader will develop, mov<strong>in</strong>g beyond their exist<strong>in</strong>g skills and<br />

knowledge (McCauley, 1986). This may be due to new circumstances,<br />

lack of current knowledge or skills, pressure or <strong>in</strong>terpersonal conflict.<br />

Challenges may <strong>in</strong>clude: be<strong>in</strong>g challenged to fix a problem, manag<strong>in</strong>g a<br />

task force, hav<strong>in</strong>g a change <strong>in</strong> scope of job responsibilities, build<strong>in</strong>g<br />

someth<strong>in</strong>g from noth<strong>in</strong>g, switch<strong>in</strong>g from a l<strong>in</strong>e to a staff position and<br />

job rotation.<br />

Observ<strong>in</strong>g and <strong>in</strong>teract<strong>in</strong>g with notable people assist with leadership<br />

development as they may develop a greater understand<strong>in</strong>g of key<br />

leadership competencies, values and politics.<br />

<strong>Leadership</strong> development can occur when leaders face hardship.<br />

Learn<strong>in</strong>g occurs when a leader confronts these adverse circumstances<br />

by be<strong>in</strong>g reflective, which may result <strong>in</strong> a heightened awareness of their<br />

shortcom<strong>in</strong>gs, a clearer view of themselves, compassion and tolerance<br />

of others’ shortcom<strong>in</strong>gs, and an effort to redirect oneself. Hardships<br />

may <strong>in</strong>clude: personal trauma, career setbacks, chang<strong>in</strong>g jobs, bus<strong>in</strong>ess<br />

mistakes and subord<strong>in</strong>ate performance problems.<br />

3.4 Corporate governance<br />

Like leadership, corporate governance has also experienced a recent boom. It is the<br />

subject of wide academic pursuit culm<strong>in</strong>at<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> numerous books, journals,<br />

conference papers, encyclopedias, and degrees. Also a hot topic <strong>in</strong> bus<strong>in</strong>ess, it has<br />

generated many consultancies, and at a national level, the OECD (2003) advises that<br />

almost all of its member nations are currently revis<strong>in</strong>g their corporate governance<br />

practices or have recently done so. All of this activity, at many levels and spann<strong>in</strong>g<br />

over many fields, has blurred exactly what the term corporate governance entails.<br />

The huge array of def<strong>in</strong>itions of corporate governance def<strong>in</strong>itions, each <strong>in</strong>fluenced by<br />

the authors various perspective and discipl<strong>in</strong>e demonstrates this. One broad def<strong>in</strong>ition<br />

often seen <strong>in</strong> the literature suggests corporate governance is “a set of relationships<br />

between a company’s management, its board, its shareholders and other stakeholders.<br />

Corporate governance also provides the structure through which the objectives of the<br />

company are set, and the means of atta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g those objectives, and monitor<strong>in</strong>g<br />

performance are determ<strong>in</strong>ed” (OECD, 1999). Components of this def<strong>in</strong>ition that are<br />

worth emphasis<strong>in</strong>g are: corporate governance is relational; it exists between a broad<br />

group of organisational stakeholders; and the criterion for effective corporate<br />

governance is effective goal sett<strong>in</strong>g, implementation, and monitor<strong>in</strong>g for compliance<br />

and accountability.<br />

One important area this def<strong>in</strong>ition does not touch on is an organisation’s ethic and the<br />

culture promoted by the leadership team. Good corporate governance will provide a<br />

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structure that encourages open and honest communication between those with<strong>in</strong> the<br />

system. Foster<strong>in</strong>g a climate of social responsibility can be an effective tool for<br />

ensur<strong>in</strong>g the success of a corporate governance system, however there is no assurance<br />

of this. Corporate governance structures only act as a safety net, align<strong>in</strong>g stakeholder<br />

activities with organisational objectives and ensur<strong>in</strong>g compliance.<br />

As current bus<strong>in</strong>ess trends and the focus for <strong>Maori</strong> economic development look<br />

<strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>gly to the <strong>in</strong>ternational market, it seems appropriate to consider <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

governance systems for <strong>Maori</strong> organisations. However, governance must be attuned to<br />

cultural factors and these models do not take <strong>in</strong>to account the unique set of operat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

factors fac<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Maori</strong> <strong>in</strong> governance such as <strong>in</strong>stitutional/circumstance-related<br />

idiosyncrasies that change the landscape for <strong>Maori</strong>, e.g. <strong>Maori</strong> land regimes.<br />

International models are likely to be <strong>in</strong> discord with these factors that must be<br />

successfully negotiated and <strong>in</strong>corporated with<strong>in</strong> corporate governance structures. As<br />

Kev<strong>in</strong> Keasey, Steve Thompson, and Mike Wright’s (2005) note, “good<br />

governance… is an abstraction that commands near-universal respect but diverse<br />

<strong>in</strong>terpretation”. Consider<strong>in</strong>g the different types of corporate governance<br />

<strong>in</strong>ternationally may be useful benchmark<strong>in</strong>g activity for identify<strong>in</strong>g what type of the<br />

structure will best meet the unique requirement for <strong>Maori</strong> governance.<br />

In the past, one dist<strong>in</strong>ct characteristic of North American organisations’ corporate<br />

governance structures was the conflation of the leadership positions of a board’s Chair<br />

and CEO. Those advocat<strong>in</strong>g this governance structure suggest that effective<br />

organisations lodge ultimate leadership and accountability <strong>in</strong> a s<strong>in</strong>gle place, and that<br />

any reduction <strong>in</strong> the power of the CEO may result <strong>in</strong> risk adversity. F<strong>in</strong>ancial fraud<br />

and asset misappropriation at companies such as Enron have caused the re-evaluation<br />

of this system. Along with a range of f<strong>in</strong>ancial report<strong>in</strong>g checks and balances, new<br />

requirements imposed on public companies <strong>in</strong>clude <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g the number of<br />

<strong>in</strong>dependent board members. As <strong>Maori</strong> organisations embark down an <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>gly<br />

corporate track, explor<strong>in</strong>g the various forms of corporate governance structures is of<br />

direct importance to the <strong>Maori</strong> experience, now and <strong>in</strong> the future.<br />

Another governance structure, also spawned by corporate collapse and scandals,<br />

public companies <strong>in</strong> the UK are required to have clear divisions of responsibilities at<br />

the top of their organisations. By and large their boards <strong>in</strong>clude a balance of executive<br />

and non-executive directors and an <strong>in</strong>dependent audit committee is required. This<br />

aims to stop an <strong>in</strong>dividual from becom<strong>in</strong>g too dom<strong>in</strong>ant, safeguard<strong>in</strong>g the organisation<br />

from potential opportunism. However, there is no evidence confirm<strong>in</strong>g that separat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

these leadership roles ensures a more effective organisation overall.<br />

In the Harvard Bus<strong>in</strong>ess Review, William T. Allen and William R. Berkley argue that<br />

boards can enhance CEOs accountability without dim<strong>in</strong>ish<strong>in</strong>g their role. They suggest<br />

“separat<strong>in</strong>g the roles of chief executive and chairman of the board may harm the very<br />

stakeholders advocates hope to protect” (p. 24). This is because it views corporate<br />

governance only as a performance monitor<strong>in</strong>g system. It neglects to consider it as a<br />

wider system embody<strong>in</strong>g a wide range of activities <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g sett<strong>in</strong>g organisational<br />

objectives and the means to atta<strong>in</strong> those objectives.<br />

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International organisations 2 have carried out benchmark<strong>in</strong>g exercises reconcil<strong>in</strong>g the<br />

<strong>in</strong>ternationally these type of <strong>in</strong>ternationally diverse op<strong>in</strong>ions. Instead of explor<strong>in</strong>g<br />

each of these pr<strong>in</strong>ciples, they are synthesized and presented <strong>in</strong> the follow<strong>in</strong>g table.<br />

Guid<strong>in</strong>g corporate governance pr<strong>in</strong>ciples<br />

Organisational transparency – ensur<strong>in</strong>g the timely and accurate disclosure of all<br />

organisational concerns <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g f<strong>in</strong>ancial situation, performance, ownership<br />

and governance.<br />

Protection and enforceability of all shareholders’ rights, equitable treatment and<br />

prerogatives.<br />

Recognis<strong>in</strong>g the rights of stakeholders established by law or through mutual<br />

agreements and encourag<strong>in</strong>g active co-operation between corporations and<br />

stakeholders <strong>in</strong> creat<strong>in</strong>g wealth, jobs and the susta<strong>in</strong>ability of f<strong>in</strong>ancially sound<br />

enterprises.<br />

Directors capable of <strong>in</strong>dependently approv<strong>in</strong>g the corporation's strategy and<br />

major bus<strong>in</strong>ess plans and decisions.<br />

The <strong>in</strong>dependent hir<strong>in</strong>g of management, monitor<strong>in</strong>g of management's<br />

performance and <strong>in</strong>tegrity, and replac<strong>in</strong>g management when necessary.<br />

Ensur<strong>in</strong>g the company’s strategic guidance, the board’s effective monitor<strong>in</strong>g of<br />

management, and accountability to the company and the shareholders by the<br />

board.<br />

3.4.1 A basic corporate governance framework<br />

The OECD offers a basic framework for effective corporate governance developed by<br />

its member nations. This framework provides some useful guidel<strong>in</strong>es for develop<strong>in</strong>g<br />

corporate governance structures.<br />

The corporate governance framework should be developed with a view to its<br />

impact on overall economic performance, market <strong>in</strong>tegrity and the <strong>in</strong>centives it<br />

creates for market participants and the promotion of transparent and efficient<br />

markets.<br />

The legal and regulatory requirements that affect corporate governance practices<br />

<strong>in</strong> a jurisdiction should be consistent with the rule of law, transparent and<br />

enforceable.<br />

The division of responsibilities among different authorities <strong>in</strong> a jurisdiction<br />

should be clearly articulated and ensure that the public <strong>in</strong>terest is served.<br />

Supervisory, regulatory and enforcement authorities should have the authority,<br />

<strong>in</strong>tegrity and resources to fulfil their duties <strong>in</strong> a professional and objective<br />

manner. Moreover, their rul<strong>in</strong>gs should be timely, transparent and fully expla<strong>in</strong>ed.<br />

(OECD, 2004, p. 17).<br />

2 OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), ECGI (European Corporate<br />

<strong>Governance</strong> Institute) and the World Bank are presented <strong>in</strong> the table below.<br />

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3.5 Strategies to <strong>in</strong>tegrate leadership and governance<br />

So what exactly is the difference between leadership and governance? The l<strong>in</strong>es can<br />

seem blurred but they are dist<strong>in</strong>ct.<br />

Corporate governance is the organisational framework that leadership exists with<strong>in</strong>.<br />

While leadership <strong>in</strong>fluences a group’s activities towards achiev<strong>in</strong>g certa<strong>in</strong> goals, a<br />

governance structure moulds these activities, prescrib<strong>in</strong>g the rules, responsibilities<br />

and procedures by which leaders must abide. A useful analogy is the human body:<br />

governance is the body’s bones and organs provid<strong>in</strong>g the essential structure and<br />

direct<strong>in</strong>g the flow; leadership is the blood or the life force with<strong>in</strong> this structure that<br />

provides the spark and keeps the body mov<strong>in</strong>g. They are complementary and both<br />

essential for organisational effectiveness.<br />

Very little <strong>in</strong>formation exists on how one might effectively <strong>in</strong>tegrate leadership and<br />

governance, or how the two can exist <strong>in</strong> a good state of equilibrium. However, the<br />

<strong>in</strong>formation that exists gives us a steer on several issues addressed <strong>in</strong> this report.<br />

CEO duality<br />

This body of literature suggests that although some benefits may be afforded, such as<br />

clear l<strong>in</strong>es of report<strong>in</strong>g authority and hav<strong>in</strong>g a central organised spokesperson (Daily &<br />

Dalton, 1993), overall, the literature <strong>in</strong>dicates it is problematic. Therefore, it is<br />

recommended that governance structures <strong>in</strong> <strong>Maori</strong> organisations do not allow one<br />

person to carry out these dist<strong>in</strong>ct roles.<br />

Top Management Teams (TMT) <br />

Research suggests the advantage of well function<strong>in</strong>g leadership teams is due to hav<strong>in</strong>g<br />

access to a greater diversity of resources and skills. Therefore, where appropriate, it<br />

may be advantageous for <strong>Maori</strong> organisations’ governance structures to accommodate<br />

leadership teams <strong>in</strong>stead of s<strong>in</strong>gle leaders.<br />

Boards of Directors<br />

The size and composition of boards of directors are likely to be important for <strong>Maori</strong><br />

organisations. Research suggests that board <strong>in</strong>dependence has a positive correlation<br />

with firm performance (Daily & Dalton, 1993). Additionally, it may be advantageous<br />

for organisations with greater needs for effective l<strong>in</strong>kages to the external environment<br />

to have larger boards (Pfeffer & Salancik, 1978), which would provide a more diverse<br />

skill-bank for the organisation to draw from.<br />

This report section conta<strong>in</strong>s some debate and guidel<strong>in</strong>es to be considered <strong>in</strong> the quest<br />

for build<strong>in</strong>g effective leadership <strong>in</strong> governance with<strong>in</strong> <strong>Maori</strong> organisations. The<br />

expansive <strong>in</strong>ternational literature shows the advantage of <strong>Maori</strong> selectively borrow<strong>in</strong>g<br />

from what proves useful and f<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g their own unique path, as culturally attuned<br />

leadership and governance will have the best chance of success.<br />

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4.0 Situational analysis <strong>in</strong> New Zealand<br />

The first section of this report has been grounded (and rightly so) <strong>in</strong> the traditional<br />

pr<strong>in</strong>ciples of <strong>Maori</strong> leadership. This provided the backdrop or framework for our<br />

discussion on leadership and governance <strong>in</strong>ternal best practice and provides us with<br />

the ability to better understand the types of models and practices that may well be<br />

suited to contemporary <strong>Maori</strong> leadership and governance.<br />

This section of the report exam<strong>in</strong>es the current generic practices <strong>in</strong> New Zealand from<br />

with<strong>in</strong> the Public sector, private sector and academia.<br />

4.1 Contemporary tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> leadership <strong>in</strong> governance<br />

4.1.1 Public and private sector<br /> Introduction<br />

In undertak<strong>in</strong>g a review of contemporary leadership and governance tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g with<strong>in</strong><br />

the public and private sector, the project team focus has been on organisations that<br />

were large enough to offer such support to their staff. For the <strong>in</strong>terests of economy<br />

and ease of access to the report writers, public sector and private sector companies <strong>in</strong><br />

Well<strong>in</strong>gton were the focus of our review.<br />

This is particularly appropriate for public sector organisations, given the central<br />

location of all of the public sector head offices. For the private sector, AXA and<br />

Telecom were chosen as representative organisations.<br />

The follow<strong>in</strong>g is a distillation of the results of <strong>in</strong>terviews with tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g providers <strong>in</strong><br />

the organisations as a snapshot of the current provision of “<strong>Leadership</strong> and<br />

<strong>Governance</strong>” tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g and the consciousness and understand<strong>in</strong>g we detected.<br /> Key issues<br />

(i)<br />

<strong>Leadership</strong> as a focus<br />

<strong>Leadership</strong> was generally recognised as a real need for the organisation. However, <strong>in</strong><br />

some organisations leadership was undifferentiated from management tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g.<br />

In the organisations sampled, programmes have been developed to foster leadership <strong>in</strong><br />

staff and there were a number of well documented, and well-designed <strong>in</strong>itiatives.<br />

However, leadership tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>itiatives tended to run up aga<strong>in</strong>st some different issues<br />

with respect to other tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>itiatives that were developed and delivered by the HR<br />

departments with<strong>in</strong> the organisations, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g the size of the cohort, as discussed<br />

below.<br />

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(ii)<br />

Small cohorts<br />

Almost by def<strong>in</strong>ition leaders are a much smaller cohort than followers. Therefore, the<br />

nature of leadership tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g (and support) is more of an <strong>in</strong>dividual tailored<br />

programme, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g access to experiential opportunities.<br />

This has been recognised by the public service who have collaborated together to<br />

form the <strong>Leadership</strong> Development Centre (“LDC”), which collects the <strong>in</strong>dividuals<br />

from all departments and br<strong>in</strong>gs together the opportunities on a central basis. This<br />

allows the specialist and unique skill base and programme development to be shared<br />

across a wider cohort.<br />

The LDC was held <strong>in</strong> high regard by the contribut<strong>in</strong>g departments and was very<br />

helpful <strong>in</strong> distill<strong>in</strong>g and describ<strong>in</strong>g the core issues for leadership development (at least<br />

<strong>in</strong> the public sector sense).<br />

(iii)<br />

<strong>Leadership</strong> as a dw<strong>in</strong>dl<strong>in</strong>g resource<br />

This is a concern for <strong>Maori</strong> and one recognised by the Hui Taumata <strong>in</strong> its<br />

identification of a grow<strong>in</strong>g need for “leadership” with<strong>in</strong> <strong>Maori</strong>dom. Further, the<br />

Treasury paper to the Hui Taumata highlighted the need for leadership and<br />

<strong>Governance</strong> for New Zealand productive bus<strong>in</strong>ess and for <strong>Maori</strong> with<strong>in</strong> that<br />

framework.<br />

The LDC and Treasury highlighted that there are two forces operat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> New<br />

Zealand that reduce the opportunity for managers or leaders to expand their<br />

knowledge and experience base: -<br />

a) A narrow<strong>in</strong>g of opportunity <strong>in</strong> the public services; and<br />

b) A reduction <strong>in</strong> the number of private sector bus<strong>in</strong>esses with a head office <strong>in</strong><br />

New Zealand<br />

Public Sector opportunities for <strong>Maori</strong><br />

There are two drivers fac<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Maori</strong> <strong>in</strong> the Public Sector: -<br />

a) Flatten<strong>in</strong>g of management structures<br />

With<strong>in</strong> the Public Service the flatten<strong>in</strong>g of management structures has reduced<br />

the number and range of management opportunities and the adversity to risk of<br />

managers has limited the opportunities for managers to expand their<br />

experience.<br />

This largely derived from the “flatten<strong>in</strong>g of corporate structures <strong>in</strong> the 80s and<br />

90s result<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> a more technically task orientated public service. The<br />

concurrent separation of policy from operations has further impacted <strong>in</strong> that<br />

career pathways have been significantly narrowed.<br />

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Hui Taumata <strong>Leadership</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>Governance</strong> Scop<strong>in</strong>g Paper 25

As a result, a public service manager may reach senior management with only<br />

a very narrow experience. For example, a senior manager <strong>in</strong> the Justice<br />

Department may only have experience <strong>in</strong> that department, further that may be<br />

only <strong>in</strong> the courts and with<strong>in</strong> courts only <strong>in</strong> the family court. In addition, their<br />

only experience may have been analys<strong>in</strong>g and develop<strong>in</strong>g policy. They may<br />

never have had operational experience or team leadership or staff<br />

management. Thus many public service managers may well have a very<br />

narrow career experience prior to ascend<strong>in</strong>g to senior management positions.<br />

b) Under-representation of <strong>Maori</strong> <strong>in</strong> Public Sector head offices<br />

Many <strong>Maori</strong> get their career starts and the beg<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>gs of their management, if<br />

not leadership, tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g with<strong>in</strong> the Public Service.<br />

However, <strong>Maori</strong> are under represented <strong>in</strong> Well<strong>in</strong>gton where 85% of senior<br />

Public Service managers are deployed and where the candidates for leadership<br />

tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g are predom<strong>in</strong>antly selected. In contrast, <strong>Maori</strong> are over represented <strong>in</strong><br />

the regions at lower levels <strong>in</strong> the regional offices.<br />

Many of these <strong>Maori</strong> <strong>in</strong> lower to middle management positions exit from these<br />

roles to take up positions with<strong>in</strong> <strong>Maori</strong> bus<strong>in</strong>ess and other <strong>Maori</strong><br />

organisations. Thus they exit the public service prior to receiv<strong>in</strong>g the upper<br />

level management and leadership tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g.<br />

Private Sector opportunities for <strong>Maori</strong><br />

There are similar challenges <strong>in</strong> the Private Sector opportunities. The Treasury paper<br />

to the Hui Taumata po<strong>in</strong>ted to the grow<strong>in</strong>g trend for bus<strong>in</strong>ess to relocate head offices<br />

overseas as a result of corporate takeovers and restructur<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> New Zealand. As a<br />

result: -<br />

a) The corporate functions of HR development <strong>in</strong> the private sector has tended to<br />

exit New Zealand and thereby deprive New Zealanders of opportunities <strong>in</strong> the<br />

cutt<strong>in</strong>g edge of development and delivery of those programmes; and<br />

b) There is less likelihood of <strong>Maori</strong> and “New Zealand cultural “flavour” with<strong>in</strong><br />

these International generic programmes.<br />

Therefore, at the time that <strong>Maori</strong>dom is recognis<strong>in</strong>g an <strong>in</strong>creas<strong>in</strong>g need for leadership<br />

there are decreas<strong>in</strong>g opportunities <strong>in</strong> both Public and Private Sector.<br />

(iv)<br />

<strong>Governance</strong> not well connected to leadership<br />

Our research found much lower focus on governance than leadership <strong>in</strong> New Zealand,<br />

predom<strong>in</strong>antly <strong>in</strong> the Public Service.<br />

This may well be because the well structured and audited discipl<strong>in</strong>es of the “Public<br />

Service” rules and regulations are well established and therefore <strong>in</strong> less need of<br />

specific focus.<br />

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Hui Taumata <strong>Leadership</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>Governance</strong> Scop<strong>in</strong>g Paper 26

Much of the discussion with the predom<strong>in</strong>antly HR personnel we met was vague on<br />

the concept of leadership IN governance. This was not foremost issue discussed with<br />

regard to the leadership programmes.<br />

However, the two are <strong>in</strong>tr<strong>in</strong>sically l<strong>in</strong>ked. The concept we have used to describe the<br />

relationship is that <strong>Governance</strong> forms the skeleton and muscles while leadership is the<br />

life force blood and breath.<br />

<strong>Governance</strong> provides the structure, rules and accountability while leadership f<strong>in</strong>ds the<br />

ways and means to progress with<strong>in</strong> the rules and where necessary and appropriate by<br />

modify<strong>in</strong>g the rules.<br />

Both are required together for the strength and health of the organisation.<br />

The ownership and responsibility of <strong>Governance</strong> and <strong>Leadership</strong> is often somewhat<br />

different. <strong>Governance</strong> is owned by the owners/shareholders/ or beneficiaries of the<br />

organisation and the rules and constra<strong>in</strong>ts they collectively put upon its leaders to curb<br />

the extreme adventures by the leaders on the people’s behalf.<br />

The leaders who develop their skills and talents (pumanawa) to assist the group as a<br />

whole to go through a process to set and then to obta<strong>in</strong> goals with<strong>in</strong> the cultural social<br />

and economic boundaries. These leaders own the leadership element.<br />

4.2 Situational analysis: Academic<br />

So do New Zealand’s academic <strong>in</strong>stitutions offer programmes and courses appropriate<br />

for develop<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Maori</strong> leadership? A survey of the academic <strong>in</strong>stitutions - from<br />

Universities - to Polytechnics - to Whangana - show a broad range of <strong>in</strong>itiatives.<br />

All Universities offer a broad range bus<strong>in</strong>ess programmes, <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g courses at the<br />

post-graduate (e.g. Ph.D, MBA, MMgt, PGDipBus) under-graduate (e.g. BBus, BA,<br />

BCA), diploma (e.g. NZDipBus) and certificate (e.g. NZCertBus) level. <strong>Maori</strong><br />

educational <strong>in</strong>stitutions such as the various Wananga and Whiterea Polytechnic also<br />

offer a range of bus<strong>in</strong>ess programmes. Some of these programmes specialise<br />

specifically <strong>in</strong> <strong>Maori</strong> Bus<strong>in</strong>ess. Particularly <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g are Te Wānanga-o-Raukawa<br />

courses which offer <strong>Maori</strong> specific courses <strong>in</strong> Adm<strong>in</strong>istration and Management which<br />

teach methods of manag<strong>in</strong>g both <strong>Maori</strong> and ma<strong>in</strong>stream organisations. Victoria<br />

University’s Certificate <strong>in</strong> <strong>Maori</strong> Bus<strong>in</strong>ess is noteworthy. A Certificate <strong>in</strong> Local<br />

<strong>Governance</strong> is offered by Te Whare Wananga o te Awanuiarangi.<br />

One degree offered at all New Zealand Universities and popular with<strong>in</strong> the bus<strong>in</strong>ess<br />

community is the MBA. These programmes provide bus<strong>in</strong>ess skill development,<br />

offer<strong>in</strong>g a toolbox of bus<strong>in</strong>ess models and techniques that will give strategic leaders<br />

<strong>in</strong>creased knowledge and decision-mak<strong>in</strong>g capacity <strong>in</strong> each core bus<strong>in</strong>ess function.<br />

Given the Hui Taumata’s call for <strong>in</strong>ternationalisation, one MBA course that might be<br />

of particular <strong>in</strong>terest is the University of Waikato’s International MBA. Also of note<br />

are Massey University’s <strong>Leadership</strong> papers at both under-graduate and post-graduate<br />

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Hui Taumata <strong>Leadership</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>Governance</strong> Scop<strong>in</strong>g Paper 27

level that exam<strong>in</strong>e the theory and practice of leadership, relevant to leaders across all<br />

areas of society.<br />

The Matauranga <strong>Maori</strong> programmes cover another important area of <strong>Maori</strong> leadership<br />

development. These are offered across the broad range of New Zealand academic<br />

<strong>in</strong>stitutions. They offer skill development for leadership <strong>in</strong> numerous areas <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g<br />

courses <strong>in</strong> Te Reo <strong>Maori</strong> and Tikanga <strong>Maori</strong>.<br />

A range of leadership short courses designed specifically for strategic leadership<br />

developments are offered by some Universities and some Management Institutes (e.g.<br />

the Institute for Strategic leadership, the New Zealand Institute of Management<br />

(NZIM), and Team Management Services). A strength of these courses is that they are<br />

attended by <strong>in</strong>dividuals from a wide range of New Zealand organisations so <strong>in</strong><br />

addition to acquir<strong>in</strong>g new skills and knowledge, they provide excellent opportunities<br />

to network share experiences, and learn from other leaders. The Institute for Strategic<br />

<strong>Leadership</strong>’s Tailored Solution’s course is <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g as it designs, implements and<br />

measures a specific leadership development plan that is aligned to an organisations’<br />

strategic agenda.<br />

The table below outl<strong>in</strong>es some course offered by academic <strong>in</strong>stitutions that would<br />

assist with <strong>Maori</strong> leadership development. Please note that this is not a complete<br />

guide to programmes and courses that develop leadership, but if gives a general idea<br />

about what is available form some of the key players 3 .<br />

3 The <strong>in</strong>formation <strong>in</strong> this table was ga<strong>in</strong>ed largely from the <strong>in</strong>stitution’s websites.<br />

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Hui Taumata <strong>Leadership</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>Governance</strong> Scop<strong>in</strong>g Paper 28

Programmes offer<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Maori</strong> leadership development<br />

Bus<strong>in</strong>ess Bus<strong>in</strong>ess Matauranga <strong>Maori</strong><br />

Prgms: Prgms: <strong>Maori</strong> Bus<strong>in</strong>ess<br />

Under + Cert & Prgms: prgms<br />

Post-grad Dip Under +<br />

Post-grad<br />

Akld Uni. of<br />

Tech<br />

Inst. Strategic<br />

<strong>Leadership</strong><br />

<strong>Leadership</strong><br />

Short<br />

Courses<br />

Region<br />

X X X X Akld<br />

X<br />

Akld<br />

Wn<br />

Chch<br />

Dn<br />

L<strong>in</strong>coln Uni X X X Chch<br />

Massey X X X X NZ wide<br />

University<br />

NZIM X Akld<br />

Te Wānangao-Aotearoa<br />

locations<br />

X X X X Multiple<br />

Te Wānangao-Raukawa<br />

X X X X Otaki<br />

Te Wānanga-<br />

X X X Whkn<br />

o-<br />

Wn<br />

Awanuiarangi<br />

Hmtn<br />

UNITEC X X X 4 X 5 Akld<br />

Uni. of Akld X X X X Akld<br />

Uni. of X X X X Chch<br />

Canterbury<br />

Uni. of Otago X X X Dn<br />

Uni. of X X X Hmltn<br />

Waikato<br />

Victoria Uni. X X X X X Wn<br />

of Wn<br />

Whiterea<br />

X X 6 Wn<br />

Polytechnic<br />

Key: NZ = New Zealand<br />

Akld = Auckland<br />

Hmtn = Hamilton<br />

Whkn = Whakatane<br />

Wn = Well<strong>in</strong>gton<br />

Chch = Christchurch<br />

Dn = Duned<strong>in</strong><br />

Prgms = Programmes<br />

Post-grad = Postgraduate<br />

Under-grad = Undergraduate<br />

4 Certificate level only<br />

5 Deferred <strong>in</strong> 2006<br />

6 Diploma and Certificate level only<br />

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Hui Taumata <strong>Leadership</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>Governance</strong> Scop<strong>in</strong>g Paper 29

5.0 Bridg<strong>in</strong>g the gaps<br />

A bridge: A structure spann<strong>in</strong>g and provid<strong>in</strong>g passage over a gap or barrier<br />

Currently, leadership and governance are important issues for <strong>Maori</strong>dom. This is<br />

reflected by Hui Taumata’s strong call for develop<strong>in</strong>g effective leadership and<br />

governance with the aim of facilitat<strong>in</strong>g the social, economic and political<br />

advancement of <strong>Maori</strong>dom. Effective leadership is the key for <strong>in</strong>itiat<strong>in</strong>g<br />

advancements and driv<strong>in</strong>g them forward. Good governance will ensure solid structure<br />

to hold them together. However, there is currently a broad a range of <strong>in</strong>dividuals <strong>in</strong><br />

leadership and governance roles who are not well equipped for these positions, fail<strong>in</strong>g<br />

to provide effective leadership or to create adequate governance structures. This leads<br />

to a variety of problems for <strong>Maori</strong>dom, rang<strong>in</strong>g from the under-utilisation of their<br />

exist<strong>in</strong>g economic resources to issues as to their read<strong>in</strong>ess to receive settlement assets.<br />

With some urgency, these issues must be addressed by be<strong>in</strong>g tackled head on.<br />

Earlier <strong>in</strong> this report, traditional <strong>Maori</strong> leadership pr<strong>in</strong>ciples, <strong>in</strong>ternational<br />

perspectives, and the contemporary application of leadership and governance with<strong>in</strong><br />

New Zealand were considered. Now, to create some synergy between this knowledge<br />

and the perspectives of the authors, we will explore possible alternatives for build<strong>in</strong>g<br />

bridges to ensure excellence <strong>in</strong> leadership and governance practices throughout<br />

<strong>Maori</strong>dom.<br />

5.1 Broad-based awareness and education<br />

Gap: A lack of awareness and understand<strong>in</strong>g of the roles, responsibilities, and<br />

guid<strong>in</strong>g pr<strong>in</strong>ciples of effective leadership and governance across all levels of<br />

<strong>Maori</strong>dom.<br />

Bridge: Develop programmes to raise awareness and educate a broad-spectrum of<br />

<strong>Maori</strong> on the guid<strong>in</strong>g pr<strong>in</strong>ciple of effective leadership and governance.<br />

As leadership is a process <strong>in</strong> which leaders and followers both play critically<br />

important roles, it is important to raise awareness and educate all of those that take<br />

part <strong>in</strong> this process. Both leaders and followers must be <strong>in</strong>formed and take<br />

responsibility for successful leadership and governance and as such, the first-base<br />

ethical pr<strong>in</strong>ciples of successful leadership, followership, and governance would be<br />

important components of this programme.<br />

Multiple programmes should be developed to be targeted the broad-spectrum of<br />

<strong>Maori</strong>dom. These programmes should focus on develop<strong>in</strong>g leadership and<br />

followership competencies that are particularly important for <strong>Maori</strong>dom. For<br />

example, programmes may <strong>in</strong>clude general values-based (e.g. tikanga) education. The<br />

programmes should raise awareness of leadership and followership expectations and<br />

set out clear goals and measure for success.<br />

Programmes should have multiple delivery mechanisms, and should travel to the<br />

people as well as provid<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>-house delivery. They should have follow up<br />

mechanisms and assist with the programmes implementation by provid<strong>in</strong>g case<br />

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Hui Taumata <strong>Leadership</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>Governance</strong> Scop<strong>in</strong>g Paper 30

studies and mentor<strong>in</strong>g. Tak<strong>in</strong>g part <strong>in</strong> the programmes should be a “two-way-street”<br />

and come at the cost of service, e.g. promot<strong>in</strong>g or rais<strong>in</strong>g awareness of the<br />

programmes, becom<strong>in</strong>g a programme tra<strong>in</strong>er (cascade model) and becom<strong>in</strong>g an agent<br />

of change via some other vehicle.<br />

The programmes should have strong market<strong>in</strong>g, focus<strong>in</strong>g on the <strong>in</strong>itiatives’ benefits.<br />

This could <strong>in</strong>clude: improvement <strong>in</strong> the way they conduct their affairs; able to move<br />

forward with greater ease; improvement <strong>in</strong> economic asset base; improvement <strong>in</strong><br />

service to their own people; and to make a big contribution to their iwi/New Zealand.<br />

5.2 Advanced leadership and governance development programmes<br />

Gap: There is a need to develop a small elite group of leaders with a more advanced<br />

set of competencies and experiences to fulfil specific functional positions with<strong>in</strong><br />

<strong>Maori</strong>dom.<br />

Bridge: Develop advanced leadership programmes to facilitate leadership<br />

development <strong>in</strong> a multitude of specific areas.<br />

Recruits to these programmes will either self select or be talent spotted due to<br />

demonstrat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> abundance the essential critical attributes 7 <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g: agile m<strong>in</strong>d;<br />

emotional <strong>in</strong>telligence; <strong>in</strong>tegrity; and a learn<strong>in</strong>g orientation. They should also show<br />

commitment to becom<strong>in</strong>g a leader with<strong>in</strong> <strong>Maori</strong>dom and becom<strong>in</strong>g an agent of<br />

change.<br />

Currently, no programmes exist that would lead to the development of all the dist<strong>in</strong>ct<br />

attributes necessary for <strong>Maori</strong> leadership. Elements of leadership tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g and support<br />

are provided by a wide range of providers <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g kaumatua, universities,<br />

employers and <strong>in</strong>formal network<strong>in</strong>g.<br />

This advanced leadership and governance development programme should:<br />

a) Monitor and coord<strong>in</strong>ate the opportunities for potential <strong>Maori</strong> leaders to ga<strong>in</strong><br />

their necessary leadership skills and attributes; and<br />

b) Develop and promote an Advanced <strong>Leadership</strong> Tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g (Alter) programme<br />

for (potential) <strong>Maori</strong> leaders.<br />

We suggest a small specialist team, which does not deliver, but provides programme<br />

development that allows aspir<strong>in</strong>g <strong>Maori</strong> leaders to access the opportunities (places)<br />

with<strong>in</strong> the wide range of programmes be<strong>in</strong>g operated across the public and private<br />

sector.<br />

This would be a virtual <strong>in</strong>stitute that would work with identified leader candidates to<br />

prepare a leadership development programme for those <strong>in</strong>dividuals. Then <strong>in</strong> light of<br />

the <strong>in</strong>dividual’s identified needs, f<strong>in</strong>d opportunities and placements to meet these<br />

needs.<br />

7<br />

Essential pre entry requirements accord<strong>in</strong>g to the <strong>Leadership</strong> Development Centre<br />

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Hui Taumata <strong>Leadership</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>Governance</strong> Scop<strong>in</strong>g Paper 31

Because quite large organisations, such as M<strong>in</strong>istry of Education and M<strong>in</strong>istry of<br />

Health, cannot ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong> leadership development with<strong>in</strong> their organisations and have<br />

collaborated with all other public service organisations to form the LDC it is<br />

<strong>in</strong>feasible for <strong>Maori</strong> organisations to seek to do this <strong>in</strong>dividually.<br />

We believe that places would be made available with<strong>in</strong> exist<strong>in</strong>g tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g programmes<br />

for <strong>Maori</strong> nom<strong>in</strong>ees both with<strong>in</strong> the public service and private sector programmes.<br />

Apart from the technical content of the particular programme there is a very important<br />

role <strong>in</strong> develop<strong>in</strong>g the widest range of personal networks and experiences for the<br />

leadership candidate that will build or boost their “knowledge and understand<strong>in</strong>g”<br />

when work<strong>in</strong>g for their organisation later.<br />

To this end we would propose a concept of “advanced leadership tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g<br />

programme.”<br />

We would propose the development of an advanced leadership programme designed<br />

to provide leadership candidates who had exhibited the critical attributes above with<br />

experiential opportunities to develop knowledge and skills <strong>in</strong> the full range of cultural<br />

and functional skills for organisations.<br />

Cadre review approach<br />

To this end we would propose a model of Cardre review by functional managers.<br />

For example the generic functions of any bus<strong>in</strong>ess or organisation could be<br />

characterised as Plann<strong>in</strong>g, (to determ<strong>in</strong>e what the organisation is what structure it<br />

takes and what it exists for), Market<strong>in</strong>g (to determ<strong>in</strong>e how big the organisation needs<br />

to be to meet the portion of the market it is target<strong>in</strong>g), Operations (to determ<strong>in</strong>e what<br />

it does to produce enough goods and services to meet its market), HR (to determ<strong>in</strong>e<br />

what people with what skills where and when are needed to ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong> the operation),<br />

F<strong>in</strong>ance (to determ<strong>in</strong>e where fund<strong>in</strong>g is to come from and what it is applied to <strong>in</strong> order<br />

to ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong> the organisation), Research and Development (to determ<strong>in</strong>e what gaps<br />

there are <strong>in</strong> knowledge or products and services and what needs to be done to fill<br />

those gaps).<br />

These generic functional elements of a bus<strong>in</strong>ess work with<strong>in</strong> and take cognisance of a<br />

range of legal regulatory and social (tikanga) rules and lores which overlays the<br />

generic functions of an organisation.<br />

If a leader is to lead or be a “general manager” they need to understand all functions<br />

or needs of the organisation and cord<strong>in</strong>ate all <strong>in</strong> concert. Failure <strong>in</strong> any function will<br />

lead to failure of the organisation as a whole.<br />

The cadre system is based upon us<strong>in</strong>g a team of functional managers one level down<br />

<strong>in</strong> the organisation, conduct<strong>in</strong>g a performance audit of a bus<strong>in</strong>ess unit or organisation<br />

under the control of a general manager.<br />

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Hui Taumata <strong>Leadership</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>Governance</strong> Scop<strong>in</strong>g Paper 32

This review thoroughly exam<strong>in</strong>es all of the functions of the organisation plann<strong>in</strong>g<br />

operations etc and the group reports back to the GM on what they found and what<br />

should be done to improve the performance of the organisation.<br />

Further more this report back to the GM is <strong>in</strong> the presence of the GM’s boss. The GM<br />

can accept or reject any advice received from the group but must know that his boss<br />

has heard the same advice.<br />

The other learn<strong>in</strong>g based element is that the review team are required to review and<br />

report back on a function that is not their own. Eg the HR specialist must report on<br />

f<strong>in</strong>ance etc although they have access to the f<strong>in</strong>ancial specialist on their team to test<br />

technical matters.<br />

The result is a dramatic widen<strong>in</strong>g of the experience base of participants to report <strong>in</strong><br />

detail on a function with<strong>in</strong> a real operat<strong>in</strong>g bus<strong>in</strong>ess.<br />

Clearly this could <strong>in</strong>clude tikanga compliance with<strong>in</strong> <strong>Maori</strong> bus<strong>in</strong>esses.<br />

If this concept could be promoted the team could be drawn from a mixture of <strong>Maori</strong><br />

public and private sector organisations and review bus<strong>in</strong>ess units <strong>in</strong> <strong>Maori</strong> public and<br />

private sectors.<br />

The mixture of <strong>Maori</strong> and non-<strong>Maori</strong> and the range of bus<strong>in</strong>esses reviewed would<br />

provide a means of expos<strong>in</strong>g a wider cohort to <strong>Maori</strong> and provid<strong>in</strong>g a wide<br />

network<strong>in</strong>g opportunity for participants.<br />

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Hui Taumata <strong>Leadership</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>Governance</strong> Scop<strong>in</strong>g Paper 33

6.0 Key Recommendations<br />

1) The establishment of a <strong>Maori</strong> <strong>Leadership</strong> and <strong>Governance</strong> Development Centre.<br />

i) The Centre should cater for all <strong>Maori</strong> but specifically all people who<br />

sit on <strong>Maori</strong> committees, trusts, and boards.<br />

ii)<br />

The Centre should provide: (1) broad-based leadership and governance<br />

education for a broad spectrum of <strong>Maori</strong>dom and; (2) advanced<br />

education and development for those identified as hav<strong>in</strong>g high<br />

potential for assum<strong>in</strong>g top-tier positions.<br />

iii) The Centre should be multi-functional and its roles should <strong>in</strong>clude:<br />

(a) Develop<strong>in</strong>g, co-ord<strong>in</strong>at<strong>in</strong>g, and adm<strong>in</strong>ister<strong>in</strong>g a broad spectrum of<br />

leadership and governance programmes targeted at diverse groups;<br />

(b) Act<strong>in</strong>g as a clear<strong>in</strong>ghouse for external programmes that are already<br />

be<strong>in</strong>g provided;<br />

(c) Provid<strong>in</strong>g facilitation, mentor<strong>in</strong>g and case studies to guide<br />

implementation for broad-based programmes;<br />

(d) Identify<strong>in</strong>g talent for advanced specialist leadership development;<br />

(e) Organis<strong>in</strong>g mentors and a cadre system for identified talent;<br />

(f) Foster<strong>in</strong>g leadership pathways and identify<strong>in</strong>g career build<strong>in</strong>g<br />

opportunities;<br />

(g) Assist<strong>in</strong>g with the development of succession plans;<br />

(h) Develop<strong>in</strong>g a database so talent can be easily identified;<br />

(i) Provid<strong>in</strong>g a referral po<strong>in</strong>t for leadership and governance issues;<br />

(j) Market<strong>in</strong>g and communications (focus<strong>in</strong>g on the Centre’s benefits).<br />

iv)<br />

The Centre should provide multiple delivery mechanisms: mobile<br />

delivery (i.e. tak<strong>in</strong>g the programmes to the community <strong>in</strong> person);<br />

virtual delivery (i.e. on-l<strong>in</strong>e tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g and resources as well as through<br />

the media); <strong>in</strong>-house delivery (i.e. provid<strong>in</strong>g a small tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g facility);<br />

and extension delivery (i.e. utilis<strong>in</strong>g the facilities of providers with<br />

whom the Centre collaborates, e.g. tertiary <strong>in</strong>stitutions, whananga, the<br />

LDC).<br />

v) The high potential leaders who are identified would be expected to be<br />

partially engaged <strong>in</strong> the teach<strong>in</strong>g and facilitation of the broad-based<br />

leadership and governance education programmes. In this way they<br />

would be become agents of change <strong>in</strong> the promotion of good<br />

leadership and governance practices.<br />

vi)<br />

vii)<br />

viii)<br />

The Centre should employ a cascade or tra<strong>in</strong>-the-tra<strong>in</strong>er model.<br />

The Centre’s timeframe should be on-go<strong>in</strong>g with at least a ten-year<br />

plann<strong>in</strong>g timeframe.<br />

The Centre should be given a <strong>Maori</strong> name.<br />

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Hui Taumata <strong>Leadership</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>Governance</strong> Scop<strong>in</strong>g Paper 34

2) The Hui Taumata Taskforce should appo<strong>in</strong>t a small establishment board to<br />

spearhead the Centre’s development; identify and secure f<strong>in</strong>ancial resources,<br />

create an establishment group and provide strategic guidance to it. The Centre<br />

should be politically <strong>in</strong>dependent. The project team believes that a Public Private<br />

Partnership might well prove to be the best form of governance for the Centre.<br />

3) The establishment group would be responsible for <strong>in</strong>itiat<strong>in</strong>g, operat<strong>in</strong>g and<br />

promot<strong>in</strong>g the Centre.<br />

4) The Hui Taumata Taskforce should decide how this report gets distributed and<br />

who it should be distributed to. The project team recommends that the iwi<br />

authorities would be an ideal target group for this report.<br />

5) Related to po<strong>in</strong>t 4, the project team recognises that it has represents a relatively<br />

narrow constituency and is, therefore, anxious that the report be open to a much<br />

wider consultation. Perhaps this is someth<strong>in</strong>g that might be considered as part of<br />

a wider consultation process that the Hui Taumata Task Force might be<br />

consider<strong>in</strong>g for this and the other reports it has sponsored.<br />

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Hui Taumata <strong>Leadership</strong> <strong>in</strong> <strong>Governance</strong> Scop<strong>in</strong>g Paper 35

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