Climate Change Action Plan for the Florida Reef System 2010-2015

Climate Change Action Plan for the Florida Reef System 2010-2015

Management of Florida’s Reef SystemIt is important to understand that reefs arepart of the foundation of South Florida’senvironment, culture and economy. Withoutthe reefs giving life to the sea, fisheries, diving,snorkeling, and tourism will dwindle. Theloss of Florida’s coral reefs would irrevocablychange the South Florida way of life especiallyin the Keys, which are not as economicallydiversified as the southeast Florida mainland.Two major factors will dictate the futurehealth of the reef: the rate and extent ofclimate change and the resilience of Florida’scoral reef ecosystem to that change. Whilethe issue of climate change mitigation islargely a matter for international, national,and state policy, the resilience of Florida’scoral reefs is under the direct influence oflocal management strategies and reef users’activities.Fortunately, reef managers actively protectFlorida reefs so that they can continue to bestrong environmental and economic drivers.The realization of climate change relatedthreats makes the need for resilience-basedmanagement of the Florida Reef Systemeven more important, but also presents newchallenges and demands a more coordinatedand regionally effective plan.It is not a matter of simply consolidating reefmanagement under one agency, but ratherbuilding on the expert knowledge and abilitiesof local, state, and federal reef managers bycoordinating their actions across the entireFlorida Reef System. To secure the futureof Florida’s coral reefs it is essential that allagencies responsible for managing the reefs,other marine natural resources, adjacentlands, and watersheds do everything possibleto restore and maintain the resilience of theecosystem.A Climate Change Action Planfor the Florida Reef System2010-2015The Action Plan identifies ways to increasereef resilience to climate change and minimizenegative impacts on reef-dependent industriessuch as diving and snorkeling tourism, andcommercial and recreational fishing. Builton well-established resilience principles,it outlines a holistic, adaptable five-yearprogram that Florida’s reef managers canundertake in collaboration with reef users andother stakeholders to minimize the damageand associated impacts of climate change. It isintended to be adaptable and updated at leastevery five years.Coral damaged by boat grounding © Florida Keys NationalMarine SanctuaryThis Florida-specific Action Plan adds directhabitat degradation (e.g. boat groundings,destructive anchoring, diving and coastaldevelopment) to the list of impacts addressedin the NOAA CRCP 2009 frameworkwhich focused on climate change, overfishing,and land based sources of pollution. Italso includes the Southeast Florida CoralReef Initiative (SEFCRI) priority actionsto increase resilience, as these are specificobjectives likely to be adopted across theSouth Florida region.4 20102015Climate Change Action Plan for the Florida Reef System

Florida is exemplary in terms of marine managed areas and hosts one of the first designated marine protected areas inthe world, John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park established in 1963.In addition, many of Florida’s coral reefs are protected and managed within the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary,Dry Tortugas National Park and Biscayne National Park, John U. Lloyd Beach State Park, St. Lucie Inlet Preserve StatePark, and four coastal National Wildlife Refuges in the five county region—Great White Heron, Key West, National KeyDeer, and Hobe Sound.Most of the reefs of the northern extension of the Florida Reef System, from the northern border of Biscayne NationalPark in Miami-Dade County to the St. Lucie Inlet in Martin County, are overseen by the Florida Department ofEnvironmental Protection’s Coral Reef Conservation Program which is developing new management strategies for theregion through the Southeast Florida Coral Reef Initiative.Climate Change Action Plan for the Florida Reef System201020155

Stony corals, soft corals, sponges and reef fish on a healthy Florida reef © Jiangang LuoSummary of the 10 top priority climatechange actions for the Florida Reef system:(for more detailed outcomes and action steps,please see Appendix 1.)•• Work with Florida’s coral reef managementjurisdictions to improve regulations andmanagement that facilitate adaptation toclimate change and ocean acidification. (10)Evaluate and revise existing programs andstrategies (e.g. Florida Keys NationalMarine Sanctuary Water QualityProtection Program and the existing marineprotected areas in the Florida Reef System)to optimize their effectiveness and makethem more robust in the context of creatingresilience to climate change. (1, 12, 17)•• Develop and implement a marine zoningplan that incorporates resilience-basedconcepts to provide maximum protectionfrom non-climate stresses for all reef typesand associated habitats in the FloridaReef System. This plan must also ensureconnectivity between reefs and theirassociated nursery habitats (1, 2, 4, 7, 8).•• Integrate climate change predictions anduncertainties into Florida’s comprehensiveplanning laws and procedures, particularlyin coastal areas. Include sea level riseadaptation and mitigation planning incounty and municipal comprehensiveplans. (15)•• Continue and expand the FRRPdisturbance response monitoring (DRM)and Mote Marine Laboratory’s BleachWatch activities throughout the entire fivecounty(Monroe, Miami-Dade, Broward,Palm Beach and Martin) Florida ReefSystem. (1)•• Decrease the likelihood of negative fishing,diving, and other reef use impacts to keyhabitats and important functional groupsof plants and animals (e.g. herbivores) byincreasing law enforcement presence andregulatory compliance. (1, 4, 8, 10, 14)6 20102015Climate Change Action Plan for the Florida Reef System

•• Develop scientific climate change factsheets tailored for reef users, communitymembers, visitors, elected officials,businesses and industries to increaseunderstanding of and support for actionsto increase resilience. Use multipleoutlets (e.g. news media, radio, brochures,community meetings, social networks, blogsand websites) to communicate facts. (12)•• Forecast the potential social and economiceffects of climate change on reef-dependentindustries and communities to measure theirvulnerability and resilience and determinecost-to-benefit ratios of any proposedclimate change mitigation/adaptationmeasures. (2, 12) Support the creation ofindustry-specific business adaptation plansfor diving, fishing and general tourismindustries and training opportunities thatfacilitate any necessary adaptation.•• Increase awareness and appreciation of theFlorida Reef System and encourage a senseof urgency for its sound management andprotection.(1,8)•• Ensure long term, question-drivenmonitoring of environmental variableslinked to coral bleaching and other climatechange impacts throughout the FloridaReef System. Integrate monitoring resultsinto a coastal observing network thatinforms the evolving questions underlyingprotection and management of marineresources. (1, 3, 5) For example, changes inlocalized acidification linked to watermanagement practices need to be studiedand monitored in Florida to see how theyrelate to global changes in ocean acidity.•• Develop scientific models of the FloridaReef System to help predict its responsesto physical, chemical, and socio-economicshifts associated with climate change andocean acidification, and the interactionsof these global processes with localstressors (e.g. pollution, over-fishing, etc).Determine and map areas of high and lowresilience to climate change (e.g. identifyrefugia for thermally tolerant coral speciesand populations that will provide geneticstock for recovery of the wider ReefSystem) in order to prioritize managementefforts. (2, 6,7)Pilar coral on a patch reef surrounded by seagrass © Ken NedimyerClimate Change Action Plan for the Florida Reef System201020157

ConclusionAn analysis of climate projections indicatesthat coral bleaching events will become morefrequent and severe over coming decades,even under optimistic scenarios. Otherclimate change impacts such as sea level riseand severe weather events can also endangerlocal reef survival through chronic stress oracute physical damage.Scientist examining coral bleaching © Erich BartelsClimate change is acknowledged as one of themost serious threats to the long-term healthof coral reefs worldwide. Already, in manyplaces around the world such as the Maldives,Seychelles and northeastern Caribbean Sea,coral bleaching has severely degraded morethan 50 percent of reefs.Florida’s coral reefs are not immune to climatechange. There have already been observablesigns of vulnerability in the form of masscoral bleaching events in 1983, 1987, 1990,1997 and 1998. In each of these years, mostFlorida Keys coral reefs were affected bybleaching. Fortunately, many corals survivedthe high temperatures and are exhibitingresilience—the ability to recover—yet manysuffered lasting damage, which led to a steadydecline in coral cover throughout Florida’swell-developed system of reefs.On a broader scale, carbon dioxide-inducedocean acidification is already decreasing theconcentration of calcium carbonate in seawater, which limits the rate at which coralsbuild their hard skeletons and will eventuallystart dissolving available calcium carbonatefrom the ocean’s living and fossil reefs.The findings and recommendations in theClimate Change Action Plan for theFlorida Reef System 2010-2015 offer greathope for these reefs. Actions reef managersand reef users take today—combined withfavorable state, national and internationalclimate and energy policies and other largescale “enabling conditions” (see Appendix2)—can increase the resilience of Florida’sreefs and help protect this vital element of thestate’s economic base.But the importance of this work goesfar beyond just Florida. By taking actionnow, responsible federal, state and localgovernment agencies can provide globalleadership in the management of coral reefecosystems facing threats from climate change.8 20102015Climate Change Action Plan for the Florida Reef System

Appendix 1 • Detailed priority outcomes and action stepsOutcome 1: Increased coral reefresilience to climate change and oceanacidification through effectivemanagement strategies and actions. (10)Objective 1.1: Develop and implement a climaterelatedcrisis response plan for Florida’s reefsystem that coordinates across all relevantjurisdictions in order to provide a framework forearly warning, communication, monitoring,research, and management response with the goalof minimizing and documenting impacts on reefecosystems from acute events such as mass coralbleaching, infectious disease outbreaks, tropicalstorm impacts, cold snaps and pollutant spills. (10)••Action 1.1.1: Continue and expand theFRRP disturbance response monitoring(DRM) and Mote Marine Laboratory’sBleach Watch activities throughout theentire five-county (Monroe, Miami-Dade,Broward, Palm Beach and Martin) FloridaReef System. (1)••Action 1.1.2: Review local and regionalmanagement responses to coral bleachingand integrate plans to incorporate theentire Florida Reef System region. (1, 8, 14)Objective 1.2: Encourage and promotemanagement actions that help avoid or minimizeimpacts, and spread the risks of climate changeand ocean acidification. (10)••Action 1.2.1: Integrate climate changeinducedcrisis response strategies for theentire Florida Reef System into existing andnewly created reef management plans. (1)••Action 1.2.2: Develop and implement aregionally inclusive marine zoning plan thatincorporates resilience-based concepts toprovide maximum protection from nonclimatestresses in representative habitatsacross all reefs in the Florida Reef System.Shallow nursery habitat with a nurse shark, seagrass meadow andmangrove islands © Bill KeoghThis plan must also ensure connectivitybetween reefs and their associated nurseryhabitats. (1, 2, 4, 7, 8)••Action 1.2.3: Identify and protect transitionor alternative habitats that will provide forrange shifts in distribution and abundanceof species and habitats affected by climatechange. (1, 2) Examine areas in the northerncoral range and particularly healthy pocketsthroughout the present range in Floridaand Gulf of Mexico as potential refugia. (4)••Action 1.2.4: Protect species and habitatsthat are highly vulnerable to climate change(e.g. corals, marine turtles, mangroves, etc.)from non-climate pressures (e.g. directdamage from divers, fishing gear, anchorsor boats, beach nourishment, coastalconstruction impacts, land-based sources ofpollution).Climate Change Action Plan for the Florida Reef System201020159

••Action 1.2.5: Ensure information onthe vulnerability of species and habitatsto climate change is incorporated intoassessments of threatened and endangeredspecies. (1, 4, 14)••Action 1.2.6: Prohibit any new dredging orother direct destruction of coralreefs. (10)Objective 1.3: Integrate climate change predictionsand uncertainties into Florida’s comprehensiveplanning laws and procedures.••Action 1.3.1: Require south Florida coastalcounties and municipalities to addresscoral reef conservation, climate changemitigation and adaptation in all relevantelements of their comprehensive plansincluding, but not limited to; future landuse, transportation, infrastructure, coastalmanagement, conservation, recreation andopen space, intergovernmental coordination,and capital improvements. (15)••Action 1.3.2: Include sea level rise adaptationand mitigation planning into county andmunicipal comprehensive plans. (15)••Action 1.3.3: Consider limiting certainkinds of development that are at riskfrom sea level rise. Develop state policy toprohibit rebuilding in places where climatechange and its associated impacts (strongerhurricanes and sea level rise) increasethe risk that structures may be subject torepeated and severe damage. (15)Objective 1.4: Work with Florida’s coral reefmanagement jurisdictions to improve regulatoryand management frameworks to facilitateadaptation to climate change and oceanacidification. (10)••Action 1.4.1: Evaluate and revise existingprograms and strategies (such as theFlorida Keys National Marine SanctuaryWater Quality Protection Program andthe existing marine protected areas in theFlorida Reef System) to optimize theireffectiveness and make them more robustin the context of creating resilience toclimate change. (1, 12)••Action 1.4.2: Work with federal and statefisheries management agencies to evaluaterisks of climate change for the sustainabilityof Florida’s reef fish and invertebratepopulations and associated fisheries, forincorporation in management plans. (4)••Action 1.4.3: Create a formal Florida ReefSystem Management Council, includingfederal, state, local, county managersand user groups to advise, recommend,and oversee a coordinated ecosystemmanagementapproach for the entireFlorida Reef System. (11)••Action 1.4.4: Work through the proposedFlorida Reef System Management Council(or other appropriate venue) to reviseregulations on coastal development andbeach nourishment projects to minimizesedimentation, storm water runoff, andother water quality impacts to the Floridareef system.••Action 1.4.5: Through the U.S. Coral ReefTask Force authority, evaluate existingresource protection legislation such as theNational Environmental Policy Act, CleanWater Act and the Endangered Species Actfor application to climate change relatedimpacts. (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 13, 14)••Action 1.4.6: Place mainland coralreefs under the authority of a principalmanagement agency. (10)10 20102015Climate Change Action Plan for the Florida Reef System

them and to “deputize” others to do sounder controlled circumstances. (1)Herbivores like this Diadema sea urchin play vital roleson coral reefs © HalBrindley.comObjective 1.5: Provide training opportunities forFlorida coral reef managers to increase theirunderstanding of the impacts of climate change,the predicted range, and uncertainty of changesthat will occur, and management strategies thataddress the impacts of climate change. (1, 2)••Action 1.5.1: Work with NOAA ClimateService, NOAA Coastal Services Center,the Department of Interior RegionalClimate Center, and other organizationsworking on climate change adaptation toprovide climate training and climate changetools for Florida’s reef managers.Objective 1.6: Decrease the likelihood of negativefishing, diving, and other reef use impacts to keyhabitats and important functional groups of plantsand animals (e.g. herbivores). (1, 4, 8, 14)••Action 1.6.1: Focusing the bulk of effortson resilient reef areas, increase lawenforcement presence, and regulatorycompliance to effectively implementmanagement regulations and protect thereef from further damage. (1)••Action 1.6.2: Work with local fishermen tokeep lobster and crab traps away from thereef, and fully implement the state’s lobstertrap reduction plan. Reduce ghost trapsby utilizing existing authority to enablefishermen and reef managers to remove••Action 1.6.3: Work with local fishing,boating, and diving industries to promoteminimum impact reef use activities (e.g.appropriate fishing gear, catch-and-releasefishing, trip-rigged anchors and manualanchor placement in sand) and voluntaryavoidance of bleached, diseased orotherwise stressed coral reefs. (1)••Action 1.6.4: Create a boating licensesimilar to a driver’s license. (1)Outcome 2: Identify the risks climatechange poses to Florida’s coral reefdependentpeople and industries,communicate those risks to affectedparties and work with them to developadaptation strategies that minimizethose risks. (10)Objective 2.1: Identify vulnerable reef-dependenthuman communities and determine how climatechange might affect them. (1, 12)••Action 2.1.1: Forecast the potential socialand economic effects of climate change onreef dependent industries and communitiesto measure their vulnerability and resilience,and determine cost-to-benefit ratios ofany proposed climate change mitigation/adaptation measures. (2, 12)Objective 2.2: Develop and implement effectivelocal communication programs to increaseawareness and appreciation of the Florida ReefSystem that provide relevant and up-to-dateinformation on climate change and oceanacidification effects to all audiences, includinglocal communities, Florida residents, businessesand industries, and tourists.• Action 2.2.1: Develop scientifically basedclimate change fact sheets tailored for reefusers, community members, visitors, electedofficials, business and industry to increaseClimate Change Action Plan for the Florida Reef System2010201511

Outcome 3: Strengthen the scientificfoundation supporting strategicmanagement of the Florida Reef Systemthrough targeted research, long-termmonitoring, and forecasting climatechange and ocean acidification impacts.Objective 3.1: Characterize physical and chemicalchanges in coral reef environments by enhancingand refining monitoring to fill gaps in our currentobservations. This both establishes a baseline toassess climate change impacts on coral reefecosystems and reveals changes through timewhich are essential to understanding observed andforecasted impacts.••Action 3.1.1: Ensure long term, questiondrivenmonitoring of environmentalvariables linked to coral bleaching and otherclimate change impacts throughout theFlorida Reef System. Integrate monitoringresults into a coastal observing networkthat informs the evolving questionsunderlying protection and marine resourcesmanagement. (1, 3, 5)••Action 3.1.2: Examine relationshipsbetween reef fish populations and stonycoral populations and condition. (1, 2, 3, 5, 6)••Action 3.1.3: Examine calcium carbonatesaturation state and calcification rates at scaleof FRRP DRM monitoring, etc. (1, 2, 3, 5, 6)••Action 3.1.4.: Translate climate forecasts andprojections into products that are relevantand useful for improving Florida ReefSystem ecosystem management anddecision-making. Include explanations ofvariability, uncertainty and range of impacts.Objective 3.2: Develop scientific models of theFlorida Reef system to help predict its responses tophysical, chemical, and socio- economic shiftsassociated with climate change and oceanacidification, and the interactions of these globalprocesses with local stressors (e.g. pollution,over-fishing, etc).••Action 3.2.1: Determine and map areas ofhigh and low resilience to climate change(e.g. identify refugia for thermally tolerantcoral species and populations that willprovide genetic stock for recovery of thewider Reef System) in order to informmanagement efforts. (2, 6, 7)••Action 3.2.2: Coordinate research to identifythresholds beyond which climate changecauses irreversible damage to vulnerablespecies (e.g. sharks, marine turtles,seabirds, corals, fishes and plankton),habitats (e.g. seagrass, mangroves andpelagic) and processes (e.g. primaryproductivity and connectivity). (3)••Action 3.2.3: Define and model thetransitions of one habitat type into anotherthat rapid anthropogenic climate changewill bring to Florida (e.g. transition fromterrestrial to marine habitat driven by sealevel rise or transition from high relief coralreef to lower relief ). (1, 5, 8)Objective 3.3: Examine intervention and restorationmeasures that increase survivorship of coral reefspecies and enhance reef resilience to directlyreduce climate change and ocean acidificationimpacts. (10)••Action 3.3.1: Support field research thatevaluates the effectiveness and feasibility,as well as the potential unintended consequencesof novel intervention measuresdesigned to reduce stress from climatechange and ocean acidification on theFlorida Reef System (e.g. pumping in coolocean water, local reduction of acidificationfrom land based sources, etc.). (10) Supportimplementation, monitoring, and evaluationof promising intervention measures.Climate Change Action Plan for the Florida Reef System2010201513

Appendix 2 • Enabling ConditionsThe Action Plan is more likely to achievesuccess in increasing the resilience of theFlorida Reef System if key enabling conditionsare met. These conditions are outside thescope of this plan to implement, but theyare specifically acknowledged as importantto the wider issues of climate change and itsassociated impacts.1. The nations of the world must establishan international agreement to reducethe rate and extent of climate change byensuring that greenhouse gas emissionspeak no later than 2020, global warmingdoes not exceed 2°C above pre-industrialtemperatures and the atmospheric carbon dioxide equivalents level drops to less than 350parts per million by 2050. Individuals, corporations, local, state and national governmentsmust all contribute to achieving these goals (IPCC 2007, Vernon et al 2009).A deep reef off the Dry Tortugas © Jiangang Luo2. The federal government, State of Florida and other leaders of the Comprehensive EvergladesRestoration Plan must continue to fund and implement the Plan to ensure future deliveryof clean fresh water into south Florida’s estuaries in the proper quantity and with the propertiming and distribution. In a related effort, the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration TaskForce and the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force should increase efforts to collaborate and reaffirmthe fact that the Florida Reef System is a vital component of the South Florida Ecosystem.3. Residents, industries and governments in the Mississippi River Basin must continue toclean-up their watershed to curb nutrient and toxin pollution that makes its way into theNorthern Gulf of Mexico and is transported to the Florida Reef System by currents.4. Supported by the federal government, the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic regional oceangovernance alliances, the individual states that comprise them and the stakeholders theyall serve must complete comprehensive Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning to identifythe range of legal ocean and coastal uses and appropriate locations for such uses that willminimize conflicts among users while striking a sustainable balance between economicproduction and ecosystem protection. (20)5. Coral reefs and reef-dependent wildlife located in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea,up-current from the Florida Reef System, must be effectively managed in order to continueto supply Florida with juvenile fish, spiny lobster and other invertebrates and to maintain thehabitats needed by wide-ranging species.6. Relevant components of this reef-specific Action Plan should be incorporated into the morecomprehensive climate change action plans now under development at municipal, county,southeast Florida regional, state, and federal levels of government.14 20102015Climate Change Action Plan for the Florida Reef System

Appendix 3 • Coral Reef and Climate Change Action RecommendationsThis section provides a compilation of resources and references used in the development ofthis Action Plan. Many of the listed sources have climate change strategies that were consideredwhen developing this Florida specific plan.Florida Specific Initiatives and Resources1. Florida Reef Resilience Program “Coping with Climate Change” Conference 2008,participants compiled and ranked a list of reef resilience strategies for Florida. Florida Governor’s Action Team on Energy and Climate Change was created to developa comprehensive Energy and Climate Change Action Plan. It includes an adaptation chapterin the Phase II report in 2009 with priority recommendations for Florida. Miami-Dade County CC Advisory Task Force “Second Report and InitialRecommendations” April, 2008 and “Annual Report and Supplemental Recommendations”April 2010 Florida Coastal and Ocean Coalition developed a blueprint for Florida “Preparing fora Sea Change in Florida: a Strategy to Cope with the Impacts of Global Warming on theState’s Coastal and Marine Systems” in 2006. The Florida Oceans and Coastal Council The Effects of Climate Change on Florida’s Ocean &Coastal Resources. Environmental Defense Fund published a report “Corals and Climate Change: Florida’s NaturalTreasures at Risk.” November 2008, written by Terry Gibson, Harold Wanless, James Klaus,Patricia Foster-Turley, Karen Florini, and Thomas Florida and Climate Change — The Costs of Inaction. Tufts University, by ElizabethA. Stanton and Frank Ackerman commissioned by the Environmental Defense Fund,November 2007 Florida’s Wildlife on the Frontline of Climate ChangeClimate Change SummitReport, 2008 and Global Coral Reef Initiatives and Resources9. US Coral Reef Task Force: Climate Change Working Group NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program Goals & Objectives 2010-2015 Draft Priority Coral Reef Management Goals and Objectives for Florida Oct 2009,NOAA Change Action Plan for the Florida Reef System2010201515

12. Great Barrier Reef Climate Change Action Plan 2007–2012 “A Call to Action for Coral Reefs.” Dodge et al. Science Vol 322 10 October 2008 The Honolulu Declaration on Ocean Acidification and Reef Management the NatureConservancy, 12-14 August 2008, in Hawaii. Coastal Management Policy15. Florida’s Resilient Coasts: A State Policy Framework for Adaptation to ClimateChange (2008) Collaborations16. Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC) Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of theIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J.van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, Eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 976 pp. Relevant Climate Change Adaptation Initiatives17. Marine Protected Areas. In: Preliminary review of adaptation options for climatesensitiveecosystems and resources. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change ScienceProgram and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, United States ClimateChange Science Program (USCCSP), 2008; [Julius, S.H., J.M. West (eds.), J.S. Baron, B.Griffith, L.A. Joyce, P. Kareiva, B.D. Keller, M.A. Palmer, C.H. Peterson, and J.M. Scott(Authors)]. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 8-1 to 8-( Environmental Protection Agency Climate Ready Estuaries( ).19. Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Finding by the Administrator of theEnvironmental Protection Agency in December 7, 2009 under section 202(a) of the CleanAir Act. “Interim Report of the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force” by the White HouseCouncil on Environmental Quality Department of Interior Climate Change Task Force September, 2009 20102015Climate Change Action Plan for the Florida Reef System

ReferencesIPCC AR4 WGII. Climate Change 2007: Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability.WGII Contribution to the IPCC AR4 (Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp 12, 16 (Figure SPM.2.),321, and 853. G. M., Leeworthy, V. R., Bell, F.W. & Bonn, M. A. (2001) Socioeconomic Study of Reefs inSoutheast Florida. Final Report. Hazen and Sawyer Environmental Engineers & Scientists, G. M., Milon, J. W. & Sayers D. (2004) Socioeconomic Study of Reefs in Martin County, FL. FinalReport. Hazen and Sawyer Environmental Engineers & Scientists Coral Reef Conservation Program. (2009) NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program Goals &Objectives 2010-2015. Silver Spring, MD: NOAA. Florida Coral Reef Initiative. (2004) A Local Action Strategy , Florida Department ofEnvironmental Protection Office of Coastal and Aquatic Managed Areas Coral Reef ConservationProgram., J.E.N., O. Hoegh-Guldberg, T.M. Lenton c, J.M. Lough, D.O. Obura, P. Pearce-Kelly, C.R.C.Sheppard, M. Spalding, M.G. Stafford-Smith, A.D. Rogers (2009) The coral reef crisis: The criticalimportance of

The Florida Reef Resilience Program is the product of discussions between the State of Florida, theNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, The Nature Conservancy and the Great Barrier ReefMarine Park Authority. These and other organizations whose logos appear above are represented onthe Program’s Steering Committee.The Nature Conservancy thanks the Brunckhorst Foundation for its long-term support ofthe Florida Reef Resilience Program. EcoAdapt thanks the Ocean Fund of Royal CaribbeanInternational and Celebrity Cruises for financial support of the development of this Action Plan.18 20102015Climate Change Action Plan for the Florida Reef System

© Jeff Ripple

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines