Plant sensors help to understand tipburn in lettuce - DGG

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Plant sensors help to understand tipburn in lettuce - DGG

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS2 nd Symposium on Horticulture in EuropeAngers, FRANCE1st – 5th July 2012https://colloque.inra.fr/she2012


WELCOME ADDRESSDear Colleagues, dear Friends,On behalf of the Scientific Committee and the Local Organising Committee, I am glad towelcome you at the ISHS 2nd Symposium on Horticulture in Europe also known as SHE2012.When the European horticultural scientific community gathered within the national andregional societies decided to launch the first Symposium on Horticulture in Europe (SHE) in2008, the idea was there was a real need for such a meeting giving an opportunity to sharethe same concerns and to establish international interdisciplinary networks in fields of appliedresearch such as horticulture. This symposium was held in Vienna, Austria, and was asuccess so the decision was taken to continue the initiative and organize the SecondSymposium in 2012 in Angers, France.SHE 2012 is held under the aegis of ISHS and the national and regional Europeanhorticultural societies such as APH (Portuguese Horticultural Association), DGG (GermanSociety for Horticultural Science), PSHS (Polish Society for Horticultural Science), SECHSpanish Society for Horticultural Science), BNL-SHS (Benelux Society for HorticulturalScience), SOI (Italian Society for Horticultural Science), SSA (Swiss Society of Agronomy).All these societies have appointed representatives of the Advisory Committee which had theduty of overall appreciation and suggestion on the scientific programme. I should like tothank all these colleagues for their contribution.AGROCAMPUS OUEST is in charge of the local organization in partnership with INRA,CIRAD and the University of Angers, and with the support of VEGEPOLYS, competitivecluster in specialized plant area.The Symposium is open to scientists, teachers, professionals and students interested in aforum to discuss their respective scientific advances and build new cooperation and will givethe opportunity to network and build new interdisciplinary research projects and Europeancourses at Master and PhD level.The objective of the Symposium is to give scientists who study all aspects of Horticulture anopportunity to exchange knowledge, information, ideas and techniques. It will cover allresearch areas relevant to Horticulture in Europe, e.g. plant physiology, plant genetics, planthealth, plant-environment relationships, plant quality, economics and technical engineering.The spatial scale will range from cell level to the cropping systems and the landscape. Theplace and role of European horticulture in the world, in particular towards developingcountries and regions, will also be presented and discussed.In the next three days, you will have the opportunity to meet and discuss with scientistscoming from more than 47 countries, some of them coming from developing countries. Youwill have the possibility to listen to or read a lot of presentations: 9 plenary lectures, 58 oralpresentations, 363 posters and 8 workshops (Open spaces) on very specific topics.Professional tours will be organized on July 4 in the afternoon and July 5 all day long. Theywill enable interested participants to discover the horticultural industry in the area of Angersand enjoy the beautiful landscape of Anjou.SHE 2012 takes place indeed in Angers. As you will discover, Angers and its region are aheaven for horticultural production and Angers itself is an historic city pleasant to visit.Capital of Anjou, Angers benefits from an exceptional environment in the Val de Loire, aUNESCO World Heritage Site. With the internationally recognized excellence of the lowervalleys of Anjou, watered by the Sarthe, the Mayenne, and the Loir, and the many parks and


gardens, nature comes to the fore. Angers is a region of excellence for specialized plantsand a horticultural centre with a world-wide reputation.In addition to plant production itself, one can find research and experimentation institutes(INRA, CTIFL, ASTREDHOR…) and specialized education at Masters and PhD levels(University of Angers, AGROCAMPUS OUEST…), the different teaching institutions beingmembers of an association called Valcampus. All the partners of the private sector andacademic institutions meet in VEGEPOLYS, a competitiveness cluster of internationalstature, stimulating public-private partnership on projects to bring innovation to horticulturalsector.The success of such a symposium is the result of the work and cooperation of many people,public institutions and private enterprises that provided a valuable support. We wish to thankAngers Loire Métropole and the City of Angers, the Conseil Général du Maine et Loire andthe Conseil Régional des Pays de la Loire. We are indebted to VEGEPOLYS for hisgenerous help. Organizing SHE 2012 would have been much more difficult without theBureau des Congrès et des Evènements of Angers Loire Tourisme. I would like to expressmy warmest thanks to its friendly and efficient staff.I wish to thank all members of the Scientific Committee who contributed with a high level ofcompetency to build the scientific program of this symposium.Finally, I want to express special thanks to the members of the local organising committee fortheir excellent work. To organize a symposium often means a lot of bothering tasks theyachieved with good humour. I will have a special thought for Anaïs Nguyen Thé andStéphanie Godet who made a very great effort to make SHE 2012 possible and pleasant foreach delegate.Enjoy the symposium and enjoy your stay in Angers.Prof. Jean-Claude MaugetChair of SHE 2012 Board


TABLE OF CONTENTSOPENING PLENARYHorticulture in a crisis environmentGARCÍA AZCÁRATE, TOMAS .................................................................................................................................................... 36TOPIC 1CONTRIBUTION OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES TO NEW DEVELOPMENTS INHORTICULTURE .................................................................................................................................. 39PLENARY SESSIONContribution of innovative technologies to new development in horticulturePEKKERIET, E.J. ; VAN HENTEN, E.J.; CAMPEN, J.B. ................................................................................................................ 40ORAL PRESENTATIONS OF TOPIC 1 ................................................................................................ 41Contribution of plant sensors to new developments in horticultureSTEPPE, KATHY ..................................................................................................................................................................... 42Plant sensors help to understand tipburn in lettuceDE SWAEF, T.; VERMEULEN, K. ; VERGOTE, N.; VAN LOMMEL J.; VAN LABEKE, M.-C.; BLEYAERT, P. & STEPPE, K. ..................... 43Impact of salinity and water deficiency on the fluorescence signature of tomato leavesKAUTZ, B.; HUNSCHE, M. & NOGA, G. ..................................................................................................................................... 44The usefulness of VIS/NIR techniques for assessment of maturity and quality of selected pearcultivarsRUTKOWSKI, KRZYSZTOF P. ; KRUCZYNSKA, DOROTA E.; WAWRZYNCZAK, ANNA; JOZWIAK, ZBIGNIEW; PLOCHARSKI, WITOLD .. 45Photomorphogenetic effects in different plant life formsSAMUOLIENĖ, G. ; BRAZAITYTĖ, A.; VIRŠILĖ, A.; SIRTAUTAS, R.; SAKALAUSKAITĖ, J.; SAKALAUSKIENĖ, S.; DUCHOVSKIS, P. ......... 46Responses of tomato plants under prevailing climate conditions in a closed greenhouse duringan annual productionDANNEHL, D. ; HUYSKENS-KEIL, S.; SCHUCH, I.; MIRANDA-TRUJILLO, L.; ROCKSCH, T. & SCHMIDT, U. ....................................... 47Impact of temperature integration under greenhouse on energy use efficiency, plant growthand development and tomato fruit quality (sugars, acids, vitamin C, carotenoids) depending onvariety rootstock combinationTRUFFAULT, VINCENT; FATIHA, FIFEL; LONGUENESSE, JEAN-JACQUES; VERCAMBRE, GILLES; LE QUILLEC, SERGE & GAUTIER,HELENE ............................................................................................................................................................................... 48Hierarchichal crop flow strategy for variable inter-row spacing by multi-manipulator mobilerobot and vertical array plant tower designASHTIANI ARAGHI, ALIREZA; RHEE, JOONG YONG; LEE, CHUNGU; KIM, JOON YONG; KWON, TAE HYEONG .................................. 49Peat substitutes in growing media – Options and limitationsNEUMAIER, DIETER; MEINKEN, ELKE ....................................................................................................................................... 50Nitrogen and aeration levels of the nutrient solution in soilless cultivation systems asimportant growing conditions affecting inherent quality of baby leaf vegetables: a review7


NICOLA, SILVANA ; EGEA-GILABERT, CATALINA; NIÑIROLA, DIANA; CONESA, ENCARNA; PIGNATA, GIUSEPPE; FONTANA, EMANUELA;FERNÁNDEZ, JUAN A. ............................................................................................................................................................ 51The effect of sugar type, source and concentration on Brassica oleraceae var botrytismicroproshoot productionRIHAN, HAIL Z ; AL-SHAMARI, MAGDA; AL-SWEDI, FADIL; BURCHETT, STEPHEN & FULLER, MICHAEL P. ....................................... 52POSTER PRESENTATIONS OF TOPIC 1 ........................................................................................... 53Non-invasive determination of anthocyanin in purple carrot using a portable spectrometerSCHMIDT, LILIAN; BEYS, FRIEDRICH & ZINKERNAGEL, JANA ...................................................................................................... 54On-tree monitoring of fruit quality of five Prunus domestica cultivarsBOLLING, J. ; HERPPICH, W.B. ................................................................................................................................................ 54Technical developments in phytomonitoring-technologyROCKSCH, THORSTEN ; SCHUCH, INGO; DANNEHL, DENNIS; SCHMIDT, UWE .............................................................................. 55Prediction of postharvest internal papaya fruit quality: quantifying content of singlecarotenoids using iMLRPFLANZ, MICHAEL ; OPARA, UMEZURUIKE LINUS; ZUDE, MANUELA ........................................................................................... 56Measurement of N-status and ingredients in broccoli plants (Brassica oleracea var. italica) inpot culture using sensor technologySCHIRDEWAHN, T.; PFENNING, J.; GRAEFF, S. & CLAUPEIN, W. ................................................................................................ 56Fluorescence-based systems for sensing drought stress in pepper plants at leaf levelHOFFMANN, ANNA M. ; HUNSCHE, MAURICIO; NOGA, GEORG ................................................................................................... 57Near-infrared spectroscopy: a promising sensor technique for quality assessment ofornamental cuttingsLOHR, D. ; TILLMANN, P.; ZERCHE, S. ; DRUEGE, U. ; MEINKEN, E. ............................................................................................ 58Two methodical approaches for evaluation of drought stress tolerance in carrotsRODE, ANDREA ; NOTHNAGEL, THOMAS; KAMPE, EIKE ............................................................................................................. 58PlantEye a novel 3D sensor platform for automated determination of plant growth dynamicsHUMMEL, GRÉGOIRE .............................................................................................................................................................. 59Modelling to estimate the specific leaf area of tomato leaves (cv. Pannovy)DANNEHL, D.; ROCKSCH, T. & SCHMIDT, U. ............................................................................................................................. 60Effects of some polyamines in embryo rescue of grapevine cv. Flame SeedlessEBADI, A.; AALIFAR, M.; FATTAHI MOGHADDAM, M. R. .............................................................................................................. 60Effects of secondary media on embryo germination and plant production in grapevine cvsFlame Seedless and PerletteEBADI, A.; AALIFAR, M.; FATTAHI MOGHADDAM, M. R. .............................................................................................................. 61Potential application of jasmonic acid in in vitro rooting of low vigorous pear and cherryrootstocksRUZIC, DJURDJINA; VUJOVIC, TATJANA; CEROVIC, RADOSAV; DJORDJEVIC, MILENA .................................................................. 61Using of digital image analysis for prediction of yield and shoot weight of grapevine ‘CabernetSauvignon’ (Vitis vinifera L.)BEŠLIĆ, ZORAN; VASIĆ RANKOVIĆ, ZORICA; TODIĆ, SLAVICA .................................................................................................... 62A vision-based laser weed control systemMARX, CHRISTIAN; PASTRANA PÉREZ, JULIO CÉSAR; RATH, THOMAS; HUSTEDT, MICHAEL; KAIERLE, STEFAN; HAFERKAMP, HEINZ 62GIS application in precision viticulture: spatial analysis of soil chemical characteristics in thevineyard with cv. Pinot Noir in Serbia8


ŽIVOTIĆ, LJUBOMIR; RANKOVIĆ-VASIĆ, ZORICA; ĐORĐEVIĆ, ALEKSANDAR; PAJIĆ, MILOŠ ; SIVČEV, BRANISLAVA ; PEROVIĆ, VELJKO ;ATANACKOVIĆ, ZORAN .......................................................................................................................................................... 63Blue LAMP supports the selection of Prunus domestica genotypes with hypersensitivityresistance to the Plum pox virusHADERSDORFER, JOHANNES ; NEUMÜLLER, MICHAEL ; FISCHER, THILO C. ; TREUTTER, DIETER ................................................ 63Development of CAT scan technology for analysis of xylem structure and functionMATTHEWS, MARK ................................................................................................................................................................. 64Determination of heat consumption behaviour of low-energy greenhouses regarding latent heatfluxes during the nightKNÖSEL, KLAUS ; RATH, THOMAS; HINDER, STEFANIE .............................................................................................................. 64Energetic evaluation of greenhouses by using enthalpy differencesSCHUCH, INGO ; DANNEHL, DENNIS; MIRANDA-TRUJILLO, LUIS; ROCKSCH, THORSTEN; SCHMIDT, UWE ....................................... 65Greenhouses dehumidification, preventive approach and energy balanceCHASSÉRIAUX, GERARD; MIGEON, CHRISTOPHE ; PIERART, ANTOINE; LEMESLE, DOMINIQUE; TRAVERS, ALAIN ............................ 66Comparison of a standard climatic regime and a 24-hours temperature integration regime inpot pelargonium cultureGILLI, CÉLINE ; SIGG, PASCAL; CARLEN, CHRISTOPH ................................................................................................................ 67Preliminary study on fuel usage in fruit productions in PolandBIAŁKOWSKI, PAWEŁ ; WAWRZYŃCZAK, PAWEŁ; KONOPACKI, PAWEŁ; RABCEWICZ, JACEK .......................................................... 67Operation of a confined greenhouse system with an above-ground heat and water storagesystemSCHMIDT, UWE ; DANNEHL, DENNIS; SCHUCH, INGO; MIRANDA-TRUJILLO, LUIS; ROCKSCH, THORSTEN ....................................... 68Strategies for saving energy without loss of plant qualityHAAS, HANS-PETER ; KOHLRAUSCH, FRANZISKA ; HAUSER, BERNHARD ; MEMPEL, HEIKE ......................................................... 69The use of rock-bed for storage of solar energy surplus in high plastic tunnels - preliminaryresults of the full scale projectKONOPACKI, PAWEŁ ; HOŁOWNICKI, RYSZARD ; SABAT, ROBERT ; KURPASKA, SŁAWOMIR ; LATAŁA, HUBERT ; NOWAK, JACEK ..... 69LED or HPS in ornamentals?OTTOSEN, CARL-OTTO .......................................................................................................................................................... 70Effect of low temperature during the night in young sweet pepper plants: stress and recoveryGORBE, ELISA ; HEUVELINK, E.P. ; JALINK, HENK ; STANGHELLINI, CECILIA ............................................................................... 71Effect of hot water treatment on chlorophyll degradation and postharvest quality in stored lime(Citrus aurantifolia Swingle cv. Paan) fruitKAEWSUKSAENG, SAMAK ; TATMALA, NOPPARAT ; SRILAONG, VARIT ; PONGPRASERT, NUTTHACHAI .......................................... 71Growth regulators and carving on breakage apical dominance in tannia rhizomesSOUZA, CRISTINA ; FERREIRA, ANA; PEREIRA, DANILO; FINGER, FERNANDO .............................................................................. 72The effect of blue light dose on cucumber transplants physiological indicesBRAZAITYTĖ, AUŠRA; SAMUOLIENĖ, GIEDRĖ ; JANKAUSKIENĖ, JULĖ; VIRŠILĖ, AKVILĖ; SIRTAUTAS, RAMŪNAS; SAKALAUSKIENĖ,SANDRA; SAKALAUSKAITĖ, JURGA; DUCHOVSKIS, PAVELAS ...................................................................................................... 72Using Artificial Neural Networks to predict the climate in a greenhouse: first simulation resultson a semi-closed systemMIRANDA-TRUJILLO, LUIS ; SCHUCH, INGO ; DANNEHL, DENNIS ; ROCKSCH, THORSTEN ; SALAZAR, RAQUEL ; SCHMIDT, UWE ...... 73Optimization of barcode and RFID technology in plant productionEYAHANYO, FELIX & GRADE, STEFANIE .................................................................................................................................. 74Comparison between two similar ventilation concepts in a smart controlled greenhouse fortomato cultivation9


VAN DEN BULCK, NICKEY ; COOMANS, MATHIAS ; WITTEMANS, LIEVE ; GOEN, KRIS ; HANSSENS, JOCHEN ; STEPPE, KATHY ;MARIEN, HERMAN ; DESMEDT, JOHAN .................................................................................................................................... 74"Zineg, the Low Energy Greenhouse", energy consumption coefficient (U cs ) in extremelyinsulated greenhousesSCHLÜPEN, MATTHIAS ; MEYER, JOACHIM ............................................................................................................................... 75Economic evaluation of the electricity production of a photovoltaic shade houseKREUZPAINTNER, ALEXANDRA ; LIETH, J. HEINRICH ; MEYER, JOACHIM .................................................................................... 75Comparison between the use of low-emissivity glass and float glass on the growthcharacteristics of ornamental plantsBETTIN, ANDREAS ; RÖMER, HANS-PETER; WAGNITZ, NICO; REHRMANN, PETER; WILMS, DIEDRICH ............................................ 76Comparative Dieffenbachia maculate cv Camille behavior under different fertilizers related withnitrogen availabilityCONTRERAS, JUANA ISABEL ; SEGURA, MARIA LUZ ; PLAZA, BLANCA MARÍA ; JIMÉNEZ-BECKER, SILVIA ; LAO, MARIA TERESA ..... 76Spectral enrichment of lamps by means of LEDs and its agronomic evaluationCHICA, ROSA MARÍA ; ALMANSA, EVA MARÍA ; MARTÍNEZ-RAMÍREZ, GABRIELA BEATRIZ ; LAO, MARIA TERESA .......................... 77Field cultivation of an eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) with the use of mulches in theconditions of moderate climateADAMCZEWSKA-SOWIŃSKA, KATARZYNA ; KRYGIER, MAGDALENA ............................................................................................. 78Assesment of quality attributes of endive (Cichorum endivia L.) depending on cultivar andgrowing conditionsKOWALCZYK, KATARZYNA ; GAJC-WOLSKA, JANINA; MARCINKOWSKA, MONIKA; JABRUCKA-PIÓRO, EWELINA ............................... 783D Climate Optimization humidity, temperature, ventilation, light, CO2JANSSEN, EGON .................................................................................................................................................................... 79Technology update on greenhouse horticulture in PortugalCOSTA, J.M. ; REIS, M. ; ALMEIDA, D. ; CARVALHO, S.M.P. ; PALHA, M.G. ; VARGUES, A. ; PASSARINHO, J.A. , FERREIRA, M.E. .. 79The application of some fungicides as alternative growth retardant in pot plant productionHONFI, PÉTER ; KÖBLI, VIKTÓRIA; FELSZNER, ZITA; MOSONYI, ISTVÁN DÁNIEL; TILLY-MÁNDY, ANDREA ....................................... 80The influence of bio-fertilizer and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on spad values in strawberryleavesPALENCIA, PEDRO ; MARTÍNEZ RUIZ, FÁTIMA ; WEILAND, CARLOS M. ; OLIVEIRA, J. ALBERTO ................................................... 81Response of two strawberry cultivars to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus indifferent soilsMARTÍNEZ RUIZ, FÁTIMA ; PALENCIA, PEDRO ; WEILAND, CARLOS M. ; OLIVEIRA, J. ALBERTO .................................................... 81Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and bio-fertilizer on growth characters of strawberryplant in soilless growing systemMARTÍNEZ RUIZ, FÁTIMA ; PALENCIA, PEDRO ; WEILAND, CARLOS M. ; OLIVEIRA, J. ALBERTO .................................................... 82Application of phosphate glass in the production of impatiens (Impatiens walleriana L.)seedlingsVUJOŠEVIĆ, ANA ; TOŠIĆ, MIHAJLO ; LAKIĆ, NADA ; NIKOLIĆ, JELENA ; ŽIVANOVIĆ, VLADIMIR ; MATIJAŠEVIĆ, SRĐAN ; ZILDŽOVIĆ,SNEŽANA ............................................................................................................................................................................. 82Pepper seedling cultivation in soil with leonarditeBASAY, SEVINC ; AKBUDAK, NURAY ....................................................................................................................................... 83Impacts of root spatial distribution on physical & hydraulic properties in peat growing mediaused in horticultureCANNAVO, PATRICE & MICHEL, JEAN CHARLES ....................................................................................................................... 83Morphometric flower traits and pollen germination of pome and stone fruits grown onameliorated coal mine pit deposol10


FOTIRIĆ AKŠIĆ, MILICA ; LIČINA, VLADO ; ZEC, GORDAN ; ČOLIĆ, SLAVICA ; NIKOLIĆ, DRAGAN & RAKONJAC, VERA .................... 84Green roofing: a complete approach to characterize growing mediaFAUCON, P. ; DARNIS, M. ....................................................................................................................................................... 84Establishing opportunities of soilless cultivation for vegetable production in Iquitos (Peru)GUZMAN PFEIFFER, LILIAN; ULRICHS, CHRISTIAN .................................................................................................................... 85Pepper seedlings quality improved by application of the enriched zeolitesUGRINOVIC, M. ; ZDRAVKOVIC, J.; DJORDJEVIC, M.; GIREK, Z.; BRDAR-JOKANOVIC, M.; ZDRAVKOVIC, M. .................................... 86Progress in the growth promotion of horticulture seedlings: compost tea and Trichoderma sp.MARÍN, F. ; DIÁNEZ, F. ; CARRETERO, F. ; SANTOS, M. ; GEA, FJ. ; MARTÍNEZ, MA ; YAU, J.A. ; NAVARRO, MJ. .......................... 86Effect of partial rootzone drying on growth, yield and biomass distribution of a soilless tomatocrop grown under greenhouseAFFI, N. ; EL MASTOR, A.; EL-FADL, A.; EL-OTMANI, M. & BENISMAIL, M C. ............................................................................... 87The effect of using degradable nonwovens in butterhead lettuce cultivation for early harvestSIWEK, PIOTR ; LIBIK, ANDRZEJ .............................................................................................................................................. 88TOPIC 2CONSUMER-DRIVEN SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY CHAINS MANAGEMENT ...................................... 89PLENARY SESSIONRegional identity and authenticity as a means of reaching the European consumerEKELUND, LENA ..................................................................................................................................................................... 90ORAL PRESENTATIONS OF TOPIC 2 ................................................................................................ 91Assessment of the visual quality of ornamental plants: comparison of three methodologies inthe case of the rosebushSANTAGOSTINI, PIERRE ; LAFFAIRE, MICHEL ; DEMOTES-MAINARD, SABINE ; HUCHÉ-THÉLIER, LYDIE ; GUERIN, VINCENT ; LEDUC,NATHALIE ; BERTHELOOT, JESSICA ;SAKR, SOULAIMAN ; BOUMAZA, RACHID ............................................................................. 92Do apple visual characteristics influence trained tasters’ perception?SYMONEAUX, RONAN ; MAITRE, ISABELLE; CHARLES, MATHILDE; MEHINAGIC, EMIRA................................................................. 93Intestinal fermentability of vegetables: methods for evaluating and minimizing digestivediscomfortLEROY, GAËLLE ; BATY-JULIEN, CELINE ; GRONGNET, JEAN-FRANÇOIS ; MABEAU, SERGE ........................................................ 94Screening the phytochemical composition and antioxidant properties of fruits: a comparativestudy of common testing methodsGOULAS, V. & MANGANARIS, G.A. ......................................................................................................................................... 95Influence of storage conditions and bunch position on green-life period of bananasPRAEGER, ULRIKE ; LINKE, MANFRED ; RUX, GUIDO ; JEDERMANN, REINER; GEYER, MARTIN .................................................... 96Harvesting quality, where to start?TIJSKENS, LMM ; SCHOUTEN, RE ; WALSH, KB ; ZADRAVEC, P ; UNUK, T ; JACOB, S ; OKELLO, RCO ........................................ 97Non-invasive analysis of calcium oxalate druses distribution in rose peduncles by synchrotronX-ray micro-tomographyMATSUSHIMA, UZUKI ; HILGER, ANDRÉ ; GRAF, WOLFGANG ; ZABLER, SIMON ; MANKE, INGO ; DAWSON, MARTIN ; CHOINKA,GERARD ; HERPPICH, WERNER B. ......................................................................................................................................... 98Biospeckle – the application for evaluation of fruits and vegetables11


ZDUNEK, ARTUR .................................................................................................................................................................... 99Predicting rose vase life in a supply chainVAN MEETEREN, UULKE , SCHOUTEN, ROB & WOLTERING, ERNST ........................................................................................ 100Emerging trends and market drivers in the fruit sectorABATE KASSA, GETACHEW ................................................................................................................................................... 101Satisfied customers – A precondition for successful enterprisesSCHÖPS, JOHANNA .............................................................................................................................................................. 102A House of Quality for strengthening consumer orientation in applied research for sustainablehorticultureBERTSCHINGER, LUKAS & CORELLI-GRAPPADELLI, LUCA ...................................................................................................... 103POSTER PRESENTATIONS OF TOPIC 2 ......................................................................................... 105The influence of growth conditions on the yield, chemical composition and sensory quality oftomato fruit in greenhouse cultivationGAJC-WOLSKA, JANINA ; KOWALCZYK, KATARZYNA; MARCINKOWSKA, MONIKA; RADZANOWSKA, JADWIGA ................................ 106Management of fruit presentation in sensory evaluation of apples for more reliable resultsBAVAY, CECILE ; SYMONEAUX, RONAN; MAITRE, ISABELLE; MEHINAGIC, EMIRA........................................................................ 106Sensotyping: a sensory methodology to assess organoleptic traits of large number of applesamplesSYMONEAUX, RONAN ; BRUNEAU, MARYLINE; ROBIC, ROLLAND ; LAURENS, FRANÇOIS ............................................................ 107Comparison of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids content in virgin olive oils from Italian olive varieties 107ROMANO, ELVIRA; BENINCASA, CINZIA; PATARINO, ALBA; GRECO, FEDERICA; PELLEGRINO, MASSIMILIANO; PERRI, ENZO &MUZZALUPO, INNOCENZO .................................................................................................................................................... 107Total phenol content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP) of Urtica dioica leaf extractsKOCZKA, NOÉMI ; PÉTERSZ, DÓRA ; STEFANOVITS-BÁNYAI, ÉVA ........................................................................................... 108Chemical and antioxidant properties of fully matured raspberry fruits (Rubus idaeus L.) pickedin different moments of harvesting seasonMILETIĆ, NEMANJA ; LEPOSAVIĆ, ALEKSANDAR; POPOVIĆ, BRANKO; MITROVIĆ, OLGA; KANDIĆ, MIODRAG ................................. 109Does a reduced water supply influence health-promoting compounds in kale?HENKELÜDEKE, LUISE; EICHHOLZ, INES; ULRICHS, CHRISTIAN ; HUYSKENS-KEIL, SUSANNE ...................................................... 109Anthocyanins and antioxidant activity from Oleaeuropea olives cv. Cellina grown in Sud ItalyNEGRO, CARMINE; APRILE, ALESSIO; DE BELLIS, LUIGI; MICELI, ANTONIO ............................................................................... 110Nutraceutic properties of multiberries grown in Sud Italy (Apulia)NEGRO, CARMINE; DE BELLIS, LUIGI; MICELI, ANTONIO ......................................................................................................... 111Characterisation of local ecotypes of purple carrots growing in Sud Italy (Apulia)MICELI, ANTONIO ; DE BELLIS, LUIGI; NEGRO, CARMINE ......................................................................................................... 111Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of white wine and grape seeds of cv. Riesling(Vitis vinifera L.) cultivated in conditions of ecological production in SerbiaRANKOVIĆ-VASIĆ, ZORICA ; RADOVANOVIĆ, BLAGA ; SIVČEV, BRANISLAVA ; TODIĆ, SLAVICA ; BEŠLIĆ, ZORAN ; MATIJAŠEVIĆ, SAŠA.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 112Correlation of oleocanthal and oleacein concentration with pungency and bitterness in cv.Koroneiki virgin olive oilDEMOPOULOS, VASILIOS ; KARKOULA, EVANGELIA ; MAGIATIS, PROKOPIOS ; MELLIOU, ELENI ; KOTSIRAS, ANASTASIOS ;MOUROUTOGLOU, CHRISTOS ............................................................................................................................................... 11212


Biological value and antioxidant activity of different types of leaf chicory (Cichorium intybus L.var. foliosum Bisch.)BIESIADA, ANITA; TOMCZAK, ANNA; KRĘŻEL, JAN ................................................................................................................... 113Phytochemical and physiological response of Origanum vulgare to elevated temperature andwater deficitSAKALAUSKAITĖ, JURGA ; VIŠKELIS, PRANAS; DAMBRAUSKIENĖ, EDITA; SAKALAUSKIENĖ, SANDRA; SAMUOLIENĖ, GIEDRĖ;BRAZAITYTĖ, AUŠRA; DUCHOVSKIS, PAVELAS ........................................................................................................................ 114Processing of leafy salad: microorganisms associated to process water and produceGRUDÉN, MARIA ; ALSANIUS, BEATRIX W .............................................................................................................................. 114Qualitative properties, postharvest performance and bioactive content of Cypriot indigenousapple cultivarsGOULAS, V.; KOURDOULAS, P.; THEODOROU, M.; MAKRIS, F.; MANGANARIS, G.A. .................................................................. 115A survey on trans-resveratrol content of Romanian winesGEANA, ELISABETA-IRINA ; COSTINEL DIANA ; IORDACHE, ANDREEA-MARIA ; IONETE ROXANA-ELENA ; RANCA, AURORA &ILIESCU, MARINA ................................................................................................................................................................ 116The impact of 1-MCP treatment on Mal d 1-synthesis in apple fruit during storage in CA andDCA-systemsSTRELOW, MARTIN; KIEWNING, DANIELA ; SCHMITZ-EIBERGER, MICHAELA .............................................................................. 116The apple allergen Mal d 1 in fruit peel in relation to fruit pulp of different apple cultivarsKIEWNING, DANIELA ; BUDDE, CHRISTINA; SCHMITZ-EIBERGER, MICHAELA .............................................................................. 117Apple fruit preparation and nutritional value in supplying primary schoolsSCHMITZ-EIBERGER, MICHAELA ; KIEWNING, DANIELA; BUDDE, CHRISTINA; NOGA, GEORG ....................................................... 117Nutraceutic characterisation of Italian cherry cultivarsCECCARELLI, DANILO; NOTA, PAOLO; TALENTO, CARLA; SCOSSA, FEDERICO; SIMEONE, A. MARIA; FIDEGHELLI, CARLO & CABONI,EMILIA ................................................................................................................................................................................ 118Influence of Extenday ® under hails nets on fruit quality, colouration and secondary ingredientsin apple fruitsOVERBECK, VERENA ; SCHMITZ-EIBERGER, MICHAELA; BLANKE, MICHAEL............................................................................... 118Would aluminum and nickel content of apricot pose health risk to human?DAVARYNEJAD, GHOLAMHOSSEIN ; VATANDOOST, SAFIEH ; KAVEH, HAMED ; NAGY, PETER TAMAS .......................................... 119Impact of postharvest UV-C and ozone treatment on microbial decay of white asparagus(Asparagus officinalis L.)HASSENBERG, KARIN ; HERPPICH, WERNER B. ; HUYSKENS-KEIL, SUSANNE .......................................................................... 120Inhibition of ethylene response by 1-methylcyclopropene on potted ornamental pepper(Capsicum annuum L.)FINGER, FERNANDO LUIZ ; SEGATTO, FERNANDA BASTOS ; SILVA, TANIA PIRES DA & BARBOSA, JOSÉ GERALDO ..................... 120Changes in flavor of Medlar fruit (Mespilus germanica L.) during ripeningVELICKOVIC, MILOVAN ; RADIVOJEVIC, DRAGAN ; OPARNICA, CEDO ; NIKICEVIC, NINOSLAV ; ZIVKOVIC, MARIJANA ; DJORDJEVIC,NEDA ; TESEVIC, VELE ........................................................................................................................................................ 121The effect of anti-browning agents to the quality of fresh cut pearSEGLINA, DALIJA ; KRASNOVA, INTA; ABOLTINS, AIVARS; MISINA, INGA & GAILITE, INGRIDA ....................................................... 121Dry onion peels as a source of valuable secondary metabolitesSHEVCHENKO, YAROSLAV ; GRUDA, N. ; SMETANSKA, I. ........................................................................................................ 122‘Royal Gala’ apple stored under dynamic controlled atmosphere monitored by respirationquotient and chlorophyll fluorescenceWEBER, ANDERSON ; BOTH, VANDERLEI ; NEUWALD, DANIEL ALEXANDRE ; BRACKMANN, AURI .............................................. 123Internal browning in ‘Santana’ apple – reasons and possibilities to reduce the disorder13


NEUWALD, DANIEL ALEXANDRE ; STREIF, JOSEF ; KITTEMANN, DOMINIKUS ............................................................................. 123Magnesium infiltration as a tool to assess bitter pit occurrence in applesSESTARI, IVAN ; NEUWALD, DANIEL ALEXANDRE ; WEBER, ANDERSON & BRACKMANN, AURI ................................................ 124Strawberry ‘Clery’ fruit quality evolution during harvestANDRIANJAKA-CAMPS, ZO-NOROSOA ; CRESPO, PAMELA; ANÇAY, ANDRÉ; CARLEN, CHRISTOPH .............................................. 124Dynamics of fruit growth and fatty acid composition of hazelnuts, grown in BulgariaBLAGOEVA, ELITSA ; NIKOLOVA, MAGDALENA ; TANEVA, SABINA ; DIMITROVA, ROZA ; MAREKOV, ILKO ; MOMCHILOVA, SVETLANA.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 125Evaluation of grapes quality and wines typicity made from grapevine variety mamaia, inMurfatlar vineyardRANCA, AURORA ; ARTEM, VICTORIA & ANAMARIA, PETRESCU ................................................................................................ 125Determining the optimum modified atmosphere for extending the shelf-life of whole and freshcutzucchini (Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo)BLANCO-DÍAZ, M.T. ; PÉREZ-VICENTE, A. ; FAYOS, A. ; DOMÍNGUEZ, I. ; DEL RÍO-CELESTINO, M. & FONT, R. .......................... 126Determining film permeability in whole and fresh-cut zucchini (Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo) fruitsstored at different temperature storageBLANCO-DÍAZ, M.T. ; PÉREZ-VICENTE, A.; DOMÍNGUEZ, I.; FAYOS, A. & FONT, R..................................................................... 127The influence of storage conditions on quality parameters of head cabbage with conical headsGAJEWSKI, MAREK ; SMARZ, MONIKA; RADZANOWSKA, JADWIGA; PUDZIANOWSKA, MARTA ....................................................... 127Influence of temperature and light exposure during storage on quality changes of spinachleavesGLOWACZ, MARCIN ; MOGREN, LARS ; READE, JOHN ; COBB, ANDREW ; MONAGHAN, JAMES .................................................. 128Effect of hot water and modified atmosphere packaging treatment on some quality changes ofpersimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) during storageAKBUDAK, BULENT ; OZER, HAKAN M.; ALTIOGLU, ILKER ........................................................................................................ 128Effect of postharvest treatments on storage period and quality in persimmon (Diospyros kakiL.)AKBUDAK, B. ; OZER, H.M. & YENER T. ................................................................................................................................. 129Profile of falvonoid compounds in peel of Valencia orange fruit during storage periodSHAMLOO, MOHAMMAD MOHAMMADI ; SHARIFANI, MEHDI ; GARMAKHANY, AMIRE DARAEI & SEIFI, ESMAEIL ............................ 129Sensory profiles of various stored fruit species are affected by maturity class assessed byTime-resolved Reflectance Spectroscopy at harvestRIZZOLO, ANNA ; VANOLI, MARISTELLA ; SPINELLI, LORENZO ; TORRICELLI, ALESSANDRO ........................................................ 130Evaluation of post-harvest plums “Irati” in different stages of maturation under refrigerationand natural environmentAYUB, RICARDO ANTONIO ; EIDAM, TÂNIA ; MORGADO, CARLOS BERNARDO ........................................................................... 131Impact of the tomato fruit temperature on its growth and compositionGAUTIER, HÉLÈNE ; BERTIN, NADIA ; BALDAZZI, VALENTINA ; BRUNEL, BÉATRICE ; L’HOTEL, JEAN CLAUDE ; GENARD, MICHEL ;ORLANDO, PATRICK ; PRADIER, MICHEL ; SERRA, VALÉRIE ; VERCAMBRE, GILLES ; BIAIS, BENOÎT ; GIBON, YVES ...................... 131Changes in carotenoid composition in flowers of Tagetes tenuifolia Cav. and Tagetes patula L.during storageOSCHMANN, CORNELIA; GRUND, FRIEDERIKE; TESKE, SEBASTIAN; ULRICHS, CHRISTIAN ; HUYSKENS-KEIL, SUSANNE ................ 132Preliminary study on non-destructive assessment of European plum (Prunus domestica L.)maturitySALAMA, ABDEL-MOETY; NEUMÜLLER, MICHAEL; TREUTTER, DIETER ...................................................................................... 133Evaluating short term effects of temperature and light on strawberry ‘ELSINORE®’ firmnessPYROTIS, STAVROS; ABAYOMI, LOUISE ; REES, DEBBIE; WHITFIELD, CHARLES; ORCHARD, JOHN .............................................. 13314


The effect of modified atmosphere storage on the quality of fresh dill (Anethum graveolens L.)TSAMAIDI, DIMITRA ; PASSAM, HAROLD C. ............................................................................................................................. 134Influence of storage conditions on flavonoids content and antioxidant activity of selectedshallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum Group) cultivarsPUDZIANOWSKA, MARTA; GAJEWSKI, MAREK; PRZYBYŁ, JAROSŁAW ; BURACZYŃSKA, AGNIESZKA; GACZKOWSKA, OLGA;MATUSZCZAK, MARTA .......................................................................................................................................................... 134Storage of onions in farm scale ventilated silosFERREIRA, ANA ; SOUZA, CRISTINA ; PEREIRA, ARIANA ; CARDOSO, DEISE ; FINGER, FERNANDO ............................................. 135The influence of flower developmental status on shelf life of floral vegetable products: a casestudy of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)KABAKERIS, THERESA ; ZUTZ, KARSTEN ; BOLLING, JANINA ; HERPPICH, WERNER ; GEYER, MARTIN ........................................ 135Plum ripening evaluation by 1 H NMR spectroscopyAYUB, RICARDO ANTONIO ; FONSECA, FLAVIA APARECIDA ; BARISON, ANDERSON .................................................................. 136Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene, normal and modified atmosphere treatments on quality andvase life of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii)AKBUDAK, BULENT ; MURAT, SENAY...................................................................................................................................... 137Effect of preharvest biopreparat treatment on storage of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii)AKBUDAK, BULENT ; MURAT, SENAY...................................................................................................................................... 137Evaluation of carnation flower colour of Domingo and Famosa cultivars in postharvest andtheir relationship with ethylene biosynthesisEBRAHIM-ZADEH, ASGHAR ; MARTÍNEZ-RAMÍREZ, GABRIELA BEATRIZ ; JIMÉNEZ-BECKER, SILVIA ; PLAZA, BLANCA MARÍA ;LAO, MARIA TERESA ........................................................................................................................................................... 137Experiences of biological control of Pseudomonas viridiflava on cut flowers of RanunculusasiaticusFASCELLA, SALVATORE ; BOERI, GIOVANNI LUCA ; CANGELOSI, BENEDETTA ; PASINI, CARLO ; BENUZZI, MASSIMO ; CURIR, PAOLO.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 138Market acceptance and willingness to pay of customers for plants in biodegradable potsGABRIEL, ANDREAS ; MENRAD, KLAUS .................................................................................................................................. 139Price perception and long-term price knowledge of buyers of ornamental plantsGABRIEL, ANDREAS ; MENRAD, KLAUS .................................................................................................................................. 139Insight of consumer cognitive and preference toward the vegetables grown with the cultivationtechnology of plant factoryHUANG, LI-CHUN ................................................................................................................................................................. 140Importance of the horticultural therapy in the view of the people of Novi Sad (Vojvodina,Serbia)GACIC, ANA ; BLAGOJEVIC, IVANA; CUKANOVIC, JELENA; MLADENOVIC, EMINA......................................................................... 141Trend analysis usability in the horticultural innovation process - Applied to innovation designfor the Kalanchoë market -RUCAR, MANUEL ; CHRISTOFOL, HERVE ; GALOPIN, GILLES ................................................................................................ 141Unraveling apple consumer segmentation by the identification of associated sensorypreference keydriversCHARLES, MATHILDE ; MAITRE, ISABELLE ; SYMONEAUX, RONAN ; VIGNEAU, EVELYNE ; PROST, CAROLE ; MEHINAGIC, EMIRA .. 142Typology of German Consumers on the Market for Ornamental PlantsKAIM, E. ; FLUCK, K. ; ALTMANN, M....................................................................................................................................... 14215


TOPIC3CONCEPTION AND ASSESSMENT OF INNOVATING SUSTAINABLE HORTICULTURALSYSTEMS, INCLUDING ORGANIC HORTICULTURE ...................................................................... 145PLENARY SESSIONSustainable production systems in fruit orchardsXILOYANNIS, CRISTOS .......................................................................................................................................................... 146ORAL PRESENTATIONS OF TOPIC 3 .............................................................................................. 147Deficit irrigation of horticultural crops: progress and challengesFERERES, ELIAS .................................................................................................................................................................. 148A sustainable approach to control downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) in greenhouse-grownlettuceBOGAERT, AAIKE ; VAN HESE, NATHALIE ; LEENKNEGT, ILSE ; VERGOTE, NICO ; HÖFTE, MONICA ; BLEYAERT, PETER ............... 149Environmental management technology for controlling spider mitesOHYAMA, KATSUMI ; SUZUKI, TAKESHI ; AMANO, HIROSHI ; GHAZY, NOURELDIN ABUELFADL ; SHAH, MAQSOOD ....................... 150Constant presence of complementary parasitoids for preventive control of aphids inornamental plantsDASSONVILLE, NICOLAS; THIELEMANS, THIERRY; GOSSET, VIRGINIE; ROSEMEYER, VIOLA ........................................................ 151Potential for controlled abiotic stress as a quality enhancer of baby leaf spinachMOGREN, LARS ; READE, JOHN ; MONAGHAN, JIM ................................................................................................................. 152The use of Bacillus thuringiensis and Neem alternation on Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera:Plutellidae) and its effects on natural enemies in cabbage productionSOW, GALLO ; NIASSY, SALIOU ; ARVANITAKIS, LAURENCE ; BORDAT, DOMINIQUE ; DIARRA, KARAMOKO .................................. 153Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria reduce application rates of chemical fertilizers in lettuce(Lactuca sativa L.)ERTAN, YILDIRIM ; FATIH, AKBAY ........................................................................................................................................... 154Is biogas residue safety and efficient fertilizer to organic iceberg lettuce crop?IIVONEN, SARI ; TONTTI, TIINA ; NYKÄNEN, ARJA & VÄISÄNEN, HANNA-MAIJA ......................................................................... 155The German horticultural innovation systemKUNTOSCH, ANETT ; KÖNIG, BETTINA ; BOKELMANN, WOLFGANG ........................................................................................... 156Economic evaluation of the Swiss pome fruit productionBRAVIN, ESTHER ; CARINT, DANTE ; HANHART, JOHANNES .................................................................................................... 157Economic perspectives of molecular farming in greenhouse horticultureTARAGOLA, NICOLE ; DEMEYER, ROLINDE ; VAN DROOGENBROECK, BART ; CLAEYS, DAKERLIA ; LAUWERS, LUDWIG ................ 158POSTER PRESENTATIONS OF TOPIC 3 ......................................................................................... 159Plant growth promoting microorganisms and bio-control of Pythium ultimum on EuphorbiapulcherimaSIGG, PASCAL & CAMPS, CÉDRIC ......................................................................................................................................... 160BLE – A founding advisory and management service in german horticultureGRUDA, NAZIM .................................................................................................................................................................... 16016


Green bean production and fruit quality under organic and integrated intensive crop system inmediterranean areaCONTRERAS, JUANA ISABEL ; SEGURA, MARIA LUZ ; LAO, MARIA TERESA .............................................................................. 161Three years evaluation of the use of mechanical pruning in “Rocha” pearsDIAS, ANTÓNIO B. ; PATROCÍNIO, SANDRA ; PEREIRA, SÉRGIO ; PINHEIRO, ANACLETO ; PEÇA, JOSÉ O. ................................... 161Expanding regional organic fruit and vegetable markets: chances, challenges and implicationsfor regional sustainable food networks in GermanyKÖNIG, BETTINA ; VON ALLWÖRDEN, ANDREA; BOKELMANN, WOLFGANG ................................................................................. 162Crop load regulation by use of artificially created tree shadingSOLOMAKHIN, ALEXEY ; BLANKE, MICHAEL ; KUNZ, ACHIM ; ALIEV, TAYMASHAN & KLAD, ALEXANDER .................................... 163Effect of microorganisms on Lisianthus sp. quality: effect on seedlings and harvested plantsCAMPS, CÉDRIC & SIGG, PASCAL ......................................................................................................................................... 163Sustainable orcharding through eco-design and co-designPENVERN, SERVANE ; JAMAR, LAURENT ; DAPENA, ENRIQUE ; LATEUR, MARC ; SIMON, SYLVAINE ; BELLON, STEPHANE ........... 164Agro-morphological characterization of a diverse collection of tomato varieties cultivated inprotected area in organic culture systemBREZEANU, PETRE MARIAN ; MUNTEANU, NECULAI ; AMBARUS, SILVICA ; BREZEANU, CREOLA ; CALIN, MARIA ; VANATORU, COSTEL.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 165Response of a very-early maturing peach cultivar to water stress and crop load according tosimulations with QualiTreeMIRÁS-AVALOS, JOSÉ MANUEL ; ALCOBENDAS, ROSALÍA ; ALARCÓN, JUAN JOSÉ ; PEDRERO, FRANCISCO ; VALSESIA, PIERRE ;LESCOURRET, FRANÇOISE ; NICOLÁS, EMILIO ....................................................................................................................... 166Perspective and challenges in Tagetes sp. culture using biofertilizersSCHMIDT, BRIGITTA ; ŞUMĂLAN, RADU .................................................................................................................................. 166The potential of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria for the eggplant productionSUNGTHONGWISES, KIRIYA ; MATSUOKA, M. ; OHNISHI, K. ; TANAKA, S. & IWAI, C. B. ............................................................ 167Nutritional parameters of Chinese broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) under organicgrowing conditionsKOPTA, TOMÁŠ; POKLUDA, ROBERT ..................................................................................................................................... 168Effect on yield and quality different agricultural organic waste in organic strawberry growingBALCI, GULDEN; DEMIRSOY, HUSNU ; DEMIRSOY, LEYLA ........................................................................................................ 168Effect of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and mycorrhiza on growth and total chlorophyll in pepperplantAKBUDAK, NURAY ; BASAY, SEVINC ; TEZCAN, HIMMET ......................................................................................................... 168Sustainability of Sicily’s citrus production: an energetic, economic and environmental analysisof lemon and orange productionPERGOLA, M. ; D'AMICO, M. ; FAVIA, M.F. ; INGLESE, P. ; PALESE, A.M. ; PERRETTI, B. ; CELANO, G. ...................................... 169Evaluation of resistance to fire blight in pear cultivarsERFANI, JAVAD ; ABDOLLAHI, HAMID ; EBADI, ALI ; FATAHI, REZA ........................................................................................... 170Low-residue apple production compared to common IP and BIO productionNAEF, ANDREAS .................................................................................................................................................................. 170Simultaneous detection and identification of pathogenic fungi in wheat using a DNAmacroarrayPALMISANO, MARILENA ; KUHN, ROGER ; SIEROTZKI, HELGE ; BOLSINGER, MARTIN ................................................................ 171Verger Cidricole de Demain: conception, assessment and diffusion of environmental highperformanceand economically viable cider apple orchard systemsGUERIN, ANNE ; DUPONT, NATHALIE; GILLES, YANN ............................................................................................................... 17117


Possibilities of integrated diseases control of carrotsBIMSTEINE, GUNITA ; BANKINA, BIRUTA ; LEPSE, LIGA ........................................................................................................... 172Electronic nose for the early detection of Red Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineousOlivier) infestation in Palms: preliminary resultsRIZZOLO, ANNA ; BIANCHI, GIULIA ; LUCIDO, PAOLO ; CANGELOSI, BENEDETTA ; POZZI, LETIZIA ; VILLA, GIOVANNI ; CLEMATIS,FRANCESCA ; PASINI, CARLO ; CURIR, PAOLO ....................................................................................................................... 173Integrated fruit production in Bulgaria – state-of-the-art, tendencies and ecologically soundapproaches for producing safe fruitsRANKOVA, ZARYA ; TITIYANOV, MIROSLAV ; ZHIVONDOV, ARGIR ............................................................................................ 173Effect of different plant strengthener on the appearance of powdery mildew on rosemary(Rosmarinusofficinalis)SAUER, HEIKE ; RATHER, KARIN ; KOCH, ROBERT ; BLUM, HANNA .......................................................................................... 174Merging ecological and social approaches to tackle insecticide overuse in Colombian smallscalepassionfruit productionWYCKHUYS, KRIS A.G. ........................................................................................................................................................ 174An individual-based modeling approach to assess trap cropping management of Helicoverpazea in tomato field in MartiniqueGRECHI, ISABELLE ; TIXIER, PHILIPPE ; RHINO, BÉATRICE ; MALEZIEUX, ERIC & RATNADASS, ALAIN ......................................... 175Program PETAAL: a biocontrol strategy of the sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata (Say)(Hemiptera: Tingidae) in urban areasVERFAILLE, THIBAUT ; PIRON, MIREILLE ; GUTLEBEN, CAROLINE ; JALOUX, BRUNO ; HECKER, CHRISTIAN ; MAURY-ROBERT, ANNE ;CHAPIN, ERIC ; CLEMENT, ALAIN .......................................................................................................................................... 176A mix of six parasitoids for aphid control below observation thresholdTHIELEMANS, THIERRY ; DASSONVILLE, NICOLAS; GOSSET, VIRGINIE; ROSEMEYER, VIOLA ....................................................... 177Decision support for sustainable orchard pest management with the Swiss forecasting systemSOPRASAMIETZ, JÖRG ; HÖHN, HEINRICH; RAZAVI, ELISABETH; HÖPLI, HANS ULRICH; SCHAUB, LUKAS; GRAF, BENNO ......................... 177AGROBIOFILM - Development of enhanced biodegradable films for agricultural activitiesCOSTA-RODRIGUES, C. ; CARVALHO, L. ; DUARTE, E. ........................................................................................................... 178Evaluation effect of culture densities in different times on qualitative properties of Alliumampeloprasum L.ssp.iranicumMANSOORE, SHAMILI ........................................................................................................................................................... 179The use of somatic embryogenesis in artificial seed production in cauliflower (Brassicaoleraceae var. botrytis)AL-SHAMARI, MAGDA ; RIHAN, HAIL; AL-SWEDI, FADIL & FULLER, MICHAEL PAUL .................................................................... 179Timing field production of Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.)KOŁOTA, EUGENIUSZ; ADAMCZEWSKA-SOWIŃSKA, KATARZYNA & UKLAŃSKA-PUSZ, CECYLIA .................................................. 180Experience with Honeycrisp apple storage management in WashingtonHANRAHAN, INES ; MATTHEIS, JAMES P. ; SCHMIDT, TORY ; MCFERSON, JAMES ..................................................................... 180Effect of indole buteric acid and putrescine on adventitious rooting of semi-hard wood kiwifruitcuttingsKHEZRI, MASOOD ; WOOLLEY, DAVID ................................................................................................................................... 181Effect of pre emergence herbicides on growth quality of Allium ampeloprasum L. ssp.iranicumMANSOORE, SHAMILI ........................................................................................................................................................... 181Conservation tillage in intensive vegetable production systems – Strip tillage in white cabbagecultivationÜBELHÖR, A. ; PFENNING, J. ; HERMANN, W. ; MORHARD, J. ; BILLEN, N. ; CLAUPEIN, W. & LIEBIG, H.P. ................................ 18218


Effect of seed origin, fertilization and pruning on growth, yield and fruit sugar content ofgoldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.)WOLF, STEFANIE ; PFENNING, JUDIT; CLAUPEIN, WILHELM; LIEBIG, H.PETER ........................................................................... 183Predicting natural fruit drop in apple – a model to facilitate chemical fruit thinningGÖLLES, MICHAEL ; WIDMER, ALBERT ; BAUMGARTNER, DANIEL ............................................................................................ 183Rootstocks influence on the assimilation surface and vegetative potential of Prokupac grapecultivarMARKOVIĆ, NEBOJŠA; ATANACKOVIĆ, ZORAN ; RANKOVIĆ-VASIĆ, ZORICA ............................................................................... 184The influence of BA and BA+GA4+7 on formatting sylleptic shoots on one-year-old applenursery tree in cvs. Jonagold and CadelRADIVOJEVIC, DRAGAN ; MOMIROVIC, IVAN ; MILIVOJEVIC, JASMINKA ; LUKIC, MILAN ; VELICKOVIC, MILOVAN ; OPARNICA, CEDO 184Prunus microcarpa, a potential rootstock for stone fruitNAS, MEHMET NURI & SEVGIN, NEVZAT ................................................................................................................................ 185Soil quality evaluation of fruit crop systems in semi-arid climatic conditionsLARDO, EGIDIO ; COLL, PATRICE ; PALESE, A.MARIA ; LE CADRE, EDITH ; VILLENAVE, CECILE ; XILOYANNIS, CRISTOS ; CELANO,GIUSEPPE .......................................................................................................................................................................... 185The effects of ethylene applications on root architecture and growth rate of tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum L) seedlingsBALLIU, ASTRIT & SALLAKU, GLENDA .................................................................................................................................... 186Influence of seed treatment on germination of dwarf fan palm (Chamaerops humilis L.)GIOVINO, ANTONIO ; SCIBETTA, SILVIA ; SAIA, SERGIO ; RUFFONI, BARBARA .......................................................................... 187Germination capacity of dwarf fan palm (Chamaerops humilis) seed after short-time storage .....GIOVINO, ANTONIO; MAMMANO, MICHELE MASSIMO; GUGLIUZZA, GIOVANNI; SAIA, SERGIO ..................................................... 187Somatic embryogenesis as a chrysanthemum propagation toolLEMA-RUMIŃSKA, JUSTYNA .................................................................................................................................................. 188Investigation of the interaction of endophytes and poplar plants in vitro culture and field trialsFRAGNER, LENA ; HANAK, ANNE METTE ; WAWROSCH, CHRISTOPH ; KOPP, BRIGITTE ; WANEK, WOLFGANG ; ULRICH, KRISTINA ;EWALD, DIETRICH & WECKWERTH, WOLFRAM ...................................................................................................................... 188Temporary immersion systems for efficient mass propagation of medicinal and aromatic plantsWAWROSCH, CHRISTOPH & KOPP, BRIGITTE ........................................................................................................................ 189Effect of conservation agriculture and biochar on yield and quality on a tomato-lettuce croprotationDALLA COSTA, LUISA ; PIRELLI, TIZIANA; TOMMASI, RITA & ZAVALLONI, COSTANZA .................................................................. 190New contributions to improving knowledge about in vitro culture of walnut in RomaniaGOTEA, RODICA ; VAHDATI, KOUROSH ; SESTRAS, RADU ; GOTEA, IONUT .............................................................................. 190A literature review of two alternative gelling agents that can be used for in vitro culture ofwalnutGOTEA, RODICA ; VAHDATI, KOUROSH ; SESTRAS, RADU ; GOTEA, IONUT .............................................................................. 191The effect of the intercropping with lettuce on growth, mineral content and yield of broccoli ......YILDIRIM, ERTAN ; TURAN, METIN ; KARLIDAG, HUSEYIN ........................................................................................................ 191The specific role of alternate bearing cycle on physiological disorders of pistachio (Pistaciavera L.)KHEZRI, MASOOD ; PANAHI, BAHMAN ................................................................................................................................... 192Influence of biochar in the subsequent year after application on growth and development oflettuce plants (Lactuca sativa var. capitata L.)SCHÖNEBERG, ANITA ; PFENNING, JUDIT; GRAEFF, SIMONE; CLAUPEIN, WILHELM & LIEBIG, H.P. ............................................. 19219


Seasonal changes in fruits of 13 pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) genotypes duringdevelopmental stagesZAREI, ABDOLKARIM ; ZAMANI, ZABIHOLLAH; FATAHI, REZA ..................................................................................................... 193Product Carbon Footprints across the supply chains of selected examples (apples andtomatoes)ERGÜL, RUMYANA ; MEMPEL, HEIKE; STROBER, WOLFGANG .................................................................................................. 193Documentation and evaluation of the product carbon footprint for greenhouse producedvegetablesKREUZPAINTNER, ALEXANDRA & MEYER, JOACHIM ................................................................................................................ 194Decontamination of irrigation water comparison of stationary and mobile photocatalytic watertreatmentALAM, MEHBOOB ; LARSSON, CHRISTINE ; ROSBERG, ANNA KARIN ; BURLEIGH, STEPHEN ; AHRNÉ, SIV ; MOLIN, GÖRAN ;JENSÉN, PAUL ; ALSANIUS, BEATRIX W. ............................................................................................................................... 195Effect of foliar application of iron-chelates on seasonal changes of leaf petioles and berriesmineral composition of Halwani Lebanon and Kamali grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.)ALIMAM, NABIL M. A............................................................................................................................................................. 196The response of mature alternate-bearing pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees to spray zincfertilizationKHEZRI, MASOOD ; SARCHESHMEHPOUR, MEHDI .................................................................................................................. 196Morphological and physiological response of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) seedlings to soilnitrogen and phosphorus fertilizationHADAVI, FARANAK ; ERSHADI, AHMAD ; KHEZRI, MASOOD ; JAVANSHAH, AMANALLAH .............................................................. 197Effect of irrigation and increased potassium supply on yield and nutritive composition of carrotOMBÓDI, ATTILA ; ZALOTAI, KRISZTINA ; LUGASI, ANDREA ; BOROSS, FERENC ; HELYES, LAJOS ................................................ 197Glass-matrix based fertilizers. A novel approach to fertilization based on plant demandREA, ELVIRA ; TRINCHERA, ALESSANDRA ; ALLEGRA, MARIA ; ROCCUZZO, GIANCARLO ; RINALDI, SIMONA ; SEQUI, PAOLO ;INTRIGLIOLO, FRANCESCO ................................................................................................................................................... 198Impact of different potassium fertilizers doses on Ca:Mg and K:Mg ratio in the grapevineorgansLIČINA, VLADO; MARKOVIĆ, NEBOJŠA; TRAJKOVIĆ, IVANA ; ATANACKOVIĆ, ZORAN ................................................................... 198Effect of multinutrient complex fertilizers on growth of very early potato cultivarsWADAS, WANDA ; DZIUGIEŁ, TOMASZ .................................................................................................................................... 199Application of arbuscular mycorrhiza and endophytic bacteria affected rhizome quality ofCurcuma alismatifolia GagnepRUAMRUNGSRI, SORAYA ; THEPSUKHON, APIRAYA & SHIGEYUKI, TAJIMA .............................................................................. 200On-farm comparison of fertilizer application practices to assess nitrogen-use efficiency ofCurcuma alismatifolia GagnepRUAMRUNGSRI, SORAYA ; SUEYOSHI, KUNI & INKHAM, CHAIARTID ........................................................................................ 200Effect of potassium supply on drug production and quality of mint speciesNÉMETH-ZÁMBORINÉ, ÉVA ; SZABÓ, KRISZTINA ; RAJHÁRT, PÉTER ; POPP, THOMAS ............................................................... 201Effects of partial rootzone drying and deficit irrigation on fruit quality during storage of GrannySmith applesĐUROVIĆ, DEJAN ; MRATINIĆ, EVICA ; MILATOVIĆ, DRAGAN ; ĐUROVIĆ, SNEŽANA ; ĐORĐEVIĆ, BOBAN ; MILIVOJEVIC, JAMINKA ;RADIVOJEVIC, DRAGAN ....................................................................................................................................................... 202Effects of foliar and substrate application of selenium on fruit quality of strawberryPALENCIA, PEDRO ; BURDUCEA, MARIAN ; MARTÍNEZ RUIZ, FÁTIMA ; OLIVEIRA, J. ALBERTO ; GIRÁLDEZ, INMACULADA ............. 202Climate change induced changes of water demand and nitrogen fertilization for vegetableproduction in Hessian Reed20


SCHMIDT, NADINE ; ZINKERNAGEL, JANA ............................................................................................................................... 203Frost resistance as an indicator of brown heart susceptibility in swede (Brassica napus var.napobrassica)FADHEL, FAIZ T; FULLER, MICHAEL P; BURCHETT, STEPHEN & JELLINGS, ANITA ...................................................................... 203Irrigation effects on the agronomic performance of Albariño cultivar in the Ribeiro AOC.Preliminary resultsTRIGO-CÓRDOBA, EMILIANO; GÓMEZ-SANMARTÍN, JOSÉ MANUEL; BOUZAS-CID, YOLANDA; DÍAZ-LOSADA, EMILIA; ORRIOLS-FERNÁNDEZ, IGNACIO; MIRÁS-AVALOS, JOSÉ MANUEL .......................................................................................................... 204Impact of phosphorus nutrition on photosynthesis, leaf yield and plant quality of Centellaasiatica L. UrbanMÜLLER, VIOLA ; LANKES, CHRISTA; HUNSCHE, MAURICIO & NOGA, GEORG ............................................................................ 205The influence of the trace elements on grape winter hardiness potentialVELIKSAR, SOFIA; TUDORACHE, GHEORGHE; TOMA, SIMION; DAVID, TATIANA; BRATCO, DUMITRU; BUSUIOC, VALENTINA ........... 206Quality of Syngonium podophyllum “Silver” crop related with nutritional status of the rootzoneCONTRERAS, JUANA ISABEL ; SEGURA, MARIA LUZ ; PLAZA, BLANCA MARÍA ; JIMÉNEZ-BECKER, SILVIA ; LAO, MARIA TERESA ... 206Monitoring nitrogen content of soils with vegetable crop production – The SchALVO as anenvironmental instrument in water protection areas in Baden -Württemberg, GermanyRATHER, KARIN ................................................................................................................................................................... 207Effect of different quality irrigation water on the growth, mineral concentration andphysiological parameters of Viburnum tinus plantsGÓMEZ-BELLOT, M JOSÉ ; CASTILLO, MARCO ; ÁLVAREZ, SARA ; ACOSTA, JOSÉ RAMÓN ; ALARCÓN, JUAN JOSÉ ; BAÑÓN,SEBASTIÁN ; ORTUÑO, M FERNANDA ; SÁNCHEZ-BLANCO, M JESÚS ...................................................................................... 208Sustainable improvement of nitrogen efficiency of vegetables crops – Implementation of theEU water framework directive in Baden-Württemberg, GermanyRATHER, KARIN & GROßE LENGERICH, TIM ........................................................................................................................... 208Assessment of the heterogeneity of water status in commercial orchards by high resolutionthermal imageryGONZALEZ-DUGO, V. ; ZARCO-TEJADA, P. ; RUZ, C. ; FERERES, E. ....................................................................................... 209Effects of aminolevulinic acid on organogenesis in protocorm-like body (PLBs) of Cymbidiumspp. in vitroNAHAR, SYEDA JABUN ; KAZUHIKO, SHIMASAKI ..................................................................................................................... 209Effect of moderately saline water and water deficit on the content of antioxidants in paprika(Capsicum annuum) at different ripening stagesLERMA, MARIA DOLORES ; RAIGÓN, MARIA DOLORES ; FITA, ANA MARIA ; MORENO, ESTELA ; GARCÍA-MARTÍNEZ, MARIA DOLORES ;PROHENS, JAIME ; PENELLA, CONSUELO ; CALATAYUD, ÁNGELES ; NEBAUER, SERGIO G. ; SAN BAUTISTA, ALBERTO ; LÓPEZ-GALARZA, SALVADOR ; CAMACHO, FRANCISCO ; TELLO, JULIO CÉSAR ; RODRÍGUEZ-BURRUEZO, ADRIÁN ................................ 210Evaluation for abiotic and biotic stress of Capsicum pepper commercial rootstocks andcultivarsPENELLA, CONSUELO ; BOIX, AMALIA ; MORENO, ESTELA ; RUIZ, CARLOS ; FITA, ANA ; LERMA, MARIA DOLORES ; RAIGÓN, MARIADOLORES ; SAN BAUTISTA, ALBERTO ; LÓPEZ-GALARZA, SALVADOR ; MARSAL, JOSE IGNACIO ; GARCÍA-LOPEZ, ALEJANDRO ;DOÑAS, FRANCISCO ; NEBAUER, SERGIO G. ; RODRÍGUEZ-BURRUEZO, ADRIÁN ; CAMACHO, FRANCISCO ; TELLO, JULIO CÉSAR ;CALATAYUD, ÁNGELES ........................................................................................................................................................ 211Product and production management along the value chain of horticultural open fieldproductionHENNIG, ROBERT ; LENTZ, WOLFGANG.................................................................................................................................. 212Innovation and sustainable competitiveness: the risks of the fragmentation of the productiveprocess – the French example of the ornamental outdoor plantPLOTTU, BÉATRICE ; WIDEHEM, CAROLINE ; CHIKH-MHAMED, SONIA ...................................................................................... 21221


Connecting research and innovation processes: Overcoming obstacles für knowledge andtechnology transfer in horticultural value chainsKÖNIG, BETTINA ; DIEHL, KATHARINA ; KUNTOSCH, ANETT ; BOKELMANN, WOLFGANG ............................................................. 213Scope of supply chain management for sustaining growth of farm sector in Indian PunjabSINGH, JOGINDER ................................................................................................................................................................ 214Possibilities and limits of modelling the development of horticulture farms based onaccounting dataKÖLBEL, CONNY ; LENTZ, WOLFGANG .................................................................................................................................. 214Eastern European seasonal employees in German Horticulture: Role and recent developmentsin the context of the EU expansionBITSCH, VERA & MITTELBERGER, CECILIA ............................................................................................................................ 215Seasonal employees in US horticulture: Agricultural Census trends 1997 – 2007, wagedevelopments, and housingBITSCH, VERA ..................................................................................................................................................................... 216“University-industry network” in the horticulture sector: Experience with the stakeholders’network in Kenya and EthiopiaWENZ, KATRIN ; WOLFGANG, BOKELMANN ............................................................................................................................. 216Establishing a network to analyze the international competitiveness of apple productionDIRKSMEYER, WALTER ......................................................................................................................................................... 217The economic value of high tunnel investment as a rain covers in strawberry productionKOIVISTO, ANU & NIEMI, SANNA ........................................................................................................................................... 218Enhancing global competitiveness of Indian apple: Investigating the value chain perspectiveSINGH, BABITA ; SIKKA, B.K. ; SINGH, SURENDRA P. ............................................................................................................. 218Attitude-based adoption model for implementation of energy efficient technologiesHERTEL, MANUEL ................................................................................................................................................................ 219The vegetable sector in Germany – Some indications of the competitivenessLUDWIG-OHM, SABINE & DIRKSMEYER, WALTER ................................................................................................................... 219Analysis of the economic relevance of German horticultureFLUCK, KATRIN & DIRKSMEYER, WALTER ............................................................................................................................. 220ArboPlus: a farm management tool for fruit growersBRAVIN, ESTHER ; BLUNSCHI, MIRJAM ................................................................................................................................... 221Costs and profitability of production of organic apple, strawberry and sour cherry in PolandBRZOZOWSKI, PIOTR ; ZMARLICKI, KRZYSZTOF ...................................................................................................................... 222Fruit growers identify their challengesBRAVIN, ESTHER ; HANHART, JOHANNES ; HIRRLE,TIMO ........................................................................................................ 222ProfiGemüse CH: a novel network linking research demand and supply in the vegetable sectorVOGLER, UTE ; CROLE-REES, ANNA ; BAUR, ROBERT ........................................................................................................... 224Identification of organic fruit market bottlenecks in PolandZMARLICKI, KRZYSZTOF ; BRZOZOWSKI, PIOTR ...................................................................................................................... 224Testing improved biodegradable mulch films in real field conditions: Case study withmuskmelonCARVALHO, LOPO ; OLIVEIRA, MARGARIDA ; CORDEIRO, TIAGO ; DUARTE, ELIZABETH ; MONTEIRO, ANTÓNIO ............................ 225Farmer’s preferences for ecofriendly nets adapted to vegetable production in BeninAKODOGBO, J. ; VIDOGBÉNA, F. ; ADÉGBIDI, A. ; KOMLAN, F.A. ; NGOUAJIO, M. ; MARTIN, T. ; SIMON, S. ; PARROT, L. .............. 22622


The supply chain for small farmers in Hungary, with particular attention to fruit and vegetablegrowersBURGER, ANNA ................................................................................................................................................................... 226TOPIC 4HORTICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY: CONTRIBUTIONS TO ITS LOSS, CONSERVATION ORINCREASE? ........................................................................................................................................ 229PLENARY SESSIONEvolution of diversity of fruits and vegetables cropsPITRAT, M. & AUDERGON, J.M. ............................................................................................................................................. 230ORAL PRESENTATIONS OF TOPIC 4 .............................................................................................. 231Characterization of indigenous apple genotypes from the fruit collection of Fruit ResearchInstitute ČačakMARIĆ, SLAĐANA & LUKIC, MILAN ........................................................................................................................................ 232Old autochthonous Italian fruit varieties, a source of interesting genetic traitsENGEL, PETRA ; FIDEGHELLI, CARLO ..................................................................................................................................... 233Use of carrot genetic resources to understand root carotenoid contentJOURDAN, MATTHIEU ; SOUFFLET-FRESLON, VANESSA ; CLOTAULT, JÉRÉMY ; BRIARD, MATHILDE ; PELTIER, DIDIER ;GEOFFRIAU, EMMANUEL ..................................................................................................................................................... 234Variations in almond (Prunus dulcis) self-incompatibility alleles: from Eastern Europe toWestern AsiaSZIKRISZT, BERNADETT ; ERCISLI, SEZAI ; HEGEDŰS, ATTILA ; HALÁSZ, JÚLIA ......................................................................... 235Exotic and African biodiversities in fruit and vegetable agroecosystems in SenegalDE BON, HUBERT ; REY, JEAN-YVES ; GRECHI, ISABELLE ; DIARRA, KARAMOKO ; BORDAT, DOMINIQUE ; NDIAYE, OUSMANE ....... 236Determination of essential oil and polyphenolic compounds in Thymus speciesPLUHÁR, ZSUZSANNA ; SIMKÓ, HELLA ; SÁROSI, SZILVIA ; BOROS, BORBÁLA ; DÖRNYEI, ÁGNES ; FELINGER, ATTILA ; HORVÁTH,GYÖRGYI ............................................................................................................................................................................ 237Quantification of agro-morphological and nutritional traits in Ethiopian mustard leaves(Brassica carinata A. Braun) by near-infrared spectroscopyMARTÍNEZ-VALDIVIESO, DAMIÁN ; FONT, RAFAEL ; MUÑOZ-SERRANO, ANDRÉS ; ALONSO-MORAGA, ANGELES ; DEL RÍO-CELESTINO,MERCEDES ......................................................................................................................................................................... 238Development of breeding programmes in eggplant with different objectives and approaches:three examples of use of primary genepool diversityHURTADO, MARIA; VILANOVA, SANTIAGO; PLAZAS, MARIOLA; GRAMAZIO, PIETRO; PROHENS, JAIME ......................................... 239Genetic stability in mint (Mentha xpiperita) cryopreserved apices: can the cryopreservationtechnique, regeneration medium composition and genotype affect the final result?KREMER, CAROLINA; MARTIN, CARMEN ; GONZALEZ, IVAN; GONZALEZ-BENITO, M. ELENA ....................................................... 240Strategies for the conservation of Lamiaceae medicinal and aromatic species diversity throughconventional and unconventional horticultural methodsDANILA, DOINA ; STEFANACHE, CAMELIA PAULA ................................................................................................................... 241A digital image analysis system for resistance evaluation in RhododendronPLASCHIL, SYLVIA & KRÄMER, REINER ................................................................................................................................. 24223


POSTER PRESENTATIONS OF TOPIC 4 ......................................................................................... 243A saturated SSR-DArT linkage map of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.)MOHAMED, RANYA R. ; DUNEMANN, F. ; PEIL, A. ; LANKES, C. ; NOGA, G. ; LÉON, J. .............................................................. 244Evaluation the genetic variation of Mangifera indica genotypes in IranSHAMILI, MANSOORE ; FATAHI, REZA .................................................................................................................................... 244Evaluation of genetic relationship between Iranian candid genotypes and rootstocks cultivarsusing microsatellite markersHADADINEJAD, M. ; EBADI, A. ; FATAHI, M.R. & NEJATIAN, MOHAMAD ALI .............................................................................. 245Cytoplasm types and their relatedness in the domesticated apple: Analysis of themitochondrial cox1 and atp9MIKAMI, T. ; KITAZAKI, K. & KISHIMA, Y. ................................................................................................................................. 245Collection, conservation and use of Phaseolus genetic resourcesBREZEANU, CREOLA ; BREZEANU, PETRE MARIAN ; AMBARUS, SILVICA ; CALIN, MARIA ; CRISTEA, TINA OANA .......................... 246Transcript levels a LOX gene and volatile compounds content in olive (Olea europaea L.)pericarps and olive oils: a comparative study on twenty-five olive cultivars harvested at tworipening stagesCHIAPPETTA, ADRIANA & MUZZALUPO, INNOCENZO ............................................................................................................. 247Phenolic compounds, chlorophylls and sugars in the mesocarp of the olive (Olea europaea L):a comparison between different varietiesPATARINO, ALBA; BENINCASA, CINZIA; RUSSO, ANNA; GRECO, FEDERICA & MUZZALUPO, INNOCENZO ...................................... 247Characterization, selection and conservation of local fig accessions cultivated inTunisiaALJANE, F. & FERCHICHI, A. ................................................................................................................................................ 248Basic screening of 800 grapevine genotypes based on morphological traits related to droughttolerance for selecting rootstockHADADINEJAD, MEHDI ; EBADI, ALI ; FATAHI, M.R. ; NEJATIAN, MOHAMAD ALI ; MOSAYYEBI, SAMANEH ..................................... 249In vitro conservation of Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. by encapsulation dehydration and ‘Coldstorage’ techniquesRUZIC, DJURDJINA ; VUJOVIC, TATJANA ; CEROVIC, RADOSAV ............................................................................................... 249Optimization of droplet vitrification protocol for cryopreservation of in vitro grown blackberryshoot tipsVUJOVIC, TATJANA ; RUZIC, DJURDJINA & CEROVIC, RADOSAV ............................................................................................. 250Genetic resources of genus Hydrangea : structuration of phenolic compounds diversityDULAC, A. ; GUILET, D. ; LAMBERT, C. ; RICHOMME, P. ......................................................................................................... 251The influence of biotic interactions on the distribution and abundance of Arnica montana L.species in natural habitatsSTEFANACHE, CAMELIA PAULA ; TANASE, CATALIN ............................................................................................................... 251Evaluation of frost tolerance among a large number of bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) ecotypescollected from Mediterranean, temperate, subtropical and tropical climatic zonesZHOU, YI JR; LAMBRIDES, CHRISTOPHER JR; FUKAI, SHU JR ................................................................................................... 252Baseline characterization of carrot genetic resourcesBARANSKI, RAFAL ; ALLENDER, CHARLOTTE ......................................................................................................................... 252Evaluation of some autochthonous plum cultivars in SerbiaGLIŠIĆ, IVANA ; MILOŠEVIĆ, NEBOJŠA .................................................................................................................................... 253First evaluation of Centaurium erythraea rafn. populations as breeding materialsSZABÓ, KRISZTINA ; BLASKOVICS, BETTINA; RAJHÁRT, PÉTER................................................................................................. 25424


Anthocyanin content and total phenolics of flower and leaves in F 2 generation of ornamentalpeppersRÊGO, ELIZANILDA RAMALHO DO ; MAPELI, ANA MARIA ; FERREIRA, ANA PAULA SATO ; OLIVEIRA, LUCILENE SILVA DE ; FINGER,FERNANDO LUIZ ; RÊGO, MAILSON MONTEIRO ...................................................................................................................... 254Researches regarding identification of new salinity tolerant tomato (Lycopersicum esculentumL.) landraces for future plant breeding programsŞUMĂLAN, RADU; CIOBANU (POPESCU), IOANA; SCHMIDT, BRIGITTA ; CAMEN, DORIN; BEINŞAN, CARMEN ................................. 255Sensorial and nutritional characterization of a collection of Cucurbita pepo accessionsMARTÍNEZ-VALDIVIESO, DAMIÁN; GÓMEZ, PEDRO; BLANCO-DÍAZ, M.TERESA; FONT, RAFAEL; DEL RÍO-CELESTINO, MERCEDES . 255Radical scavenging activity (ORAC) of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit extractsBLANDO, FEDERICA ; ALBANO, CLARA ; GERARDI, CARMELA ; LIU, YAZHENG AMY ; KITTS, DAVID D. ......................................... 256Different Genotypes of Ptilotus exaltatus and their suitability for cultivationSCHULZ, CLAUDIA ; GRÜNEBERG, HEINER ............................................................................................................................. 257Evaluation of fruit quality in tomato landraces under organic greenhouse conditionsNAVARRO, PEDRO ; MANZANO, SUSANA ; MEGÍAS, ZORAIDA ; MARTÍNEZ, CECILIA ; REBOLLOSO, MARÍA DEL MAR ;JAMILENA, MANUEL ............................................................................................................................................................. 257Characterization of the grapevine genetic resources in the climatic conditions of vineyardsDealu BujoruluiDONICI, ALINA; SIMION, CRISTINA ......................................................................................................................................... 258Mycorrhizal dependency of different pepper genotypesPINAR, HASAN ; ORTAS, IBRAHIM ; KELES, DAVUT ................................................................................................................. 258New South African Oxalis for the assortment of flowering ornamentalsGRÜNEBERG, HEINER ; ALBRECHT, NORMEN ; PASCHKE, CHRISTIANE ; EHRICH, LUISE ........................................................... 259Promising pear genotypes from North Anatolia, TurkeyOZTURK, AHMET; DEMIRSOY, LEYLA; DEMIRSOY, HÜSNÜ ....................................................................................................... 259Polyphenol metabolism in different cultivars and developmental stages of strawberry (Fragaria)fruitsMIOSIC, SILVIJA ; POBER, SABRINA ; THILL, JANA ; GOTAME, TEK ; SLATNAR, ANA ; VEBERIC, ROBERT ; HALBWIRTH, HEIDI ; STICH,KARL ................................................................................................................................................................................. 260Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) of diverse colours grown in Atlantic CanadaZVALO, V. ; KALT, W. ; SHI, J. ; FILLMORE, S.A.E. ; OWEN, J. ................................................................................................ 260Genetic variability and traits importance in four families of chili peppersDOS SANTOS, RUSTHON MAGNO CORTEZ, ; RÊGO, ELIZANILDA RAMALHO ; NASCIMENTO, NAYSA FERREIRA, ; NASCIMENTO,MAYANA FERREIRA ; BORÉM, ALUÍZIO ; RÊGO, MAILSON MONTEIRO & FINGER, FERNANDO LUIZ .............................................. 261Virus eradication and micro-propagation in preservation of high quality genetic resources ofgarlic in FinlandLAAMANEN, JAANA ; NUKARI, ANNA; TOIVONEN, HANNA; KIVIVUORI, ELINA; UOSUKAINEN, MARJATTA ........................................ 262Auxiliary entomofauna associated with the olive tree in southern PortugalGONÇALVES, MARIA ALBERTINA ; ANDRADE, LAURA ............................................................................................................... 262Preliminary studies for the biological control of Fusarium species with a french isolate of themycoparasitic fungus Sepedonium chrysospermumBARBIER, FRANÇOIS & GODET, STEPHANIE .......................................................................................................................... 263Elisa detection of Grapevine Fanleaf Virus (GFLV) in ampelographic collection belonging toAgricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine University from Iaşi, RomaniaLIPSA, FLORIN DANIEL ; IRIMIA, NICOLETA & ULEA, EUGEN ..................................................................................................... 263Differential gene expression in leaves of a scab susceptible and a resistant apple cultivar uponVenturia inaequalis inoculation25


HOLZAPFEL, CHRISTINE; MEISEL, BARABARA; THÜMMLER, FRITZ; LESER, CHRISTOPH; TREUTTER, DIETER ............................... 264Display of phytoplasma ESFY in some genetic resources of apricotNEČAS, T. ; MAŠKOVÁ, B.; KRŠKA, B. .................................................................................................................................... 265Virus-resistant pepper cultivars and the incidence of virus diseases in Andalusia (Spain)SIMÓN MARTÍNEZ, ALMUDENA ; GARCÍA GARCÍA, Mª DEL CARMEN; PASCUAL ASSO, FERNANDO; JANSSEN, DIRK; CUADRADOGÓMEZ, ISABEL Mª .............................................................................................................................................................. 265Interaction of methyl jasmonate with ethylene in gum formation in wounded bulbs of hyacinth(Hyacinthus orientalis L.)SANIEWSKI, MARIAN ; JARECKA BONCELA, ANNA ; MIYAMOTO, KENSUKE ; UEDA, JUNICHI ........................................................ 266Interaction studies of Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV)-encoded proteins involved in intercellularmovement in host plantsDIERKER, LUISE ; VON BARGEN, SUSANNE; BÜTTNER, CARMEN .............................................................................................. 266Examinations for the purpose of identify the present races of Venturia inaequalis Cke./Wint. inHungaryPAPP, D. ; TÓTH, M. ; KOVÁCS, SZ. ; ROZSNYAY, ZS. ............................................................................................................. 267Improved technique for chromosomes counting in Persian walnutVAHDATI, KOUROSH ; SADAT HOSSEINI GROUH, MOHAMMAD ; LOTFI, MAHMOUD .................................................................... 268Genetic transformation of cauliflower with Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX) geneAL-SWEDI, FADIL ; RIHAN, HAIL; AL-SHAMARI, MAGDA; LANE, STUART & FULLER, MICHAEL PAUL ............................................. 268Analysis of genetic relationship among Cymbidium goeringii and studies on rhizomepropagationKIM, TAE BOK JR; LEE, JIN JAE JR; SONG, YOUNG JU JR; CHOI, CHANG HAK JR; CHEONG, DONG CHUN JR; YU, YOUNG JIN JR .. 269Resistance and protection of apples from storage disordersAHMADI-AFZADI, MASOUD ; TAHIR, IBRAHIM , DEY, ESTERA ; NYBOM, HILDE .......................................................................... 269Comparison of methods for assessment of partial resistance to fruit tree canker in appleGHASEMKHANI, MARJAN ; GARKAVA-GUSTAVSSON, LARISA ; NYBOM, HILDE .......................................................................... 270Gene-specific length polymorphism – a simple tool for routine analysis of homogeneity ofcarrot (Daucus carota L.) breeding stocksGRZEBELUS, DARIUSZ ; GLADYSZ, MIROSLAWA; BARANSKI, RAFAL ......................................................................................... 270Effect of the main cytokinins on androgenesis of white cabbage (Brassica oleracea l. Var.Capitata) anthers cultivated “in vitro”CRISTEA, TINA OANA ; LEONTE, CONSTANTIN ; PRISECARU, MARIA ; BREZEANU, CREOLA ; BREZEANU, PETRE MARIAN ;AVASILOAIEI, DAN ............................................................................................................................................................... 271‘Evmolpia’ – a new Bulgarian peach cultivar resistant to leaf curl diseaseZHIVONDOV, ARGIR ; DABOV, STOYAN & BOZHIKOVA, YULIA ................................................................................................... 271Peach breeding programme for new varieties and for different traits - Pomological andphenological data analysis with a ranking methodCIPRIANI, GUIDO ; TERLIZZI, MASSIMO; DI CINTIO, ANGELO; BEVILACQUA, DANIELE; ROSATO, TERESA; SARTORI, ALISEA .......... 272Characteristics of vineyard peach hybrids obtained by self-pollinationRAKONJAC, VERA ; NIKOLIĆ, DRAGAN ; FOTIRIĆ AKŠIĆ, MILICA & RADOVIĆ, ALEKSANDAR ....................................................... 273Limits to clonal selection in Danish sour cherryCLAUSEN, SABINE; GROUT, BRIAN; TOLDAM-ANDERSEN, TORBEN........................................................................................... 273Properties of promising grapevine hybrids obtained from different crossing combinations ofZačinak cultivarNIKOLIĆ, DRAGAN ; MILUTINOVIĆ, MOMČILO; RAKONJAC, VERA; RANKOVIĆ-VASIĆ, ZORICA; FOTIRIĆ AKŠIĆ, MILICA ................... 274Introduction to protoplast culture of Allium genus26


POLZEROVÁ, HANA; GREPLOVÁ, MARIE; DOMKÁŘOVÁ, JAROSLAVA ......................................................................................... 274Estimation of genetic diversity in some Iranian almond genotypes using morphological andmolecular markersSALIMPOUR, ALLAHDAD ; EBADI, ALI ; REZA FATAHI, MOHAMMAD & HADADINEJAD, MEHDI ...................................................... 275Study of new apple selections in LithuaniaSASNAUSKAS, AUDRIUS ; GELVONAUSKIENĖ, DALIA ; VIŠKELIS, PRANAS ; SAKALAUSKAITĖ, JURGA ; GELVONAUSKIS, BRONISLOVAS; BOBINAS, ČESLOVAS ......................................................................................................................................................... 275Polyphenol metabolism provides a screening tool for beneficial effects of sainfoin (Onobrychisviciifolia)THILL, JANA ; REGOS, IONELA ; AHMAD, ASMA ; HALBWIRTH, HEIDI ; TREUTTER, DIETER ; STICH, KARL .................................. 276Determination of self compatibility and appropriate pollinators of Clementine mandarin typesderived from selectionSEDAY, UBEYIT.................................................................................................................................................................... 277Determination of relationship between culture media, genotype and season in pepper(Capsicum annuum l.) anther cultureATA, ATILLA ........................................................................................................................................................................ 277Quality-improvement and adaptation of breeding-methodology of Dahlia variabilisBALAS, JOHANNES ; SCHINAGL, GERALD ; VOLLMANN, JOHANN ; YILDIZ, ZIYA ; WIRTH, GERHARD ; HALBWIRTH, HEIDRUN ......... 278Development of a rose genetic map into the “Rosa fortissima” project: a Rose project tocontrol the diseasesMICLOT, ANNE-SOPHIE ; ROMAN, HANAÉ ; GIRONDE, SOPHIE ; PORCHER, LAETITIA ; THOUROUDE, TATIANA ; CHASTELLIER, ANNIE ;MASSOT, MATHILDE ; FOUCHER, FABRICE & HIBRAND-SAINT OYANT, LAURENCE ................................................................... 278Economic efficiency of 15-year growing of grafted and own-rooted sour cherry cultivarsRADOMIRSKA, ILIYANA & SOTIROV, DIMITAR .......................................................................................................................... 279Performance of the sweet cherry cultivars ‘Van’ and ‘Kozerska’ on clonal rootstocksSOTIROV, DIMITAR ............................................................................................................................................................... 280Watermelon graft combinations tested in HungaryKAPPEL, NOÉMI ; BALÁZS, GÁBOR ; FEKETE, DÁVID ; BŐHM, VIKTÓRIA ; LEDÓNÉ, HAJNALKA .................................................... 280Fruit quality, biochemical composition and yield of blackcurrant cultivars and hybrids in LatviaKAMPUSS, KASPARS ; STRAUTINA, SARMITE ; KRASNOVA, INTA .............................................................................................. 281Field evaluation of scab (Venturia pirina Aderh.) severity on fruits depending on pear cultivarsLĀCIS, GUNĀRS; LĀCE, BAIBA; BLUKMANIS, MĀRIS ................................................................................................................. 281Evaluation of pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivars grown in Latvia for fresh market andprocessingLĀCE, BAIBA; LĀCIS, GUNĀRS ............................................................................................................................................... 282Comparison of field performance and fruit quality of Two day-neutral strawberry varieties‘Diamante’ and ‘Elsinore’MILIVOJEVIC, JASMINKA ; RADIVOJEVIC, DRAGAN; POLEDICA, MILENA ..................................................................................... 283Investigation of quantitative and qualitative traits on mungbean cultivars, in ecological culturesystemBREZEANU, CREOLA ; BREZEANU, PETRE MARIAN ; AMBARUS, SILVICA ; ROBU, TEODOR ........................................................ 283Expression level of Vitis CBF1 and CBF3 in three Iranian grape cultivars as well as V. riparia .....KARIMI, MARYAM ; EBADI, ALI; MOUSAVI, AMIR; SALAMI, ALIREZA ........................................................................................... 284Evaluation of Canadian apricot cultivars in SerbiaMILATOVIĆ, DRAGAN; ĐUROVIĆ, DEJAN; NIKOLIĆ, DRAGAN & ZEC, GORDAN ............................................................................ 284Influence of salinity on biomass of six native Mediterranean plants27


PLAZA, BLANCA MARÍA ; JIMÉNEZ-BECKER, SILVIA ; GARCÍA-CAPARRÓS, PEDRO ; CHAVEZ, LUZ ÁNGELA ; GÓNZALEZ, ALICIA MARÍA ;LAO, MARIA TERESA ........................................................................................................................................................... 285Horticultural and biochemical properties of red currant (Ribes rubrum L.) cultivarsDJORDJEVIĆ, BOBAN ; VULIĆ, TODOR; DJUROVIĆ, DEJAN; DJUROVIĆ, SNEŽANA; OPARNICA, CEDO; MILATOVIĆ, DRAGAN; ZEC,GORDAN ............................................................................................................................................................................. 285Evaluation of resistance to the pest Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lep.: Gelechiidae) in Spanishtomato landracesNAVARRO, PEDRO ; MANZANO, SUSANA ; JAMILENA, MANUEL ; FERNÁNDEZ-MALDONADO, FRANCISCO JAVIER ; GALLEGO, JUANRAMÓN ; CABELLO, TOMÁS ................................................................................................................................................. 286Lenticels as pomological characteristic of apple and pear fruitĐURIĆ, GORDANA ; MIĆIĆ, NIKOLA ; PAŠALIĆ, BORIS ............................................................................................................ 286Diallelic analysis on in vitro seed germination in chili pepper ornamentalRÊGO, MAILSON M. ; BARROSO, P. A. ; RÊGO, ELIZANILDA R. ; SANTOS, W. S. ; NASCIMENTO, K. S. ; OTONI, W. C. ................. 287Biological value and antioxidant activity of different types of leaf chicory (Cichorium intybus L.var. foliosum (Hegi.) Bisch.)BIESIADA, ANITA ; TOMCZAK, ANNA; KRĘŻEL, JAN .................................................................................................................. 288Nutraceutic characterisation of Italian cherry cultivarsCECCARELLI, D.; NOTA, P.; TALENTO, C.; SCOSSA, F.; SIMEONE, A. M., FIDEGHELLI, C. & CABONI, E. ..................................... 288Establishment of germplasm for the onion (Allium cepa L.) breeding in Turkey: observation ofsome bulb and pollen featuresCEBECI, ESRA ; HANCI, FATIH .............................................................................................................................................. 289Effect of oxidative stress on cryopreserved mint apices: the role of antioxidantsKREMER, C.; GONZALEZ-BENITO, M. E. & MARTIN, C. ........................................................................................................... 289TOPIC 5FROM MOLECULAR PROCESSES TO PLANT POPULATION FUNCTIONING: TOWARDSINTEGRATIVE BIOLOGY IN HORTICULTURE................................................................................. 291PLENARY SESSIONFrom molecular processes to plant population functioning: towards integrative biology inhorticulture ......................................................................................................................................... 292BUCK-SORLIN, GERHARD ..................................................................................................................................................... 292ORAL PRESENTATIONS OF TOPIC 5 .............................................................................................. 293A multi-level Omic approach of tomato fruit qualityXU, JIAXIN ; PASCUAL, LAURA ; DESPLAT, NELLY ; FAUROBERT, MIREILLE ; GIBON, YVES ; MOING, ANNICK ; MAUCOURT, MARISE ;BALLIAS, P. ; DEBORDE, CÉCILE ; LIANG, YAN ; BOUCHET, JEAN-PAUL ; BRUNEL, DOMINIQUE ; LEPASLIER, MARIE-CHRISTINE ;CAUSSE, MATHILDE ............................................................................................................................................................ 294Comparative transcriptome analysis of two olive cultivars in response to NaCl-stressKALAITZIS, PANAGIOTIS ; BAZAKOS, CHRISTOS; MANIOUDAKI, MARIA ....................................................................................... 295Modeling changes in pH and titratable acidity during the maturation of dessert bananaETIENNE, AUDREY ; GENARD, MICHEL ; BUGAUD, CHRISTOPHE ............................................................................................. 296Phenotyping the response of an apple tree hybrid population to soil water constraint underfield conditions: new insights brought by high resolution imagingVIRLET, N. ; LEBOURGEOIS, V. ; MARTINEZ, S. ; LABBE, S. ; COSTES, E. ; REGNARD, J.L. ..................................................... 297Fruit set manipulation in apple and mango28


WÜNSCHE, J.N. ; WINTERHAGEN, P.; HAGEMANN, M.H.; HEGELE, M. ...................................................................................... 298Chilling challenges in a warming worldLUEDELING, EIKE ; BLANKE, MICHAEL & GEBAUER, JENS ...................................................................................................... 299Dynamic modelling of water stress for Lactuca sativa L. var. capitataDUNCKER, CHARLOTTE ; HOFFMANN, HOLGER & RATH, THOMAS ............................................................................................ 300Net ecosystem carbon exchange, primary productivity and dry matter partitioning of appletreesZANOTELLI, DAMIANO ; MONTAGNANI, LEONARDO ; SCANDELLARI, FRANCESCA ; CECCON, CHRISTIAN ; MELO, WELLINGTON ;CASSOL, PAULO CESAR ; TAGLIAVINI, MASSIMO ................................................................................................................... 301POSTER PRESENTATIONS OF TOPIC 5 ......................................................................................... 303Genetic investigation of seed formation during berry development using RNA-Seq revealstranscriptional changes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)NWAFOR, CHARLES ; COSTANTINI, LAURA ; GRIBAUDO, IVANA ; SCHNEIDER, ANNA ; WEHRENS, RON ; GRANDO, M.STELLA ...... 304Salicylic acid and salinity effects on growth and some biochemical parameters of tomatoplantsMIMOUNI, HAJER; WASTI, SALMA; SMITI, SAMIRA; ZID, EZZEDDINE; BEN AHMED, HELA ............................................................ 304Investigation of the most important secondary metabolites of St.John's (Hypericum perforatumL.) In Caspian climateDANESHIAN, JAHANFAR ; MAJIDI HERAVAN, ESLAM ; VALADABADI, SYED ALIREZA ; GOLEIN, BEHROOZ ; RAHNAVARD, APTIN ..... 305The investigation on the effect of gamma radiation on microbial load and essential oilcompounds of Indian valerian roots (Valeriana wallichii)AZIZI, MAJID; VALIASIL, RAZIEH; BAHREINI, MASOUMEH; OROOJALIAN, FATEMEH ..................................................................... 305Is the reduction in leaf photosynthetic assimilation in Laurus nobilis L. in response to waterstress due to stomatal closure?MAATALLAH, SAMIRA ; ALBOUCHI, ALI ; LUTTS, STANLEY; SMITIA, SAMIRA ............................................................................. 306Influence of five rootstock on growth and photosynthetic parameters of pear treesBANINASAB, BAHRAM; IRVANI, FATEMEH; GHOBADI, CYRUS; ETEMADI, NEMAT-ALLAH; GHASEMI, AIOBALI .................................. 307Induction of salt tolerance by ascorbic acid in seedlings of pistachioBANINASAB, B. ; BASTAM, N. & GHOBADI, C. ......................................................................................................................... 307How fruit traits influence cracking of pomegranateSAEI AHAGH, HASSAN ; SHARIFANI, MEHDI ; SEIFI, ESMAIL ; MOHSENI, ALI ; AKBARPOUR, VAHID .............................................. 308The effects of Trichoderma harzianum on germination of onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds underabiotic stress conditionsHANCI, FATIH; CEBECI, ESRA ................................................................................................................................................ 308Use electrical conductivity as a tool for determining winter hardiness of some Mango cultivarsISMAIL, OMAYMA M. ............................................................................................................................................................. 309The effect of drought stress on secondary and health-promoting plant compounds in lettuce(Lactuca sativa var. capitata L.)TICHY, M.; EICHHOLZ, I.; ULRICHS, CH. ; HUYSKENS-KEIL, S................................................................................................... 309Assessment of susceptibility and prevention of cracking of sweet cherry cv. ‘Skeena’HOPPE, F. ; HUYSKENS-KEIL, S. ; ULRICHS, CH. ; HANRAHAN, I. ............................................................................................ 310Integrative approach using multiblock analysis to explain a complex trait of tomato fruitquality: textureAURAND, RÉMY ; FAUROBERT, MIREILLE ; HANAFI, MOHAMED ; MAZEROLLES, GÉRARD ; TISIOT, RAPHAËL ; ROSSO, LAURENT ;NAVEZ, BRIGITTE ; BERTIN, NADIA ........................................................................................................................................ 31029


Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid, benzyladenine and gibberelic acid on flowering,yield and fruit quality of `Egaji Shami‘ olive trees (Olea europaea L.)ABD EL-RAZEK, E. ; HASSAN, H.S.A. & GAMAL EL DIN, KARIMA M. ....................................................................................... 311A novel plant growth regulator that inhibits brassinosteroid-dependent sterol biosynthesisROZHON, WILFRIED & POPPENBERGER, BRIGITTE ................................................................................................................. 311Leaf micro-environment influences the altered foliar phenotype of columnar apple (Malus xdomestica Borkh.) treesTALWARA, SUSHEELA; GROUT, BRIAN; TOLDAM-ANDERSEN, TORBEN ..................................................................................... 312Complex effect of tropospheric ozone and substrate moisture on Pisum sativum physiologicalindicesSAKALAUSKIENĖ, SANDRA; SAKALAUSKAITĖ, JURGA ; BRAZAITYTĖ, AUŠRA; SAMUOLIENĖ, GIEDRĖ; ZUZAVIČIŪTĖ, AISTĖ;DUCHOVSKIS, PAVELAS ........................................................................................................................................................ 312Assessing the impact of environmental factors on plant architecture through an integrativeapproachLEDUC, N. ; THELIER, L. ; GALOPIN, G. ; TRAVIER-PELLESCHI, S. ; MOREL P. ; BOUMAZA, R. ; GENTILHOMME, J. ; DEMOTES-MAINARD, S. ; CRESPEL, L. ; LOTHIER, J. ; BERTHELOOT, J. ; RABOT, A. ; ABIDI, F. ; BARBIER, F.; FURET, PM. ; PERON, T. ;LAFFAIRE, M. ; SIGOGNE, M. ; LEBREC, A. ; SINTES, G. ; BROUARD, N. ; DOUILLET, O. ; CARADEUC, M. ; DUBUC, B. ; AUTRET, H. ;RELION, D. ; PEREZ GARCIA, M.D. ; GUERIN, V. ; VIAN, A. ; SAKR, S. ..................................................................................... 313Mechanisms for wear tolerance among bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) genotypes: cell wallcomponents and leaf anatomyZHOU, YI JR ; VAN, THINH TRAN JR ; PEARCE, WILLIAM JR ; WILLIAMS, SHARON JR ; ROCHE, MATT JR ; LOCH, DON JR ; FUKAI, SHUJR ; LAMBRIDES, CHRISTOPHER JR ....................................................................................................................................... 314Fruit quality prediction on cider apple: effect of annual fruit load, soil and climateGUILLERMIN, PASCALE ; PIFFARD, BLANDINE ; PRIMAULT, JO ; DUPONT, NATHALIE ; GILLES, YANN .......................................... 314Influence of gums formed in stone-fruit trees on the growth, development and ethyleneproduction by Verticillium albo-atrum and V. dahliae cultures in vitroWĘGRZYNOWICZ-LESIAK, ELŻBIETA ; JARECKA BONCELA, ANNA ; GÓRAJ, JUSTYNA ; URBANEK, HENRYK ; SANIEWSKI, MARIAN . 315Influence of cultivar and industrial pollution on the content of essential and toxic elements inhazelnuts and walnuts from BulgariaARPADJAN, SONJA ; MOMCHILOVA, SVETLANA ; KIROVA, DENIZA ; BLAGOEVA, ELIZA ; NIKOLOVA, MAGDALENA ......................... 316Sap flow of sweet cherry trees depending on meteorological conditionsJUHÁSZ, Á. ; HROTKÓ, K. ; SEPSI P. ; TŐKEI L. ...................................................................................................................... 316Factors affecting nutrient balance of high density sweet cherry orchardHROTKÓ, KÁROLY ; MAGYAR, LAJOS & GYEVIKI, MÁRTA ......................................................................................................... 317Fruit growth of Hylocereus undatus planted at 800 meters from sea level and effect of numberof fruit on branch to fruit qualityISARANGKOOL NA AYUTTHAYA, SUPAT ; PHONRUENG, SAMRUAY ; SONGSRI, PATCHARIN ; POLTHANEE, ANAN .......................... 317Yield of Hevea brasiliensis could not be the indicator for soil droughtISARANGKOOL NA AYUTTHAYA, SUPAT ; DO, FREDERIC C. .................................................................................................... 318The effects of different hormones on in vitro callus induction in seed explants of Golden Berry(Physalis peruviana L.)HANCI, FATIH ; CEBECI, ESRA ............................................................................................................................................... 318Thigmomorphogenesis: the use of mechanical stress for height control in (organic) plantproductionRUTTENSPERGER, UTE; KOCH, RAINER; SAUER, HEIKE; KOCH, ROBERT ................................................................................. 318Studies on the adaptation, multiplication and cultivation in Romania of two new fruit-growingspecies, Actinidia deliciosa and Actinidia argutaPETICILA, ADRIAN ; MADJAR, ROXANA ; STANICA, FLORIN ; VENAT-DUMITRIU, OANA ................................................................ 319Apple ovule setting30


MIĆIĆ, NIKOLA ; ĐURIĆ, GORDANA (2 ; PAŠALIĆ, BORIS .......................................................................................................... 320Tomato and toxic metals: new approaches in plant physiology, biochemistry and geneticsAZEVEDO, RICARDO A ; PIOTTO, FERNANDO; GRATAO, PRISCILA L. ......................................................................................... 321In vitro research of the fungicide effect on pollen germinability and tubes growth of species ofgenera Prunus and PyrusNIKOLIĆ, DRAGAN ; STEVANOVIĆ, NINOSLAV; RADOVIĆ, ALEKSANDAR; MILATOVIĆ, DRAGAN & RAKONJAC, VERA ....................... 321Effect of phytosulfokine on plating efficiency in mesophyll protoplast culture of DaucusspeciesGRZEBELUS, EWA ; MAĆKOWSKA, KATARZYNA ...................................................................................................................... 322Preliminary hyperspectral and biochemical data of tomato canopy in response to salinitystressKALAITZIS, PANAGIOTIS ; ALTARTOURI, BARA ; KALAITZIDIS, CHARITON ; MANAKOS, IOANNIS ; SPANO, THEODORE ;FRAGOSTEFANAKIS, SOTIRIOS ............................................................................................................................................. 322The Effect of thawing temperature and duration of roots of witloof chicory before forcing onchicon yield and quality in republic of KoreaSEO, HYUNTAEK ; WON, JAE HEE ; CHOI, JAE KEUN ; AHN, SOO YONG ; KANG, HO MIN ......................................................... 323Nutritional disorders in Phalaenopsis - Symptoms and plant analysisAMBERGER-OCHSENBAUER, SUSANNE .................................................................................................................................. 324Mycorrhiza-mediated salt stress tolerance in sweet cornSCHAARSCHMIDT, SARA ; ADLER, ELISABETH; ALYOUNESS, WEDAD; EICHEL, PETER & ULRICHS, CHRISTIAN ............................. 324Transcriptomic analysis of leaves of transgenic apple silenced for sorbitol-6-phosphatedehydrogenase geneSUZUKI, YASUO & DANDEKAR, ABHAYA ................................................................................................................................ 325Modeling the growth of ‘Braeburn’ apple fruitsGARRIZ, PATRICIA I.; COLAVITA, GRACIELA M.; VITA, LAURA I.; ALVAREZ, HUGO L. & BLACKHALL, VALERIA ............................... 325TOPIC 6LANDSCAPING AND URBAN HORTICULTURE .............................................................................. 327ORAL PRESENTATIONS OF TOPIC 6Improving the performances of modular living walls systems: a multidisciplinary researchexperienceLARCHER, FEDERICA ; MONTACCHINI, ELENA; GIORDANO, ROBERTO ...................................................................................... 328Extensive vegetation systems versus air pollutionSCHREITER, HENDRIKJE ; GORBACHEVSKAYA, OLGA ; GRÜNEBERG, HEINER ........................................................................... 329Touristic green spaces sustainability in the Adriatic cost: analysis and critical points in EmiliaRomagna waterfrontCEVENINI, LAURA; MINELLI, ALBERTO ; ZUFFA, DANIELE ........................................................................................................ 330Application of microclimatic landscape design in schoolyards in GreeceTSIROGIANNIS, IOANNIS L. ; ANTONIADIS, DIMITRIOS ; KATSOULAS, NICOLAOS ; CHRISTIDOU, VASILIA ; KITTA, E. ; KITTAS,CONSTANTINOS .................................................................................................................................................................. 331Favour street tree root development with high additions of organic matter induces changes inurban soil propertiesVIDAL-BEAUDET, LAURE ; FORGET-CAUBEL, VIRGINIE ; GROSBELLET, CLAIRE ......................................................................... 332Urban agriculture: an opportunity for farmers? A Swiss case study31


CROLE-REES, ANNA ; HEITKÄMPER, KATJA ; BERTSCHINGER, LUKAS ; HALLER, THERESE ; DUMONDEL, MICHEL ; VERZONE, CRAIG.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 333The role and meaning of trees for suburban childrenLAAKSOHARJU, TAINA ; KAIVOLA, TAINA ; LINDÉN, LEENA ; RAPPE, ERJA ................................................................................ 334How to improve landscape and environment in Czech Republic with assistance of participatoryplanningVÍTOVSKÁ, DANIELA ............................................................................................................................................................. 335POSTER PRESENTATIONS OF TOPIC 6 ......................................................................................... 337Urban areas and the risk of biological invasions: the case of an alien insect pest of peper tree,Calophya schiniZINA, VERA ; LIMA, ARLINDO ; CAETANO, FILOMENA ; SILVA, ELSA BORGES DA ; RAMOS, ANA PAULA ; FRANCO, JOSÉ CARLOS . 338Using environmental noise barriers and urban forests in urban planning for noise reduction .....ROUHI, VAHID ; MANIEI, HESAMODIN .................................................................................................................................... 338Comparison between broad leaves and conifers needle's behaviors in incidence to sonicwaves and it's effect on efficient function for noise reduction in desired distanceROUHI, VAHID ; MANIEI, HESAMODIN .................................................................................................................................... 339Antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation and proline content of Agropyron desertorumin response to drought stressTATARI, MARYAM ; FOTOUHI GHAZVINI, REZA ; ETAMEDI, NEMATOLLAH ; AHADI, ALIMOHAMMAD ; MOUSAVI, ASGHAR ................ 340Scabiosa atropurpurea and Silene colorata to be used in wildflower meadows - connectingurban and rural landscapesPONTE-E-SOUSA, CLARA ; CASTRO, MARIA CONCEIÇÃO; CARVALHO, MÁRIO JOSÉ................................................................... 340The role of extensive green roof media in the minimization of heavy metal loadings in roofrunoffYOUSSEF, L. ; OSCHMANN, C. ; GRÜNEBERG, H. ................................................................................................................... 341Predicting constructed urban soil sustainability: impact of waste organic matter on soilphysical propertiesCANNAVO, PATRICE ; VIDAL-BEAUDET, LAURE ; GROSBELLET, CLAIRE ; FORGET-CAUBEL, VIRGINIE ......................................... 342No soil no tomato? Examples of urban soilless vegetable croppingPOURIAS, JEANNE ; GARIN, MARIE ; AUBRY, CHRISTINE ......................................................................................................... 342Evaluation of growth and coverage of native species of sedum for use in extensive green roofsin Galicia (northwest of Spain)IGLESIAS-DÍAZ, M. ISABEL ; LAMOSA-QUINTEIRO, SANTIAGO; MARTÍNEZ-DIZ, M. PILAR ............................................................ 343Propagation of native species of the genus sedum for use on extensive green roofs in Galicia(northwest of Spain)IGLESIAS-DÍAZ, M. ISABEL ; LAMOSA-QUINTEIRO, SANTIAGO; MARTÍNEZ-DIZ, M. PILAR ............................................................ 344Uban horticulture production in urban areasSIRLEAF, SENSEE LUNER ..................................................................................................................................................... 345Comparative study of seed germination in field environments to appraise potential species'establishment in urban greenspaceDUNSIGER, ZOE; HITCHMOUGH, JAMES ................................................................................................................................. 345URBAN VITICULTURE: the case study of the peri-urban area of RomeBIASI, RITA & BRUNORI, ELENA ............................................................................................................................................ 346Design of extensive green roofs for the major school plants of Piraeus32


VARRAS, GREGORY ; VOZIKIS, KONSTANTINA - THERESIA ; MYRIOUNIS, CHRISTOS ; TSIROGIANNIS, IOANNIS L. ; KITTA, EVANGELLINI.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 347Tell me what you grow, I'll tell you who you are. About the relevance of considering cropbiodiversity in Paris shared gardensPOURIAS, J. ; REMY, E. ; AUBRY, C. ................................................................................................................................... 347Urban gardening in a Family club outlineLAAKSOHARJU, TAINA .......................................................................................................................................................... 348Anthropogenically-disturbed landscape as a potential for recreational useMATĚJKA, DANIEL; MICKOVÁ, ŽELMÍRA; VÍTOVSKÁ, DANIELA .................................................................................................. 348INDEX OF AUTHORS………………………………………………………………………………………………………...……..34933


OPENING PLENARYHORTICULTURE IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT


Opening StatementHorticulture in a crisis environment 1GARCÍA AZCÁRATE, TomasAgricultural economic market adviser at the European Commission, "Maître de Conférence",European Studies Institute, Université Libre de Bruxelles (IEE-ULB), Member of the Académie del'Agriculture de France(I perceive as a great honour to have been invited by the organizers to make the opening statement of this IIEuropean Symposium on Horticulture. I am back home. In 1984, when I was a young researcher at the SpanishUniversity, I presented and publish in Acta Horticulturae one of my first article, on "the incorporation of Spain intothe EEC and consequences for Mediterranean fruit and vegetable exports" 2 .)My title for this contribution was originally "Horticulture in a changing environment". I have changed a single word,but an important one. It is now "Horticulture in a crisis environment".The best information on European consumption of fruit and vegetables is provided by the Freshfel ConsumptionMonitor 3 , which recently concluded that consumption continues to be on a worrying declining trend. While data for2011 is not yet available the trend is, unfortunately, likely to have continued into 2011, given the impact of theeconomic crisis as well as the consequences of the EHEC outbreak.Economic necessity may have led consumers to be more aware of the need to minimise waste, by consumingeverything they purchase, but this alone is not sufficient to correct the downward trend in consumption.The fall in consumption is continuing despite major campaigns in many Member States and at EU level, informingthe public about the positive impact on heath of the regular consumption of fruit and vegetables. Publicawareness has been raised by successful initiatives – many of them aimed at school children - such as the EUSchool Fruit Scheme 4 ; the Pro Greens initiative 5 ; Enjoy Fresh 6 ; the 5 a day initiative in many countries andMember States; la "Fraich'attitude" 7 et les "Fruits à la récré 8 "in France.But facts are facts. Consumption is still falling. We must be doing something wrong and by "we" I mean all of us:the public services, traders, producers, retailers and … the scientific community.To understand the present, maybe we should look at the past. What have we done in the last 50 years? Therehave been massive changes in practically every aspect of the production chain:A huge transfer of obligations from the retailer to the producer, such as calibration, standardisation, qualitycontrol, storage, packaging, logistics, just in time deliveries even to each specific store 9 . This has been madepossible by massive public investments, especially in motorways; developments in cooling technology,transportation systems etc; enormous investments by producers on and off the farm 10 .Those investments could only be profitable with a growth in volumes. This has been achieved through increasedproductivity, regional specialisation at the expense of peri-urban production; greater homogenization of products;loss of diversity in the varieties of fruit and vegetables cultivated.The products and varieties grown have increasingly been selected to meet "category I" requirements; to betradable for longer periods and to be apparently attractive to consumers. External attractiveness is a key factorthat influences consumer choice. The nadir of this trend is perhaps represented by the "GM tomato story". Longlasting,genetically modified tomatoes came on to the market in 1994 and were the first genetically modified foodavailable to consumers. Designed to remain firm and fresh for a long time, perfectly round and red, the GM12345678910The opinions expressed in this contribution are personal and do not prejudge the official position of theEuropean Commissionhttp://www.actahort.org/books/155/155_1.htmhttp://www.freshfel.org/docs/2012/Press_Releases/20120206_-_Consumption_Monitor_2011.pdfhttp://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/fruit-and-vegetables/school-fruit-scheme/index_en.htmhttp://www.progreens.org/http://www.enjoyfresh.eu/php/index.phphttp://www.fraichattitude.com/http://agriculture.gouv.fr/un-fruit-pour-la-recreRastoin, F. (1992): Evolution de la distribution de fruits et légumes frais dans les pays industriels. Quelmodèle? Options méditerranéennes Série A n°19.http://ressources.ciheam.org/om/pdf/a19/CI920823.pdfLambarraa, F. (2011): Dynamic analysis of Spanish outdoor and Greenhouse Horticulture sector.EAAE 2011 Congress. http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/handle/11440836


Opening Statementtomato should have been a retailer's dream 11 . But it was soon removed from the market when US consumersfailed to buy it, not only because it was genetically modified, but because it had no flavour! 12When it comes to marketing, the fruit and vegetable sector has seen quite limited innovation. Look at the dairysection of your local supermarket. There is an extraordinary range of products available that didn't exist 20 yearsago. Now look at the fruit and vegetable section. Apart from year-round availability and the introduction of exoticfruit, very little has changed. Perhaps the biggest success is pre-prepared salads or fresh-cut minimallyprocessed fruit and vegetables 13 .To summarise what has happened in a few words, we can use the term "mass production"; the presence of manyproducts from around the world throughout the year; the concentration of production in some big centres often farfrom the centres of consumption; an ever-increasing concentration of retailers. 14But where is the consumer in this story? As often happens in an old married couple, fruit and vegetable producersand retailers have taken their better half – the consumer - for granted. Even worse, nowadays when we (theproducers) speak to them (the consumers) we use words like health and disease prevention, as if we werespeaking of a medicine, not of the pleasures of married life!We still have time to reverse the trend. For this you can count on the support of the European Union. TheCommission is launching an ambitious agricultural research and innovation programme, increasing the budgetfrom 1.9 billion to 4.5 billion euros for the period 2014-2020. Research and innovation will also be central to thenext series of Rural Development programmes; current opportunities for investment and promotion will bemaintained or reinforced; the School fruit and vegetable scheme will be boosted.Old couples can fall in love again. But they have to speak first about pleasure, taste, flavour; they have to feel andto be important to each other.It is possible. It can happen. It has to happen. Research and innovation have to be the tools for this new lovestory.(You, we, can be the actors of this, starting from today, starting from now, starting from here. Many thanks andgood work.)11121314http://www.bionetonline.org/english/content/ff_cont3.htmhttp://www.gmocompass.org/eng/grocery_shopping/fruit_vegetables/15.genetically_modified_tomatoes.htmlGorny, J.R. (2003): A summary of CA and MA requirements and recommendations for fresh-cut(minimally processed) fruits and vegetables. ISHS Acta Horticulturae 600http://www.actahort.org/books/600/index.htmhttp://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/ecoru_0013-0559_1983_num_158_1_300537


PLENARY SESSIONTOPIC 1CONTRIBUTION OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES TO NEWDEVELOPMENTS IN HORTICULTURE


Plenary SessionContribution of innovative technologies to new development inhorticulturePEKKERIET, E.J. *; VAN HENTEN, E.J.; CAMPEN, J.B.Wageningen UR Greenhouse Technology, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 6446700 AP Wageningen,The Netherlands* erik.pekkeriet@wur.nlThis paper reviews new developments in high-tech greenhouse horticulture. This paper will focus on sensors,energy solutions, covering materials, production technology and robotics. Driving forces for new technologies areidentified and Dutch greenhouse crop production is used as an example.In greenhouse horticulture the production process and control are still often done manually. A lot of labour is usedin processes like crop sensing, crop maintenance, harvesting and packaging of food, flowers and pot plants.Human intelligence for repetitive tasks at a high capacity level is required for these processes. Tasks in thegreenhouse are often performed by foreigners since they are more cost effective. Transporting andaccommodating low cost labour to a high level production site turns out to be more effective then transporting ahigh level production site to an area where low cost labour is available. Especially when the volume per unit islarge compared to the price and consumption is locally. This evolution is changing the idea that grow systems,sensors, mechanization and robotics should only replace labour in high developed areas. New technologiesshould also improve the reproducibility of quality, reliability to deliver in the requested amount, reducing the timeto market and reducing costs in the entire production chain.Continuous improvement is difficult to realise when labour forces are replaced frequently resulting in a continuousmanagement efforts to acquire labour resources of the appropriated quality and productivity at the right moment.New technologies should add value to the product and open ways to continuous improvement. New technologiesthat reduce human interference will stimulate a process of continuous improvement.New technologies that can replace and improve the human sensors and actuators and can support humaninterpretation and decision making will change greenhouse horticulture in the future.Sensors are able to detect more than the human eye, using the latest techniques from medical and industrialresearch. A 3D volumetric intersection technique is used to sort tomato seedlings at a speed of 40.000 pieces perhour and measures the full 3D geometric features, clearly an impossible challenge when done manually. Thetechnique shows great opportunities to do the geometric reconstruction of plants automatically calibrating growingmodels and control mechanization, sorting and robotic tasks. Other 3D techniques like stereo vision, time of flightand laser triangulation are introduced in greenhouse horticulture to control robots, measure the geometric qualityfeatures or to separate target features from its surroundings (e.g. Anthurium, Chicory, Lily bulbs). But also theinterest to measure internal quality features as ripeness, food compounds, internal defects and the ability ofphotosynthesis can be measured by spectral cameras, fluorescence techniques and X-ray. First applications inresearch and production are introduced (e.g. Rose, Alstroemeria, Tulip, Tomato, Cucumber). To apply integratedmanagement on pests and diseases in the greenhouse, sensors are needed to determine pests and diseases andits magnitude automatically at an early stage. (e.g. long horn beetle, botrytis, sticky plates). Sensor applicationsare expected in this field.New developments in energy solutions in greenhouses will lead to more profitable options in crop produce.Energy saving in horticulture has been the study for research for more than 20 years in a special program“greenhouse as energy source” financed by the Dutch ministry of agriculture and growers. The result is thatHorticultural industry in The Netherlands consumes now 50% less energy compared to 1990 due to all energysaving measures. Various technologies developed are now common practice in greenhouses like the applicationof thermal screens and temperature integration. More recent developments in dehumidification control have beenadopted further decreasing energy consumption and thereby even increasing production quality and quantity.Alternative energy sources like geothermal heat is being used at some greenhouse companies allowing fossil freevegetable production. More futuristic concepts where electricity and heat are produced in combination withgreenhouse production are still in the experimental phase.When all new developments lead to products with excellent quality in the right amount, price and ready just intime, products need to be harvested with a predictable capacity and reliability. Progress is made on roboticharvesting of fruits, flowers and vegetables. First robots that are tested in practice on a 24/7 base (cut rose,strawberry, kiwi) have shown to be very close to market introduction. Progress and large effort by severalconsortia is put in actual developments to harvest tomato leaves, cucumbers and sweet peppers. Self-learningalgorithms, open source robotic software and generic mechatronic solutions are available and adaptive tot newtasks and products and will enable fast future robot solutions after first successful introductions.Keywords: mechanization, automation, robotics, greenhouse cover materials, sensors, greenhouse, energysolutions, dehumidification.40


TOPIC 1CONTRIBUTION OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES TO NEWDEVELOPMENTS IN HORTICULTUREORAL PRESENTATIONS


Keynote AddressContribution of plant sensors to new developments in horticultureSTEPPE, KathyLaboratory of Plant Ecology, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent, BelgiumKathy.Steppe@UGent.beHorticulture plants are often considered as static individuals, taking up water via the root system and losing itagain via leaf transpiration. Quite boring and inefficient one might conclude when considering that more than 95%of the water taken up by the roots is transpired by the leaves. But the story suddenly becomes much moreintriguing when the dynamics happening during the ascent of water in horticulture plants are included.This keynote talk will elaborate on water transport in horticulture plants, highlighting where the dynamics comefrom, what the relevance is and which tissues are involved. The power to decipher water transport dynamics withplant-based measurements, where sap flow and stem diameter variations are at the forefront, will be illustratedwith ample examples. This concept of plant-based measurements will be complemented with a viewpoint on howsophisticated mechanistic water transport models can assist in plant-based irrigation scheduling or early warningand stress detection systems.Keywords: water transport, plant sensors, mechanistic plant modelling, early warning, irrigation scheduling, stressdetection.42


Oral Presentations of Topic 1Plant sensors help to understand tipburn in lettuce(1)DE SWAEF, T. (1) (2) *; VERMEULEN, K. (2) ; VERGOTE, N. (3) ; VAN LOMMEL J. (4) ; VANLABEKE, M.-C. (5) ; BLEYAERT, P. (2) & STEPPE, K. (1)Laboratory of Plant Ecology, Department of Applied Ecology and Environmental Biology, GhentUniversity, Ghent, Belgium(2) Inagro, Department of Protected Cultivation, Rumbeke-Beitem, Belgium(3) Research Centre for Vegetable Production (PCG), Kruishoutem, Belgium(4) Research Station for Vegetable Production (PSKW), Sint-Katelijne Waver, Belgium(5) Laboratory for In Vitro Biology and Horticulture, Department of Plant Production, Ghent University,Ghent, Belgium* tom.deswaef@ugent.beAlthough growers seem to be able to control the incidence of tipburn in soil-grown lettuce (Lactuca spp.), thisphysiological disorder causes substantial yield losses in hydroponics (up to 50%). Apparently, the experiencebasedknowledge of growers is not sufficient to avoid tipburn damage in new cultivation systems.Tipburn is generally considered to be a calcium deficiency related disorder. Calcium plays an important role inmembrane stability and cell wall strength and, as such, a lack of calcium in expanding leaf zones can result inweakened cell walls. These weakened cell walls can easily be broken due to abrupt variations in leaf turgorpressure resulting in the typical tipburn symptoms.Low transpiring leaves are most vulnerable to the disorder, since calcium is predominantly transported in thexylem. As such, the most vulnerable lettuce leaves are the inner leaves which are partly or entirely covered byelder leaves. In this respect, it has been suggested that night-time root pressure can have a beneficial effect toenhance the calcium supply towards these slowly transpiring leaves.Tipburn has been investigated quite intensively in the past decades, but the research always focused on theeffects of the environment on the occurrence of tipburn, whereas the plant physiological aspects were seldomincluded. These many different studies demonstrate apparently contradictory findings. Therefore, there is a strongneed for a plant physiological interpretation of the tipburn disorder, which correlates the different environmentaleffects to the plant physiological processes.In this study, we present the use of plant sensors to assess the plant physiological response to its environmentwith respect to the incidence of tipburn. As such, stem diameter and leaf thickness were continuously monitored,because variations in these variables are strongly related to variations in the plant water relations, turgor pressureand growth rate. Leaf thickness measurements were combined with a mechanistic model to detect periods ofwater deficits or abrupt changes in turgor pressure. This approach could additionally help to monitor root pressureand investigate the hypothesis that root pressure has beneficial effects on the supply of calcium to slowlytranspiring leaves. As such, growth rate, supply of calcium to low transpiring leaves and abrupt variations in turgorpressure could be visualised by these plant sensors.Keywords: Lactuca sativa L., water relations, transpiration, water potential, turgor.43


Oral Presentations of Topic 1Impact of salinity and water deficiency on the fluorescencesignature of tomato leavesKAUTZ, B. *; HUNSCHE, M. & NOGA, G.Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation - Horticultural ScienceUniversity of Bonn, Germany* bkautz@uni-bonn.deDue to global change the significance of salinity and water deficiency as relevant environmental constraints forthe performance of horticultural crops is increasing. Breeding and selection of drought and salinity tolerantgenotypes is in many cases first choice of adaptive strategies. Thereby, the use of sensors as valuable tool forthe fast and precise stress detection and identification of suitable parameters indicative for the respective stress isbeing intensively researched.In our approach we investigated the influence of water deficiency and salinity as single or combined stress on thefluorescence signature of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves. In this context, we hypothesized that bothabiotic stresses influence the fluorescence signature in a similar way whereas the combined stresses impose anadditive effect. The greenhouse experiment was conducted from the middle of August to beginning of October2011 with the genotypes Cupido, Harzfeuer and Rio Grande. Plants were cultivated in perlite and either fertigated(EC = 2 mS) according to their needs (100 % irrigation, control) or subjected to the following treatments: NaClenriched solution (EC = 12.5 mS); 50 % irrigation (EC = 2 mS); 50 % irrigation + NaCl (EC = 12.5 mS). Thefluorescence intensity in the blue, red and far-red spectral regions (Multiplex®; Force-A, France) and thechlorophyll fluorescence (Imaging-PAM®; Heinz-Walz GmbH, Germany) were recorded weekly under controlledconditions on detached, and if necessary dark-adapted, leaves. Furthermore, the impact of the treatments wascharacterized by means of vegetative parameters, as well as the concentration of minerals, chlorophyll andproline at the end of the experiment.In general, the impact of salinity and water deficiency led to genotype-specific alterations of the fluorescenceparameters. Thereby, the cultivar Rio Grande showed a distinct behavior due to salinity and water deficiency ascompared to Cupido or Harzfeuer. Furthermore, the ratio between far-red and red fluorescence increased in theplants exposed to salinity and water deficiency, indicating an inverse correlation with the chlorophyll content. Inaddition, complex fluorescence ratios suggest modifications in the amount and composition of phenolicsubstances in the epidermis as result of the abiotic stresses. Besides, both salinity and water deficit had anoticeable impact on the functionality of the photosystems as demonstrated by e.g., the photochemical quenchingand the relative apparent electron transport rate. In most cases, salinity and drought impacted the fluorescenceparameters in a similar way whereas the magnitude also depended on the cultivar. Thereby, the salinityintensifies the impact of water deficiency when the plants are exposed simultaneously to both stresses.Keywords: Solanum lycopersicum, salinity, water deficiency, fluorescence.44


Oral Presentations of Topic 1The usefulness of VIS/NIR techniques for assessment of maturityand quality of selected pear cultivarsRUTKOWSKI, Krzysztof P. *; KRUCZYNSKA, Dorota E.; WAWRZYNCZAK, Anna;JOZWIAK, Zbigniew; PLOCHARSKI, WitoldResearch Institute of Horticulture, Konstytucji 3 Maja 1/396-100 Skierniewice, Poland* krzysztof.rutkowski@inhort.plDuring the years 2009-2012 the usefulness of nondestructive methods based on VIS/NIR for assessment ofmaturity and quality of ‘Alexander Lucas’, ‘Delwilmor’, ‘Xenia’, ‘Dicolor’ and ‘Uta; pear cultivars were evaluated.Pears selected for the experiment differed in size, shape, skin colour and maturity time. ‘Alexander Lucas’,‘Delwilmor’, ‘Xenia’ were characterized by unblushed green to yellow skin colour, ‘Dicolor’ is a pear with anattractive bright red blush, whereas ‘Uta’ has a golden - bronze skin colour.Nondestructive measurements were performed using DA meter, Sintéleia, Italy and CP Pigment AnalyzerPA1101, Control in Applied Physiology GbR., Germany. Based on collected spectra, the software offered with theequipment allowed to calculate the following indices: DA index, NDVI and NAI. The DA index is calculated usingformula DA=A670-A720, where A670 and A720 are absorbencies at respective wavelengths of 670 and 720 nm.NDVI stands for Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and is calculated as (I780-I660)/(I780+I660) while NAIstands for Normalized Anthocyanin Index and is calculated as (I780-I550)/(I780+I550), where I550, I660 and I780are reemitances at respective wavelengths of 550, 660 and 720 nm.Depending on the year and cultivar fruits were harvested once or twice a season and stored at two temperatures -0.5 °C and +2.5 °C under normal and controlled atmosphere conditions. Beside the nondestructivemeasurements at harvest and after storage the following quality parameters were measured: fruit weight, skincolour, fruit firmness, total soluble solids content and titratable acidity. During fruit storage DA, NDVI and NAIindices steadily decreased. The rate of changes depended on storage conditions and cultivars. It was found thatchanges of the indices may be used for monitoring ripening process of pears. However, the suitability of VIS/NIRmeasurements for quality estimation of fruit depends on the dynamics of changes occurring during fruit ripeningand needs further investigation. For the estimation of the content of soluble solids, acidity and firmness it may bejustified to build models covering wide range of variability of the measured characteristics.Keywords: NDVI, NAI, DA index, Pyrus communis, firmness, TSS, titratable acidity, skin colour.45


Oral Presentations of Topic 1Photomorphogenetic effects in different plant life formsSAMUOLIENĖ, G. *; BRAZAITYTĖ, A.; VIRŠILĖ, A.; SIRTAUTAS, R.; SAKALAUSKAITĖ, J.;SAKALAUSKIENĖ, S.; DUCHOVSKIS, P.Institute of Horticulture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Kaunas str. 30, LT-54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania* g.samuoliene@lsdi.ltThe objective was to evaluate the effect of different combinations of red (R) (638 nm), blue (B) (445 nm) and farred(FR) (731 nm) light produced by solid-state light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on variation of photosyntheticpigments, non-structural carbohydrates and flowering initiation in different plant life forms, such as radish(Raphanus sativus L., ‘Faraon’), carrots (Daucus carota L., ‘Garduole 2’) and in frigo plants of ‘Elkat’ strawberries(Fragaria x ananassa Duch.). Before lighting experiments plants, which needs vernalization for floweringinduction, were grown in particular conditions: strawberry sprouts were hold in the refrigerator under -2ºCtemperature till they were planted, carrots with 9 leaves in rosette were moved from the greenhouse to the lowtemperature (+4C) chambers for 120 days. Radishes were seeded and grew in lighting conditions. Duringlighting experiment plants grew in controlled conditions: total photosynthetic photon flux density generated byLEDs was maintained at 200 μmol m -2 s -1 , photoperiod - 16 h. LED treatment: R; R+B 10%; and R+B 10%+FR 2%. Ourresults showed that generative development of treated plants depended on light quality. Sole R LED light orcombination of R+B conditioned flowering of frigo strawberry plants, whereas the addition of far-red (R+B+FR)was necessary for flowering stem formation in carrots. R or R+B+FR for radish generative development wererequired. Lower accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates in leaves due to low contents of photosyntheticpigments under R+B was detected, contrarily to strawberry, where accumulation of carbohydrates was high. Weconclude that (I) spectral quality of light influences the morphogenesis and diverse physiological responses; (II)flower initiation processes of different plant life forms can be controlled by tailoring the illumination spectrum; (III)this enables one to accelerate plant cultivation in phytotron conditions.Keywords: carbohydrates, flowering, light manipulation, photosynthetic pigments.46


Oral Presentations of Topic 1Responses of tomato plants under prevailing climate conditions ina closed greenhouse during an annual productionDANNEHL, D. (1) *; HUYSKENS-KEIL, S. (2) ; SCHUCH, I. (1) ; MIRANDA-TRUJILLO, L. (1) ;ROCKSCH, T. (1) & SCHMIDT, U. (1)Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, (1) Division Biosystems Engineering and (2) Division Urban PlantEcophysiology, 14195 Berlin, Germany* dennis.dannehl@agrar.hu-berlin.deThe tomato is a plant with a worldwide distribution and enormous economic value for producers as well as healthbenefits for consumers. The last-mentioned information is based on epidemiological studies, which havedemonstrated that the consumption of tomatoes with large amounts of phytochemicals with antioxidant propertiescan reduce the occurrence of chronic diseases. In future, the producer is challenged to save resources, becauseof the increasing prices of fossil fuels and to achieve climate goals of the German Government. These facts,including increasing summer temperatures, will complicate the production of high tomato yields and healthy plantswithout losses of fruit quality in greenhouses. Therefore, a closed greenhouse with new algorithm for ventilation,CO2 enrichment, cooling, and heating was used as solar collector, in order to collect energy using cooling fins inthe roof region and to control the climate conditions for a performance-enhancing crop production. Compared tothe reference greenhouse (RG), large amounts of condensate were collected using cooling fins and high levels ofrelative humidity (annual average: 88.9%) was continuously maintained by the influence of the closed greenhouse(CG), whereby the plant transpiration and the application rate of nutrient solution were reduced simultaneously by50%. The prevailing climate conditions, including high levels of CO2 (annual average: 656 ppm), in the CG did notinfluence the average leaf area per leaf in comparison to both experimental greenhouses. However, thephotosynthesis was increased by 32% and a significantly higher number of leaves (7.5%) and trusses (10%) wereformed by plants grown under CG conditions, resulting in an accelerated plant growth with longer plant stems upto 1.5 m and a higher leaf area per plant (21%) compared to control plants. The impact of the new algorithm alsosignificantly increased the average fruit set per truss (5.2%) and the total yield of marketable fruit (by 31.9%),whereas the yield of non-marketable fruit (fruit < 50 g and blossom-end rot fruit) was decreased up to 75%compared to plants grown in the RG. Regarding secondary plant compounds and other nutrients in tomatoes, itwas found that the closed operation mode led to a significantly increase in contents of lycopene (by 26%), calcium(10%), and magnesium (9.7%), whereas the contents of ß-carotene, potassium, copper, and iron were affected toa lesser extent compared to tomatoes harvested in the RG.Keywords: carotenoids, phenolic compounds, soluble solids, titratable acid, yield, photosynthesis.47


Oral Presentations of Topic 1Impact of temperature integration under greenhouse on energy useefficiency, plant growth and development and tomato fruit quality(sugars, acids, vitamin C, carotenoids) depending on varietyrootstock combination(1)TRUFFAULT, Vincent (1) ; FATIHA, Fifel (1) ; LONGUENESSE, Jean-Jacques (1) ;VERCAMBRE, Gilles (1) ; LE QUILLEC, Serge (2) & GAUTIER, Helene (1) *INRA, UR-1115, Plantes et Systèmes de culture Horticoles, centre PACA, Domaine Saint Paul,84914 Avignon Cedex, France(2) CTIFL Centre de Carquefou, ZI Belle Etoile Antarès, 35 allée des sapins, 44483 Carquefou Cedex,France* helene.gautier@avignon.inra.frTo increase crop sustainability, greenhouse growers are looking for reduction in economic and ecological heatingcosts of their production without decreasing yield. Among different technical solutions, temperature integration (TI)has the valuable quality to reduce energetic costs without modifying existing greenhouses. TI, taking advantage ofplant plasticity towards temperature, consists in modulating the set points for heating (lower during the night) andventilation (higher during the day) keeping similar mean 24h temperature for plant development.However, questions emerge dealing with the potential impact of TI on crop production in term of yield and qualityon one hand and with the genetic material best fitted for TI. The present study on soil-less tomato crops aims toevaluate and compare on contrasted genotypes the impact of TI on plant growth and development as well as onfruit yield and quality.Four variety-rootstock combinations of tomato plants were studied for two consecutive years (2010 and 2011).Two climate managements were compared: a temperature integration technique (TI) and a control (grower’stechnique). In order to test the limit of TI system, TI application lasted longer in 2011 and with temperaturesettings colder compared to 2010.During the first year of experiment (2010), energy saving was about 22% during TI period. Yield was not modified,nor leaf growth. In 2011, TI led to an 8.6% energy saving compared to control. Yield significantly increased forPlaisance-Beaufort combination and was not affected in other variety-rootstock combinations. In conclusion, forboth years TI increased energy use efficiency.Plant developmental rate and dry matter partitioning between stems, leaves and fruits were not significantlymodified by TI despite a non-significant increase in aerial dry matter (+6.6%). Leaf area slightly decreased (-11%),inducing lower specific leaf area (SLA). Fruit size and composition (sugars, acids, vitamin C) were not modified byTI. Carotenoids (specifically phytoene and lycopene) were improved by TI in particular for Plaisance-Beaufort; thismight be related to the reduced leaf area that allowed more light to reach the fruit and consequently promotedcarotenoid synthesis.Variety-rootstock combinations showed different sensitivity to climate variations. Adequacy between climatemanagement and breeding of suitable varieties and rootstocks is clearly essential for TI success. Temperatureintegration appears as a profitable alternative to classic management of greenhouse climate.Keywords: Energy saving, greenhouse, temperature integration, tomato, plants development, fruit quality.48


Oral Presentations of Topic 1Hierarchichal crop flow strategy for variable inter-rowspacing by multi-manipulator mobile robot and verticalarray plant tower designASHTIANI ARAGHI, Alireza (1) *; RHEE, Joong Yong (2) ; LEE, Chungu (1) ; KIM, Joon Yong (1) ;KWON, Tae Hyeong (1)(1) Department of Biosystems Engineering, Seoul National University, South Korea, 151-921(2) Department of Biosystems Engineering, Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, SeoulNational University, South Korea, 151-921* ashtiani@snu.ac.krOptimal space utilization is an underlying goal at indoor cultivation systems where soilless hydroponic culture withrow-based layout is an applicable option. However, a pervasive problem in conventional hydroponic systems suchas those using individual NFT channels, is invariable inter-row crop spacing for whole growth duration. To makemore efficient use of the given space while benefiting from variable inter-row crop spacing, novel concept ofvertical farming can be implemented by introducing movable plant beds and automatic spacing system in a multilayercultivation array. A hierarchical crop flow strategy has been characterized while conceptual design andoperational principles of a mechatronic design including an autonomous multi-manipulator wheeled robot and arack structure with multiple cultivation layers, so called plant tower, have been described. Flexible inter-row cropspacing will be feasible as a result of stepwise relocations of hydroponic channels among different layers via thecooperation of plant tower’s spacing mechanism and pull-push efforts of robot arms end-effectors. Interdependentsequenced actions of robot working units and plant tower will create a time-based discrete flow of NFT channels,oriented from higher to lower layers. Primary design for a six storey plant tower with three distinct growth stageshas been indicated.Keywords: multi-layer cultivation, optimal space utilization, dynamic crop spacing, hydroponics, horticulturalautomation, conceptual design.49


Oral Presentations of Topic 1Peat substitutes in growing media – Options and limitationsNEUMAIER, Dieter (1) *; MEINKEN, Elke (2)(1) Staatliche Forschungsanstalt für Gartenbau Weihenstephan, Freising (Germany)(2) Hochschule Weihenstephan-Triesdorf, Freising (Germany)* dieter.neumaier@hswt.deEfforts to reduce the usage of peat in growing media are made since the early 1980’s. In the actual context withrising environmental awareness peat-free or at least peat-reduced growing media are up to date for plantproduction. But the range of useable peat substitutes is limited, because of physical and chemical characteristics,economics, availability, and last but not least rising competition with thermal utilization for production of renewableenergy. Subsequent options (+) and limitations (−) of examined and field-proven peat substitutes are shownbriefly.Green waste compost is produced out of homogenous green waste from private gardens or public parks with acompleted rotting process.+ high structure stability / good rewetting / high exchange capacity / good buffering against pH-decrease /suppression of soil-borne diseases− over-fertilization because of high nutrient content / iron deficiency caused by high pH values / pollution withharmful substances, pathogenic organisms, weed seeds, impurities and stones / high fluctuation range ofchemical parameters / enhanced infection with sciarid flies and fungiBark compost is mostly made from crushed, composted and sieved pinewood bark and can be used as growingmedia constituent or soil improver.+ high air capacity / high structure stability / good rewetting / high exchange capacity / good pH buffering− low water capacity / instable nitrogen balance (nitrogen immobilization) / induced iron-deficiency or manganesetoxicitydue to high manganese content / pollution with growth inhibition substances and heavy metalsWood materials are produced from untreated pinewood with less than 20 % bark by chopping (wood chips) or inspecial machines under heat and high pressure (wood fibre).+ high air capacity / good rewetting / less sciarid flies, weeds and liverwort because of quick drying of substratesurface / low bulk density / good buffering against pH decrease / low salt and nutrient content− low water capacity / instable nitrogen balance (nitrogen immobilization) / loss of volume caused by highmicrobial decomposition / bad buffering against pH increaseCocos materials originate from the cutted (cocofibre), sieved (cocopeat) or diced (cocochips) mesocarp ofcoconuts and comes mostly from the Asian area.+ high air capacity (cocofibre and cocopeat) / good rewetting / good capillarity (cocofibre) / much easily plantavailable water (cocopeat) / low microbial decomposition / low bulk density− sometimes excessive salt contents (NaCl and KCl) / growth inhibition substances in fresh material / rather pooreco-balanceKeywords: growing media, peat substitutes, peat-free, peat reduced, green waste compost, bark compost, woodchips, wood fibre, cocofibre, cocopeat, cocochips.50


Oral Presentations of Topic 1Nitrogen and aeration levels of the nutrient solution in soillesscultivation systems as important growing conditions affectinginherent quality of baby leaf vegetables: a reviewNICOLA, Silvana (1) *; EGEA-GILABERT, Catalina (3) ; NIÑIROLA, Diana (2) ; CONESA,Encarna (2) ; PIGNATA, Giuseppe (1) ; FONTANA, Emanuela (1) (5) (2) (4); FERNÁNDEZ, Juan A.(1)Dipartimento AGROSELVITER, VEGMAP, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via L. da Vinci 44, 10095Grugliasco (TO), Italy;(2)Departamento. de Producción Vegetal, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII,48, 30203 Cartagena, Spain;(3)Departamento. de Ciencia y Tecnología Agraria, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, PaseoAlfonso XIII, 48, 30203 Cartagena, Spain;(4)Unidad Asociada al CSIC de “Horticultura Sostenible en Zonas Áridas” (UPCT-CEBAS), PaseoAlfonso XIII, 48, 30203 Cartagena, Spain;(5) Emanuelafontana.com Consulting, Via Cottolengo 98/5, 10048 Vinovo (TO), Italy* silvana.nicola@unito.itThe floating system (FS) is an easy and profitable growing technique for the cultivation of baby leaf vegetables(BLV), since plants can be grown at high densities, giving high yields in short time and clean commercialproducts. Use of FS allows for influencing nutritional status and composition of plants modifying the nutrientsolution (NS), particularly the final nitrate and oxalate contents, one important aspect in BLV. As in otherhydroponic systems, plants grown in FS may suffer hypoxia because the roots gradually consume the oxygendissolved in the NS. This work reviews the effect of the nitrogen concentration and chemical form supplied to thegrowing plants and the aeration level of the NS on the inherent quality of BLV. Studied species included rocket(Eruca sativa; Diplotaxis tenuifolia), lamb’s lettuce (Valerianella olitoria), water and garden cress (Nasturtiumofficinalis; Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), purslane (Portulaca oleracea), spinach (Spinaca oleracea)and bladder campion (Silene vulgaris). For many species, concentrations from 4 to 16 mmol L-1 N were used inthe NS and ratios between N-NO3- and N-NH4+ from 100 to 0% were applied. In general, 8-12 mmol L-1 N led tohigh yields and limited leaf NO3 accumulation and 40-60% of N-NH4+ limited leaf NO3 accumulation. Withrespect to the aeration levels of the NS, some species showed little sensitivity to oxygen depleted in the rootmedium, and were able to adapt to a gradual reduction in oxygen level. However, to increase yields, aeration isadvisable, although the final quality of the product, in terms of functional phytochemicals concentrations, may beslightly lower. The level of oxygen had a different influence on the oxalate and nitrate contents depending on thestudied species.Keywords: floating system, nitrate, hypoxia, leafy vegetables, baby leaves.51


Oral Presentations of Topic 1The effect of sugar type, source and concentration on Brassicaoleraceae var botrytis microproshoot productionRIHAN, Hail Z *; AL-SHAMARI, Magda; AL-SWEDI, Fadil; BURCHETT, Stephen & FULLER,Michael P.School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University ofPlymouth, UK, PL4 8AA* h-rihan@live.comAn effective protocol for the mass production of cauliflower microshoots was refined using the meristematic layerof cauliflower curd. The meristimatic layer was excised, homogenized using a commercial blender and separatedinto desirable size classes and cultured in liquid culture media containing 2 mg/L kinetin, 1 mg/L IBA (indolebutyric acid) and different types and concentrations of sugars. Among several concentrations of sucrose derivedfrom sugar beet, the use of 3 % concentration was found to be the optimal. Fructose, glucose and maltose werealso tested at 1.5, 3, and 4.5 % concentrations and compared with the use of 3 % of sucrose which wasconsidered as a standard (control). The best explants response was obtained using maltose but without asignificant difference compared with the control. The effect of the source of sucrose on the development ofcauliflower culture was also investigated using different concentrations of sucrose derived from both sugar caneand sugar beet. The use of 4.4 % sugar cane sucrose was found to be the best in terms of the number ofdeveloping microshoots. The results reported in this study helps to increase the effectiveness of the cauliflowermicropropagation system and to reduce the cost of micropropagule per unit of production.Keywords: Sugar, sucrose, sugar cane, micropropagation, merestimatic tissue.52


TOPIC 1CONTRIBUTION OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES TO NEWDEVELOPMENTS IN HORTICULTUREPOSTER PRESENTATIONS


Posters of Topic 1Non-invasive determination of anthocyanin in purple carrot using aportable spectrometerSCHMIDT, Lilian; BEYS, Friedrich & ZINKERNAGEL, Jana *Department of Vegetable Crops, Geisenheim Research CenterGeisenheim, Germany* jana.zinkernagel@fa-gm.dePurple carrots contain high amounts of secondary metabolites, especially the anthocyanincyanidin‐3‐glucoside (C3G). With this ingredient, purple carrots show high relevance in human nutrition due toits high antioxidative capacity and particularly in food processing because of their strong coloring effect. For thepurpose of high dye yield in food and industrial processing, homogeneity and high level of anthocyanin content(AC) in carrots are required. AC in purple carrot is primarily attributed to the genotype but to some extent togrowing conditions, too. In addition to plant nutrition it is assumed that irrigation and harvest date are correlated tothe AC.To know how to manage the crop and to choose the harvest date of purple carrots in order to increase the AC inthe field may help optimizing the dye‐yield. Since photometric or HPLC measurements are time‐consumingand expensive, optical instruments are preferred. Thus, a method for determining the AC in purple carrotsnon‐invasively and rapidly is required. The aim of this study was to test a portable spectrometer for generatingreliable correlations between spectrometrically and photometrically measured AC and to prove its suitability forAC‐measurements in the field.The spectrometer Multiplex ® (Force‐A, Orsay Cedex, France) was used to determine the AC by excitating theobject at 635 nm and calculating the emission at 735 nm. The resulting FERARI value isdimensionless and quantifies AC. This value was measured in the peal of 63 carrots cv. Deep Purple. Fromextracts of the peal total AC was analyzed photometrically via the equivalent of C3G. Ongoing, thesephotometrically measured AC‐equivalents were correlated with the FERARI values. Initial analysis revealed alogarithmic relation between FERARI values and AC‐equivalents (R2 = 0.53 ***). FERARI values varied from0.14 to 1.73, the C3G between 33 and 1829 mg kg‐1 fresh weight.There might have been various reasons for the weak correlation. E.g., other plant compounds might havereflected at the same spectrum. Currently performed chromatographic separation and quantitation of theses plantcompound may clarify this hypothesis. Another reason might have been that the depth of the excitation did notcoincide with the thickness of the peal used for C3Gmeasurements.In summary, additional measurements and a careful analysis of all possibly biasing components of thecorrelations between FERARI values and AC‐equivalents are needed to finally prove the suitability of theproposed non‐invasive method.Keywords: irrigation, harvesting date, natural dye, spectroscopy, Daucus carota L.On-tree monitoring of fruit quality of five Prunus domesticacultivarsBOLLING, J. *; HERPPICH, W.B.Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim,Horticultural Engineering,Max-Eyth-Allee 100, 14469 Potsdam, Germany* jbolling@atb-potsdam.deDuring recent years, the European consumers’ demands for high sensorial and nutritional quality of fresh plums(Prunus domestica L.) largely increased. In addition, modern fruit postharvest handling and processing requestedexact knowledge of the state of fruit development at harvesting. To successfully meet these requirements,54


Posters of Topic 1monitoring of overall fruit quality has to start already on the tree during fruit growth. However, for rapid andobjective evaluation of quality changes during ripening and along the postharvest processing chain, newadvanced tools for non-destructive measurements are required.Therefore, to identify objective and specific indices for optimum harvest dates, changes in various quality-relatedfruit properties were non-destructively measured on 3 common (Prunus domestica L. ssp. domestica) and twomirabelle plum (P. domestica ssp. syriaca) cultivars (covering early, medium and late cultivars) during the growingseasons 2008 to 2011. The non-destructive evaluations include remission spectroscopy and chlorophyllfluorescence analysis, and measurements of mechanical properties of the plums (by means of acoustic impulseresponsetechnique and standard force-deformation analysis). In addition, destructive chemical analyses(determination of soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio, phenolic compounds) complemented the aboveinvestigations.Color is a very important indicator of the ripeness of plums; hence, changes in chlorophyll and anthocyanincontents were non-destructively determined from remission spectra and the results evaluated by chemicalanalysis of the corresponding fruit extracts. Moreover, the kinetics of sugar-acid-ratio during the fruit maturationwas reflected by the spectral data. Furthermore, chlorophyll fluorescence measurements focused on changes inphotosynthetic activity, highly correlated with fruit chlorophyll contents and state of fruit ripening. The results ofchlorophyll fluorescence analyses were also correlated with both changes in elastic properties and sugar contentsof plums, irrespective of cultivar and subspecies.Results of the various approaches will be comparatively evaluated for their relevance in non-destructivelyacquiring state of fruit ripeness and overall quality of plums.Keywords: Prunus domestica, fruit quality, non-destructive, chlorophyll fluorescence.Technical developments in phytomonitoring-technologyROCKSCH, Thorsten *; SCHUCH, Ingo; DANNEHL, Dennis; SCHMIDT, UweHumboldt-Universität zu Berlin- GERMANY* t.rocksch@agrar.hu-berlin.deSpecial monitoring systems, which measure phytosignals under production conditions, are used to obtain andtransfer plant information online in a non-destructive manner. These gas change monitoring systems are suitablefor continuous measurements of transpiration and photosynthesis of greenhouse cultures. At Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin one such phytomonitoring system was developed and tested. In this context, uniquelydesigned leaf cuvettes are instrumental in transferring a low airflow into a Dewar flask where the temperature, theair humidity and the CO 2 content are measured. The reference air of the greenhouse can be analyzed with thesame measuring equipment by switching the valve groups. The transpiration and photosynthesis rates arecalculated from the differences of the absolute humidity and the CO 2 content, taking into account the leaf cuvettesarea and the airflow speed. The technical development in this system leads to less interference and moreaccurate measuring values. Therefore, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin developed smaller, oval-shaped leafcuvettes with a new mechanical lock system so that small, leafy plants can be examined too. A new fixturesystem allows exact adjustments in any x-, y-, or z-direction. Furthermore, a CO 2 sensor with a high accuracy of 2ppm is used to reduce the deviation in measuring values. An exact adjustment of the airflow by flow meter is alsopossible. In order to avoid condensation in tubes and leaf cuvettes, a backflushing process was developed too.During this process, the heated, dry air is led against the suction direction without influencing the measurements.Additionally, in collaboration with the Institute of Agricultural Engineering in Potsdam-Bornim, the integration ofsensors for the non-destructive determination of ingredients in leaves and fruits could significantly expand theapplication fields of the existing gas exchange measurement system. The first two prototypes of the newmonitoring system were tested in 2011 in the ZINEG project (The Low Energy Greenhouse). In parallelmeasurement operations, nearly identical measured values were achieved. Condensation in tubes and leafcuvettes was significantly reduced, even with high relative humidity in the air. A change in climate control,particularly in a closed greenhouse with the use of finned-tube cooling system, had a significant effect on thephotosynthesis and transpiration.Keywords: phytomonitoring, transpiration, photosynthesis, leaf cuvettes.55


Posters of Topic 1Prediction of postharvest internal papaya fruit quality: quantifyingcontent of single carotenoids using iMLRPFLANZ, Michael (1) *; OPARA, Umezuruike Linus (2) ; ZUDE, Manuela (1)(1)Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), Max-Eyth-Allee 100,14469 Potsdam, Germany, * mpflanz@atb-potsdam.de(2)Postharvest Technology Research Laboratory, South African Research Chair in PostharvestTechnology, Faculty of AgriSciences, Stellenbosch University, South AfricaPhysico-chemical and mechanical fruit properties vary widely in terms of change in coloration, softening, andreduced shelf-life. Rates of chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoids synthesis of papaya are correlated with theconditions of fruit development. In the present study, changes in the evolution of fruit pigments during storagewere studied by means of chemical analyses with an advanced data processing method.Papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) of cultivars ’Honey Gold’ (n=16) and Solo type (n=10) were obtained in June 2011from a local market in Stellenbosch, South Africa, and analysed in the Postharvest Technology Laboratory,Stellenbosch University. Fruit ripeness stages were visually defined as “breaker” due to an initiating tinge ofyellow in the circular region of blossom end. Fruits were stored at 23±3°C and 30 % relative humidity over aperiod of 5 days.For pigment analyses, tissue samples were taken from exocarp and mesocarp layers. After freeze-drying at -80°Cfor 24 h, samples were ground, weighed immediately, and transferred into a solution of 0.05 % butylatedhydroxytoluene, acetone, ethanol, and hexane. The upper phase of hexane was separated and spectrometricallymeasured between 350 and 800 nm with a resolution of 2 nm using a UV-VIS spectrometer (Helios Omega,ThermoScientific technologies, USA).Spectra of standards for chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, lycopene, beta-carotene, and violaxanthene were used asvectors corresponding to the specific pigment signature. Based on these profiles an iterative multiple linearregression tool (iMLR Version 1.55, ATB, Germany) was used to fit the recorded spectra of fruit extracts bymeans of the least squares error. The separated pigment profiles and quantities were calculated from theapparent sum spectrum.The use of iMLR algorithms provided a separated analyses of chlorophyll a and b in exocarp layers as well aslycopene, β-carotene, and violaxanthene contents in mesocarp layers of papaya fruit. Compared to establishedmethods the iMLR enabled the analyses of the carotenoids additionally to the two chlorophyll. The content oflycopene increased significantly by 21.6 µg/g DM, the content of ß-carotene by 96.9 µg/g DM, and violaxantheneby 15.9 µg/g DM during 5 days of storage. Furthermore, it was found that contents of both, chlorophyll a and b,decreased in exocarp and mesocarp layers during storage.Keywords: Papaya, iMLR, time series analysis, post-harvest, quality, non-destructive spectroscopy, UV/VIS.Measurement of N-status and ingredients in broccoli plants(Brassica oleracea var. italica) in pot culture using sensortechnologySCHIRDEWAHN, T. *; PFENNING, J.; GRAEFF, S. & CLAUPEIN, W.Institute of Crop Science, University of Hohenheim,Stuttgart, Germany* torsten.schirdewahn@uni-hohenheim.deThere is an increasing interest of advanced vegetable production to link sensor technology with cultivationmanagement and product quality aims. For quality aims of plant products in human diet several substancessummarized as phytochemicals gain importance in the last decades. Especially polyphenols such as flavonoidsand anthocyans are important in prevention of inflammation and cancer.In a greenhouse experiment at the experimental station for horticulture University of Hohenheim (Germany)broccoli plants were grown supplied with different nitrogen (N) concentrations from March 30 th until May 31 st 201156


Posters of Topic 1to gain information on usage of sensor measurement with Multiplex ® for N status and flavonoid and anthocyancontent. Plants of six on commercial scale important cultivars ‘Monterey’, ‘Marathon’, ‘Monopoly’, ‘Ironman’,‘Parthenon’ and ‘Olympia’ were cultured in pots. N treatments included five levels 0 kg/ha N, 50 kg/ha N,100 kg/ha N, 200 kg/ha N and 400 kg/ha N. Optimal growth conditions were ensured by providing irrigation,fertilization (beside N) and plant protection management. Visualization was made with the optical multi parametersensor Multiplex ® . The optical sensor measurements were implemented weekly always on broccoli leaf no. 9 andon florets.The results of the different measurements by Multiplex ® at leaf no. 9 and florets show significantly highconcentration of flavonoids in plants with low N application (0 kg/ha N, 50 kg/ha N) and high concentration at highN level (100 kg/ha N, 200 kg/ha N, 400 kg/ha N). The concentration of flavonoids in leaf no. 9 was more thantwice as high in the 0 kg/ha N treatment as in the 400 kg/ha N treatment and vice versa in florets. The results ofmeasurements in leaf no. 9 and florets suggest that the concentration of anthocyans was not influenced by Nlevel. Under greenhouse conditions highest floret yield was detected at 100 kg/ha N level.Higher concentration of flavonoids in broccoli plants with low N treatment might be caused by distress of Ndeficiency. The concentration of flavonoids and anthocyans was almost equal measured in leaf no. 9 and florets.It can be assumed that measurements taken on leaf no. 9 are adequate to predict concentrations in the florets ofbroccoli plants.Keywords: nitrogen, fertilization, multiplex, sensor technology, flavonoids.Fluorescence-based systems for sensing drought stress in pepperplants at leaf levelHOFFMANN, Anna M. *; HUNSCHE, Mauricio; NOGA, GeorgUniversity of Bonn, INRES - Horticultural Science – GERMANY* a.hoffmann@uni-bonn.deFluorescence-based optical sensors to detect specific parameters of the chlorophyll fluorescence have intensivelybeen used to characterize the physiological status of plants growing either under optimized or stressfulenvironments. However, studies on the impact of abiotic stresses on the blue and green fluorescence as well asthe time-resolved fluorescence at specific wavelengths are still scarce. The aim of our study was to evaluate thesuitability of selected parameters as related to the fluorescence intensity and spectral ratios to a) early detect theimpact of water deficit, and b) to characterize the reaction pattern of two pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)genotypes (Milder Spiral and Ziegenhorn Bello, Austrosaat AG, Austria). Fluorescence measurements wereaccomplished either with a hand-held multi-parameter optical sensor (Multiplex3®, Force-A, France) or astationary compact fibre-optic fluorescence spectrometer with nanosecond time-resolution (LF 401 Lambda,Berthold Detection Systems GmbH, Germany). The physiological status of the plants was further characterized byphotosynthesis and transpiration measurements, evaluation of biometric parameters (plant height, biomass, andspecific leaf weight), the relative leaf water content, and the concentration of chlorophyll and proline. Theexperiments were conducted in a semi-controlled greenhouse with additional lighting ensuring a photoperiod of 16hours. Seeds were germinated in a tray filled with a mixture of peat, sand and perlite; two weeks after sowing,plantlets were transplanted into standard Teku-pots (7 x 7 x 8 cm) and after additional 4 weeks the treatmentswere initiated. Drought stress was induced by withholding irrigation for 7 days, followed by a recovering period ofone week and a second cycle of drought stress. In contrast, the control plants were irrigated daily throughout theexperiment with a modified Hoagland nutrient solution. In general, the use of both fluorescence measuringsystems enabled the detection of drought-induced changes in the plant physiology at leaf level. Recordings of theblue, red, and far-red fluorescence after the sequential excitation with UV-, green, and red light provided robustand concise results comprising parameters such as absolute signal intensity at the analysed wavelengths orcomplex fluorescence ratios. Regarding to the red and far-red fluorescence, the strongest effect of waterdeficiency was observed on cv. Ziegenhorn Bello. The changes observed in our trial were strongly related to thechlorophyll degradation in the plants exposed to a temporary water deficit. In contrast, the time-resolvedfluorescence showed genotype-specific changes in the blue and green as well as the red to far-red regions.Keywords: Capsicum annuum L., drought stress, fluorescence-based sensors, stress detection.57


Posters of Topic 1Near-infrared spectroscopy: a promising sensor techniquefor quality assessment of ornamental cuttingsLOHR, D. (1) *; TILLMANN, P. (2) ; ZERCHE, S. (3) ; DRUEGE, U. (3) ; MEINKEN, E. (1)(1) Forschungsanstalt für Gartenbau Weihenstephan, Freising (Germany)(2) VDLUFA Qualitätssicherung NIRS GmbH, Kassel (Germany)(3) Leibniz-Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops, Erfurt (Germany)* dieter.lohr@hswt.deNitrogen (N) and carbohydrate (CH) status are known as key factors for cutting quality; affecting both storagestability and capacity of adventitious root formation (ARF). For using this knowledge in a quality assurance systemin supply chain of ornamental young plant production a rapid, cheap and if procurable non-destructivemeasurement of N and CH status is necessary. Established wet chemical methods like Kjeldahl N or CH analysisby enzymatic photometric methods are too slow and too labour and cost intensive, whereas Near-InfraredSpectroscopy (NIRS) could fulfill these requirements. In the present study 1 , we explored the potential of NIRS asfast and non-destructive alternative.NIR spectra were taken of whole cuttings of chrysanthemum and pelargonium without any sample preparation likedrying or grinding. Calibration models were developed for different specific N fractions (amide, nitrate, amino andprotein N) plus total N, sum of extractable organic N (eonf N=amide N+Amino N), sum of extractable N (enfN=amide N+nitrate N+amino N) and sum of organic N (onf N=amide N+amino N+protein N) as well as CHfractions (glucose, fructose, sucrose and starch), total sugars (TS=glucose+fructose+sucrose) and total nonstructuralCH (TNC=TS+starch). For N and CH calibrations the datasets contained 521 and 407 samples,respectively.With regard to N fractions best results were obtained for protein N, total-N and onf-N with a standard error ofprediction (SEP) for protein-N of 2.2 mg N∙g DM -1 , 3.3 for total N and 3.0 for onf N, respectively and a R² for allthree fractions of >0.85. However, also amide, nitrate, amino, eonf and enf N fractions could be predicted withacceptable accuracy. First calibrations for CH fractions indicate suitability of NIRS for analysing starch and TNC(R²>0.65), whereas for sugar fractions - due to the low concentrations especially in leaves - only poor predictionpower was achieved.Subsequently, N status predicted by NIRS was correlated with ARF of chrysanthemum and pelargonium cuttingsyielded from stock plants cultivated at graduated levels of nitrogen supply. Results revealed that even slight N-deficiency limited rooting significantly, whereas increasing N contents of cuttings promoted ARF. Due to thepoorer prediction power of NIRS for CH and a low variation of CH levels an influence of CH status wasn't noted.Nevertheless NIRS appears to be a promising sensor technique to establish a quality assessment system forornamental cuttings.1 The joined project is funded by the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection.Keywords: NIRS, nitrogen, carbohydrate, adventitious root formationTwo methodical approaches for evaluation of droughtstress tolerance in carrotsRODE, Andrea (1) *; NOTHNAGEL, Thomas (1) ; KAMPE, Eike (2)(1)Julius Kühn-Institut (JKI), Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute for BreedingResearch on Horticultural and Fruits Crops, Quedlinburg, Germany(2)satimex QUEDLINBURG Züchtersaaten GmbH, Quedlinburg, Germany* andrea.rode@jki.bund.de58


Posters of Topic 1Drought stress is the major limitation factor for all crop species and particularly for vegetables. A lot of vegetablesare characterized by a high content of water in the utilized organs. Therefore, water is an important prerequisitefor their development. Drought stress causes the transpiration to be larger than the inclusion of water. As a resultplants fight for survival with complex physiologically responses resulting mostly in a dramatic reduction of yieldand quality. Therefore, activities towards increasing drought tolerance in root crop species increases dramatically.Carrot can be classified as a non drought stress tolerant species.The poster will be present two suitable approaches to evaluate drought stress tolerance of carrot under laboratoryconditions.The objective of the first experiment was to present drought stress reaction at leaves of eight carrot cultivars(Daucus carota L. sp. sativus Hoffm.) and nine wild relatives in their different abilities to store water. The waterloss of leaves were measured after 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 hours at a drying temperature of 35 °C and calculated asrelative weight of leaves. Significant difference between the tested carrot cultivars and wild relatives weredetected and suggest the suitablity of the test approach for breeding. Furthermore, histological examinations werecarried out to clarify difference in drought stress capacity of carrot cultivars and wild relatives.The second, a climate chamber experiment (pot test) was designed to investigate water stress on the whole plant.The aim was to provide additional information of drought stress influence to agronomical and quality traits. Twocarrot genotypes were tested with a drought stress period between the 41 th and 70 th day after sowing in one tofive replications each over 6 or 4 days. Significant differences for yield and quality parameters were observed.Keywords: Daucus carota, abiotic stress, breeding.PlantEye a novel 3D sensor platform for automateddetermination of plant growth dynamicsHUMMEL, GrégoirePhenospex - Research Center Jülich, THE NETHERLANDg.hummel@phenospex.dePhenospex PlantEye is a new 3D sensor platform and crop management system for daily, automated highresolutiondetermination of plant growth dynamics. The system consists of 3 modules, which can be combinedindividually. (a) The PlantEye scanner can be easily mounted on any device (e.g. irrigation robots) and workscompletely autonomously from its supporting system. By moving the scanner above the plants via the transportdevice, plants are scanned with a laser scanner and plant height, projected leaf area and ground coverage arecomputed with a resolution of 1 mm or 1 mm2 respectively. Hence consecutive measurements allow a precisedetermination of plant growth dynamics. The system enables measurements of single plants, small trial plots orcomplete fields. Moreover the system consists of (b) PlantEye Terminal to display plant parameters on-site. Viatouchscreen, crop management- or survey information can be documented easily. Third component (c)Hortcontrol Software is a web-based analysis software, to analyze plant growth dynamics with the associatedclimate and environmental data. The software comprises a MySQL database, which can be synchronized withclimate computers or external sensors. The complete system is operating wirelessly and can be integrated easilyin preexisting facilities or setups. The system was designed for the use under harsh conditions for in- and outdoorapplications. The high resolved, daily information about plant growth dynamics, constitutes a new method forgrowers to evaluate their crops based on objective criteria. Abnormal development of crops can be detected at anearly stage, allowing fast and effective counter-measures. Hence the risk of failing market requirements isstrongly reduced. Moreover the daily and precise information about plant growth dynamics enables a moreprecise and controlled crop management leading to a reduced consumption of resources or agrochemicals. Dueto the scanning technology, spatial plant growth information is available as well. Hence local growth anomalies orheterogenic growth within the field due to local pest infestations or changes in microclimate can be determinedand visualized. Thereby PlantEye is a system enabling spatial and temporal monitoring of fields, which is a keyprerequisite for precision-horticultural management.Keywords: plant phenotyping, plant growth, automated plant monitoring, precision horticulture, crop management.59


Posters of Topic 1Modelling to estimate the specific leaf area of tomato leaves (cv.Pannovy)DANNEHL, D. *; ROCKSCH, T. & SCHMIDT, U.Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Division Biosystems Engineering, 14195 Berlin, Germany* dennis.dannehl@agrar.hu-berlin.deThe determination of the leaf area is essential to understand the interaction between plant development andprevailing environmental factors during the growing season. In particular, the precise estimation of the leaf areaindex (LAI) is a prerequisite for modelling of canopy energy and mass fluxes, especially of canopy transpiration.Therefore, various non-destructive methods were established to calculate the leaf area of different plants,especially using leaf area estimation models. In this study, a model was developed to estimate the specific leafarea of tomato leaves in respect to the cultivar Pannovy using simple linear measurements. During anexperimental period of 2 years, the recorded measurements of leaves were randomly separated into two datasets which were used for calibration and validation of different models. The results showed that the leaf area canbe accurately predicted when leaf length and width are used as independent variables (R² = 0.885), whereas theleaf area estimation was limited when either leaf length (R² = 0.755) or width (R² = 0.856) was used as parameterin the respective models. Significant differences in the accuracy of the determination of leaf area occurredbetween a general leaf area estimation model based on different genotypes (including cv. Pannovy) and themodel developed in this study.These factsconfirmed that for each cultivar of tomatoes should be developed aseparate model to obtain the specific leaf area of single leaves.Keywords: non-destructive methods, leaf length, leaf width, Solanumlycopersicum L., calibration, greenhouse.Effects of some polyamines in embryo rescue of grapevine cv.Flame SeedlessEBADI, A. (1) ; AALIFAR, M. (2) *; FATTAHI MOGHADDAM, M. R. (3)(1) (3) Professor and Associate Professor, College of Agriculture, University of Tehran(2) Former Graduate Student, College of Agriculture, University of Tehran* m.aalifar65@yahoo.comEmbryo rescue technique has been used to rescue progeny of crossing between seedless grapes. In this studyputrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine were added to media to rescue embryos of grape cv. FlameSeedless. Results showed that putrescine, spermidine and spermine at 1, 0.5 and 1 mM could increase growthand development of embryos, percentage of embryo germination and plant production, respectively. Applicationof cadaverine only at 0.5 mM could increased development and germination of embryos. However, it was notsignificant.Keywords: putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine.60


Posters of Topic 1Effects of secondary media on embryo germination and plantproduction in grapevine cvs Flame Seedless and PerletteEBADI, A. (1) ; AALIFAR, M. (2) *; FATTAHI MOGHADDAM, M. R. (3)(1) (3) Professor and Associate Professor, College of Agriculture, University of Tehran(2) Former Graduate Student, College of Agriculture, University of Tehran* m.aalifar65@yahoo.comSeedless grapes are used as table grapes extensively whole around the worlds. Embryo rescue technique couldovercome difficulties of traditional breeding methods. In this research work, for the first time, different media havebeen compared to choose the best one for embryo development and germination after dissecting that from theovule in grape cvs Flame seedless and Perlette. Ovules were dissected out of berries at 45 days after pollinationand cultured on NN medium supplemented with 3.0% sucrose and 0.3% activated charcoal. Embryos at torpedoshape were dissected out of ovule at 10 weeks later and then were cultured on WPM, MS as well as B5 mediawhich were supplemented with 2.5% sucrose and 0.3% activated charcoal. Results showed that WPM wassignificantly more effective in percentage of germination of embryo and rate of normal plant production. Inaddition, Perlette showed to be more successful in embryo germination and plant production compared to that inFlame Seedless.Keywords: Embryo rescue, WPM medium and ovulePotential application of jasmonic acid in in vitro rooting of lowvigorous pear and cherry rootstocksRUZIC, Djurdjina (1) *; VUJOVIC, Tatjana (1) ; CEROVIC, Radosav (2) ; DJORDJEVIC, Milena (1)(1) Fruit Research Institute, Čačak, Kralja Petra I/9, 32000 Čačak, Republic of Serbia* djinaruzic@gmail.com(2) Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, Slobodana Bajica 1, 11185 Belgrade, Republic of SerbiaIn the present paper we studied the capacity of jasmonic acid (JA) to improve in vitro rooting phase inmicropropagated shoots of very popular low vigorous pear and cherry rootstocks – Pyrodwarf and Gisela 6respectively. The experiment was performed during the rooting phase and it included 7 medium types containingMurashige and Skoog (1962) macro and micro salts reduced to half, organic complex unchanged andsupplemented with JA at four concentrations – 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/L. The trial also involved two independent,standard rooting media supplemented with 1 mg/L of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 1 mg/L of α-napthyl aceticacid (NAA), both combined with 0.1 mg/L gibberellic acid (GA 3). The hormone-free medium (HF) served ascontrol. The rooting parameters, such as rooting rate (%), number and length of roots per rooted plant and qualityof rooted plants were monitored in the study. The highest rooting rate in both genotypes was obtained on mediumwith the lowest JA concentration, i.e. 0.2 mg/L (93.3% Pyrodwarf and 40% Gisela 6). The medium also gave thegreatest number of roots. Higher JA concentrations (0.5 and 1 mg/L) produced increment in root length. However,rooted plants were longer on media supplemented with IBA or NAA. Interestingly enough, JA applied at 2 mg/Linhibited roots formation in both genotypes. Hormone-free medium had only a marginal effect on rooting inPyrodwarf (16.7%), roots being exceptionally long (4.6 cm in average), and had no effect on rooting in Gisela 6genotype. The obtained results suggest that lower concentrations of JA should be used to improve the rootingprocess as they ensure good root system and vigorous, high quality plantlets which, most importantly, are easierto acclimatize.Keywords: Jasmonic acid, in vitro, rooting, rootstocks.61


Posters of Topic 1Using of digital image analysis for prediction of yield and shootweight of grapevine ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ (Vitis vinifera L.)BEŠLIĆ, Zoran *; VASIĆ RANKOVIĆ, Zorica; TODIĆ, SlavicaFaculty of Agriculture, University of BelgradeNemanjina 6, 11080 Zemun, Serbia* zbeslic@agrif.bg.ac.rsThe assessment of yield and shoot weight per vine of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) were evaluatedon base digital image processing of vines part. Digital camera was mounted on tripod and used for taking photosof 1 x 1 m portions of canopy. The Adobe Photoshop software was used to analyze image for color - counting theblue pixels of grape and brown pixels of mature shoots in the quadrant region. Actual yield and shoot weight wereobtained from the photographed vines by hand harvesting and winter pruning of sampled portions. Linearregression was used for correlation between blue pixels and grape weight and brown pixels and winter prunedshoot weight. The relatively strong relationship between blue pixels/grape weight (R 2 = 0.91), and brownpixels/winter pruned shoot weight (R 2 = 0.83) were obtained. Based on these results, we can recommend thissimple technique for yield and shoot weight forecasting.Keywords: color photos, grape weight, shoot weight, pixels counting, linear regression.A vision-based laser weed control systemMARX, Christian (1) (2) *; PASTRANA PÉREZ, Julio César (1) ; RATH, Thomas (1) ; HUSTEDT,Michael (2) ; KAIERLE, Stefan (2) ; HAFERKAMP, Heinz (2)(1) Leibniz Universität Hannover, Institute of Biological Production Systems, Biosystems EngineeringSection, Herrenhäuser Str. 2, D-30419 Hannover, Germany(2)Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Materials and Processes Department, Safety Technology Group,Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover, Germany* marx@bgt.uni-hannover.deWeed control is one of the key challenges in horticultural production. As the use of biochemically actingherbicides is related to residues and environmental impacts, alternative techniques are desired. Conventionalmethods like mechanical (hoeing) or thermal weed control (flame treatment) in the surroundings of cultivar plantsare either impossible or cause damages to plants, leading to crop loss. By the increasing means of precisionhorticulture, site and even plant specific weed control is necessary. Laser technology is the high-tech tool whichmeets the challenges of a sustainable production. Some papers already discuss the applicability of laser radiationfor the purposes of weed control. The effect of laser radiation is used locally limited (without thermal drift) andbases on dose-response-relationships depending on the weed species, the weed growth stage, the laserwavelength, the laser spot diameter, and the laser spot position. But up to now, the laser beam positioning on thebasis of image analyses has remained unsolved.In this contribution, the usage of weed damage models by CO 2 laser radiation in combination with modern cultivarvs. weed discrimination algorithms (Active Shape Modeling, ASM) is evaluated. Therefore, stereo-cameras areused to map the weeds beneath the application system. The ASM algorithms determine the meristems of theweed plants and pass the coordinates to a laser galvanometer scanner which then positions the laser beam andinitiates the laser irradiation for a defined time.Accordingly, this contribution presents the design and functionality of an autonomously driven weed controlapplication system, which is located on an overhead rail car placed above an open seedbed in a greenhouse.Keywords: laser technique, selective image processing, weed detection, weed control.62


Posters of Topic 1GIS application in precision viticulture: spatial analysis of soilchemical characteristics in the vineyard with cv. Pinot Noir inSerbiaŽIVOTIĆ, Ljubomir (1) ; RANKOVIĆ-VASIĆ, Zorica (1) *; ĐORĐEVIĆ, Aleksandar (1) ; PAJIĆ,Miloš (1) ; SIVČEV, Branislava (1) ; PEROVIĆ, Veljko (2) ; ATANACKOVIĆ, Zoran (1)(1)University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia(2)Institute of Soil Science, Teodora Drajzera 7, 11000 Beograd* zoricarv@agrif.bg.ac.rsSoil characteristics are one of the most important factors of grape growing. If provided with good quality data GIStechnology presents an important tool used in precision viticulture for the presentation of soil and vinecharacteristics. This paper presents the results of soil chemical characteristics and yield at experimental vineyardbelonging to the Grocka wine growing region, located 8 km from the Belgrade, capital of Serbia. Soil type, onwhich the experiment is conducted, is silty clay loam Anthrosol. Experimental field is on a terrain of medium slope,with elevation of around 162 m a.s.l. The area has temperate continental climate with 630 mm average annualrainfall. Soil pH, potassium (K 2O) and phosphorus (P 2O5) content, and organic matter, were analyzed on 50measuring sites, on two depths (0-30 cm, and 30-60 cm), on a surface area of 0.57 ha under Pinot Noir cultivar.Plant samples were also taken from the same sites and yield (kg/vine) and number of bunches per vine weredetermined. Soil pH in both KCl and H 2O indicates great variability through the vineyard. Soil pH in H 2O rangedfrom 4.70 to 8.15, while pH in KCl ranged from 3.73 to 7.30 in the first depth. Potassium content in the first depthranges from medium (65.8%) to good (33.9%), while phosphorus content varies from very poor to medium insecond depth, and from poor to very good in the first depth. Soil is poor with organic matter in the first depth,being on almost half of the area very poor in the second depth. Correlation between the yield and the number ofbunches on the vine, and soil parameters from two depths, were not found. The results of soil and plant analysisare presented through maps obtained in GIS and tabular. All the GIS analysis were conducted through InverseDistance Weight method. The results of mapping clearly indicate chemical requirements of vineyard.Keywords: GIS, precision viticulture, soil, chemical characteristics, vineyard.Blue LAMP supports the selection of Prunus domestica genotypeswith hypersensitivity resistance to the Plum pox virusHADERSDORFER, Johannes (1) *; NEUMÜLLER, Michael (1) ; FISCHER, Thilo C. (2) ;TREUTTER, Dieter (1)(1) Technische Universität München, Fachgebiet Obstbau, Dürnast 2, D-85354 Freising, Germany(2) Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants, Großhadernerstr.2, D-82152 Martinsried, Germany* johannes.hadersdorfer@wzw.tum.deIn Prunus domestica, the only natural resistance mechanism which prevents the systemic infection of the plantwith the Plum pox virus (PPV) is the hypersensitivity resistance. One important aim of the Weihenstephan plumbreeding program is to introduce the hypersensitive resistance to new cultivars which correspond to consumerneeds i.e. fruit quality and ripening time as well. Testing for hypersensitivity relies on grafting buds of genotypes ofinterest onto PPV infected rootstocks. Beside visual inspection for PPV symptoms and symptoms of thehypersensitive reaction to PPV, respectively, a fast and reliable method for the detection of PPV is needed, whichallows for the specific, sensitive and inexpensive high-throughput monitoring.Compared to RT-PCR, the Blue LAMP protocol combines reverse transcription of PPV RNA, DNA amplificationand visualization of DNA synthesis in a one tube one step format at a constant temperature of 63 °C. A simplifiedsample preparation with homogenizing leaves, bark, fruits or flowers in the presence of water enables a fastforward procedure to obtain a virus suspension suitable to serve as template in Blue LAMP. Thus, the result of the63


Posters of Topic 1Blue LAMP based detection of PPV is obtained within 2.5 h without the need for sophisticated technicalequipment and toxic reagents. The Blue LAMP protocol for PPV detection is already used as a matter of routineduring the selection process.To date, seven subgroups of PPV are known. Therefore, genotypes proofed to be hypersensitive during the firstselection are tested for the hypersensitivity resistance being stable against isolates of all PPV strains. Because ofthe high specificity of LAMP due to the need for at least four primers which recognize six distinct sequences,additional seven sets of primers were developed with each set being specific for one PPV subgroup. Anexperimental survey confirmed the specificity of the primers for the differentiation of PPV-D, -Rec, -M, -T, -C, -EAand -W isolates. However, sporadically occurring unspecific amplification may cause a color change of thereaction mix from purple to blue as well. Thus, further optimization regarding reactions conditions, i.e. reactiontemperature, incubation time and concentration of additives, is necessary to avoid false positive signals but todetect all isolates of the respective strain.The implementation of the Blue LAMP method for the detection of PPV and for the PPV strain typing simplifies thescreening for PPV resistance in seedling progenies. It allows the testing of more genotypes and thus helps toenhance the breeding for PPV resistance.Development of CAT scan technology for analysis of xylemstructure and functionMATTHEWS, Markmamatthews@ucdavis.eduAlthough intervessel connections are essential for radial and tangential movement of water and solutes in xylemconduits of woody perennial crops, little is known about their prevalence or distribution because of the difficulty inanalyzing the complex three dimensional (3D) nature of the xylem network. This study describes the developmentof a custom software package called TANAX (Tomography-derived Automated Network Analysis of Xylem) thatautomatically extracts vessel dimensions and the distribution of intervessel connections from High ResolutionComputed Assisted Tomography (aka CAT) scans. Manual and automated analyses of vessel networks ingrapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) stems yielded similar results, with the automated method generating orders ofmagnitude more data in a fraction of the time. In 4.5 mm internode sections, all vessels and all intervesselconnections among 115 vessels were located, and the connections were analyzed for their radial distribution,orientation, and shared wall (pit) area. Intervessel connections were more frequent in lateral than in dorsal/ventralzones and more commonly oriented radially than tangentially. PHAST reconstructed the conduit network with itsconnections, and in combination with commercial software was used to visualize vessel networks in 3D. The 3Dvolume renderings of vessel networks were freely rotated for observation from any angle, and the 4.5 µm virtualserial sections were capable of being viewed in any plane, revealing aspects of vessel organization not possiblewith traditional serial sections. This methodology, including CAT scans and custom software for xylem networkanalysis, should be useful for building accurate network models for studies of stem hydraulics and plant wateruse.Determination of heat consumption behaviourof low-energy greenhouses regarding latent heat fluxes during thenightKNÖSEL, Klaus *; RATH, Thomas; HINDER, StefanieLeibniz Universität Hannover, Institute of Biological Production Systems, Biosystems EngineeringSection, Herrenhäuser Str. 2, D-30419 Hannover, Germany* knoesel@bgt.uni-hannover.de64


Posters of Topic 1Production of ornamental plants during mid-european winter can only be achieved in heated greenhouses.Energy sources are oil, gas, coal and to lesser extent waste heat from combined heat and power. Hereby therising demand for oil and natural gas leads to higher energy costs. Another problem is CO 2 emissions fromburning fossil fuels.The aim of the project ZINEG (ZunkunftsInitiativeNiedrigEnergieGewächshaus) is to find appropriate methods toreduce the primary energy consumption. In addition to several plant production methods (e.g. integration andcompensation strategies) changes of the greenhouse cover increase the light transmission (specially coatedglass). The specific energy consumption per plant may be reduced by using special insulation and a solar storagemodule. Changes in climatic variables such as ambient temperature, humidity and CO 2 levels are the result.Improved insulation and minimized unwanted air exchange through the greenhouse cover, leads to increasedevapotranspiration and higher amounts of water vapour in the greenhouse air. Thus, the latent energy share ofthe total enthalpy of the air is increased. This share is lost through air dehumidifying measures. The energyconsumption behaviour of various greenhouse structures, including standard and Venlo greenhouses, wasinvestigated in order to adjust the heat consumption coefficient U cs. U cs reflects the heat consumption per groundarea as a function of the temperature difference between the indoor and outdoor temperature.Being the transpiration of plants the driving force of photosynthesis and leaf cooling during the day, it releasesamounts of water vapour into the air, increasing the latent energy component. Additionally the latter is increasedsubstantially through nocturnal transpiration of plants is which is not driven by solar radiation. The necessaryenergy for transpiration must be supplied by the heating system. Conventional heat-consumption models (U cs )include the latent energy exchange only implicitly (night transpiration). However the latent energy exchange in thenight is also part of the heat-consumption coefficient U cs.The aim of this work is a model-based description of the latent energy and mass currents and hence thequantification of energy fluxes resulting from the potted plants evapotranspiration, in order to correct the U cs -model. Measurements of evapotranspiration were performed in a spring culture of Pelargonium zonale (timeinterval 15 seconds). Evaporation and transpiration were determined separately. The influences of water vapourpressure deficit, global radiation, temperature and CO 2 supply on transpiration were analysed and the applicabilityof conventional evapotranspiration -models (Penman-Monteith, Stanghellini, Montero et al.) was tested.Energetic evaluation of greenhouses by using enthalpy differencesSCHUCH, Ingo (1) *; DANNEHL, Dennis; MIRANDA-TRUJILLO, Luis; ROCKSCH, Thorsten;SCHMIDT, Uwe(1)Biosystems Engineering Division, Humboldt-Universität zu BerlinAlbrecht-Thaer-Weg 3, D-14195 Berlin, Germany* ingo.schuch@agrar.hu-berlin.deThe conventional method for calculating the heat demand in greenhouses uses the difference of inside andoutside air temperature as well as heat consumption coefficients (Ucs-values). These values give an indication ofthe sensible heat loss at a temperature difference of 1 K on 1 m2 covering material. However, greenhouses alsolose latent heat by water vapour losses caused by ventilation and construction leaks. In case of tightly constructedgreenhouses, a cold covering material may induce the formation of condensation water on the inner surface. Thisallows the latent heat, which previously was fixed in water vapour, to convert back into sensible heat and to loseby thermal radiation as well as convective heat transfer. The water vapour is produced by evapotranspiration.During this phase transition from liquid to gaseous state, large amounts of sensible heat convert into latent heat(2450 kJ kg-1) and the air temperature can be lowered by evaporative cooling. To integrate the latent heat loss inthe calculation of heat demand, two alternative procedures for modifying the existing temperature differencemethod are presented. Both use the difference of the specific enthalpy of moist air between inside and outsideconditions. Therefore, the heat demand could be determined by using a new parameter (Enthalpy LoadingNumber), which indicates the enthalpy to maintain a certain energy state in the greenhouse. Alternatively, thecalculation of heat demand could be determined by using a correction factor for the crop and cultivation method inaddition to the Ucs-value for a greenhouse without plants. First winter measurements of this factor have shownthat the heat consumption for a greenhouse without plants can be 45% below that of a greenhouse with 1.6tomatoes m-2 and LAI about 2.5 m2 m-2. According to that, correction factors from 1.6 to 1.8 were calculated.Keywords: heat demand, evapotranspiration, latent heat, U-value correction factor, Enthalpy Loading Number.65


Posters of Topic 1Greenhouses dehumidification, preventive approach and energybalanceCHASSÉRIAUX, Gerard; MIGEON, Christophe *; PIERART, Antoine; LEMESLE, Dominique;TRAVERS, AlainUP EPHOR, Agrocampus-Ouest, Institut National d’Horticulture et de Paysage2 rue Le Nôtre, 49045 Angers, France* christophe.migeon@agrocampus-ouest.frIn the last decade, the use of airtight greenhouses to save energy has led to increasing humidity levels inside thegreenhouse. High humidity and poor ventilation inside the greenhouse are responsible of greenhouse plantdiseases development such as Botrytis cinerea. Presently, the most common method used by growers todecrease humidity is the ventilation-heating method which involves inevitably an increase in energy consumption.Thus, to manage the greenhouse climate, it is necessary to reconsider the economic and environmentalacceptability of the ventilation-heating method, especially during the night. In this objective, we have proposed thedevelopment of a multifunction dehumidifying heat pump whose main role is to maintain the plant-leaftemperature above the dew point (which is the first step towards disease prevention) during the night with lowenergy consumption.The results clearly demonstrate that in a 2350 m² double wall inflatable greenhouse (located in the northwesternFrance), with potted plants placed on the floor, a heat pump with a low energy consumption of approximately 10kWh (4 Wh m -2 ) was able to maintain the temperature above the dew point on the leaves, the roof surface andinside the air by condensing an average of 32 l/h of water. It was shown that this water vapor outlet almostbalances crop evapotranspiration and avoids condensation and the occurrence of fungal diseases, unlike in thepast without the dehumidifier. The measured thermodynamic and global efficiencies of the heat pump were 6.4and 4.6, respectively.By simulating the heat and mass exchanges, results indicate that, to remove the same amount of water vapor, theenergy consumption of the ventilation-heating method is 4.8 to 5.6 times higher than the dehumidifier. The latterrecovers both sensible and latent heat released during dehumidification and uses it to heat the greenhouse air.Only by considering the sensible heat conversion the heat pump efficiency was 3.4.An overall energy balance of the greenhouse was also studied as a function of the outside climatic conditions.The analysis showed significant differences between heat losses from the greenhouse and the heat flux providedby the floor heating. This result reveals the importance of the heat destocking process (stored in the floor duringthe day) which, combined with the intake of warm air from the dehumidifier, are sufficient to maintain the settemperature (16° C) during the first part of the night (about 6 hours in December). The floor heating only occursthereafter until about 2 hours after sunrise.Energy requirements to ensure a temperature of 16° C were determined over the period from November to Aprilbased on the average climatic data in Angers. They are equals to 145 kWh m - ² in which 35% is insured by thedehumidifier. Taking into account efficiencies, this corresponds to a relatively low consumption of 100kWhpcs m - ²(gas) and 15 kWhe m - ² (electric).More adjustments are still necessary to validate algorithms that will be required to assist the strategy of thegreenhouse climate control: dehumidification by heat-pump or ventilation-heating method or heating by heatpumpor heating by boiler.Keywords: dehumidification, energy, greenhouse climate, heat pump.66


Posters of Topic 1Comparison of a standard climatic regime and a 24-hourstemperature integration regime in pot pelargonium cultureGILLI, Céline *; SIGG, Pascal; CARLEN, ChristophResearch group greenhouse crops,Research Station Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil ACW,1964 Conthey, Switzerland* celine.gilli@acw.admin.chThe energy saving potential on crops with a short culture period and low temperature requirements likepelargonium seems small. As the production occurs between February and May, the period is favorable totemperature integration (TI). From 2009 to 2011, trials were carried out in two identical greenhouses, each onewith a surface of 90 m2, to evaluate the energy saving potential of this regime and to measure the effects onplants. Temperature integration is based on plants’ capacity to tolerate variations around an optimumtemperature. It is thus a question of using solar energy during sunny days and of decreasing consequently thenight setpoint temperature. Pelargonium were grown either under a climatic regime with standard setpoints(Tnight: 12°C, Tday: 15°C, Tventilation: 18°C), or under a temperature integration regime (5°C


Posters of Topic 1procedure will be conducted (weather, temperature, phase of plant phenology). Very helpful are the currentprograms of plant protection. The average time of the treatment per one hectare depends on the distancebetween rows, and amounts 20 min for 5.0 m row spacing, 30 min for 4.0 m row spacing, and 35 min for 3.5 mrow spacing. The sprayer should have adequate air flow – at least 8000 m 3 h -1 for the raspberries, up to morethan 40,000 m 3 h -1 for orchards with 5 m tree row spacing. It is very important for the efficiency of theseprocedures to provide proper volume of spray liquid to avoid losses of PPP to the ground – for the traditionalorchard it should be 750 lha -1 , and for the intensive orchard 350 lha -1 . Also the work parameters are important:the working speed should not exceed 2 ms -1 (7.2 kmh -1 ), and the pressure has to be between 5 and 15 bar(optimally 8-12 bar). In the case of grass mowing the major energy savings may be obtained by selection of asuitable type of grass mower, i.e. flail mower or rotary mower. Mowers must be characterized by high productivity,good break up and uniform spread of the mown grass. Measurements and observations of soil care treatmentsshow that the average consumption of fuel per one hectare of orchard for a single treatment ranges from 1.35 to2.20 lha -1 , with the average 1.51 lha -1 . Measurements of the power demand has revealed that under averageconditions of fruit production the power of 8 - 16 kW is required for rotary mowers, and power of 14 -20 kW for flailmowers. Power demand depends also on the design of the mower, which should be appropriate to work in theorchard. The working width of the mower should be adequate to the width of the grass between rows of trees.Rotary mower with the working width of 2 m with a single section requires 22 kW of tractor power comparing tothe mower of the same width but with two sections of the blades which requires 12 kW. Recent studies show thatoptimization of these procedures can give fuel savings of 5-10%.We can also expect reduced fuel consumption when the tractor coupled with the machine will operate under aload of about 70% of the nominal power of the engine. At this point the engines have the lowest specific fuelconsumption. Some mowers have technical possibility of connecting the sprayer so you one may carry out twotreatments simultaneously. In this situation, one have to be sure that the engine power of the used tractor enablesto cope with the power demand of the two treatments, but final fuel consumption should be much lower (around20-30%) than for the execution of these operations separately. Similarly, tractors with a front suspension systemare also capable to perform two treatments at same time (plant protection and grass mowing).Keyword: fruit production, technology, energy consumption, greenhouse gas.Operation of a confined greenhouse system with an above-groundheat and water storage systemSCHMIDT, Uwe *; DANNEHL, Dennis; SCHUCH, Ingo; MIRANDA-TRUJILLO, Luis;ROCKSCH, ThorstenHumboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Biosystems Engineering DivisionAlbrecht-Thaer-Weg 3, D-14195 Berlin, Germany* u.schmidt@agrar.hu-berlin.deThe ongoing process in the world wide development of the closed greenhouse systems clarifies the mayorproblems for sustainability and economically feasibility of this technology. The first and all dominant question isthe heat storage concept for closed greenhouses. Regarding a thermodynamically point of view the best place forstoring the heat is the underground because of low heat losses to the atmosphere. On the other hand this conceptneeds a geological stable area for water storage. Beside this a high amount of capital expenditure for theexploitation and drilling and running costs, to pump up the water the aquifers could throw into question theoperation efficiency.In a feasibility study for Low Energy Greenhouses (ZINEG Berlin), a concept of above-ground water reservoirsbivalent used for storage of rain water for irrigation purpose and storage of solar energy for greenhouse heatingwas developed. A 300 m³ conventional rain water tank was used in a temperature range from 5 °C to 45 °C tosave the heat from the greenhouse. Higher tank temperatures should be avoided in order to reduce the thermallosses and still make the water applicable for irrigation purposes.To find the necessary expense for the heat isolation in the first year of experimentation the tank was used withoutisolation and in the following year with a minimum isolation. The system is able to heat and cool the greenhousefrom one tank system with low temperature lift caused by a special setup of a heat pump supply. The specificwater volume for storage purpose was about 1 m³/m² greenhouse ground area. In contrast to approximately 8m³/m² (no thermal losses) for a year-round storage, the given amount of 1 m³/m² should be sufficient for afortnight storage system. The mentioned storage system operated with the confined greenhouse system,including solar energy and a low input of primary energy, from March to December 2011. The net collectorefficiency was 0.42; the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) for the cooling process was 5.1. The Heating68


Posters of Topic 1Season Performance Factor (HSPF) was estimated with 4.4. A reduction of thermal losses by 73% was estimatedwith a minimum isolation of the storage system using 40 mm Styrofoam plates on the side wall of the tank and aswimming foliage-styrofoam-foliage sandwich construction on the water surface of the tank. In further studies thetechnical construction and the economic feasibility of different above-ground storage tank systems will be tested.Keywords: closed greenhouse, low energy consumption, energy harvesting, heat pump, heat reservoir.Strategies for saving energy without loss of plant qualityHAAS, Hans-Peter (1) ; KOHLRAUSCH, Franziska (1) *; HAUSER, Bernhard (2) ; MEMPEL,Heike (2)(1)Staatliche Forschungsanstalt für Gartenbau Weihenstephan, Freising, Germany(2)Hochschule Weihenstephan-Triesdorf, Freising, Germany* franziska.kohlrausch@hswt.deSaving energy during the production of plants is a great challenge for the grower. A new climate strategy called‘Weihenstephaner Modell’ was developed at our institute. It is based on a combination of the existing climatecontrol strategies Cool Morning and Warm Evening. This strategy is implemented with the following three steps:- Closing the ventilation in the afternoon three hours before sunset for keeping the heat of the day in thegreenhouse- Closing shading and energy screens during the night for diminution of the air volume that has to beheated- One hour before sunrise reducing the heating temperature to 8 °C for four hours and keeping theventilation closed to use solar radiation for heating the greenhouseThe experiments were made with poinsettias, hydrangea and many different kinds of balcony plants. The resultsshowed a great potential (nearly 40 %) for saving energy in comparison to the usual climate control methods. Thepotential of energy saving depends on different factors:- Radiation during the culture period- Geographical position- Topography of the surrounding and greenhouse orientation- Greenhouse equipment like shading and energy screenThere was no quality difference between plants cultivated with the conventional strategy and those plantscultivated using the energy saving strategy. As an additional positive effect the plants showed a more compactgrowth habitus.The paper will give a summary of the experiments carried out during the last four years.Keywords: climate control concept, reduced energy consumption, floriculture, greenhouse, plant quality.The use of rock-bed for storage of solar energy surplus in highplastic tunnels - preliminary results of the full scale project(1)KONOPACKI, Paweł (1) *; HOŁOWNICKI, Ryszard (1) ; SABAT, Robert (1) ; KURPASKA,Sławomir (2) ; LATAŁA, Hubert (2) ; NOWAK, Jacek (3)Agroengineering Department, Research Institute of Horticulture, Pomologiczna 18, 96-100Skierniewice, Poland(2)Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Computer Science, University of Agriculture in Krakow,Balicka 116 B, 30-149 Krakow, Poland69


Posters of Topic 1(3) Department of Cultivation of Ornamental Plants, Research Institute of Horticulture, Waryńskiego 14,96-100 Skierniewice, Poland* pawel.konopacki@inhort.plA surplus of solar energy is observed in plastic tunnels for most of the growing season in many regions. The ideaof storage of that energy in heat accumulators and further recovery is known for several decades and has beenstudied in different countries, usually in a laboratory scale. The presented paper disclose the preliminary results ofthe full scale project on a rock-bed heat storage system that has been started in Poland recently. The heataccumulator is located below a 9 x 15 m high plastic tunnel destined for tomato and cucumber production andcontains two sections of 12.7 m 3 and one section of 26.1 m 3 of rock. Several charging and discharging cycleshave been conducted between 29 April and 14 May 2012 to evaluate storage potential and gain an insight intodynamics of heat storage operation. When the regular day-night charging and discharging cycles were conductedthe mean night temperature between plants was higher by 3.7-9.5 °C than mean temperature outside. Asexpected, the temperature difference was lower for warm nights and higher for cold nights. The meantemperature inside tunnel was maintained between 16.2 and 21.3 °C. During a cold period, when daily chargingwas not possible the accumulated energy was sufficient to heat the plants for at least three consecutive nights.Keywords: energy storage, renewable energy.LED or HPS in ornamentals?OTTOSEN, Carl-OttoDepartment of Food Science, Kirstinebjergvej 10, DK-5792 ÅrslevÅrhus University, Denmarkco.ottosen@agrsci.dkLight emitting diodes (LED) have been the hottest topic in technology for greenhouses management for manyyears and with broad range of LED units with a variety of spectral compositions for plant production has beenunder development. There have been more or less two choices – to use low output units close to plants i.e. forconfined environments or high output lamps that can substitute current HPS lamps. An experiment was performedin winter 2012 from Jan to March using commercially available high output LED lamps and SONT lamps in twoexperimental greenhouses at the University of Aarhus to study the effects on plant performance and energy usein ornamentalsThe aim was to evaluate the use of LED and conventional SONT lamps in a standard setup using four varieties ofpotted roses and two varieties of campanula growing in the same light level (PPFD: 120 µmol m -2 s -1 ) and identicaltemperature set points (18°C night, 21°C day and 24°C for ventilation) and 800 ppm of CO 2. We did not usechemical growth regulation, as one focal point was the effects of plant growth and morphology. To secure that theleaf temperatures was maintained at the same level the top heating system was allowed to increase if needed.The energy use in kWh for lamps and for heating (below/above) was recorded on a daily basis.The results showed relative small differences between the light treatments in terms of plant responses. Howeversignificant differences in roses were seen in stem weight and number of flowers and buds reflecting that theSONT grown plant were two-4 days earlier irrespective of cultivars. There were no differences in leaf area but wefound more yellow leaves in the plants. The campanula showed no differences in fresh/dry weights but onecultivar was approximate one week earlier.Since the set points for supplemental lights was identical in the two compartments we found that the light periodwas identical and the realized air temperature. Energy use for the LED lamps was 40% of the energy supplied tothe SONT lamps in experimental period. The energy used for heating was identical for the bottom heatingsystems but increased by on average 100% resulting in an average heat energy increase (in kWh) of 40-50%depending on the outside weather which was unusual cool in 2012. Since the costs of electricity per kWh is higherthat heat kWh the experiment proves that high output LED has reached a stage that results in substantial energysaving potential especially on crops that does not require high leaf temperatures.70


Posters of Topic 1Effect of low temperature during the night in young sweet pepperplants: stress and recovery(1)GORBE, Elisa (1) (2) *; HEUVELINK, E.P. (2) ; JALINK, Henk (1) ; STANGHELLINI, Cecilia (1)Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture, Wageningen University and Research Centre,Wageningen, The Netherlands(2)Horticultural Supply Chains, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, TheNetherlands* elisa.gorbesanchez@wur.nlAs sweet pepper is a heat-demanding crop, growers of North European countries use heating, sometimesprobably in excess of plant physiological needs, during wintertime. In Mediterranean countries, the mild wintertemperatures allow for cultivation without heating. However, this leads to a large productivity gap between bothregions. The target in both cases should be to optimize the use of heating, and the first step for that is tounderstand the effect of low temperatures on this crop. While the effect of low temperature has been somewhatstudied in plants exposed to light, there are few studies about the effect of cold in the dark, which is a morerealistic situation in greenhouses. The objective of this work was to study the effect of low temperatures during thenight in sweet peppers and to assess any physiological consequence on the following [warm] day. Therefore, wesubjected sweet pepper plants of two cultivars to warm day while low night temperatures (22/6˚C) during 5-7 daysin a climate chamber. After the treatment, several measurements were performed in leaves, first in the dark andcold, and one hour after light was switched on: chlorophyll fluorescence (spot and imaging) and measurements ofbiomass. Our results show a decrease in the efficiency of photochemistry (Y(II)) in photosystem II (PSII) duringthe dark, cold period related to a stimulation of photoprotection mechanisms in the photosynthetic apparatus. Thearea surrounding the nerves had higher potential efficiency of PSII photochemistry than the rest of the leafsurface. However, after plants had been 1 hour in light and warm conditions, leaves recovered high values ofY(II). In addition, fully expanded leaves increased their Specific Leaf Area and Fresh to Dry Weight ratio. Thismay indicate that, during the recovery period, dry weight decreased due to redistribution of assimilates toexpanding leaves and/or the leaf water content increased. These results support two possible explanations for thecause of the decrease of Y(II) during cold nights: low temperature (1) leads to accumulation of assimilates inleaves leading to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, and/or (2) decreases plant hydraulic conductance and,therefore, leaf water content. The fast recovery of this crop after several cold nights might open possibilities fornew strategies of energy saving in greenhouses. However, more studies should be done to make sure that otherplant processes affecting crop yield/quality are not influenced by low night temperatures.Keywords: Capsicum annuum L., chlorophyll fluorescence, cold, dark period, energy saving.Effect of hot water treatment on chlorophyll degradation andpostharvest quality in stored lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle cv.Paan) fruit(1)KAEWSUKSAENG, Samak (1) *; TATMALA, Nopparat (1) ; SRILAONG, Varit (2) ;PONGPRASERT, Nutthachai (2)Southern Tropical Plants Research Unit, Faculty of Technology and Community Development,Thaksin University, Phatthalung campus, Phatthalung 93110, Thailand(2)Division of Postharvest Technology School of Bioresources and Technology King Mongkut’sUniversity of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140, Thailand* samak@tsu.ac.thThe influence of hot water treatment was applied to lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle cv. Paan) fruit to investigateits effect on chlorophyll (Chl)-degradation and postharvest quality during storage. Mature green lime fruit weretreated with water at ambient temperature (control) or hot water at 50 ˚C for 3 and 5 min and then kept at 13 ˚C in71


Posters of Topic 1darkness. We found that a hot water treatment at 50 ˚C for 5 min efficiently delayed the decrease of hue anglevalue and the contents of Chls a and b. The activities of Chl-degrading enzymes, chlorophyllase, Chl-degradingperoxidase and pheophytinase in the fruit with hot water treatment at 50 ˚C for 5 min were more suppressed, aswell as Mg-dechelation activity than any other treatment during storage. In relation to postharvest quality, alltreatment resulted in storage life of 25, 30 and 35 days at control and hot water treatment at 50 ˚C for 3 and 5min, respectively. Hot water treatment at 50 ˚C for 5 min caused the highest maintenance of total acidity andsuppression the increase of total soluble solid during storage. Moreover, the weight loss, respiration rate andethylene production were the most reduced by the highest duration of hot water treatment at 50 ˚C for 5 min.These results suggest that hot water treatment at 50 ˚C for 5 min could be effectively a useful method to delay thechlorophyll degradation through control of chlorophyll-degrading enzyme action and the changes in quality inmature green lime during storage at 13 ˚C.Keywords: Lime, hot water, Chlorophyll degradation, quality.Growth regulators and carving on breakage apical dominance intannia rhizomesSOUZA, Cristina *; FERREIRA, Ana; PEREIRA, Danilo; FINGER, FernandoDepartamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV36570-000, Viçosa, MG, Brazil* cristina.souza@ufv.brSpecific clones of tannia are commonly used as cooking leaves in some Brazilian states. The crop is propagatedexclusively asexually by planting the rhizomes usually after a couple years of production. Because of that, there isthe need to establish strategies to propagate healthy plantlets with higher sprouting rate for leaf production. Thiswork had the goals to evaluate the influence of growth regulators and carving on the rhizomes sprouting andgrowth of tannia. Cured rhizomes from the clone ‘Caipira’ were stored for three months at 5 ºC. Afterward, the topof half of the rhizomes were carved in a V shape at the top (carving), to stimulate lateral sprouting. The rhizomeswere submerged for 30 minutes in solutions containing 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and/or 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon), and the respective control. The production of new leaves and expansionof leaf area were stimulated by treating the rhizomes with 500 mg L -1 BAP and 250 mg L -1 BAP + 250 mg L -1ethephon. Regardless the use of growth regulators, the carving induced higher number of new sprouted leavesafter 35 days of planting. Similarly, rhizomes treated with 500 mg L -1 BAP or 250 mg L -1 BAP + 250 mg L -1ethephon had higher number of sprouts after 49 days of planting. Sprouting was anticipated when the carvedrhizomes were treated with 250 mg L -1 BAP + 250 mg L -1 ethephon.Keywords: Xanthosoma sagittifolium, carving, ethephon, 6-benzylaminopurine, sprouting.The effect of blue light dose on cucumber transplants physiologicalindicesBRAZAITYTĖ, Aušra; SAMUOLIENĖ, Giedrė (1) *; JANKAUSKIENĖ, Julė; VIRŠILĖ, Akvilė;SIRTAUTAS, Ramūnas; SAKALAUSKIENĖ, Sandra; SAKALAUSKAITĖ, Jurga;DUCHOVSKIS, Pavelas(1)Institute of Horticulture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Kaunas str. 30,LT-54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania* g.samuoliene@lsdi.lt72


Posters of Topic 1The objective was to evaluate the effect of blue (455 nm) light dose of solid state lamps on cucumber transplantgrowth, development and productivity. Transplants of cucumber hybrid ´Mandy´ F 1 were grown under controlledconditions (total PPFD - 200 μmol m -2 s -1 , photoperiod - 18 h, day/night temperature 22/18ºC). A system of highpowersolid-state lighting module with the main 445, 638, 669 and 731 nm LEDs were used in the experiments. Intreatment dose of 445 nm was 0, 5, 10 and 15 percent from total PPFD. Our investigations revealed that in orderto produce high quality cucumber transplants under solid-state lighting red and blue light ratio is important.Cucumber transplants under LEDs combination with 445 5% nm light were lower, had the least number of leaves,leaf area and fresh weight. Length of hypocotyls decreased with increasing percentage of blue light of the solidstatelamps. Hypocotyls of cucumber transplants which were grown without blue light, was thinnest and twicelonger compared with the combination of solid-state lighting, where the blue light composed 15% of total PPFD.Though these plants formed the largest leaf area, but their dry weight was the lowest, especially dry weight ofroots. The highest root dry weight of cucumber transplants was under light combination with 445 10% nm light. Totaldry weight of cucumber increased with increasing percentage of blue light. Blue light accelerated organogenesisof cucumber transplants. The most developed flowers of cucumber transplants have been under the LEDscombination with 445 15% nm light. They were twice longer than under solid-state lighting combination without bluelight. The highest amount of photosynthetic pigments was determined in leaves of cucumber transplants underLEDs combination without blue light. The highest content of glucose was determined in leaves of cucumber underthe LEDs combination with 445 10% nm light and fructose – where dose of 445 nm light was 5% and 10%.Summarising the obtained data it can be stated that to produce high quality cucumber transplants using solidstatelighting blue (445 nm) light should be at least 10% of total PPFD. Under these conditions plants grewcompact with a sufficient leaf area and large root mass which determined the optimal development aftertransplantation to the greenhouse.Keywords: development, growth, blue-red light-emitting diodes.Using Artificial Neural Networks to predict the climate in agreenhouse: first simulation results on a semi-closed systemMIRANDA-TRUJILLO, Luis (1) *; SCHUCH, Ingo (1) ; DANNEHL, Dennis (1) ; ROCKSCH,Thorsten (1) ; SALAZAR, Raquel (2) ; SCHMIDT, Uwe (1)(1)Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Biosystems Engineering Division, Albrecht-Thaer-Weg 3, 14195Berlin, Germany(2)Autonomous University of Chapingo, Km 38.5 Carr. México-Texcoco Chapingo, Edo. México, C.P56230, Mexico* lcmitru@gmail.comAs part of the ZINEG cooperation project in Germany, this work addresses the question if an Artificial Intelligenceclimate forecasting model can be considered as a useful tool for saving energy in semi-closed greenhouses. Inthis paper we present the results from the preliminary tests, aimed at the 5-Minutes prediction of the internal airtemperature and humidity modeled with Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Since the final goal of the simulation isto integrate the predictions in a control system, the inputs were selected according to the standard signals incontrol theory: Set Points, Perturbations and Current State Vector. These inputs were: energy for heating, energytaken from cooling, ventilation opening, thermal screen opening, outside conditions (temperature, relativehumidity, solar radiation, wind velocity) and current internal conditions (temperature and relative humidity). Datafor the models were recorded in 2011, taken in 5-minutes-intervals. The ANN was created, trained and validatedusing different data sets. The prediction showed a very good fit to measured data and suggests that ANNmethods can be used to make short-term climate predictions, which are useful to take control actions before thetrigger setpoints are reached.Keywords: Greenhouse climate, modeling, control, neural networks.73


Posters of Topic 1Optimization of barcode and RFID technology in plant productionEYAHANYO, Felix * & GRADE, StefanieLeibniz Universität Hannover, Institute of Biological Production Systems, Germany* eyahanyo@bgt.uni-hannover.deThe last decade has seen a tremendous advancement in the use of RFID in various areas such as: health,logistics, industry, communication, security, and agriculture just to mention a few. Barcodes like RFID have beenused for a long time in the field of agriculture. With the recent advances in RFID, the question that keeps onarising is: will barcodes be completely effaced from the system in the coming years or will both technologies beused hand in hand? Barcodes and RFIDs have already been used for identification, tracking, controlling of stock,storing information on products, and for quality control in horticulture. Although these technologies have variousadvantages over each other, they also have their limitations and disadvantages. Some of the problems faced byusing barcodes are that scanning has to be done at close proximity, making work tedious; barcode labels are notbiodegradable and are sometimes rendered unreadable by soil, dirt, mold, and algae. With RFIDs, some of thechallenges are that they cannot be used in environments with high humidity and temperatures since the signalsare attenuated. The present project therefore seeks to overcome some of the aforementioned problems inparticular with identification and reading when using barcodes and also using RFIDs under extremely harshenvironmental and soil conditions.Keywords: RFID and Barcodes.Comparison between two similar ventilation concepts in a smartcontrolled greenhouse for tomato cultivationVAN DEN BULCK, Nickey (1) *; COOMANS, Mathias (1) ; WITTEMANS, Lieve (2) ; GOEN, Kris(3) ; HANSSENS, Jochen (4) ; STEPPE, Kathy (4) ; MARIEN, Herman (5) ; DESMEDT, Johan (3)(1)Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Mol, Belgium(2)Research Station for Vegetable Production, Sint-Katelijne-Waver, Belgium(3)Research Center Hoogstraten, Hoogstraten, Belgium(4)Lab. of Plant Ecology, Dpt. of Applied Ecology and Environmental Biology, Ghent University, Ghent,Belgium(5)Katholieke Hogeschool van de Kempen, Geel, Belgium* nickey.vandenbulck@vito.beTomato production in greenhouses is an energy intensive industry in colder climates such as Western Europe. Inorder to reduce energy consumption an innovative ventilation concept is available, based on two main principles:intensive thermal screening and controlled mechanical ventilation. A commercially available system has beentested at two Belgian research institutes (Research Center in Hoogstraten and the Research Station forVegetable Production in Sint-Katelijne-Waver), where a pilot compartment is equipped with two movable thermalscreens and a mechanical ventilation unit, respectively with and without additional heat recovery. The movablescreens reduce heat loss to the ambient environment, while the mechanical ventilation can control the indoorgreenhouse climate, enabling intensive screen usage. In addition, better control of air flow is provided by limitingredundant heat loss caused by uncertain ventilation rates through open windows. Both pilot cases, together withtheir respective reference installations, have been monitored for temperature, relative humidity, CO 2concentration, energy consumption and control strategy during 2011. This paper presents these measurements todetermine the potential of the concept and evaluate the use of heat recuperation in terms of energy savings,improved yield and investment costs.Keywords: Semi-closed, mechanical ventilation, thermal screen, energy management, monitoring.74


Posters of Topic 1"Zineg, the Low Energy Greenhouse", energy consumptioncoefficient (U cs ) in extremely insulated greenhousesSCHLÜPEN, Matthias *; MEYER, JoachimTechnische Universität München, Dürnast 4, 85354, Freising, Germany* m_schluepen@web.deThe extremely insulated greenhouse concept is part of the joint research project "Zineg" (Hannover, Berlin,Munich, Osnabrück). The general aims of the project consist of two main parts: First the reduction of energyconsumption by better insulation and adapted temperature control strategies during the production period;secondly the reduction of energy costs by more effective cropping systems and by the use of alternative energyresources.The experimental greenhouse of Technische Universität München, consists of three compartments with differentfilm plastic coverings. Compartment 1 and 2 are covered with inflated double PE and compartment 3 is coveredwith inflated double f-clean. Additionally compartment 1 is equipped with one thermal screen in the roof; incompartment 2 there are two aluminized thermal screens in the roof and one on the sidewalls; compartment 3 isequipped with one thermal screen in the roof and on the sidewall and one (light transmissive) day screen in theroof. In the winters 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 the energy consumption coefficients (U cs) were determined withheat consumption measurements. In 2010/2011, two measurement cycles were carried out; all screen closed andall screens open. In 2011/2012 followed the measurements with one screen closed in all compartments. In themeasurement with all screens closed, compartment 1 achieved a U cs – value of 2. 7 [W/m²K], compartment 2 aU cs – value of 0.9 [W/m²K] and compartment 3 a U cs – value of 1.3 [W/m²K]. The results of all measurements willbe reported at the SHE.Keywords: greenhouse, energy consumption coefficient (Ucs), insulation.Economic evaluation of the electricity production of aphotovoltaic shade houseKREUZPAINTNER, Alexandra (1) *; LIETH, J. Heinrich (2) ; MEYER, Joachim (1)(1)Department of Plant Sciences, Center of Life and Food Science Weihenstephan,Technical University of Munich, Munich, Bavaria, Germany(2)Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA* alexandra.kreuzpaintner@wzw.tum.deIn the commercial horticultural production shadehouses are used to produce container nursery plants which tendto thrive under shaded conditions. In this project we investigated the use of a shadehouse technology where theshade is created through the use of photovoltaic modules. In this type of shadehouse there is an economic returnfrom both photovoltaic electricity production as well as from the nursery production of the plants under the panels.In 2010 at the University of California (Davis) a group of scientists tested various nursery plants as to their abilityto grow and develop successfully within such photovoltaic shade conditions. The types of shading used in thisstudy consisted of a conventional shadecloth system (the Control at ~35% shade) and two photovoltaic shadesystems (~35% and ~70% shade, treatment names S88 and S44 relate to the 88 and 44 mm spacing of thecylindrical photovoltaic modules – model S100, Solyndra). In this report we present an evaluation of thephotovoltaic shade house system as an integral element of a container nursery focusing the analysis on fourlocations in California, USA: Northern California (Davis, CA), Central California (Visalia, CA), Central Coast(Monterey, CA) and South California (San Diego, CA).The applied calculation method is a dynamic capital budgetaimed at evaluating the following three questions: (1) What annual profit could a nursery grower expect, given anassumed electricity price? (2) What could be the highest price of a solar panel that would result in a positive profitmargin? (3) What electricity price the grower should get that would result in a positive profit margin? When theassumed electricity price for the calculation is US$ 0.08 per kWh then there is no possibility to make a positive75


Posters of Topic 1annual profit. To reach a break-even point in this analysis it is necessary to be able to install the solar PV systemat a kWp price, which ranges from US$ 668 to US$ 822; alternately assuming actual panel prices, the electricityprice would need to be in the range from US$ 0.22 to US$ 0.25 per kWh. Thus while such a set-up is unlikely tobe profitable in California without substantial subsidies at prevailing energy prices, there are locations in Europewhere a photovoltaic shadehouse is economically feasible.Keywords: Shaded productions systems, Electricity production, Dual use of agricultural land, Plant production,California.Comparison between the use of low-emissivity glass and float glasson the growth characteristics of ornamental plantsBETTIN, Andreas *; RÖMER, Hans-Peter; WAGNITZ, Nico; REHRMANN, Peter; WILMS,DiedrichHochschule Osnabrück, GERMANY* a.bettin@hs-osnabrueck.deLow-emissivity glass is widely used in building construction. Compared to float glass with a U-value of 5.9, U-values of 1.1 and less for low-emissivity glass are state of the art, indicating high potential savings in protectedplant production.Two greenhouses, covered with float glass and low-emissivity glass, with a surface of 150 m² each and a netproduction surface of 72 % were established, each reflecting the situation in a commercial greenhouse. Thistesting plant format is integral to the German ZINEG-project (future initiative low energy greenhouse,www.zineg.de). Experiments started in the spring of 2011 with three sets of zonal geraniums and New GuineaImpatiens, followed by Rieger begonias and cyclamens in summer and three sets of poinsettias in autumn. Heatpipes above the plants were not needed under the low-emissivity glass, however, dummy pipes had beeninstalled to evaluate its shading effect (4 % PAR) and to ensure, that differences are only due to the greenhousecover. Plant temperatures were kept identically in both greenhouses. The shading screens were not used in eithergreenhouse during the sunny spring and autumn of 2011 and were used for only a few days in the controlgreenhouse during the summer of 2011.To evaluate plant growth characteristics, plant height, diameter, production time, as well as the fresh and dryweight were determined. Furthermore, photos were taken weekly, to document development and time of spacing.The plants were rated and their price estimated by five independent growers. Energy expenditure of bothgreenhouses was determined from gas consumption and heating demands. The results showed that fresh anddry matter, diameter and height of plants under low-emissivity glass were approximately equal to, or slightly lessthan that under float glass. In summer, an increase in plant height could be observed under low emissivity glass.Production time was unaffected or up to three days longer under low-emissivity glass. Growers were not able todistinguish under which cover the plants had been grown, or to determine a different plant price rating. Over thewhole period, water consumption of the plants under low-emissivity glass was 17 % lower than the control. Airhumidity under low-emissivity glass was higher but caused no fungal disease(s). Energy savings under lowemissivityglass varied between 50 % and 70 %, depending on the weather conditions.Keywords: Energy savings, light, growth, ornamental value.Comparative Dieffenbachia maculate cv Camille behavior underdifferent fertilizers related with nitrogen availabilityCONTRERAS, Juana Isabel (1) ; SEGURA, Maria Luz (1) ; PLAZA, Blanca María (2) ; JIMÉNEZ-BECKER, Silvia (2) ; LAO, Maria Teresa (2) *76


Posters of Topic 1(1)Institute of Research and Training in Agriculture and Fishery (IFAPA), Junta of Andalusia. CaminoSan Nicolás n.1. 04745 La Mojonera. Almería. Agrifood Campus of International Excellence (CEIA3).Spain.(2)Department of Vegetal Production, Engineering Higher School, University of Almería, Ctra.Sacramento s/n. 04120 Almería. Agrifood Campus of International Excellence (CEIA3). Spain.* mtlao@ual.esSlow-release and soluble fertilizers are the main nutrient application systems of pot crop. Soluble fertilizers mustbe applied by fertigation along the crop, while slow release fertilizers are added to the substrate before plantation.The aim of this work was to study the influence of soluble and slow release fertilizers on Dieffenbachia maculata“Camille” growth and the behaviour of shoot and root nutrient concentrations during the cultivation. Besides theevolution of NO 3 - -N and NH 4 + -N concentration in drainage and substrate solution, extracted by suction cups, hasbeen studied, determining N leaching losses and studying the nutrient uptake efficiency with different fertigationstrategies. Three different treatments were studied: Ta- Tradicional fertigation with soluble fertilizers (10.8 meq NL -1 , with 90% N-NO 3 - and 10% N-NH 4 + , 0.8 meq P L -1 and 4.3 meq K L -1 ); Tb- 50 % fertigation of Ta + 50 % of theslow release fertilizers in pellets, using the dose recommended by the manufacturer for a plant with high nutrientneeds (16-8-12; 3,0 g L -1 of substrate) and Tc- 30 % of total N applied with a soluble complex 17-8-14 stabilizedwith 3-4 dimethylpyrazole phosphate + 50 % slow release fetilizers in pellets (16-8-12; 3,0 g L -1 of substrate). TheDieffenbachia maculata “Camille” crop was conducted during 181 days in pots with a peat:perlite (80:20 v/v) in aBuried Solar Greenhouse. Treatment Tb had a similar productive response and Tc increase the height, thenumber of buds and the root dry weight in compared with Ta. However in Tb the foliar area, variegation indexpercentage and foliar dry weight did not present significative differences. Treatments with slow release fertilizersincrease nutrient uptake, use efficiency and reduce the nitrogen leaching.Keywords: Fertigation, Nitrate, Ammonium, suction cups.Spectral enrichment of lamps by means of LEDs and its agronomicevaluationCHICA, Rosa María (1) *; ALMANSA, Eva María (2) **; MARTÍNEZ-RAMÍREZ, Gabriela Beatriz(2) (2) ***; LAO, Maria Teresa(1) Rural Engineering Department, Engineering Higher School, University of Almería, Agrifood Campusof International Excellence (CeiA3). Spain. Ctra. Sacramento s/n. 04120 Almería, Spain *rmchica@ual.es(2)Department of Vegetal Production, Engineering Higher School, University of Almería, AgrifoodCampus of International Excellence (CeiA3). Spain. Ctra. Sacramento s/n. 04120 Almería, Spain **almansaeva@gmail.com ; *** mtlao@ual.esThe use of artificial light with agronomic uses is nowadays justified in certain system crops since light is one of theenvironment factors that is more restrictive for plant growth. Spectral quality varies so much from lamps to others.Most of the lamps that are used in agronomic practices are chosen from the commercial ones that offer lowercosts, which is the reason that lamps do not cover spectral plant necessities. LEDs is a type of lamp that ischaracterized to emit in a narrow wavelength region. LEDs can therefore complement other lamps enriching theirspectrum. The objective of this work is to evaluate the use of the LEDs (blue, red and red+blue) ascomplementary light. Commercial lamps as the standard fluorescent lamps TLD, high-efficiency fluorescent TL5and compact fluorescent FC or low energy fluorescent were used. Light spectral quality has been measured from300 to 1100 nm by LICOR 1800 spectroradiometer. Lamps essayed have been evaluated agronomical with LEDsand without them. Agronomic characterization valuated as UV, B, R, FR, PAR, NIR and TOTAL regions and theirratios: PAR/TOTAL, PAR/NIR, B/R, B/FR, R/FR were made. In all cases analyzed, when LEDs are combined withcommercial lamps, spectrum has been widening in blue and/or red regions.Keywords: Fluorescent lamps, LEDs, light spectrum.77


Posters of Topic 1Field cultivation of an eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) with theuse of mulches in the conditions of moderate climateADAMCZEWSKA-SOWIŃSKA, Katarzyna *; KRYGIER, MagdalenaDepartment of HorticultureWrocław University of Environmental and Life SciencesPl. Grunwaldzki 24a, 50-363 Wroclaw, Poland* katarzyna.a-sowinska@up.wroc.plOne – factorial experiment was conducted in the years 2010 – 2011, established according to the method ofrandomized blocks, in three replications. In eggplant cultivation there were applied mulches made of black, whiteand transparent polyethylene films, as well as black polypropylene textile and black biodegradable mulching film.Before introducing transparent sheeting, the soil was sprayed with herbicide. There was also applied mulch madeof shredded dry shoots of Miscanthus giganteus. Control involved not mulched plots. Eggplant seedlings of EpicF 1 cultivar was planted in the third decade of May, in the spacing of 60 x 50cm. Its fruits were harvested from thebeginning of July to mid - September.Eggplants yield significantly depend on weather conditions in the subsequent years of the experiment. In warmer2011, early yield was, average, 4.3- times higher, while total yield showed 3.5 times higher values than that of2010. Unitary weight of fruits in early and total yield in 2011 r. amounted 220g and 245g respectively, while in2010 their values ranged 194g and 203g. As far as mean yield size for the years of the experiment wasconcerned, it was possible to state that application of transparent mulching film provided for statistically confirmedincrease (by 68%) in early yield of eggplant fruit in relation to cultivation without mulching films. Introduction of theremaining kinds of sheeting resulted in increased yield size by 21.5 – 34.9% in relation to control. The highesttotal yield was harvested from plots mulched with black or transparent polyethylene film, as well as with blackpolypropylene textile. Worse yielding was observed in the case of eggplant growing on white mulching film and onbiodegradable one, as well as on an organic mulchKeywords: eggplant, polyethylene film, polypropylene textile, biodegradable film, organic mulch.Assesment of quality attributes of endive (Cichorum endivia L.)depending on cultivar and growing conditionsKOWALCZYK, Katarzyna *; GAJC-WOLSKA, Janina; MARCINKOWSKA, Monika;JABRUCKA-PIÓRO, EwelinaDepartment of Vegatable and Medicinal PlantsWarsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland* katarzyna_kolwaczyk@sggw.plEndive is a leaf vegetable with high taste and nutritious values. In greenhouse cultivation it is possible to controlof the cultivation conditions and influence on the quality of endive.The aim of the investigation was theassessment of biological quality of endive cultivated in three different growing media. Organic media - coconutfiber and wood fiber were compared to rockwool, commonly used as a standard horticultural medium ingreenhouse vegetable production. Three crispum leaf endive cultivars: ‘Galanti’, ‘Perceval’ and ‘Barundi’ and onelatifolium leaf cultivar (escarole chicory) – ‘Kethel’ were examined in spring time. At about 10 days before harvestthe plants were covered with double-sided black and white film to perform bleaching leaves and at 5 –7 daysbefore the end of the experiment the nutrient solution was replacing on water to reduce nitrate concentration inthe leaves of endive. The content of dry matter, ascorbic acid, total soluble solids (TSS), total sugars (TS),phenolic acids and nitrate (NO 3), P, K and Ca was determined in leaves of both bleached and not bleachedplants. Also the antioxidant activity was measured by two assays DPPH and FRAP. Not bleached endive grownon rockwool slabs had highest dry matter content (average 6,3%) and the lowest was in production on coconutfiber slabs (5,6%). Plants grown on rockwool were characterized by the highest content of ascorbic acid too.Content of TSS and TS were highest in leaves of plants grown on wood fiber slabs (respectively 2,6 % and 0,7078


Posters of Topic 1g . 100 g -1 FW), but the highest content of Ca and K were in plants growing on coconut fiber (respectively 41,32and 434,8 mg.100 g-1 FW). However, the accumulation of nitrate in leaves of endive was lowest in plants grownon wood fiber medium. In the remaining other substrates and investigated cultivars, nitrate concentrations werebelow the maximum acceptable level for human consumption too. The content of phenolic acids and antioxidantactivity was not depend on the substrate differences, and depended only on cultivar. Bleached plants containedfar fewer of the examined components and had lower antioxidant activity, while were characterized by similarnitrate acumulation of nitrate as the not bleached one. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in plants of‘Kethel’ cultivar.Keywords: coconut fiber, wood fiber, rockwool, bleaching, FRAP, DPPH*, nitrates.3D Climate Optimizationhumidity, temperature, ventilation, light, CO2JANSSEN, Egonegon.janssen@tno.nlConventional climate control systems, wrongfully assume that the climate in a greenhouse is uniform, while inpractice large climate gradients occur.With 3D Climate Optimization the entire three-dimensional climate profile (e.g. humidity, temperature, air flow,light, CO2) is estimated using a wireless sensor network in combination with an advanced 3D climate modelmodel. The climate profile is then optimized by a combination of global and local actuators, using distributedmodel predictive control. This way, it is possible to efficiently create different climate zones in one greenhouse,enabling multi-layer cultivation, while saving energy.Technology update on greenhouse horticulture in PortugalCOSTA, J.M. (1) ; REIS, M. (2) ; ALMEIDA, D. (3) ; CARVALHO, S.M.P. (4,5) ; PALHA, M.G. (6) ;VARGUES, A. (7) ; PASSARINHO, J.A. (8) , FERREIRA, M.E. (9)(1) CBAA, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Tapada da Ajuda, Lisboa, Portugalmigu elc@itqb.pt(2) Universidade do Algarve, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, 8005-139 Faro, Portugalmreis@ualg.pt(3) Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto, Portugaldalmeida@fc.up.pt(4) CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Porto, Portugalsmcarvalho@porto.ucp.pt(5)Horticultural Supply Chains, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands(6) Avenida da República, Nova Oeiras, INRB, I.P./INIA, Oeiras, 2784-505 Oeiras, Portugalgraca.palha@inrb.pt(7) Avenida da República, Nova Oeiras, INRB, I.P./INIA, Oeiras, 2784-505 Oeiras, Portugalalberto.vargues@inrb.pt(8) Avenida da República, Nova Oeiras, INRB, I.P./INIA, Oeiras, 2784-505 Oeiras, Portugaljose.passarinho@inrb.pt(9) Avenida da República, Nova Oeiras, INRB, I.P./INIA, Oeiras, 2784-505 Oeiras, Portugalelvira.ferreira@inrb.ptPortugal has excellent natural conditions for year round production of fruits, vegetables and flowers underprotected cultivation. Favourable climate conditions (radiation, insolation, mild winter temperatures) combined79


Posters of Topic 1with relatively low labour costs and soil prices as compared to northern European countries are driving theattention of both national and foreign investors to this subsector of the Portuguese agriculture. Tomato, lettuce,berries, melon, and green beans account for 75% of the area under protected cultivation, while carnation, rose,and gerbera are among the most important ornamental crops. Protected cultivation in Portugal started in the1960’s, in the Algarve (South of Portugal) and it was based on “chapel” type greenhouses, with wooden structurescovered with short duration plastics. In the last three decades, production expanded to the North, along theAtlantic cost, and these simple greenhouses have been replaced by plastic tunnels and by greenhouses withmetal structures. Nowadays, the total protected cultivation area is estimated in 2200 ha, of which about 75%correspond to single and multiple plastic tunnels area. Farm organizational structure and technological trajectoryof the last decade are characterized by increased greenhouse area per grower, higher volume/covered area ratiogreenhouses, and progressive transition to soilless cultivation. Some recent high-tech investments were done inglasshouses with closed hydroponic systems and co-generation technology. Nevertheless, the use ofglasshouses, or modern plastic greenhouses with computerized active climate control, heating, artificial lighting,and carbonic fertilization remains minor, due to high costs of equipments and energy, and limited experimentationfor local conditions. Portuguese horticulture must account for the increased competition from Spain and TheNetherlands, but also from other emerging competitors such as Morocco. Modern production structures andclimate control, combined with environmentally friendly practices that permit to increase yield and quality andminimize environmental impacts are needed. The modernization of this sector requires investments in educationas well as more professionalized associations, industry and services. A SWOT analysis is presented for the mostimportant greenhouse production areas. General guidelines for more competitive and environmental sustainableproduction are provided.Key words: protected cultivation, fruits, vegetables, ornamentals, SWOT analysis.The application of some fungicides as alternative growth retardantin pot plant productionHONFI, Péter *; KÖBLI, Viktória; FELSZNER, Zita; MOSONYI, István Dániel; TILLY-MÁNDY,AndreaCorvinus University of Budapest, Faculty of Horticultural ScienceDepartment of Floriculture and Dendrology, Hungary* peter.honfi@uni-corvinus.huIn consequence of the connection of European Union, traditional plant growth retardants will be withdrawn inHungary. Therefore, we tested the dwarfing effect of several fungicides, Bumper 25 EC and Mirage 45 EC,Caramba SL and Regalis WG comparing to Alar 85 and Cycocel 720, traditional growth retardants. Testplant wasIsmelia carinata, a decorative ornamental annual plant. The 6 weeks old, once pinched back plugs were treated 3times 3 weeks intervals with the given chemicals with the concentration advanced by the producer. The height ofplants, the diameter of plant bush, number of branches, number and diameter of flowers were measured.Caramba had the best retardant effect on the plant height. The other chemicals didn’t resulted statistically provedshorter plants comparing to the control. The effect of Caramba was better comparing to Alar and Cycocel too.With the use of Caramba the average plant height didn’t reach 20 cm, while control plants overgrew the 50 cm.None of the treatments had positive effect on the bush diameter. In the aspect of number of branches none of thetreatments had difference comparing to the control. The treatments hadn’t effect on the leaf length at all. Thetreatments hadn’t significantly proved effect on the number of flowers comparing to the control. Alar and Regalistreatments had significantly positive effect on flower bud number comparing to the control and the othertreatments. The treatments hadn’t statistically proved effect on the flower diameter. Mirage had an unequal effecton the measured parameters the use of this fungicide as retardant is contraindicated. Rising the concentration ofAlar and Regalis we fount that all examined concentrations retardant effect on plant height but the leaf size andbush diameter stood equal. Higher (4 g/l) concentration of Alar had positive effect on flower bud number.Keywords: growth control, Ismelia carinata, annual plants, floriculture, greenhouse, daminozide, metconazole,chlormequat, prohexadion-Ca.80


Posters of Topic 1The influence of bio-fertilizer and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus onspad values in strawberry leavesPALENCIA, Pedro (1) *; MARTÍNEZ RUIZ, Fátima (2) ; WEILAND, Carlos M. (2) ;OLIVEIRA, J. Alberto (1)(1)Department of Organisms and Systems Biology, University of Oviedo, Escuela Politécnica deMieres, C/ Gonzalo Gutiérrez Quirós, 33600 Mieres, Spain(2)Departamento de Ciencias Agroforestales, E.T.S.I. ‘La Rábida’, Universidad de Huelva, Palos de laFrontera (Huelva) Spain* pedro.palencia@dcaf.uhu.esArbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can increase plant growth and uptake of nutrients and decrease yield losses. Fieldexperiment was conducted to study the effect of different dates of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal(Glomus intraradices) and the effect of biofertilizer (Bacillus velezensi) on SPAD values in young and matureleaves of strawberry plant in soilless growing system. The experiment had duration of three months and wasconducted in a greenhouse in Huelva (Spain). Trial was performed during 2011 and 2012 crop cycle onstrawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cultivars. An analysis of variance of the results was carried out followinga split-split-plot factorial design (2 treatments x 2 cultivars x 3 inoculation dates) with two replicates was used. Thetreatments were: A (Plants inoculated with biofertilizer Bacillus velezensi) and B (Plant without inoculation withBacillus velezensi). The cultivars used were ‘Splendor’ and ‘Primoris’. The dates of Glomus intraradicesinoculation were: T1 (inoculation was performed at the beginning of crop cycle) and T2 (inoculation wasperformed 4 weeks after transplantation) and T3 (control plants). The substrate was inoculated with 0.001 g plant -1 of Bacillus velezensi at the beginning of crop cycle and the substrate was inoculated with 5-10 spores plant -1 ofGlomus intraradices in two different dates. SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter provides rapid and nondestructivemeasurements of leaf chlorophyll content. The SPAD-502 values in young and mature leaves were measuredweekly and related to arbuscular mycorrhizal and biofertilizer inoculation. SPAD values could reflect the effect oftreatments. The results showed differences between SPAD values, ‘Splendor’ cultivar retained more chlorophylland resulted in higher SPAD index than ‘Primoris’ cultivars. The effect of SPAD values cannot be exactlyattributed to mycorrhizal association or inoculation with Bacillus velezensi.Keywords: Bacillus velezensi, soilless growing system, ‘Primoris’, ‘Splendor’, SPAD chlorophyll meter andGlomus intraradices.Response of two strawberry cultivars to inoculation with arbuscularmycorrhizal fungus in different soilsMARTÍNEZ RUIZ, Fátima (1) *; PALENCIA, Pedro (2) ; WEILAND, Carlos M. (1) ; OLIVEIRA, J.Alberto (2)(1) Departament of Ciencias Agroforestales, E.T.S.I. ‘La Rábida’, University of Huelva, Ctra. Palos s/n,21819. Palos de la Frontera (Huelva), Spain(2)Department of Organisms and Systems Biology, University of Oviedo, Escuela Politécnica deMieres, C/ Gonzalo Gutiérrez Quirós, 33600 Mieres, Spain* fatima.martinez@dcaf.uhu.esArbuscular mycorrhizal is an important part of microflora in soil. It is the link between plants and soil. Mycorrhizalfungi increase the efficiency of mineral uptake, especially of the immobile elements such as phosphorus, theyincrease the water uptake, reduce plant stresses and disease response to plant pathogens due to somemorphological or physiological changes in the plant. Crown and root rot in strawberries caused by Macrophominaphaseolina may be an emerging disease following the phase-out of methyl bromide. The experiment was carriedout in Huelva (Spain) in a greenhouse during 2011 crop cycle on strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.)cultivars. Plants growing in pots of coir fiber substrate. Field experiment was conducted to study the effect of81


Posters of Topic 1inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (Glomus intraradices) and the effect of type of soil (soil naturally infectedwith Macrophomina phaseolina in strawberry plant grown in field) and (sterilized soil) on early vegetative growth.A completely randomized block design (2 type of soil x 2 cultivars x 2 treatments) with three replicates was used.The types of soils utilized were: A (soil naturally infected with M. phaseolina) and B (sterilized soil); The cultivarsused were ‘Splendor’ and ‘Primoris’. The treatments were: inoculation with Glomus intraradices and no inoculationwith Glomus intraradices. The substrate was inoculated with 5-10 spores plant -1 of Glomus intraradices at thebeginning of crop cycle). The results suggested that the effect of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (Glomusintraradices) and the effect of type of soil soil naturally infected with Macrophomina phaseolina in strawberry plantgrown in field and sterilized soil on early vegetative growth was not significant except for number of leaves of theplant.Keywords: early vegetative growth, Macrophomina phaseolina, Glomus intraradicesEffect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and bio-fertilizer on growthcharacters of strawberry plant in soilless growing systemMARTÍNEZ RUIZ, Fátima (1) *; PALENCIA, Pedro (2) ; WEILAND, Carlos M. (1) ; OLIVEIRA, J.Alberto (2)(1) Departament of Ciencias Agroforestales, E.T.S.I. ‘La Rábida’, University of Huelva, Ctra. Palos s/n,21819. Palos de la Frontera (Huelva), Spain(2)Department of Organisms and Systems Biology, University of Oviedo, Escuela Politécnica deMieres, C/ Gonzalo Gutiérrez Quirós, 33600 Mieres, Spain* fatima.martinez@dcaf.uhu.esThe experiment was carried out in Huelva (Spain) in a greenhouse during 2011 crop cycle on strawberry(Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cultivars. Field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different dates ofinoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (Glomus intraradices) and the effect of biofertilizer (Bacillus velezensi) onthe growth of strawberry plant in soilless growing system. A completely randomized block design (2 treatments x2 cultivars x 3 inoculation dates) with 2 replicated was used. The treatments were: A (plants inoculated withbiofertilizer Bacillus velezensi) and B (plant without inoculation with Bacillus velezens). The cultivars used were‘Splendor’ and ‘Primoris’. The dates of Glomus intraradices inoculation were: T1 (inoculation was performed at thebeginning of crop cycle) and T2 (inoculation was performed 4 weeks after transplantation) and T3 (control plants).The substrate was inoculated with 0.001 g plant -1 of Bacillus velezensi at the beginning of crop cycle and thesubstrate was inoculated with 5-10 spores plant -1 of Glomus intraradices in two differente dates (at the beginningand 4 weeks after transplantation). The main effects of treatments, cultivars and different dates of Glomusintraradices inoculation on growth charecters of strawberry plant were evaluated. ‘Splendor’ cultivar compared to‘Primoris’ cultivar was not showed significant differences in the extra-early growth characters evaluated. It mightbe due that ‘Splendor’ cultivar was more vigorous than ‘Primoris’ cultivar. Also, in soilless growing system theplant was not stressed and the nutrients were accumulated very fast. Therefore, the effect of biological regulators(mycorrhizal and biofertilizer) on ‘Splendor’ cultivar was not significant.Keywords: Growth characters, Bacillus velezensi, Glomus intraradicesApplication of phosphate glass in the production of impatiens(Impatiens walleriana L.) seedlingsVUJOŠEVIĆ, Ana (1) *; TOŠIĆ, Mihajlo (2) ; LAKIĆ, Nada (1) ; NIKOLIĆ, Jelena (2) ; ŽIVANOVIĆ,Vladimir (2) ; MATIJAŠEVIĆ, Srđan (2) ; ZILDŽOVIĆ, Snežana (2)(1)Faculty of Agriculture, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia(2)Institute for technology of nuclear and other mineral raw materials, Franchet d ’ Esperey 86,11000,Belgrade, Serbia82


Posters of Topic 1* ana1512@yahoo.comThis paper presents the results of the application of phosphate glass with the addition of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in thein the production of Impatiens seedlings (Impatiens walleriana Xtreme red). The experiment was conducted in thegreenhouse of the Faculty of Agriculture in Belgrade during the year of 2012. The plants were produced inpolystyrene containers and polypropylene pots. The effect of the phosphate glass doses of: 0, 1, 2, 3, g/l on thefollowing properties of seedlings development: height, number of lateral brunches, above ground weight, weightand root length was examined.The results of the research indicate a positive effect of the applied phosphate glass in the production of Impatienswalleriana seedlings. Applying the glass, high quality seedlings are produced so its usage is justified. Theobtained results indicate a need for further research of the effect of the phosphate glass in the production of otherflowers seedling.Keywords: phosphate glass, seedlings, Impatiens.Pepper seedling cultivation in soil with leonarditeBASAY, Sevinc (1) ; AKBUDAK, Nuray (2) *(1) Orhaneli Vocat Sch, Uludag University, 16059 Bursa,Turkey(2)Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Uludag University Gorukle Campus, Nilufer,16059 Bursa, Turkey* nakbudak@uludag.edu.trLeonardite is a low rank coal derived from terrestrial plant matter. It contains high humic acid, organic matter andregulates soil pH. In this study, the responses in seedling development of pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. ‘KandilDolma’) to the soil applications of three ratio leonardite + soil mixture compost have been studied. In theexperiment, adding as little as 10% leonardite (v/v) to a soil medium increased pepper root dry weight, content ofrelative water and leaf chlorophyll content compared with plants produced with soil alone. Adding 40% (thehighest level) and 20% leonardite (v/v) decreased total leaf chlorophyll content and plant height. The resultssuggest that the 10% Leonardite treatment affected positively plant growth and development.Keywords: Capsicum annuum, chlorophyll content, humic acid, plant growth parameter, seedling.Impacts of root spatial distribution on physical & hydraulicproperties in peat growing media used in horticultureCANNAVO, Patrice & MICHEL, Jean Charles *AGROCAMPUS OUEST - Centre d’Angers, UP EPHor, Angers, France* jean-charles.michel@agrocampus-ouest.frPlants growing in pots are generally limited by the volume of substrate in which water and gas availability canfluctuate over a short period of time. The hydraulic properties of growing media generally provide preciseinformation about their ability to guarantee good growth conditions. However, during ornamental plant growth, thespatial heterogeneity of root distribution in containers raises the question of air and water availability withingrowing media, and of their evolution during plant growth. The aim of the present study was to characterise theevolution of peat hydraulic properties in different parts of containers during root growth.A 4-month long experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in 1L-containers (10 cm height, 12 cm dia.) atconstant water regime (-1 kPa water potential). We studied Rosa “Knock Out” ® growth in two different particlesizesphagnum peats, a fine one (0-10mm) and a coarse one (20-40mm). Every month, aerial biomass and root83


Posters of Topic 1biomass were quantified. Root distribution was studied relative to the depth and the proximity of the containerborder. Indeed, three layers (H1 0-3cm, H2 3-6cm, H3 6-10cm) were defined and each one was divided into 2parts, the internal zone (3cm radius), and the external zone (rest of the layer). Finally, water retention, hydraulicconductivity and relative gas diffusivity of the growing media were measured.At the container scale, peat particle size did not affect the root volume that reached 6% at day 110. Whatever thepeat particle size, Rose root growth increased water retention and improved pore connectivity. An importantheterogeneity in spatial root distribution was observed that strongly affected the physical properties of peatdepending on container zones. The base of the containers was characterised by the highest volumetric rootcontent, but also by a very low air-filled porosity with high risk of anoxia. Moreover, peat particle size affected airfilledporosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity: the finer peat is, the lower air-filled porosity and the higherunsaturated hydraulic conductivity. Finally, although relative gas diffusivity was acceptable at the container scale,very low rates were found at the base of the containerThis study showed that irrigation management needs to be modified along crop development. The water irrigationregime needs to be studied to assess its impact on crop production, on root distribution in the growing media, andon potential growing medium hydrophobicity.Keywords: water retention, hydraulic conductivity, relative gas diffusivity, tortuosity, Rosa “Knock Out” ®Morphometric flower traits and pollen germination of pome andstone fruits grown on ameliorated coal mine pit deposolFOTIRIĆ AKŠIĆ, Milica (1) ; LIČINA, Vlado (1) ; ZEC, Gordan (1) ; ČOLIĆ, Slavica (2) ; NIKOLIĆ,Dragan (1) & RAKONJAC, Vera (1) *(1) Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia(2)Institute for Science Application in Agriculture, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia* verak@agrif.bg.ac.rsDeposols as anthropogenic soils are poorly supplied substrate with mineral nutrients and organic mater, withevident problems of bad physico-chemical properties and potential toxicity of heavy metals (Cr, Ni). In sevencultivars of pome fruits [three apple cultivars (`Idared`, `Golden Delicious` and `Grenny Smith`), two pear cultivars(`Williams Bartlett` and `Passe-Crassane`) and two quince cultivars (`Vranjska` and `Leskovačka`)] together withfour plum cultivars (`Čačank's Beauty`, `Čačank's Fruitful`, `Požegača` and `Stenley`), grown on ameliorated coalmine pit deposol, morphometric flower traits and pollen germination were determined. The aim of this study wasto identify irregularities in several morphological flower parameters and to examine the functional ability of pollenas one of the most important yield components. The experiment was performed in the village Prkosava,Municipality Lazarevac, near Belgrade. Orchard belongs to the Thermal Power Station "Kolubara" and wasplanted in 1986, on the ameliorated coal mine pit deposol, as soil recultivation. Satisfactory pollen germinationshowed all examined cultivars (over 70%), where apple `Granny Smith` have the highest (95.53%). Among pomefruits the largest percentage of malformed flowers was found in apple `Golden Delicious` (52%). In both quincecultivars all examined flowers were perfectly formed. In plums, `Stenley` showed the lowest number of normalflowers (77%) where `Čačank's Fruitful` had only 4% of malformed flowers.Key words: recultivation, apple, pear, quince, plum.Green roofing: a complete approach to characterize growing mediaFAUCON, P. *; DARNIS, M.CRITT Horticole- 17300 Rochefort/mer (France)* p.faucon@critt-horticole.com84


Posters of Topic 1For 50 years, green roofing is market is increasing worldwide, due to the general interest of sustainabledevelopment.In one hand (“landscaper point of view), planting a green roof consist in creating a natural area on a building withartificial elements. As in nature, there are interactions between building, users, climate, plants and biodiversity.Then, growing media is in the center, as support of natural life (from microscopic scale to macroscopic scale). Onother hand, green roof are a part of a building system and must be in accordance with certifications, laws andregulations used in building industry.Green roof suppliers are seeking new growing medias (cheaper, more “ecological friendly, renewable…).Then, the question is “what is a good growing media for green roof?” and “how to characterize them in order tocheck accordance with rules, and to industrialize the process?”Growing media components used in horticultural industry (i.e. peat, composted bark, coco fiber...) was measuredand are well known. During the 80’s, the development of soilless culture was permitted by agronomiccharacterization. Some factors was known before, like CEC, pH level, EC, and some has to be set (pF curves,density, structural stability, porosity…) to tune technical ways (irrigation, fertilization, pest management).As the goal of the vegetation is different, scale of value and parameters are different in green roofing. Forinstance, pF curves are measured till pF 2 in horticulture, to determine water ability and avoid hydric stress thatoccurs growing decreasing. In green roofing, where irrigation is rare, know the water ability at pF 4,2 is important.For the structural stability, the time scale is totally different: growing media as to be stable for several weeks(bedding plants) or for years and years (green roofing). Others physical data like granulometry curves andchemical properties (pH, EC, CEC, heavy metals contents) are also necessary.Green roofs are a part of a building system, and growing media have to be characterized under buildingrequirements: thermal insulation (at different moisture contents), density, permeability ….10 Growing media components were characterized alone and in association and multifactorial profiles (includedeconomic and ecological criterias) were established. By this way, it was possible to identify new components likewaste material (brick, shells, cellular concrete). This innovative growing media are in test and should be soonlaunched on the French market.Establishing opportunities of soilless cultivation for vegetableproduction in Iquitos (Peru)GUZMAN PFEIFFER, Lilian; ULRICHS, Christian *Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany* christian.ulrichs@agrar.hu-berlin.deIn addition to soil cultivation the methods of soilles cultivation (SC) have delivered an optimal perfomance inpractice for year-round production of high-quality crops. A simplified version is often used in Latin America ascontribution to resolve food inse-curity and to offer underprivileged populations the possibility to providethemselves with healthy vegetables. This way they have the ability to attend to their own needs and areeconomically independent. In the tropics, as in the investigation area of Iquitos in the Peruvian Rainforest, typicalunfavourable conditions cause complica-tions in the conventional horticultural production. There the SC is largelyunknown. A study was conducted to prove simplified SC methods, which been developed using mainly localmaterials, for cultivation through small-scale farmers. Through a situation analysis the suitability for cropproduction and the acceptability by the population for this cultivation method should be tested and informationsused as a basis for further strategic planning to establish the SC. As a tool for situational analysis and strategyplanning the SWOT analysis was used. The aim was, to evaluate the developed SC-system and to analyse thepossibilities of establishment and acceptance of the polulation. In the internal analysis the strengths andweaknesses were identified, in the external the opportunities and threats. The analysis showed that the SC -method is a flexible system with a lot of expansion potential. The local low-cost materials, with the exception ofthe roofing sheets, have proven itselve especially on sealed areas. A better protection against the weatherconditions should be considered. The high biodiversity and local farmers knowledge facilitate the search of newmaterials. However, for the roof sheet higher cost must be expected. Access to a clean water source and thenutrient solution must be secured. Savings in the daily purchasing and little revenue from crop salings to theneighborhood can already attained by small production scale. The technique does not require prior knowledge,but a constant instructional phase. The SC allows the consumption of uncontaminated health-promoting crops,which could be traded as a niche product. A strong price-oriented demand and lack of consumer education arestanding in contrary to this. The risk of environmental pollution caused by improper handling of the nutrient85


Posters of Topic 1solution can not be excluded. In the further establishment planning an increased cultivation of large volumeimported crops are considered to be advantageous. The commercialisation, especially as a special niche product("clean" vegetables), should be linked to active public relations. In the short to medium term, the growing systemsshould bei advanced, particularly the roof. For a sales oriented production cooperations and grower associationsshould be set up.Pepper seedlings quality improved by application of the enrichedzeolitesUGRINOVIC, M. *; ZDRAVKOVIC, J.; DJORDJEVIC, M.; GIREK, Z.; BRDAR-JOKANOVIC,M.; ZDRAVKOVIC, M.Institute for vegetable crops, Smederevska Palanka, Serbia* milan.ugrinovic@gmail.comZeolites are well-structured, aluminosilicate minerals, suitable for a numerous purposes. Due to their structure,the zeolites are very useful for solving some problems in a horticulturalproduction, such as, surplus of water andoverbalance of the nutrients. Another good feature of these minerals are the capability of slow release ofadsorbed nutrients and water. Also, the application of zeolites in a pepper seedlings production can bee goodsolution for a reduction of the exceeding spending of a peat moss. In order to estimate the quality of enrichedzeolites and possibility of their use in a pepper seedlings production, the experiment was conducted in theglasshouse of Institute for vegetable crops in Smederevska Palanka (Serbia). The examined growing media weremixed of different amounts of naturalpeat moss(NPM),enrichedpeat moss (EPM), composted organic materials(COM), enrichedzeolites (EZ) and natural zeolites (NZ). The plant height, number of leaves, fresh plant weightand bud presence of pepper seedlings (Capsicum annum L. ’Romana’) had been measured. The average valuesof tested properties were significantly higher for plants grown on substrates with added enriched zeolites thanthose grown on the sole peat moss.The average plant height and average fresh plant weight were increased byapplication of EZ for 35 and 57 % with respect to the control (EPM).Key words: pepper, growing media, seedlings, zeolitesProgress in the growth promotion of horticulture seedlings:compost tea and Trichoderma sp.MARÍN, F. (1) *; DIÁNEZ, F. (1) **; CARRETERO, F. (1) ; SANTOS, M. (1) ; GEA, FJ. (2) ;MARTÍNEZ, MA (2) ; YAU, J.A. (3) ; NAVARRO, MJ. (2)(1) Dpto. Producción Vegetal, Universidad de Almería, La Cañada de San Urbano s/n, 04120, Almería,España. * fmarin80@hotmail.com ** fdianez@ual.es(2) Centro de Investigación, Experimentación y Servicios del Champiñón. Quintanar del Rey, Cuenca.(3) Instituto de Investigación Agropecuaria de Panamá, Edificios 161, 162. Ciudad del Saber, Clayton.Calle Carlos R. Lara. República de PanamáCompost teas have been defined as mixtures of compost and water in proportions which permit the passage ofnutrients and microorganisms from the compost to the liquid fraction, for its later use. These extracts have beentraditionally used for control of plant diseases, growth promotion and plant nutrition. We evaluated compost teafrom four sources: spent mushroom compost, grape marc compost and horticultural wastes compost andvermicompost. To achieve the target set, we obtained aerated compost teas (ACT) and non-aerated compostteas (NCT), both in the ratio 1/4 weight/volume (w/v). For that purpose we added 5 mL of compost tea diluted to15%.86


Posters of Topic 1Trichoderma spp. has been reported like a powerful biological control agent against plant pathogens and growthpromoter. One isolated from a suppressive soil from the South of Spain were evaluated by using three differentamounts of inocula: 10 4 , 10 5 and 10 6 conidia per plant, applied to the substrates by irrigation.Plant assays were done with Capsicum annum in seedbeds. Treatments were applied at the time of sowing. Fullassay were done with four repetitions per treatment and compared with controls. Later, morphological parameterswere measured: plant height, number of leaves, stem size and dry weight of roots and aerial part.Results showed (Simple ANOVA, LSD 95 %) that Dickson Quality Index, root dry weight and stem dry weightwere higher in plants treated with compost teas and plants grown with Trichoderma sp. than controls. Forcompost tea, NCT provided better results for these parameters than ACT. For Trichoderma sp., we think the doseis not so important like the presence of that microorganism in the substrate. To sum up, both of treatmentsdevelop a growth promoter effect on Capsicum annum.Keywords: Compost tea, Trichoderma sp., Growth promoter, Capsicum annum.Effect of partial rootzone drying on growth, yield andbiomass distribution of a soilless tomato crop grown undergreenhouseAFFI, N. *; EL MASTOR, A.; EL-FADL, A.; EL-OTMANI, M. & BENISMAIL, M C.Department of Horticulture, Hassan II Agronomic and Veterinary Institute,BP: 728, Agadir 80 000, Morocco* affinaziha@yahoo.frWater is becoming a limiting factor for agricultural production in many areas of the Mediterranean Basin. Modernwater supply techniques and strategies as well as technologies for monitoring the water status in the soil-plantatmosphere continuum with the objective of water economy are becoming a component of any production systemthat targets a sustainable production. The objective of the present research was to assess the effects of partialrootzone drying (PRD) as a water supply strategy on tomato growth, productivity and biomass allocation. Thevariety Prystilla grafted onto Beaufort rootstock was used at a density of 6 000 plants/ha. Plants were grownunder greenhouse, on a sand substrate and cared for according to the needs. The plants were trellised on 2 armsper plant. Three treatments were applied: a control that was fully and conventionally irrigated (receiving 100% ofthe water requirements), PRD-70 and PRD-50 in which, respectively, 70% and 50% of water requirements weresupplied using PRD. At planting, the root volume was devided into two halves each half was irrigated separately.Alternation of irrigation between the two root halves took place each three days. The total yield statisticallydiffered (P < 0.05) and control gave the highest total yield (252 tons/ha). Compared to PRD-70 and control, PRD-50 yield decrease rates were, respectively, 16% and 30%. In terms of fruit number, PRD-50 showed 23% and16% less fruits than PRD-70 and control, respectively. Fruit size was affected by treatment with PRD-50 treatmentproducing 66% and 53% more class 3 fruits (small size) than, control and PRD-70 (P < 0.05), respectively, whilethose of class 2 and 1 (which are preferred for export) were, respectively, 36% and 61% lower than for PRD-70and control. For plant growth, the difference was not significant when comparing control to PRD-70 but wassignificant when comparing PRD-70 and control to PRD-50 (P < 0.05). No effect was on total biomass but rootbiomass was higher for stressed plants compared to control (P< 0.05).Keywords: PRD, yield, biomass, growth.87


Posters of Topic 1The effect of using degradable nonwovens in butterhead lettucecultivation for early harvestSIWEK, Piotr *; LIBIK, Andrzej* p.siwek@ogr.ur.krakow.plIn 2011 and 2012 at the Agricultural University in Kraków field experiment using spunbonded photodegradableand biodegradable non-wovens were carried out on lettuce cultivar ‘Mafalda F1’ for early harvest. Biodegradablenon-wovens were manufactured in the frame of BIOGRATEX project in the Institute of Biopolymers and ChemicalFibres. Lettuce seeds were sown into boxes in the glasshouse at the beginning of March and at the beginning ofApril transplants were planted into the field. Photodegradable non-woven PP and biodegradable PLA andstandard PP Agro were stretched over lettuce in the field. Covers were kept until a few days before harvest.Control treatment was determined as plots without covers. No mechanical demages on the nonwovens wereobserved after removing. Ascorbic acid, soluble sugars, dry matter, chlorophyll ‘a’, chlorophyll ‘b’ andcarotenoides content were estimated in the yield. In 2011 both non-wovens showed positive effect on yielding incomparison to control. In the case of fotodegradable PP the marketable yield was 38% higher and PP Agro 26%higher than in the control. Dry matter content and total sugars were on the similar level. Chlorophyll ‘a’, chlorophyll‘b’ and carotenoides content in the lettuce showed in this year positive relation to used cover. In the second yearof the experiments the yield and its quality will be estimated.88


PLENARY SESSIONTOPIC 2CONSUMER-DRIVEN SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY CHAINSMANAGEMENT


Plenary SessionRegional identity and authenticity as a means of reaching theEuropean consumerEKELUND, LenaDept. Work Science, Business Economics & Environmental PsychologySwedish University of Agricultural SciencesBox 88, SE-230 53 ALNARP SwedenMany European regions are claiming authenticity through their regional branding in order to convince theconsumer that their products have unique and desirable properties found nowhere else. We will address the issueof regional branding as a means for reaching the consumer and look into authenticity as a promotional argument.We will argue that despite the promise of regional branding there is a communication gap between the producerand the consumer which is exacerbated by gatekeepers who inhibit rather than drive the promotion of productauthenticity.Regional products can be described as products labelled in a manner clearly denoting geographical origin.Horticultural examples are Prince de Bretagne vegetables, Südtirol apples and Norfolk Lavender. Horticulturalfood producers in some regions benefit from EU Protected Geographical Status. Yorkshire Forced Rhubarb hasProtected Designation of Origin (PDO) while Lautrec's Pink Garlic has Protected Geographical Indication (PGI),just to mention two of 291 fruits and vegetable products. Regional protections are effective for accessing foreignmarkets but are more often used for limiting competition in local arenas. Positive attitudes to the region and trustin its growers need to be based on image, which in turn is determined by the experience with the region and theknowledge and stereotype of it. So, the region has to have interesting properties and ideally be an attractive placeto visitors and supported by a label or a brand which visible throughout the whole supply chain.While consumer interest in local and small scale production seems to be growing, it is not always backed bydemand. Discrepancies exist between attitudes and action, between what the consumers say and what they buy.Most purchase decisions on horticultural products are made in the store and an increasing share in bigsupermarkets - who are less concerned with product origin than they are with simply stocking SKUs and fulfillingthe requirements of GlobalG.A.P or other certification standards schemes. The competition on the market forhorticultural products is between different labels: supermarkets’ own private brands, regional labels and localproducts, and a few premium branded products sourced from the supplier which best fulfils the requirement at thetime. The store is a gatekeeper and local or regional producers have to struggle to communicate their unique anddesirable properties to the end consumer.Horticultural research has traditionally focused on the needs of growers rather than the desires of consumers. In agrowing market where demand outstripped supply, this approach made sense. As the market situation haschanged - over-production, fierce competition and picky consumers are the norm - only the most efficient andlarge-scale production units can compete by means of price, while others must rely on differentiation. So focus ofhorticultural research should shift from high yield and homogeneity to product innovation, identity and taste. ThisTheme covers the whole supply chain and reflects some of the important work carried out in this field.90


TOPIC 2CONSUMER-DRIVEN SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY CHAINSMANAGEMENTORAL PRESENTATIONS


Oral Presentations of Topic 2Assessment of the visual quality of ornamental plants: comparisonof three methodologies in the case of the rosebushSANTAGOSTINI, Pierre (1) ; LAFFAIRE, Michel (2) ; DEMOTES-MAINARD, Sabine (3,4) ;HUCHÉ-THÉLIER, Lydie (3) ; GUERIN, Vincent (3) ; LEDUC, Nathalie (4) ; BERTHELOOT,Jessica (3) ;SAKR, Soulaiman (2) ; BOUMAZA, Rachid (2) *(1) Agrocampus Ouest, Angers, France(2) Agrocampus Ouest, Institut de Recherche en Horticulture et Semences, SFR 149QUASAV, Angers, France(3) INRA, Institut de Recherche en Horticulture et Semences, SFR 149 QUASAV, Angers,France(4) Université d’Angers, Institut de Recherche en Horticulture et Semences, SFR 149QUASAV, Angers, France* Corresponding author rachid.boumaza@agrocampus-ouest.frQuality is defined by the ISO 8402-1986 standard as “the totality of features and characteristics of a product orservice that bears its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs”. In the agronomic context, the quality of ornamentalplants can be appraised according to several criteria; these may be classified into tolerance to biotic and abioticstresses, development potentialities and aesthetics. This last criterion, aesthetic quality, is quite specific toornamental plants (Heuvelink et al. 2004). Measuring it is necessary for objective studies but remains difficult.Different methods of measurement have been proposed, all of them have been used and developedindependently from one another.These methods can be classified into three groups or methodologies. The first consists of classicalmeasurements of morphological aspects such as the number of flowers, their diameter, leaf dimensions… Thesecond based on methods and tools of the sensory analysis introduced to assess the quality of foods, beverages,cosmetics... was recently adapted to ornamental plants (Boumaza et al., 2009). The third used by theInternational Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV, 1990) in order to assess distinctiveness,homogeneity and stability, is based on morphological characteristics calibrated according to specific varieties. Theobjective of this work is to compare these methodologies to assess some flowering and foliage characteristics ofthe rosebush.Three to six plants from 10 varieties of rosebushes set by UPOV as the standards for flowering and foliage werecultivated for 2 years either in a greenhouse (2009 and 2010) or outdoors (2010 and 2011) in Angers, France.They were measured and photographed once a week during their flowering stages and the photos of the fullbloom plants were submitted to a panel of judges for sensory assessment.The results of the three methodologies of assessment were compared, and then their advantages, disadvantagesand complementarities discussed.ReferencesBoumaza, R., Demotes-Mainard, S., Huché-Thélier, L., & Guérin, V. (2009). Visual characterization of the estheticquality of the rosebush. Journal of Sensory Studies, 24, 774–796.Heuvelink, E., Tijskens, P., & Kang, M.Z. (2004) Modelling Product Quality in Horticulture: an Overview, ActaHorticulturae, 654, 19-30.UPOV (1990). Guidelines for the Conduct of Tests for Distinctness, Homogeneity and Stability. Rose (Rosa L.),UPOV/TG/11/7, International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants, Geneva, Switzerland.92


Oral Presentations of Topic 2Do apple visual characteristics influence trained tasters’perception?SYMONEAUX, Ronan *; MAITRE, Isabelle; CHARLES, Mathilde; MEHINAGIC, EmiraLUNAM Université, SFR 4207 QUASAVGroupe ESA - UPSP GRAPPE, France* r.symoneaux@groupe-esa.comIdentifying sensory key drivers of liking in fruits is important for breeders who need consumers’ insights to adapttheir selections. Texture and flavour have been identified as very important but, what is the weight of appleappearance and/or recognition in perception and then in liking? Could sensory expectations due to fruitappearance modify sensory perception?The present work aims to identify the relative influence of apple appearance versus taste & texture on theperception of eight sensory attributes. Three different cultivars (Granny Smith, Golden Delicious, Gala) wereselected being both well known, very different in colour and in sensory characteristics. Fourteen trained tasterswere asked to describe nine proposals resulting from a complete factorial design with two factors: Appearance(apples’ pictures ) vs. Texture & Flavour (pieces of peeled apples). A panellist tasted, for example, a piece ofpeeled Granny Smith while looking at a picture of an entire Gala presented on a screen. Then he received a pieceof peeled Gala, with a picture of a Gala and so on with the nine possible combinations.Mouth characteristics (texture and flavour) were more important than picture on the sensory perception in mouth.Nevertheless, appearance influence subjects’ perception. For sourness, the interaction between visual and inmouth characteristics was significant (p =0.0274). The Granny pictures modified the perception of acidity in mouthon Golden (sourer) and Granny (less sour). For sweetness, fruity aroma and green apple aroma, the appearanceeffect was almost significant (p ~ 0.12), Granny picture leading to less sour and less fruity perception and a highergreen apple aroma note. Texture attributes were not perceived differently depending on the apple’s pictures.Obtained results showed that impact of appearance are less important than flavour itself. Nevertheless, it couldchange sensory perception of apples since colour or apples’ recognition could generate expectation whichinfluence consumer’s perception. The impact of this effect on consumers liking will have to be verify.In conclusion, well known cultivars as tested let a memorized sensory picture in taster mind which goes oninfluencing perception, even if tasters have been well trained for a long time. This could lead to take moreexperimental cautions to mask cultivars appearance when tasting in the field or in the lab.Keywords: Apple, Conjoint Analysis, Sensory evaluation.93


Oral Presentations of Topic 2Intestinal fermentability of vegetables: methods for evaluating andminimizing digestive discomfortLEROY, Gaëlle (1) *; BATY-JULIEN, Celine (1) ; GRONGNET, Jean-François (2) ; MABEAU,Serge (1)(1) Vegenov-BBV, Sensory and nutritional laboratory, Saint Pol de Léon, France(2) Agrocampus Ouest, INRA UMR SENAH, Dept ALimH, Rennes, France* leroy@vegenov.comArtichoke and cauliflower are emblematic vegetables in Western France. This region is the first producer ofcauliflower and artichoke with respectively 270 000 and 40 000 tons (Cerafel, 2010). Many people are sensitive todigestive discomfort after consumption of these two vegetables, usually due to their high fibre content. A surveyrealised by Vegenov in 2008, on 674 consumers showed that 12% declared suffering from digestive discomfortafter consumption of vegetables. Brassica vegetables were the first cited. This study found also that 22% of nonconsumersof artichoke didn’t consume artichoke because of digestive discomfort. The sensory and nutritionallaboratory of Vegenov has developed a four step project to identify a strategy to limit this disturbance. First, thekind of fibre suspected to cause inconvenience was identified with bibliographic research and we optimized adosage method to determine fibre content. Secondly, we evaluated the different factors having an influence onthe fibre content such as agronomic (varieties, vegetation cycles) and technological factors (storage,preparation,...). Thus, thanks to a better understanding of fibre content changes, it was possible to identifysolutions to limit fibre content and therefore, digestive discomfort. These solutions were tested in a thirdexperiment, using in vitro fermentation, and measurements of the production of gases. As a fourth step, an in vivostudy was performed in order to understand better the effectiveness of these potential solutions on digestivediscomfort perception. We developed methods for assessing intestinal discomfort by measuring the gasproduction (breath hydrogen monitor) and registering the perceptions of the panel during the study (healthquestionnaire). At the end of these studies, we were able propose to producers or industrials better practises toreduce digestive discomfort in people prone to these problems.Keywords: cauliflower, artichoke, fibre, fermentation, gastrointestinal symptoms, in vitro study, in vivo study.94


Oral Presentations of Topic 2Screening the phytochemical composition and antioxidantproperties of fruits: a comparative study of common testingmethodsGOULAS, V. & MANGANARIS, G.A. *Cyprus University of Technology, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and FoodScience, 3603 Lemesos, Cyprus* george.manganaris@cut.ac.cyThe analysis of phytochemical composition of fruits is an important scientific area since it is correlated with theirhealth-promoting properties and may also affect their organoleptic characteristics, such as colour and taste. Dueto the complexity of the bioactive composition of fruits, it is rather difficult to characterize them chemically in onestep. Usually, their study includes the drying and extraction procedures and their phytochemical characterizationwith different approaches: (1) spectrophotometric methodologies, (2) hyphenated techniques (HPLC-UV, LC-MS)or (3) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques. The aim of the present study is to compare differentdrying and extraction methods used in phytochemical analysis and to demonstrate analytical techniques for thedetermination of bioactive content of different classes of phytochemicals in an array of fruits during developmentalstages or postharvest ripening. Indicatively, the selection of the drying and the extraction method are of criticalimportance for the determination of triterpenic acids in olive fruits, while flavonoid content of citrus fruits is highlydepended on the extraction solvent used. Overall, a comparison of different approaches for the determination ofphytochemicals is described. The advantages of the employment of state-of-the art analytical techniques inanalysis of bioactive composition of fruits are also highlighted. In addition, the evaluation of total antioxidantcapacity of fruits by different assays and their correlation with phytochemical composition is discussed.Keywords: bioactive compounds, extract, hyphenated techniques, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, polyphenols,radical scavenging activity, triterpenic acids.95


Oral Presentations of Topic 2Influence of storage conditions and bunch position on green-lifeperiod of bananasPRAEGER, Ulrike (1) *; LINKE, Manfred (1) ; RUX, Guido (1) ; JEDERMANN, Reiner; GEYER,Martin (1)(1)Leibniz-Institut für Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V., Max-Eyth-Allee 100, D-14469 Potsdam,Germany* upraeger@atb-potsdam.deThese investigations are part of the research project „The intelligent container: Linked intelligent objects inlogistics“ with the task to optimize climate control in transport containers for perishable foods. Tropical bananasfor the European market are harvested green-ripe and wrapped in plastic film and paperboard boxes for thetransport by ship during two weeks. Undesirable accelerated fruit ripening and decay in the transport containerscannot be detected until the ware is discharged. One part of the project is to get knowledge of the remainingstorage life after harvest in order to adapt climatic conditions during transport. Therefore a green-life predictionmodel for bananas should be developed taking the storage conditions and the biological variation intoconsideration. ‘Cavendish’ bananas from Dole Fruit Company Inc. grown in Costa Rica in 2011 were used. Aftertransport to Germany fruits from two different bunch positions were exposed to temperatures between 12°C and20°C. The influence of different humidity in the surrounding air was investigated at 18°C. As criteria for definingthe changeover from green-life to the climacteric phase the parameter NDVI (normalized difference vegetationindex) measured with a spectrometer was chosen. An exponential function was found for the relation betweentemperature and green-life period. At 12°C green-life takes about one month after the start of the test, at 20°Cduration of green-life was reduced to 13 days, similar for fruits from upper and lower bunch position. When fruitswere stored in lower humidity chlorophyll loss was accelerated.Additionally the influence of the average temperature during a commercial container transport on ripeningbehavior of bananas was investigated. Therefore in a container for banana shipment from Costa Rica to Europethirty boxes were equipped with temperature loggers. The average temperature during the two-weekmeasurement inside the boxes differed between 15,4 °C and 17,8°C. Ripening behavior after commercialethylene treatment of fruits from these boxes was evaluated to estimate the effect of the varying transporttemperatures at different positions inside the container. Measured parameters were the NDVI and total solublesolids. The varying transport temperatures in the boxes of 2,5 K did not influence the ripening process after theethylene treatment. Due to insufficient air flow in containers between the boxes, ‘hot spots’ might appear withtemperature > 18°C. Probably in this case the ripening of bananas is influenced according to the results about therelation between temperature and green-life period.The project is supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.Key words: banana, green-life, ripening, normalized difference vegetation index, container transport.96


Oral Presentations of Topic 2Harvesting quality, where to start?TIJSKENS, LMM (1) *; SCHOUTEN, RE (1) ; WALSH, KB (2) ; ZADRAVEC, P (3) ; UNUK, T (4) ;JACOB, S (5) ; OKELLO, RCO (1)(1) Wageningen University & Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands(2) Plant Sciences Group, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Qld. 4702, Australia(3) Fruit Growing Centre Maribor, Slovenia(4) University of Maribor, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Maribor, Slovenia(5) Dept. of Science & Humanities, Toc H Institute of Science & Technology, Kochi, India* pol.tijskens@wur.nlQuality criteria for growing are not the same as quality criteria in the postharvest supply chain. Growers areprimarily concerned with mass and appearance, while consumers and retailers are mostly concerned with tasteand appearance. That makes it difficult to optimise the entire supply chain. It also blocks the optimisation of foodproduction with respect to eating quality, the research of these aspects and the development of proper measuringsystems, all leading to the fact that there is hardly any useful information available on the mechanisms andkinetics during growth of quality related compounds and aspects (like size, volume, dry matter, sugars, acids).In this lecture, a compilation will be made of the results and data of several independent studies. Size increase inapples (expressed as diameter) of 4 apple cultivars in 5 seasons during about 120 days before harvest, could beanalysed with a simple first order production reaction. All variation in diameter among individual fruit could beattributed to the same origin (development stage), with explained parts (R 2 adj) well over 98%. The same generalbehaviour of diameter was observed in growing tomatoes (2 cultivars, 2 temperatures). The same simplemechanism could be applied to these (destructively measured) data with R 2 adj of about 90%.When converted into volume (assuming a perfect sphere), the usually observed asymmetrical sigmoidalbehaviour is obtained. This sigmoidal behaviour is also observed in the accumulation of DM, as measured withNIR technology in growing mangoes. These data could be analysed including the variation between individual fruit(R 2 adj well over 90%). Accumulation of DM ends at harvest, so the mechanism of DM production can very welldefine the final level of DM obtained in harvested fruit.Sugars and DM are strongly related (e.g. Brix values). So a very similar mechanism could govern theproduction/accumulation of sugars. Destructively measured sugar and acid data were collected in nectarines,showing indeed a very similar overall behaviour and variation.By lack of suitable mechanistic ideas at that time, these data were not yet analysed.Combining information or data on very different compounds and aspects of very different fruit types and researchsetups, a general overall picture emerges that may lead to a generic possibility to optimise the entire horticulturalsupply chain with respect to eating quality.97


Oral Presentations of Topic 2Non-invasive analysis of calcium oxalate druses distribution in rosepeduncles by synchrotron X-ray micro-tomographyMATSUSHIMA, Uzuki (1) ; HILGER, André (2) ; GRAF, Wolfgang (3) (5) ; ZABLER, Simon (4) ;MANKE, Ingo (2) ; DAWSON, Martin (6) ; CHOINKA, Gerard (2) ; HERPPICH, Werner B. (3) *(1)Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, Japan(2)SF3, Helmholtz Center Berlin for Materials and Energy, Germany(3)Deptartment of Horticultural Engineering, Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim, Germany(4)Institute for Physics and Astronomy – Chair for X-ray microscopy, Julius-Maximillians UniversitätWürzburg, Germany(5)KTBL, Darmstadt, Germany(6)University of Salford, Salford, UK* Corresponding author wherppich@atb-potsdam.deComprehensive knowledge of plant microstructures and their variations is essential to understanding themechanisms underlying postharvest quality changes of horticultural products. In this study, phase-contrastcomputed microtomography (CT) using synchrotron X-radiation was applied to non-invasively investigate theinner structure of peduncles of samples of three rose cultivars that differ greatly in their bent-neck resistance and,hence, shelf life. Due to its high resolution, synchrotron x-ray tomography can be used to study tissues – andeven individual cells – without physically interfering with the product.In 3-D CT images of peduncle samples of all cultivars, numbers of small spherical particles with x-ray attenuationmuch higher than that of cell cytoplasm were observed. These particles were smaller than parenchyma cells andvessel elements, and were mainly scattered in the cortex tissue but were also present less abundantly betweenvascular bundles. The X-ray attenuation patterns reflect the high density of these crystalline, biomineral particles.Microscopic evaluation of concomitantly prepared fresh-cut slices clearly indentified these particles as calciumoxalate crystals, which, due to their shape and sizes, can be determined as calcium oxalate druses.Because CaOx crystals are known to serve as structural support, it is assumed that a high density of thesecrystals may positively affect the mechanical strength of stem tissues, thus reducing their bent-neck susceptibility.Although distribution patterns of CaOx crystals, relative radial druse densities and CaOx crystal size differedgreatly in peduncles of the three rose cultivars investigated, these parameters did not correlate with directmeasurements of tissue strength. Further, no clear-cut relationship between distribution pattern, radial distributiondensity and size of CaOx crystals could be deduced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on thein-situ distribution of calcium oxalate crystals in rose peduncles.Keywords: Druse, bent-neck, edge-enhancement, functional plant anatomy, mechanical strength, cut flower.98


Oral Presentations of Topic 2Biospeckle – the application for evaluation of fruits and vegetablesZDUNEK, ArturDepartment of Microstructure and Mechanics of Biomaterials,Institute of Agrophysics,Polish Academy of Sciences,Doswiadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin, Polanda.zdunek@ipan.lublin.plQuality of fruit and vegetables is a multi-attribute property consisting of texture, appearance, taste and nutritionalvalues. Hence, plenty of instrumental techniques are used for evaluation of quality. Since the fruits andvegetables are very perishable for storage nondestructive methods are considered as the most useful formonitoring and testing their quality.When a coherent laser illuminates a rough surface, the scattered light exhibits mutual interference and formsrandomly distributed bright and dark spots of variable shapes called speckle pattern. When the laser coherentlight impinges on the surface of biological material, it can pass through one or more layers (for example: airspace, skin, cell walls), each of them will act as a stationary diffuser. If particles within the biological material arein motion, the speckle pattern exhibits spatial and temporal fluctuations and is said to “boil” or “twinkle”. Thisphenomenon is called biospeckle. Activity of “boiling”, so called biospeckle activity, evaluation or dynamic, can beused as an indicator of biological state of a material. The biospeckle activity is interpreted as a result of motion ofintracellular organelles and particles.The objective of this work is to review recent applications of relatively new technique for nondestructive evaluationof various biological objects including fruits and vegetables. This will be presented mainly on apples as the modelbiological system. Results of experiments considering shelf-life effect, chlorophyll content, starch content,temperature and pathogen infections will be presented and discussed.Key words: biospeckle, apple, chlorophyll, starch, temperature, bull’s eye rot.99


Oral Presentations of Topic 2Predicting rose vase life in a supply chainVAN MEETEREN, Uulke (1) *, SCHOUTEN, Rob (1) & WOLTERING, Ernst(1)Wageningen University, Horticultural Supply Chains Group, P.O. Box 630, 6700 AP Wageningen,The Netherlands(2)Wageningen UR, Food & Biobased Research, P.O. Box 17 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands* uulke.vanmeeteren@wur.nl(1) (2)An important qualityattribute of cut flowers is their vase life.With increasing market globalization, the vase life ismore and more affected by transport and storage. However, techniques to measure the potential vase life at thepoint of sale in the chain are not available at this moment. Therefore, simulation models that can predict vase lifebased on temperature and time, as measured by data loggers, could be very valuable. Moreover, such simulationmodels could be used for scenario studies to investigate quality critical control points. A previously publishedsimulation model, based on data from literature, was validated for cut rose flowers using data of a vase lifeexperiment with flowers stored at 1, 5, 8 and 12 °C for periods varying between 2 and 39 days. The experimentalsetup was designed to exclude the occurrence of Botrytis and water uptake problems due to bacteria as much aspossible. The experimentally obtained vase life data confirmed that the relationship between temperature and lossof vase life during storage could very well be described by a sigmoidal curve. The predicted vase life applying thesimulation model correlated very well to the measured vase life. However, the vase life after long storage wasunderestimated; this could be improved by adapting only one parameter of the modelfor the specific cultivarcalculated fromthe vase life of fresh cut flowers without storage. Also a linear temperature sum model was tested.The temperature sum-model gave acceptable outcomes within narrow temperature and storage period ranges,but largely overestimated vase life of flowers with short remaining vase lives. Besides non-linear effects oftemperature on the rate of vase life-loss, this was largely due to the non-linear effect of the length of the storageperiod.Keywords: storage, temperature, senescence rate, vase life, simulation, modelling, temperature sum, cut flower.100


Oral Presentations of Topic 2Emerging trends and market drivers in the fruit sectorABATE KASSA, GetachewDepartment of Economics of Farming, Technische Universität MünchenGermanygetachew.abate@tum.deGlobal food consumption is in a state of constant change. Consumers are increasingly expanding their fooddemand horizons and are embracing sophisticated new food products. As a result, businesses in the agri-foodsector are facing increasing competition and markets that demand more frequent innovation and higher qualityproducts and services. The solutions to these challenges have, however, a tendency to stick to traditionaleconomic approaches that mainly focus on cost and productivity measures or simply to changing someone else(e.g., customers, government, competitors) rather than change what the industry/sector is doing. There are alsoblurred lines between threats and internal weaknesses that made it difficult in seeking solutions.Fundamental to future business successes in this fast-paced food system is to fully grasp contemporary foodconsumption patterns, their driving forces and growth opportunities that exist inside and outside the box. Futureindustry growth in the fruit sector will primarily come from product innovations. Successful product innovationstarts and ends with consumers purchasing something they want and need. So, producers and businesses withinthe fruit sector can raise gains from sales by adapting their ideas, technologies and resources to the everchangingconsumer wants, needs and perceptions.The food and beverage industry has seen significant product development and market innovations in recentyears. In the past three years, nearly 400,000 new food and beverage products have been introduced in theglobal marketplace. The present paper will discuss and analyze (1) new product introductions and innovations, (2)key demand drivers and consumption patterns, and (3) future trends and opportunities that affect thedevelopment and introduction of new products in the fruit sector. The analyses use data on recent productintroductions as well as consumer report data and information within the sector. The results will highlight futureproduct development opportunities and their potential implications, which can be used as a basis to formulateinnovation strategies considering socio-economic and geographic differences.Keywords: market drivers, fruit sector, emerging trends.101


Oral Presentations of Topic 2Satisfied customers – A precondition for successful enterprisesSCHÖPS, JohannaHochschule Weihenstephan-Triesdorf, University of Applied SciencesFreising, Germanyjohanna.schoeps@hswt.deThe German market for horticultural products is undergoing structural changes. While do-ityourself- stores andgarden centers have continuously been gaining market shares within the last years, small and medium-sizedenterprises need to find niche strategies in order to stay competitive. Therefore, traditional horticultural retailstores might have to highlight their potential distinctive features such as uniqueness or a high level of customerorientation.Customer satisfaction has thus become a strategic imperative for many enterprises, since delighted consumersbuy again, practice positive word of mouth and tend to be loyal to the firm.A research project conducted in Bavaria (Southern Germany) tries to gather information concerning buyingbehaviour as well as the level of satisfaction with relevant purchase criteria such as plant quality, buyingatmosphere and expert advice. Within 2009, the data of 4200 customers of 41 small and medium-sizedhorticultural enterprises was collected via a written, standardised questionnaire.Statistical analysis has been conducted using SPSS and SmartPLS in order to identify drivers for satisfaction.Via structural equation modeling, the influence of various purchase criteria, sociodemographic attributes, level ofstaff satisfaction and the amount of customer orientation on customer satisfaction is demonstrated. For example,a good price-performance ratio, friendly and available personnel or an attractive store atmosphere lead to a highlevel of satisfaction.A conducted group comparison shows that the satisfaction rating differs significantly depending on age, level ofeducation, gender or amount of expenses for horticultural products.Keywords: Customer Satisfaction, buying behavior, performance parameters, customer heterogeneity, groupcomparison.102


Oral Presentations of Topic 2A House of Quality for strengthening consumer orientation inapplied research for sustainable horticultureBERTSCHINGER, Lukas (1) * & CORELLI-GRAPPADELLI, Luca (2)(1) Research Station Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil ACW, CH-8820 Wädenswil, Switzerland(2)Dipartimento di Colture Arboree, Alma Mater Studiorum,Università di Bologna, Italy* lukas.bertschinger@acw.admin.chAgriculture must meet market needs nowadays more than ever. While governments haves supported aproduction-focused view of agriculture in the last century, market-orientation is nowadays the principal driver ofthe production chain, particularly in horticulture. Consumer-orientation has become a key element for asustainable agricultural sector, considered to be part of the social element in the tripartite sustainability concept oreven a new forth element. R&D is an essential driver of innovation on the horticultural food chain. The question is,how can consumer-orientation be addressed by horticultural science, which by tradition draws on researchconcepts based on natural sciences and production-oriented R&D?Based on industrial market research concepts, a so-called science-based House of Quality has been developedby researchers from natural and social sciences, that allows to identify the essential questions to be addressed byproduction R&D for fostering consumer-orientation of new production technologies. In the meantime, this alsoaffords the social sciences an understanding of the principles of technologies behind high quality food products.The tool has been developed in a truly interdisciplinary exercise by specialists in R&D in favour of top quality fruitand social scientists addressing the food sector (see www.vasco-da-gama.org). This House of Quality isparticularly suitable for the fruit sector, but can be adapted to any horticultural food producing sector.The House of Quality is a concept which deserves constant improvement, simplification and adaptation to newemerging market and environmental realities. The concept seems particularly useful for novel fruit and foodproducts involving public and private R&D for developing convenience food products matching the needs ofmodern societies. The House of Quality is ready for being applied to the horticultural production, conservation andtransformation chain to support demand-driven innovation. Case studies needed!103


TOPIC 2CONSUMER-DRIVEN SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY CHAINSMANAGEMENTPOSTER PRESENTATIONS


Posters of Topic 2The influence of growth conditions on the yield, chemicalcomposition and sensory quality of tomato fruit in greenhousecultivationGAJC-WOLSKA, Janina *; KOWALCZYK, Katarzyna; MARCINKOWSKA, Monika;RADZANOWSKA, JadwigaDepartment of Vegetable and Medicinal PlantsWarsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Poland* janina_gajc_wolska@sggw.plTomato fruits are a very popular vegetable, the source of many nutritional components with antioxidant capacity.Nowadays, the increasing consumption of fresh vegetables containing bioactive compounds and consumers’acceptance of the product are very important.The aim of the study was the assessment of yielding, chemical composition and sensory attributes of tomato fruitsin relation to growing medium, grafting and harvest time.The plants of tomato of Admiro F 1 cultivar grafted and not grafted was grown in the years 2010-2011 in thegreenhouse with controlled climate and drip fertilizing system, in two different growing media. Organic media -coconut fiber was compared to mineral wool slabs. The quality traits that mostly differentiated tomato fruits werethe harvest time and to the lesser level the medium quality. Tomatoes harvested in July had a higher solublesolids, sugar content and received a higher sensory evaluation than those harvested in September. The highercontent of phosphorus, potassium and calcium were obtained in tomato fruit harvested in July in comparison withthe fruit harvested in September.The sugars to acids ratio was the highest in fruits grown on coconut fiber in the summer time of harvest. The fruitsharvested in June obtained higher notes of particular determinants of sensory analysis such as: juiciness of flesh,tomato flavor, typical smell tomato, and overall quality.Keywords: grafting, coconut fiber, mineral wool slab, quality traits.Management of fruit presentation in sensory evaluation of applesfor more reliable resultsBAVAY, Cecile *; SYMONEAUX, Ronan; MAITRE, Isabelle; MEHINAGIC, EmiraLUNAM Université, Groupe ESA, UPSP GRAPPE, France* c.bavay@groupe-esa.comSensory evaluation is a complete tool for quality management as it allows the assessment of the global quality offruit and vegetables. This tool is used for detection of very sensitive differences between close varieties or evenclones by growers, retailers and industries. It is therefore of great importance to master the methodology toprovide reliable results.Despite the training process of a panel, data resulting from sensory profiling of fruit present a large variability. It isdue to both individual differences between assessors and fruit heterogeneity. Indeed, fruit varies depending ondifferent physiological and environmental factors. Even different parts of the same fruit may vary. Besides, dataprocessing misses in separating product variability and panel lack of homogeneity. One of the ways to improvethe consensus between assessors and their global performance is to reduce sample heterogeneity using anadequate sampling method.The objectives of the present study were to measure, for three different apple varieties, the impact of variability oftasted fruit on the reliability of sensory profiles results (i.e. panel performances and dispersion of the results) andto develop a suitable sampling method for heterogeneous raw material. For this purpose, three sampling methodswere applied to simulate a decreasing intra-variability of the tasted sample: an apple per assessor (M1), an applefor four assessors (M2) and an apple for eight assessors (M3). So, the number of apples tasted for the fourreplicates and 15 assessors was respectively 60, 16 and 8. For all methods, each assessor was presented with a106


Posters of Topic 2slice of apple (1/8 of apple). Prior to sampling of apples, stiffness index was measured by acoustic method to tendto similar mean characteristics of tasted batches.Results show that methods M2 and M3 lead to better performances than method M1: higher agreement betweenassessors and better discrimination of varieties. Moreover the variability of sensory scores decreases with methodM2 and M3. Besides, reproducibility is better with method M2 than method M3. This results show that samplepresentation has an impact on reliability of sensory results. In this case, method M2 seems to best respond to ourobjective.Sensotyping: a sensory methodology to assess organoleptic traitsof large number of apple samplesSYMONEAUX, Ronan (1) *; BRUNEAU, Maryline; ROBIC, Rolland (2) ; LAURENS, François (2)(1)LUNAM Université, SFR 4207 QUASAV, Groupe ESA, UPSP GRAPPE, France(2)INRA, IRHS-Institut de Recherche en Horticulture et Semences (INRA, Agrocampus-Ouest,Université d’Angers), SFR 4207 QUASAV, Beaucouzé, France* r.symoneaux@groupe-esa.comApple geneticists and breeders need to get simple tools to sensory characterize the huge number of samples theyhave to evaluate and/or select. Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA®) is the normalized tool for sensoryevaluation but since it requires more than 12 judges at the same time and replicates, it is not well adapted for thispurpose. A fast efficient and precise tool is needed for apple characterization.A methodology based on the consensus between four judges, trained together on a large apple sensory spacehas been developed at INRA-IRHS-Angers. This training step is important to assure the consistency betweentasters and the same understanding of each attribute. Specific apple cultivars were selected as references foreach attribute. After this step, 126 batches of apple from INRA-IRHS were tasted three times by the four trainedtasters on nine attributes. For this experimentation, each taster worked first alone evaluating a piece of apple,then a first consensus has been reached two by two and then each couple looked for a consensus with the othercouple. All attributes were noted on a 9-point scale.Results indicated that for all attributes except Juiciness, Sourness and Sweetness, the whole scale was used.The interval between individual notes given by the four tasters was very low, indicating a good agreementbetween them for the 328 tasted apples (126 x3). ANOVA and Multidimensionnal Analysis (PCA and MFA) weredone to evaluate performance of the group and pertinence of the consensus note. They indicated that despitesome nuances observed between judges, the consensus note is discriminant and pertinent for applecharacterization.This faster methodology is well adapted to evaluate a high number of batches. The use of a consensus betweenfour judges is interesting in order to reduce the impact of discrepancies or loss of concentration which can happenafter tasting too many fruits per day . It could also be a source of motivation for tasters not working alone, whenthey have so many batches to characterize.Comparison of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids content in virgin olive oilsfrom Italian olive varietiesROMANO, Elvira; BENINCASA, Cinzia; PATARINO, Alba; GRECO, Federica;PELLEGRINO, Massimiliano; PERRI, Enzo & MUZZALUPO, Innocenzo *Agricultural Research Council - Olive growing and oil industry research centre (CRA-OLI) 87036Rende (CS), Italy, phone +3909844052208* innocenzo.muzzalupo@entecra.it107


Posters of Topic 2ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids which cannot be synthesized de novo in the human body. For thisreason they must be obtained from food. ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids play a crucial role in function as well as innormal growth and development of animal tissues. ω-3 fatty acids help to reduce inflammation by balancing thepro-inflammatory action of some ω-6 fatty acids. The importance to maintain an appropriate ω-3 / ω-6 fatty acidsratio in the diet has been repeatedly emphasized as a correct balance of these two classes of substances doinfluence health status. A healthy diet should consist of roughly one to four times more ω-6 fatty acids than ω-3fatty acids.The typical modern diet tends to contain 11 to 30 times more ω-6 fatty acids than ω-3 fatty acids and manyresearchers believe this imbalance is a significant factor in the rising rate of inflammatory disorders. In contrast,the traditional Mediterranean diet consists of a healthier balance between ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids and manystudies have shown that people who follow this diet are less likely to develop heart disease.The Mediterranean diet does not include much meat (high in ω-6 fatty acids) while preferring foods rich in ω-3fatty acids such as fresh fruits and vegetables, fish and, although at lower level, olive oil. α-linolenic acid isprecursor of all ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids class, whose most important members are eicosapentaenoic acidand docosahexaenoic acid. The recommended nutritional intake of α-linolenic acid for an adult male is 1-3 gramsper day. In many EU populations intake of both α-linolenic acid and other long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 is typically low, as compared to the recommended amount.In the present work, in order to propose extra virgin olive oils as a valuable dietary source of α-linolenic acid, wereport the preliminary results of an investigation aiming at assess the content of α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid andlinoleic/linolenic acid ratio in single cultivar Italian olive oils.Acknowledgments. This research was supported by OLIOPIU’ and CERTOLIO Projects.Keywords: α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, essential fatty acids, Mediterranean diet.Total phenol content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP) of Urticadioica leaf extractsKOCZKA, Noémi (1) *; PÉTERSZ, Dóra (1) ; STEFANOVITS-BÁNYAI, Éva (2)(1) Institute of Horticultural Technology, Szent Istvan University Godollo, Hungary(2)Department of Applied Chemistry, Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary* Koczka.Noemi@mkk.szie.huThe aim of our investigations was to compare the total phenol content and antioxidant capacity of nettle (Urticadioica L.) leaf extracts of different origin. Plant materials were collected in two Hungarian cities, Gödöllö and Paks.At both cities three collection places were marked: a meadow near the city, an edge of a ditch in the city and afield along a roadway near the city. Samples were formed from 10 subsamples each collected from a 1 m 2 area.Plant material was harvested in July of two consecutive years and dried at 30°C. Samples were compared tocommercial teas (drug from the pharmacy, teas from conventional and organic collection) also originating fromcollection of wild populations.Extracts were prepared from 1 g of dried leaves which were infused with 100 ml boiling water and also withaqueous ethanol (25°C; water/ethanol 80/20, v/v). The ethanolic and and the aqeous extracts were stored at roomtemperature for 72 and for 24 h, respectively. After centrifugation (13000 rpm, 10 min), the supernatants wereanalysed.Total phenol content was measured using the method of Singleton and Rossi. For determining the antioxidantcapacity the FRAP method was used.Values of the total phenol content ranged between 0,93 and 2,38 mg/l in aqueous extracts, and between 0,96 and1,99 mg/l in ethanolic extracts. The highest phenol content was measured in aqueous extract of a commercial tea.In the case of ethanolic extracts the highest phenol content could be detected in the sample from along theroadway and the lowest value in the leaf extracts from a ditch. There were differences in phenol content betweenthe samples of the two cities, nettle samples collected from Gödöllö had higher values.The antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in the aqueous extracts than in the ethanolic extracts. In thecase of aqueous extracts the tea from ecological collection had the highest antioxidant capacity (0,91 mMascorbic acid (AA) /l in aqueous and 0,53 mM AA/l in ethanolic extracts). The sample from the meadow near cityPaks showed the lowest antioxidant capacity (0,40 and 0,20 mM AA/l, respectively).According to these results the place of the collection has a significant effect on the pharmacological values of thedrugs.Keywords: nettle, wild medicinal plant, FRAP, place of collection.108


Posters of Topic 2Chemical and antioxidant properties of fully matured raspberryfruits (Rubus idaeus L.) picked in different moments of harvestingseasonMILETIĆ, Nemanja *; LEPOSAVIĆ, Aleksandar; POPOVIĆ, Branko; MITROVIĆ, Olga;KANDIĆ, MiodragDepartment for Fruit Processing Technology, Fruit Research InstituteKralja Petra I/9, 32000 Čačak, Serbia* n.m.miletic@gmail.comRed raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) are economically important berry crop that contains numerous bioactivecompounds and natural antioxidants with a high free radical scavenging capacity.In Serbia, raspberries are produced on approximately 13.500 ha and production is varying between 60.000 and94.366 t per year. The main production is taking place in the region of Western Serbia in well-known growingareas (of the region of Arilje, Šabac, Valjevo, Podrinje, etc.).Fruits of the most abundant raspberry cultivars in Serbia (’Willamette’ and ’Meeker’) were collected from acommercial orchard established in 2007 in Lipolist, the village situated in Šabac growing area, Serbia. Theraspberry harvest season for cvs ’Willamette’ and ’Meeker’ lasts around 30 days. Given that the raspberry fruitsripen successively, the harvest of fully matured fruits is conducted on several occasions. Therefore, raspberrysamples were harvested from each variety at nearly 2-weeks intervals throughout the harvest season (earlyseason, middle season, late season), from early-June to mid-July in 2010. Raspberry samples of similar fruits(size, color, and with no mechanical injures or disease indications) were randomly selected at each samplingdate, and further analyzed for main phenolics and antioxidant capacity.Using high-performance liquid chromatography, in all samples high content of ellagic acid (from 27,5 to 29,2mg/100 g fw for ‘Willamette’; from 21,0 to 25,1 mg/100 g fw for ‘Meeker’) and cyanidin (from 38,7 to 43,2 mg/100g fw for ‘Willamette’; from 21,3 to 30,4 mg/100 g fw for ‘Meeker’) were determined. Significant amounts ofpelargonidin (up to 5,1 mg/100 g fw), gallic acid (up to 6,1 mg/100 g fw), quercetin (up to 1,1 mg/100 g fw), andapigenin (up to 0,47 mg/100 g fw) were also detected in all samples. In general, contents of apigenin, quercetin,ellagic acid and cyanidin were higher in fruits of ‘Willamette’ than that of fruits of ‘Meeker’. On the other hand,gallic acid and pelargonidin are more abundant in fruits of ‘Meeker’.In fruits of ‘Willamette’ and ‘Meeker’, the concentrations of main phenolics, and consequently the totalanthocyanin, total flavonoid and total phenolic contents, significantly change during harvest season.Determination of antioxidant capacity of all raspberry samples revealed a significant influence of picking momentsduring harvest season. Furthermore, no significant correspondance between antioxidant capacity and totalanthocyanin content was evidenced. On the other hand, an increase in antioxidant capacity corresponds to theincrease in the total flavonoid and total phenolic contents.Keywords: raspberry, Willamette, Meeker, antioxidant capacity, HPLC-DAD.Does a reduced water supply influence health-promotingcompounds in kale?HENKELÜDEKE, Luise; EICHHOLZ, Ines; ULRICHS, Christian *; HUYSKENS-KEIL, SusanneHumboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Division Urban Plant Ecophysiology, Lentzeallee 55/57, 14195 Berlin,Germany* christian.ulrichs@agrar.hu-berlin.deKale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica L.) is known to reveal high contents of health promoting compounds, likecarotenoids, polyphenols, flavonoids, and glucosinolates. Therefore, kale became more popular in the past years.109


Posters of Topic 2Secondary plant metabolites, e.g. carotenoids and phenols act as antioxidants and play an important role inabiotic and biotic plant defense mechanisms.Climate change and the problem of drought are getting a solemn issue worldwide. Combined with low waterholding capacities of sandy soils, drought stress becomes a serious problem also in Germany, leading to loss ofyield and quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate plant responses of kale to reduced water supplyduring production and its influence on primary and secondary health-promoting compounds.Two different kale cultivars, ‘Winterbor’ and ‘Lerchenzunge’ were subjected to three different water regimes, i.e.25% water field capacity (water-deficit), 45% (well-watered), 65% (water-logged) starting three weeks beforeharvest. After harvest, analysis of carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, and proline was conducted.The results showed that the two cultivars differed in their reactions, which might be due to their genetic profile.Contents of carotenoids and phenol were higher in ‘Lerchenzunge’ in comparison to ‘Winterbor’. ‘Lerchenzunge’belongs to the old varieties of kales. Recently, old species and varieties became more popular, because theycontain high contents of nutritional valuable compounds, and to a certain extent they reveal higher resistance toabiotic and biotic stressors.In terms of yield parameters, plants had a higher plant weight and were morphologically stronger when grownunder water-logged conditions compared to plants grown under drought stress. Carotenoid content was higher inplants grown under water-logged conditions. In contrast, the lowest content was found in drought stress plantswhich might assume that energy supply under stress is transferred to the synthesis of other metabolites. Resultson phenolic compounds showed contrary results, i.e. high content of phenolic compounds was found in kalegrown under drought stress. In general, soil flooding as well as drought leads to an increase of proline in plants.Due to the fact that osmotic stress results in an increase of proline biosynthesis, both treatments (water-deficitand water-logged) led to a stress-induced reaction of kale.In conclusion, plants responded differently to the different stressors in terms of their secondary plant compoundsbeing synthesized. Drought stress mediated a reduced carotenoid synthesis and accelerated phenolaccumulation, while water-logging led to a decline in phenolic compounds and increased carotenoid content.Anthocyanins and antioxidant activity from Oleaeuropea olives cv.Cellina grown in Sud ItalyNEGRO, Carmine; APRILE, Alessio; DE BELLIS, Luigi; MICELI, Antonio *Di.S.Te.B.A., Università del Salento, Lecce, Italy* antonio.miceli@unisalento.itOlea europea is an emblematic species and one of the most widespread and economic fruittrees in theMediterranean region. Olive and its products are fundamental ingredients of the Mediterranean diet, whichprovide numerous health benefits. These properties have been largely attributed to the antioxidant activity of thepolyphenols present in olive fruitandoil. Phenolic compounds are of great importance also for other characteristicsof the olive fruit such as colour, taste, texture, antimicrobial property. Several phenols have been identified intable olives including oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, quercetin, rutin, caffeicand coumaric acids, ecc. Olivephenolics composition is highly variable in relation of several factors: cultivar, processing methods, irrigationregimes and in particular the ripening. During this process remarkable changes have been observed in phenoliccomposition. Although the antioxidant property of oil olive has been constantly reported, the properties of tableolives phenols have not particularly studied. Additionally, there are no reports about the phenolic and antioxidantprofile of field grown olive cultivar of Sud Italy origin. So, in this work we report for the first time, the phenolcontent and the antioxidant activity of olive fruits from a cultivar largely cultived in Sud Italy (SudApulia), the“Cellina di Nardò”. These table olives are harvested full ripe, naturally black because of anthocyansaccumulation.Different ripening stages were analysed: “0”- olives totally green; “1”- olives with skin partially black anduncoloured pulp; “2”- olives with skin completely black and pulp yellow; “3”-olives ripe with skin and pulp totallyblack. Total Phenols (TP) content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteau method and reported as gallic acidequivalents and HPLC/DAD/MS was used for the anthocyaninscharacterization. Antioxidant activity (AA) wasdetermined by DPPH, ORAC andO 2 superoxide method.Data show that during the ripe, TP increase until to 100%(stage 3); anthocyanins were present only in olive ripe(stage 2 and 3) up to 5.3 g/kg dry pulp. AA wasalwaysdetermined in all the ripening stages but it was (with the three methods) particularly in the olive fruits totally blackwhere the TP and anthocyanins amount were very high. Therefore, “Cellina di Nardo” fruitsare a source ofimportant bioactive compounds which can contribute to the stress oxidation prevention.Keywords: Olea europea, olives, anthocyanins, antioxidant activity.110


Posters of Topic 2Nutraceutic properties of multiberries grown in Sud Italy (Apulia)NEGRO, Carmine; DE BELLIS, Luigi; MICELI, Antonio *Di.S.Te.B.A., Università del Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100-Lecce, Italy* antonio.miceli@unisalento.itThe multiberrybelongs to the genusMorusof thefamilyMoraceaewhichincludes10-24 species, with al least 100knownvarieties. The most important species are Morusalba, with fruit colours ranging from white to dark red, andMorusnigra with mainly dark red fruits;both species have excellent productions in Mediterranean climate areas.The fruits can be consumed fresh, in the form of a cold drink as well as in different confectionery products and formedical or cosmetic purposes. Recently,there bas been increasing interest towards multiberries especially for theanthocyanins content. Anthocyanins are flavonoids responsible for the colour of flowers, fruits, vegetables andseveral biological activities, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antiviral effects and for their potential role inthe cancers and cardiovascular disease prevention. In this investigation, two local varieties of Morus alba (cv.Legittimonero and cv. Nello)and one of Morusnigra were characterized for content in simple sugars, organicacids, phenols, anthocyanins;fruit antioxidant activity (AA) was evaluated by three different methods (DPPH,ABTS and FRAP test).The results obtained show that the sugars amount ranged between 6 and 76 g/100 g freshweight (FW) while the malic and citric acids content was low, about 0.1-1 g/100 g FW. Multiberries are a goodsource of phenols with higher values in M. nigraand M. alba cv. Legittimo nero (485 and 424 mg GAE/ 100 g FW,respectively). The HPLC/DAD/MS analysis identifies 5 main antocyanin compounds present in differentconcentrations in each variety of mulberry analysed: Cyanidin 3-5 glucoside,Cianidin 3 glucoside,Cyanidin3rutinoside, Pelargonidin 3 glucoside, Pelargonidin 3 rutinoside. The highest concentration ofantocyanins was determined in MorusalbaLegittimo (303 mg/100 g FW) while the lowest content (about 25mg/100 g FW) was measured in M. alba cv. Legittimo nero. Morusnigra showed a good AA in comparison with thedifferent fruit cultivars with all the used methods; its AA was equal 33, 26 and 21 μmolsTrolox/g using DPPH,ABTS and FRAP test, respectively. These data indicate that this “minor” fruit represent an excellent source ofantioxidants and could have important applications in the food industry both as a natural dyer as well as nutraceticingredient.Keywords: Multiberry, Morus alba, Morus nigra, anthocyanins, antioxidant activity.Characterisation of local ecotypes of purple carrots growing in SudItaly (Apulia)MICELI, Antonio *; DE BELLIS, Luigi; NEGRO, CarmineDi.S.Te.B.A., Università del Salento, Italy* antonio.miceli@unisalento.itCarrots constitute a valuable source of health-promoting ingredients such dietary fiber, carotenes, anthocyaninsand thus are important in human nutrition. They are principally consumed fresh or processed into juice, syrup,ecc. Orange carrots account for the majority of this crop, whereas purple or black carrots are not well known inthe western world, even though they are traditionally cultivated and consumed in oriental countries and in the FarEast. Nowadays, purple and black carrots are increasing popularity as a possible source of anthocyanins,pigments interesting for natural colorants and for health properties. Anthocyanins represent a class of importantantioxidant and they may have a potential effects in reducing the risk of cardiovascular and cancers, antiinflammatoryand chemoprotective properties.In this work three ecotypes of purple carrots from different sites of the Apulia were characterised for their contentin simple sugars, carotenoids, anthocyanins and total antioxidant activity (AA).Simple sugars were determined by a enzymatic-spectrophometric method, carotenoids and anthocyanins werequantified and identified by HPLC/DAD/MS, AA was measured using the DPPH and ABTS tests.The results shown that the sugar amount changed between about 22 and 57 g/100g fresh weight (FW);carotenoids, reported as β-carotene equivalent, ranged between about 4 and 18 g/100 g FW.Anthocyaninscontent peaked of 149 mg/100 g FW and their HPLC/DAD/MS profile showed that different compounds111


Posters of Topic 2characterise the root extracts. Sevencyanidin derivate compounds were identified: cyanidin 3(2”-xylosil-6”glucosilgalattoside),cyanidin 3-(2”-xylosil-galattoside), cyanidin 3(2”-xylosil-6”sinapoyl-glucoside-galattoside), cyanidin3(2”-xylosil-6”feruloyl-glucosil-galattoside);cyanidin3[2”xylosil-6”-(4cumaroil)glucosil-galattoside], cyanidin3(2”xylosil-6”(4-hydroxibenzoil) glucosil-galattoside),cyanidin 3 glucoside.AA, determined by DPPH and ABTS method changed between49-56% and 47-58%, respectively.These results together with the identification of health-promoting component in anthocyanin rich food is veryinteresting in order to increasing the demand of these commodities by consumers and agro-industry, and theymay open new opportunities for use this plant material in different food applications.Keywords: Purple carrot, DPPH, ABTS, anthocyanins, antioxidant activity.Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of white wine andgrape seeds of cv. Riesling (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivated in conditionsof ecological production in SerbiaRANKOVIĆ-VASIĆ, Zorica (1) *; RADOVANOVIĆ, Blaga (2) ; SIVČEV, Branislava (1) ; TODIĆ,Slavica (1) ; BEŠLIĆ, Zoran (1) ; MATIJAŠEVIĆ, Saša (1)(1)University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia* zoricarv@agrif.bg.ac.rs(2)Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Department of Chemistry, Višegradska 33, 18000 Niš, SerbiaQuality of grape and wine is a main request in ecological viticulture. Currently, ecological wines, as processedproducts, can not be distinguished from conventional wines by the usual methods. This paper shows results thephenolic composition and antioxidant activity of Riesling wine and grape seeds. Riesling variety cultivated intransition stage from conventional to ecological growing at the Experimental estate “Radmilovac“ of the Faculty ofAgricultute in Belgrade. During year 2008, conventional production was carried out with standard technology ofcultivation, and it was used as control in analysis. Grape growing according to principles of ecological viticulturewas carried out in 2009 year. The aim of this study was to determine some basic parameters related to the qualityof the wine – pH, alcohol content, total polyphenols, monomeric antocyanins, polymeric color. Determination ofphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity monitorred by a UV/Vis spectrophotometer. The free radicalscavenging activity was analyzed by using 2,2,-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The conventionalproduction in 2008, content of total polyphenols in wine on average were slightly lower (53.6 mg GAL/L)compared to period of conversion (56.8 mg GAL/L). In average content of total polyphenols in grape seeds in2008 was 12.01 mg/g, while in 2009. it was 13.05 mg/g. The investigated white wine show very similar antioxidantbehavior in range from 19.6% in 2008 year to 21.4 % in 2009. year. Grape seeds show a very high DPPH radicalscavenging activity in the range from 94.22% (2008 year) to 95.80% (2009 year), which is correlated with theconcentration of their polyphenols. Results demonstrate that investigated wine and grape seeds extracts containhigh levels of polyphenols and have good potent antioxidant properties.Key words: white wine, grape seeds, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity.Correlation of oleocanthal and oleacein concentration withpungency and bitterness in cv. Koroneiki virgin olive oilDEMOPOULOS, Vasilios (1) ; KARKOULA, Evangelia (2) ; MAGIATIS, Prokopios (2) ; MELLIOU,Eleni (2) ; KOTSIRAS, Anastasios (1) ; MOUROUTOGLOU, Christos (1)(1)Laboratory of Sensory Evaluation of Olive Oil, Technological Educational Institute of Kalamata,Antikalamos, 241 00 Kalamata, Greece(2) Laboratory of Pharmacognosy and Natural Products Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University ofAthens, Panepistimiopolis Zografou, 157 71 Athens, Greece* vdimo@teikal.gr112


Posters of Topic 2Virgin olive oil is characterized by three positive organoleptic attributes: pungency, bitterness and fruitiness.According to the official organoleptic descriptors of the International Olive Council (IOC), the sense of pungency isperceived throughout the mouth cavity and in particular in the throat. Bitterness is perceived in the circumvallatepapillae on the “V” region of the tongue while fruitiness through the back of the nose. Recent research hasdemonstrated that the olive oil secoiridoic phenolic oleocanthal (or p-HPEA-EDA) is a naturally occurring antiinflammatoryand neuroprotective agent, and that it elicits a throat stinging sensation through a specific TRPA1receptor. Oleacein (or 3,4-DHPEA-EDA) is a hydroxytyrosol derivative and is considered as the most powerfulantioxidant in olive oil. Although it differs from oleocanthal only by one more phenolic hydroxyl, organoleptically itis associated more with bitterness and less with pungency. The present study examined the correlations betweenoleocanthal and oleacein concentrations and the intensity of pungent and bitter sensations in a group of 21 virginolive oil samples of the Koroneiki variety coming from a specific geographic region of Greece (Messini). Thequalitative and quantitative determination of the chemical compounds was carried out by a new method based onquantitative 1 H-NMR in CDCl 3 at 600 MHz after extraction of olive oil with acetonitrile. The concentrations of thestudied compounds ranged for oleocanthal between 34.6-154.6 mg/L (mean value 94.5±31.8 mg/L) and foroleacein between 11.5-191.9 mg/L (mean value 63.3±36.1 mg/L). The organoleptic assessment of the sampleswas performed by a trained sensory panel according to the IOC method. The values of the positive attributeswere distributed between 0.40-2.65 (mean value 1.45±0.72) for bitterness, 1.50-3.70 (mean value 2.62±0.56) forpungency and 0.40-3.60 (mean value 2.14±0.82) for fruitiness. The results showed that there is a positivecorrelation (R 2 >0.6) between the concentration of phenolics oleocanthal and oleacein, and the intensity ofpungency and bitterness, suggesting that virgin olive oils with intense organoleptic attributes may offer morehealth benefits. Moreover, a proposal for a new index for describing and quantifying the positive organolepticattributes of virgin olive oils is discussed.Keywords: organoleptic assessment, phenolics, intensity, health benefits.Biological value and antioxidant activity of different types of leafchicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum Bisch.)BIESIADA, Anita; TOMCZAK, Anna; KRĘŻEL, Jan* anita.biesiada@up.wroc.plItalian chicory known also as radicchio is a form of leaf chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum (Hegi.) Bish.).Radicchio constitutes a valuable source of pigments, including relatively seldom occurring carotenoids likezeaxantin and lutein, anthocyanins and bitter substances that have numerous health benefits. These plantscontain considerable amounts of vitamins (A, B 6, K), macro – and microelements (P, K, Zn, Cu or Fe). Fieldexperiment conducted in Department of Horticulture of Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences inthe years 2009–2011 in order to estimate of biological value of different types and cultivars of radicchio grown inclimatic conditions of Lower Silesia. There were tested types and breeding cultivars with red leaves: ‘Palla Rossa3’, ‘Orchidea Rossa’, ‘Rosso di Verona’, ‘Indigo’ and ‘Fidelio’, green – leaf types ‘Grumolo bionda’, ‘Capotta dimantovana’, ’ Pan di Zucchero’, types with purple discoloration of leaves- ‘Rosso di Treviso 2’, ‘Rosso diChioggia’ and with red –spotted leaves ‘Variegato di Castelfranco’. In the third decade of April, 7 – week – oldseedlings, were planted in the field. In radicchio leaves, collected during the harvest (3-5 of July), there weredetermined the following constituents: dry matter, vitamin C, reducing and total sugars, polyphenols, chlorophylls,carotenoids and anthocyanins. Antioxidant activity was estimated according to ABTS and FRAP tests. Analyzedtypes of chicory differed in pigments content in their leaves. The amount of chlorophyll a+b ranged from 45.44(‘Pan di Zucchero’) to 130.77 mg·100g –1 f.m. (‘Rosso di Treviso’), carotenoids from 0.15 (‘Pan di Zucchero’) to0.40 mg·100g –1 f.m. (‘Rosso di Treviso’), while anthocyanins from 0.68 (‘Pan di Zucchero’) to 81.28 mg·100g –1 f.m. (‘Indigo’). Mean value of reducing sugars equaled 1.11 %, and total sugars amounted 1.39 %. Vitamin Ccontent ranged from 3.64 mg·100g –1 to 38.62 mg·100g –1 , the lowest was recorded in chicory types featuringintensive red pigment in leaves. The highest contents of polyphenols were observed in ‘Capotta di mantovana’and ‘Variegato di Castelfranco’ respectively 219.96 and 219.99 mg·100g -1 , the lowest in ‘Pan di Zucchero’(153.64 mg·100g -1 ). The highest antioxidant activity have ‘Capotta di mantovana’ and ‘Variegato di Castelfranco’,respectively 14.39 and 14.23 µmol Trolox ·g -1 according to FRAP test and 9.57 and 9.05 µmol Trolox·g -1 in ABTStest.Key words: radicchio types, vitamin C, pigments, antioxidant activity.113


Posters of Topic 2Phytochemical and physiological response of Origanum vulgare toelevated temperature and water deficitSAKALAUSKAITĖ, Jurga *; VIŠKELIS, Pranas; DAMBRAUSKIENĖ, Edita;SAKALAUSKIENĖ, Sandra; SAMUOLIENĖ, Giedrė; BRAZAITYTĖ, Aušra; DUCHOVSKIS,PavelasInstitute of Horticulture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and ForestryKauno street 30, LT-54333, Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania* j.sakalauskaite@lsdi.ltA common plant acclimation response to a variety of environmental stressors is the accumulation of antioxidantsand secondary metabolites including several compounds that are pharmacologically active and/or nutritionallyimportant. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the physiological changes and biochemical profile of theleaf tissue of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) plants exposed to elevated temperature and water stress. Theexperiment was conducted in growth chambers of controlled environment at the Institute of Horticulture,Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry. Until germination, elevated temperature and waterdeficit treatment, plants were grown in a greenhouse at an average temperature of 18-21 ºC under sunlightpassing through the glass of the greenhouse. Plants at the initial flowering stage were placed for 10 days in oneof the three environments: (1) reference – temperature day/night 21/14 ºC, and normal water level (~40%)substrate, (2) elevated temperature – 30/21 ºC and normal water level (~40%) substrate, (3) elevated temperature– 30/21 ºC and moderate water deficit (~20%) substrate. In growth chambers photoperiod was 16 h. Highpressuresodium lamps (SON-T Agro, Philips) at a PPFD of ~300 µmol/m 2 /s 1 were used for illumination. Substratemoisture content was measured with the “Delta-T Devices” soil moisture meter HH2 and plants were watered witha tap water according to the readings.The results of investigation evidence that elevated temperature and water deficit in substrate significantly inducedthe accumulation of chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids in plant leave as compared to reference one. Elevatedtemperature and a lack of substrate moisture increased the activity of metabolomic system and altered secondarymetabolite level in oregano plants. Phytochemical analysis of the plant leaves indicated that total phenoliccompounds, anthocyanins and DPPH free-radical scavenging capacity in oregano herb were increased as aresult of elevated temperature or elevated temperature and moderate water stress. In the leaf tissues of plantsgrown under higher temperature conditions ascorbic acid content reduced and were significantly lower than thatof the control. Oregano plants exposed to elevated temperature or experienced water deficit subjected toaccumulate a greater content of essential oil. In conclusion, it is apparent that alteration of a specific metaboliteconcentration is possible in oregano plants as elevated temperature or water deficit is applied.Acknowledgement: *Postdoctoral fellowship is being funded by European Union Structural Funds project“Postdoctoral Fellowship Implementation in Lithuania”. The work was carried out within the framework of theprogram “Horticulture: agro-biological basics and technologies”.Keywords: oregano, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidants, essential oil.Processing of leafy salad: microorganisms associated to processwater and produceGRUDÉN, Maria *; ALSANIUS, Beatrix WDepartment of Horticulture, SLU, PO Box 103, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden* magr0003@stud.slu.seFruit and vegetables are important for a healthy diet. Fresh vegetables are highly perishable which becomesparticularly critical in complex supply chains. An excellent example for a high-value product requiring asophisticated production is ready-to-eat salad. Consumers increasingly demand fresh, tasty, and safe kitchenreadysalad mixtures. Horticultural production worldwide is alerted by an increasing number of outbreaks of foodillnesses related to microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables with leafy vegetables as a major vector forenteric contaminants. Contamination may occur during different stages of the farm-to-fork continuum. Failures114


Posters of Topic 2occurring at an early stage of the production chain may not be counteracted in a later stage of the productionchain, i.e. processing.We studied the bacterial colonization of rocket before processing and after bagging as well as raw and processwater quality at different stages during processing under commercial conditions with respect to microorganisms at22 °C, slow growing bacteria, total coliform bacteria, E. coli, intestinal enterococci, as well as Listeriamonocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp.. Samples were collected at four occasions with 3replicates per event. The bacterial load in the process water increased substantially after produce came in contactwith the raw water. Microorganisms at 22 °C and slow growing bacteria exceeded 300000 CFU ml -1 and 50000CFU ml -1 . Also intestinal enterococci were very frequent, in contrast to total coliform bacteria and E. coli. Microbialreduction rate before and after washing was log 0.5. Microbial communities inhabiting the produce before andafter washing as well as the raw and process water were collected and analyzed using DGGE. From thesespecimens, microorganisms were grown on semi-selective media (0.1 TSA, King Agar B, m Enterococci agar,VRBD). Five randomly selected colonies were randomly selected and identified using Biolog GenIII panels.Various Pseudomonas species and Panthoea agglomerans were frequent in the process water. Also thephyllosphere flora before washing was dominated by Panthoea agglomerans. After washing, Panthoeaagglomerans, Rahnella aquatilis and Pseudomonas were abundant. Pseudomonas fluorescens as Enterobactercloaceae resisted washing procedures in the washing line and under laboratory conditions.Qualitative properties, postharvest performance and bioactivecontent of Cypriot indigenous apple cultivarsGOULAS, V.; KOURDOULAS, P.; THEODOROU, M.; MAKRIS, F.; MANGANARIS, G.A. *Cyprus University of Technology, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology & Food Science,3603 Lemesos, Cyprus* george.manganaris@cut.ac.cyWith the aim to enhance agrobiodiversity conservation and promotion of autochthonous fruit material grown inCyprus, this study demonstrated the characterization of apple fruits from indigenous cultivars during their ripeningafter harvest or after removal cold storage. Fruit (Malus x domestica, cvs. ‘Kathista’, ‘Lortiko’) were harvested atcommercial maturity stage, based on uniform fruit size and background color and were separated into 12 lots of24 fruits. Such lots were analyzed after harvest or after removal from 1, 3 and 5 months of cold storage andadditional ripening at room temperature for 1, 4 and 7 days, respectively, prior to be evaluated for their qualitativeproperties, phytochemical profile and antioxidant potency. ‘Kathista’ fruit appeared to exhibit a better shelf lifecompared to ‘Lortiko’ fruits. Indicatively, weight loss was 2.5%, 4.0%, 5.1% and 7.1% for ‘Kathista’ fruit and 3.2%,5.8%, 7.1% and 10.4% for ‘Lortiko’ fruit allowed to ripen at room temperature for 7 days after 0 (harvest), 1, 3 and5 weeks of cold storage, respectively. The quantitative losses were accompanied by qualitative deterioration,indicated by a substantial reduction of tissue firmness, particularly after extended low-temperature storage, thussignificantly reducing fruit marketability. The classification of apple biophenols into phenolics, hydoxycinnamicacids and flavonols, indicated some differences based both on the cultivar and the storage regime considered.Fruit total antioxidant capacity, evaluated with the FRAP assay, showed that extended low-temperature storagemay negatively affect also their antioxidant potency. With the aim this initiative to strengthen the competitivenessof local produce, this study is trying to shed some light in ‘forgotten’ Cypriot indigenous apple cultivars. Thebuilding of a database for postharvest performance, qualitative attributes, nutritional value and antioxidant potential ofCypriot apples stands as a challenging future perspective. For comparative purposes, such data need to becompared with the profile of well-known apple cultivars, grown under similar environmental conditions.115


Posters of Topic 2A survey on trans-resveratrol content of Romanian winesGEANA, Elisabeta-Irina (1) ; COSTINEL Diana (1) *; IORDACHE, Andreea-Maria (1) ; IONETERoxana-Elena (1) ; RANCA, Aurora (2) & ILIESCU, Marina (3)(1) National R&D Institute of Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies – ICSI Rm. Valcea, 4 Uzinei St.,240050 Rm. Valcea, Romania, irina.geana@icsi.ro(2) Research Station for Viticulture and Oenology Murfatlar, 90510 Murfatlar, Romania(3) Research Station for Viticulture and Oenology Blaj, 515400, Blaj, Romania* diana@icsi.roConsumption of foods rich in antioxidants have many health benefits, including protection against cardiovascularand neurological diseases, viruses, aging and, more recently, cancer. Wines and especially red wines contain avariety of polyphenolic antioxidants, of which resveratrol is considered one of the most important. The aim of thisstudy was to investigate the presence of trans-resveratrol in several characteristic varietal wines from Romania,produced according to the Romanian appellation of origin system. The wines of red grape varieties (e.g. Merlot,Cabernet Sauvignon, Feteasca Neagra, Pinot Noire, Mamaia) and white grape varieties (e.g. Feteasca Regala,Sauvignon Blank, Feteasca Alba, Riesling Italian, Muscat Ottonel, Columna), vintage years 2007 to 2011, wereanalyzed. A set of 70 wine samples were analyzed by means of reverse-phase high-performance liquidchromatography, to determine their content in trans-resveratrol. The samples were injected without pretreatment.The separation was done with an aquasil C18, 250 × 4.6 mm with the sorbent particle size of 5 μm and detectionwas performed at 310 nm. The detection limit for trans-resveratrol is found to be 0.008 mg/L. White wines werefound to have markedly lower concentrations of transresveratrol in comparison with red wines, the values werebetween 0.025 to 10.23 mg/L for red wines and from 0.074 to 2.572 mg/L for white wines. According to the resultsobtained, Mamaia, Pinot Noire and Feteasca Neagra red wine proves to be a good dietary source of resveratrol.Keywords: Trans-resveratrol, wine, HPLC.The impact of 1-MCP treatment on Mal d 1-synthesis in apple fruitduring storage in CA and DCA-systemsSTRELOW, Martin; KIEWNING, Daniela *; SCHMITZ-EIBERGER, MichaelaINRES-Horticultural Science, Bonn University, Auf dem Hügel 6, 53121 Bonn, Germany* kiewning@uni-bonn.deThe most important apple allergen in Central Europe and North America is Mal d 1, a protein which belongs to theso called pathogenesis-related proteins (PR-proteins), subgroup 10. PR-10 proteins are synthesized in responseto environmental stress, pathogens and wounding. Several studies investigated a higher allergenicity of apple fruitafter storage, which is due to higher Mal d 1 concentrations. For climacteric fruit, such as apple fruit, ethylene is akey regulatory molecule for ripening and senescence. The higher allergenicity might be related to ethylene actionduring storage. Synthetic cyclopropenes, like 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), are inhibitors of ethylene action.The commercial use of 1-MCP has the potential to extend storage periods and quality of plant products, if appliedin an optimal stage of ripeness.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 1-MCP treatment on Mal d 1 synthesis in apple fruits underdifferent storage conditions. Therefore fruits of different cultivars were stored for 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks in acold chamber, under controlled atmosphere conditions (CA-conditions) and in dynamic controlled atmosphere(DCA). For evaluating the influence of this ethylene inhibitor on Mal d 1 synthesis half the fruits were treated with1-MCP. The state of ripeness of the fruits was measured by determination the content of sugar and starch as wellas firmness after every sampling date.Mal d 1 content of all apple cultivars increased during storage. Highest amounts of Mal d 1 were analyzed in fruitsstored in a cold chamber. Fruits treated with 1-MCP had a significant lower Mal d 1 content compared to theuntreated control fruits.116


Posters of Topic 2The apple allergen Mal d 1 in fruit peel in relation to fruit pulp ofdifferent apple cultivarsKIEWNING, Daniela *; BUDDE, Christina; SCHMITZ-EIBERGER, MichaelaINRES-Horticultural Science, Bonn University, Auf dem Huegel 6, 53121 Bonn, Germany* kiewning@uni-bonn.deThe most important apple allergen in Central Europe and North America is Mal d 1, a protein which belongs to thepathogenesis-related proteins (PR-proteins), subgroup 10. PR-10 proteins are synthesized in response toenvironmental stress, pathogens and wounding. Several studies showed a higher allergenicity of apple fruit afterstorage, which is due to higher Mal d 1 concentrations. It is known that Mal d 1 content depends on the cultivarsand that Mal d 1 contents increase during storage time.The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of the major apple allergen Mal d 1 in peel, pulp and inrelation to the content in the whole fruit of five different cultivars. For this we choose the cultivars ‘Topaz’ and‘Pinova’ as example for cultivars with low Mal d 1 contents as well as ‘Elstar’, ‘Gala’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ asexample for cultivars with high Mal d 1 contents. Fruits were harvested at optimal harvest date, according to theStreif-Index. They were picked from defined position of the trees for excluding high variability between individualapple fruits. Fruits were stored for 12, 20 and 28 in a cold-chamber at 2°C. Mal d 1 contents of peel, pulp as wellas peel and pulp were measured after extraction by an ELISA-method.For all apple cultivars the relative Mal d 1 content were highest in the peel at every sampling date. Highest Mal d1 content were analyzed in one gram peel of fruits of ‘Elstar’, while lowest Mal d 1 contents were found in onegram peel of ‘Pinova’. For the pulp lowest amount of Mal d 1 was measured in fruits of ‘Topaz’ and highest infruits of ‘Golden Delicious’. The results for Mal d 1 calculated on the total peel and on the total pulp of a fruit weredifferent. For ‘Elstar’ highest Mal d 1 was investigated in the total peel at every sampling date, while in fruits of‘Golden Delicious’ highest Mal d 1 content was measured in the pulp at every sampling date. In conclusion onegram peel had significantly higher Mal d 1 contents than one gram pulp. But the peel makes up only 10% of thewhole apple fruit. Due to this Mal d 1 calculated on the total peel was not highest for every cultivar at everysampling date compared to Mal d 1 in the total pulp. Nevertheless peeling an apple can reduce the allergenicity ofan apple fruit significantly.Apple fruit preparation and nutritional value in supplying primaryschoolsSCHMITZ-EIBERGER, Michaela *; KIEWNING, Daniela; BUDDE, Christina; NOGA, GeorgINRES-Horticultural Science, Bonn University, Auf dem Huegel 6, 53121 Bonn, Germany* schmitz.micha@uni-bonn.deIn the European program 'Fruits and vegetables for schools' fruits and vegetables were supplied to primaryschools for consumption in breaks between teaching. Fruits and vegetables are prepared, for example cut orpeeled, before offering to the pupils. Either was sometimes done by the pupils themselves or by chosen parents.Preparation of fruits and vegetables is different from school to school and depends on the habits of the primaryschools. Apples, a fruit with a high nutritional value, are one of the main fruits which are offered during the wholeyear. Apple fruits can be served with and without peel. The content of valuable components differ between fruitpeel and fruit flesh, as well as non valuable compounds like residues of pesticides or special proteins, such asallergens. There are no data available about the incidence of different components in fruit flesh or peel and thedistribution of pesticide residues between fruit peel and fruit flesh. Additionally, no data can be found in theliterature about the contents of valuable components, such as ascorbic acid, and its incidence in fruit flesh andpeel.So, the aim of this study was to evaluate valuable and non valuable active ingredients in fruit peel and fruit fleshto get more information about the best or the preferred mode of preparation for apple fruits.117


Posters of Topic 2For the study, three cultivars were used (Golden Delicious, Elstar and Pinova). Fourteen days after harvest thefruit peel was removed from the fruit flesh and frozen in nitrogen at-80°C. Content of valuable and non valuable compounds (ascorbic acid, tocopherol and allergens) were analysedin peel and flesh separately in six replications.The content of valuable components differed significantly in fruit peel and fruit flesh. Whereas tocopherol contentin the fruit peel was significantly higher, the ascorbic acid content in the peel was found to be less. Non valuablecomponents, such as the apple allergen Mal d 1 or pesticides residues were higher in fruit peel as compared tothe flesh. A commendation for preparation of the fruits in the schools could be derived from this study.Nutraceutic characterisation of Italian cherry cultivarsCECCARELLI, Danilo; NOTA, Paolo; TALENTO, Carla; SCOSSA, Federico; SIMEONE, A.Maria; FIDEGHELLI, Carlo & CABONI, Emilia *CRA-Centro di Ricerca per la Frutticoltura, Rome, Italy* emilia.caboni@entecra.itRecently, high interest has been focused on phenolic compounds present mainly in fruit and vegetables sincetheir consumption was shown to be associated with a lower incidence of cardiovascular and malignant neoplasticdiseases. Phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in several fruit species, including cherries, whichwere found to contain higher amounts of bioactive compounds, in particular phenols, compared to several otherfruits.The aim of the present study was to characterise for their content in phenolic compounds some sweet cherry(Prunus avium, L) ancient Italian cultivars (Bertiello, Bella Italia, Duroncino di Costasavina, Ferrovia, Galuciu,Giapponese, Maggese, Pagliaccio and Ravenna) present in the in vivo national collection of fruit tree germplasmof the CRA-Fruit Tree Research Centre of Rome.Content determination of total phenolic compounds (TPC) was performed spectrophotometrically applying theFolin-Ciocalteau assay and measuring the absorbance at λ = 760 nm. The total content of anthocyanins (ANT)was determined by spectrophotometrical method according to Mondello et al. (2000). Principal phenoliccompounds were identified and quantified using a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (Agilent 1100series) with a UV-Vis detector (G1315B DAD, Agilent 1100 series) and by considering retention time andcomparison with commercial standards.Different cultivars show significant differences of total TPC and ANT levels: TPC contents ranged from 306.42mg/100 g p.f of cv Duroncino di Costasavina to 52.68 mg/100 g p.f. of cv Bella Italia mutazione Susà; ANT rangedfrom 29.43 mg/100 g p.f. of cv Bella Italia mutazione Susà to 8.27 mg/100 g p.f. of cv Ravenna. The principalanthocyanins were found to be cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside. Among phenolic acids,hydroxycinnamates (neochlorogenic acid and p-coumaroylquinic acid) were the most relevant.Keywords: anthocyanins, HPLC, phenolic compounds, Prunus avium L., spectrophotometric assay.Influence of Extenday ® under hails nets on fruit quality, colourationand secondary ingredients in apple fruitsOVERBECK, Verena *; SCHMITZ-EIBERGER, Michaela; BLANKE, MichaelINRES Horticultural Science, University of Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 6, 53121 Bonn, Germany* v.overbeck@uni-bonn.deClimate change is associated with an increase in hail storms during the vegetation period of crops. In many fruitgrowing regions, nets were installed to protect the crops against hail. The loss of light can result in lower fruitquality, particularly less fruit size, less fruit coloration and less sugar content and therefore less taste. The118


Posters of Topic 2colouration of apple fruits is based on qualitative and quantitative pigment patterns of flavonoids includinganthocyanins. These pigments also enhance the nutritional value of the fruits. These pigments may contribute tothe prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancers and osteoporosis. Hence, a large concentration of flavonoidsis desirable for all fruits including apple.Reflective mulches between the tree rows can enhance quality parameter in fruits and its nutritional value.However, information is scarce on the influence of reflective mulches on pigment pattern of fruits including apple.The objective of this study was to examine the effects of reflective mulch on fruit quality including sugar, starch,firmness, fruit size, (red) colouration and content of valuable components such as anthocyanins and flavonoids.Ten-year-old apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cv. ‘Gala Mondial’ trees on M9 rootstock were employed for theexperiment at Campus Klein-Altendorf, University of Bonn, Germany at a spacing of 3.5 m x 1 m. Tree rows wereplanted in N-S orientation to optimize the light conditions in the orchard. Trees were gown under black hail netwith the light transmission of 78-82%. Reflective white, woven textile mulch Extenday 80 was spread at a width of3 m on the grassed alleys in August 2010 five weeks before anticipated harvest on both sides of the tree rows. A0.5 m wide gap was left for water supply to the apple trees.The reflective mulch neither affected the fruit firmness nor sugar in cv. ‘Gala Mondial’ apples in 2010. There wasno effect of the reflective mulch on chlorophyll and carotenoids content in the fruit peel of cv. ‘Gala Mondial’.However, flavonoids and anthocyanins in the apple fruit were significantly enhanced by five weeks application ofreflective mulch (Extenday ® ). Flavonoids increased up to 44.3 % in the Extenday treatment. Similarly, reflectivemulch improved anthocyanin content in cv. ‘Gala Mondial’ fruit peel up to 40 % compared to grass control.Overall, this is the first time that accumulation of valuable compounds in apple fruits such as flavonoids andanthocyanins has been shown to be enhanced by reflective mulch.Would aluminum and nickel content of apricot pose health risk tohuman?DAVARYNEJAD, Gholamhossein (1) *; VATANDOOST, Safieh (1) ; KAVEH, Hamed (1) ; NAGY,PETER Tamas (2)(1)Department of Horticultural Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Po.box 91775-1163. *Corresponding Author, Nagy Peter Tamas(2)Institute for Research and Development, University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen, 138Böszörményi Street, Hungary* davarynej@um.ac.irHigher demands of food production for human consumption increased uses of fertilizers and other chemicals thatarise in a major public problem and heavy-metal pollution. Levels of Aluminum and Nickel which affect mankindhealth in exact doses, were determined in fresh and dried samples of "Jumbo cot", "Tom cot", "Gold strike","Gold" "Bergeron", "Berg rouge", "Sweet cot", "Yellow cot" and "Zebra" apricot cultivars in Hungary to assesspossible health risk of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) consumption. Highest content of Al and Ni among allcultivars, where 9.71 and 2.14 mg/kg of dehydrated apricot samples. Fresh fruit samples maximally contain 2.9,and 0.425 mg/kg of Aluminum and Nickel respectively. Data analysis showed significant differences betweencultivars for Al and Ni. Furthermore, to reveal the health-risk possibility of dried and fresh fruit consumption dailyintake of elements and health-risk index were calculated and compared.Key words: Prunus armeniaca L., chemical composition, heavy metals, health risk index.119


Posters of Topic 2Impact of postharvest UV-C and ozone treatment on microbialdecay of white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)HASSENBERG, Karin (1) ; HERPPICH, Werner B. (1) *; HUYSKENS-KEIL, Susanne (2)(1)Leibniz-Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim e.V., Potsdam, Germany;* wherppich@atb-potsdam.de(2)Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Division Urban Plant Ecophysiology, Section QualityDynamics/Postharvest Physiology, Berlin, GermanyWhite asparagus is a very important crop in Germany. Still mostly purchased fresh, it is now increasingly offeredas convenience product. Because losses due to microbiological spoilage could reach 30 %, postharvest qualityassurance must focus on retardation of undesired metabolic processes, and also on microbial status to meetrecent food safety regulations (HACCP, traceability). Therefore, optimization of postharvest treatments isessential for efficient food supply chain management of asparagus. Most chemical sanitation (e.g. chlorine ormethylbromide) is forbidden due to the risk of carcinogenic by-products formation; thus, modern sanitationtechniques may rely on physical methods and/or fumigation with Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS)compounds. Hence, the aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of ozonated water and UV-Cirradiation, or a combination of both, on the microbial load of white asparagus spears during simulated shelf-life.In two independent experiments, freshly harvested white asparagus (cv. ‘Gijnlim’) spears were washed, sortedand randomly separated into batches of approx. 500 g. Thereafter, respective batches were subjected to a) UV-Cirradiation (254 nm; 1 kJ m -2 ), b) submerged in ozonated water (2.6 or 4.5 ppm, at 10 °C for 30 sec) or c) treatedwith both UV-C and ozonated water. Untreated spears were used as controls. All spears were stored at 20 °C inwater vapour saturated atmosphere for up to four days. On harvest day, and day 2 and 4 of storage, sampleswere analyzed for aerobic mesophilic total bacteria, yeast and mould counts.In both experiments, the initial microbial load of spears ranged between 10 4 and 10 5 cfu g -1 , while yeast andmould counts were less than 10 3 cfu g -1 . During storage, aerobic mesophilic total bacterial counts rose to 1.510 7cfu g -1 , and yeast counts ranged between 10 3 and 10 4 cfu g -1 in control spears. In the first experiment, washingwith ozonated water (4.5 ppm) always resulted in one log higher mould counts than in controls after four days ofstorage. Growth of mould and aerobic mesophilic bacteria differed between the experiments. Independent oftreatment, no effect on mould counts was observed in the second experiment. The initial aerobic mesophilic totalbacterial count could not be reduced by treatments, except with the combined treatment in the first experiment.Microscopic inspection identified Penicillium sp., Fusarium sp. and Acremonium sp. as the main infecting species.To conclude, none of the investigated treatments yielded a satisfying reduction of the microbial load on fresh,unprocessed white asparagus spears during four days of shelf life.Keywords: Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) compounds, irradiation, Penicillium, sanitation.Inhibition of ethylene response by 1-methylcyclopropene on pottedornamental pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)FINGER, Fernando Luiz (1) ; SEGATTO, Fernanda Bastos (2) ; SILVA, Tania Pires Da (2) &BARBOSA, José Geraldo (1)(1)UFV/Departamento de Fitotecnia, 36570-000, Viçosa, MG, Brazil.(2)UFV/Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, 36570-000 - Viçosa, MG, Brazil.* ffinger@ufv.brOrnamental pepper cultivar Calypso is very sensitive to ethylene action, showing complete abscission of theleaves when exposed to 10 L L -1 for 48 hours, under fluorescent white light conditions (8 – 10 mol m -2 s -1 ). Byexposing the plants to ethylene, significant drops on the contents of chlorophyll a, b and total was determined atthe end of the treatment. But, no changes on leaf total carotenoid were observed after the treatment withethylene. When the plants were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at a concentration of 1 L L -1 for sixhours, followed or not by the treatment with ethylene, the contents of chlorophyll a, b, total and carotenoid120


Posters of Topic 2remained unchanged. The control plants showed no changes in the chlorophylls or carotenoid contents after 48hours from moving the pots from the green house to the indoor conditions illuminated with fluorescent white light.The 1-MCP was able to prolong the post production shelf life of the plants, by inhibiting the abscission of leaves.Plants treated with 1-MCP, followed by ethylene had accumulated leaf abscission of 43%, after 18 days of postproduction life, similar to the control plants. While after the same period, the 1-MCP treated plants had 20% of leafabscission. The 1-MCP partially blocked in ethylene inducing leaf abscission, since the rate of the 1-MCP +ethylene treated plants was higher than the 1-MCP treatment up to the 18 th days of post production shelf life.Regardless which treatment, during the post production life there was a continuous decrease in the chlorophyllcontent of the leaves up to the 18 th day, with lower rate of degradation for the 1-MCP treated plants.Keywords: ethylene, chlorophyll, leaf abscission, post production.Changes in flavor of Medlar fruit (Mespilus germanica L.) duringripeningVELICKOVIC, Milovan (1) ; RADIVOJEVIC, Dragan (1) *; OPARNICA, Cedo (1) ; NIKICEVIC,Ninoslav (1) ; ZIVKOVIC, Marijana (2) ; DJORDJEVIC, Neda (2) ; TESEVIC, Vele (3)(1)Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Zemun, Serbia(2)Institute for Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Njegoševa 12, 11000Belgrade, Serbia(3)Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia* dragan1970@agrif.bg.ac.rsThe medlar (Mespilus germanica L.) has been of recent interest for its edible fruits. The most common use of thisfruit is for raw consumption after bletting. The effect of the maturation stages on the volatile compounds of themedlar fruit was investigated during two different stages. Volatile flavour substances were isolated from theminced pulp of half ripe and full ripe fruits of medlar by simultaneous steam distillation extraction (SDE) withmethilen chloride as extracting solvent. The concentrate was analysed by GC-FID-MS. Hexanoic andhexadecanoic acids were the predominant acids, hexanal and trans-2-hexenal the predominant aldehydes, cis-3-hexenol and hexanol the predominant alcohols and p-cymene, terpinen-4-ol and γ- eudesmol the terpenesresponsible for the characteristic medlar flavour were also present. C6 aliphatic compounds, such as cis-3-hexen-1-ol and cis-3-hexenal, were observed to be the major volatile constituents in the green stage. In contrast, methylhexanoate and methyl trans-2-hexenoate were the main volatile in half ripe fruits.Key words: Medlar fruit, ripening stage, volatile compounds.The effect of anti-browning agents to the quality of fresh cut pearSEGLINA, Dalija *; KRASNOVA, Inta; ABOLTINS, Aivars; MISINA, Inga & GAILITE, IngridaLatvia State Institute of Fruit Growing, Graudu Street 1, LV 3701, Dobele, Latvia* dalija.seglina@lvai.lvPears are used as a component of fresh cut salad. The most seriuous problem of fresh cut fruit products isenzimatic browning, which deteriorate not only the sensory charasteristics but also nutritional value. Colour andexternals of fruit salad is the first that attracts the attention of customer and affects the purchasing decision.Therefore the best method to ensure quality during storage is treatment of fresh cut pears by anti-browninginhibitors. Research was carried out at the Latvia State Institute of Fruit-Growing in 2011. The effect of differentanti-browning inhibitors on fresh cut pear slices was studied. Fruit slices of pear cultivar ‘Mramornaja’ was treatedby sea buckthorn, Japanese quince, white currant juice and 4% and 5% antioxidant Natureseal® AS1 solutions.Samples were packed in polypropylene boxes and stored for 12 days at temperature 4 ºC. Changes in content of121


Posters of Topic 2vitamin C, polyphenols, soluble solids, titratable acids, and antioxidant activity (DPPH, FRAP) were detectedduring storage.Significant decrease of polyphenols (80%) after 3 days of storage was observed in samples treated by seabuckthorn and Japanese quince juices. However no significant changes were detected in their further storageunlike in samples treated by white currant and 4% Natureseal® AS1 solutions, where polyphenols decreasedconstantly during all storage. Antiradical activity in fresh-cut pear samples treated by natural juices initially washigher than in control; however it decreased rapidly by 30-40% in the first days of storage and reached the levelofcontrol samples. At the same time antiradical activity in samples treated by Natureseal® AS1 decreased equally -approximately 10 % in 3 days. Significant changes in vitamin C content were detected in all pear samples. Duringfirst 3 days of storage it decreased for 33-36% in samples treated by white currant and Japanese quince and for81% in both Natureseal® AS1samples. The study stated, that the best anti-browning inhibitors for maintaining thequality of fresh cut pear slices are 4% and 5% Natureseal® AS1 solutions and juice of Japanese quince.Keywords: fresh cut produce, natural juices, quality indices.Dry onion peels as a source of valuable secondary metabolites(1)SHEVCHENKO, Yaroslav (1) ; GRUDA, N. (2) ; SMETANSKA, I. (3)Technical University of Berlin, Department of Methods of Food Biotechnology, Königin-Luise-Str.22, 14195 Berlin, Germany* yaroslav.shevchenko@mailbox.tu-berlin.de(2) University of Bonn, Institute of Plant Sciences and Resource Conservation, Division of HorticulturalSciences, Auf dem Hügel 6, 53121 Bonn, Germany(3)Department of Plant Food Processing, University of Applied Science Weihenstephan-Triesdorf,Steingruber Str. 2, 91746 Weidenbach, GermanyThe annual production of dry onions in some countries of European Union reaches 1 million tons. This volume ofagricultural production also generates great amount of by-product in the form of dry onion peels. The estimatedannual volume of such plant material across the EU can vary between 230 to 400 thousand tons. Thesebyproducts, as nonedible, are being cast away during several stages of onion processing – from harvesting andtransportation to meal preparation. The aim of this work is to analyze onion peels of different origin for possiblecontent of secondary metabolites. Our working hypothesis is that the secondary metabolites such as phenolicacids tend to concentrate in outer layers of plant tissues, contributing to different color and structure of plantmaterial. In order to test this hypothesis we selected different onion genotypes of diverse origin and dissimilarcolor of the onion peels. These genotypes were: Ukrainian ‘Yalta’, French ‘Shallot’, German ‘Red’, Spanish‘White’.Methanol-extracts of the dried onion peels were examined for antioxidant activity using the DPPH-assay. Theresults showed that the highest free radical scavenging activity is a characteristic trait of the red colored onionpeels (75-90%). This parameter was very low in shallots and white Spanish onion peels (10-25%). The analysis ofanthocyanin content proved that the red colored peels (genotypes ‘Yalta’ and ‘Red’) tend to accumulate minorquantities (0.01–0.03 mg kg -1 dry weight). No anthocyanins were detected in the less colored by-products(‘Shallot’ and ‘White’). The total polyphenol content was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu-assay. Themaximum concentration of total phenolics was detected in genotype ‘Yalta’ (2345.25 mg kg -1 GAE). SubsequentHPLC analysis detected a presence of catechin 4.8±0.48 mg kg -1 and quercetin 1935±123.5 mg kg -1 GAE in redcolored onion peels. A strong relationship between the total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of thebyproduct extracts were found (R 2 =0.751).The modern agriculture generates massive surplus of different plant products. This immense output also yields ascore of valuable byproducts which until now tend to be discarded as redundant. However, the valorization ofsuch byproducts like onion peels can provide the industry with valuable secondary metabolites which in turn couldbe reintroduced into food generating system. The onion peels analyzed in this research demonstrated thispotential. After all, the concentration of quercetin in onion peels of some cultivars was comparable to that of e.g.green tea.Key words: By-product, quercetin, antioxidant activity.122


Posters of Topic 2‘Royal Gala’ apple stored under dynamic controlled atmospheremonitored by respiration quotient and chlorophyll fluorescence(1)WEBER, Anderson (1) (2) *; BOTH, Vanderlei (2) **; NEUWALD, Daniel Alexandre (1) ***;BRACKMANN, Auri (2) ****Kompetenzzentrum Obstbau Bodensee (KOB) Schuhmacherhof, 6 Ravensburg, Germany *anweba@yahoo.com.br *** neuwald@kob-bavendorf.de(2) Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM) Departamento de Fitotecnia, Núcleo de Pesquisaem Pós-colheita, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. ** vanderleiboth@yahoo.com.br and ****brackman@ccr.ufsm.brApples which are not stored under low temperature or controlled atmosphere (CA) properly may have a highmetabolic rate during postharvest stage resulting in quality losses. One of the most recent techniques for applestorage and already commercially used, is the dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA). The aim of this work was toevaluate two different methods of DCA for ‘Royal Gala’ apples. The O2 concentration during eight months ofstorage was controlled either using the respiration quotient (RQ = 2, 4 and 6) on the one hand or the chlorophyllfluorescence measurement, as commercially used, on the other hand. Both methods were compared withconventional controlled atmosphere (CA) storage at 1.2 kPa O2 and 2.5kPa CO2. All treatments were stored at0.5°C. Apples which were stored under DCA showed a higher percentage of healthy fruits, consequently, withlower decay, flesh browning and mealiness. This result can be explained by a lower respiratory rate, lower ACCoxidase activity resulting in lower ethylene production and, therefore, better maintenance of fruit quality. DCA withan RQ of 4 and 6 also had a positive influence on maintaining fruit quality but the fruit flesh of these treatmentswas characterized by an alcoholic flavour. This occurs due to the low O2 partial pressure during DCA storage,which stimulates anaerobic respiration and boosts the ethanol, acetaldehyde and ethyl acetate production.Therefore DCA conditions with a monitored respiration quotient of 2 and measured chlorophyll fluorescenceresulted in the best fruit quality maintenance.Keywords: Ethylen, anaerobic respiration, fruit quality, ethanol, ethyl acetate.Internal browning in ‘Santana’ apple – reasons and possibilities toreduce the disorderNEUWALD, Daniel Alexandre *; STREIF, Josef **; KITTEMANN, Dominikus ***Kompetenzzentrum Obstbau Bodensee (KOB) Schuhmacherhof, 6 Ravensburg, Germany* neuwald@kob-bavendorf.de ** corresponding author streif@kob-bavendorf.de*** kittemann@kob-bavendorf.de'Santana' is an important scab resistant and early ripening apple cultivar used for organic production in the LakeConstance region (South-Western Germany). However, this variety shows a high sensitivity to the occurrence ofinternal browning disorder during controlled atmosphere storage (CA). The aim of this research was to evaluatepossible reasons for the incidence of this physiological disorder in ‘Santana’ apples under CA-storage conditionsand to develop methods to reduce the symptoms. During three years, organically grown apple fruit wereharvested from two different orchards in the Lake Constance area. The influence of the following factors on theoccurrence of the disorder during a 5-month storage period was investigated: pre-harvest calcium applications,harvest date, time of CA establishment and CA conditions. The results show that weekly calcium applications (8to 10 sprayings with calcium chloride from T-stage until harvest) can reduce internal browning during storage. A20-day delay of establishment of CA conditions after harvest, as successfully used to reduce flesh browningdisorders in other apple varieties like `Braeburn`, did not reduce the browning symptoms. Conversely fruit fromdelayed CA-storage showed an increased occurrence of the disorder. Results indicated that low CO2concentrations (0.7% - 1.0%) are one of the key factors to control flesh browning in `Santana`, as with increasingCO2 concentrations a significant higher incidence of the disorder was observed. In addition, apples from laterharvest dates were much more sensitive for the disorder compared to earlier picked apples. Further investigation123


Posters of Topic 2will be necessary to check the possible influence of temperature and oxygen concentration on the occurrence ofinternal browning in `Santana`.Keywords: fruit quality, physiological disorder, controlled atmosphere, organic production.Magnesium infiltration as a tool to assess bitter pit occurrence inapplesSESTARI, Ivan (1) *; NEUWALD, Daniel Alexandre (2) **; WEBER, Anderson (2) (3) *** &BRACKMANN, Auri (3) ****(1) Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”, University of São Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP,Brazil * isestari@yahoo.com.br(2)Kompetenzzentrum Obstbau Bodensee (KOB) Schuhmacherhof, 6 Ravensburg, Germany **corresponding author neuwald@kob-bavendorf.de(3) Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS Brazil *** anweba@yahoo.com.br and ****brackman@ccr.ufsm.brBitter pit has long been recognized worldwide as a serious physiological disorder of a range of applevarieties. In several apple producing regions, growers and storage companies still assess fruit nutritional status topredict bitter pit occurrence. However, this procedure is expensive and has not always provides reliable resultsalong the years; so alternative procedures have been used to predict the bitter pit occurrence before storage. Inthis work the predictive capacity of bitter pit by magnesium infiltration method was estimated in Gala, Braeburnand Fuji apples, from different orchards and sampling dates. A hundred fruits from each orchard, three of eachcultivar, were harvested 20 days before or at commercial maturity. Afterwards, fruits were vacuum infiltrated withmagnesium chloride and placed at 20°C for 10 days, after which the number of lesions was recorded on individualfruits. For estimating the predictive capacity, the bitter pit-like lesions induced by magnesium was compared withthe real bitter pit incidence on a parallel sample of fruits from each cultivar, orchard, and harvest date that wasstored during 5 months on controlled atmosphere (CA) following 10 days at 20°C. Although susceptibility of fruit tobitter pit is partly cultivar dependent, considerable differences in the incidence of bitter pit among cultivars andorchards were not observed. The results obtained in this work indicate that magnesium infiltration was able topredict the incidence of bitter pit in both cultivars and orchards, only when the samples were collected andinfiltrated about 20 days before commercial maturity. From the practical point of view, these results suggest thatmagnesium infiltration might be used as a reliable and inexpensive method to segregate, before harvest, fruitsfrom orchards according to their potential for developing bitter pit in CA storage.Keywords: fruit quality, physiological disorder, controlled atmosphere.Strawberry ‘Clery’ fruit quality evolution during harvestANDRIANJAKA-CAMPS, Zo-Norosoa *; CRESPO, Pamela; ANÇAY, André; CARLEN,ChristophAgroscope Changins-Wädenswil ACW, SwitzerlandCH-1964 Conthey, Switzerland* zonorosoa@yahoo.frStrawberry fruit composition is important for its taste and health value. Significant variations of the fruitcomposition such as the content of sugars, acids, phenolic compounds and vitamin C have been alreadyobserved and criticized. Several studies have shown that the genotype has a very high impact on thesevariations. In addition, variations of these parameters can be also monitored within a same genotype and thusalso be responsible for the inconsistencies in fruit quality. The aim of this study was to assess the weekly124


Posters of Topic 2evolution of those quality traits during the whole harvest period and to analyze the duration of the fruitdevelopment and its effects on the fruit quality parameters for the strawberry cultivar ‘Clery’.Our results confirm the high fluctuation of the strawberry quality within a same genotype throughout the harvestperiod, especially for soluble solids content and for anthocyanins content in fruits. Another source of variation wasthe duration of the fruit development from flowering to harvest, especially for the anthocyanin contents. Fruits withslower development and ripening time appeared to accumulate more anthocyanins.Key words: Anthocyanin, Fragaria × ananassa, duration of fruit development, fruit quality, harvest period.Dynamics of fruit growth and fatty acid composition of hazelnuts,grown in BulgariaBLAGOEVA, Elitsa (1) *; NIKOLOVA, Magdalena (1) ; TANEVA, Sabina (2) ; DIMITROVA, Roza(2) ; MAREKOV, Ilko (2) ; MOMCHILOVA, Svetlana (2)(1)Agricultural Experiment Station, Kardzhali 6600, Bulgaria(2) Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia1113, Bulgaria* elica_blagoeva@abv.bgThe research aims evaluation of nut growth and developmental changes of three hazelnut cultivars of differentorigin and ripening time: ‘Ran trapezundski’, ‘Tonda Gentile delle Lagne’ and ‘Ata Baba’ grown in Bulgaria.Analyses were done at three stages of fruit development – ripening in July, harvest in August and post-harvest inSeptember in order to determine whether harvest time corresponds to kernel quality and nutritional value. Theresults indicate that the three cultivars differ in their fruit growth dynamics which reaches its pick at differentperiods depending on the cultivar. Kernel growth dynamics follows fruit’s one but shows more uniform pattern forall cultivars and does not coincide with it. For the same period each cultivar showed individual trend of fruit andkernel growth. Harvesting was done at physiological fruit drop. Post-harvest drying slightly influenced kernelmass. Fat was the predominant component at all stages and showed increasing trend during kernel developmentfor all cultivars. However, the percentage of that rise was different for each cultivar. In addition, after harvest nosignificant changes in fat content were registered. Also, after harvest the fatty acid profile of hazelnuts did notalter significantly for all cultivars studied. Analysis of fatty acids composition distinguished ‘Ata Baba’ as cultivarwith the highest content of the essential linoleic (18:2) fatty acid.Keywords: Corylus sp., fruit development, post-harvest, lipids, fat content.Evaluation of grapes quality and wines typicity made fromgrapevine variety mamaia, in Murfatlar vineyardRANCA, Aurora *; ARTEM, Victoria & ANAMARIA, PetrescuResearch Station for Viticulture and Enology Murfatlar,Calea Bucuresti Street 2, Murfatlar, Romania* auroraranca@yahoo.comMamaia is a original, Romanian black grape variety, that is grown only within Murfatlar vineyard.Variety provides some years grapes production of great quality, with a typical aroma, suitable for obtainingdifferent types of wines.Research aims to better understand the behavior of this variety under different cllimatic conditions of the years125


Posters of Topic 22009-2011, data obtained contribute to the establishment of the quality potential variety and to shape a sensoryprofile of wine.Were analyzed and interpreted climate and phenological data recorded during the three years of study, therewere made quantitative and qualitative analysis of grape production. It was followed to highlight the influence ofclimatic factors on the flavor intensity typical for this variety.Wines were analyzed by a panel of tasting experts and for better expressing the results was used a scoringsystem based on the note award, after a 0 to 10 scale, for a series of visual, olfactory and gustatory features,marking the directly proportional to the intensity of analyzed character. Based on the marks awarded by eachmember of the tasting jury, was calculated the averages for each sensorial character.It is noted that wines made from harvests 2009 and 2011 are superior than those obtained in 2010 year as thecolor intensity and olfactory intensity, earning obvious more flavors of berries, vanilla and rose, balanced tasteand a final net higher impression. These differences are determined not only by aging (in the case of 2009 wine)but also by different climatic conditions of the three years that allowed variety to highlight the potential differently.Keywords: phenology, climatic factors, wine quality, olfactory profiles, aromas intensity.Determining the optimum modified atmosphere for extending theshelf-life of whole and fresh-cut zucchini (Cucurbita pepo ssp.pepo)BLANCO-DÍAZ, M.T. (1) *; PÉREZ-VICENTE, A. (1) ; FAYOS, A. (1) ; DOMÍNGUEZ, I. (1) ; DELRÍO-CELESTINO, M. (2) & FONT, R. (1)(1)Department of Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops, IFAPA Centro La Mojonera CaminoSan Nicolás, 1. 04745 La Mojonera, Almería, Spain(2)Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, IFAPA Centro La Mojonera, Camino San Nicolás,1. 04745 La Mojonera, Almería, Spain* g32bldim@hotmail.comProduction of minimally processed vegetables has been increasing in recent years in industrialized countries as aresult of changes in consumer attitude. Clients demand ready-to-eat products without defects that keep theirphysical, nutritional and sensorial quality. Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo) has been commercialized fordecades as a non-processed fruit. However, fresh-cut industry is now requiring other commercial formats for thisfruit, as it is fresh-cut, in order to attend consumer demand.Pre-harvest and post-harvest conditions influence the fresh-cut manufacturing products being refrigerationtemperature and cutting format two important parameters for determining the shelf-life in packaging vegetables.For extending the shelf-life in fresh-cut products, different technologies as refrigeration storage and modifiedatmospheres packaging (MAP) have been proposed. The objective of MAP design is to determine the parametersthat allow reaching the optimum atmosphere inside the package for a given produce while minimizing the timerequired achieving this atmosphere. In order to maintain the quality at the end of the storage, atmospherepackage design is one of the most important choices in fresh-cut industry.Numerous vegetables can be processed as a fresh-cut produce by cutting in different shapes such as wedges,slices, sticks and cubes. However, it is well known that fresh-cut vegetables are more vulnerable to loss of qualitythan non fresh-cut products since fruits are wounded by cutting.In this work, optimum modified atmosphere for whole and fresh-cut zucchini (cv. ‘Sinatra’ was investigated. Fruitswere processed in three different cutting formats (slices, sticks and cubes) to get different wounding intensities infruits, defined by the ratio of the exposed area to tissue weight (A / W). Fruits were stored at 10 ºC and 95% HRfor 10 days in glass jars, monitoring changes in O2 and CO2 composition in the static closed system.Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were higher in the processed zucchini than in the whole fruitas a result of increasing respiration rate after cutting. On the basis of our results, an O2 concentration close to 1% (for a respiration quotient of 1.2) was obtained as the optimum for extending the shelf-life of the processedfruits. Significant statistical differences were detected in optimum MAP for whole and fresh-cut zucchini causedby the respiration rate increase. These results are important for extending the shelf-life for whole and fresh-cutzucchini.This work was supported by the project RTA2009-00036-00-00 (INIA) and FEDER funds.126


Posters of Topic 2Determining film permeability in whole and fresh-cut zucchini(Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo) fruits stored at different temperaturestorageBLANCO-DÍAZ, M.T. *; PÉREZ-VICENTE, A.; DOMÍNGUEZ, I.; FAYOS, A. & FONT, R.Department of Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops, IFAPA Centro La Mojonera, CaminoSan Nicolás, 1. 04745 La Mojonera, Almería, Spain* mariat.blanco.ext@juntadeandalucia.esNatural characteristics of fruits and vegetables make these products highly appreciate by consumers. However,fruits and vegetables are perishable products that continue their metabolic processes after harvesting leading todeterioration, which is highly accelerated when they are processed as a fresh-cut produce. Among otherstrategies carried out by the food industry, the combination of refrigeration temperatures, optimum modifiedatmosphere packaging (MAP) and high-humidity storage (HR) have been shown to be effective in postharvestpreservation of these horticultural commodities for reducing quality losses.In recent years, new films have been developed by packaging industries combining flexible polymers inorder to satisfy food market. More common films used in fresh cut fruits and vegetables are bi-oriented (BOPP)and mono-oriented (OPP) polypropylene, as well as polyethylene (PE) films. Although fresh and fresh-cut industrymakes use of several films materials, there are still some limitations for optimum conservation for mostcommodities, because commercial films do not match the specific requirements of many fruits and vegetables,especially in their fresh-cut form. Permeability film to O 2 (PO 2) and CO 2 (PCO 2), water vapor transmission rate(WVTR), and the permeability coefficient (β) (ratio PCO 2/PO 2) are important factors to be considered to select aproper film to package in MAP. These film characteristics are key properties to get the adequate atmospherecomposition and humidity content inside the packages once the steady-state gas composition is reached, tominimize the product deterioration.In this work, optimum film permeability for zuchinni (Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo) cv. ‘Sinatra’ and ‘Natura’in whole fruits and fresh-cut produce (cubes) has been investigated. Fruits were stored under refrigeration (6 ºCand 10 ºC, 95% HR) for 10 days in static close system.Significant statistical differences were detected in β values associated to whole and fresh-cut shapes.When respiration coefficient was close to 0.7, package permeability requirements were similar for whole andfresh-cut fruits. However, film permeabilities for whole and cubes shapes stored at 10 ºC were higher compared tothose of 6 ºC, as a result of the respiration rate increase.These results could be of interest to the film manufacture industries researching on the development ofappropriate film permeabilities for specific commodities, to maintain quality properties in whole fruits and fresh cutproduce.This work was supported by the project RTA2009-00036-00-00 (INIA) and FEDER funds.The influence of storage conditions on quality parameters of headcabbage with conical headsGAJEWSKI, Marek *; SMARZ, Monika; RADZANOWSKA, Jadwiga; PUDZIANOWSKA,MartaWarsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS-SGGW), Warsaw, Poland* marek_gajewski@sggw.plHead cabbage cultivars (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. alba), which form small heads of conical shape, area new alternative vegetable crop in Europe. They are grown on a limited scale yet, mainly in West Europe. Theobjective of the study was to determine the effect of controlled atmosphere storage on the quality of the conicalcabbage heads in comparison with normal atmosphere storage. Two Dutch cultivars of the conical cabbage:127


Posters of Topic 2‘Caraflex F1’ and ‘Bejo 2654’ were stored for 3 months in a cold store, under normal (NA) and controlled (CA 5%CO 2 + 3% O 2) atmospheres. Other storage parameters were: temperature of 0-1 o C and RH 95%. Before and afterthe storage some parameters of the quality of the cabbage were determined, including dry matter, vitamin C,soluble solids, nitrate(V) contents, as well as the colour of the cabbage heads leaves in CIE L*a*b* system. Afterthe storage mass percentage of marketable product, natural weight losses of the heads and sensory quality(overall sensory quality and consumer liking) were also determined. CA storage resulted in a higher percentage ofmarketable product, less mass loss of the heads and in their better quality than storage under normalatmosphere. Also changes in vitamin C and soluble solids contents were inhibited as a result of the atmospheremodification. Nitrate(V) content in the heads was not affected by storage conditions and remained stable duringthe storage period. Consumer acceptance of the cabbage was also higher for CA stored heads. Therefore,storage of cabbage heads in CA conditions, with gas composition of 5% CO 2 + 3% O 2, seems to be a betteralternative for storage of the heads than storage in a regular cold store, i.e. under normal atmosphere conditions.Keywords: Brassica oleracea cultivars, controlled atmosphere, nitrate(V), storage losses, sensory quality.Influence of temperature and light exposure during storage onquality changes of spinach leavesGLOWACZ, Marcin (1) *; MOGREN, Lars (2) ; READE, John (1) ; COBB, Andrew (1) ;MONAGHAN, James (1)(1) Crops Department, Harper Adams University College, Newport, Shropshire, UK(2) Department of Horticulture, SLU, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden* mglowacz@harper-adams.ac.ukQuality loss during storage of spinach leaves may result from changes in their texture, colour and chemicalcomposition. The influence of temperature and light exposure during storage on quality changes of spinach wasstudied. Bagged spinach leaves were stored at three different temperatures (1, 10 and 20°C) and under differentlight conditions: light (24 h), darkness (24 h). Changes in the gas composition (O2 and CO2) inside the bags, leafcolour, and solute leakage were evaluated. Packages exposed to light showed higher O2 content compared withthose stored in darkness, while CO2 development during storage was only reported for the bags stored indarkness or under continuous light at high temperatures. Spinach leaves became lighter and more yellow athigher temperatures. The same effect was found when samples stored under light conditions were compared withdark-stored counterparts. Solute leakage increased with increasing temperature of storage and was higher if thesamples were stored in darkness. This study has shown that both temperature and light exposure during storagehave an impact on textural and visual quality of spinach leaves. The effect of light conditions on nutritional qualityand physiological/biochemical changes in spinach requires further investigation.Keywords: colour evaluation, gas composition, nutritional quality, solute leakage.Effect of hot water and modified atmosphere packaging treatmenton some quality changes of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) duringstorageAKBUDAK, Bulent *; OZER, Hakan M.; ALTIOGLU, IlkerDepartment of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Uludag UniversityGorukle Campus, Nilufer, 16059 Bursa, Turkey* bakbudak@uludag.edu.tr128


Posters of Topic 2In this study, the effect of hot water (HW) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at storage period andquality were investigated in 'Hachiya' fruits which have increasing trend in production year after year in ourcountry and in the world for many years. The harvested fruits were immersed in 48 °C water for 10 minutes.Polyethylene plastic packaging materials in different thicknesses were used for MAP. Treated and untreated fruitswere stored at 0±1 °C with 90±5% relative humidity (RH) conditions. According to the results obtained from theexperiment, 50 μ PE packaging material gave more successful results in terms of the quality characteristics.Keywords: persimmon, postharvest treatment, quality, storage.Effect of postharvest treatments on storage period and quality inpersimmon (Diospyros kaki L.)AKBUDAK, B. *; OZER, H.M. & YENER T.Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Uludag UniversityGorukle Campus, Nilufer, 16059 Bursa, Turkey* bakbudak@uludag.edu.trIn this study, the effect of hot water (HW), low oxygen (O 2), 1-methlycyclopropene (1-MCP) and modifiedatmosphere packaging (MAP) at storage period and quality were investigated in persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. cv.‘Fuyu’) increasing trend in production year after year in our country and the world. For this purpose, the fruits afterharvest were treated with 48 °C water for 10 minutes, low O 2 (1.5%) for 48 hours and 1-MCP for 12 hours. Thefruits were stored in normal (NA) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) conditions. Treated and untreatedfruits were stored at 0±1 °C with 90±5% relative humidity (RH) conditions for 90 days. According to the resultsobtained from the study, low O 2 and 50 μ PE gave more successful results in terms of the quality characteristics.Keywords: hot water, low oxygen, 1-MCP, persimmon, quality, storage.Profile of falvonoid compounds in peel of Valencia orange fruitduring storage periodSHAMLOO, Mohammad Mohammadi (1) *; SHARIFANI, Mehdi (1) ; GARMAKHANY, AmireDaraei (2) & SEIFI, Esmaeil (1)(1)DepartmentHorticultre, Gorgan nuiversity of Agricultural sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan,Iran(2)Department of Food Science and Technology, Islamic Azad Uuiversity of Azadshahr Branch,Golestan, Iran* m.m.shamloo@gmail.comFlavonoids `are a large group of polyphenolic compounds with low molecular weight, found in free and glicozidicforms in plants. Citrus fruits can be used as a food supplement containing hesperidin and flavonoids to preventinfections and boost the immune system in human body. The aim of this study was the investigation of the effectof clove oil and storage period on the amount of hesperidin and naringin component in orange peel (cv. Valencia).Four treatments used including clove oil (1%), wax, mixture of wax-clove oil, and control. Treated fruits werestored at 7 C and 85% relative humidity for 3 months. The amount of hesperidins and naringin was determinedusing high performance liquid chromatography with a mobile phase prepared from 2% aqueous acetic acid andacetonitrile. The detection wavelength was at 285 nm. antioxidant activity was measured using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH)free radical scavenging assay. Results showed that narangin and hesperidinwere decreased during storage. Different treatments only had significant effect on the amount of hesperidin whilestorage period affected both of them. Further the treatment had significant effect on narangin and hesperidin129


Posters of Topic 2levels. Results of correlation study, indicated strong relation between antioxidant activity and amount of naringinand hesperidine during the storage period. However, at the end of storage period, the amount of hesperidine andnaranigine for treatment of mixture of clove oil and wax were diminished significantly in comparison with othertreatments, probaly aneorbic condition caused such reduction. In conclusion, hesperidine and naringine of peelsare suitable indexes for edible quality control of pulp tissue at the end of storage period.Key words: Citrus fruits, flavonoid, hesperidin, naringin, HPLC, DPPH, antioxidant.Sensory profiles of various stored fruit species are affected bymaturity class assessed by Time-resolved ReflectanceSpectroscopy at harvest(1)RIZZOLO, Anna (1) ; VANOLI, Maristella (1) (2) ; SPINELLI, Lorenzo (3) ; TORRICELLI,Alessandro (2)Consiglio per la Ricerca e Sperimentazione in Agricoltura – Unità di ricerca per i processidell’industria agroalimentare (CRA-IAA), via Venezian 26, 20133 I-Milano, Italy(2) Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 I-Milano, Italy(3) Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie – CNR, piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 I-Milano, Italy* anna.rizzolo@entecra.itTime-resolved Reflectance Spectroscopy (TRS), a non-invasive technique which probes fruit pulp at a depth of1−2 cm, provides the simultaneous quantification of the optical properties (absorption and reduced scatteringcoefficients) of diffusive media. TRS has been used to detect internal attributes related to maturity, texture andcell wall structure as well as disorders in intact fruit.The absorption coefficient (µa) measured at harvest in the 630-690nm range was related to fruit maturity inapples, pears, nectarines and mangoes. Apples and nectarines became sweeter, more aromatic and less sourwith decreasing µa670. Both absorption and scattering coefficients measured at670 and 780nm were able todifferentiate between healthy and nectarines with woolliness, internal browning or internal bleeding.Apples having a dry-mealy texture with no flavor were discriminated from flavoured apples with a juicy texture byusing absorption coefficients measured in the 630-780nm range.This research aimed at studying the sensory profiles of various fruit species after storage in different atmospheresand temperatures in relation to the maturity class measured by TRS at harvest.We considered: apples from two harvests stored for 5 months in normal and controlled atmospheres; earlymaturingpeaches and late-maturing nectarines after 1 month storage at 0°C and 4°C; and pears after 4 monthsstorage in normal, controlled and dynamically-controlled atmospheres.For each species, fruit were individually measured at harvest by TRS at 670 nm, ranked on the basis ofdecreasing µa (increasing maturity) and randomized into 30 fruit samples all having 10 fruit of less (LeM), mediumand more mature (MoM) TRS classes. Sensory analyses were carried out using one peeled slice/fruit of LeM andMoM classes from each sample using a sensory panel of ten short-term-trained judges. Each sample wasevaluated for the intensity of attributes related to fruit structure: firm, juicy (all species), crispy, mealy (apples),grainy (pears) and wolly (peaches and nectarines); and to taste and flavour: sweet, sour and aromatic (allspecies) and astringent (pears).On the average, sensory profiles were significantly influenced by TRS maturity class and storage. More maturefruit (i.e. belonging to MoM class or stored at either 4°C or in normal atmosphere) were described less firm andmore juicy, and were characterized by higher intensities for the descriptors bound to defects related to structure(‘wolly’ for peaches and nectarines, ‘mealy’ for apples and ‘grainy’ for pears). LeM peaches, apples and pearswere described sourer and less sweet and aromatic than the MoM ones.Our results confirm that µa670 measured by TRS at harvest could be used to classify fruit of a batch into classesof maturity which, after storage and shelf life, differed for the sensory profile.Keywords: sensory profiles, apples, pears, peaches, nectarines, non-destructive method, TRS, maturity.130


Posters of Topic 2Evaluation of post-harvest plums “Irati” in different stages ofmaturation under refrigeration and natural environmentAYUB, Ricardo Antonio (1) *; EIDAM, Tânia (2) ; MORGADO, Carlos Bernardo (3)(1) Researcher, Department of Phytotechnology and Phytosanitation State University of Ponta Grossa,Paraná, Brazil.(2) Working on master´s degree in Agronomy, Agronomy EngineerState University of Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil.(3) MSc in Agriculture, Agronomy Engineer, State University of Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil.* rayub@uepg.brThe harvest of plums normally not to exceed 20 days, and the ripening is extremely rapid, occurring a largesupply of fruit in a short time. The cold storage is one of the main methods used for conservation, however, itsfruits are highly perishable and have a reduced shelf life. In addition to the storage conditions, the maturity stageat harvest is also directly related to fruit quality. So, the present study was done with aimed to evaluate thepredicted harvest the fruits of plum “Irati” and its impact on the quality of the fruit during storage at roomtemperature and under refrigeration, as well as analyze their behavior in relation to climacteric this fruit. In theexperiments, developed in the years 2009 and 2010 were used fruits of plums (Prunus salicina) “Irati”. Theripening stages were determined according to the skin color. For the experiment conducted in 2009 wereharvested fruits in four ripening stages and these were stored at room temperature and under refrigeration at 5° C(+ 1). During the period of storage were evaluated of 3 in 3 days. In experiments conducted in 2010, the fruitswere homogenized in order to standardize the ripening stage in 50 to 75% of red. These fruits were stored in coldchamber at 0° C and from day 15° initiated evaluations of 3 in 3 days. To characterize the fruit was evaluated:pulp firmness, titratable acidity, pH, soluble solids, weight loss and color. The experimental design for theexperiment conducted in 2009 was factorial, consisting of 4 ripening stages, 4 and 5 periods of storage, forstorage in natural environment and refrigerated, respectively, and 4 replicates each containing 4 fruits. And for theexperiment conducted in 2010, the experimental design was randomized complete block design, being composedof 4 periods of storage and 5 replicates each containing 10 fruits. The statistical analyzes were performed withSISVAR program, adopting the Tukey test with a significance level of 5%. From the evaluations in can beconcluded that skin color is presented as a good indication of the predicted harvest plums “Irati”. Fruits withmaturation point intermediate problems had lower weight loss. To variety under refrigeration showed aconservation of 12+2 days, indicating low adaptability to refrigerated storage.Key words: Prunus salicina, conservation, fruit quality, storage.Impact of the tomato fruit temperature on its growth andcompositionGAUTIER, Hélène (1) *; BERTIN, Nadia (1) ; BALDAZZI, Valentina (1) ; BRUNEL, Béatrice (1) ;L’HOTEL, Jean Claude (1) ; GENARD, Michel (1) ; ORLANDO, Patrick (1) ; PRADIER, Michel (1) ;SERRA, Valérie (1) ; VERCAMBRE, Gilles (1) ; BIAIS, Benoît (2) ; GIBON, Yves (2)(1) INRA UR 1115 Plantes et Systèmes de Culture Horticoles, Domaine St Paul, Site Agroparc, 84914Avignon, France(2)INRA UMR 1332, Biologie du Fruit et Pathologie, 71 av Edouard Bourlaux, 33140 Villenaved’Ornon, France* helene.gautier@avignon.inra.frThis work is part of the Eranet EraSysBio+ FRuit Integrative Modelling project, which aims at characterizing andmodelling the effect of environmental factors on carbon metabolism of tomato fruit during its development.Despite the well-known effect of temperature on plant phenology and respiration, models used to predict fruitproduction or fruit quality fail to consider temperature impact on fruit composition. Our objective was thus to focus131


Posters of Topic 2on these aspects in order to establish how changes in fruit temperature will affect fruit growth and the time courseof accumulation of sugars, acids and secondary compounds until maturity.Greenhouse-grown tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Money Maker) were subjected to local heating from20 days post-anthesis (DPA) until maturity. An automated local heating system was designed with thermocouplesto monitor fruit heaters in order to maintain 3 temperature offsets (+3, +6 and +9°C compared to control fruits)throughout the day and night. Fruit were harvested at the start of the treatment (20 DPA) and every followingweek until maturity (red ripe stage). After harvest, fruits were weighted and subsamples were desiccated for 4days at 80°C to determine dry matter content, or frozen in liquid nitrogen and store at -80°C before metabolicanalysis.Increasing fruit temperature significantly reduced the duration of fruit development to reach maturity from 58 days(control) to 51 days post anthesis (+9°C). It also reduced fruit growth (fruit equatorial diameter, and fruit freshweight) and fruit dry matter content. The reduction in fruit growth was likely due to reduction in fruit cell size as thenumber of cells was not affected. Increasing fruit temperature also accelerated starch degradation and affectedfruit content: amino acids, sugars or acids content. This work will be complemented by analyses of secondarycompounds such as Vitamin C and carotenoids.Keywords: temperature, fruit growth, quality, sugars, acids, tomato.Changes in carotenoid composition in flowers of Tagetes tenuifoliaCav. and Tagetes patula L. during storageOSCHMANN, Cornelia; GRUND, Friederike; TESKE, Sebastian; ULRICHS, Christian *;HUYSKENS-KEIL, SusanneHumboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Division Urban Plant Ecophysiology, Lentzeallee 55/57, 14195 Berlin,Germany* christian.ulrichs@agrar.hu-berlin.deSome secondary plant compounds are known to show antioxidative potential and thus, health promotingproperties. The edible flowers of Tagetes ssp. reveal high contents of carotenoids and have a high nutritionalvalue. Carotenoids are antioxidants and play an important role in human health maintenance by helping to reducethe impact and minimize the oxidative damage caused by surplus free radicals.The aim of the present study was 1. To evaluate the content of antioxidative carotenoids in three differentcultivars of Tagetes tenuifolia Cav. cv. ‚Luna Lemon‘, ‚Luna Orange‘ and ‚Luna Red‘ at the time of harvest and 2.to assess the carotenoid pattern (total carotenoids, ß-carotene, lutein and lycopene) of flowers of two differentcultivars and varieties of Tagetes patula L. cv. ‚Disco Marietta‘ and Tagetes tenuifolia Cav. cv. ‚Sperling’sOrangemeer‘ at the time of harvest and during storage for 4 days under simulated retail conditions (12 h at 20°Cand 12 h at 5°C, 90% rh) for 4 days.In Tagetes tenuifolia Cav. cv. ‚Luna Lemon‘, ‚Luna Orange‘ and ‚Luna Red‘, the color intensity of flowerssignificantly correlated with total content of carotenoids. Thus, ‚Luna Red‘ had the highest carotenoid content,followed by ‚Luna Orange‘ and ‚Luna Lemon‘. Flowers of Tagetes tenuifolia Cav. cv. ‚Sperling’s Orangemeer‘showed higher carotenoid contents in comparison to Tagetes patula L. ‚Disco Marietta‘. During storagecarotenoids in all varieties remained almost constant.Due to their high contents of bioactive compounds, among them ß-carotene and lutein, Tagetes tenuifolia Cav.showed a high nutritional potential. Further studies are in progress in order to investigate the effect of growingregime, postharvest technologies, and conditions of distribution on health promoting properties of edible flowers.132


Posters of Topic 2Preliminary study on non-destructive assessment of Europeanplum (Prunus domestica L.) maturitySALAMA, Abdel-Moety; NEUMÜLLER, Michael; TREUTTER, DieterUnit of Fruit Science, Technische Universität MünchenD -85354, Freising- Weihenstephan, GERMANYask002047@yahoo.comPlum maturity is usually assessed by destructive methods in the laboratory. The determination of harvestdate and quality factors of European plum is poorly studied but needs to be as accurate as possible. Thus, forprecision agriculture or continuous following of plum maturation, more rapid and non-destructive methods areneeded. Therefore, in addition to measurements of fruit color, a new optical method was recently proposed. It isbased on the estimation of the screening of chlorophyll fluorescence by flavonols and anthocyanins. This allowsto indirectly quantify these phenolics in the intact fruit skin. Here, we present the first results obtained with thecommercial device Multiplex on two European plum Prunus domestica L. cultivars, ‘Haganta’ and ‘Hoh4517’during 2010 season.Keywords: Plum, Ripening, Flavonoids, Chlorophyll fluorescence, multiplex.Evaluating short term effects of temperature and light on strawberry‘ELSINORE®’ firmnessPYROTIS, Stavros; ABAYOMI, Louise *; REES, Debbie; WHITFIELD, Charles; ORCHARD,JohnNatural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, Kent ME4 4TB, United Kingdom*Corresponding author: l.abayomi@greenwich.ac.ukThe hypothesis was to test if there is a short term effect of increased temperature and light levels on strawberryfruit firmness. Strawberry plants of cv. Elsinore® were grown at a commercial farm and at fruiting stagetransferred into growth cabinets where they were subjected to 16 hour day/8 hour night cycles respectively, and to12 hour low (20 o C)/ 12 hour high (28 o C) temperature cycles, in succession. Three harvest days took place over aperiod of four weeks. For each harvest day, three fruit picks occurred, with a time interval of 4 hours betweenpicks. The conditions over the 4 hours immediately prior to harvest were darkness and low temperature for thefirst pick, light and low temperature for the second pick and light and high temperature for the third pick.Significant differences (p


Posters of Topic 2The effect of modified atmosphere storage on the quality of freshdill (Anethum graveolens L.)TSAMAIDI, Dimitra *; PASSAM, Harold C.Agricultural University of Athens, Laboratory of Vegetable Production,Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens, Greece* dtsamaidi@gmail.comBecause of its high perishability, fresh dill (Anethum graveolens L.) cannot be stored for more than a few days,even at low temperature. The present study was therefore undertaken to determine whether modifiedatmospheres based on changes in CO2 and O2 concentrations would benefit dill storage. Dill cv. Ducat wascultivated between October 2009 and January 2010. Plants were harvested at the fresh market stage (beforeflowering) and randomly selected leaves were weighed, placed in airtight plastic bags and stored for 10 days at5°C. The atmospheres within the containers (O2-CO2-N2) were initially as follows: (1) 20-0-80 (air), (2) 20-10-70,(3) 10-0-90, and (4): 10-10-80. The changes in O2-CO2 concentrations were monitored during storage; freshweight, chlorophyll, vitamin C and total phenolics concentrations were measured before and after storage. Theoxygen concentration within the bags during storage fell to 12.5% (treatment 1) and 17.9% (treatment 2)indicating a reduction of respiration due to the inclusion of 10% CO2 within the initial atmosphere (20% O2). At aninitial concentration of 10% O2, the oxygen level decreased to 5.5% and 5.8% in the absence or presence of 10%CO2 (treatments 3 and 4), respectively. In each case, the decrease in O2 was accompanied by a correspondingincrease in CO2 concentration. Weight loss during storage ranged from 2.6-5.3% and the total phenolics levelsdecreased in all treatments except treatment 3 (10-0-90). Vitamin C and chlorophyll concentrations decreasedduring storage. Vitamin C loss was similar in all treatments, but chlorophyll loss was significantly higher in thetreatments with 10% CO2. In consequence, although modified atmospheres containing 10% CO2 reducerespiratory activity they are of questionable value for dill because the decrease in chlorophyll concentrationcauses a decrease in quality.Keywords: chlorophyll, temperature, total phenolics, vitamin C, oxygen, carbon dioxide.Influence of storage conditions on flavonoids content andantioxidant activity of selected shallot (Allium cepa L. AggregatumGroup) cultivarsPUDZIANOWSKA, Marta; GAJEWSKI, Marek; PRZYBYŁ, Jarosław *; BURACZYŃSKA,Agnieszka; GACZKOWSKA, Olga; MATUSZCZAK, MartaWarsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Poland* jaroslaw.przybyl@gmail.comAllium crops are well known because of their biological activity mainly resulted from presence of sulphurcompounds, however these species are also a rich source of flavonoids, mainly quercetin glycosides. Thesecompounds show antioxidant properties, preventing human organisms from harmful effects of free radicals.Numerous reports on common onion have been published, but shallot was much less investigated in respect of itsquality, especially hybrid cultivars obtained recently by Dutch breeders. The aim of this study was to determinechanges in the content of flavonoids in fleshy scales of shallot bulbs resulting from storage in differentatmosphere compositions. Also the influence of storage conditions on antioxidant activity of the bulbs wasdetermined. Bulbs of the three shallot cvs.: 'Bonilla F1' ‘Conservor F1' and ‘Matador F1’ were stored in the normalatmosphere (NA) and controlled atmosphere (CA) of the following compositions: 5% CO 2 + 5% O 2, 5% CO 2 + 2%O 2, 2% CO 2 + 5% O 2, 2% CO 2 + 2% O 2. The temperature of storage was 0-1 o C and RH 85%. Before and after 7-month storage period the bulbs were examined in respect of flavonoids content and antioxidant activity (AA).Flavonoids were identified in methanolic extracts with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), AA wasmeasured with FRAP and DPPH assays. Four flavonoid compounds were identified in the plants extracts.Quercetin 3,4’ di-O-glucoside and quercetin 4’-glucoside (spireside) were present in the highest amounts. Content134


Posters of Topic 2of the flavonoids was higher after storage period than directly after harvest, regardless to atmospherecomposition. The cultivars significantly differed in flavonoids content, and 'Bonilla F 1' bulbs appeared to be therichest in flavonoids, both directly after harvest and after storage. Investigated shallot cultivars differed also inrespect of AA. The highest AA level estimated with DPPH assay showed 'Bonilla F 1' bulbs. The highest AAmeasured with FRAP assay directly after harvest showed also bulbs of 'Bonilla F 1', while after storage – of'Conservor F 1'. AA measured with DPPH assay didn’t show significant influence of storage, however AAmeasured with FRAP assay was significantly lower directly after harvest of the bulbs than after storage.Atmosphere composition showed a small effect on AA measured with FRAP assay and did not show any effect onAA measured with DPPH assay.Keywords: shallot, cultivars, flavonoids, antioxidant activity, DPPH, FRAP.Storage of onions in farm scale ventilated silosFERREIRA, Ana (1) *; SOUZA, Cristina (1) ; PEREIRA, Ariana (1) ; CARDOSO, Deise (1) ;FINGER, Fernando (1)(1)UFV/Departamento de Fitotecnia – Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa-MG, Brazilana.sato.ferreira@gmail.comOnions is the third most popular vegetable commercialized in Brazil. But despite of its importance there only a fewstudies dealing with the storage of the bulb without refrigeration. In this work 400 kg of cured onions were storedin a 1.0 m in diameter by 1.5 m in height silo, ventilated at rate of 25 m 3 / h every day during the night period (12hours). As control treatment, the onions were put in 20 kg bags of interlaced threads polyethylene. At every fifteendays it was determined the total soluble solids, titratable acidity, length of sprouting leaf, alliinase activity and lossfresh weight. The onions stored in the silo were discarded after 90 days, presenting 80% of rotten bulbs and 0.5%of sprouted. The bagged bulbs were eliminated at 45 days of storage showing 86% of rotten onions and 1% ofsprouted bulbs. There was an increase in the total soluble solids in the onions stored in the bags, while in the silothere was an increase followed by a continuous drop at later stages of storage. The length of the sprouting leafduring the storage increased by 6.1-fold on the bagged onions and by 4.5-fold on the silo ventilated. Thepungency increased during storage in both treatments, due to an increase on alliinase activity. In the baggedonions the rate of fresh weight was 0.069%/day and 0.055%/day. The ventilated silo is a viable alternative as alow cost to storage technique compared to the traditional bagging method.Keywords: Allium cepa L., postharvest, alliinase.The influence of flower developmental status on shelf life of floralvegetable products: a case study of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var.italica)KABAKERIS, Theresa (1) *; ZUTZ, Karsten (2) ; BOLLING, Janina (1) ; HERPPICH, Werner (1) ;GEYER, Martin (1)(1) Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam Bornim, Max-Eyth-Allee 100, 14469Potsdam, Germany(2) Leibniz University Hannover, Institute of Biological Production Systems, Vegetable SystemsModeling Section, Herrenhنuser Str. 2, 30419 Hannover, Germany* tkabakeris@atb-potsdam.deFor commercial growers, fast and nondestructive methods to evaluate broccoli quality at all stages of the supplychain are highly desired. The edible part of broccoli consists of an immature, developing inflorescence, which is135


Posters of Topic 2rapidly affected by senescence. So far it is assumed that broccoli curds of a young developmental stage withundifferentiated flower buds can be stored for a longer time than curds in a stage close to flowering. At themoment, possibilities to determine broccoli physiological status during cultivation, at harvest and during storageare scarce.Broccoli curds were harvested on fields of a commercial grower near Hamburg in June and August 2011 andwere stored in cooling chambers at 3.5°C and 10°C for 26 and 8 days, respectively. During growth, the diameterof inflorescences was measured regularly. In order to nondestructively describe the developmental stage of curds,photographs of individual broccoli florets were taken with a microscope camera shortly after harvest. In addition,surface color changes were measured every 48 hours with a chromameter (MINOLTATM CM-2600d) andanalyzed as L*, a* and b*, hue angle and Chroma.Analysis of microscopic pictures showed that the size of individual flowers on different curds varied from 1.1 to 2.3mm (June) and from 0.9 to 3.1 mm (August). There was no correlation between the diameters of individualflowers and that of broccoli curds. At 10°C storage temperature, a* and b* values indicated degreening of broccolicurds during 8 days of storage, while inflorescences remained green at the common storage temperatures of3.5°C during 26 days of storage. Color changes accompanied an increase in the variation coefficients of a* andb*. In the August experiment, there was a weak correlation (r²=0.32) between diameter and h° values of curds atthe last storage day. However, the relationship between the developmental stage of broccoli curds and their shelflife could not be confirmed.Keywords: flower buds, senescence, color change, hue anglePlum ripening evaluation by 1 H NMR spectroscopyAYUB, Ricardo Antonio (1) *; FONSECA, Flavia Aparecida (2) ; BARISON, Anderson (3)(1) Researcher, Department of Crop Science Ponta Grossa State University, Paraná, Brazil.(2) Ph.D. Department of Chemistry Paraná Federal University, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.(3) Researcher, Department of Chemistry Paraná Federal University, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.* rayub@uepg.brThe increasing demand on fruit and juices consume as well as the need to long time storage fruits and decreaseproduction time has stimulated the use of ripening accelerators in all the word, in order to induce physiologicalmaturity of the fruits. Therefore, this investigation aimed to evaluate the effect ripening accelerators on plumReubennel post-harvest by means of NMR spectroscopy. For this, plums were harvested in Orchard Farm Schoolfrom Ponta Grossa State University, in different ripening stages (early maturation, 7 and 22 days after maturationstarts). In each harvest, some fruits were submitted to artificial ripening by immersion in a 2-chloroethylphosphonic solution for two minutes, while others were allowed to natural ripening. After ten daysripening, juice was obtained and submitted to 1H NMR analysis. The 1H NMR spectra revealed that there are nosignificant differences in the chemical composition of sugar and organic acids, such as malic and citric, betweennatural and induced ripening plum, after they have been harvested. The application of the ripening acceleratorhas caused only superficial changes on fruits, such as in color and skin softening, but any improvement on thefruit quality regarded to sugars and organic acid amounts. On the other hand, the sucrose amount was stillincreasing on fruits that remained in trees, while the amounts of organic acids were in decreasing. The increasingon sucrose levels could be related to need for energy by the fruits, once the metabolism is still working. Inharvested fruits the metabolism stops and than the increasing on sugar amounts also stops, is not reactivated bythe application of ripening accelerators. This fact is supported by the amounts of other sugars, such as α and βglucose and fructose, that were invariable during ripening. This founds revealed that the fruits could be ripenedsome time more in tree and improved its quality, and than harvested and treatment with ripening accelerators inorder to homogenize color and skin softening, once no increases on sucrose was observed in treated fruits, norreduction on organic acids. Therefore, NMR spectroscopy can be employed on determination of optimal stage forharvest, regarding its sugar and organic acids content as well as to verify changes by application of ripeningaccelerators.Key Words: ripening accelerators, composition of sugar and organic acids.136


Posters of Topic 2Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene, normal and modified atmospheretreatments on quality and vase life of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii)AKBUDAK, Bulent *; MURAT, SenayDepartment of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Uludag UniversityGorukle Campus, Nilufer, 16059 Bursa,Turkey* bakbudak@uludag.edu.trIn the study, the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), normal (NA) and modified atmosphere (MA) storagewere investigated on postharvest quality properties and vase life of gerbera. The flowers were stored at 4±1 ºCtemperature and 80±5% relative humidity (RH). At the end of the study, 1-MCP treatment with NA and MAsignificantly reduced postharvest quality losses. The best results for the quality criteria determined in the researchwere obtained from the 1-MCP and 30 µ PVC combined treatment.Keywords: gerbera, postharvest treatment, quality, storage, vase life.Effect of preharvest biopreparat treatment on storage of gerbera(Gerbera jamesonii)AKBUDAK, Bulent *; MURAT, SenayDepartment of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Uludag UniversityGorukle Campus, Nilufer, 16059 Bursa,Turkey* bakbudak@uludag.edu.trIn the study was examined effect of preharvest and postharvest treatments on storage period and vase life ofgerbera (Gerbera jamesonii cv. Rosalin). With this purpose, gerberas were treated with preharvest mycorrhizaand trichoderma, postharvest normal (NA) and modified atmosphere (MA) treatments. Cover materials in differentcharacteristics such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyvinylchloride (PVC) used in MA. Then, theflowers were harvested in commercial maturity and stored for 35 days under NA and MA conditions with 4±1 ºCtemperature and 80±5% relative humidity (RH). Following each storage period, flowers were kept at 22±1 ºC and60±5% RH to determine vase life. In the samples taken from 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 35 days were determinedsome quality changes. At the end of the study, trichoderma treatment with MA significantly reduced postharvestquality losses. The best results for the quality parameters determined in the research were obtained from thetrichoderma and 30 µ PVC combined treatment.Keywords: mycorrhiza, quality, storage, trichoderma, vase life.Evaluation of carnation flower colour of Domingo and Famosacultivars in postharvest and their relationship with ethylenebiosynthesis(1)EBRAHIM-ZADEH, Asghar (1) ; MARTÍNEZ-RAMÍREZ, Gabriela Beatriz (2) ; JIMÉNEZ-BECKER, Silvia (2) ; PLAZA, Blanca María (2) ; LAO, Maria Teresa (2)Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Maragheh,55181-83111. Iran.137


Posters of Topic 2(2) Department of Crop Production, University of Almería, Agrifood Campus of International Excellence(CEIA3). Ctra. Sacramento s/n. 04120 Almería, Spain* mtlao@ual.esPetals and leaves colour is an important quality parameter. Colour must be able to maintain during vase life. Thisparameter is related with cultivars. Nevertheless, throughout vase life colour changes in function of flower stages.Carnations are described as a climacteric flower, where the influence of ethylene exposure could be related withflower colour. This work presents carnation petal colour measures related with the ratio of ethylene biosynthesis.Two carnation cultivars Domingo and Famosa were essayed. Three treatments were applied to Dianthuscaryophyllus cut flowers: expose to exogenous ethylene at 1 ppm concentration up to 8h (T1), Silver thiosulphate(STS) at 1 mM for 2h (T2) and flowers held in distilled water served as control (T3). Ethylene ratio of biosynthesiswas measured by gas chromatography and petal colour was measured by photograph and RGB model ofPhotoshop software. Differences in ethylene ratio biosynthesis were found between cultivars, even betweentreatments for each cultivar. The method used to determine changes in colour in carnation flowers is an easy anduseful tool. Red, Green and Blue values present changes along stages of postharvest in 2 cultivars in alltreatments essayed. Significant differences between treatments were found in red colour in cultivar Domingowhen it started ethylene biosynthesis. Only STS treatment maintains colour at this stage. Green and Bluemeasurements present significant differences at stage 5 in cultivar Domingo, presenting the same tendency asred colour. Also, Famosa presents significant differences of green and blue colour under control treatment atstage 7.Keywords: RGB model, vase life, flower stages, senescence.Experiences of biological control of Pseudomonas viridiflava on cutflowers of Ranunculus asiaticus(1)FASCELLA, Salvatore (1) ; BOERI, Giovanni Luca (1) ; CANGELOSI, Benedetta (1) ; PASINI,Carlo (1) ; BENUZZI, Massimo (2) ; CURIR, Paolo (1) *CRA-FSO The Agriculture Research Council - Unit for Floriculture and Ornamentals Species,Sanremo (Im) Italy(2) Intrachem Bio Italy, Technical Service, Cesena (FC), Italy* paolo.curir@entecra.itThe main pathology affecting buttercup (Ranunculus asiaticus) crops of the Riviera Ligure is the infection of theepigeal organs, caused by Pseudomonas viridiflava. It is a disease of bacterial origin which affects plant leavesand causes the appearance of internerval and stem browning necrotic spots and the subsequent decaying ofleaves with further collapse of the tissues. When environmental conditions are favourable, the development ofdisease may also involve flowers. We report the results of three trials of fight against P. viridiflava on cut flowerscultivar Pink Elegance in climatic chamber at 6-8 °C and humidity close to saturation. In all the trials, flowerswere inoculated artificially with a suspension of the pathogen, at the concentration of 1x10 8 cfu (colony formingunits)/ml. In the first trial : copper penta-hydrate 5.5%, (Mastercop), copper hydroxide 26.2%, (Heliocuivre),Fosetyl-Al 25% + oxychloride copper 25%, (R6 Bordeaux), acibenzolar-S-methyl 50%, (Bion 50 WG), coppersulphate neutralized with lime 20%, (Selecta Disperss), Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713, 1,34 %, (Serenade ASO)were used in post-inoculation. In the following two trials: copper hydroxide 19,9% (Heliocuivre S), tribasic coppersulphate 15.2% (Cuproxat), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain 747 25%, ≥ containing 437.5x10 12 cfu/hl (Amylo-X),B. amyloliquefaciens strain 747 25% ≥ containing 312.5x10 12 cfu/hl (Amylo-X), Reynoutria sachalinensis extract5%, (Regalia), have been evaluated, respectively. These products were administered at different times: preinoculationand post-inoculation of the bacterium. In summary, the use of biological active ingredients allowed aneffective control of P. viridiflava, especially when they were administered in the pre-inoculation phase. The extractof R. sachalinensis showed good ability to limit infection in pre-inoculation and post inoculation, better than thecopper-based products. The effect of B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, that in some cases displayed a goodefficacy in controlling the disease, needs further investigation.Keywords: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus subtilis, leaf rot, Ranunculus asiaticus, Reynoutria sachalinensis.138


Posters of Topic 2Market acceptance and willingness to pay of customersfor plants in biodegradable potsGABRIEL, Andreas *; MENRAD, KlausChair of Marketing and ManagementWeihenstephan-Triesdorf University of Applied SciencesFreising, Germany* a.gabriel@wz-straubing.deSince decades, environmental protection and waste reduction are highly discussed issues in Germany.Especially, topics of recycling and reducing of plastic containers increased efforts to utilize biodegradablematerials. According to experts opinions technical solutions are available to apply biodegradable flower pots forornamental plants since the beginning of the 1990s. However, a successful and extended introduction on theGerman market has been hampered up to now because of insufficient processing and marketing opportunities(Groot et al., 2000). A high uncertainty of plant producers, retailers and consumers and lack of productinformation also play negative roles in this context. Most plant buyers disclose high ecological-oriented attitudes(Straeter&Bormann, 2008; Hall et al., 2010), but this does not per se result in a higher willingness to pay andbuying behavior of consumers for such higher-priced biodegradable pots.Hence, in our study 562 customers of six flower retail shops and garden centers in Western and SouthernGermany are asked directly after buying certain potted plants (ornamentals, young vegetable plants and herbs)offered in the shops – both in standard plastic and in biodegradable pots. Both alternatives are promoted side byside at the stores with explicit price declaration and proper information about the benefits of the newbiodegradable pot material. The price difference of the plants in the two pot types is determined equal to thehigher material and production costs utilizing the biodegradable pots (20-30 cents). Interviewers recorded thecustomers’ choice in their shopping trolley and asked questions about the intention of the purchase, knowledge ofbiodegradable materials and characteristics of the buyer himself. In order to detect real market acceptance andwillingness to pay higher prices for biodegradable pots the respondents had to remember the noticed pricedifferences, their reasons for choosing a certain pot type and their individual price threshold for plants in the moreenvironmentally-friendly container.The analysis exposes that the respondents show both high interests in biodegradable pots and an increasedwillingness to pay an additional charge of 15-48 % depending on the kind of potted plants. Especially for edibleand vegetable plants the consumers’ recalled pain threshold of higher product prices is higher the additional costsof producing plants in biodegradable pots. Furthermore, the survey revealed that quality and environmentalaspects are higher-ranked product properties than the price for customers of these stores. An additional marketpotential can be created by combining these biodegradable pots with organically produced plants.Keywords: biodegradable plant pots, willingness-to-pay, consumer behaviour.Price perception and long-term price knowledge ofbuyers of ornamental plantsGABRIEL, Andreas *; MENRAD, KlausChair of Marketing and ManagementWeihenstephan-Triesdorf University of Applied SciencesFreising, Germany* a.gabriel@wz-straubing.deIn recent years, in Germany specialized retail stores for flowers and plants more and more have to competeagainst new distribution channels like food retail stores especially with respect to pricing and scale effects. Manyshop managers are convinced that they have to adapt competitors’ prices because of customers’ price-dominatedperception of the distributed products.Thus, it is it is the target of this study to analyze the long-term price knowledge of customers of ornamental plantsin German retail stores. For this purpose one of the most popular ornamental potted plants like Pelargonium139


Posters of Topic 2(spring-summer) and Poinsettia (advent time) have been chosen. Customers’ price knowledge includes referenceprices perceived in long-term memory and can be affected by several factors around the product (category), storeand brand (e. g. intensity of advertising) and of course by the consumer itself (buying behavior, sociodemographics,buying intention etc.). Additionally, different factors of price perception of the buyers of plants caninfluence the long-term price knowledge which can be measured by scanning the explicit price recall accuracy ofconsumers before they are entering the retail store. In our study, 253 customers in six horticultural retail storeswere face-to-face interviewed in Mai and November 2011 about aspects of their buying behavior, price perceptionissues and their product price estimations concerning Pelargonium and Poinsettia. Based on a foregoing literaturereview on related studies considering other consumption product categories, the coherency of potential impactfactors on the price perception and the price recall accuracy of the consumers are analyzed.A first result of the survey was a distinct respondents’ overestimation of the actual price of the plants in the storesof 16 % in average. An observed broad price band between the expected minimum and maximum price for theplants in the retail stores is another indicator for a high price uncertainty of the customers for these products. Wealso found that beside other consumer characteristics (e. g. intentions, socio-demographics) the existent priceperception plays an important role for the price knowledge of the consumers. Measured in the four different pricerelatedconstructs – price and quality consciousness, price-quality scheme and sales proneness - the generalprice perception has direct impact on the recall accuracy of buyers of seasonal potted plants. The findings of thisstudy show low price knowledge of the customers of ornamental plants in general and offer new cues for shopmanagers for adjusted pricing and promotion activities.Keywords: Pricing, price perception, price knowledge, consumer behaviour, retail marketing.Insight of consumer cognitive and preference toward thevegetables grown with the cultivation technology of plant factoryHUANG, Li-ChunDept. of Bio-Industry Communication and Development, National Taiwan University,Taipei, Taiwanlihuang@ntu.edu.twEven though the cultivation technology of plant factory has been used in horticultural industry for years, it is still anew approach for some Asian countries, such as Japan, Taiwan and China, regarding applying the plant factorysystem into the mass production of vegetables. With the plant factory system, vegetables are cultivated in awarehouse-liked factory. Due to its automatic control environmental system, plant factory gives the advantages ofpesticide residue free and all year round production to the production of vegetables, which are highly treasuredvalues for consumers and food industry. However, the high equipment and maintenance costs of plant factoryresult the higher price of its vegetable products on the market. From the aspect of market competitiveness, price,technology acceptance and consumer perception are still the challenges for marketing the vegetables grown fromthe technology of plant factory. This article was aimed to investigate the consumer perception and suspicionstoward applying the plant factory technology into vegetable production. Consumers’ perception, preference andwillingness to pay for the vegetables grown from plant factory were also investigated. A consumer survey, with asample of 390 participants, was conducted in Taiwan for reaching the study goals. The study results indicatedthat approximately 54.9% of the consumers felt confused between the organic vegetables and plant factory grownvegetables; 33.3% of the consumers considered that plant factory was just the same as the general hydroponicstechnology. In addition, 64.4% of the consumers had suspicions about the plant factory. What the consumerssuspected about applying plant factory technology into vegetable production was: the pollution that might bemade by the used nutrient solution (44.6%), the energy consumption issues (42.2%) and so on. The governmentresearch institute would get the highest trust support (57.2%) when consumers were choosing a producer ofvegetables which are cultivated by plant factory technology. Over 52% of the consumers were willing to acceptand try the vegetables which were produced by the plant factory technology. However, 37% of the consumersindicated that they needed more information about the technology of plant factory before they decided to buy thevegetables of plant factory. These customers were also wondering if the used nutrient solution would pollute theenvironment (44.6%) and too much energy might be wasted during the process of production (42.2%). The studyresult also suggests the consumers’ acceptable price range for plant factory vegetables: the maximum acceptableprice level was about 20% to 30% higher than that of the regular vegetables.Keywords: soilless cultivation, vegetable consumption, vegetable cultivation, consumer evaluation, willingness topay.140


Posters of Topic 2Importance of the horticultural therapy in the view of the people ofNovi Sad (Vojvodina, Serbia)GACIC, Ana *; BLAGOJEVIC, Ivana; CUKANOVIC, Jelena; MLADENOVIC, Emina* anagacic898@gmail.comThis paper examines a public opinion about the importance of horticultural therapy. The research was conductedin the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, through the survey. The application and benefits of horticultural therapy, users ofthe treatment, the objects of therapy application, are some of ten questions contained in the questionnaire. Theobtained results showing that 52% of respondents are familiar with the term horticulture therapy, however, morethan half of respondents did not know where the therapy can be applied, or who therapy users are. The resultsshow that more female respondents are familiar with the term of horticultural therapy. Also, respondents withhigher levels of education are more familiar with the importance of horticultural activities. Nearly two-thirds ofrespondents did not know what the benefits of the therapy are, while 100% of the respondents had never visited afacility where horticultural therapy is applied. This result can be explained by the fact that in Serbia there hasn’tfacility in which horticultural therapy is implemented. From these results it could be concluded that the citizens ofNovi Sad are not sufficiently aware of the benefits arising from the activities in horticultural therapy. It is necessaryto conduct a training of the relevant stakeholders, training of therapists, and then the application of thehorticultural therapy in a various institutions in Serbia.Keywords: horticulture therapy, survey, Novi Sad.Trend analysis usability in the horticultural innovation process- Applied to innovation design for the Kalanchoë market -RUCAR, Manuel (1) *; CHRISTOFOL, Herve (2) ; GALOPIN, Gilles (3)(1) Chlorosphere, Angers Technopole(2) Arts et Métiers ParisTech Angers LAMPA, LUNAM Université d’Angers(3) Agroscampus Ouest INHP* manuel@chlorosphere.frMore and more, style and aesthetics are determining crIteria in the consumer market of plants. The horticulturalindustry is an industrial network from the scientist, the grower, the seller and the landscaper to the final consumer.In fact, apart from distributors or prescribers such as the landscapers, other actors in the network are not facedwith the expectations and concerns of consumers. Other industrial sectors, for example automotive or textileindustries have been structured to coordinate their contributions in order to anticipate customer needs better andthey have designed a method : Trend Analysis.Our aim is to study the transfer of this Trend Analysis method to the horticultural domain. It would thus bepossible for the actors in the horticultural network to use tools which have already proved to be effective.In this paper, we propose a study of the Kalanchoë market to identify innovations in other sectors which couldstimulate style-innovation transfers.In the first part, a phylogenetic studie will make it possible to determine which Kalanchoë families appared overtime (from the classical Flower Kalanchoë to wildflower and varieties with foliage such as the thyrsyfolia). Amarketing study will check the current sales formats (kalanchoë artificially colored blue, monospecific pot, coloredpot, mini plants) and the consumer’s perceptions of these plants.In the second part, interviews of experts will allow us to discover the sectors of influence they had selected in theirpast projects. The experience of the design and research team will be solicited too.And In the third part a multidimensional analysis of the current offer and the list of sectors of Influence will bemapped in order to propose new axes of stylistic innovation.141


Posters of Topic 2Unraveling apple consumer segmentation by the identification ofassociated sensory preference keydriversCHARLES, Mathilde (1) (2) *; MAITRE, Isabelle (1) ; SYMONEAUX, Ronan (1) ; VIGNEAU,Evelyne (3) ; PROST, Carole (2) ; MEHINAGIC, Emira (1)(1) LUNAM Université, Groupe ESA, SFR 4207 QUASAV, UPSP GRAPPE, France(2) LUNAM Université, ONIRIS, Flavour Research Group, UMR CNRS 6144, France(3) LUNAM Université, ONIRIS, Sensometrics and Chemometrics Laboratory, France* m.charles@groupe-esa.comApple is the most produced and consumed fruit in France and in Europe. The importance of fruit texture andflavour for consumers was shown in different studies. However, a fine segmentation of apple consumer on a largeselection of cultivars has not been carried out until now. In order to analyse this segmentation and to identifypreference sensory key drivers, a study with 31 cultivars was set out.As the impact of fruit colour can significantly influence hedonic responses of consumers, fruits were presentedpeeled in order to focus on in-mouth perceptions. Fruits were analysed, both, by a trained panel composed of 15experts and at the same time by 224 French consumers.A conventional profile, using 30 descriptors (Odour, Taste, Texture and Aroma), was set up by the trained panel,while consumers were asked to score the liking of the product using a nine-point hedonic scale. A questionnaireon uses and attitudes relative to apple consumption was also submitted to each consumer.An approach based on preference mapping techniques was used to link sensory descriptive results and likingdata: internal preference mapping, on one side, to identify the different consumer segments; external preferencemapping, on another side, performed for the mean consumer of each group to model preference according tosensory descriptors.Three segments were identified. The first group (~45% of the respondents) is composed of consumers who,whatever the texture, have a clear preference for aromatic and sweet apples with exotic fruit, flower and ripe fruitnotes. Their sensory preferences do not match the image they have about their liking. This underlines a lack ofknowledge of the consumers about apple cultivars. The second group (~33% of the respondents) likes aromatic,crunchy and acidic apples especially Granny Smith cultivar. These consumers take care about the cultivar whenbuying apples. And the third group (~22% of the respondents) prefers aromatic apples (ripe fruit note) with afondant texture.Texture as aroma play a significant role in apple preferences. The importance of these two criteria lead us tostudy their influence when tasting an apple and to set up innovative sensory methodologies to better grasp therole of aroma/texture on perception.Typology of German Consumers on the Market for OrnamentalPlantsKAIM, E. (1) *; FLUCK, K. (1) ; ALTMANN, M. (2)(1) Department of Economics and Market Research, Research Center Geisenheim, Germany(2) CoConcept, Luxembourg* eike.kaim@fa-gm.deIntroductionDuring the last 25 years the German market for ornamental plants has undergone many changes: e.g. at theproduction level a decline of smaller companies is to be registered, whereas at retail level additional shoppingsites in supermarkets and garden centers have increased and thus intensified the competitive environment. In142


Posters of Topic 2addition, consumers show a more differentiated shopping behavior. These developments do have an impact onthe whole supply chain. For all active performers in the market, it is crucial to know which types of consumers arebuying their products and what kind of wishes they have. The last scientific survey to this topic (Altmann, 1984)already dates back more than 25 years and it can be hypothesized that some of those consumer types do nolonger exist, some new consumer types, young consumers in particular, have developed. There is a newgeneration of the ornamental plant buyers whose motives have not yet been investigated enough.Materials and methodsThe objectives of this research work are to analyze the motives of the consumers to buy ornamental plants and todevelop an up to date typology of ornamental plant consumers. A consumer typology provides useful informationfor strategic decisions of the enterprises along the value added chain. It will enable the actors in the ornamentalplant sector to deliver tailor-made products and problem solutions.In order to analyze motive structures of consumers, a questionnaire was designed. Its development was based onthe results of a preliminary study. The core of the standardized questionnaire is formed by a validated statementbattery which is completed by questions concerning the use of plants at home, the shopping behavior as well asdemographic characteristics. A number of 500 consumers were reached, representative for the population in themetropolitan area of the Rhine Main Region in Germany. Therefore the results of this study can be transferred toother German urban conurbations. The consumer data collected were analyzed by factor analysis and clusteranalysis.ResultsAt first, the statistical evaluation of the data conducted by factor analysis conducted nine factors, explainingattitudes of consumers towards plants (cut flowers, potted plants, bed & balcony) and their buying motives.Second, six different types of consumers were found by cluster analysis. The poster shows the results of the sixconsumer cluster solution.Literature citedAltmann, M. 1984. Consumer's typology at the ornamental plant market. Research reports to the economy in thehorticulture (47), Hannover and Weihenstephan.Keywords: market segmentation, consumertypology, ornamental plants, factor analysis, cluster analysis.143


PLENARY SESSIONTOPIC 3CONCEPTION AND ASSESSMENT OF INNOVATINGSUSTAINABLE HORTICULTURAL SYSTEMS, INCLUDINGORGANIC HORTICULTURE


Plenary SessionSustainable production systems in fruit orchardsXILOYANNIS, CristosDepartment of Crop Systems, Forestry and Environmental Sciences,University of Basilicata, 85100 Potenza, Italycristos.xiloyannis@unibas.itOver the past six decades a large proportion of agricultural land has been degraded (erosion, loss of organicmatter, salinization, etc.) by over-exploitation and excessive external input (chemical fertilizers, unsuitableirrigation methods, application of low-quality water, soil tillage, etc). The emission of greenhouse gases fromagriculture currently accounts for 10-12% of total anthropogenic emissions.Increasing consumer demand for low C-footprint food has encouraged the industry to find ways to reduce energyinput throughout the production-supply chain. At orchard scale, some operations (use of machines, fertilization,irrigation, etc) are CO2 sources, while the total carbon balance can be negative (sink) or positive (source)depending on soil and canopy management.Agricultural systems that use non-sustainable techniques can aggravate the current situation. While suchpractices are still common among growers, there is ample evidence that good practices can restore organicmatter levels in soil, reduce erosion and environmental pollution and increase CO2 sequestration from theatmosphere into the soil.A good fertilization plan should take into account plant demands, availability of mineral elements in the soil(mineralization process) and other inputs, particularly in the water used for irrigation, in order to avoid water andsoil contamination and improve yield quality and quantity. Environmentally-friendly techniques also have positiveeffects on soil microbiota, enhancing soil fertility, plant growth, yield and quality.Sustainable orchard management is of particular importance in Mediterranean climates, where there is a high rateof soil mineralization, low rainfall, high evapotranspiration and often little water available for irrigation. The soil canstore large amounts of rainwater, particularly in autumn and winter when plant water needs are very low. Deeploamy soils can hold up to 2.000 m3 ha-1, assuming a root depth of 1m. The water contained in this volume of soilcan satisfy 30-40% of the yearly water requirements of an orchard in semi-arid regions. Soil management underconditions of water scarcity should aim to improve water-holding capacity by increasing organic matter levels andhydraulic conductivity, and to eliminate or reduce evaporation.Orchard design, canopy architecture and correct management of the latter must also be addressed to improve notonly water use efficiency (by increasing the exposed/shaded leaves ratio) but also microclimatic conditions insidethe canopy, and therefore bud, flower and fruit quality. Efficiency can be increased by reducing tree size, adoptingtraining systems that maximise the number of exposed leaves, minimising shading, and performing summerpruning. Exposure to light and high evapotranspiration improves the quality and taste of fruit, increasesaccumulation of less-mobile mineral nutrients (such as calcium) and enhances accumulation of reservesubstances in wood and in flower buds and therefore flower quality.Keywords: organic matter, nutrition, irrigation, carbon balance, canopy architecture.146


TOPIC 3CONCEPTION AND ASSESSMENT OF INNOVATINGSUSTAINABLE HORTICULTURAL SYSTEMS, INCLUDINGORGANIC HORTICULTUREORAL PRESENTATIONS


Keynote AddressDeficit irrigation of horticultural crops: progress and challengesFERERES, EliasInstitute of Sustainable Agriculture (CSIC) and University of CordobaApartado 4084, 14080-Cordoba, SpainWater scarcity for irrigation is becoming a common situation in many world areas. This threat is particularlydangerous in the case of perennial crops, where water supply must be assured to guarantee the viability oforchards and vineyards. One option to cope with scarcity is to use deficit irrigation (DI), defined here as a regimewhere the applied irrigation water is less than the full evapotranspiration (ETc) requirements. When the irrigationrate is below the ETc rate, there will be a net depletion of water from the soil reservoir. Two situations may thendevelop. In one case, if there is sufficient stored soil water to sustain transpiration at potential rates, water deficitsdo not develop and the ETc is not affected, even though there has been a reduction in applied irrigation belownormal practice. This is often done inadvertently by many farmers in their orchards during the post-harvest period.However, if irrigation is insufficient to meet the ETc demand, crop water deficits may induce a reduction in growthand transpiration. In the latter situation, DI reduces ETc below its maximum potential leading to net water savingsthat may or may not have negative consequences for the production and the net income of the orchard.Faced with a situation of applying less water than is needed, several strategies have been proposed for optimaluse of the limited resource. In one, called continuous or sustained DI (SDI), a constant fraction of the crop ETc isapplied at regular intervals. If the soil profile is full at the start of the season, there is net soil water extraction tocompensate for the deficits; as the season progresses, the soil is progressively depleted and the water deficits willincrease in severity as time goes on in the absence of rainfall. An alternative approach is called regulated DI(RDI), and is defined as a regime that purposely stresses the trees or vines at specific crop developmental stagesconsidered to be the least sensitive to water deficits. Under RDI, the trees are subjected to irrigation deficits onlyat certain stages of development but they generally receive full irrigation outside these periods, in particular duringthose stages considered most sensitive to water deficits. Other options to reduce ETc are based on increasingirrigation interval to reduce E, or the alternate wetting and drying of each side of the tree or vine row in a practicecalled partial root drying (PRD). All these practices have been investigated over the last 20 years, with growinginterest over the last decade. At present, it is possible to formulate optimal RDI strategies for the major fruit treesand vines to adjust to water scarcity situations, and to sustain orchards and vineyards under DI for long timeperiods. A prerequisite for successful use of DI is an enhancement of stress monitoring, as the risks of excessivewater deficits increase as the water supply is reduced in an inherently heterogeneous orchard or vineyard. Thepresentation will cover progress to date in DI for horticultural crops, will delineate cases of successful use atcommercial levels, and will outline the future challenges that must be overcome to generalize this practice whereappropriate.148


Oral Presentations of Topic 3A sustainable approach to control downy mildew (Bremia lactucae)in greenhouse-grown lettuceBOGAERT, Aaike (1) *; VAN HESE, Nathalie (2) (3) ; LEENKNEGT, Ilse (4) ; VERGOTE, Nico (1) ;HÖFTE, Monica (2) ; BLEYAERT, Peter (3)(1)Provinciaal Proefcentrum voor de Groenteteelt (PCG), Kruishoutem, Belgium(2) Laboratorium voor Fytopathologie, Vakgroep Gewasbescherming, Universiteit Gent, Belgium(3) Inagro, Rumbeke-Beitem, Belgium(4) Proefstation voor de Groenteteelt (PSKW), Sint-Katelijne-Waver, Belgium* ab@proefcentrum-kruishoutem.beBremia lactucae, the causal agent of downy mildew in lettuce (Lactuca sativa), causes high yield losses. Thepathogen is usually controlled by fungicides in combination with resistant varieties. However, new fysio’s ofBremia develop very rapidly and the pathogen easily develops resistance to chemicals. The aim of this work is todevelop a more sustainable control strategy, based on the epidemiology of the pathogen. This work focuses onthe possible sources of primary inoculum, the climatological conditions the pathogen needs to survive and infectplants, and the translation of this knowledge into practical advice for breeders.Initially we supposed Bremia is only spread by spores produced by sporangiofores. The role of oospores in theepidemiology of B. lactucae is poorly studied. In Flanders, the presence of oospores was demonstrated inseverely diseased crops from field and greenhouse trials, indicating that they may form a possible source ofprimary inoculum. Since B. lactucae is considered as a heterothallic oomycete, the presence of the two matingtypes, B1 and B2 is needed for the production of oospores. Mating type analyses indicated that isolates of bothmating types occur in Flanders; although B2 was detected only once up till now. The importance of oospores inthe disease epidemiology will be further investigated.Greenhouse trials revealed that the key components for climate adaptation are relative humidity and temperature.A relative humidity below 90% significantly suppresses the disease incidence. The temperature is inverselyrelated to the length of the incubation period and a temperature above 18°C is unfavorable for the pathogen.Further analysis of the epidemiology indicated that these climatological conditions are mainly important duringgermination, penetration and sporulation. Once inside the plant, B. lactucae can survive periods with lowerrelative humidity and higher temperatures, during which its development is paused. Greenhouse trials haveshown that climate adaptation may be a potential control strategy, but this is not always economically andpractically feasible. Consideration of (bio)chemical treatments in the sustainable protection system is thusinevitable. Registered chemicals against B. lactucae have been evaluated in the lab and in greenhouseexperiments. Most of them work more effectively when applied preventively which emphasizes the necessity topredict an outbreak of downy mildew. Therefore we are currently developing a system with trap plants, which willgive information about the circumstances favorable for a disease outbreak.Keywords: Bremia spp., integrated control strategy, epidemiology, adaptation greenhouse climate.149


Oral Presentations of Topic 3Environmental management technology for controlling spider mitesOHYAMA, Katsumi (1) (2) *; SUZUKI, Takeshi (2) (3) ; AMANO, Hiroshi (4) ; GHAZY, NoureldinAbuelfadl (1) ; SHAH, Maqsood (5)(1)Graduate School of Horticulture, Chiba University, 648 Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510, Japan(2)Center for Environment, Health, and Field Sciences, Chiba University, 6-2-1 Kashiwanoha, Chiba277-0882, Japan(3)Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, Ichiban-cho 8, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-8472, Japan(4)Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502,Japan(5)Department of Entomology, Agricultural University, Peshawar 25130, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,Pakistan* k_ohyama@faculty.chiba-u.jpSpider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) are widespread phytophagous pests and cause serious damage toagricultural crops in fields and greenhouses. Growers have great difficulty in managing the spider mites becausethey easily develop tolerance to acaricides. To mitigate the ineffectiveness of chemical measures, integrated pestmanagement (IPM) by introducing physical and biological measures needs to be implemented urgently. Hence,we have attempted to introduce an environmental management technology for controlling the spider mites,specifically: 1) diapause disturbance of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch and the Kanzawaspider mite T. kanzawai Kishida, and 2) effective use of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus McGregor(Acari: Phytoseiidae).To explore the suitable light environment for disturbing T. urticae and T. kanzawai in diapause induction, which isnecessary for overwintering, a lighting system consisting of multiple white light-emitting diodes (LED) eachinstalled in an aluminum bottle was developed. Experiments using the system suggest that the artificial lightingcan disturb the diapause induction of the adult females of T. urticae and T. kanzawai, and so is expected topromote seasonal extinction.To provide a sufficient population of N. californicus at an appropriate time for controlling spider mites, low airtemperature and water vapor pressure deficit (VPD) were applied during storage. As a result, we could maintainthe adult females of N. californicus for up to 30 d without any impact on survival and reproductive ability, andfabricated a simple but effective vessel for storing and/or transporting N. californicus under favorableenvironmental conditions.Through this research, we demonstrated the importance of the environment management technology forcontrolling spider mites. We also expect that physical and biological measures based on this technology willgreatly contribute to the establishment of effective IPM for the mites as well as insect pests.Keywords: Air temepreature, Artificial lighting, IPM, Predatory mite, Water vapour.150


Oral Presentations of Topic 3Constant presence of complementary parasitoids for preventivecontrol of aphids in ornamental plantsDASSONVILLE, Nicolas; THIELEMANS, Thierry; GOSSET, Virginie; ROSEMEYER, ViolaViridaxis S.A., Gosselies, Belgium, info@viridaxis.comViridaxis is a Belgian company which developed a new, plant-less way of mass-rearing aphid parasitoids. Due toits innovative and unique technology, Viridaxis has been able to produce one new selected parasitoid speciesevery year.A parasitoid is a wasp able to parasitize aphids in a host-specific way. These natural enemies of aphids are usedin organic or integrated pest management strategies. In order to apply the matching parasitoid against a givenaphid species, the aphid has to be detected in the crop and subsequently identified. By the time the aphids arespotted by the grower and then identified by himself or a specialist, it is usually more difficult to gain control overan increasing aphid population.Viridaxis developed a new concept of aphid control, based not on the species identified but on the crop treated.There was a need for a product controlling the largest possible variety of aphid species susceptibly present inornamental crops. As the first step of development, an inventory of the aphid species attacking ornamental cropswas made in various regions. A unique cocktail of parasitoids species (OrnaProtect) controlling all these aphidswas then designed.Here, we show the results of trials made with OrnaProtect in 2010-2011 on several crops (Hydrangea, Cyclamen,Gerbera, Begonia…).OrnaProtect contains six different species of natural aphid enemies, and is able to control all commonly appearingaphids attacking ornamental crops. The fact of mixing different species not only covers the entire spectrum ofaphids, but also contributes to prolonged hatching. Here, we show that it is possible to reinforce this long lastingemergence by mixing mummies of different ages, older mummies (stored at low temperature) emerging earlierafter release than young mummies. We describe how the mix was optimized by studying the impact of storage at7°C on the survival and emergence dynamics of mummies. With that prolonged hatching dynamics, a releaseevery two weeks assures a permanent presence of fresh adult parasitoids in the crop.The ready-to-use units of OrnaProtect contain an integrated feeding point which contributes to longevity andefficiency of the parasitoids. Its application in the crop is much faster than even any chemical treatment.Keywords: natural aphid control, parasitoid cocktail, prolonged hatching, ready-to-use units.151


Oral Presentations of Topic 3Potential for controlled abiotic stress as a quality enhancer of babyleaf spinachMOGREN, Lars (1) *; READE, John (2) ; MONAGHAN, Jim (2)(1)Department of Horticulture, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden(2)Crops Department, Harper Adams University College, Newport, Shropshire, TF10 8NB, UK* Lars.Mogren@slu.seApplying abiotic stress in a controlled fashion during growth, pre harvest, to leafy vegetables has been suggestedas a strategy that may increase levels of bioactive compounds , and in some cases, increase shelf life potential.In a two year project, change in ascorbic acid (AsA) content in baby leaf spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) wasstudied in response to a wide range of pre harvest abiotic stress factors. AsA is one of the main antioxidantsfound in leafy vegetables and the total amount and proportion of the oxidised form dehydroascorbic acid (DHA),could potentially be a parameter giving an indication of the stress level of the leaves. The assumption is that thehigher the content of AsA and the lower the proportion of DHA, the better the shelf life potential. AsA and DHAconcentrations were determined by HPLC. The analyzed leaves were grown under green house conditions. Foliarapplication of water solutions of common salts resulted in higher AsA levels, but the leaves were damaged withnecrotic spots and brown edges. Both cold treatment (10°C Day / 5°C Night) of whole plants a few days prior toharvest as well as heat treatment (40°C) a few hours prior to harvest increased the AsA levels. This approachneeds further technical development to be commercially applicable. Restricted water supply leading to milddrought stress, a few days prior to harvest turned out to be the most promising pre harvest treatment leading toincreased AsA content without any visual quality differences compared to full watered treatments. The extent ofdrought stress as well as timing of the treatment in the growth cycle needs further investigation.Keywords: Baby leaf production, Spinach, Spinacia oleracea, Vitamin C, Abiotic stress.152


Oral Presentations of Topic 3The use of Bacillus thuringiensis and Neem alternation on Plutellaxylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and its effects on naturalenemies in cabbage productionSOW, Gallo (1) ; NIASSY, Saliou (1) ; ARVANITAKIS, Laurence (2) ; BORDAT, Dominique (2) ;DIARRA, Karamoko (1) *(1)Equipe production et protection intégrées en Agroécosystèmes horticoles, Département de Biologieanimale, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar (UCAD), BP5005, Dakar, SENEGAL.(2)Laboratoire de Biodiversité des agrosystèmes horticoles TAB/L, Campus international deBaillarguet, CIRAD, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, FRANCE.* karamoko.diarra@ucad.edu.snThe diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) is a major pest of cabbage in Senegal. Chemical control isthe most commonly used control method despite its environmental and health issues. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)and Neem-based products are considered as relevant alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides. The aim ofthis study was to assess the effect of the alternation of Bt and Neem (Azadirachta indica) on P. xylostella and itseffect on parasitoids compared to sole applications of Bt, Neem and Dimethoate. Plants treated with Dimethoaterecorded say three times more P. xylostella compared to applications of Bt, Bt/Neem and Neem. Results showedthat although there were no significant differences between Bt, Bt/Neem and Neem, populations of P. xylostellawere considerably reduced in these treatments as compared to Dimethoate and control. Four parasitoid specieswere recorded of which two species were important both in abundance and level of parasitism. These includeOomyzus sokolowskii and Apanteles litae. The parasitism rate was higher in the Neem treatment. The correlationbetween abundance of P. xylostella and parasitism rate was observed in all the treatments except that onDimethoate and was stronger in Bt/Neem and Neem. The results demonstrated that in the absence of chemicalinsecticides, the impact of parasitoids was significant. This study suggests that the use of only four alternatedapplications of Bt and neem is as effective as sole treatments in the control of P. xylostella and is more costeffective to farmers.Keywords: Parasitism, cabbage, Azadirachtin, diamondback moth, Bacillus thuringiensis.153


Oral Presentations of Topic 3Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria reduce application rates ofchemical fertilizers in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)ERTAN, Yildirim *; FATIH, AkbayAtatürk University, Agriculture Faculty, Department of Horticulture, 25240, Erzurum, Turkey* Corresponding author, ertanyil@atauni.edu.trThe use of fertilizers, including chemical fertilizers and manures, to enhance soil fertility and crop productivity hasoften negatively affected the complex system of the biogeochemical cycles. The search for plant growthpromotingrhizobacteria (PGPR) that improve soil fertility and enhance plant nutrition has continued to attractattention due to the increasing cost of fertilizers and some of their negative environmental impacts. The objectiveof this study was to determine the effect of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase containingplant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria, Paenibacillus polymyxa RC14 on growth, yield, nutrient uptake and nutrientuse efficiency of lettuce grown in reduced rates of inorganic N fertilizer. The study has demonstrated that PGPRinoculation can improve growth, yield, plant uptake of nutrients and thereby increase the use efficiency of appliedchemical fertilizer in lower ratios of nitrogen. The results suggest that PGPR-based inoculants can be used andshould be further evaluated as components of integrated nutrient management strategies.Keywords: plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, lettuce, nitrogen, fixation, growth, yield.154


Oral Presentations of Topic 3Is biogas residue safety and efficient fertilizer to organic iceberglettuce crop?IIVONEN, Sari (1) *; TONTTI, Tiina (2) ; NYKÄNEN, Arja (2) & VÄISÄNEN, Hanna-Maija (1)(1) University of Helsinki, Ruralia Institute, Lönnrotinkatu 7, 50100 Mikkeli, Finland(2) MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Lönnrotinkatu 3, 50100 Mikkeli, Finland* sari.iivonen@helsinki.fiIncreasing waste recycling has diversified the selection of organic material usable in crop fertilization and soilimprovement. Biogas residue, the by-product of energy production, has been generally perceived as a potentialorganic fertilizer due to its higher relative amount of mineralized nitrogen (N) and lower C/N ratio compared toundigested biomass. The experimental knowledge of its use as a fertilizer in an open-field vegetable cultivation isscarce in cool climate conditions of Northern Scandinavia. First aim of this study was to compare fertilizationeffects of two different biogas residues to other organic fertilizers, such as meat and bone meal (MBM) andcomposted and granulated chicken manure (CM), and to commercial mineral nutrition blend. Second aim was toevaluate the risks of fertilization use of biogas residue to the hygiene quality of lettuce crop. One option to avoidhygiene risks is to use biogas residue as a fertilizer during previous year rotation. Benefits of this option tofollowing year lettuce crop are analyzed in this study.The field experiments were carried out during 2010-2011 at the Mikkeli research station of MTT AgrifoodResearch Finland located in central Finland. Two-year field experiment was conducted as a randomized completeblock design with five fertilization treatments, five rotation options and four replicate plots. In year 2010, thefertilization effects on crop plant lettuce and 1st year crop rotation plants oat and oat-pea mixture were analyzed.In year 2011, the fertilization effects on 2nd year crop plant lettuce after 1st year lettuce (rotation option 1), 2styear crop plant lettuce after fertilized rotation plant pea-oat or oat (rotation option 2 with pea-oat or oat), and 2ndyear lettuce after unfertilized rotation plant pea-oat or oat (rotation option 3 with pea-oat or oat).Fertilization effect was analyzed by counting total biomass and marketable yield of lettuce at the harvesting timein relation to given N. In addition to this, the apparent N recovery (NREC) was counted. The relative chlorophyllcontent of lettuce leaves and soluble nitrogen in the soil during growing period were analyzed. In year 2010, themicrobiological hygiene analyses of biogas residues and lettuce crops fertilized with residues were conducted.Results of the study will be presented in the full paper. This knowledge is needed in the evaluation of fertilizationeffect of biogas residues compared to other organic materials and for giving practical guidelines to farmers.Keywords: iceberg lettuce, biogas residue, recycled fertilizer, organic production, nitrogen recovery, crop hygiene.155


Oral Presentations of Topic 3The German horticultural innovation systemKUNTOSCH, Anett (1) *; KÖNIG, Bettina (2) ; BOKELMANN, Wolfgang (3)(1) Humboldt-University, Berlin. Dep. of Agricultural Economics. Philippstrasse 13, 10099 Berlin. 030-2093 46421(2) Humboldt-University, Berlin. Dep. of Agricultural Economics. Philippstrasse 13, 10099 Berlin. 030-2093 6446(3) Humboldt-University, Berlin. Dep. Of Agricultural Economics. Philippstrasse 13, 10099 Berlin. 030-2093 6464* anett.kuntosch@agrar.hu-berlin.deWorldwide challenges such as limited natural resources, climate change, food security, higher consumerdemands or changing markets, require a growing need for innovative solutions in the horticultural sector. Yet, onlyif innovation mechanisms are known, these can be supported to overcome these challenges. Innovation researchwithin this field was marginalized for a long time by horticultural and agricultural economists in Germany.However, changes in the agricultural and horticultural knowledge and innovation systems have been reportedworldwide. Yet, it is unclear, if and how these changes have influenced innovativeness in the sector/among theactors. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the current innovation system and innovation mechanisms.The innovation system approach by Malerba (2002, 2004) provides a conceptual, but not methodologicalframework for the description of sectoral Innovation Systems. We developed a conceptual framework based onthe innovation system approach (Malerba 2002, 2004) and method-mix in order to study the German agriculturalinnovation system (level1) and its subsystems (horticulture, plant production, lifestock-farming) (level 2). For thispurpose, we determined different levels within the system and defined value chains as conceptual arenas ofinnovation processes around a specific technological solution or group of technological solutions (level 3). Furtheron, we studied the system on these different levels using expert interviews on level 3, expert workshops on level 2and the Delphi method on level 1 to derive a coherent understanding of the system. We used the case studyapproach to analyze energy innovation in the German greenhouse value chain as an exemplarily innovation fieldthat addresses current societal, ecological and economical needs.Analysis on level 3 indicated, that innovation activities in the case of energy innovations in horticulture is stronglyconnected to other sectors such as optics, engineering, senor technologies etc. Innovation processes arecharacterized by a number of feedback-loops. The findings suggest, that we can`t postulate the existence of atechnological paradigm in this case, but found the existence of a number of different technical, social and processinnovation aspects. Most important challenges for the horticultural innovation system are the role of the extensionin innovation processes and the management of interfaces between different actors.The applied method-mix is suitable to study innovation mechanisms in the diverse horticultural sector on differentlevels of interaction. Aggregating the partial results from the different steps and levels to the next higher oneallows for a general understanding of the system.Keywords: innovation mechanisms, energy innovation, value chains, qualitative research, extension.156


Oral Presentations of Topic 3Economic evaluation of the Swiss pome fruit productionBRAVIN, Esther (1) *; CARINT, Dante (2) ; HANHART, Johannes (3)() Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil ACW, Switzerland(2) AGRIDEA* esther.bravin@acw.admin.chIn 1947, at the Research Station for Horticulture in Switzerland, began a project for the evaluation of theeconomical situation of pome fruit. A selected network of hundred fruit growers, started to collect data about workneeds on the orchard, plant protection and productivity. The first fifty years these data were delivered on paper,but from 1997, 30 producers started to use the field record system software “Asa-j-Agrar”.Growers have to introduce cost relevant inputs such direct costs (pesticides, fertilizers, etc) and structural costs(machines, tools, trees, anti-hail net, irrigation, etc), but also productivity data like yield, quality and prices.Evaluation of full cost account, benefit or loss per plotAt the end of each season, production costs, labor costs, benefit/loss and income per plot and cultivar arecalculated; thus, also the intern labor is taken into account. The sum of these cost gives the full cost account. Inorder to calculate exactly the production cost there are two possibilities: on one hand by using producer’s realdata for hourly labor and machine costs, and on the other hand, by using objective hourly labor costs (source:Swiss Fruit Union) and machine costs (source: Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon).Advantages for fruit growersGrowers that participate to this network can get a specific evaluation of their own orchard, with related benefitsand losses. With the vertical comparison (between years) and the horizontal comparison (between plots andgrowers), they learn about their orchard’s situation. Published results of this project help Swiss fruit growers tocompare relevant pome fruit varieties from an economic point of view and show developments of the economicsituation in the pome fruit production.Keywords: Pome fruit, economic, full cost account, field record.157


Oral Presentations of Topic 3Economic perspectives of molecular farming in greenhousehorticulture(1)TARAGOLA, Nicole (1) *; DEMEYER, Rolinde (2) ; VAN DROOGENBROECK, Bart (2) ;CLAEYS, Dakerlia (1) (1) (3); LAUWERS, LudwigInstitute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Social Sciences Unit, Burg. VanGansberghelaan 115 B.2, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium(2)Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (LVO), Technology & Food Science Unit, Burg.Van Gansberghelaan 115 B.1, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium(3)Ghent University, Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent, Belgium* nicole.taragola@ilvo.vlaanderen.beDuring recent years greenhouse growers consider conversion, because of decreasing and fluctuating prices.Molecular farming (MF), using genetically modified (GM) plants as protein factories, could be one option toenhance profitability. Greenhouses are an obvious choice, especially in the EU, due to current legislation,public opinion on GM plants and stable production conditions.To evaluate the possible impact of conversion from existing greenhouse production to MF, simulations ofchanges in economic indicators (costs, turnover, profitability) and use of inputs (labor, energy) are carried outbased on individual data from greenhouse companies belonging to the Flemish Farm Accountancy DataNetwork. The greenhouse companies are subdivided into following categories of specialization : pot plants,cut flowers, bedding plants, tomatoes (or other intensively heated vegetables) and lettuce. Different sizes ofgreenhouse companies are also distinguished.Estimations of yields at conversion are based on experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis thalianais best known as model organism in plant genetics. However, its prolific seed production, short life-cycle,and high seed-specific expression levels of recombinant proteins are favourable characteristics for a flexibleand fast production platform as well (Demeyer R., 2011; Van Droogenbroeck et al., 2007). Simulations arecarried out for different yield levels.Experimental data are also used to estimate labor input and operational costs (e.g. seed, fertilizer, plantprotection products, energy, etc.) at conversion. Extra investments in infrastructure are necessary to complywith requirements connected to greenhouse cultivation of GM plants. As greenhouse types vary according tospecialization, extra investment costs depend on the current status of the infrastructure.The results show that the impact of conversion to MF farming in greenhouse horticulture is highly firmspecific, depending on the current situation of the greenhouse. In particular, zooming into the comparisons ofthe situation before and after conversion, important variations in opportunity costs for labor are foundbetween the greenhouse companies potentially eligible for conversion. The findings reveal feasibility forsmall-scale growers to produce high-value recombinant proteins in limited amounts, such as medication forrare diseases and clinical trials. These companies can then be targeted to act as early adopters of MF.Sensitivity analyses show that economic results are influenced by productivity fluctuations, indicating thatgreenhouse MF has potential to improve competitiveness through technical progress. This opensperspectives for further profitability increases, while learning by doing, and for more growers to step into theMF system innovation.Keywords: system innovation, molecular farming, GM plants, conversion, greenhouse production.158


TOPIC 3CONCEPTION AND ASSESSMENT OF INNOVATINGSUSTAINABLE HORTICULTURAL SYSTEMS, INCLUDINGORGANIC HORTICULTUREPOSTER PRESENTATIONS


Posters of Topic 3Plant growth promoting microorganisms and bio-control of Pythiumultimum on Euphorbia pulcherimaSIGG, Pascal * & CAMPS, CédricAgroscope ACW, Centre de recherche Conthey, CH- 1964 Conthey, Suisse* pascal.sigg@acw.admin.chThe aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 4 microorganisms on: 1) the vegetative growth (PGP)and 2) the bio-control of the pathogenic fungus Pythium ultimum on Euphorbia pulcherima ‘Mars Improved’.Plant growth promoting assay. Plants were inoculated with the microorganisms at planting and the vegetativedevelopment of plants was compared to a control non-inoculated. The vegetative growth was evaluated bymeasuring the stem length, the stem diameter, the total area of all the red-colored bracts, the fresh weight, thedried weight, Root fresh weight and root dried weight.Bio-control assay. Two strategies were carried out concerning the inoculation of microorganisms: (1) the curativeand (2) the preventive strategies. The curative strategy consisted in infested plants with P. ultimum some daysbefore inoculating the bio-control microorganisms. The preventive strategy consisted in infested plants with P.ultimum two weeks after inoculation of the bio-control microorganisms. The same parameters as described beforewere measured. The microorganisms inoculated were Gliocladium catenulatum, Trichoderma harzianum (T-22),Glomus intraradices, Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf 153) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.Plant growth promoting assay. Plants inoculated with G. catenulatum and G. intraradices showed the mostimportant PGP effect. The inoculation of G. catenulatum allowed obtaining plants with longest stems and highervalues of fresh weight than control plants. The inoculation of G. intraradices allowed obtaining plants with highervalues of root fresh weight, root dried weight and stem diameter.Bio-control assay. Plants infested with P. ultimum in the curative strategy were more impacted than these infestedin the preventive effect. The preventive strategy showed positive effect of G. catenulatum and G. intraradices onvegetative development compared to control plants. As described in PGP results, G. intraradices positively actedon root part and G. catenulatum on aerial part of Euphorbia.Keywords: Euphorbia pulcherima, Pythium ultimum, Glomus, Gliocladium, BCA, PGPM.BLE – A founding advisory and management service in germanhorticultureGRUDA, NazimFederal Office for Agriculture and Food, Deichmanns Aue 29, 53179 Bonn, Germanyngruda@uni-bonn.deThe Federal Office for Agriculture and Food (BLE) is a service authority within the area of responsibility of theFederal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV) of Germany. One of the most importanttasks of BLE is to manage the agricultural/horticultural, food and consumer protection research projects. Theseprojects include consulting of parties seeking and applying for funding (funding advisory service) as well asadministrative processing and technical project support at all levels – starting from the initial project idea up to theuse and application of project results.National research grants are award in the following fields: Technical and non-technical innovations in the areas of food/nutrition, agriculture and consumer protection Research and development projects and/or measures for technology and knowledge transfer within theFederal Program on Organic Farming and other forms of sustainable agriculture (BÖLN) Research projects to supply the BMELV with guidelines for decision-making Situation analyses and statistics in biodiversity Model and demonstration projects in the areas of preservation and innovative, sustainable use of biodiversityThe BLE also coordinates German participation in the crossnational European Research Area Networks (ERA-Nets).160


Posters of Topic 3There were alone within the Innovation Support Programme approximately 218 collaborative projects with 609subprojects with an ordinary duration of three years that were funded until the end of 2011. This equates to a totalbudget of 139 million Euros, with a financial contribution of 101 million Euros provided by this programme. Theprogramme aims are (i) improving the competitiveness of companies, (ii) strengthening the economic power ofinnovation, (iii) maintaining/enhancing employment, (iv) protection of natural resources and (v) improving workingconditions.If all the BLE funding is taken into account it becomes clear that a lot of promotion has been invested intoresearch and development of horticulture in the last few years. On behalf of BMELV a sector study was recentlyconducted concerning the innovation in the German agriculture and horticulture. Generally, it could be said thatthere is a discrepancy between research findings and the implementation into practice. It is expected thatnetworks in the agricultural value chains will be established and appropriate support measures will be developedin the near future. This is done in order to make a better implementation of innovative products and services inhorticulture possible and to contribute to a sustainable development in this very important economic sector.Keywords: foundation, innovation, innovation support programme, project support, sustainable development.Green bean production and fruit quality under organic andintegrated intensive crop system in mediterranean areaCONTRERAS, Juana Isabel (1) ; SEGURA, Maria Luz (1) *; LAO, Maria Teresa (2) **(1) Institute of Research and Training in Agriculture and Fishery (IFAPA), Junta of Andalusia. CaminoSan Nicolás n.1. 04745 La Mojonera. Almería. Agrifood Campus of International Excellence (CEIA3).Spain. * marial.segura@juntadeandalucia.es(2)Department of Vegetal Production, Engineering Higher School, University of Almería, Ctra.Sacramento s/n. 04120 Almería, Spain. Agrifood Campus of International Excellence (CEIA3). Spain.** mtlao@ual.esThis work presents the results of a study conducted on ‘Mantra’ green bean crop (Phaseolus vulgaris ssp.volubilis), on a sand-mulched loam soil using trickle irrigation, comparing the influence of two crop systems(Organic and Integrated) and two soils with different organic matter levels (1.00% and 2.45%). The experimentaldesign was a two-factorial with four replications per treatment. The treatments established were: E 1: Organic CropSystem (OCS) under Low Organic Matter Soil (LOMS). I 1: Integrated Crop System (ICS) under LOMS. E 2: OCSunder High Organic Matter Soil (HOMS). I 2: ICS under HOMS. Nitrogen and K were applied by fertigation andtotal levels were: 68 kg N ha -1 and 107 kg K ha -1 following Regulation (CEE) Nº 2092/91 (Organic Crop System)and Specific Regulation of Green Beans Integrated Crop Production (BOJA) Nº 10/01. Green bean fruit yield wasevaluated by monitoring the marketable production, (category I and II), total marketable production, unmarketablefruit and total production. Quality was evaluated using dry matter content of fruit (DMC), total soluble solids (TSS),pH, tritable acidity and mineral salt concentration (N, P, K, Ca and Mg). E 1 showed lower total marketableproduction, unmarketable fruit and total production, than other treatments. E 2, I 1 and I 2 show similar productionparameters. Nevertheless, the distribution between categories was similar for all treatments. Dry matter content offruit (DMC) and concentration of mineral salts were similar for all treatments. Along harvest period, average totalsoluble solids and pH were similar for each treatment, with value around 5.3 and 5.9 respectively. Nevertheless,acidity increased during the harvest period. Acidity does not show significant differences between treatments,except in the fifth sampling, where OCS were higher than ICS treatments.Key words: Fertigation, marketable fruit, dry matter content of fruit, total soluble solids, pH and titratable acidity.Three years evaluation of the use of mechanical pruning in “Rocha”pearsDIAS, António B. (1) *; PATROCÍNIO, Sandra (2) ; PEREIRA, Sérgio (2) ; PINHEIRO, Anacleto (1)**; PEÇA, José O. (1)(1) Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas (ICAAM)/Departamento de161


Posters of Topic 3Engenharia Rural da Universidade de ÉvoraNúcleo da Mitra, Apartado 94, 7002-554 Évora, Portugal* adias@uevora.pt ; jmop@uevora.pt ; ** pinheiro@uevora.pt(2) Cooperfrutas CRLQuinta das Freiras, Ponte do Jardim, 2460-617 Alcobaça, PortugalManual pruning with pneumatic shears is a current practice used by pear farmers in Portugal. As an alternative,mechanical pruning performed by a tractor mounted cutting bar provided with circular disc-saws can be used.A trial to evaluate the use of the tractor mounted cutting bar in the pear pruning, were conducted between 2008and 2010, in a commercial orchard of Rocha variety. The orchard was planted in an array of 4m x 2m and thetrees are trained as the central leader system.In this trial, in a randomised complete block design with three replications, three treatments (T1, T2, T3) are beingcompared leading to 9 plots with three lines of 10 trees per plot. In each plot the central line is used forparameters evaluation.The treatments under study are: T1 - manual pruning performed by workers using pneumatic shears, in eachyear; T2 - mechanical pruning, topping the canopy parallel to the ground, in each year and hedging in the twosides of the canopy, in 2008 and 2010; T3 - mechanical pruning, topping the canopy parallel to the ground, ineach year and hedging in the two sides of the canopy, in 2008, followed by a manual pruning complement eachyear.Tree height and width was measured, before and after pruning interventions. Pruning operation was timed andpear yields evaluated. Mechanical pruning seems to be effective in controlling tree size leading to a more uniformorchard when compared to manual pruning. The use of the tractor mounted cutting bar can contribute to increaseworking rate of the manual pruning complement.At the third year of the trial, a decrease in pear production was registered in the trees exclusively submitted tomechanical pruning, suggesting that a manual pruning complement was necessary. More years of field work areessential to validate these results.Keywords: tractor; cutting bar, disc-saws, work rates, pear production.Expanding regional organic fruit and vegetable markets: chances,challenges and implications for regional sustainable food networksin GermanyKÖNIG, Bettina *; VON ALLWÖRDEN, Andrea; BOKELMANN, WolfgangHumboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, Faculty of Agriculture and HorticultureDepartment of Agricultural Economics, Economics of Horticultural ProductionPhilippstraße 13, Haus 12-0, 10099 Berlin, Germany* bettina.koenig@agrar.hu-berlin.deWorldwide, additional ethical attributes gain relevance: organic food does not only have to be organic, but „fair“,„regionally produced“ etc. In Germany the market for organic products has grown constantly over the last years(BÖLN 2010). Fresh fruits and vegetables are among the most important product categories. However, themarket growth has been realized to a large extend by imports while German organic fruit and vegetableproduction did not develop correspondingly despite a growing trend for regional products (BÖLN 2010). In orderto develop adequate strategies and instruments to meet the demand, it is necessary to understand why marketsignals currently are not met by the supply side adequately. Previous work has dealt with single issues in thisproblem field, and focused on the production/ producer side. Since market perspectives are a crucial factorhindering conversion decisions (K önig 2006), the perspective of the value chain has to be taken into considerationmore prominently in order to derive adequate support measures to improve domestic supply in Germany.We used an action research approach that allows to identify interaction mechanisms that contribute tothe reproduction of the phenomenon. Three case studies in Germany represent different situations for regionalorganic vegetable value chains. In a first step an analysis of the market and conversion conditions in Germanyand international examples has been conducted. Secondly, in three case study areas interviews with all relevantvalue chain members and supporting institutions have been carried out. The analysis of the specific regionalresources and actors and their relationships served as basis for a series of regional workshops. Actors alongrelevant regional value chains participated in these workshops to form a joint mental model on the understanding162


Posters of Topic 3of the situation. Strategies to improve the situation have been formulated and implementation has beenmoderated and accompanied by the research team.Development of the organic vegetable market requires changes on different levels in the regional value network.Action research can support the analysis of the situation, identification of conflicting interests and participatorystrategy option development. The method allows to gain insight in interaction mechanisms to discuss options tosupport regional sustainable food networks on the example of organic fruit and vegetable in Germany. Wedeveloped a guide that involves e.g. change and network management adapted to regional organic valuenetworks to be used by extension or other change agents. It allows addressing the factors that influence marketgrowth and conversion in the organic sector more systemically.Key words: value chain management, action research, change management.Crop load regulation by use of artificially created tree shadingSOLOMAKHIN, Alexey (1) (2) (3) *; BLANKE, Michael (2) ; KUNZ, Achim (1) ; ALIEV, Taymashan(4) & KLAD, Alexander (5)(1)Klein-Altendorf, INRES- University of Bonn, Meckenheimer Str. 42, D-53359 Rheinbach, Germany(2)INRES- Horticultural Science, Auf dem Huegel 6, D-53121 Bonn, Germany(3)Present address: Lipetzkoje shosse st. 66-e/71, 393773 Michurinsk, Tambov region, Russia(4)All-Russia Michurin Research, Institute of Horticulture, Michurina st. 30, 393760 Michurinsk,Tambov region, Russia(5) ‘ Sad-Gigant’, Shkolnaya st. 615, 353565 Slavjansk-na-Kubani, Krasnodar region, Russia* solom79@yandex.ruSince carbon starvation due to photosynthesis inhibition may induce fruit abscission, four-year-old apple trees cvs‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Elstar’ and ‘Gala’ on M9 at Bonn were shaded to achieve desired crop load viz thin. Wholetrees were covered with shade cloth (80 % shade/PAR reduction, 90% UV reduction) for either 3, 6 or 9 dayseither at the end of bloom or 23 days after full bloom (DAFB); uncovered adjacent trees served as control. Whileshading for 3 days (23 DAFB) was optimal for fruit quality (fruit size, colour and sugar content) with only a slightdecrease in yield, prolonged shading (for >6 days) also led to fruit quality improvement, but also to a considerabledecrease in yield, caused by a higher rate of June drop; fruit trees shaded earlier at the end of bloom shоwedweaker June drop and more fruit set with insufficient thinning efficacy.Later and prolonged shading (>6 days) increased fruit sugar content by 1.0-2.3 % SSC (and taste) by improvingtree source : sink relationships, and fruit mass by 41 % in cv. ‘Gala’ and 13 % in cv. ‘Elstar’, with better (75-100 %red surface) colouration of 85-96% than ca. 65 % in the un-shaded control; the same shading treatment alsoinduced the desired stronger return bloom viz less alternate bearing, with the least flowers in the un-shadedcontrol.Thus, this study has shown that shading for 3-6 days at 23 DAFB due to its effects on source:sink relationshipsand tree carbon starvation may be an environmentally-friendly technology to obtain fruit of the desired quality interms of firmness, size, colour and sugar content and prevent biennial bearing of fruit trees.Key words: photosynthesis inhibition, source / sinks relationship, shading, fruit quality, crop regulation.Effect of microorganisms on Lisianthus sp. quality: effect onseedlings and harvested plantsCAMPS, Cédric * & SIGG, PascalAgroscope ACW, Centre de recherche Conthey, CH- 1964 Conthey, Suisse* cedric.camps@acw.admin.ch163


Posters of Topic 3The aim of the present study was measuring the affect of microorganisms on the seedling quality of Lisianthus sp.at planting. Thus, the effect of different "plant growth promoting microorganisms" (PGPM) has been studied. Thefollowing microorganisms were used: Gliocladium catenulatum, Trichoderma harzianum (T-22), Glomusintraradices and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Three varieties of lisianthus were tested: Eustoma Texas Purple (1-4), Eustoma ABC F1 Blue (3-4) and Eustoma ABC F1 Rose (3-4).The average germination rate was higher for plants inoculated with G. catenulatum than these treated with othersmicroorganisms.At planting, plantlets inoculated with G. catenulatum presented the highest values of fresh weight, dry weight andtotal foliar area than the other ones.At harvest, plants inoculated with G. catenulatum and G. intraradices presented a higher commercial quality thanall the other ones. G. catenulatum allowed to obtain the longest stems, that is one of the two quality parametersfor lisianthus quality on market. G. intraradices allowed obtaining plants with a most important amount of flowersbuds, that is the second parameter of lisianthus quality on market.Keywords: Lisianthus, PGPM, Gliocladium catenulatum, Trichoderma harzianum, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens,Glomus intraradices.Sustainable orcharding through eco-design and co-designPENVERN, Servane (1) *; JAMAR, Laurent (2) ; DAPENA, Enrique (3) ; LATEUR, Marc (2) ;SIMON, Sylvaine (4) ; BELLON, Stephane (1)(1)INRA PACA – Unité Ecodéveloppement, Site Agroparc, FR-84914 Avignon Cedex 09, France(2)CRA-W, Dept. of biocontrol and plant genetic resources, BE-5030 Gembloux, Belgium(3)SERIDA, Apdo, 13, ES-33300 Villaviciosa, Spain(4)INRA PACA, UE Recherche Intégrée, Domaine de Gotheron, FR-26320 Saint-Marcel-lès-Valence,France* servane.penvern@avignon.inra.frA heavy reliance of apple production on pesticides is prevalent in Europe, despite the development of IntegratedPest Management and alternative methods (e.g. mating disruption) to control pests. Orchard management isindeed highly constrained by the conservative design of current orchards (e.g. disease-susceptible cultivar andgenetic homogeneity) and international standards of the fruit market. In contrast, because orchards are complexperennial systems strongly contributing to landscape complexity, they also provide opportunities to designinnovative production systems based on ecological processes rather than pesticides.Since 2007 a French-speaking group of growers, extension agents and scientists from Spain, France, Belgiumand Switzerland with complementary expertises and skills in apple production has addressed the question ofsustainable fruit growing. Its participatory approach consisted in (i) sharing expert-knowledge and experiencesduring annual workshops to define the properties of an orchard addressing economic, social and environmentaldimensions of sustainability; (ii) identifying key-elements and innovations to propose a framework to (re)designsustainable orchards; (iii) elaborating relevant tools to assess the overall sustainability of these innovativeorchards. The main achievements are:- Progress towards sustainability is a dynamic process in a fluctuating environment. One ‘ideal’ orchard cannot bedefinitively proposed; the focus is more on the design and/or the trajectory of candidate orchards towardsprototypes based on 4 basic properties: resilience, autonomy, reproducibility and sustainagility.- Most innovative experiences (e.g. association of animal and fruit productions, fruit agroforestry, plant biodiversityintegration) have been identified in organic and low-input commercial orchards. Only a few experiments aredevoted to such an integrative approach (Fibl, INRA Gotheron, CRA-W, GRAB).- Key-elements were identified for design purposes. A general framework was elaborated to design prototypesmaximizing both bottom-up (through the plant) and top-down (through natural regulators) processes forproduction and orchard health: planting material, tree training, biodiversity etc. Upscaling from the field to thelandscape as well as the integration of ecological, biological and agronomic knowledge and socio-economicperspectives are key-issues.- The need to develop simultaneously conception and evaluation of prototyped systems was outlined.- The food-system was also questioned by our prototyping approach. We believe that sustainable orchards ownmulti-functional and multi-production dimensions, within a diversified food-chain. This also sends back to theorchard complexity which deserves to be further intensified –but not the orchard itself-.164


Posters of Topic 3Lastly, the most promising co-designed prototypes are now to be evaluated in various European contexts within afollow-up project still to be initiated.Keywords: orchard, agroecosystem, resilience, low-external input, organic, innovation, diversification, ecologicalfunctioning, knowledge-based, participatory approach.Agro-morphological characterization of a diverse collection oftomato varieties cultivated in protected area in organic culturesystemBREZEANU, Petre Marian (1) *; MUNTEANU, Neculai (2) ; AMBARUS, Silvica (1) ; BREZEANU,Creola (1) ; CALIN, Maria (1) ; VANATORU, Costel (3)(1)Vegetable Research and Development Station Bacau, Romania – Calea Barladului, no. 220,Bacau, Romania(2) University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine Iasi(3) Vegetable Research and Development Station Buzau, Romania* brezeanumarian@yahoo.comIn recent years people began to pay an increased attention to environment, demonstrating by growing concern forsustainable solutions to reduce the negative effects of pressure particularly on agriculture and on environment. Inthe same time consumers are interested in healthy products (with distinguished internal and external qualities).An increased demand for organic vegetables is a great opportunity and a challenge for organic vegetable growersand also for researchers to develop new studies. Our challenge to develop research in ecological system has dualvalence: (1) ecological systems has the potential to support biodiversity conservation through (increased numberand variety of cultivated wild species, high levels of agro-biodiversity, maintaining soil healthy and soil fauna,reducing the risk of water pollution) (2) use of the products obtained in organic farming is able to ensure foodsafety. Use of local varieties perfectly adapted to environmental conditions can help to improve ecosystem healthby reducing the need for pesticides and fertilizers and their effect on improving soil structure. The study wasconducted on a diverse tomatoes collection cultivated in ecological culture system in protected area. We selectdifferent local populations known for high level of quality and also for resistance to pathogen attach. Knowledge ofagro-morphological and physiological characteristics of the parents in case of tomato species is a prerequisite forbreeding in order to obtain performance F1 hybrid. At Vegetable Research and Development Station Bacau,Romania, after a careful study of the main features were promoted from field base (collection), which holds over80 cultivars, the sample area 30 genitors, with unlimited growth. Our study envisaged aspects regarding type ofgrowth, vigurozity, production potential (t/ha), precocity, plant resistance to pathogens, some fruit characteristicslike: shape, color, weigh, lodge number, firmness, storage and split resistance and some physiologicaldeterminations. In case of tomatoes the main studied physiological index which contribute to achievement of fruittaste are following: total soluble dry matter, pigments, and titratable acidity. Compared with control variant theadvanced homozygous lines achieved a total production over 100 t / ha organic culture system. Ten of the lineshave a very good resistance to attack of pests and pathogens, which entitles us to conclude that they are suitablefor organic culture.This work was cofinanced from the European Social Fund through Sectorial Operational Programme HumanResources Development 2007-20013 project number POSDRU/I.89/1.5/S62371 “Postdoctoral School inAgriculture and Veterinary Medicine Area”.Keywords: Lycopersicon esculentum, biodiversity, biological culture system.165


Posters of Topic 3Response of a very-early maturing peach cultivar to water stressand crop load according to simulations with QualiTreeMIRÁS-AVALOS, José Manuel (1) *; ALCOBENDAS, Rosalía (2) (3) ; ALARCÓN, Juan José (2)(3) ; PEDRERO, Francisco (2) (3) ; VALSESIA, Pierre (4) ; LESCOURRET, Françoise (4) ;(2) (3)NICOLÁS, Emilio(1)Estación de Viticultura y Enología de Galicia (EVEGA). Ponte San Clodio s/n 32427, Leiro(Ourense), Spain(2) Departamento de Riego, Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura, CSIC, P.O. Box 164,30100, Espinardo (Murcia), Spain(3)Unidad Asociada al CSIC de Horticultura Sostenible en Zonas Áridas (UPCT-CEBAS), PaseoAlfonso XIII, s/n. 30203, Cartagena (Murcia), Spain(4)UR1115 Plantes et Systèmes de Culture Horticoles (PSH), INRA, Domaine Saint-Paul, SiteAgroparc, 84914 Avignon Cedes 9, France* jose.manuel.miras.avalos@xunta.esPeach trees are mainly cultivated in dry countries and are often subjected to water stress, which isknown to influence fruit growth. Moreover, regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) practices are used in order to savewater and improve fruit quality in peach-tree orchards. Fruit thinning may be considered a useful technique toimprove peach marketable yield under water restriction conditions. Besides, models are powerful tools to analyzethe effects of several factors on carbon partitioning within the plant and, hence, vegetative and reproductivegrowth. In this sense, these models may be used to understand the effect of RDI on fruit growth. Recently, amodel (QualiTree) that describes carbon allocation within the tree has been presented, it also describesreproductive and vegetative growth and accounts for the water status of the tree. In this study, we used QualiTreeto assess the combined effects of water stress and fruit thinning on the vegetative and fruit growth of a very earlymaturingpeach cultivar (‘Flordastar’). First, we calibrated the model for this cultivar confronting simulated andexperimental data. We tested QualiTree on different situations involving deficit irrigation (five scenarios based onleaf water potential values: -0.8, -1.6, -2, -2.5, and –3 MPa) and crop load (unthinned, commercial load and lowload). In addition, two scenarios concerning the time of application of the water restriction (either during stage II orstage III of fruit development) were considered. Outputs from the model displayed a good agreement withobserved data concerning fruit and vegetative growth, as described by relative root mean square error values,which ranged from 0.24 to 0.37. QualiTree predicted well the variability over time of fruit and vegetative growth.Water stress negatively affected fruit and vegetative growth, reducing fruit growth up to 53%, when comparing themost stressful scenario with that of control conditions. In addition, a severe water stress produced during stage IIof fruit development impeded fruits to attain a marketable size even when water status was re-established duringstage III. A low crop load partially counteracted the negative effects of water stress on fruit growth. These resultsare encouraging but further improvements in the model, such as a validation of fruit quality data, are needed inorder to improve the predictive capabilities of QualiTree. Nevertheless, at its present state, QualiTree is able tosimulate, successfully, several combinations of cultural practices and may be used in the future for designing treecropmanagement through simulations.Keywords: deficit irrigation, modelling, carbon allocation, fruit size, water stress, Prunus persica.Perspective and challenges in Tagetes sp. culture usingbiofertilizersSCHMIDT, Brigitta *; ŞUMĂLAN, RaduDepartment of Plant PhysiologyBanat University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of TimişoaraTimişoara, Romania* brigischmidt@yahoo.com166


Posters of Topic 3Biofertilizers using arbuscular mycorrhiza appeared on market not a very long time ago and even presently thereis not a large scale of products. Also the difficulties of inoculum production and the high prices hinder the successand competitiveness of products. The high prices are mostly due to the production technique of arbuscularmycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which are obligate symbionts, thus cannot be mass-cultivated in sterile conditions, onlyimplying the host plant or in sophisticated and extremely expensive in vitro cultures, which are also not veryproductive. Also the time and type of application is critical to the success of infection.Nevertheless the AMF are preferred to several reasons: increase the mobilization and absorption of minerals andwater from soil, protection against diseases, pathogens and adverse environmental conditions.The present paper describes the problems and experiences deriving from our experiments with hydroponicculture of French marigold, when plants were infected with a commercial inoculum containing a consortium ofthree AMF species. The results show that the type of phosphates in nutrient solution and also their concentrationis crucial to the success of fungal infection, and high concentration of P can even inhibit the intraradiculardevelopment of AMF. It was also observed that some types of phosphates determine the AMF to turn intoparasitic and to become detrimental to the development of host plants.Instead, when we used phosphates with low solubility in water and in low concentrations in the nutrient solution,the AMF determined significantly positive differences in flowering and development.In conclusion, the use of AMF is recommended especially for low input cultures, being suitable for restoration ofpolluted ecosystems and protection of degraded soils.Keywords: Tagetes patula L., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, plant physiology.The potential of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria for the eggplantproduction(1)SUNGTHONGWISES, Kiriya (1) *; MATSUOKA, M. (2) ; OHNISHI, K. (3) ; TANAKA, S. (4) &IWAI, C. B. (5)Department of Plant Science and Agricultural Resources (Agronomy Section), Faculty ofAgriculture, Khon Kaen University, Muang, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand.(2)International Field Science Course, Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi University (Nankoku campus),Kochi, 7838502, Japan(3) Research Institute of Molecular Genetics Science Research Center, Faculty of Agriculture, KochiUniversity (Nankoku campus), Kochi, 7838502, Japan(4) Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi University (Nankoku campus), Kochi, 7838502, Japan(5)Department of Plant Science and Agricultural Resources (Land Resources and EnvironmentSection), Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Muang, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand.* Corresponding author: skiriy@kku.ac.thThe present study aims to identify the diversity and the efficiency of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria(PSB) with a strong potential as a natural fertilizer for eggplant production. Phosphorus is considered as theprincipal yield-limiting nutrient along with nitrogen according to it is a primary constraint to plant growth in manyterrestrial ecosystems especially, in acid sandy soils with high levels of P fixation by Fe and Al oxides. Thepotential of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) to increase soluble P by enhancing solubilization of insoluble Pcompounds was isolated and evaluated in this experiment. Six different PSB strains isolated from eggplant fieldswere screened for their efficiency in P solubilization. The PSB isolated from eggplant field soils solubilized 770-1,548 mg/L of P. Stepwise multiple regression analysis and P solubility kinetics indicated that the majormechanism of P solubilization by PSB is the pH reduction through the release of organic acids. Especially,Klebsiella pneumoniae strain M-AI-2 isolate code Ek04 and Gluconacetobacter sp. isolate code Ek01 in theeggplant field seem to have the capacity to solubilize insoluble forms of AlPO 4 and FePO 4 which are the mainforms of insoluble phosphates in acid sandy soils.Key words: Eggplant, Organic fertilizer, Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB).167


Posters of Topic 3Nutritional parameters of Chinese broccoli (Brassica oleracea var.alboglabra) under organic growing conditionsKOPTA, Tomáš; POKLUDA, Robert *Faculty of Horticulture Lednice, Mendel University in Brno,Lednice, Czech Republic, fax 00420 519 367 222* pokluda@mendelu.czThe five cultivars of Chinese broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) were tested during 2008 and 2009 in thesystem of certified organic production. The analyses of crude fiber, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, potassium,sodium, calcium, magnesium and total antioxidant capacity TAC were done in edible parts. The fiber contentwithin all cultivars was significant (2 - 4.2 g.100 g -1 f.m.). According to the obtained results it can be concludedthat among the tested cultivars the highest content of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was found in cv. Suiho (anaverage of 810 mg.kg -1 ), Green Lance (776 mg.kg -1 ), and Happy Rich (598 mg.kg -1 ). Higher potassium contentwas observed at rather later cultivars Green Lance (4943 mg.kg -1 in 2008) or in cv. Happy Rich (5355 mg.kg -1 in2008). Highest calcium content was analysed in the Hon Tsai Tai (704 mg.kg -1 in 2008) and most of magnesiumin cv. Happy Rich (136 mg.kg -1 in 2009) and Green Lance (133 mg.kg -1 in 2009). The highest value of TAC wasfound in cv. Green Lance (1.09 µmol trolox.g -1 f.m.). As prospective according to the monitored substancescontent can be considered cultivars Green Lance, Happy Rich or Suiho.Keywords: Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra, Chinese broccoli, vitamin C, antioxidants, minerals, crude fibre.Effect on yield and quality different agricultural organic waste inorganic strawberry growingBALCI, Gulden; DEMIRSOY, Husnu *; DEMIRSOY, Leyla* husnud@omu.edu.trThe aim of this study was to determine the effects on yield and fruit quality of strawberry plants of differentagricultural organic wastes (hazelnut husk compost, broken hazelnut husk, rice hulls compost and rice hulls),thus, to examine using of possibilities of them as an alternative to farm yard manure in organic strawberrygrowing. Experiment was carried out with frigo plants of Camarosa, Sweet Charlie, Fern, Redline Hope cv. insummer planting system. All agricultural organic wastes and farm yard manure (3 tons per decare) were appliedon experimental plots preparing with garden soil. In this experiment, the plots including both farm yard manurewith garden soil and garden soil were used as control. Experiment was designed as Randomized Plot with 3replicates. Earliness, yield per plant, some fruit quality and vegetative growth parameters were recorded for eachapplication. According to the results, it was determined that hazelnut husk compost and broken hazelnut husk canbe used as an alternative to farm yard manure in organic strawberry growing.Effect of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and mycorrhiza on growth andtotal chlorophyll in pepper plant(1)AKBUDAK, Nuray (1) *; BASAY, Sevinc (2) ; TEZCAN, Himmet (3)Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, Nilufer,Turkey(2) Orhaneli Vocat Sch, Uludag University, 16059 Bursa, Turkey168


Posters of Topic 3(3) Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Uludag University, 16059 Bursa* nakbudak@uludag.edu.trThe effect of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mossae and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and their interactionon plant growth and chlorophyll accumulation were studied in pepper plant grown in pots. It was found that: (1)the mycorrhiza treatment increased stem dry weight by 15.5% and mean plant height by 8.89% compared thecontrols (2) infections by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum reduced stem fresh weight by 49.70 %, dry weight 49.81 % (3)the treatment combining both S.sclerotinia + Mycorrhiza increased root fresh weight by 22.23%, root dry weight21.66% This leads to the conclusion that the beneficial effect of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus supersedes thepathogenic effect of S. sclerotinia (4) total chlorophyll content were higher in mycorrhizal treatments than controls.Keywords: Capsicum annuum, chlorophyll content, disease assessment, mycorrhiza, plant growth parameter,seedling.Sustainability of Sicily’s citrus production: an energetic, economicand environmental analysis of lemon and orange production(1)PERGOLA, M. (1) ; D'AMICO, M. (2) ; FAVIA, M.F. (1) ; INGLESE, P. (3) *; PALESE, A.M. (4) ;PERRETTI, B. (1) ; CELANO, G. (4)Dipartimento Tecnico Economico per la Gestione del Territorio Agricolo-Forestale (DiTEC) -Università degli Studi della Basilicata – Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano, 10 - 85100 Potenza – Italy(2) Dipartimento di Gestione dei Sistemi Agroalimentari e Ambientali (GeSA) – Università degli Studi diCatania - Via Santa Sofia, 100 - 95123 Catania - Italy(3)Dipartimento DEMETRA – Università degli Studi di Palermo - Viale delle Scienze - 90128PALERMO- Italy(4) Dipartimento di Scienze dei Sistemi Colturali, Forestali e dell’Ambiente (DipSISTEMI) – Universitàdegli Studi della Basilicata – Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano, 10 - 85100 Potenza – Italy* Corresponding Author: paolo.inglese@unipa.itThe Sicily island is characterized by a natural pedoclimatic environment, favourable to citrus production. In fact,some of the local varieties, thanks to their exceptional organoleptic and nutritional proprieties, have beenawarded prestigious prizes in national and international contexts.The adoption of organic farming technologies can represent a positive factor for the revival of citrus production inSicily, overcoming the negative factors that are weighing on the sector: declining size of farms, aging of orchardsdue to delayed or no renewal, insufficient generational change in peasant families.The objective of the research presented in this note was to prove the positive value of organic farming methods,assessing its sustainability through the energetic, environmental and economic analysis of the whole productioncycle of lemon and orange orchards.In this study, the quantity of energy consumption in the production cycle was calculated by multiplying the quantityof inputs used by the energy conversion factors drawn from the international literature.The environmental analysis was carried out according to the LCA methodology using the software SimaPro 7.2.The production costs were calculated considering all internal costs, including equipments, materials, wages, costsof working capital.The performance of the two systems, organic and conventional, were compared over a period of fifty years. Theresults, estimated per hectare of production, prove a stronger sustainability of the organic over the conventional,both in terms of energy consumptions and environmental impact, specially for lemon. The same resultsnormalized per kg of final product, confirm, in particular, the environmental superiority of the organic productionsystems.169


Posters of Topic 3Evaluation of resistance to fire blight in pear cultivarsERFANI, Javad (1) *; ABDOLLAHI, Hamid (2) ; EBADI, Ali (1) ; FATAHI, Reza (1)(1) Department of Horticulture Sciences, University of Tehran(2) Seed & Plant Improvement Institute* jerfani@ut.ac.irFire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most destroyer diseases of plants in theRosaceae subfamily Pomoideae. The objective of this study was to determine the level of resistance of 30 pearcultivars. The level of resistance was determined as the length of the fire blight lesion as a percentage of overallshoot length. Analysis of variance showed significant differences among evaluated cultivars, indicating a widerange of resistance to fire blight pathogen. The pear cultivars showed considerable variations in resistance to fireblight with the severity of infection ranging from 0.4% to 100%. In this study the cultivars were divided into fourgroups including very resistant (0-10%), semi-resistant (11%-50%), susceptible (51%- 80%) and very susceptible(81%- 100%) according to the percent of length of necrosis to the total shoot length. Three cultivars including‘Dare Gazi’, ‘Harrow Sweet’ and ‘Natanzi’ were identified as very resistant, 14 cultivars as semi-resistant, 10cultivars as susceptible and another three cultivars including ‘Mohamad Ali’, ‘Duchesse’ and ‘Chojuro’ wererecognized as very susceptible.Keywords: Pear, Fire blight, Resistant cultivars, Dare Gazi.Low-residue apple production compared to common IP and BIOproductionNAEF, AndreasResearch station Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil ACW, Schloss, P.O. Box, CH-8820 Wädenswil,Switzerlandandreas.naef@acw.admin.chIn several European countries, consumers and retailers are demanding a large reduction, ideally an elimination,of pesticide residues from fruits. Producers need information and advice on how to meet these demands.In a field trial with Golden Delicious and the scab resistant varieties Topaz, Otava and Ariane, common cropprotection strategies for integrated and organic apple production were compared to a low-input strategy withreduced use of synthetic fungicides. Pest and weed control was identical to the integrated strategy. In allstrategies, insecticides were used only if damage thresholds were exceeded and alternative measures wereapplied, being mating disruption against codling moth, mulching of leafs to reduce scab inoculum and exclosurenetting to prevent pest invasion. In the first year, fungicide application was interrupted in summer in the low-inputstrategy. Compared to the integrated strategy, this resulted in increased incidence of fruit scab on GoldenDelicious and bull’s eye rot on Golden Delicious and Topaz. The level of damage was similar to the organicstrategy. From the second year on, synthetic fungicides were used until end of bloom. After bloom, control ofdiseases was done with potassium bicarbonate and sulphur. No pesticide residues could be detected with thisstrategy and good control was achieved for scab on Golden Delicious and powdery mildew on all varieties. Arianewas the most robust variety. Bull’s eye rot at storage on Golden Delicious and Topaz remained the weakness ofthe low-input strategy. Hot water treatments after harvest reduced the incidence of this disease. No relevantlosses due to pests were observed in any strategy during four years.The trial will be continued to collect further information on crop protection efficacy and profitability, aiming atrecommendations for farmers.Keywords: pesticide residues, apple production, scab, bull’s eye rot.170


Posters of Topic 3Simultaneous detection and identification of pathogenic fungi inwheat using a DNA macroarrayPALMISANO, Marilena (1) *; KUHN, Roger (1) ; SIEROTZKI, Helge (2) ; BOLSINGER, Martin (2)(1) ZHAW Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Campus Reidbach, P.O. Box, CH-8820 Waedenswil,marilena.palmisano@zhaw.ch(2)Syngenta Crop Protection Muenchwilen AG, WST-810.3.18. CH-4332 Stein* pama@zhaw.chThe detection of economically important pathogens is a key element in sustainable wheat production and aprerequisite for crop protection. The objective of the project was to develop a DNA macroarray for fast and costeffectivedetection of nine pathogenic fungi in wheat: Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusariumpoae, Microdochium nivale var. majus, Microdochium nivale var. nivale, Puccinia recondita, Septoria tritici,Septoria nodorum and Pyrenophora tritici-repentis.Methodically, a macroarray is similar to a microarray but without the need for expensive equipment. PCR labeledsamples of DNA are hybridized to pathogen-specific oligonucleotides (probes) anchored to a solid support. Apositive reaction between an amplicon and a perfectly matched oligonucleotide generates a chemiluminescentsignal which can be detected by a plate reader. The macroarray is sensitive enough to detect single nucleotidepolymorphism (SNPs). Sample analysis is simple, fast, cost-effective, fully automated and suitable for highthroughput screening.In this project, the nine wheat pathogens were detected within 6 hours simultaneously in a single sample usingbetween one to four different species-specific probes for each pathogen. Species-specific detectoroligonucleotides were designed based on the β-tubulin and/or succinate dehydrogenase region of fungal DNA.The detection limit of the DNA macroarray technique particularly depends on the pathogen-specificoligonucleotides deployed.The necessity for monitoring pathogenic fungi in wheat production and for prediction of crop yield has beenrecognized for a long time. The DNA macroarray responds very sensitively and has the potential to recognizepathogenic fungi earlier with reference to the cultivation period than a conventional PCR. This means that theDNA macroarray can detect genomic DNA from fungi in a lower potency than the conventional PCR.One benefit of the DNA macroarray for detection of fungal pathogens in wheat is its increased specificity and theother its application to a large number of microorganisms which can be detected in a single assay. Thistechnology has been proven to be relatively cost-effective compared with real-time PCR or microarrays.This project was financially supported by the Commission of Technology and Innovation CTI in Berne,Switzerland.Keywords: DNA macroarray, wheat, pathogen-specific oligonucleotides, detection, screening.Verger Cidricole de Demain: conception, assessment and diffusionof environmental high-performance and economically viable ciderapple orchard systemsGUERIN, Anne *; DUPONT, Nathalie; GILLES, YannInstitut Français des Production Cidricoles, La Rangée Chesnel, F-61500 Sées, France* anne.guerin@ifpc.euThe context of pesticide reduction imposed by environmental concerns and regulations leads to technicaldeadlocks in orchard management. In order to overcome these obstacles and to answer the conventional growerswilling to go beyond Integrated Fruit Production, the cider industry professionals have decided to launch aprogram based on the conception of innovating sustainable orchard systems.Due to the numerous interactions between production factors, system approach is particularly well adapted. Itallows to understand and to improve the functioning of the overall orchard by taking into account theseinterrelations rather than focusing on each factor alone. Besides, specificities of cider apple orchards such as171


Posters of Topic 3using low susceptible cultivars or processing of fruits make them well-suited fields for experimentations on lowinputcropping systems.“Verger Cidricole de Demain” is a long-term and multi-partner project, including professionals, farmers,researchers, teachers, field advisors or organizations promoting agriculture. It aims to: (i) design self-sufficientorchard systems through the combination of several practices minimizing the use of inputs as much as possible,(ii) experiment the feasibility of these systems under field conditions in commercial organic and conventionalapple orchards (iii) select resources, methods and indicators to assess their sustainability through an agronomic,ecologic, economic and social multicriteria approach. This will also allow to evaluate the environmental efficiencyand the technical and economical incidence of the strategies adopted for the conception of systems.Designing a more sustainable orchard is all the more topical that a large part of the French cider apple orchardarea will need to be replanted in the next decade.Keywords: prototyping, innovative cropping systems, pesticide input reduction, sustainable cider apple-growing.Possibilities of integrated diseases control of carrotsBIMSTEINE, Gunita (1) *; BANKINA, Biruta (1) ; LEPSE, Liga (2)(1) Institute of Soil and Plant Sciences, Latvia University of Agriculture, Liela Street 2, Jelgava, LV-3004, * gunita.Bimsteine@llu.lv(2) Pūre Horticultural Research Center, Abavas Street 2, Pūre, Tukums district, LV-3124 LatviaCarrot is one of the most popular and profitable vegetables grown in Latvia, nevertheless there is a lack ofknowledge regarding carrot diseases and their control.Investigation on the integrated carrot disease control in Latvia was carried out at Pure Horticultural ResearchCentre and Institute of Soil and Plant Sciences of the Latvia University of Agriculture during 2008 – 2011. The aimof this investigation was to identify the most common carrot diseases under local conditions and to comparevarious strategies of fungicide treatment: 1) control (without fungicide); 2) fungicide applied according decisionsupport system DaCom Plant Plus to control foliar diseases; 3) fungicide used according expert decision.Fungicides with active ingredients mankozeb, boscalid and pyraclostrobin and azoxystrobin were used. Incidenceand severity of the diseases were observed during vegetation period. The severity of the diseases was evaluatedusing a 0-5 index scale. Development of the diseases was described by AUDPC (area under diseases progresscurve).Alternaria leaf blight of carrots (caused by Alternaria dauci) dominated in all observation period, but in 2011 alsoincidence of Cercospora leaf blight (caused by Cercospora carotae) was high. Both above mentioned diseasesunder field conditions of Latvia can reduce carrot yields considerably. In 2010, white rot (caused by Sclerotiniasclerotiorum) also was identified on carrot foliage in the field. The severity of carrot foliar blight was very low in theyears 2008-2010 and did not exceed 1-10%. Only in 2011 the severity of the disease was 100% observed incontrol and 10 – 19% observed in variants with fungicide applications.The number of fungicide applications recommended by DaCom Plant Plus varied 2-5 times in different years, butonly 1-2 times in variant with fungicide applications based on expert decision. Technical effectiveness of fungicideapplication was less than 60% during investigations, except 2011, when technical effectiveness of fungicideapplication fluctuated (81-90%) depending on the control strategy.Carrot yield was higher in 2009 (69 – 90 t ha -1 ), but the lowest yield was obtained in 2010 (22 – 33 t ha -1 ).Statistically significant differences were observed in 2009 and 2011, but only between control and variants withfungicide applications. Differences between different control strategies were not significant.Keywords: integrated control, foliar diseases, fungicide.172


Posters of Topic 3Electronic nose for the early detection of Red Palm Weevil(Rhynchophorus ferrugineous Olivier) infestation in Palms:preliminary resultsRIZZOLO, Anna (1) *; BIANCHI, Giulia (1) ; LUCIDO, Paolo (2) ; CANGELOSI, Benedetta (2) ;POZZI, Letizia (3) ; VILLA, Giovanni (3) ; CLEMATIS, Francesca (2) ; PASINI, Carlo (2) ; CURIR,Paolo (2)(1) The Agricultural Research Council - Food Technology Research Unit (CRA-IAA), via Venezian 26, I20133 Milan, Italy(2) The Agricultural Research Council - Unità di Ricerca per la Floricoltura e le Specie Ornamentali(CRA-FSO), Corso Inglesi 508, I 18038 Sanremo (IM), Italy(3) Demetra Società Cooperativa Sociale Onlus, Via Visconta 75, I 20045 Besana Brianza (MI), Italy* anna.rizzolo@entecra.itThe Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier) is one of the worst pests for palms and whenthe infestation of this insect is discovered, usually it is too late for recovering the plant. In the Mediterranean areaRPW mainly attacks the Phoenix canariensis species, and in Italy it was recorded since 2004. Various methodshave been applied to control and manage RPW, but at the moment none of them successfully prevented itsspread out. Basing on the fact that from the infested trees a brownish-yellow smelly liquid is oozed out associatedwith changes in plant volatile emission due to the stress, in 2011 a trial was planned in order to see if gassensors (eNose) can be used for the early detection of RPW pest in Phoenix canariensis trees.Palms were grown in buckets at CRA-FSO inside isolated greenhouse under quarantine conditions: six wereinfested with two, four or eight RPW larvae (2 palms/RPW number) by inserting each RPW larva through a holedrilled in the trunk; four palms were used as control, two with four holes drilled in the trunk without RPW larvaeand two without any hole. After 8, 15 and 23days from the infestation, the air surrounding the crown of each palmwas sampled using a gas sampling pump and 20L gas-tight sampling bags, transported to Demetra labs andanalysed for volatile pattern by eNose. After 8 and 23 days from the infestation, in association with air samplings40 leaves/palm were sampled from the crown, put into 1.7L jars fitted with a gas-tight lid equipped with a septumfor gas samplings, weighed and trasported to CRA-IAA labs for volatile pattern analysis by eNose. In both labseNose analyses were carried out using a PEN3 Portable Electonic Nose produced by Airsense consisting of asampling section, 10 MOS type chemical sensors and a software package for data recording and multivariatestatistical analysis.Normalized sensors signals of air and leaves samples were separately processed using pattern recognitiontechniques, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). With PCA ofair samples, RPW palms could be distinguished along PC2 axis by the healthy and drilled ones, whereas PC1increased with the increase of time from infestation. With PCA of leaves samples, opposite PC1 trends with timefrom infestation were observed for healthy trees (increase) and for drilled and RPW ones (decrease). Theperformance of classification models based on RPW infestation whatever the number of larvae ranged from76.7% for air samples to 100% for leaves samples.Keywords: RPW; Phoenix canariensis, electronic nose, air, leaves.Integrated fruit production in Bulgaria – state-of-the-art, tendenciesand ecologically sound approaches for producing safe fruitsRANKOVA, Zarya (1) *; TITIYANOV, Miroslav (2) ; ZHIVONDOV, Argir (1)(1) Fruit-Growing Institute – Plovdiv, 12 Ostromila Str., Bulgaria(2) University Of Forestry – Sofia, Bulgaria* rankova_zarya@abv.bg173


Posters of Topic 3The present study treats some major elements of integrated fruit production as a modern approach for obtainingtop quality, ecologically pure fruit produce – choosing the suitable cultivar and cultivar-rootstock combination,integrated approaches for control of diseases, pests and weeds, systems of irrigation and of maintaining the soilsurface in the fruit plantations.The combined approach for pest control, the application of good agricultural practices and the use of pesticideproducts with confirmed selectivity, suitable for application under the conditions of integrated fruit production, aswell as the search for alternative approaches to limit the use of agrochemicals, ensure that the crops aremaintained in a good agrotechnical and ecological condition.Integrated fruit production as an organizational form in fruit-growing, is the modern ecologically-oriented fruitproduction. The knowledge on its basic principles is a necessary condition for adapting fruit-growing to theEuropean requirements for the production of competitive fruit produce, preservation of the environment and thebiodiversity.Keywords: fruit growing, cultivars, pest control, integrated fruit production.Effect of different plant strengthener on the appearance of powderymildew on rosemary (Rosmarinusofficinalis)SAUER, Heike (1) *; RATHER, Karin (1) ; KOCH, Robert (1) ; BLUM, Hanna (2)(1) State Horticultural College and Research Institute, Diebsweg 2, 69121 Heidelberg, Germany(2)Ökoplant e.V., HimmelsburgerStraße 95, 53 474 Ahrweiler, Germany* heike.sauer@lvg.bwl.deThe powdery mildew on rosemary (LeveillulalabiatarumRosmarini f) can cause economical damage in organicgreenhouse production. Therefore measurements must be taken to avoid infestation with powdery mildew. In atrial four plant strengthener and one fertilizer were tested preventively by spraying weekly. The plant strengthenerused were ‘SteinhauersMehltauschreck’ (sodium hydrogen carbonate), ‘HF Pilzvorsorge’ (fennel plant extract),the combination of both, ‘Vi-Care’ (water extract of citrus seeds) and one fertilizer ‘Schwefal’ (sulfur). The plantstrengthener ‘Vi-Care’ and‘Prev’ (orange oil extract) were sprayedafter the attack of the fungus by three timestreatment within ten days. The effect of the different treatments on disease incidence and infestation werecompared to a water control. All treatments reduced disease incidence. ’HF Pilzvorsorge’,‘SteinhauersMehltauschreck’ in combination with ‘HF Pilzvorsorge’, ‘Schwefal’ and ‘Vi-Care’ led to nearlysymptomless plants. Plants treated with ‘Schwefal’ however showed white spots. To sell these plants they have tobe cleaned. ‘Vi-Care’ and ‘Prev’ sprayed after attack of powdery mildew led to a visible decline of diseaseincidence. Hereby ‘Vi-Care’ reduced the percentage of plants with visible mildew spots from 30% to 15%, and‘Prev’ decreased the amount from 20% plants to 1% after treatment. ‘Prev’ was more effective than ‘Vi-Care’.Keywords: Rosmarinusofficinalis, powdery mildew, Leveillulalabiatarum Rosmarini f, organic greenhouseproduction.Merging ecological and social approaches to tackle insecticideoveruse in Colombian small-scale passionfruit productionWYCKHUYS, Kris A.G.CIRAD UR Hortsyskris.wyckhuys@cirad.frIn many parts of the tropics, the bulk of minor fruit production is in the hands of smallholder farmers, who arestrapped of financial resources and all too often bypassed by government extension programs. In Colombia,several species of Passiflora sp. are cultivated; with most important crops being sweet, yellow and purple174


Posters of Topic 3passionfruit. Cultivated on >8,000 hectares, these crops sustain countless farmer households in some thecountry’s most deprived and volatile rural areas. Lance flies (Diptera: Lonchaeidae) are key pests of passionfruitcrops, but little information exists regarding their biology, ecology and management. Local farmers are thought toexperience considerable yield losses due to pest attack, but lack the necessary knowledge to properly managethem. In 2008, the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) teamed up with local universities to devisecost-effective, sustainable and environmentally-sound pest management options for local passionfruit producers.Firstly, a national farmer survey was conducted to gain insights into the agro-ecological knowledge and pestmanagement behavior of local farmers. Aside from a universal use of calendar-based insecticide sprays, farmersexperimented to high extent with home-made bait traps and low-cost bait types. A few farmers also invented toxicbait sprays and sanitary practices, but none were familiar with biological control. Next, participatory researchapproaches were adopted in various farming communities, to compare these local innovations with scientificallydefinedmanagement tools or selected, broadly-adopted tactics for Tephritid fruit fly management. By doing so,farmers could discover for themselves that some of their management tactics were futile while others were muchmore effective and less costly than their current pesticide use patterns. Lastly, farmer experiences weredocumented using video, and are currently projected in multiple communities during ’agricultural movieafternoons’. Farmers are excited to see themselves on the big screen and are eager to try out practices that arepromoted by their peers. Through this research project, CIAT researchers and national partner institutionselucidated susceptibility of passionfruit to arthropod pests and laid the basis for integrated pest management inthese crops. The joint social and ecological project focus proved highly effective in identifying pest managementalternatives and further promoting those with local smallholder farmers in rural settings, and could serve as atemplate for numerous other pest management programs in small-scale fruit production in both the developingworld as in Europe.An individual-based modeling approach to assess trap croppingmanagement of Helicoverpa zea in tomato field in MartiniqueGRECHI, Isabelle (1) ; TIXIER, Philippe (3) ; RHINO, Béatrice (2) ; MALEZIEUX, Eric (1) &RATNADASS, Alain (1)(1) CIRAD, UPR HortSys, F-34398 Montpellier, France(2) CIRAD, UPR HortSys, F-97285 Le Lamentin, Martinique, France(3) CIRAD, UPR Systèmes bananes et ananas, F-97285 Le Lamentin, Martinique, France* isabelle.grechi@cirad.frFarmers in the tropics are faced with crop protection issues such as adverse impacts of pesticides on humanhealth and on the environment, particularly in intensive agrosystems in French overseas islands, or foodinsecurity and low income due to pest-induced crop losses, particularly in low-input traditional systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. A Cirad-funded « Omega3 » project tackles these problems by studying the effects of the plannedintroduction of plant species diversity (PSD) in tropical agrosystems, as a potential alternative to conventionalpractices based on pesticide use. One of the several study cases the project focused on is the management ofthe tomato fruit worm Helicoverpa zea in tomato field in the French West Indies (Martinique), relying on stimulantpest diversion PSD-based process. Sweet corn is proposed .as a trap crop to control the populations anddamages of H. zea at the tomato field scale. To understand system functioning and improve H. zea management,a spatially-explicit individualbased model is under development. The model includes three interacting modulesthat describe (i) phenology of tomato and corn plants and dynamic of their attractive stages for H. zea (ii) H. zeadevelopment, both using thermal units, and (iii) movement and oviposition behavior of H. zea. The model runs atthe field scale over one tomato cropping cycle and is approximated at a daily time-step. More widely, we aim touse this model as a generic tool to improve our understanding of system functioning by assessing generalinfestation patterns in response to the plant characteristics (e.g., relative attractiveness of the commercial vs. trapcrops), the spatiotemporaldeployment of commercial and trap crops (i.e., spatio-temporal planting design of the crops), and the insectbehavioural traits (e.g., movement, oviposition,…). The modeling approach is presented and discussed.175


Posters of Topic 3Program PETAAL: a biocontrol strategy of the sycamore lace bugCorythucha ciliata (Say) (Hemiptera: Tingidae) in urban areasVERFAILLE, Thibaut (1) ; PIRON, Mireille (2) ; GUTLEBEN, Caroline (3) ; JALOUX, Bruno (1) ;HECKER, Christian (4) ; MAURY-ROBERT, Anne (5) ; CHAPIN, Eric (5) ; CLEMENT, Alain (6)(1) Agrocampus Ouest - Centre d’Angers INHP, 2 rue Le Nôtre, 49045 Angers cedex 01- France.thibaut.verfaille@agrocampus-ouest.fr, bruno.jaloux@agrocampus-ouest.fr(2) Koppert France - 14 rue de la Communauté - Parc d'Activités de Viais - 44860 Pont St Martin -France. mpiron@koppert.fr(3) Plante & Cité - 3 rue Alexander Fleming - 49006 Angers cedex 01 - France.caroline.gutleben@plante-et-cite.fr(4) If Tech - Centre Horticole Floriloire - 3 rue des magnolias - 49130 Les Ponts de Cé - France.contact@iftech.fr(5) Fredon PACA - Antenne du Var - 224 rue des découvertes - 83390 Cuers - France.annemaury.fredon@orange.fr(6) Université d'Angers - Laboratoire LISA, Institut Universitaire de Technologie, 4 boulevard Lavoisier,BP 42018, Angers cedex, France. alain.clement@univ-angers.frThe sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Say) has been identified as one of the main pests in green spaces ofFrance and Mediterranean countries, causing aesthetic damages on plane trees and public nuisances (honeydewproduction, house invasions, etc.). In a context where regulation and environmental issues are in favour of newenvironmentally friendly solutions’ development, a biological control strategy against this pest is expected byprofessional as a major innovation. This is the aim of the PETAAL Program (2008-2012) labelled by Vegepolys,the international plant cluster, and involving six partners from biocontrol industry, scientific and technicalcommunity.During this four-year project, the potential efficiency of several biocontrol agents has been tested in laboratoryassays and experimental trials, carried out in several French cities. Entomopathogenous nematodes of theSteinerneima gender were tested at different seasons, different doses and with the addition of an adjuvant or not.Trials with the generalist predatory insect, Chrysoperla lucasina, were carried out to identify the best period ofapplication, stages to be applied, doses and its predation potential and dispersal capacity in the trees.Observations and monitoring of the pest activity, such as the wintering adults’ migration from trunk to leaves andthe pest dynamics in the foliage, were done upstream from the different experiments.As a tool for the experiments, a colour image analysis software package has been developed in order to measurequantitatively foliar bleaching due to the sycamore lace bug as an indicator of the treatments’ efficacy. Theinterest of this tool is the possibility to analyse automatically a large amount of plane tree’s leaves pictures,producing accurate, reliable, repeatable and non-subjective quantitative measurements. This tool, built up with adata capture bench and software, is already operational and usable in routine by non-specialists of pictureanalysis.The results of the assays and experiments showed the interest to use entomopathogenous nematodes forcontrolling wintering and summer sycamore lace bug populations, and Chrysoperla lucasina for controlling springlarvae population. Moreover, they highlight that spraying conditions and intervention planning are key factors toguarantee the efficiency of biocontrol agents.In 2011, a global strategy combining the biocontrol agents has been implemented in order to propose anaffordable and efficient solution.The PETAAL Program was a large-scale experience of biocontrol research actions in green spaces. It hasenabled to describe components and steps of a global strategy to control sycamore lace bug populations withthree biocontrol agents. The conclusions of the project enabled to provide to green spaces managers technicalresponses (alternative products and tools) and new perspectives for a safety management of urban trees in orderto reduce the use of pesticides in urban areas.Keywords: Urban green areas - Plane trees - Corythucha ciliata - Biological control - Entomopathogenousnematodes - Chrysoperla lucasina - Foliar damage - Colour image analysis Software.176


Posters of Topic 3A mix of six parasitoids for aphid control below observationthresholdTHIELEMANS, Thierry *; DASSONVILLE, Nicolas; GOSSET, Virginie; ROSEMEYER, ViolaViridaxis S.A., Gosselies, Belgium* tthielemans@viridaxis.comViridaxis is a Belgian company which has developed a new, plant-less way of mass-rearing aphid parasitoids.Due to its innovative and unique technology, Viridaxis has been able to produce one new selected parasitoidspecies every year.Biocontrol as part of IPM strategyon ornamentals can be challenging due to an especially low tolerance to thepresence of any insect (pest or beneficial) on the final product. The best strategy is to keep insect populations aslow as possible, ideally under the observation threshold.OrnaProtect is a mix of six different wasps which parasitize aphids of ornamental plants in a more or less hostspecific way. It is used in a preventive strategy and does not necessitate aphid identification.OrnaProtect will actdirectly on the first aphid(s) in the culture, responsible of the primary infection,rather than acting on wellestablishedand crop damaging aphid populations. Avoiding an exponential population increase of aphids,thispest will be controlled often before aphids reach the observation threshold.Ephdedruscerasicola, one of the six species of OrnaProtect, induces a modification of the behavior of parasitizedaphids. Unlike other parasitoids, oviposition of E. cerasicola seems to be responsible for the fact that theparasitized aphids do not stay on the leaves and stems for mummification but hides (in the substratum, under thepots…) before being mummified. For this reason,it is almost impossible to observe these mummies in fieldconditions.Aphelinusabdominalis is not only efficiently parasitizing a relatively large range of aphids, but it is also known forits host-feeding activity. With a two months lifespan, A. abdominaliscontributes tobiocontrol of aphids inornamentals by reducing the possibility to observe traces of this pest.All parasitoids included in OrnaProtect are individually efficient in the control of a large host range. However, thestrength of a mix lays equally in the synergy of the different parasitoid species, i.e. combination of the differentresearch capacities, daily oviposition rates, lifespan, affinities to their hosts, behavior modification, host-feedingactivity, temperature range, etc. This reinforces the action of OrnaProtecton the complex of aphids occurring onornamental plants and makesbiocontrol possible withthe utmost respect ofquality criteria of the plants for sale: Aslittle as possible observation of aphid traceson the final product.Keywords: natural aphid control, parasitoid cocktail, Ephedruscerasicola, Aphelinusabdominalis, ready-to-useunits.Decision support for sustainable orchard pest management with theSwiss forecasting system SOPRASAMIETZ, Jörg *; HÖHN, Heinrich; RAZAVI, Elisabeth; HÖPLI, Hans Ulrich; SCHAUB,Lukas; GRAF, BennoAgroscope Changins-Wädenswil Research Station ACW, CH-8820 Wädenswil, Switzerland* joerg.samietz@acw.admin.chCrop protection under innovative and sustainable orchard management relies on precise timing of surveillanceand control of pest populations. The system SOPRA has been developed as forecasting tool in order to optimizetiming of monitoring, management, and control measures of insect pests in fruit orchards. Applying time-varyingdistributed delay approaches, phenology-models were developed driven by solar radiation, air temperature andsoil temperature on hourly basis. Up to now, relationships between temperature and stage specific developmentrates for the relevant stages of the life cycles were established under controlled laboratory conditions for majorpests of apple, pear, cherry and plum: Rosy apple aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea), Apple sawfly (Hoplocampatestudinea), Codling moth (Cydia pomonella), Smaller fruit tortrix (Grapholita lobarzewskii), Apple blossom weevil177


Posters of Topic 3(Anthonomus pomorum), Summer tortrix (Adoxophyes orana), Pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyri), European cherry fly(Rhagoletis cerasi), Red spider mite (Panonychus ulmi), and Plum fruit tortrix (Grapholita funebrana). Insect bodytemperatures in the models are based on studies of habitat selection of relevant developmental stages andaccording simulations using the three driving variables and structural orchard features. For validation, modelpredictions were compared with independent field observations from several years. On base of local weatherdata, age structure of the pest populations is simulated and crucial events for management activities are predictedby the SOPRA system. Through a web-interface, the simulation results are made available to consultants andgrowers (www.sopra.info). As exemplified here, phenology is directly linked to a detailed decision support and toextended information about the pest insects as well as to the registered plant protection products. Fourteenclimatic regions cover all fruit growing regions of Switzerland. SOPRA is applied as decision support system forthe ten major insect pests of fruit orchards on local and regional scale in Switzerland and southern Germany andhas a wide range of possible applications across Europe.Keywords: decision support system, integrated pest management, phenology model, forecasting, tree fruit.AGROBIOFILM - Development of enhanced biodegradable films foragricultural activitiesCOSTA-RODRIGUES, C. (1) ; CARVALHO, L. (2) ; DUARTE, E. (2) *(1) SILVEX, Indústria de Plásticos e Papéis SA, Portugal(2) Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal* eduarte@isa.utl.ptThe European consortium behind AGROBIOFILM project wasestablishedby a multidisciplinary group, joining SMEsuppliers, universities, research centres and end-users of agricultural plastics:SILVEX (Portugal)–SME (Coordinator);BIOBAG International (Norway) – SME;ICS Environment (France)–SME;Instituto Superior de Agronomia (Portugal)–RTD;ADESVA (Spain) –RTD;Universite Montpellier (France) –RTD;Aarhus Universitet (Denmark) – RTD;Hortofrutícolas Campelos (Portugal) – End-user;Olivier Mandeville-Peiriere (France) – End-user;ExplotacionesAgrariasGarrido Mora (Spain) – End-user.The use of conventional polyethylene (PE) films as soil mulches is a common practice in horticultural production,especially in the production of high value vegetable crops, since their utilisation has numerous advantages.However, at the end of the crop cycle PE has to be removed, which is a costly and difficult operation, leaving lotsof plastic residues in the soil that can be responsible for environmental problems, since PE does not biodegrade.The removed plastic should then be sent to recycling or landfill, which is also an expensive process.In order to change this actual panorama, a group of European SME suppliers and users of agricultural plastics,supported by universities and research centres, established the consortium behind AGROBIOFILM project,wishing to address a major market opportunity through the development and performance demonstration ofbiodegradable mulch films (BMF), that would be able to reduce the environmental impacts caused by theutilisation of PE as soil mulch.AGROBIOFILM is developing enhanced mulch films based on biodegradable raw materials, customized tospecific crops and regions, with a possible positive effect on crop yield and quality, pests and disease control, soilpreparation and fertilization. Special attention shall be dedicated to the integration of all the knowledge acquiredthrough a full life-cycle analysis and a performance/cost-efficiency validation. These enhanced BMF should bemore competitive at both the technical and the economic point-of view by optimising its processing conditions.In the course of the project a very recent Novamont’s Mater-Bi® formulation (CF04P grade), characterised by ahigher content in renewable resources, is going to be tested and compared with other biodegradable polymersalready commercialised, particularly with the Novamont’s Mater-Bi® NF grade. The development of this newgrade aims to produce a more competitive and more sustainable solution, from the technical, economic andenvironmental point-of-view.178


Posters of Topic 3The agronomic performance of these BMF are being assessed through field experiments conducted on fourselected crops known to need specific requirements in terms of film properties and life time: bell-pepper(Capsicum annuum), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), strawberry (Fragaria sp) and grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).The field trials of muskmelon and strawberry in open field conditions are settled in Portugal (Ribatejo), trials ofstrawberry under tunnel in Spain (Andalusia) and the grapevine trials in France (Languedoc-Roussillon).Keywords: AGROBIOFILM, Mulch films, Bioplastics, Sustainability.Evaluation effect of culture densities in different times onqualitative properties of Allium ampeloprasum L.ssp.iranicumMANSOORE, ShamiliHormozgan University, Iran* shamili1358@yahoo.comAllium ampeloprasum is a native plant that consumed as a raw or cooked vegetable in Iran. Despite highnutritional value and continuous demand for consumption, there is not much research on the impact of culturecondition or agronomical management on growing and producing properties of Iranian leek. So a statisticalexperiment was conducted as factorial with completely randomly blocks design in three replications. Treatmentsincluded plant density (133, 200, 266, 400, 533, 800, and 1600 plants / m2) and planting time (1st April and 1stSeptember). Some vegetative (fresh weight, dry weight, yield, yield biomass number of remained plants, totalsoluble solid, ,phosphor, potassium and sodium, calcium, magnesium, vitamin C, protein, fat) and reproductive(flowering stalk number, seed production, seed biomass and thousand seeds weight) traits were measured duringthe experiment. Results indicated that yield biomass decreases by increasing density and fewer losses wereachieved of plants from densities of 133 and 200 plants / m2. Also the most seed production and seed biomasswere obtained from the mentioned densities. Although level of product in higher densities was higher butsignificant difference was not observed between treatments. Spring culture (average yield= 4.6 kg/m2) hassignificant difference to another planting time. Also it was denoted that number of flowering stalk and the mean ofseed production in spring culture is more than fall culture. Thousand seeds Weight, level of phosphor, potassium,sodium, calcium, magnesium, Vitamin C, Protein and fat were not affected by culture density and in the otherwords, high densities compared with lower densities have not significant effect on procedure of changes ininternal ingredients of the product.Key words: Iranian leek, vegetative characteristic, reproductive traits, yield indexes.The use of somatic embryogenesis in artificial seed production incauliflower (Brassica oleraceae var. botrytis)AL-SHAMARI, Magda *; RIHAN, Hail; AL-SWEDI, Fadil & FULLER, Michael PaulSchool of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology,Plymouth University, PL4 8AA, UK* magda.alshamari@plymouth.ac.ukA reliable method was developed for high production of cauliflower artificial seeds through somaticembryogenesis. Optimum embryogenic callus proliferation was obtained using friable callus derived fromhypocotyls and root explants on semi solidified MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) media containing 0.15, 0.5mgL-1 of 2,4- dichlorophenoxy acetic acid(2,4-D) and 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mgL-1 kinetin. This callus inductionmedium (CIM) was used to maintain callus tissue by sub-culturing every 21 days. Liquid cultures were initiatedfrom chopped embryogenic clusters and high production of somatic embryos (SEs) was established after 20 dayswith MS agitated liquid medium supplemented with 0.05 mgL-1 Indole -3-acetic acid (IAA) , 0.5 mgL-1 kinetin and179


Posters of Topic 320% sucrose. High survival rate (100%) and conversion to plants rate (60%) was achieved after one month whensomatic embryos were cultivated on MS medium without hormones. Mature somatic embryos were encapsulatedin calcium-alginate beads to produce artificial seeds. Artificial seed regeneration to complete plantlets wasdetermined.Keywords: Cauliflower, Somatic embryogenesis, Artificial seeds.Timing field production of Japanese bunching onion (Alliumfistulosum L.)KOŁOTA, Eugeniusz; ADAMCZEWSKA-SOWIŃSKA, Katarzyna & UKLAŃSKA-PUSZ,Cecylia *Department of Horticulture, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life SciencesGrunwaldzki sq. 24a, 50-363 Wrocław, Poland* cecylia.uklanska@up.wroc.plJapanese bunching onion is a minor crop in Poland, grown mostly in home gardens as a perennial plantspecies for the use of cut foliage in early spring season. Recently there have been developed some pseudostemtype cultivars producing little number of tillers, which can be grown for the use of whole plants in early growthstages or for blanched pseudostem like leek species. The study was aimed to evaluate the yield and nutritionalvalue of Japanese bunching onion ‘Performer’ under influence of growing term and age of plants. Seedpropagated transplants were grown for similar period of time within 5 Apr. – 08 June, 6 May – 8 July, 7 June –10Aug., 8 July – 10 Sept., 5 Aug. – 11 Oct. or harvested after 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135 and 150 days fromplanting date. Plants grown for 135 and 150 days were blanched by mounding the soil around the lower leafbases.Results of the study proved that Japanese bunching onion can be produced for the fresh market supply sinceJune till October by differentiation the term of planting the seed propagated transplants or by the harvest of plantsat different stage of growth within 60 and 150 days of cultivation in the open field. Plants at the same ageharvested in one month intervals since early June to September produced similar, while in October lower yield,with gradual decrease of dry matter, carotenoids, sugars, volatile oils and nitrates. The delay of harvest date from60 to 120 days after planting resulted in substantial yield increment with simultaneous depletion of vitamin C,carotenoids, chlorophyll, sugars, volatile oils, nitrates, total N, K and Ca content. Blanched plants characterizedconsiderably longer white portion of pseudostem, lower content of chlorophyll, and carotenoids, while higheramounts of vitamin C.Keywords: growing term, harvest date, yield, plant composition.Experience with Honeycrisp apple storage management inWashingtonHANRAHAN, Ines (1) ; MATTHEIS, James P. (2) ; SCHMIDT, Tory (3) ; MCFERSON, James (3)(1) Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission, Yakima, WA USA(2) USDA-ARS Tree Fruit Research Laboratory, Wenatchee, WA, USA(3) Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission, Wenatchee, WA USA* hanrahan@treefruitresearch.comHigh demand and premium pricing have led to rapid increases in Honeycrisp plantings and fruit volume inWashington State, USA since introduction of the cultivar in 1999. Most fruit is packed and sold by Januarybecause of strong demand coupled with difficulties associated with extended storage. However, with rapidly180


Posters of Topic 3increasing production volume, it appears essential to lengthen the marketing window. Extended storage ofHoneycrisp is complicated by severe fruit quality problems like bitter pit and skin greasiness. Rapid decline intitratable acidity can occur in mature fruit, leading to inconsistency in flavor. Fruit sensitivity to chilling manifestsitself as soft scald and/or soggy breakdown and flesh cavities can appear if fruit is exposed to CO2 levels >1%.Since 2008 we have conducted a series of experiments to determine: 1) if fruit storage can be extended whilepreserving fruit quality; 2) factors contributing to chilling disorder development; and, 3) orchard factors thatinfluence postharvest performance. Best-storing fruit comes from annually bearing orchards with medium croploads. Less mature fruit with some remaining starch (5, 1-6 scale), light green background color, good titratableacidity (0.5% malic acid) stored best, although flavor may have been compromised. One week at 10°C followedby subsequent storage at 2.2-3.3°C reduced incidence of soft scald and soggy breakdown. Controlledatmosphere (CA, ≤1% CO2; ≥2% O2) alone or in combination with 1-MCP reduced skin greasiness. Soft scalddevelopment was highly variable among orchards and years. Soft scald development was best mitigated byearlier harvests, since disorder incidence increases with advanced maturity.Keywords: apple, storage, disorders, soft scald.Effect of indole buteric acid and putrescine on adventitious rootingof semi-hard wood kiwifruit cuttingsKHEZRI, Masood (1) ; WOOLLEY, David (2)(1)Horticultural Research Institute, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran(2)Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Massey University,Palmerston North, New Zealand* masoodkhezri@gmail.comThe low rooting percentage of kiwifruit cuttings is the major problem of its commercial propagation. Thisexperiment was carried out to determine if Putrescine (Put) and its combination with indole buteric acid (IBA)promote the rooting percentage and root development of kiwifruit cuttings. Two cultivars including ‘Gold’ and‘Green’ were investigated. Results showed that application of Put treatments alone did not increase the rootingpercentage, the root number and the root volume. The highest rooting percentage was obtained by application ofIBA (2000 ppm) to ‘Gold’ and IBA (4000 ppm) to ‘Green’ cultivars. For ‘Gold’ cultivar, IBA combined with 10 mMPut showed higher number of root, root volume and root fresh weight compared to only IBA or Put treatments.There was a negative correlation between the callus volume and the rooting percentage of the cultivars, and IBAtreatments as well as its combination with Put treatments prevented the excessive callus formation. These resultssuggest that both IBA and Put play a role in conjunction with each other for root growth and development ofkiwifruit cuttings.Keywords: Auxin, Polyamine, Rooting, Kiwifruit cutting.Effect of pre emergence herbicides on growth quality of Alliumampeloprasum L. ssp.iranicumMANSOORE, ShamiliHormozgan University, Iran* shamili1358@yahoo.comIran is the center and origin of many agricultural plants. One of the domestic and most important plants is a sort ofedible Allium, Iranian leek, which is consumed as narrow leaf vegetable. Cultivation of this plant is conductedtraditionally and there is a little information on its agronomy and breeding. One of the main concerns of the181


Posters of Topic 3producers is weeding during cultivation period, because narrow leaf weeds could combine with the harvested cropand reduce its quality. This study was conducted to examine some pre emergence herbicides effect on seedgermination and plant establishment (in laboratory, greenhouse and farm conditions). Treatments includedapplication of Cholorotal Dimethile (0, 7.5, 5, 12.10 kg/hec), Triflouraline (0, 1.5, 2, 1.5 kg/hec) and Pandi-Methaline (0, 2.25, 3, 3.75 kg/hec). Germination percentage, germination rate, epicotyl and hypocotyl length, dryand fresh weight of root and stem were measured. Results represented that the seed of this plant have greaterresistance to low level of applied herbicides. Germination rate was decreased by increasing herbicideconcentration. Triflouraline treatment reduced seedling establishment in laboratory and farm conditions. Bestseed germination and seedling establishment, with high weed controlling, was observed in Cholorotal Dimethiletreatment (in three conditions) with lowest applied level.Key words: Iranian leek, Dacthal, Tereflan, Stomp, germination rate.Conservation tillage in intensive vegetable production systems –Strip tillage in white cabbage cultivationÜBELHÖR, A. (1) *; PFENNING, J. (1) ; HERMANN, W. (2) ; MORHARD, J. (3) ; BILLEN,N. (4) ; CLAUPEIN, W. (1) & LIEBIG, H.P. (1)(1)Institute of Crop Science (340a),(2)Research Station ‘Ihinger Hof’: Crop Production and Crop Protection (301),(3)Institute of Agricultural Engineering (440),(4)Institute of Soil Science and Land Evaluation (310), University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany* annegret.uebelhoer@uni-hohenheim.deStrip tillage is well established in corn and sugar beet production. Main advantage of this cultivation method is thereduction of soil erosion because of soil cover with straw residues from pre-culture. Concerning vegetableproduction there exist a limited number of studies only. In 2009 experiments were started to prove the strip tilltechnique for the cultivation of white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. convar. capitata var. alba).Field site is located at the Research Station “Ihinger Hof”, southwest of Germany. The cultivation treatments were(1) conventional tillage (CT), (2) conventional tillage with previous cultivation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa var.capitata L.) (CT_lettuce), (3) strip tillage (ST), (4) strip tillage with lettuce as pre-crop (ST_lettuce).Theexperimental design was completely randomized with four replications per treatment. Winter triticale ‘Talentro’was pre-crop respectively pre-pre-crop and at crop harvest in 2010 whole straw residues remained on soilsurface. In autumn 2010 conventional tillage treatments were ploughed and strip tillage treatments wereprocessed with a GPS-RTK-based machine (Horsch Focus). In spring 2011 lettuce was planted in treatmentCT_lettuce (2) and ST_lettuce (4). After harvest, white cabbage was planted without any further soil treatment.Lettuce und cabbage transplants were planted using a modified planting machine (Checci & Magli).During a four-week-period after planting root and shoot development was investigated. Root and shoot length,leaf area, fresh weight, dry matter and root/shoot ratio were assessed. Harvest yield was determined and plantsamples were taken for fresh/dry matter measurements and plant nitrogen analysis. In addition, soil erosionlosses were measured with a small chamber rainfall simulator.There were no significant differences in marketable plant weight for lettuce concerning CT_lettuce (2) andST_lettuce (4). Mean per head was 641 g (2) and 662 g (4). Dry matter content was significantly higher for striptillage compared to conventional tillage treatment (p


Posters of Topic 3Effect of seed origin, fertilization and pruning on growth, yield andfruit sugar content of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.)WOLF, Stefanie *; PFENNING, Judit; CLAUPEIN, Wilhelm; LIEBIG, H.PeterInstitute of Crop Science (340a), University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany* wolfst@uni-hohenheim.deGoldenberries (Physalis peruviana L.), originated from Andean regions, are grown for their delicious and healthpromoting fruits. The cultivation is possible in temperate climates with respect to restrictions as frost intoleranceand perennial growth character. To improve goldenberry cultivation concerning summer green house conditions inGermany an experiment with 88 goldenberry plants grown under sheltered conditions (foliar greenhouse,day/night 18 °C, aeration 27 °C) in grow-bags with fertigation (spaghetti tubes) was carried out and implementedwithin six months (28 May 2010 - 22 October 2010). Two different seed origins, two nitrogen (N) fertilizertreatments (0,4 g N/m 2 per week; 0,8 g N/m 2 per week) and two pruning treatments (one without pruning of sidebranches and the other with reduction of sidebranches from four to two) were tested. Dry matter (DM) [g], shootelongation [cm] and nitrogen concentration [% in DM] of vegetative plant parts were gauged. Measurements offresh and dry matter [g], nitrogen concentration [% in DM] and whole sugar content [°Brix] as well as Saccharose,Glucose and Fructose concentrations [% in DM] of generative plant parts (fruits) were made.N fertilizer treatment resulted in significant different DM of leaf, shoot and root samples. For 0,4 g N/m 2 per weekmean dry matter of whole plant was 174,5 g ± 13,1 g versus 0,8 g N/m 2 per week with 222,5 g ± 16,1 g. Results ofplant nitrogen concentrations in leaf samples showed significant higher N concentrations (3,18 ± 0,19 % N in DM)when supplied with higher N fertilization (0,8 g N/m 2 per week). In leaf samples supplied with 0,4 g N/m 2 per weeka mean concentration of 2,79 ± 0,16 % N in DM was measured.Shoot elongation, including mother- and sidebranches, was not significantly influenced by fertilization. Yield andfruit quality parameter such as sugar concentration did not alter because of N supply. Mean yield was 6,8 t/ha andmean sugar content was optically analyzed 15,3 °Brix and enzymatic-optically analyzed concentrations ofSaccharose was 25,9%, of D-Glucose 12,8% and of D-Fructose 12,3% in DM. By trend goldenberry plantsfertilized with 0,8 g N/m 2 per week had a higher yield (373,5 g per plant) compared to plants (301,9 g per plant)with 0,4 g N/m 2 per week fertilization. Pruning method of side branches had a significant impact on dry matteraccumulation of all organs and to some extent on fruit yield. Seed origin had no significant effect.In conclusion for temperate climate regions cultivation of goldenberries is worthwhile with rather low fertilization, ina grow-bag system and under sheltered conditions.Keywords: nitrogen, grow-bag, saccharose, uchuva, cape gooseberry, greenhouse, fruit quality.Predicting natural fruit drop in apple – a model to facilitate chemicalfruit thinning(1)GÖLLES, Michael (1) *; WIDMER, Albert (1) ; BAUMGARTNER, Daniel (2)Extension Tree Fruit, Research Station Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil ACW, Wädenswil,Switzerland(2)Quality and Safety of Produkts, Nutrition and Health, Research Station Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil ACW, Wädenswil, Switzerland* michael.goelles@acw.admin.chThe decision, whether a chemical fruit thinning in an apple orchard is necessary and to what extent, is oftendifficult. Currently growers take a decision without knowing what will be happening later at natural fruit drop(Junedrop). If multiple thinning applications are applied, it is also necessary to know about the effectiveness of theprevious application. So, the aim of our experiment is to give them a decision support to optimize chemical fruitthinning applications. Based on the model developed by Duane W. Greene (University of Massachusetts), AlanLakso and Terence Robinson (Cornell University), data from different varieties (Golden Delicious, Diwa®, Kanzi®,Braeburn and Gala) and sites were collected in the last three years. For each sample 105 representative fruit183


Posters of Topic 3clusters were selected on 7 trees in plots without chemical thinning and within these clusters every single fruit wasmarked. From all marked fruits, beginning at end of bloom, diameter was measured two times within about oneweek to calculate fruit growth. The model is based on the presumption, that a fruit will reduce growth beforeabscission. Greene et al. proposed the hypothesis, that all fruits that don’t reach a growth rate of 50 % or morecompared to the growth rate of the fastest growing fruits, will ultimately stop growth and abscise. To assessnatural fruit set all flower clusters (at Pink bud stage) and fruits (after Junedrop) on the trees were counted. In2009 and 2010 the forecasts of fruit abscission with the recommended parameters did not work properly in ourgrowing conditions. So in 2011 the available data from 9 plots were used to optimize the parameters. Thecalculations were made with different quantities of fruits per tree combined with varying percentage rates ofgrowth for each plot. To find the best combination for forecast, mean fruit set and standard deviation over all trialplots was calculated. Counted fruit set after Junedrop was 18.8% (standard deviation: 6.58). With the standardparameters (1st to 3rd fastest growing fruit per tree, 50% growth rate) the forecast was 46% fruit set (standarddeviation: 19.8). Best results were gained with 82 % growth rate of the 2nd to 6th fastest growing fruit of each tree.Adapting the parameters for the forecast resulted in 19% fruit set (standard deviation: 4.83). In addition to theseexperiments, marked fruits were measured with near infrared spectroscopy (NIR). We assume, that the changesoccurring before the fruit drops, can be determined by measuring the reflected light with the PHAZIR(Polychromix) device at an early stage (8 – 10 mm) of fruit development. The objective is to develop a modelusing NIR to decide which fruit will persist after natural fruit drop. Considering the data of the last two years theresults are promising.Keywords: apple, fruit drop, fruit thinning, Near Infrared Spectrometrie, modeling.Rootstocks influence on the assimilation surface and vegetativepotential of Prokupac grape cultivarMARKOVIĆ, Nebojša; ATANACKOVIĆ, Zoran *; RANKOVIĆ-VASIĆ, ZoricaFaculty of Agriculture, Belgrade University,Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia* zoranata4@yahoo.comResearch were conducted at the experimental field of Faculty of agriculture in Belgrade. The research subjectwas Serbian autochthonous wine cultivar-Prokupac, grafted on three different rootstocks: Berlandieri x RipariaKober 5BB, Berlandieri x Riparia SO4 and Sasla x Berlandieri 41B. The research showed that the greatest impacton leaf area increasing had rootstock 41B (212,43 cm2) and the lowest K 5BB (192,02 cm2). During the severalresearch years on the total shoots length the greatest influence had rootstock 5BB K (181,5 cm), while the othertwo rootstocks is annotated smaller total shoot increase of 172,8 cm (K 5BB) and 164,1 cm (SO4). Percent of ripepart on the shoot was higher on rootstock SO4 (90,2 to 94,3%). On the same rootstock in the research period wasfound slight increase in shoots length during the growing compared to the other two rootstocks (182,6 to 217,0cm). The highest weight of discarded pruning shoot was observed on the rootstock K 5BB (430.33 g), after that onrootstock 41B (370.23 g) and the lowest on the rootstock SO4 (329.16 g) which is rated as statistically significant.Keywords: Prokupac, rootstock, shoot growth, weight of pruned shoot.The influence of BA and BA+GA4+7 on formatting sylleptic shootson one-year-old apple nursery tree in cvs. Jonagold and CadelRADIVOJEVIC, Dragan (1) *; MOMIROVIC, Ivan (1) ; MILIVOJEVIC, Jasminka (1) ; LUKIC, Milan(2) ; VELICKOVIC, Milovan (1) ; OPARNICA, Cedo (1)(1)University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia(2)Fruit research institute, Kralja Petra I 9, 32000 Čačak, Serbia184


Posters of Topic 3* dragan1970@agrif.bg.ac.rsThis study presents the influence of 4% BA (6-benzyladenine) and 1,8% BA+1,8% GA 4+7 (6-benzyladenine +gibberellic acids 4 and 7) on feathering of one-year-old apple trees in two cvs. Jonagold and Cadel. Differentconcentrations of BA (300, 600, 1200 and 1800 mg L -1 ) and BA+GA 4+7 (500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg L -1 ) wereapplied, and two treatments for both chemicals were performed. First treatment was applied at 70 cm height ofnursery trees and for the second time 2 weeks later. Comparison was performed in relation to untreated control.An application of BA and BA+GA 4+7 did not affect both rootstock and nursery tree diameter at 10 cm above thegrafting union. Nursery trees of cv. Jonagold was not influenced by treatment applied, whereas in cv. Cadeltreatment with BA+GA 4+7 decreased apical growth of nursery trees. Development of sylleptic shoots in bothcultivars tested was influenced by type of growth regulator and concentration applied. Treatment with BA at 300mg L -1 concentration in both cultivars tested did not influence the length of branching zone, total length andnumber of sylleptic shoots, and number of sylleptic shoots longer than 20 cm. The most positive influence on allstudied parameters was observed on nursery trees treated with the highest concentration of BA (1800 mg L -1 ).The lowest concentration of BA+GA 4+7 (500 mg L -1 ) expressed the easily feathering of both studied cultivars. Thehigher concentrations (1000, 1500 and 2000 mg L -1 ) similarly increased the number and total length of syllepticshoots on nursery trees.Key words: apple cultivars, nursery trees, BA, BA+GA4+7, lateral branching.Prunus microcarpa, a potential rootstock for stone fruitNAS, Mehmet Nuri & SEVGIN, NevzatKahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, 46100Kahramanmaras – TURKEY* mnurinas@ksu.edu.trPrunus microcarpa is well adapted to severe winter and dry hot summer conditions. It has largely been neglected,yet it has the potential of being a dwarfing, precocious rootstock. Five cultivated Prunus species (almonds,apricots, cherry, peaches and plums) were grafted on P. microcarpa. Grafting results indicated P. microcarpa`spotential of being a promising rootstock for cultivated Prunus species. In the first or second growth year, theplants of all five species grafted on P. microcarpa rootstocks bloomed and produced fruit. Promising clonalrootstock candidates were micropropagated and acclimatized successfully. The five stone fruit were grafted onclanal rootstock candidates to analyze their growth and development further. The warrant and challenges of usingP. microcarpa as a rootstock and the employment of propagation methods are discussed in detail.Soil quality evaluation of fruit crop systems in semi-arid climaticconditionsLARDO, Egidio (1) *; COLL, Patrice (2) ; PALESE, A.Maria (1) ; LE CADRE, Edith (2) ;VILLENAVE, Cecile (3) (4) ; XILOYANNIS, Cristos (1) ; CELANO, Giuseppe (1)(1)Dipartimento di Scienze dei Sistemi Colturali, Forestali e dell’Ambiente, Università degli Studi dellaBasilicata, Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano, 10 I-85100, POTENZA, Italy(2)Montpellier SupAgro, UMR Eco&Sols, 2 place Pierre Viala, 34060 MONTPELLIER, France(3)IRD, UMR Eco&Sols, 2 place Viala, 34060, MONTPELLIER, France(4) ELISOL environnement, 2 place Viala, 34060 MONTPELLIER, France185


Posters of Topic 3* egidio.lardo@unibas.itConventional horticultural practices induce soil organic matter losses and increase groundwater contamination,soil accumulation of detrimental elements, and nutritional imbalances in plants. The choice of sustainableinnovative agricultural techniques can preserve environmental resources, and restore and improve soil quality asdefined by many authors. This study evaluated the effects of different soil management strategies, with differenttime durations, on soil quality of 3 representative orchards made with the most economically important fruit treespecies of Southern Italy: peach orchard, olive orchard and vineyard. Conventional soil management (CON)included soil tillage and the use of agrochemicals; innovative soil management (INN) was characterized byfertilization, cover cropping and mulching and the use of soil amendment (compost) and pruning material. Wemeasured different soil indicators in order to evaluate the quality of the examined soils. We selected somephysical (soil texture, bulk and particle density, aggregate stability, water-holding capacity), chemical (pH, cationicexchange capacity, soluble organic C or SOC, total N content), and biological (structure and abundance ofnematode communities, microbial biomass carbon or MBC, soil basal respiration or BR) soil quality indicators.Soil biological indicators, as metabolic quotient (qCO 2), BR/SOC and MBC/SOC, were also calculated for eachcrop system.Physico-chemical features changed according to the different cultivation treatment time. In general, soil organiccarbon, total N and K increased in all INN treatments especially in those amended with compost. The highestabundance of total nematodes was observed in peach orchard. Whatever perennial crop, the INN systemsshowed more total nematodes than CON. The abundance of total plant-feeders, bacterial-feeders and fungalfeedersevidenced a wide variability in the different treatments and orchards. Globally, more omnivores andpredators were under INN treatment than CON one. The EI (enrichment index) showed a higher availability ofresources for the vineyard and the peach orchard. The SI (structure index) showed a net difference betweentreatments only in the olive orchard. The qCO 2 and BR/SOC values showed a reduction in all INN caseshighlighting positive effects on soil quality. MBC/SOC increased in both INN olive and vineyard systems.This work confirms that, under semi-arid conditions, innovative soil managements in perennial fruit orchardsystems can be used to restore and improve soil quality although with differences depending on species andduration of soil management treatment.The effects of ethylene applications on root architecture and growthrate of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L) seedlingsBALLIU, Astrit * & SALLAKU, GlendaAgricultural University of Tirana, Horticultural Department, Tirana, Albania.* astritballiu@yahoo.comGraded seeds of an indeterminate tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L) commercial variety, were seeded in foamtrays filled with peat substate. 25 days after sowing, 1/3 of total number of plants was unplugged, and 2/3 of theirroot system was removed by mechanical pruning. The just pruned seedlings (rps1) were transplanted into similartrays with the same plug’s size (12 cm 3 ). One week later (32DAS), the same procedure was applied respectivelyto the third group (rps2). Rests of the plants (nps) were left intact and continuously grown in their initial plugs. 40day after sowing, randomly selected plants of each group were unplugged and sank for few seconds in dilutedethephon solutions (0, 1, 2 and 5 ml l-1) and latter transplanted into individual 150 cm 3 plastic pots filled withvermiculite. The relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR) and root relativegrowth rate (RRGR) were computed for PC-treatment and after recovery period. Treatment with ethephon atconcentrations up to 5 mg l –1 during PC, modified the root architecture, caused inhibition of root elongation as wellas tough deformations of the root tips, the root elongation zone, and the lateral roots (LR). The effects ofethephon treatments to root system, seems to be age depended. An enhancement of root growth was recordedafter the recovery period, which seems to be related with the enhancement of lateral root (LR) formation duringPC-treatment.Key words; ethephon, root modifications, relative growth rate, stand establishment.186


Posters of Topic 3Influence of seed treatment on germination of dwarf fan palm(Chamaerops humilis L.)GIOVINO, Antonio (1) ; SCIBETTA, Silvia (1) ; SAIA, Sergio (1) *; RUFFONI, Barbara (2)(1)Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura – CRA-SFM, Unità di ricerca per ilrecupero e la valorizzazione delle specie floricole mediterranee (Bagheria, PA, Italy)(2)Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura – CRA-FSO, Unità di Ricerca per laFloricoltura e le Specie Ornamentali (San Remo, IM, Italy)* sergio.saia@unipa.itDwarf fan palm (Chamaerops humilis L.) is an important Mediterranean species well known for many uses suchas gardening, environmental restoration, and technological uses. Dwarf fan palm is usually propagated from seed,which takes up to 100 days to germinate. The germination pattern of dwarf palm seeds was studied during a 100-days length period in relation to different pre-sowing treatments (sulphuric acid, mechanical scarification or hotwater) in comparison to untreated control. A covariance analysis was performed to test the effect of time withinseed-treatment treatment. All germination patterns were significantly fitted by a S-shaped (sigmoidal) distributionfunction with the general equation y=β+α/(1+exp(-(x-μ)/s)). Treatment with sulphuric acid significantly increasedthe final germination capacity in comparison to untreated control. No differences were observed in % germinationamong the other seed treatments. Seed treatments increased by three to seven fold the maximum germinationrate and reduced by 26% the mean germination time in comparison to untreated control. The reduction in meangermination time, and the increase in percentage germination and germination rate suggest that stimulation ofseed germinability may have economical implication in the production of dwarft palm and its involvement inenvironmental restoration strategies, with no need to use dangerous or expensive acid pre-treatment in order toincrease the propagation success.Keywords: Chamaerops humilis; germination timing pattern; seed treatment; germination rate.Germination capacity of dwarf fan palm (Chamaerops humilis) seedafter short-time storageGIOVINO, Antonio; MAMMANO, Michele Massimo; GUGLIUZZA, Giovanni; SAIA, Sergio *Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura – CRA-SFM, Unità di ricerca per ilrecupero e la valorizzazione delle specie floricole mediterranee (Bagheria, PA, Italy)* sergio.saia@unipa.itDwarf fan palm (Chamaerops humilis) plays an important ecological role in the thermo Mediterranean vegetationstage, both in woodlands, xerophitic shrub communities and also in degraded ecosystems thanks to its ability togrow in harsh conditions. In greenhouse conditions, dwarf fan palm is propagated from seeds. Whereas otherpalm species show reduced germination even afters few months of seed storage, no information is available onthe germination capacity of dwarf fan palm seed after storage. We examined the germination pattern of dwarfpalm seeds aged after a storage of four, six and eight months in comparison to fresh seed (control).A covarianceanalysis was performed to test the effect of time within seed-storage treatment. The germination patterns weresignificantly fitted by a S-shaped (sigmoidal) distribution function with the general equation y=β+α/(1+exp(-(xμ)/s)).Short-time storage significantly increased both final seed germination and maximum germination rate, andreduced mean germination time in comparison to unstored control. If considering that we did not make any seedtreatment before sowing, these results may be due to an increased oxygen and water diffusion through the seedhard coat during time.Keywords: Chamaerops humilis; germination timing pattern; seed treatment; germination rate.187


Posters of Topic 3Somatic embryogenesis as a chrysanthemum propagation toolLEMA-RUMIŃSKA, JustynaLaboratory of Biotechnology, Department of Ornamental Plants and Vegetable Crops,University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Polandlem-rum@utp.edu.plSomatic embryogenesis is a one of the most efficient micropropagation techniques, where somatic embryos areregenerated from the somatic cells of the explants. Genetically, they are a clone of mother plants, however,morphologically they are similar to the zygotic embryos naturally developed in the seeds. Their developmentalstages are also similar: globular, heart, torpedo, and cotyledonary.This study concerned the somatic embryogenesis in ten cultivars of the Lady group of chrysanthemum(Chrysanthemum x grandiflorum Ramat./Kitam.). All of the cultivars investigated are mutants and they werecreated by means of mutation breeding at the Department of Ornamental Plants and Vegetable Crops, theUniversity of Technology and Life Sciences in PolandThe research involved the use of the modified MS basal salts medium supplemented with growth regulators: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) at the concentration of 4 mg·dm -3 and kinetin (KIN) or 6-benzylaminopurine(BAP) at the concentration of 1, 2 and 5 mg·dm -3 . The media pH was adjusted to 5.8 before autoclaving.Rectangular lamina fragments were cut from the leaves of microcuttings and cultured on the media. The cultureswere kept in a growth room at 24±2 0 C and exposed to 16 h photoperiod. Daylight was maintained by usingPhilips TLD 54/34 W lamps with the photon flux density of 31.8 molm -2 s -1 .Somatic embryos regenerated through indirect somatic embryogenesis via callus phase. After 10 weeks ofculture, embryos were isolated under stereomicroscope. The best somatic embryogenesis result was reported in‘Lady Salmon’ cultivar on the medium with only 2,4-D auxin, however, this medium was also observed with a highnumber of adventitious roots and the regeneration of embryos together (connected embryos). The high number ofgood quality somatic embryos were regenerated also on the medium with kinetin 1 mg·dm -3 and 2,4-D for the‘Lady Yellow’ cultivar (9 somatic embryos per explant) and a similar result was recorded for ‘Lady Vitroflora’cultivar on the medium with 1 mg·dm -3 BAP and auxin.The most efficient media for a majority of the chrysanthemum cultivars investigated contained a highconcentration of auxin and a lower concentration of cytokinin. The experiment demonstrated cultivar specificity forsomatic embryogenesis in chrysanthemum mutants.Investigation of the interaction of endophytes and poplar plants invitro culture and field trialsFRAGNER, Lena (3) *; HANAK, Anne Mette (3) *; WAWROSCH, Christoph (1) ; KOPP, Brigitte(1) ; WANEK, Wolfgang (2) ; ULRICH, Kristina (4) ; EWALD, Dietrich (4) & WECKWERTH,Wolfram (1)(1)Department of Pharmacognosy(2)Department of Chemical Ecology and Ecosystems(3)Department of Molecular Systems Biology(4)Fed Res Ctr Forestry & Forest Prod, Inst Forest Genet & Forest Tree Breeding, D-15377Waldsieversdorf, Germany* contributed equallyanne.mette.hanak@univie.ac.atIn 2007 the European Union has announced the “2020 directive” for the promotion of renewable energy resourcesand sustainable agricultural processes with a focus on biofuels. According to this directive in 2020 20% of energyis achieved by renewably resources with being agricultural processes a large proportion. Poplar is an important188


Posters of Topic 3energy crop in Europe as well as in Austria. Therefore growth and biomass are the primary parameters for studiesin this system and also to enhance the suitability of such commercial crops for renewable energy resources.The growth-promoting interaction of bacteria and the plant are of special interest. Colonization of endophyticbacteria in internal plant tissue can promote plant growth, stress resistance and enhance control of pathogens. Invitrogrown explants of the poplar hybrid (♀[Populus alba x (P. davidiana + P. simonii) x P. tomentosa]) free fromculturable bacteria show significant differences in growth, root development (adventitious roots) and metabolicsignature compared to inoculated shoots with Paenibacillus sp. strain P22. We investigated the influence of thisendophytic Paenibacillus isolate on the metabolism of poplar shoot explants, free from culturable endophyticbacteria, with gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) for metaboliteanalysis. Metabolite profiling of Paenibacillus-inoculated and non-inoculated poplar plants revealed a significantmetabolic signature in the plant as a response to the presence of the bacteria. We have observed and improvednitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in inoculated plants. Further field experiments are also planned by planting specificpoplar hybrids and inoculating them with specific compositions of endogeneous endophytes to investigate growthpromoting effects and their influence of the metabolic composition as well as the lignocellulose-composition of thepoplar plants.Temporary immersion systems for efficient mass propagation ofmedicinal and aromatic plantsWAWROSCH, Christoph * & KOPP, BrigitteDepartment of Pharmacognosy, University of Vienna, Althanstr. 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria* christoph.wawrosch@univie.ac.atWhile plant production through in vitro-propagation is nowadays a well established industry, micropropagation canstill be a costly technology. This is especially true for medicinal plants where there is often less demand than forexample in ornamentals. Micropropagation protocols are usually based on semisolid nutrient media, involvinglarge numbers of relatively small containers, large culture areas, and extensive manual handling. Especiallylabour costs make micropropagated plants expensive, particularly when lower quantities are produced (Etienneand Berthouly, 2002). Principally, it has been stated that for many species commercial application ofmicropropagation will only be realizable if novel technologies are available (Kitto, 1997).Micropropagation based on liquid nutrient media offers various advantages like reduced production costs,improved physiological status of propagules, easy renewal of medium, scale up to bioreactor size, andpossibilities of automation. However, in most plant species continuous culture of the explants in liquid mediumleads to hyperhydration and subsequent loss of the propagules. This can be overcome with temporary immersionsystems (TIS) where the plant material is only periodically in contact with the medium. The present contributiondeals with the in vitro-propagation of selected medicinal and aromatic plants in a twin flask TIS. Individualoptimization of immersion times mostly resulted in higher multiplication rates when compared to conventionalsystems using semisolid media. The advantages as well as possible limitations of the TIS will be discussed.Etienne, H. and Berthouly, M. 2002. Temporary immersion systems in plant micropropagation. Plant Cell TissueOrgan Cult. 69: 215-231.Kitto, S.L. 1997. Commercial micropropagation. HortScience 32: 1012-1014.189


Posters of Topic 3Effect of conservation agriculture and biochar on yield and qualityon a tomato-lettuce crop rotationDALLA COSTA, Luisa *; PIRELLI, Tiziana; TOMMASI, Rita & ZAVALLONI, CostanzaDepartment of Agriculture and Environmental Science, University of Udine,via delle Scienze, 208, 33100, Udine, Italy.* luisa.dallacosta@uniud.itConventional management practices in horticulture allow obtaining high standard of productivity in terms ofquantity and quality although their long-term impacts on the agricultural soils are often negative and responsiblefor the loss of substantial amounts of soil organic matter. On the other hand sustainable agricultural practicessuch as minimum tillage promote the conservation of the native soil organic matter improving progressively thesoil fertility. The objective of this study was to compare in a tomato-lettuce rotation the effect of 1) managementpractices (conventional or sustainable) and 2) biochar additions (with or without biochar) on total productivity andquality of tomato and lettuce. The two-year-experiment was conducted in a tunnel on 24 lysimeters (1.44 m 2each), 12 cultivated with lettuce (Solanum lycopersicum) and the other 12 with tomato (Lactuca sativa L.). Thelysimeters that during the first year were used for tomato in the second year were cultivated with lettuce. Biocharwas obtained from pirolysis at 500°C of fruit trees pruning residues and added at a dose of 30 ton ha -1 . Totalcommercial productivity was higher in tomato only in the second year grown with sustainable practices comparedto traditional ones. This was mainly due to the less incidence of brown rot on the fruit, probably for the bettermanagement of water availability with sustainable practices. Although biochar did not influenced total commercialproductivity its addition significantly reduced the amount of brown rot. Differently, lettuce productivity was notinfluenced by the management practices in the two year. Addition of biochar improved the productivity in thesustainable management practice of 14% and 36% in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Also the amount of nitrate inlettuce leaves was significantly reduced in presence of biochar (14% and 10% less in the sustainable andtraditional treatment, respectively). The use of biochar in combination with sustainable practices seems to be apromising alternative to improve quality of the commercial product especially in case of leaf vegetable crops likelettuce, spinach and rocket.Keywords: Solanum lycopersicum L., Lactuca sativa L., biochar, conservation agriculture, management practices.New contributions to improving knowledge about in vitro culture ofwalnut in RomaniaGOTEA, Rodica (1) *; VAHDATI, Kourosh (2) ; SESTRAS, Radu (1) ; GOTEA, Ionut (1)(1) University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca, Romania(2) Department of Horticultural Sciences, College of Aboureihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran* rodica@gotea.roThe walnut (Juglans regia L.) can be considered one of the traditional species in Romania due to veryfavorable environmental conditions. The research centers as: S.C.D.P. Geoagiu, I.C.D.P. Piteşti, S.C.D.P. Tg. Jiu,S.C.D.P. Iaşi and S.C.D.P. Râmnicu Vâlcea had obtained and continue to obtain new walnut varieties. Almost allwalnut cultivars in Romania are obtained by grafting methods. Currently, in Romania are a few studies about invitro culture of walnut and that because the walnut is a difficult specie to be propagated by in vitro methods.(HOZA et al. 1992; BARASCU et al. 1998) had obtained the preliminary data about in vitro culture of walnut.(SARPE 2002) tried to find an optimal culture media for improving the rate of multiplication and rooting for walnutmicrocuttings. The best results were obtained on DKW medium with 0,1 mg/l IBA, 1 mg/l BAP and 0,1 mg/GA3. Inthis research the walnut microcuttings were well developed on 2.1g/L Phytagel gelling agent medium with 1 mg/lBAP and 0.1 mg/l IBA. The partially data of this study were obtained at University of Tehran, College ofAbouraihan, Iran.Keywords: microcuttings, in vitro culture of walnut, proliferation, Phytagel, BAP.190


Posters of Topic 3A literature review of two alternative gelling agents that can be usedfor in vitro culture of walnutGOTEA, Rodica (1) *; VAHDATI, Kourosh (2) ; SESTRAS, Radu (1) ; GOTEA, Ionut (1)(1) University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca, Romania(2) Department of Horticultural Sciences, College of Aboureihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran* rodica@gotea.roThe Persian walnut (J.regia L.) is one of the special species due to his complex characteristics.Because of the many advantages which can be obtained by in vitro culture of walnut was performed by numerousstudies in this regard.An important role in culture initiation is the type of gelling agent that can be used.For in vitro culture of walnut have been used different gelling agents (5g/l AgarRoland used by Ripetti V. (1993),7g/l Difco Bacto Agar used by Rodriguez R. (1993), 0.55% agar used by Marques Silva D.J. (1997), 0.25%Phytagel used by Sanchez Olate M.E. (1997), 9.5g/l Kobe agar used by Navatel J.C. (2001), 2.2 g/l Phytagelused by Saadat Y.A. (2001) , 2.1g/l Phytagel used by Vahdati (2004), 9-10 g/l agar used by Bourrain L. (2009) et.all.).Using of gelling agents such as tapioca and cassava as a new variant for in vitro culture of walnut can be apossibility to improve the existing knowledge.Keywords: cassava, tapioca, in vitro culture of walnut.The effect of the intercropping with lettuce on growth, mineralcontent and yield of broccoliYILDIRIM, Ertan (1) ; TURAN, Metin (2) *; KARLIDAG, Huseyin (3)(1) Ataturk University, Agriculture Faculty, Department of Horticulture, 25240, Erzurum, Turkey(2) Atatürk University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science, 25240, Erzurum, Turkey* mturan@atauni.edu.tr(3) Inonu University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, Malatya, TurkeyThis study was conducted to determine the effect of the intercropping with lettuce on growth, chlorophyll content,mineral content and yield of broccoli in field conditions in 2009 and 2010. The broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var.italica) as a main crop was intercropped with leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa) as intercrop. Lettuceseedlings were planted in the middle of between broccoli rows simultaneously in separate plots. All crops weregrown also in pure stands. Results of this study indicated that intercropping systems compared to sole did notaffect some growth characteristics and yield of broccoli except for plant weight. Phosphorus, potassium, sulphur,sodium, iron, manganese and zinc content of broccoli leaves did not vary significantly depending on croppingsystems. However, intercropping caused increase magnesium and calcium but decrease nitrogen compared tosole broccoli cropping. The study showed that broccoli based intercrop treatments might provide the highest totalyield as well as productivity and profitability.191


Posters of Topic 3The specific role of alternate bearing cycle on physiologicaldisorders of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.)KHEZRI, Masood (1) *; PANAHI, Bahman (2)(1)Horticultural Research Institute, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran(2)Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran* masoodkhezri@gmail.comAlternate bearing (alternating years with high and low yields) is a prominent characteristic of pistachio (Pistaciavera L.). The occurrence of the most important physiological disorders such as abscission of inflorescence buds,fruit abscission, blankness, non-splitting, early splitting and nut deformation were investigated during the alternatebearing cycle (“on” and “off” years) of “Kaleh-Ghoochi” pistachio cultivar. The growth parameters, the number ofnuts per ounce, the yield per shoot and the whole tree yield were also compared between “on” and “off” years.Results showed that the percentages of inflorescence buds abscission, fruit abscission, non-split and deformednuts were all significantly higher in the “on” year compared with the “off” year. The percentage of blank nuts aswell as the leaf area, length and diameter growth of the current-year shoots was higher in the “off” year. Thisexperiment showed that besides the inflorescence bud abscission, the changes of other disorders during thealternate bearing cycle are quite important emphasizing that the retention or the abscission of inflorescence budsmay not be the only limiting factor to yield alternation in pistachio.Keywords: Pistachio, abscission of inflorescence buds, fruit abscission, blankness, non-splitting, nut deformation,yield.Influence of biochar in the subsequent year after application ongrowth and development of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa var.capitata L.)SCHÖNEBERG, Anita *; PFENNING, Judit; GRAEFF, Simone; CLAUPEIN, Wilhelm &LIEBIG, H.P.Institute of Crop Science, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany* anita.schoeneberg@uni-hohenheim.deIncreasing CO 2 emissions derived from fossil origin are a driving force for climate change (IPCC, 2011). Theproduction of biochar and incorporation into agricultural soils is one option to sequester carbon and promote plantgrowth by influencing nutrient and water dynamics in soils (LEHMANN, 2007).At the experimental station for horticulture, University of Hohenheim (Germany) lettuce was planted on 7 April2011 in six uncovered hotbeds split into two plots each: biochar application (7.5 or 15 t ha -1 ) and control. Biochar -derived from spruce wood (Biomass Steam Processing at the KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany) - was manuallyincorporated in spring 2010 before cultivation of cucumber plants was started. The soil was silty clay. Nitrogen (N)fertilisation was assessed regarding the results of N min-sampling before planting, water status was monitoredusing tensiometers and irrigation occurred on demand. Fresh weight and nitrogen concentration of the lettuceplants were measured in samples at beginning of head formation and at harvest. Soil samples were taken beforeplanting and at both sampling dates to determine pH, N min, macro nutrients as phosphorus, potassium,magnesium and micro nutrients as boron, copper, iron, manganese, zinc.At first sampling date (beginning of head formation) plant fresh weight was increased with increasing amount ofbiochar (303.96 g for 7.5 t plots and 309.36 g for 15 t plots) and was highest in control without biochar application(341.26 g). At harvest plants of 7.5 t plots had a significantly lower fresh weight (705.99 g) compared to plants of15 t plots with 772.81 g and of control plots with 765.17 g. Nitrogen concentration in plants was lower at firstsampling with increasing biochar application, indicating a slight N immobilisation by the carbon (C) rich biochar,whereas at harvest N concentration was highest in plants from 15 t plots. In soil nitrate concentrationsmeasurements showed no significant differences according to biochar application but were lowest in 15 t plots,192


Posters of Topic 3concluding that nitrate leaching was not reduced. No enhanced nutrient availability was observed and pH 7 wasmeasured in all plots.The results observed in this study arise the question whether biochar can significantly improve temperate soilswhich appropriate plant growth sufficiently. There are neither significant effects of biochar application on growthand fresh weight of lettuce nor on nutrient dynamics in this study. Negative effects of biochar for lettucecultivation, yield and visual quality were not detectable.Keywords: biomass steam processing, carbon sequestration, charcoal, nutrients, temperate climate.Literature CitedLehmann, J. 2007. Bio-energy in the black. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 5(7), pp. 381- 387.Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2011.http://www.ipcc.ch/news_and_events/docs/ipcc33/SRREN_FD_SPM_final.pdfSeasonal changes in fruits of 13 pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)genotypes during developmental stagesZAREI, Abdolkarim *; ZAMANI, Zabihollah; FATAHI, Reza* zarei@ut.ac.irIn order to study fruit changes in different developmental stages, 29 important physical and chemical charactersof 13 pomegranate genotypes were recorded during the growth season using destructive as well as nondestructivemethods. According to results overall growth trend of pomegranate fruit is single sigmoid. Comparedto destructive method, dimensions of fruits showed a more constant increasing trend using non-destructivemethod. Crown of fruit formed in the preliminary stages and after that its dimensions did not show noticeablechange. Fruit weight, 100 aril weight and seed weight showed a decrease in growth rate at 60 to 80 days after fullbloom (DAF). Percent of peel dry to fresh weight decreased to some extent until ripening, while percent of aril dryweight increased (14.1% at 20 DAF to 18.8% at 130 DAF). In hard seed genotypes, hardening in seed cover wastriggered from 40 DAF and completed until 130 DAF. Ratio of seed to aril fresh weight drastically decreased andreached to the half of the initial sampling stage (39.8% to 15.7%). Total soluble solids (TSS) increased in allgenotypes and compared to sour and sweet-sour genotypes, sweet ones showed lower degrees of TSS in allstages. Titrable acidity decreased in sour and sweet-sour but in sweet genotypes it was low from the beginningand remained nearly constant. pH of fruit juice decreased slowly during fruit maturation. Results indicated that aslight decrease in growth rate was present in some of studied characters, which was concomitant with their seedhardening.Keyword: Days after full bloom, aril, growth trend, maturation, total soluble solids.Product Carbon Footprints across the supply chains of selectedexamples (apples and tomatoes)ERGÜL, Rumyana *; MEMPEL, Heike; STROBER, WolfgangWeihenstephan-Triesdorf University Of Applied Sciences,Am Staudengarten 10, 85354, Freising, Germany* r.erguel@wz-straubing.deBackgroundAll developed countries adopted high ambitious policy goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG).Significant changes across the whole supply chain are needed to achieve goals successfully. From this193


Posters of Topic 3perspective the Product Carbon Footprint (PCF) became increasingly important over recent years. Each step ofthe value chain has to be taken into account, starting from the production and transport of raw materials,intermediate products, transformation, distribution, consumer use and waste disposal. Most studies issue varyingresults because of the use of different methods for GHG assessment. The innovative element of the describedPCF - Project, which started in November 2011, is the collection of primary data for the production in Germanyand abroad (Spain, Holland, New Zealand). On the basis of the data set adaptation options for the productionprocess regarding different environmental parameters can be identified. In this study the storage and marketing ofapples and tomatoes, as well as consumer behavior in buying and consumption of fruits and vegetables will betaken into consideration. Results will be available by the end of August 2014.Project GoalsCalculations of carbon emissions throughout the life cycle of apples and tomatoesIdentification of high emission phases and analysis of CO2 reduction potentialsEvaluation of methodology for the calculation of carbon emissionsEvaluation of the acceptance of CO2-labelingMaterial & MethodsCarbon emissions for apples and tomatoes will be assessed along the whole supply chain. Consumer behaviorwill be considered and integrated in the PCF-calculations, which is hardly to be found in any undertaken study.Products will be measured according to ISO-Standard 14040/44 or the upcoming harmonized ISO Standard14067. The aim of the project is to develop a dynamic footprint model which works like a modular constructionsystem and can be applied to specific products and shipments.Current WorkThe project work mainly focuses on comprehensive data collection on production, distribution and consumerbehavior. The material and energy flow assessments of apples and tomatoes will start with onsite data collectionin farming operations. Values from different time periods concerning production areas, application of fertilizersand pesticides, technical equipment and yield are required in detail and will be measured using data sheets fortomato and apple growers. Due to the involved project partners at all stages of the supply chain, the collection ofprimary data is guaranteed and external factors (weather, pests, different consumer behavior) needed for anadaptation of production processes will be assessed.Documentation and evaluation of the product carbon footprint forgreenhouse produced vegetablesKREUZPAINTNER, Alexandra * & MEYER, JoachimDepartment of Plant Sciences, Center of Life and Food Science WeihenstephanTechnical University of Munich, Bavaria, Germany* alexandra.kreuzpaintner@wzw.tum.dePushed by the consumer and public authorities the transparent and complete documentation of the vegetableproduction processes is an increasing necessity for the horticulture industry. Especially the documentation of theemission of the CO2-equivalent of the entire production processes and of the produced product itself becomesmore and more important. Therefore the development of the “Product Carbon Footprint (PCF)” plays an importantrole in food production.Generally the concept of the production process documentation is divided into the following three steps: dataacquisition, data analysis and evaluation and compilation of a product pass. For the producing gardener the dataacquisition normally is time consuming. In protected cultivation nowadays computer systems for climate controlare installed and could be used in a much more comprehensive way as data source. So the climate computercould measure the consumption of the production parameters energy, water, and climatic factors. A minor amountof inputs for example the application of pesticides, beneficial organisms or fertilizers and the general productionschedules have to be inputted by the grower. With these data each production resource is can be analyzed anddocumented in various functional units as there are e.g. per entire greenhouse, per square meter or, with mayorimportance, per selling unit (e.g. one kg tomato).For the implication of the latter method two different methods have been tested. The first method is to divide theentire tomato harvest through the entire consumption of the resources. This method is simple and needs only fewinputs. But there is still the open question if the ecological impact is distributed in a right way. So the aim of thesecond method is to determine the distribution of the entire resource consumption to the vegetative and the194


Posters of Topic 3generative growing phase differently. To distinguish into these phases the truss tomato “Mecano” was grown inthree different sections of the experimental greenhouse. In each section the blossoms of 20 plants (so total 60plants) were tagged at the beginning of the blooming. So the date of the beginning of the blossoms, the date ofthe harvesting and the entire harvest weight could be defined. The results of this experiment show clearly that thegenerative growing phase is more or less constant over all tested tomatoes.If the two methods are compared first results show that there is nearly no difference between the results. Thus aconstant distribution of the resources consumption to the entire tomato harvest is possible (method 1).For the calculation of the “Product Carbon Footprint (PCF)” the documented resources for the determinedfunctional units have to be multiplied with the CO2-equivalent of these resources.At the moment a second experiment is conducted to verify the results of the first year. During thesemeasurements the data transfer and evaluation processes run automatic via direct data lines.Keywords: Traceability, CO2-equivalent, Climate computer, Automatic data acquisition, Consumption ofresources.Decontamination of irrigation water comparison of stationary andmobile photocatalytic water treatment(1)ALAM, Mehboob (1) *; LARSSON, Christine (1) ; ROSBERG, Anna Karin (1) ; BURLEIGH,Stephen (1) ; AHRNÉ, Siv (2) ; MOLIN, Göran (2) ; JENSÉN, Paul (1) ; ALSANIUS, Beatrix W. (1)Microbial Horticulture Laboratory, Department of Horticulture, SLU, P.O. Box 103, SE-230 53Alnarp, Sweden(2) Applied Nutrition, Department of Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, P.O. Box 124, SE-22100Lund, Sweden* mehboob.alam@slu.seQuality irrigation water required for food production and processing is becoming a scarce commodity that forcesthe farmers/producers to use any type of available water. Therefore, globally millions of hectares are irrigated withuntreated, partly treated, diluted or treated wastewater for the production of vegetables and fruits. Harmful humanpathogens can be introduced into crops through contaminated irrigation water. Consumption of vegetablesirrigated with water of low or variable hygienic quality in vegetable fields has resulted in outbreaks of manyinfections and intoxications due to bacterial contamination, often seen as non-bloody or hemorrhagic diarrhoea,the latter sometimes leading to hemolytic uremic syndrome. Therefore, a source of water free of humanpathogens is a prerequisite for irrigation of plants. For minimizing the risk for dispersal of human pathogensdisinfection of irrigation water within field is a useful approach. Photocatalytic treatment installed as a stationaryunit has proved its ability to reduce pathogens. However, water may be recontaminated with in the irrigationcircuit, therefore a mobile photocatalytic unit close to the irrigation ramp might further reduce the pathogenicmicrobes. The aim of this study is to determine the potential of decontamination with mobile photocatalytictreatment of irrigation water and thereby increase the hygienic water quality in the irrigation circuit.Water was sampled from an impoundment with variable hygienic quality. Samples were collected from fivedifferent sites within the same irrigation circuit (1) pond water before the coarse filter, (2) after the coarse filter, (3)at the start of the field water circuit, (4) before photocatalytic unit mounted on the irrigation ramp and (5) afterpassing a photocatalytic unit mounted on the irrigation ramp. Preliminary results indicate that the number ofaerobic microorganisms at 22 °C, total coliform bacteria, thermotolerant coliform bacteria, E. coli as well as fecalstreptococci were considerably reduced by photocatalytic treatment. Moreover, for DNA extraction samples werefiltered through 0.45 µm filters and the pellets were stored at -80 o C before DGGE-analysis. As photocatalytic unitscan be installed on the irrigation ramp and managed on-line, this treatment is an appealing technology fordecontamination of irrigation water in field crops.195


Posters of Topic 3Effect of foliar application of iron-chelates on seasonal changes ofleaf petioles and berries mineral composition of Halwani Lebanonand Kamali grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.)ALIMAM, Nabil M. A.Horticulture and Landscape Design Department, College of Agriculture and Forestry, University ofMosul – Mosul, Iraqnabil_alimam2000@Yahoo.comA Field experiment was conducted out during 2005 and 2006 growing seasons, to study the effect of foliarapplication of chelated-iron "Fe-EDTA" (0,100 and 200 mg.L -1 ) on seasonal dynamic of mineral composition(N,P,K,Fe and Zn) in leaf petiols and berries of Halwani Lebanon and Kamali grape cultivars, grown on acalcareous soil in Mosul region / IRAQ. The results revealed that in both seasons increasing levels of foliar Fe-EDTA applications to vines of both grape cultivars, before bloom and after fruit, caused a significant increase ofN, P, K, Fe and Zn concentration in leaf petioles and berries as compared with the control. In addition, the N, P,K, Fe and Zn concentration in leaf petioles were high at the beginning of the growth season, but decreasedtowards at end the growth seasons in both cultivars. The nutrients content of berries were increased towardsveraison and ripening stages in both cultivars during both seasons.Keywords: Foliar application, Fe-EDTA, Seasenol, Vitis vinifera L.The response of mature alternate-bearing pistachio (Pistacia veraL.) trees to spray zinc fertilizationKHEZRI, Masood (1) *; SARCHESHMEHPOUR, Mehdi (2)(1)Horticultural Research Institute, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran(2)Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Bahonar University of Kerman,Kerman, Iran* masoodkhezri@gmail.comSpray application of nutrients is now commonly practiced for fruit trees, although the effectiveness of sprayapplication of micronutrients in general, and Zn in particular, is not always satisfactory and varies greatly amongfruit species. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of zinc (Zn) fertilization on the vegetative and thereproductive responses of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees. The experiment was carried out on 30-year-old‘Kaleh-Ghoochi’ pistachio trees in two consecutive years (‘on’ and ‘off’ years). Foliar Zn-EDTA sprays withdifferent concentrations (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm) were applied at the stage of one week before full bloom, 4weeks after full bloom and 8 weeks after full bloom. The results showed that Zn spray fertilization increased theZn concentrations of leaves in both the years and the stages of application. Although the percentages ofinflorescence bud abscission and non-split nuts were not affected by the Zn application, the percentage of fruitabscission was significantly decreased at the first stage of application in the ‘on’ year. Zn fertilization alsodecreased the percentage of blank nuts and increased the number of nuts per cluster at the first stage ofapplication in the both ‘on’ and ‘off’ years. Nut deformation was decreased at the second and third stages of Znapplication in the ‘on’ year. Results also showed that the shoots fertilized with Zn had higher leaf area (at thesecond stage in both years), shoot length (at the first stage in both years) and nut yield (at the first stage in the‘on’ year) compared to those of the control. This study demonstrated the usefulness and efficiency of sprayapplication of Zn to pistachio trees and emphasized that the time of application and the bearing cycle of pistachiotrees should be considered.Keywords: zinc spray, pistachio, fruit abscission, blank nut, deformed nut, yield.196


Posters of Topic 3Morphological and physiological response of pistachio (Pistaciavera L.) seedlings to soil nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizationHADAVI, Faranak (1) *; ERSHADI, Ahmad (1) ; KHEZRI, Masood (2) ; JAVANSHAH, Amanallah(3)(1)Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran(2)Horticultural Research Institute, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran(3)Iran’s Pistachio Research Institute, Rafsanjan, Iran* faranak_hadavi@yahoo.comImproving the morphological and physiological characteristics as well as the survival percentage of transplantedpistachio seedlings is of great importance for the horticulturists and nurserymen. This experiment was carried outon the ‘Badami-Zarand’ pistachio seedlings in a controlled greenhouse. Nitrogen (N) as ammonium nitrate andphosphorous (P) as dicalcium phosphate were applied to the soil with four levels (0, 50, 100, 150 µg/g soil). Thepots were arranged as factorial based on completely randomized design (CRD) with five replicates. Resultsshowed that the application of N (150 µg/g) with P (150 µg/g) improved the shoot morphological characteristicsincluding the height, diameter, number of leaves, leaf area and shoot dry weight. The root characteristicsincluding total root length, area and volume as well as lateral and main root dry weights were increased by theapplication of N (100 µg/g) and P (100 µg/g) separately. Also, leaf physiological characteristics includingphotosynthetic and transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and resistance were affected by the soil fertilizationof N and P. It was found that the survival of transplanted seedlings treated with N and P was significantly higherthan the control plants. These results suggests that the soil application of N and P to pistachio seedlings is anefficient and useful approach to promote the growth of seedlings, improve the root and leaf physiologicalcharacteristics and increase the survival of transplanted seedlings.Keywords: mineral nutrition; growth parameters, photosynthesis; seedling transplant.Effect of irrigation and increased potassium supply on yield andnutritive composition of carrotOMBÓDI, Attila (1) ; ZALOTAI, Krisztina (1) ; LUGASI, Andrea (2) ; BOROSS, Ferenc (3) ;HELYES, Lajos (1)(1)Szent István University, Department of Horticulture(2)National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science(3)Central Food Research Institute* ombodi.attila@mkk.szie.huIn Europe, for many vegetable crops the main emphasis is on the nutritive value of the products, especially if theyare produced for processing purposes. Our objective was to investigate the effects of irrigation and increasedpotassium supply on the nutritive composition and yield of carrot. The experiment was conducted in 2010, inGödöllő, Central-Hungary on sandy soil, with the leading industrial cultivar ‘Bangor’. Sprinkler irrigated stand andunirrigated (rainfed) control, and potassium supply of 150 and 300 kg K 2O ha -1 were compared. Dry matter,fructose, glucose, saccharose, six different carotenes, polyphenol and nitrate contents were measured as nutritiveconstituents. In Hungary, 2010 turned out to be the year with the biggest precipitation since the beginning ofsystematic meteorological measurements, but distribution of this precipitation was unfavourable. Based ontensiometer readings just three irrigations were necessary to apply (during a 4-week-long dry period in July) witha total amount of 69 mm. Irrigation significantly increased the marketable yield of carrot by the rate of 59% (108 tha -1 opposed to 68), mainly due to the increase in average root weight (124 g piece -1 opposed to 79). Meanwhile,the irrigation significantly decreased the foliage to root weight ratio. Except for zeaxanthin and cis-ζ-carotene, thecontents of the nutritive components were not influenced negatively by the irrigation. Moreover, dry matter, α-197


Posters of Topic 3carotene and nitrate contents were significantly better for the irrigated treatment. This result can be explained bythe fact that during the last two months of the experiment the water supply was the same for both treatmentsthrough the natural precipitation. The similar nutrient contents and the bigger yield resulted in significantly highernutrient yield in case of every measured nutritive constituent. Increased potassium supply did not influence theyield characteristics and the nutritive composition. This result may can be attributed to the leaching effect of heavyrains occurred during the experiment. Based on these results, we concluded that irrigation was very beneficialfrom the viewpoint of both root yield and nutrient yields even in a year with unusually high precipitation, whileincreased potassium supply did not have any effect under our experimental conditions.Keywords: average root weight, dry matter content, carotenes, nitrate.Glass-matrix based fertilizers. A novel approach to fertilizationbased on plant demandREA, Elvira (1) *; TRINCHERA, Alessandra (1) ; ALLEGRA, Maria (2) ; ROCCUZZO, Giancarlo(2) ; RINALDI, Simona (1) ; SEQUI, Paolo (1) ; INTRIGLIOLO, Francesco (2)(1) Consiglio per la Ricerca e la sperimentazione in Agricoltura – Centro di ricerca per lo studio delleRelazioni tra Pianta e Suolo (CRA-RPS), Via della Navicella 2-4, 00184 Rome, Italy, tel. +39 0677078141, fax +39 06 7005711.(2) Consiglio per la Ricerca e la sperimentazione in Agricoltura – Centro di ricerca per l’Agrumicoltura ele Colture Mediterranee (CRA-ACM), C.so Savoia 190, 95024 Acireale, Italy, tel. +39 095 7653103,fax +39 095 7653113* Corresponding author: elvira.rea@entecra.itA glass-matrix fertilizer (GMF), a by-product from ceramic industries, releases nutrients only in the presence ofcomplexing solutions, similar to those exuded by plant roots. This ensures a slow release of nutrients over time,limiting the risk of their loss in the environment. With the aim to improve fertilizer performance, GMF was mixedwith digested vine vinasse (DVV), pastazzo (a by-product of the citrus processing industry, PAS) or greencompost (COMP). Nutrient release was evaluated by extraction in citric or chloridric acids, at differentconcentrations.Theoretical and actual nutrients release were compared to evaluate possible synergistic effects due to the organiccomponent added to the mineral fertilizer: phosphorus (+7.1%), K (+4.8%), Fe (+8.5%) and Zn (+5.5%) werereleased more efficiently by 2% citric acid from GMF+DVV, while Ca availability was increased (+5.3%) by 2%citric acid from GMF+PAS mixture. Both DVV and COMP increased by 12–18% the Fe release from GFM matrix.It was supposed that organic biomasses added to GMF increased the release of some macro and micronutrientsthrough an ‘activation effect’, which suggests the employment of these organo-mineral fertilizers also in shortcyclecrops production. Moreover, the re-use of some agro-industrial organic residues gives another ‘addingvalue’ to this novel organo-mineral fertilizers.Keywords: organo-mineral fertilizer; glass matrix; nutrient; biomass.Impact of different potassium fertilizers doses on Ca:Mg andK:Mg ratio in the grapevine organsLIČINA, Vlado; MARKOVIĆ, Nebojša; TRAJKOVIĆ, Ivana ; ATANACKOVIĆ, Zoran *Belgrade University, Faculty of Agriculture, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia* zoranata4@yahoo.comBalanced nutrition and fertilization are essential components of the growing technology in vineyards in terms ofachieving the required yields and quality of grapes. Magnesium is constituent of the chlorophyll and precursor of198


Posters of Topic 3many enzymatic reactions. Calcium plays an importan role in plant nutrition like growing of apical shoot and rootmeristem, carbohydrate translocation and is a constituent of the cell wall. In grape nutrition, potassium isgenerally recognized as one of the essential nutrient, which regulates most of the enzymatic reaction in the plant,affect the carbohydrates accumulation and also affects fruit quality and berries color. The research was carriedout in the vineyard of the Faculty of Agriculture experimental station-“Radmilovac” with cv. Sauvignon blancgrafted to the rootstock Berlandieri x Riparia Kober 5BB. This research was to demonstrate the effects of differentpotassium fertilizer application on the Ca:Mg and K:Mg ratio in soil and vines organs. In this experiment,treatments included increasing doses of potassium fertilizer (50, 100 and 150 kg K2O/ha 50% KCl) and control(without fertilization). Treated soil was subjected for detail agrochemical soil analysis, while the soil samples wascollected from the depth of 0-30, 30-60, 60-90 and 90-120 cm. Leaves for analysis were collected in August andshoots after pruning. The level of available potassium was (11.95-14.15 mg/100 g of soil), magnesium (20.2-23.7mg/100 g of soil) and calcium (354-464 mg/100 g of soil). During the first year, Ca:Mg ratio was 5.8-14.4:1, in thesecond year 5.4-18.5:1 and at third year 4.9-25.2:1. The K:Mg ratio ranged from 0.08-0.21:1 in the first, 0.13-0.29:1 in the second and 0.11-0.21:1 in the third year of study. The Ca:Mg and K:Mg ratio were mostly influencedby 100 and 150 kg K2O/ha potassium doses. The K:Mg ratio in the leaves and shoots did not change underdifferent potassium fertilizer doses, so that the antagonism between these two elements did not happen.Key words: potassium fertilizer, Ca, Mg, K.Effect of multinutrient complex fertilizers on growth of very earlypotato cultivarsWADAS, Wanda *; DZIUGIEŁ, TomaszDepartment of Vegetable CropsSiedlce University of Natural Sciences and HumanitiesPoland* wwadas@uph.edu.plFertilization is one of the most important agronomical factors affecting plant growth and potato tuber yield. In thelast years there has been an increase in multinutrient complex fertilizers usage. Multinutrient fertilizers supplycrops with primary (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) and secondary (calcium, magnesium, sulphur) nutrients andmicronutrients (iron, zinc, manganese, cooper, boron, molybdenum). Multinutrient complex fertilizers have theadvantage of having each nutrient in each granule. They are more expensive than the equivalent quantity ofnutrients achieved by applying the equivalent quantities of singlenutrient fertilizers. Efficient application of theproper type and amount of fertilizer is an important part of achieving profitable yield. The right proportion ofnutrients is prerequisite for satisfactory plant growth. The effect of multinutrient complex fertilizres HydroComplex(NPKMgS 12-11-18-3-8 + B, Mn, Zn, Fe), Nirtophoska® blue special (NPKMgS 12-12-17-2-6 + B, Zn), Viking 13(NPKMgCaS 13-13-21-1-4-1) representing the nitrophoska group and Polimag® S (NPKMgS 10-8-15-5-14 + B,Cu, Mn, Zn) from the amophoska group, and singlenutrient fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, single superphosphate,potassium sulphate) on the growth of very early potato cultivars (‘Aster’, ‘Fresco’, ‘Gloria’) was compared in athree-year field experiment. The field experiment was carried out in the middle-eastern part of Poland on apodzolic soil. The multinutrient complex fertilizers and singlenutrient fertilizers were applied in the amountsequivalent to recommended rates for the cultivars tested of 100 kg N/ha. The remaining elements in thesinglenutrient fertilizers were applied at the rates which guarante an appropriate N:P:K proportion for ediblepotatoes, i.e. 1:1:1.5. The kind of fertilizer (single- or multinutrient) did not affected the height of plants. Anapplication of multinutrient complex fertilizers HydroComplex and Nirtophoska® blue special resulted in highermass of above-ground plant parts and assimilation leaf area compared with singlenutrient fertilizers; the leaf areaindex ( LAI) was higher by 0.28 and 0.32, respectively. When the multinutrient complex fertilizers were applied,leaf weight ratio (LWR), leaf area ratio (LAR) and specific leaf area (SLA) were similar to singlenutrient fertilizer.Out of the multinutrient complex fertilizers, only Nirtophoska® blue special significantly increased tuber yield, onaverage by 2.40 t/ha, compared with the single nutrient fertilizers.Keywords: height of plants, mass of leaves, mass of stems, assimilation leaf area, leaf weight ratio (LWR), leafarea ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA), tuber yield.199


Posters of Topic 3Application of arbuscular mycorrhiza and endophytic bacteriaaffected rhizome quality of Curcuma alismatifolia GagnepRUAMRUNGSRI, Soraya (1) (2) ; THEPSUKHON, Apiraya (3) * & SHIGEYUKI, Tajima (4)(1)Department of Plant Science and Natural Resources, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University,Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand(2)Plant Nutrition and Hydroponics Research Unit, Institute for Science and Technology, Chiang Mai50200, Thailand(3)The Office of the Commission on Agricultural Resource Education, Chulalongkorn University,Bangkok 10330, Thailand(4) Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Kagawa 761-0795, Japan* apiraya.t@hotmail.comSince the price of chemical fertilizer increases year by year, this brings about the decrease of benefit and incomeof growers. The alternative method to reduce chemical fertilizer use is thus needed for Curcuma rhizomeproduction. The endophytic diazotrophic bacteria (EDB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have highpotential for application in agriculture and could lead to a considerable decrease in the amount of chemicalfertilizers. In this experiment, plants were subjected to experimental treatments with two factors. The first factorwas the two levels of fertilizers application (0 and 7.5 g/pot). The second factor was four types of microorganismapplication. The results showed that fertilizer rate at 7.5 g/pot gave greater diameter of storage roots, number ofrhizomes, fresh and dry weight than non-fertilizer. The microorganism application, AMF+ECS203 gave the bestrhizome quality, fresh weight and dry weight compared with the other treatments. The interaction betweenfertilizer rates and microorganism application were significantly different in diameter of storage roots, number ofstorage roots, fresh and dry weight of storage roots. There was an interaction between fertilizer rates andAMF+ECS203 gave the best fresh anddry weight of rhizome compared with the other treatments. The best treatment for C. alismatifolia plant in thisexperiment should be the supply of fertilizer rate at 7.5 g/pot mixed with AMF+ECS203.Key words: Curcuma alismatifolia, endophytic diazotrophic bacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.On-farm comparison of fertilizer application practices to assessnitrogen-use efficiency of Curcuma alismatifolia GagnepRUAMRUNGSRI, Soraya (1) (3) ; SUEYOSHI, Kuni (2) & INKHAM, Chaiartid(1) Department of Plant Science and Natural Resources, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University,Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand(2) Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Niigata University, Niigata, 950-2181, Japan(3) Plant Nutrition and Hydroponics Research Unit, Institute for Science and Technology, Chiang Mai,50200, Thailandsunwins111@hotmail.com(1) (3)In Thailand, Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. is the second highest export-value flower plant after orchids, andtrend of the exporting are increasing in every year. However, the crop yield for exporting to the internationalmarket has uncertain quality each year that may mainly be attributed to imbalanced fertilizer use, especially innitrogen fertilizer which is one of the most important plant nutrients. On this experiment, the field experimentswere carried out on 4 commercial Curcuma farms (designated site A, B, C and D). The total amount of nitrogenwas differently supplied at 15.0, 6.9, 4.1 and 1.95 g N/plant in site A, B, C and D, respectively. The resultsshowed that fertilizer management in commercial Curcuma farm is varied widely from one individual to another.Nitrogen supply was related to nitrogen concentration in plant parts at different growth stages. At the flowering200


Posters of Topic 3stage, the trend of N concentration in leaves (from site A to site D) decreased along with the decrease of N supply(from 15 g/plant to 1.95 g/plant).At the harvest stage, the highest and lowest N concentration in new rhizomes were obtained when plants weregrown in site C and site D, respectively. Yields in terms of rhizome fresh weight per clump and rhizome quality interms of rhizome diameter and storage roots diameter were difference in each commercial farms. The nitrogenuseefficiency of Curcuma and soil analysis in each commercial farm was determined in this experiment.Key words: Curcuma alismatifolia, nitrogen-use efficiency, fertilizer application.Effect of potassium supply on drug production and quality of mintspeciesNÉMETH-ZÁMBORINÉ, Éva (1) *; SZABÓ, Krisztina (1) ; RAJHÁRT, Péter (1) ; POPP, Thomas(2)(1) Corvinus University of Budapest, Dept. of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, H-1118 Budapest, Villányistr. 29-35. Hungary(2) K+S Kali GmbH, Applied Research and Advisory Service Agro, Bertha-von-Suttner-Straße 7, 34131Kassel, Germany* eva.nemeth@uni-corvinus.huAlthough demand for medicinal plants is continuously growing and advances in several aspects have beenachieved, research on agrotechnics became scarce in the last period. For many species optimal measures inmechanisation, herbizide application and fertilization are still lacking. Nutrient supply is often based on practicalexperiences without scientific data on species specific requirements, effects on drug yield and active ingredients.In frame of a four year experiment on ten species, we investigated the effects of potassium supply on theproduction and essential oil characeteristics of Mentha x piperita L. (peppermint) and Mentha spicata var. crispata(BENTLS.) MANSF. (speramint). Former results indicated the importance of nitrogen in growth and production ofpeppermint but were contradictious about potassium while almost no data exists for spearmint.The trial was conducted in 2008-2011 in Budapest, on 20m 2 open field plots, in four replications. The treatmentsfor both species included different levels of potassium (0, 100, 200, 300 kg/ha) with standard levels of nitrogen(120 kg/ha in two splits during vegetation) and phosphorous (80 kg/ha). These tretments were compared withunfertilized control. Fertilizers were added as solid formulations (ammonium-nitrate, TSP, SOP) in spring.The results showed that nutrient supply had different effects on the experimental species.Under the conditions of the experimental field, lower level of potassium proved to be optimal for peppermint. 100kg/ha K fertilisation assured by 25-257% more folium and herba yields compared to untreated plots and by 3-14%more drug yields compared to the ones only with N and P. The proportion of leaf compared to stem mass washowever, highest ont he plots receiving 300 kg/ha dosages. The effect on the essential oil and menthol contentwas contradictious during the years, which acertaines former assumptions that phenological phase might have amore important influence on these traits.In case of spearmint 200 kg/ha potassium level increased significantly the mass of both herb and leaf drugs. Theincrease in these yields compared to the control reached 25-220% while that compared to the plots with only Nand P reached 5-69% depending on year and number of harvests. Leaf size was also positively influenced by theK supply, however leaf/stem proportion remained uneffected. Fort he essential oil content the same treatmentsproved to be optimal as for the drug yield. 200 kg/ha K fertilization assured by 20-41% higher levels of oil in theleaves.Keywords: peppermint, Mentha piperita, spearmint, Mentha spicata var.crispata, fertilization, nutrient.201


Posters of Topic 3Effects of partial rootzone drying and deficit irrigation on fruitquality during storage of Granny Smith applesĐUROVIĆ, Dejan (1) ; MRATINIĆ, Evica (1) ; MILATOVIĆ, Dragan (1) ; ĐUROVIĆ, Snežana (2) ;ĐORĐEVIĆ, Boban (1) ; MILIVOJEVIC, Jaminka (1) ; RADIVOJEVIC, Dragan (1)(1) Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia(2) Institute PKB – Agroekonomik, Zrenjaninski put bb, 11213 Padinska Skela, Serbia* dejan.djurovic@agrif.bg.ac.rsThe effects of partial rootzone drying (PRD), deficit irrigation (DI) and control irrigation (CI) on fruit quality duringstorage of ‘Granny Smith’ apples were studied during two-year period. To establish control over soil water regime,apple trees were planted in plastic containers with a volume of 120 l. Plants were irrigated with various amountsof water in order to establish three different treatments: 1) Control irrigation (CI) in which the soil moistureamounted to 80% of field water capacity, 2) deficit irrigation (DI), in which 60% of CI water was evenlyapplied to the whole root system and 3) partial root drying (PRD), where 60% of CI water was appliedto one half of the root while the other half was allowed to dry, and the irrigation was shifted when soilwater content of the dry side had decreased to 15-20%. Changes in fruit quality during cold storage wereassessed every 30 days. Fruits were stored for 180 days. DI and PRD treatments both improved fruit quality infollowing terms: dry-matter concentration at harvest, flesh firmness and total soluble solids. Mean fruit weight waslower in DI than in PRD and CI treatments. Fruits matured earlier when subjected to DI treatment, compared withPRD and CI treatments. The fruits from PRD treatment showed less weight loss during storage than fruits from DItreatment. After six months of cold storage, the highest decrease of flesh firmness was found in fruits from CItreatment. No effects of irrigation to changes in contents of soluble solids and total acids were found.Key words: apple, regulated deficit irrigation, fruit maturity, storage, firmness.Effects of foliar and substrate application of selenium on fruitquality of strawberryPALENCIA, Pedro (1) *; BURDUCEA, Marian (2) **; MARTÍNEZ RUIZ, Fátima (3) ; OLIVEIRA, J.Alberto (1) ; GIRÁLDEZ, Inmaculada (3) ***(1) Department of Organisms and Systems Biology, University of Oviedo, Escuela Politécnica deMieres, C/ Gonzalo Gutiérrez Quirós, 33600 Mieres, Spain.palencia@uniovi.es(2) Faculty of Biology, Al. I. Cuza University, Iasi, Romania.marian.burducea@yahoo.com(3) Dpto de Ciencias Agroforestales, E.T.S.I. ‘La Rábida’, Universidad de Huelva, Palos de la Frontera(Huelva) Spain.(4) Dpto. Química y Ciencias de los Materiales. Universidad de Huelva. Avda. Fuerzas Armadas s/n.21007 Huelva. Spain. *** giraldez@uhu.esThe amount of selenium in plants is highly dependent upon both the amount and the availability of selenium in thesoil and this can vary geographically. An experiment was carried out at the Huelva University, Spain, in 2010–2011. The experiment had duration of seven months. 100 strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv.‘Splendor’) were cultivated in a soilless growing system, using polyethylene bags (100 cm x 18 cm x 30 cm) filledwith coir fiber as substrate under natural light and temperature. A completely randomized block design (5treatments x 2 replications) was used in a soilless growing system. Each replicate consisted of 10 plants. Therewere five test population: 1) control (non-treated); 2) Se (IV) in substrate; 3) Se (IV) foliar (sprayed on leaves); 4)Se (VI) in substrate; 5) Se (VI) foliar. There were analyzed the content of chlorophyll, the number of leaves, crowndiameter, weight, firmness, pH, º Brix and titratable acidity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the202


Posters of Topic 3influence the foliar and substrate application of Se (IV) and Se (VI) on fruit quality of strawberry plants in soillessgrowing system. The results show that there are no significant differences in average fruit weight and firmnessamong treatments and control. Treatments differed significantly in content of chlorophyll and crown diameter: Se(IV) foliar had the highest values. Se (VI) in substrate had the highest number of leaves followed by Se (VI) foliar.Total Soluble Solid (TSS) content and titratable acidity of fruit differed among the treatments. Se (VI) in thesubstrate had the highest TSS content.Keywords: Splendor, Total Soluble Solid, Soilless, Titratable acidity, º Brix.Climate change induced changes of water demand and nitrogenfertilization for vegetable production in Hessian ReedSCHMIDT, Nadine *; ZINKERNAGEL, JanaGeisenheim Research Center, Department of Vegetable Crops, Germany* nadine.schmidt@fa-gm.deThe climate change is predicted to have a significant impact on the future vegetable production in Hesse.According to climate projections the change of important climate parameters relevant to cultivation will result indeterioration of water balance (WB). Especially the special crop vegetable requiring strong irrigation will sufferunder the worsened WB. Whereas extensive projections concerning the climate are available, in the agriculturalsector additional research is required to estimate how the forthcoming situation should be dealt with. Hence, it isof great importance to determine potential future scenarios of water demand and supply. The climate change thatis currently taking place raises the question of what impacts are to be expected on water consumption of theplants and additional agricultural irrigation. To evaluate the possible range of future climate developmentsstatistical as well as dynamical regional models are assessed: WETTREG, REMO and CLM, driven by ECHAM5and HAdCM3 global climate models for scenario A1B. Simulations cover the period 1971 – 2100, where validationis based on decade 1971 -2000. Horticulture companies have to adapt to new conditions, if they wish to survivefuture challenges. In case of altered growth factors leading to changes in terms of yield and quality, effects ofclimate change, especially concerning vegetable production sector, have to be expected. The greatest challengehere is water supply, which is of absolutely crucial importance for production. All the climate models usedconsistently predict only minor changes in annual precipitation. In any case, all simulations related to futureprecipitation distribution predict a strong redistribution of summer precipitation (- 30%) to winter precipitation (+40%) till 2100. In addition, it is expected that precipitation-free periods will increase. In reference period 1971 –2000, periods of drought for 30 days or longer have been registered. Following the trend led by simulations,frequency rises in both longer precipitation-free periods of more than 10 days and length of dry periods until 2100.Therefore, all simulations refer to a trend toward drier conditions and increasing negative WB during the growingseason. This requires compensation in necessary additional irrigation in order to enable plant production in thefield. The majority of vegetable cropping areas in Hesse are already irrigated. In the context of the EU WaterFramework Directive influence of climate change on quantity and point of time of nitrate leaching has to beinvestigated. For this purpose leachate from onions will be analysed in lysimeter stations.Keywords: climate change, simulation, regional models, irrigation, fertilization, climatic water balance.Frost resistance as an indicator of brown heart susceptibility inswede (Brassica napus var. napobrassica)FADHEL, Faiz T; FULLER, Michael P; BURCHETT, Stephen & JELLINGS, AnitaSchool of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science & Technology, Plymouth University,UK, PL4 8AA203


Posters of Topic 3Swede (Brassica napus var. napobrassica) is a “cool season” plant with frost hardiness. The crop is reported tobe sensitive to Boron availability and low Boron can lead to Brown Heart syndrome and complete crop rejection.The contributions of the genotype and environmental components of this syndrome however have not been fullyestablished. Following the severe winter of 2009/10 in the UK, in breeders trials, some genotypes showedsusceptibility to frost in addition to susceptibility to brown heart.The internal browning symptoms of brown heart are difficult to detect without growing a crop to maturity and thendestroying the crop to score susceptibility. Consequently it is a very difficult trait to breed resistance to. It ispostulated that if a genetic association can be determined between brown heart appearance and frostsusceptibility, then a seedling frost testing screen may be a useful surrogate method to screen for brown heartresistance.To investigate the linkage between frost and brown heart resistance, a frost resistance screening (to -10 ˚C) ofcold acclimated plants (4 ˚C for 14 days) was carried out using 6 genotypes selected by the breeders (ElsomsSeeds Ltd) to cover the perceived range of genetic susceptibility to brown heart (Magres, Male Sterile Magres,Acme, Emily, Helenor, and Lizzy). Seedling (3 leaf plants) recovery post-freezing and the relative electricconductivity (REC %) of leaf tissue from more mature plants (7 leaves) was measured.Results showed that seedlings of all genotypes completely recovered after -2˚C but were completely dead at -10˚C. Genotypes clearly differed in their response to -4, -6 and -8 and two of them (Helenor and Acme) wereconsistently classified as frost susceptible with a recovery percent of 62.5 and 65% respectively. Lizzy showedhigher resistance to frost (81.7% recovery). REC% results correlated with the seedling results and showed thatHelenor and Acme had a high percent of cell damage (REC of 82.2 and 80.3%) respectively and Lizzy appearedto be the most frost resistant (REC 52.9%).Breeders data of brown heart appearance in swede roots in field trials recorded from 2000 to 2010 was analysedand showed that the majority of the appearance of internal browning was mostly associated with the genotypeswith Helenor, Acme and Angela in their genetic background. Genetic brown heart susceptibility was associatedwith low frost resistance in these varieties.Keywords: brassica napus var. napobrassica, swede, brown heart susceptibility, frost resistance, borondeficiency.Irrigation effects on the agronomic performance of Albariño cultivarin the Ribeiro AOC. Preliminary resultsTRIGO-CÓRDOBA, Emiliano; GÓMEZ-SANMARTÍN, José Manuel; BOUZAS-CID, yolanda;DÍAZ-LOSADA, Emilia; ORRIOLS-FERNÁNDEZ, Ignacio; MIRÁS-AVALOS, José Manuel *Estación de Viticultura y Enología de Galicia (EVEGA)Ponte San Clodio s/n 32427, Leiro (Ourense), Spain* jose.manuel.miras.avalos@xunta.esIrrigation studies on Galician vineyards are scarce. Due to climatic change, research on this topic isdemanded. Albariño is the main white grapevine variety cultivated in the Galicia (NW Spain). This cultivarpresents small clusters and berries, it is vigorous and possesses interesting oenological qualities. An experimentcomparing two irrigation treatments was carried out in 2011 at Leiro (Ourense, Spain) within the Ribeiro AOC.Fourteen-year old Albariño plants were trellised to a vertical shoot positioning and submitted to two water supplytreatments from veraison till three weeks before harvest: rainfed and irrigated to a 70% of potentialevapotranspiration. The experimental layout was a randomized block design with three repetitions. Soil within theexperimental plot was classified as an inceptisol. During the growing season, average temperature was 18.5 ºCand total rainfall was 131.2 mm. Water amount applied to the irrigated plants was 119 l per plant. No significantdifferences were observed on water status of irrigated and rainfed plants. Data on yield, cluster number andweight of 100 berries were recorded. In addition, juice and wine parameters were analyzed. Irrigated plantsproduced slightly more clusters per plant (54.1) than those rainfed (53.83). However, this difference implied anincrease in yield on irrigated plants (6.95 and 5.94 kg per plant in irrigated and rainfed, respectively). Moreover,berries were greater under irrigation (135.1 g/100 berries) than under rainfed (126.5 g/100 berries). Juiceparameters did not present significant differences between treatments. Wines from rainfed plants presented ahigher alcoholic grade (14%) than those irrigated (13.5%). Titratable acidity was greater under the irrigationtreatment. In conclusion, during the year studied, irrigation treatment slightly affected the agronomicalperformance of Albariño; however, further research is needed.Keywords: Albariño, evapotranspiration, grapevine, wine, yield.204


Posters of Topic 3Impact of phosphorus nutrition on photosynthesis, leaf yield andplant quality of Centella asiatica L. UrbanMÜLLER, Viola *; LANKES, Christa; HUNSCHE, Mauricio & NOGA, GeorgInstitute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation - Horticultural Sciences, University of Bonn, Aufdem Hügel 6, 53121 Bonn, Germany* vmueller@uni-bonn.deDespite the steadily growing market for Centella asiatica, driven by the health benefits mainly due to thecharacteristic pattern of saponins in its leaves, the commercial exploration of this medicinal plant is widelyunderexplored. As a consequence, the market’s demand is predominantly satisfied by wild harvesting from thenature, which implicates a large variation in plant and product quality (Randriamampionona et al., 2007; Prasad etal., 2012). The advancement to a well-directed cultivation would assure continuous availability of high-qualityCentella raw material in terms of content and composition of saponins. To our knowledge, precise information oncultivation techniques, particularly on the mineral nutrition of Centella plants, is still lacking.Our previous studies therefore focused on elucidating the impact of nitrogen nutrition on growth and quality ofCentella plants (Müller et al., 2011); the present experiment aimed to investigate the effects of phosphorus supplyon photosynthesis, leaf production, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) content as well as synthesisof saponins in leaves. Greenhouse plants were grown for eight weeks in rock wool cubes and fed with a nutrientsolution at either 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 or 0.09 g P L -1 . The application of the nutrient solutions was carried out twiceor thrice a week according to the plant’s demand. Assimilation rate and plant growth were monitored weekly.Fresh and dry weight of leaves and stalks, leaf area (LA) and specific leaf weight (SLW) were ascertainedbiweekly, while examination of leaf nutrient concentration was carried out once at the end of the study. Leafsamples for determination of saponin concentration by HPLC were harvested two, four, six and eight weeks afterstart of the experiment. Asiaticoside and madecassoside as well as asiatic acid and madecassic acid werechosen as quality markers for saponins and sapogenins, respectively.In general, the applied P treatments had a strong effect on the experimental plants. With the increase in P supply,the P concentration in leaves augmented up to the treatment 0.06 g P, while N and K showed no furtheraccumulation above the treatment 0.04 g P. Significant differences were also observed in growth and leafproduction already at two weeks after start of the experiment. At the end of the study, leaf yield was significantlyenhanced by the increase in P supply. Assimilation rate rose as well, whereas SLW declined up to the treatment0.04 g P. LA in turn was enlarged by the increase in P supply showing statistical significance for single treatmentgroups. Similarly to SLW, the concentration of sapogenins was adversely affected up to the treatment 0.04 g P.Henceforth the sixth week of the study this metabolic response was also proven for the saponins. At the end ofthe experiment there were no significant differences concerning the total yield of saponins and sapogenins,defined as leaf yield multiplied by sapo(-ge)nin concentration in leaves, between the treatments 0.02, 0.04, 0.06as well as 0.09 g P.AcknowledgementsThe authors thank the Program ‘Regionale 2010’ and the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) for financialsupport within the framework of the project AgroHort med.Literature CitedMüller, V., Lankes, C., Hunsche, M., Noga, G. 2011. Impact of nitrogen nutrition on growth and plant quality ofCentella asiatica L. Urban. Planta Medica 12: 1229-1472.Prasad, A., Pragadheesh, V.S., Mathur, A., Srivastana, N.K., Singh, M., Mathur, A.K. 2012. Growth andcentelloside production in hydroponically established medicinal plant – Centella asiatica (L.). Ind. Crop. Prod. 35:309-312.Randriamampionona, D., Diallo, B., Rakotoniriana, F., Rabemanantsoa C., Cheuk, K., Corbisier, A.M.,Mahillon, J., Ratsimamanga S., El Jaziri, M. 2007. Comparative analysis of active constituents in Centella asiaticasamples from Madagascar: Application for ex situ conservation and clonal propagation. Fitoterapia 78: 482-489.Keywords: asiatic pennywort, saponin content, assimilation, nutrient solution, hydroponic system.205


Posters of Topic 3The influence of the trace elements on grape winter hardinesspotentialVELIKSAR, Sofia; TUDORACHE, Gheorghe; TOMA, Simion; DAVID, Tatiana; BRATCO,Dumitru; BUSUIOC, ValentinaInstitute of Genetics and Plant Physiology, Chisinau, Republic Moldovadechevas@rambler.ruFoliar treatment of plants can provide grape plants with macro- and microelements, avoid mineral deficienciesduring the period of vegetation, and increase of the quantity and quality of grapes. Taking into account theinsufficient supply of soils in mobile forms of microelements (Fe, B, Mn, Zn, etc.) and their high necessity forperennial plants resistance and productivity, a special complex of microelements Microcom-V was created. Theefficacy of foliar fertilization of vine with a specific complex of trace elements Microcom-V was studied in thegreenhouse and field conditions. Foliar treatment of vine during the period of vegetation changed somephysiological indices: intensification of phosphorus components and carbohydrate metabolism in leaves andshoots, chlorophyll content in leaves, free amino acids content in leaves, berries and bleeding sap. It leads to theaccumulation of newly acquired solutes (proline, glutamic acid, glutamine, monosaccharides), that might protectthe plants as osmotic – balancing solutes or against free radicals generated in response to stress.The modifications revealed led to the intensification of plant growth and development, formation and a fullmanifestation of genetically based potential of plant productivity and resistance to the unfavorable conditions ofenvironment. The critical 1ow temperature during the winter is the major constraint for viticulture in RepublicMoldova. Increase of plant resistance is a promising means to solve the problem and to ensure to high and stablecrops with high quality. Our data obtained in 2007 – 2010 testify that 3-fold foliar treatment of plants by Microcom-V during the vegetation led to the increase of average length of annual vine shoots in comparison with the controlplants. Annual shoot maturation of treated plants increased by 13 – 18 % compare to untreated. The resistance tothe wintering of 4 varieties (Shardone, Alb de Suruceni, Aligote, Codrinskii) in spring of the next year increasedafter the foliar fertilization by 7 – 10 % compare to the untreated plants. It grows the quantity of buds alive, butquantity of damaged and perished buds decreased in the treated plants under the influence of foliar fertilization bytrace elements complex Microcom-V. Beneficial action of specific complex of microelements on the volume ofcrop and grape quality was established.Keywords: Microcom-V, foliar fertilization, carbohydrate, free amino acids, shoot maturation bleeding sap.Quality of Syngonium podophyllum “Silver” crop related withnutritional status of the root-zoneCONTRERAS, Juana Isabel (1) ; SEGURA, Maria Luz (1) *; PLAZA, Blanca María (2) ;JIMÉNEZ-BECKER, Silvia (2) ; LAO, Maria Teresa (2) **(1) Institute of Research and Training in Agriculture and Fishery (IFAPA), Junta of Andalusia. CaminoSan Nicolás n.1. 04745 La Mojonera. Almería. Agrifood Campus of International Excellence (CEIA3).Spain. * marial.segura@juntadeandalucia.es(2)Department of Vegetal Production, Engineering Higher School, University of Almería, Ctra.Sacramento s/n. 04120 Almería. Agrifood Campus of International Excellence (CEIA3). Spain. **mtlao@ual.esThe purpose of this trial was to study the nutritional status of the root-zone, using the substrate solutionobtained with the suction cup method, and also growth and plant quality, testing some sources of fertilization. Thetrial was carried out in a type INSOLE greenhouse (Buried Solar Greenhouse), from 19 April to 19 September,2004. There were four mineral fertilizer treatments: (SLF) a standard liquid feeding, (LFSF) a fertilizer (17-8-14)containing nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+) and a nitrification inhibitor (3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate, DMPP)and (CRF) two coated controlled release fertilizers (Basacote Plus (16-8-12) plus half concentration of SLF andOsmocote Plus (16-8-12) plus half concentration of SLF. The nutrient substrate solutions showed important206


Posters of Topic 3differences depending on the nutrient solutions applied, especially when CRF were incorporated to the substrate.Substrate buffers the system, avoiding a high pH lowering. Electrical conductivity (E.C.) was high in CRF, due tothe high nitrate concentration, what suggests that the use of controlled release fertilizers should be reconsideredin tropical crops. Basacote treatment showed a good-excellent plant quality, LFSF and Osmocote treatmentspresent a good quality plants and SLF a poor quality plants. The efficiency of different ways of fertilization hasbeen studied globally, being LFSF significantly higher.Keywords: Container crop, fertigation, nitrification inhibitor, controlled release fertilizer, mineral nitrogen.Monitoring nitrogen content of soils with vegetable crop production– The SchALVO as an environmental instrument in water protectionareas in Baden -Württemberg, GermanyRATHER, KarinState Horticultural College and Research Institute Heidelberg, Germanykarin.rather@web.deIn the state Baden-Württemberg (BW) in water protection areas vegetable production is subject to strictregulations according to the decree SchALVO (Schutzgebiets- und Ausgleichsverordnung). This system waslaunched in 1988, amended in 2002 and ensures consistent constraints and financial compensation. TheSchALVO seeks to remediate nitrate contaminated groundwater by means of agricultural measures and takes the‘good agricultural practice’ following the Düngeverordnung (DüV, enforced throughout the whole country) asprerequisite. It is accepted as an ‘additional programme of measures’ to fulfil the Water Framework Directive(WFD, Anonym 2007). SchALVO is compulsory in water production domains which cover 26% of the area of BWwith 359.500 ha in agricultural use. The range of constraints depends on soil type, distance to water source andthe pollution status of the water protection area in three classes: With increasing nitrate concentration ofgroundwater normal (N-, 50 mgNO3 L-1) areas are graded which cover 70%, 25% and 5% of the agricultural used land, respectively. Specializedlimitations in vegetable crop production include use of fertilizers; crop choice; dates for establishing catch crops;time windows for tillage; and many others. Soils are sampled for residual nitrate-N in 0-90 cm annually betweenOctober 15th and November 15 th . The results of this monitoring are nationwide recorded and analysed. Farmersget compensations for specific constraints only if they meet an allowable level of residual nitrate-N in autumn of45 kg N ha-1. Before amendment of SchALVO soil sampling took place on 900 sites with vegetable growing. Theresults revealed a distinct reduction in soil nitrate-N content in the period 1991 to 2000. Since 2001 monitoringrefers exclusively to the areas at high risk for leaching (P- and R-areas) which amount for 140 to 200 sites withvegetable cropping each year. An increase in residual nitrate-N in autumn was observed whereas since 2006 theresidual nitrate-N reached a level of 70 to 80 kg N ha-1. For 2010 a detailed analysis of nitrate-N residues on 150vegetable growing sites was done and results presented. Generally the effect of measures according to SchALVOis influenced by site specific characteristics as well as weather conditions. The results of the monitoring programare used to check compliance with the requirements. Besides they are a valuable instrument of the extensionservices to derive well documented recommendations for practice.Keywords: nitrogen, vegetables, soil nitrogen content, water protection, fines, SchALVO, Water FrameworkDirective, Germany.207


Posters of Topic 3Effect of different quality irrigation water on the growth, mineralconcentration and physiological parameters of Viburnum tinusplantsGÓMEZ-BELLOT, M José (1) *; CASTILLO, Marco (1) ; ÁLVAREZ, Sara (1) ; ACOSTA, JoséRamón (1) ; ALARCÓN, Juan José (1) ; BAÑÓN, Sebastián (2) (3) ; ORTUÑO, M Fernanda (1) ;(1) (3)SÁNCHEZ-BLANCO, M Jesús(1)Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura (CEBAS-CSIC). P.O. Box 164, E-30100Espinardo, Murcia, Spain(2)Departamento de Producción Agraria. Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena (UPCT). 30203Cartagena, Spain(3)Unidad Asociada al CSIC de “Horticultura Sostenible en Zonas Aridas (UPCT-CEBAS). 30203Cartagena, Spain* mjgb@cebas.csic.esTreated wastewater may be considered an alternative source of water and fertilizer nutrients for landscape plants.However, NaCl, the principal compound in this water, can be detrimental to plants. Viburnum tinus plants weresubjected for 4 months to 4 irrigation treatments with water from different sources: control (Control) (EC < 0.9 dSm -1 ); NaCl solution (NaCl) (EC = 4 dS m -1 ); irrigation water normally used in the area (IW) (EC = 1.2-1.8 dS m -1 )and reclaimed water (RW) (EC = 4 dS m -1 ). During a recovery period of two months, all the plants were irrigatedwith the control water. The results showed that the biomass was affected in all saline treatments (NaCl, IW andRW) and both leaf area and height decreased at the end of saline period. These changes were more pronouncedin the NaCl treatment, which also caused a decrease in stem diameter and root/shoot ratio. The similar growthalterations founded after the recovery period showed that salts continued to be present in the substrate.Compared with the control, NaCl and RW plants showed a greater rate of Na + and Cl - absorption by roots. Stemwater potential was mainly affected by the NaCl treatment in the last weeks of the saline period. Through theexperiment, the stomatal conductance and photosynthesis values were the lowest in plants that received thehighest amount of salts, especially NaCl treatment which was the only treatment that did not recover at the end ofexperiment. Plants of the IW treatment showed slight changes in stomatal conductance and photosynthetic ratewith respect to the control, although the reduction in the growth and size of these plants suggests that slightincreases in EC could be very toxic for this species. Hence, using different sources of water with similar EC,(NaCl and RW) it is important to know the exact composition, since the toxic effects produced by highconcentrations of Na + and Cl - might be offset by the effect of other ions like magnesium, potassium andphosphorus. In the physicochemical analysis of water, the highest concentrations of these ions were observed inRW and as consequence, their concentrations in plants were not reduced by the Na + and Cl - effect, phosphoruseven increased, improving the plant nutritional balance.Keywords: stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, ornamental plants, salinity, water relations.Sustainable improvement of nitrogen efficiency of vegetables crops– Implementation of the EU water framework directive in Baden-Württemberg, GermanyRATHER, Karin * & GROßE LENGERICH, TimState Horticultural College and Research Institute HeidelbergDiebsweg 2, 69123 Heidelberg, Germany* karin.rather@web.deIn Baden-Württemberg, Germany, the national monitoring (2009) according to the water framework directiveidentified 23 water bodies as vulnerable zones for which 14 zones will not reach the “good quantitative status and208


Posters of Topic 3good chemical status of the groundwater” until 2015. Agricultural and horticulture land use was designated forbeing the main contributor exceeding the threshold of 50 mg nitrate L -1 . Besides existing national and statespecific action plans (DüV, MEKA, SchALVO) 1 this enforces additional requirements to reduce nitrate input to fulfilthe requirements of the water framework directive. In this content the state horticultural college Heidelbergsuccessfully established a three-year-project to improve nitrogen efficiency of vegetable crops in three of thevulnerable zones (Rhein-Neckar, Hockenheim-Walldorf and Bruchsal).With the active cooperation of farms, horticultural extension services and administration, a sustainable nitratemanagement system will be developed and integrates several measures into the farms’ crop rotation. Thisincludes an economic and ecological evaluation of measures and their acceptance in practice. Finally this conceptwill be transferred to other vegetable growing areas in Baden-Württemberg. Main components of the project are:exact field trials in three pilot farms; 28 actively engaged farmers in a working group; analysis of farm and fieldbased nitrogen balances. This report outlines the approach and challenges for vegetable production. Theprogress of the project can be tracked on the advice platform www.beratung-im-gartenbau.de/WRRL.(1 action programmes of Baden-Württemberg: DÜV = Düngeverordnung, MEKA = Marktentlastungs- undKulturlandschaftsausgleichs, SchALVO = Schutzgebiets- und Ausgleichs-Verordnung für Wasserschutzgebiete)Keywords: measures, sustainability, management system, pilot farms, practice, extension service, horticulture.Assessment of the heterogeneity of water status in commercialorchards by high resolution thermal imageryGONZALEZ-DUGO, V. * (1) ; ZARCO-TEJADA, P. (1) ; RUZ, C. (1) ; FERERES, E.(1) Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (IAS-CSIC). Alameda del Obispo, s/n. 14004 Cordoba (Spain)(2) Department of Agronomy. University of Cordoba. Edif. Celestino Mutis, Campus Rabanales, 14014,Cordoba (Spain)* Corresponding author. Email: victoria.gonzalez@ias.csic.es(1) (2)Orchards are generally non homogeneous due to several factors. This heterogeneity is not only caused by soilheterogeneity, hill slope and other physical factors, but to variations in management, including those related toirrigation network features. As water scarcity forces growers to reduce irrigation supply, the assessment of theheterogeneity in orchard water status is of paramount importance in precision agriculture and in irrigationmanagement. If knowledge of the variability exists, the scheduling and arrangement of irrigation systems could beoptimized according to this information, which should also be useful as a decision supporting tool. Here wepresent a novel approach for the assessment of the heterogeneity found in commercial citrus orchards. A thermalcamera mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was flown over a 70-ha commercial orchard located inSeville (Spain). The high resolution (pixels of less than 0.5 m) of the acquired imagery enables to target purecrowns and avoid soil-vegetation mixed pixels, which is essential in discontinuous canopies, as in tree orchards.After calibration, the images were assembled in a mosaic, corresponding to the 70-ha orchard. Irrigation unitswere located and analyzed separately. Mean value, standard deviation and other indicators linked with datadispersion within each irrigation unit were calculated. The irrigation units can be grouped according to theheterogeneity located therein. These tools showed to be useful for assessing the spatial variability in orchardsand represent a promising tool for decision-making in horticultural irrigation.Effects of aminolevulinic acid on organogenesis in protocorm-likebody (PLBs) of Cymbidium spp. in vitroNAHAR, Syeda Jabun (1) *; KAZUHIKO, Shimasaki (2)(1) The United Graduate School of Agriculture Sciences Ehime University, Ehime, Japan(2) Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan209


Posters of Topic 3* naharmunna@gmail.com (Corresponding Author)Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), is an important biosynthetic precursor of all tetrapyrroles such as vitamin B 12, billins,heme, chlorophyll and other specialized machinery in plants as well as animals. ALA appears to have potential asa non-toxic endogenous substance for improving agricultural production. In recent years, application of lowconcentrations of exogenous ALA has been found to promote plant growth, development and responses toenvironmental stresses. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of “Aminolevulinic acid(ALA)” on in vitro regulation of protocorm-like-bodies (PLBs) of Cymbidium insigne and Cymbidiumfinlaysonianum. PLBs of Cymbidium species were explanted on modified Murashige and Skoog (Shimasaki 1995)medium supplemented with “Aminolevulinic acid” (5 ALA- Cosmo oil co., Ltd., Japan) at various concentrations (0,0.1, 1 and 5 mg L -1 ). New PLBs and shoots were successfully regenerated on modified MS mediumsupplemented with aminolevulinic acid. In Cymbidium insigne, 0.01 mg L -1 and 1 mg L -1 aminolevulinic acid withMMS media induced the higher formation of PLBs (100%) and maximum shoots proliferation rate (66.7%)observed when media supplemented with 0.1 mg L -1 aminolevolunic acid within 40 days of culture. In the case ofCymbidium finlaysonianum, the highest PLBs induction rate (100%) and shoots induction rate (100%) obtained0.01 mg L -1 aminolevulinic acid with MMS media. The PLBs induction rate 100% also found when the mediasupplemented with 5 mg L -1 aminolevulinic acid. From present studies indicated that ALA at low concentrationsgreatly promotes new PLBs, and shoots formation in Cymbidium spp. in vitro condition. Moreover, aminolevulinicacid, supplemented to MMS medium promoted shoot formation but not rooting.Key words: Aminolevulinic acid, Plant growth regulators, Cymbidium spp., in vitro.Effect of moderately saline water and water deficit on the content ofantioxidants in paprika (Capsicum annuum) at different ripeningstagesLERMA, Maria Dolores (1) ; RAIGÓN, Maria Dolores (2) ; FITA, Ana Maria (1) ; MORENO, Estela(1) ; GARCÍA-MARTÍNEZ, Maria Dolores (2) ; PROHENS, Jaime (1) ; PENELLA, Consuelo (4) ;CALATAYUD, Ángeles (4) ; NEBAUER, Sergio G. (3) ; SAN BAUTISTA, Alberto (3) ; LÓPEZ-GALARZA, Salvador (3) ; CAMACHO, Francisco (5) ; TELLO, Julio César (5) ; RODRÍGUEZ-BURRUEZO, Adrián (1) *(1)(2)COMAV-Ciudad Politécnica Innovación, Departamento Química, and DepartamentoProducción Vegetal, Universitat Politècnica València. Camino Vera 14,46022 Valencia Spain.(4) Departamento Horticultura. IVIA. Ctra. Moncada-Naquera km. 4,5. Moncada, Spain.(5)Departamento Producción Vegetal, Universidad Almería. Cañada de San Urbano s/n 04120Almería, Spain.(3)* Corresponding author. E-mail: adrodbur@doctor.upv.esFruits of Capsicum are one of the most popular vegetables in the world as there is a plethora of dishes to whichthey contribute with their particular flavor. In addition, these fruits can provide high levels of antioxidants likeascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolics (TP), which may be affected by the ripening stage. Furthermore, paprika isof paramount importance for many European countries, particularly Mediterranean producers like Spain.Unfortunately, growers of this region are facing several problems that jeopardize paprika cultivation, being wateravailability and quality (mainly salt level) two of the most important ones. Thus, to study the response of differentgenotypes and the genotype×enviroment interaction may help to improve the sustainability of paprika cultivationin these areas. Here we studied the effect of irrigation with moderate saline water (5 dS/m) and water deficit (60%respect to control) (treatment/T) on the levels of AA and TP in unripe and fully ripe fruits (stage/S) from threevarietal types (genotype/G): Bola (round), Piquillo (triangular) and Morro de Vaca (bell).All the main effects contributed to the observed variation, particularly the S effect. On average, AA and TPincreased respectively from 117 to 178 and from 141 to 226 mg/100 g f.w. with ripening, and Bola showed thehighest increases (90% in AA and 150% in TP). As a result, we studied G and T within each ripening stage. Thus,apart from AA at unripe stage, G was significant for both traits at the two stages, while T contributed significantlyto both quality traits, with the only exception of TP at fully ripe stage. Regarding T effect, saline water had themost negative effect as it decreased both AA and TP in most accessions at both stages. In contrast, AA and TP210


Posters of Topic 3levels from water deficit treatment were similar to those of the controls. However, we also found examples of G×Tinteraction which suggest that some genotypes could be selected because of their good response to these stress.Thus, AA values of Bola (unripe stage), and TP of Piquillo (unripe) and Morro de Vaca (unripe and fully ripe)under saline conditions were similar to those of the controls. The same was true for AA values in Bola and Morrode Vaca (unripe) and Piquillo (unripe and fully ripe) and for TP in Bola and Piquillo (fully ripe) and Morro de Vaca(unripe and fully ripe) under water deficit.Keywords: Capsicum peppers, abiotic stress, ascorbic acid, phenolics, breeding for sustainability.Evaluation for abiotic and biotic stress of Capsicum peppercommercial rootstocks and cultivarsPENELLA, Consuelo (1) *; BOIX, Amalia (2) ; MORENO, Estela (3) ; RUIZ, Carlos (2) ; FITA, Ana(3) ; LERMA, Maria Dolores (3) ; Raigón, Maria Dolores (4) ; SAN BAUTISTA, Alberto (5) ; LÓPEZ-GALARZA, Salvador (5) ; MARSAL, Jose Ignacio (1) ; GARCÍA-LOPEZ, Alejandro (2) ; DOÑAS,Francisco (2) ; NEBAUER, Sergio G. (5) ; RODRÍGUEZ-BURRUEZO, Adrián (3) ; CAMACHO,Francisco (2) ; TELLO, Julio César (2) ; CALATAYUD, Ángeles (1)(1)Departamento Horticultura. IVIA. Ctra. Moncada-Naquera km. 4,5. Moncada, Spain.(2)Departamento Producción Vegetal, Universidad Almería. Cañada de San Urbano s/n 04120Almería, Spain(3)COMAV-Ciudad Politécnica Innovación, (4) Departamento Química, and (5) Departamento ProducciónVegetal, Universitat Politècnica València. Camino Vera 14,46022 Valencia Spain.* Corresponding author. E-mail: penella_con@gva.esCapsicum peppers are an economically and socially important crop in Spain. Unfortunately, the continuous soilexploitation, the monoculture, and/or intensive agricultural practices lead to the development of viruses and soilbornediseases. This fact, together with the occurrence of abiotic stresses, mainly due to water salinity, suboptimaltemperatures and water deficit, can result in plant senescence and the decrease of both yield and productquality. The use of grafted plants could be an adaptation strategy that allows plants to overcome soilbornediseases and environmental stresses.The main objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the behaviour of two commercial rootstocks Atlanteand Tresor and the cultivar Piquillo under biotic (Phytophthora capsici and P. parasitica infection) and abiotic(salinity and water deficit) stress. The survival percentages of plants, disease severity index (DSI) were evaluatedin infected plants. Photosynthetic parameters and fruit size were measured under abiotic plants stress. Weevaluated the extent of graft by examining the commercial yields parameters using Atlante and Tresor onto Uranovariety.In our results, under biotic stress, the survival percentages of plants and DSI were negatively affected by P.capsici infection in Atlante rootstock and Piquillo cultivar. The virulence of P. parasitica infection was minor thanP. capsici in these species. Under salinity conditions, photosynthesis values were lower in Atlante and Piquillocompared to control although fruits size in Piquillo was not affected. Atlante rootstock showed specific toleranceto water stress but not to salinity. The mean weight fruit, length and thickness fruit were higher in grafted plantsonto Tresor. Total yield was similar in both rootstocks.The most resistant rootstock to biotic and biotic stresses was Tresor.Consequently, the use of graft would be a good technique when abiotic and/or biotic stress are present but therootstocks must be testate in order to determine its resistance to desirable stress.Keywords: Pepper, stress, yield, photosynthesis, fruit qualities, rootstocks.211


Posters of Topic 3Product and production management along the value chain ofhorticultural open field productionHENNIG, Robert *; LENTZ, WolfgangUniversity of Applied Sciences DresdenFaculty for Agriculture and Landscape ManagementDresden (Germany)* roberthennig@web.deSuccess of open field production depends to a large extent on the production conditions. The producer’s influenceon the conditions is limited. Weather changes, diseases and pests occur without a long preparation period. On theother hand, the retailers, the consumers and the legislators expect a safe production process and a high quality,safe product in sufficient quantities for a reasonable price. New claims like regionalism and sustainability arebecoming more and more important and evidence must be produced. Additionally, the producers have to complywith the international and the national laws. To take the company’s future into account, the producers have to fulfilthe named expectations. Therefore, a production optimising and information coordinating management system isneeded. To achieve the goal, a comprehensive production and information management system, literatureresearch and qualitative interviews were planned.The theoretical framework, achieved from the literature research, is used as the basis of the productionmanagement system. It includes planning, monitoring, controlling and information supply. Whereas planning,monitoring and controlling are used as support of the business management, the information supply supportsplanning, monitoring and controlling. Or, in other words: Without functioning information supply there is nocorporate management support system. To meet the minimum requirements, the legal requirements have to betaken into account while designing the information supply system. Broadening this by including the retailer’s andthe consumer’s ideas is possible, as well as to integrate company-specific information relating to the productionmanagement. Especially the retailer’s and the consumer’s requirements are important because of their influenceon the company’s success. To avoid doublings in the information supply, these were detected and eliminated.The remaining information has to be collected, processed, evaluated and coordinated. Problems that occur inpractice during the named steps, but also the information needs, shall be identified with the help of qualityinterviews at the beginning of 2012. Taking account to the detected problems and information the productionmanagement system and the information supply system will be revised. Finally, a model will be designed thatshows the management what information has to be collected when, how to process it, how to evaluate it and whoneeds the information.Keywords: Controlling, Information coordination, Information supply system, Production management system,Production optimisation, Quality management.Innovation and sustainable competitiveness: the risks of thefragmentation of the productive process – the French example ofthe ornamental outdoor plantPLOTTU, Béatrice (1) ; WIDEHEM, Caroline (1) ; CHIKH-MHAMED, Sonia (2)(1) Lecturer in economics, AGROCAMPUS OUEST – Centre d’Angers, National Horticultural andLandscaping InstituteGRANEM (Angevin Economy and Management Research Group),UMR-MA n°49, 2, rue Le Nôtre49045 Angers cedex 01, Francebeatrice.plottu@agrocampus-ouest.fr, caroline.widehem@agrocampus-ouest.fr(2) Ph D Student Sciences of ManagementIUT d’AngersGRANEM (Angevin Economy and Management Research Group),UMR-MA n°49, 4 Bd Lavoisier49016 Angers cedex, Francesonia.chikh-mhamed@univ-angers.fr212


Posters of Topic 3The creation, the protection and the distribution of the plant basic material are innovative and strategic phases atthe origin of the value and of the driving of the French supply chain in ornamental outdoor plant. Their control ison the base of a sustainable competitive advantage. Since 1990s, the French horticultural chain in ornamentaloutdoor plants knows a fragmentation of its productive process. The French companies leaders in production ofyoung plants of outdoor ornament abandoned the first stages of production, importing for lesser costs thenecessary plant material, and specialized vertically in the culture and the export of sold plants at a late stage. Thisarticle aims to show that if a strategy of vertical specialization abandoning the first stages of production turns outpaying for the French companies individually, it makes run strategic risks to the chain in access to the innovationand in preservation of the plant capital. The paper, which implies the assessment of innovative process, is basedon a case study of French companies, a survey into the trades completed by a study on the protection of the plantvarieties on the European market for the young plants.Key words: value chain, sustainable competitiveness, vertical specialization, property rights, innovation, plants.Connecting research and innovation processes: Overcomingobstacles für knowledge and technology transfer in horticulturalvalue chainsKÖNIG, Bettina (1) *; DIEHL, Katharina (2) ; KUNTOSCH, Anett (1) ; BOKELMANN, Wolfgang (1)(1) Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture, Department of AgriculturalEconomics, Economics of Horticultural Production, Philippstraße 13, Haus 12-0, 10099 Berlin,Germany(2) Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Land Use Research (ZALF) e.V., Eberswalder Str. 84,15374 Müncheberg, Germany* bettina.koenig@agrar.hu-berlin.deFacing worldwide challenges such as limited or damaged natural ressources, climate change, food security, foodsafety, changing consumer demands etc. implies the growing need for innovative solutions in all sectors. Foodproducing sectors are particularly in the focus of adaptation strategies due to their close interrelations withenvironment, health and economy. Publicly funded research is one source for knowledge based innovation insectors dominated by small and medium sized companies, such as horticulture. However, making scientificknowledge and technology usable for horticultural innovation is one key challenge in the horticultural andagricultural innovation system in Germany (K nig et al. 2011). In this paper we present a process that supportsknowledge and technology transfer between science and business in order to enable scientists, extension andtransfer agencies to manage the transfer process context specific.First, we discuss current theoretical concepts of knowledge and technology transfer and different barriers thattypically have to be overcome in the system as well on the actor’s level. Secondly, we illustrate barriers in thehorticultural sector based on traditional knowledge transfer models and horticultural knowledge systems.Based on two case studies in Germany we developed processes to overcome these barriers. Based on theanalysis of the regional innovation system (Malerba 2002, Koschatzky 2009), we defined the starting point for twoexemplary case study processes. The first case study explored transfer options for a biological control method tomanage Verticillium wilt in strawberry production. The second case study is an aquaponic system for lowemission plant and fish production.The paper presents results of the analysis, the change needs that arise from the regional innovation system andthe transfer object and how these changes can be developed by involving participatory methods along the valuechain. By doing so, we contribute to current discussions on efficient knowledge and technology transfermechanisms.213


Posters of Topic 3Scope of supply chain management for sustaining growth of farmsector in Indian PunjabSINGH, JoginderAgricultural EconomistCentre for Agricultural Research & Rural Development44 Shant Park, Ludhiana 141012Phone: 91-161-2552394 Cell: 09814435516E-mail: drjogindersingh@hotmail.comThe agriculture of Indian Punjab after witnessing green revolution has recently been decelerating in growth withstagnating productivities of main crops of wheat and rice at near the existing potential levels. A strong need is feltto diversify it in favour of high value enterprises such as fruits, vegetables, cotton, basmati, spices, flowercultivation, livestock enterprises etc. The basic hiccup for this diversion is the lack of market infrastructure. Thispaper attempts to bring out the role of various stakeholders such as farmers’ organizations, governments; andprivate concerns which have already made some efforts in this direction. The recent trends in organized retailstores appear to have helped in this direction and have set some glaring instances of success. The value additionin different forms supported by market intelligence system for catering to the domestic and export market can helpboost production of such potential farm products. Yet there are some milestones to be crossed such as qualityimprovement, scientific storage, handling, processing, market information and making production system volatileto meet the market requirements of domestic and global markets. Consumers opt to pay higher for such essentialquality services, the benefit of which also travels back to the farmers.Possibilities and limits of modelling the development of horticulturefarms based on accounting dataKÖLBEL, Conny (1) *; LENTZ, Wolfgang (2)(1)Chair Economics of Horticulture and Landscaping, Technical University of Munich, Freising,Germany(2) Faculty of Agriculture / Landscape Management, Dresden University of Applied SciencesDresden, Germany* koelbel@zbg.uni-hannover.deOften the evaluation of policies, regarding the horticulture sector in Germany, is carried out by analysing officialstatistics and deriving general qualitative recommendations. In order to generate trends of future developments ofhorticultural sectors in more detail, a quantitative economic model has been designed and implemented as acomputer model at the Centre for Business Management in Horticulture and Applied Research (ZBG). Toestablish the model accounting data and farm size information of horticultural farms in Germany from abouteleven years were analysed with statistical methods. In addition a comprehensive literature analysis was carriedout to complete the economic relationships used in the model to calculate the outcome of an individual farm. Thecalculated results of one year are the input values for the next year, which results into a dynamic model. Withrespect to the very different structures of farms in the horticultural sector, several enterprises, which correctlyreflect the investigated sector, run through the model. For all farms of a model-run the user determines externalinfluencing factors of the forecast period as well as adjustment strategies.Compared to higher aggregated models, models on farm level allow a direct description of individualdevelopments of farms. The validation of the model is limited to the range of the investigated values, because214


Posters of Topic 3beyond these values distortions of results are possible. Increasing the forecast period also increases the deviationbetween the model results and the observed accounting data. The depersonalised accounting data available atthe ZBG do not include information about individual production methods, cultivated plants and external influencingfactors. This and the fact that farmers follow their own individual objectives, which is often not profit maximization,makes it difficult to interpret the single development of a farm in a sector. For individual farms a good agreementcould be found between the model results and the real accounting data for a period of seven years. The resultsobtained by the developed model shows that the use of accounting data are applicable to reproduce short-termadjustment strategies in horticultural farms on an abstract level.Keywords: forecast, farm model, accounting data, econometric, business management.Eastern European seasonal employees in German Horticulture:Role and recent developments in the context of the EU expansionBITSCH, Vera * & MITTELBERGER, CeciliaChair Economics of Horticulture and LandscapingTechnische Universität MünchenAlte Akademie 16, 85354 FreisingGermany* bitsch@tum.deSeasonal employees from Eastern Europe constitute an important factor in German horticultural production. From1991 until 2005 the number of seasonal employees increased from 90,000 to 300,000 people. Of the 1.1 millionemployees registered in German agriculture in 2010, 300,500 employees were employed seasonally. Most ofthese seasonal employees support horticultural production, in particular specific crops like strawberries andasparagus. Accordingly, production is highly dependent on the availability of seasonal employees, which isrestricted by laws and regulations. Recent developments in policy may affect the sustainable supply of seasonalemployees. Following the schedule of the Eastern EU expansion, citizens of an increasing number of countrieswere admitted to work in Germany with diminishing restrictions. In 2006, employer associations and horticulturalbusinesses reported a decrease in seasonal worker availability. The reasons were twofold. (1) Contrary to theseasonal labour market in the U.S., liberalization through the EU expansion as a decreasing effect on laboursupply in horticulture. E.g., in 2005, the largest share of seasonal employees still came from Poland (87%). Dueto the EU expansion Polish workers then had to pay higher taxes and all EU member states were open to them.In 2008, the share of seasonal employees from Poland had decreased to 70%. During the same time period, theshare of seasonal from Romania increased from 16% to 26%. (2) German legislation with the goal to provide workfor the German unemployed restricted the number of eastern European seasonal employees, albeit notaccomplishing its primary goal. In May 2011, the job market for the EU member states of 2004 (Poland, Slovakia,Czech Republic, Slovenia, Hungary, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) reached full liberalization. While the newermember states of 2007, Romania and Bulgaria, are still facing restrictions, seasonal employees from thesecountries will not need an employment permit for the upcoming 2012 season. The question remains how tosustainably ensure a long term supply of the seasonal workforce in German horticulture. Solutions discussed forremedying the decreasing availability of Eastern European seasonal employees include higher wages and lowertaxes. Furthermore the pressure could result in higher mechanization or a rise of informal employment.215


Posters of Topic 3Seasonal employees in US horticulture: Agricultural Census trends1997 – 2007, wage developments, and housingBITSCH, VeraChair Economics of Horticulture and LandscapingTechnische Universität München, Alte Akademie 16, 85354 FreisingGermanybitsch@tum.deThe paper analyses labour trends in the U.S., based on Agricultural Census data 1997, 2002, and 2007. Inaddition, employment determinants, including wage data from NASS and exemplary housing data of two statesare reviewed. The most labour-intensive crops in the U.S. are ornamental and nursery production, followed byfruits and tree nuts, and vegetables and melons. Despite the seasonality of nursery and ornamental production inmany U.S. regions, seasonal labour is more pronounced in fruit and vegetable production. Also, contract labour,which is wide-spread in fruit and vegetable production, remained minimal in nursery and ornamental production.Over the decade, the share of labour expenses has decreased. But while sales per worker have increased, themonetary productivity is stagnant. Whereas the availability of the seasonal horticultural workforce andsustainability of the supply in European countries is more threatened by the liberalization of the EU job market,the contrary is the case in the U.S. In the U.S., horticultural production is threatened by borderenforcement and stricter immigration legislation. The total workforce is shrinking. But the number of short-termemployees (less than 150 days) is shrinking faster than the overall number of employees. At the same time,labour-intensive fruit and vegetable crops in certain states, such as California with the largest share of theagricultural workforce, have been increasing. Finally, the paper compares two states with similarly diverse andlabour-intensive production, Michigan and Oregon. Both show a lower share of contract labour than other stateswith labour-intensive crops, such as California and Florida, but different developments.Overall, the share of contract labour is decreasing in Michigan, but increasing in Oregon. Numbers of long-termworkers are increasing; numbers of short-term workers are decreasing in both states. Except most recently, wagerates have developed similarly, despite minimum wage indexing in Oregon. More farm workers are migratory inMichigan than in Oregon. The Western U.S. has more unauthorized workers and more newcomers, and morefarm workers with Spanish as their main language than the Midwest. Farm workers are more likely to live on-farmin Michigan, which has twice as many licensed farm labour camps, despite a much smaller workforce, andhousing quality seems higher.“University-industry network” in the horticulture sector: Experiencewith the stakeholders’ network in Kenya and EthiopiaWENZ, Katrin *; WOLFGANG, BokelmannHumboldt Universität zu Berlin, Economics of Horticulture ProductionDepartment of Agriculture Econimics, Faculty of Agriculture and HorticultureHumboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany* Corresponding author: Katrin.wenz@agrar.hu-berlin.deA closer network with the stakeholder in the region can contribute to a better analysis of the problems anddissemination of knowledge. During the last years horticulture departments became highly specialist “knowledgesilos”.In order to be prepared for complex research tasks or the labor market in the sector, students need to develop thepotential to deliver solutions capable for the complex tasks in the horticulture sector. A network with stakeholdersprepares students to be able to communicate beyond this ‘ivory tower’. This network includes private companies,public institutions, NGOs, professional associations and other potential employers of university graduates. Thecollaboration between stakeholders and universities can support experiential learning. Furthermore it can help toengage in collaborative, innovative, and policy-relevant research around innovation and consumer and market216


Posters of Topic 3demands, the environment and the structure and performance of the agriculture and agri-food sector. Thenetwork can help to disseminate research results and provide opportunities for graduate students.During 2008-2011 a university-industry network was established together with partner universities in Kenya andEthiopia. The article reflects the experience with the introduction of a university-industry network within theframework of this EU project. It focuses on the institutional requirements which are important factors for thesuccessful implementation of the network and analysis problems and factors of success.Keywords: Higher education, University-Industry-Network, Stakeholder, Dissemination, International Cooperation.Establishing a network to analyze the international competitivenessof apple productionDIRKSMEYER, WalterThuenen-Institute, Institute of Farm Economics,Braunschweig, Germanywalter.dirksmeyer@vti.bund.deNowadays apples are marketed worldwide. Hence stakeholders in national and international apple value chains,such as apple producers, manufacturers of production factors, retailers or processors of apples, need to knowwhere, how and under what kind of conditions todays and future apples production takes place. For predictions inthis direction an international comparison of the prevailing apple production systems and the analysis of theircompetitiveness are crucial. Therefore, the management of a scientific network aiming at regularly analyzing andbenchmarking international apple production systems and their economics is a worthwhile undertaking.Taking this into account it is intended to develop, establish and manage a worldwide network of scientists andconsultants suitable to assess the competitiveness of apple production on an annual basis. In order to achievethis the overall objective is that typical production systems will be identified and analyzed in different regions andcountries.The approach to be followed is to establish regionally typical models of standardized apple producing farmsbased on regional expert knowledge (Zimmer and Deblitz 2005). These typical apple farms cover the maincharacteristics of prevailing production systems in globally important apple production regions. The features of thetypical farms are based on the judgments of local farmers, consultants and researchers. Ideally, typical farms donot exist in reality. The typical farms vary in size, production technology, productivity etc. For each typical farmmonetary and physical input and output data are modeled annually. To reach this, investments and eachimportant production step are considered in the model, such as planting, fertilization, crop protection, harvestingand marketing. Output key figures of the model to benchmark the competitiveness are costs of production, cashflow, productivities, and gross margins among others.The approach will be implemented in a three-year starting phase. Within this period it is intended to develop thestructures required for a long-term management of the network. In the first step, the model will be implemented inGermany for two regions. Parallel the international extension of the network will be initiated. Based on their globalmarket share relevant countries are the Netherlands, Italy, France, South Africa, Chile and New Zealand. In themedium term, additional in-depth analyses will be undertaken, e. g. country case studies and food supply chainanalyses.An important output of the network activities will be annual reports on the main results. Furthermore, annualmeetings of the network stakeholders are intended in order to discuss the results achieved so far and to decideabout next steps of the network development. The network is open to interested parties worldwide and will extendits focus towards wine and selected vegetables in the future. First results are expected in 2013.ReferencesZimmer, Y. and C. Deblitz (2005): agri benchmark Cash Crop – A Standard Operating Procedure to DefineTypical Farms. www.agribenchmark.org. Download: 24.05.2012.Keywords: international network, cost of production, productivity217


Posters of Topic 3The economic value of high tunnel investment as a rain covers instrawberry productionKOIVISTO, Anu * & NIEMI, SannaMTT Agrifood Research Finland, Economic ResearchLatokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland* anu.koivisto@mtt.fiStrawberry production in high tunnels has become general in Europe and in North America. Especially in northernparts of Europe and Canada the use of tunnels have provide advantages by prolonging the growing season,increasing the yield and improving the yield quality. High tunnel strawberry production has demonstrated to beprofitable production method at least in Sweden and in Finland, albeit the profitability has reported to be sensitiveto gained yield improvement and price of yield. Commonly economic analysis comprises the additional costscaused by tunnel investment, gained yield improvement and the better price of yield caused by yield timing out ofseason. However the tunnel production provides also the other economic advantages; it protects the severe yieldloss caused by torrential rains and hailstorms. These extreme weather phenomena are fairly rare, but if thoseoccur, the yield loss could be notable, or even total. The probability of torrential rains in Finland’s climate is 10.5%which means that during 5 summers of 12 the field meets with torrential rain. The aim of this study was to assessthe economic value of the high tunnels as a tool for diminish the yield loss caused by the torrential rains andhailstorms in Finland. The approach of expected loss value measurement was used. The expected average valueof yield loss caused by torrential rains and hailstorms was 260 € per 1 000 m 2 per year. That was not enough tocover the extra costs caused by tunnel investment, which were about 1 200 € per 1000 m 2 per year.Consequently, also the other advantages have to gain before tunnel investment can be justified by economicalbasis.Keywords: Fragaria ananassa, hail, profit, rain, risk, small fruits.Enhancing global competitiveness of Indian apple: Investigating thevalue chain perspectiveSINGH, Babita (1) ; SIKKA, B.K. (1) ; SINGH, Surendra P. (2)(1) Amity Institute of Horticulture Studies and Research, Amity University UP, Noida, India.Email–drbabita9@gmail.com bksikka@gmail.com(2)Department of Agricultural Sciences, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN-37209-1516.Email–ssingh@Tnstate.eduIndia with a population of 1.22 billion is a large and growing market for food products. Though India is the secondlargest producer of fruits and vegetables, the industry is facing major challenges due to the unavailability of freshand quality fruits and vegetables. The supply chain suffers from maximum inefficiency, due to the involvement ofmany intermediaries and lack of necessary infrastructure such as cold storage, resulting in poor quality, largemarkups and lower share of producer in the consumer rupee. The Indian apples are also facing stiff competitionfrom China, USA, and European countries. This study was undertaken to asses the global impact on domesticapple industry. To work out marketing cost and margins, the Azadpur Fruit & Vegetable Market in Delhi wasconsidered. It was found that the total trader margin in the supply chain of imported apples amounts to about 51percent and the 13 percent tariff share reflects a customs duty of 50 percent, the traders’ margin in consumerrupee represents a tariff equivalent of about 200 percent on c.i.f import unit value. For Indian apples theproducers' share was estimated as 56.61 percent in the consumer rupee. The value chain analysis were based on“decision diamonds” such as input supply, farm production, post harvest treatment, logistics, processing andmarketing, to identify steps in the chain that needs to be further evaluated. The meager share of producers in thesupply chain is attributed to many factors like losses during transportation and storage; lack of appropriatetechnologies, advanced techniques, lack of capital, knowledge, information and transparency in the supply chain.Other factors impacting supply chain and product quality are: tracking and traceability; lesser control of productsafety and quality across the supply chain. It was observed that imported apples fetch a higher price because of218


Posters of Topic 3its quality, uniform grading and freshness. The retail prices of imported apples in consumer markets is higherbecause 1) the consumers having higher incomes prefer to have imported apples, 2) the customs duty chargedon the border price of imported apples is 50 percent, and the domestic marketing margins on imported apples areextremely high, 3) trader margins on imported apples moving from Mumbai port to other markets are high. It isencouraging to note that entry into Indian markets has pushed the prices up and margins of intermediaries are incontrol and the stakeholders of domestic apples have adopted good management practices. Thus, arrival ofimported apples has not had any dampening effect on the level and fluctuations in the domestic apple prices.Keywords: India, apple, value chain, supply chain, competitiveness, decision diamonds, global competitiveness,distribution channels, marketing system, consumers.Attitude-based adoption model for implementation of energyefficient technologiesHERTEL, ManuelScience Centre Straubing,Weihenstephan-Triesdorf University of Applied SciencesGermanym.hertel@wz-straubing.deThe Bavarian horticultural industry is very heterogeneous in its structure. In addition to numerous smaller directlyselling companies, highly specialized greenhouse producers with an indirect distribution concept exist in the fieldof vegetable growing and ornamental plants. Especially for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), theenergy costs are an increasing cost factor and thus enhanced energy efficiency is an important approach toimproving competitiveness. Especially in smaller companies, the technical equipment is often not up to date.Therefore, it is of interest to locate the influencing factors which hinder or fasten implementation of innovativeenergy-saving techniques, to give instructions to overcome these barriers and improve energy efficiency. Withinthe Bavarian State funded research association FORETA, which pools eleven academic projects related toenergy-efficient technologies and applications, an econometric model has been developed for the identifyingpromoting and inhibiting factors of innovation in Bavarian horticulture. On the basis of reviewed literature and asurvey of experts in horticulture, a multi-attribute model has been developed, which illustrates intentions andbehaviors of decision makers in horticulture. This theoretical model is being assessed on the basis of an empiricalinvestigation in more than 100 horticultural companies in Bavaria which took place in summer 2010. Managers ofdifferent horticultural areas were asked for rating about 110 statements using a five-point Likert scale. TheQuestionnaire referred to innovative techniques as well as to personal opinions of managers and facts about theirbusiness. As depend variables, energy-efficiency were measured by simulating the energy consumption ofgreenhouses, in addition an index of used techniques were built to represent applied innovations. Theassessment of the developed structural equation model is being examined by a Partial Least Square procedureusing the collected data.Keywords: Innovation, Energy Efficiency, Adoption, SMC, Agriculture.The vegetable sector in Germany – Some indications of thecompetitivenessLUDWIG-OHM, SABINE * & DIRKSMEYER, WALTERThuenen-Institute, Institute of Farm Economics, Braunschweig, Germany* sabine.ludwig-ohm@vti.bund.de219


Posters of Topic 3This investigation is part of the project “Future Strategy Horticulture” from the Federal Ministry of Food, Agricultureand Consumer Protection which aims at strengthening the competitiveness of the German horticultural sector.The vegetable sector has been the most expanding branch of German horticulture during the last 20 years. Thestructural change in the German vegetable sector led to a declining number of farms and thus to increasing farmsizes. The area under vegetables increased by 35 % from 71,915 ha in the year 1994 to 97,218 ha in the year2005 (Dirksmeyer, 2009). In the last 20 years, the sales revenues increased by 128 % from 788 million Euro in1991 up to 1,797 million Euro in 2010, this is a growth rate of 4.4 % p.a. At farm level the operating revenues andprofits increased in recent years, too.The competitiveness of vegetable production is driven by the consumption patterns. The vegetable consumptiongrew over time and since 2007/08 settled at a level of about 7.6 million tonnes per year. There are changes overtime in consumption patterns of vegetables, such as the consumption of carrots increased by 51 % (2010/11relative to the baseline year 1997/98), tomatoes by 43 % and onions by 29 %. Consumption of cabbagedecreased, in particular cauliflower and kale (-30 %).The foreign trade with fresh vegetables in Germany is characterized by high import levels (2.97 tonnes of freshvegetables in 2010), especially from the Netherlands (39 %), Spain (29 %) and Italy (10 %) which account forthree quarters of all import volumes. Export of fresh vegetables to neighbouring European countries (453,000tonnes in 2010) is only 15% of import quantities. Half of the German export quantities were delivered to theNetherlands (with large proportions of re-imports), to Austria, Czech Republic and Italy. Another 16 % areexported to the Scandinavian countries Denmark, Sweden and Finland. A comparison of imports and exports byproducts shows clear differences. Half of the vegetable imports in 2010 accounted for tomatoes, cucumbers andlettuce, whereas 61 % of the fresh vegetable exports were cabbage, onions and carrots.The demographic trends in Germany affect future consumption and future availability of labour. According topopulation forecasts, the total population will decrease up to 5 % until 2030, but more severe shifts are expectedfor specific population classes, e.g. older than 65 years (+32 %) and young people (-14 %) and people of workingage (-15 %).In recent years, the German vegetable sector maintained its market share in a growing vegetable market. Thereare indicators for a consistent vegetable consumption and for a rising demand for convenience-products in future.The export offers additional future sales opportunities for German vegetable growers. However, in future seriousproblems are expected with regard to the diminishing population so that it will be difficult to find sufficientpersonnel.ReferencesDirksmeyer, W. (Ed.) 2009: Status quo und Perspektiven des deutschen Produktionsgartenbaus.Landbauforschung Sonderheft 330, Thünen-Institut, Braunschweig.Keywords: Competitiveness, vegetable production, Germany.Analysis of the economic relevance of German horticultureFLUCK, Katrin * & DIRKSMEYER, WalterInstitut für BetriebswirtschaftJohann Heinrich von Thünen InstitutBundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig* katrin.fluck@vti.bund.deWithin German agriculture, horticulture has a small but important role. On only 1.3 % of the whole agriculturalproduction area, horticulture generates 13.8 % of the revenues of agriculture as a whole and 30.9 % of the cashcrops. However, the economic importance of the complete horticultural value chain with its upstream anddownstream sectors has not been comprehensively documented yet. In the national accounts only horticulturalproduction is considered, which is the core of the German horticulture cluster. Hence, important parts of thesupply chain such as processing, trade, and services are not taken into account. To get a clearer picture of theeconomic importance of horticulture in Germany it is required to extend the system boundary. In this context theoverall objective of the analysis is to quantify the economic relevance of the whole horticultural supply chain inGermany.Before starting the analysis, it is very important to define the system boundary of the cluster “horticulture”. In asecond step all economic sectors that supply products to horticulture or use horticultural products are identified.This is done by using the “Classification of economic sectors in Germany” (NACE Rev. 2 for Europe) from theFederal Statistical Office. The indicators to measure the economic relevance of horticulture are employment,output value and gross value added for each sector along the horticultural supply chain. Especially the indicator220


Posters of Topic 3gross value added is crucial to describe the economic relevance of horticulture. If available, the data of theFederal Statistical Office is used. To fill data gaps it is also necessary to use additional data from associationsand from expert interviews.So far first results for the wholesale level, processing and landscaping are quantified. Thus, aspects such asinput, retail sale, gastronomy or education are still missing.ArboPlus: a farm management tool for fruit growersBRAVIN, Esther ; BLUNSCHI, MirjamAgroscope Changins-Wädenswil ACWSwitzerlandesther.bravin@acw.admin.chDaily, fruit growers are faced with important decisions. Because of their lack of information or time, they mostlydecide with their gut instinct. Because of this, the project “Interreg IV”, which manages fruit growing based on anExcel tool for self-evaluation, was developed. This tool supports growers’ strategic management.Participative methodDuring workshops, 12 consulters for fruit production and management identified issues which are highly relevantfor fruit growers and concern the evaluation of their situation and help them to manage the farm.In five workshops 55 apple growers from the region of Lake Constance used and evaluated the prototype ofArboPlus. By using the tool growers gave feedback which was implemented after each workshop.Also, consulters suggested introducing soft factors like the family’s satisfaction in order to assure the economicsustainability of the tool. Thus, the tool is based on tree levels: plot, farm and family.Plot levelFruit growers can evaluate their plot by choosing the cultivar and by introducing their own data for each cultivar.The chosen data to evaluate the situation consists of yield, quality, price, labor productivity and harvest efficiency.To evaluate their situations growers can benchmark their data. This data is taken from a project that, since 1997,collects and evaluates productivity and cost production on plot level (the database consists of 20 to 30 fruitgrowers).Farm levelFruit growers can analyze the situation for their entire farm. Potential for future developments can be evaluated.The specific issues for the evaluation of the situation on farm level were pinpointed together with experts. Theyare:- Labor- Sellers- Buyers- Cooperation with other growers- Financial and cash flow- Investment- Retirement provision- Buy new plotFamily levelFruit growers analyze how the family’s overall satisfaction is influenced by the situation of the farm. Hence,ArboPlus shows the connection between farm and family. By using ArboPlus the grower’s family can identifyissues that could lead to conflicts.Evaluated on the family level are:- Cohabitation of generations- Job sharing between the family- External jobs- Time spent with the family- Own ability221


Posters of Topic 3In the end, the most relevant issues are transferred to a resume sheet that combines work-life balance, sellingand productivity. Thanks to the analysis of their situation, growers are empowered to chose objectives and definestrategies for the coming year.Keywords: Fruit production, decision tools, management.Costs and profitability of production of organic apple, strawberryand sour cherry in PolandBRZOZOWSKI, Piotr *; ZMARLICKI, KrzysztofEconomics and Marketing SectionResearch Institute of Horticulture, Skierniewice, Poland* piotr.brzozowski@inhort.plThe objective of this research was the evaluation of production costs and profitability of organic fruit production ofapples, strawberries and sour cherries. There was also made the comparison to the conventional production forthose fruits. The research was carried out in the years 2009-2011 on thirty two commercial fruit farms. Allinvestigated farms were located in central part of Poland. Average yields in organic apple production amounted12.5 tons per hectare while in conventional one 25.0 tons per hectare. In organic strawberry production averageyields amounted 8.9 tons per hectare and in conventional one 10.1 tons. In organic sour cherry productionaverage yields amounted 3.9 tons per hectare while in conventional one 6.7 tons. The yields of organic applesand sour cherries varied across the wide range mainly because of their susceptibility to biennial bearing. Theyields of sour cherries were low in both; conventional and organic mode, due to difficult weather conditions in2010 and 2011. The direct costs of apple production were lower in organic farms and accounted for 9892 PLN perhectare, while in conventional one were 10176 PLN per hectare. The direct costs of strawberry production werehigher in organic farms - 14717 PLN per hectare, while in conventional one - 13228 PLN. The direct costs of sourcherry production were higher in organic farms - 8939 PLN per hectare, and in conventional one - 7932 PLN. Thebiggest problem and the largest cost item in organic production was the mechanical and manual weed control.The conventional production of apples and sour cherries turned out to be more profitable than organic. In thecase of strawberries it was opposite - the organic production gave more net income than conventional one. Thiswas due to similar yields and higher prices paid for organic strawberries than for conventional ones.Keywords: organic, apple, strawberry, profitability, costs.Fruit growers identify their challengesBRAVIN, Esther (1) ; HANHART, Johannes (2) ; HIRRLE,Timo (3)(1) Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil ACW(2) AGRIDEA(3) Kompetenzzentrum Obstbau Bodensee KOB* esther.bravin@acw.admin.chThe Interreg Project “Management of fruit-growing” started in the region of Lake Constance (from both sides ofthe Swiss and German border) in 2009 and ended in 2011. The objectives of the project were to promote thecompetition-ability of the region and to assure a sustainable fruit production with an extension concept.Within five different workshops, three in Switzerland and two in Germany growers had to identify issues that willchallenge their production in the next five years.The questions asked during work-shops were:- Which are your challenges in the next five years?- How do you want to react?222


Posters of Topic 3- Which extension service do you need in future?”90 fruit growers attended the workshops. 67 in Switzerland and 23 in Germany. Which represent for the Swisspart 14% and German part 1% of the fruit growers. Workshops in Switzerland (St. Gallen, Thurgau and Zurich)showed that land regulation/farm extension, personal management and productivity were most importantchallenges in the next years.Both groups on the German side showed work life balance, productivity and labor asmost important challenges.Resuming the different needs of growers five main issues have been chosen.- Scheduling and run cutting, time management and cooperation- Productivity, mechanization and labor productivity- Cultivars and rootstock- Personnel management- Work life balance, forecast and follow upHence, five work groups each consisting of 10 to 20 fruit-growers and different met in 2010- 2012 and worked onthe chosen topics. They found solutions for actual challenges. The gained information have been published in anadviser manual for Swiss and German fruit growers.Keywords: Fruit production, management, extension.223


Posters of Topic 3ProfiGemüse CH: a novel network linking research demand andsupply in the vegetable sectorVOGLER, Ute (1) *; CROLE-REES, Anna (2) ; BAUR, Robert (1)(1) Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil, Research group Extension vegetable crops, Schloss 1, Postfach,8820 Wädenswil, Switzerland(2)Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil, Research Program ProfiCrops, Schloss 1, Postfach, 8820Wädenswil, Switzerland* ute.vogler@acw.admin.chProfiCrops, one of the three research programs of Agroscope, aims at developing, testing, evaluating andexchanging knowledge and innovations in order to guarantee a future to the plant cropping sector in Switzerland.It promotes inter-disciplinary approaches in each of its projects. ProfiGemüse CH is a project, whose objective is,to strengthen the competitiveness of the vegetable production sector in Switzerland. The novelty of ProfiGemüseCH is the partnership between several research and extension organizations to combine their key competences inorder to improve demand and supply of knowledge and innovations in the vegetable sector.The research group “Extension vegetable crops” at Agroscope mainly focuses on crop production and plantprotection. Stakeholders in the vegetable sector however demand additional information and research on topicssuch as technical management, economic opportunities, and labor efficiency. ProfiGemüse CH has alreadyallowed to respond to this demand. It also succeeded in inducing research partnerships among differentinstitutions to work on broader topics than plant protection. Interdisciplinary and inter-institutional projects arerequired to examine complex issues such as adoption of new technologies.One of the projects formulated by the members of ProfiGemüse CH asked for the evaluation of new technologiesand their relevance for Swiss vegetable producers, in particular technologies using automatic guidance andenhanced steering systems based on satellite technology and GPS (Global Positioning System). This technologyis already widely used in large-scale agriculture. However, experience in the predominantly small-scale vegetableproduction in Switzerland is low. ProfiGemüse CH has established a working group consisting of experts fromresearch institutions, technology suppliers, workers safety and vegetable growers. This group has evaluated thevarious aspects of this technology and published a booklet of the state of the art of its utilization in Switzerland.This booklet is now considered as a basic and relevant decision-support document for potential adopters of theautomatic guidance and enhanced steering systems based on satellite technology and GPS. The members of thisworking group acknowledged that this collaboration has greatly increased information, experience exchange anddissemination of this topic.The experience of the Swiss network ProfiGemüse CH clearly shows that interdisciplinar approaches areprerequisite for successful implementation of research results into vegetable production. Inter-institutionalcoordination and exchange is indispensable, particularly when financial resources are limited. This is more andmore the case.Keywords: Agroscope research program ProfiCrops, interdisciplinary approaches, inter-institutional projects,network, Swiss vegetable production.Identification of organic fruit market bottlenecks in PolandZMARLICKI, Krzysztof *; BRZOZOWSKI, PiotrEconomics and Marketing SectionResearch Institute of Horticulture, Skierniewice, Poland* krzysztof.zmarlicki@inhort.plPolish market of organic fruit is very limited when comparing it to markets in other EU countries, mostly to thosefrom Western Europe. The objective of this study was to identify and define the main factors influencing possibledevelopment of organic fruit market in Poland. For that reason the one hundred thirteen students at Warsaw LifeScience University were surveyed in December 2011. The surveys were asked the questions about their own224


Posters of Topic 3feelings as well as about possible feelings of all Poles concerning attitudes - reasons for not purchasing organicfruit. The second part of the survey concentrated on issue ‘why producers don’t grow more organic fruit inPoland’. The main reasons, listed according to their importance, why majority of Poles don’t buy organic fruit are:- Is much more expensive,- I don’t know where to buy organic fruit, - I don’t know what the benefits of organic fruitare,- The range of organic fruit is very poor,- Is not convenient for me to look for organic, - I never really th