Complete Bulletin (PDF) - ENVIS Centre on Himalayan Ecology

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Complete Bulletin (PDF) - ENVIS Centre on Himalayan Ecology

ong>ENVISong> BULLETIN________________________________________________________________________HIMALAYAN ECOLOGYISSN: 0971-7447Volume 19, 2011G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development(An Autonomous Institute of Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India)Kosi-Katarmal, Almora-263 643, Uttarakhand, India


About the ong>Bulletinong>ong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> on Himalayan Ecology is an annual non-priced publication of the ong>ENVISong>ong>Centreong>, which was established at the headquarters of the G.B. Pant Institute of HimalayanEnvironment and Development (GBPIHED) in the financial year 1992-93 with the fiscalsupport from the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Government of India,New Delhi. The present volume of the ong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> is 19 th in a series of its annualpublication and contains papers on livestock fodder requirements, animal husbandrypractices, ethno-botany, medicinal and aromatic plants, and climate change, etc. The newsand views offered in the papers in this publication are the views of the concerned authors.Therefore, they do not necessarily reflect the views of the editors, ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong> andInstitute. The content of the ong>Bulletinong> may be quoted or reproduced for non-commercialuse provided the source is duly acknowledged.The contributions to the next issue of the ong>Bulletinong> in the form of a research paper, populararticle, news item and technical report, etc., related to Himalayan ecology, are alwayswelcome. However, the matter supplied by the individual/organization may be editedfor length and clarity. Request for institutional subscription of the ong>Bulletinong> may be sentto the Scientist-in-Charge of the ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>. The comments/suggestions for furtherimprovement of the ong>Bulletinong> are welcome.Dr. P.P. DhyaniExecutive Editor - ong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong>,G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development,Kosi-Katarmal, Almora–263643, Uttarakhand, IndiaTel: 05962-241153 (O)/241156 (R)/09412092189 (M)Fax: 05962-241153/241150E-mail: ppdhyani@gbpihed.nic.in


ContentsResearch PapersLIVESTOCK FODDER REQUIREMENTS AND HOUSEHOLDCHARACTERISTICS IN RURAL ECONOMY OF HILLY REGION,UTTARAKHANDR. Pandey and A. Mishra ......................................................................................................................1STATUS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN MANDAKINI VALLEYOF RUDRAPRAYAG DISTRICT IN UTTARAKHANDG.R. Gargya and L.D. Gargya...............................................................................................................7ANIMAL HUSBANDRY PRACTICES AMONGST THE WANCHOAND NOCTE TRIBES IN TIRAP DISTRICT OF ARUNACHAL PRADESH,INDIAA.H. Akand, R.B. Sharma and A. Borgohai........................................................................................11ECONOMIC MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS: THEIRDISTRIBUTION, TRADE AND UTILISATION IN THE COLD DESERTAREAS OF HIMACHAL PRADESHN.S. Chauhan.......................................................................................................................................17ETHNO BOTANICAL SURVEY OF PLANTS USED BY GADDITRIBE OF BHARMOUR AREA IN HIMACHAL PRADESHB. Dutt, S.S. Sharma, K.R. Sharma, A. Gupta and H. Singh.............................................................22SEDIMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF IMPHAL, THOUBAL ANDKHUGA RIVERS OF MANIPURS.D. Gurumayum and U.C. Goswami.................................................................................................28SEABUCKTHORN: A VALUABLE RESOURCE OF THE COLDDESERT (LADAKH)A. Ali and V. Kaul...............................................................................................................................33AGENTS OF CLIMATE CHANGEP. Ghosh...............................................................................................................................................37COMPARATIVE FIELD PERFORMANCE OF SOME AGRICULTURALCROPS UNDER THE CANOPY OF POPULUS DELTOIDES ANDULMUS WALLICHIANAT.H. Masood, N.A. Masoodi, S.A. Gangoo, S. Murtaza and S.H. Sidique........................................41Selected Abstracts..............................................................................................................................46


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LIVESTOCK FODDER REQUIREMENTS AND HOUSEHOLDCHARACTERISTICS IN RURAL ECONOMY OF HILLYREGION, UTTARAKHANDINTRODUCTIONR. Pandey and A. MishraStatistical Branch, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun,Uttarakhand, IndiaIndia is predominantly an agricultural country and has the largest livestock population inthe world (Palni, 1996). In our country, majority of the population lives in the villages mainlydepending on agriculture and animal husbandry (mixed crop-livestock farming) for theirsurvival. Livestock component is closely linked with the forest ecosystem and commonproperty resources to meet the fodder demand. About 30-50 percent of total animal feed isderived from forests and grasslands (Bajracharya, 1999). The fodder energy is returned bythe livestock in the form of manure, milk and traction power, etc. However, this crucialrelationship is now facing increasing pressure and threat from different sources (Jodha andShrestha, 1990).The major parts of central Himalaya is mountainous. Agriculture and animal husbandry arethe primary occupations of the rural inhabitants of the hill area. Traditionally, significantimportance is attached to animal husbandry in the region. Every household keeps either acow or a buffalo, irrespective of its economic viability. The farming households keep a pairof bullock for draught purpose. Although the scale and composition of livestock varies fromhousehold to household they are the main sources of fertilizer and milk, as well as draughtpower (Bajracharya, 1999; Negi, 1999; Sati, 2005). Moreover, now due to many obviousreasons, some households have also started livestock rearing as a dairy industry. Thesesmallholder dairy farms do not only feed the rural areas, but also supply milk to the localurban centres. With gradual emphasis on dairy sector, milk production in Uttarakhand Hillshas increased from mere 419 thousand MT in 1979-80 to about 715 thousand MT in 1999-2000.Milk productivity per animal has increased over a period of two decades. In case of a cow ithas increased (73%) from an average of 1.33 kg per day in 1979-80 to 2.30 kg per day in 1999-2000. An average increase (45%) in milk yield from 2.55 kg per day to 3.71 kg per day over thesame period has been recorded for a buffalo. This is attributable to the institutional policiesand programmes focusing on milk production.Although India is the highest milk producer country but the per capita milk production is verylow due to the huge deficit in the availability of feed stuffs. The animals depend predominantlyon open grazing or stall feeding on the byproducts of agricultural produce like wheat straw,paddy straw, hay and green or dry grass collected from forest. The animals do not get evenone third of feed what they need. There is a large gap between requirement and availability offeed at the national level. Recent estimates indicate that in India the dry fodder deficit is 31%,green fodder 23% and concentrates 47%. Regional deficits are however, more important thanthe national deficit. Of 55 micro agroecoregions of India, 43 are deficient in feed (Singh andMazumdar, 1992). Most of the deficient regions lie in the arid and semi-arid agroecologicalzones. The feed deficiency is due to heavy population pressure, the quantitative and qualitativedeterioration in common grazing lands resulting in low biomass production, and the lack ofadoption of fodder production technologies (Pratap, 2002).ong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 1


STUDY SITES, SURVEY AND DATA COLLECTIONUttarakhand has 1.8% of the country’s geographic area with total population of 8.48 million in2001 (1.6% of the country’s population). The rural population is 74.4% and urban populationis 25.6%, and the population density is 159 persons per sq. km. The state has 1.18% of cattle,1.25% of buffaloes, 0.48% of sheep, 0.93% of goats and 0.24% of pig population of the country(Anonymous, 2005). In 2003-04, the state produced 1188 thousand tonnes of milk, 1842 lakhnos. of egg and 342 thousand kgs. of wool. Livestock rearing by forest dwellers of Uttarakhandhas both economic and religious importance (Sati, 2005). Forest fodder for livestock feed isone of the provisioning services out of numerous benefits people draw from the forests. Thisprovisioning service is being estimated in this study by evaluating the value of forest feedby collecting data through pre tested semi structured questionnaire on forest and livestockcharacteristics in the Lower Himalayan range of Nainital district of Uttarakhand in 2007. Thelack of basic infrastructure, absence of market forces, high dependence on forests and mixedcrop-livestock farming system were the main grounds for the selection of the region. It wasobserved that the hilly terrain and undulating agriculture fields also enforce the villagers fortheir high dependence on forests.The study addresses various socio economic issues at household level for explaining the forestand livestock linkages. Information pertaining to the fodder collection and socio-economicattributes were collected from 67 randomly selected households in 15 randomly selectedvillages with livestock and forest contribution in terms of fodder i.e. forest grasses and treeleaves, time required for its collection through pre tested semi structured questionnaire in2007. In this area number of families residing in each village varied from 20 to 50. Therefore,2 to 9 households were randomly selected for the study from each selected village. Largersample size could not be considered due to the similar fodder utilization patterns within avillage. Therefore, more number of villages scattered in wide region were surveyed to assessthe overall scenario. Villages were selected by random sampling procedure, keeping in viewthe homogeneous group of the sampling population. Group discussions were also held withvillage people, whenever possible on the various issues under examination. The additionalinformation generated in the process of such discussions was utilized for conclusion. Themonthly income level was coded and values were allotted as 1 for upto Rs. 2000; 2 for Rs.2000 – 4000, 3 for Rs. 4000 – 6000, 4 for Rs. 6000 – 8000 and 5 for Rs. 8000 – 10000 based onthe pilot survey. The livestock population was combined keeping in view of simultaneousfeed collection for all. The livestock were measured as adult cattle units (ACUs). The weightsassigned to different animals were; one cow = one ACU, one buffalo = 1.3 ACU, young stockof buffalo/cow = 0.75ACU and sheep or goat = 0.15 ACU (Yang, 1971). The educational statusof the family was assessed by grouping and combining through weightage of the educationallevel of family members. The weightage were 0 – for no schooling, 1 – for upto class 5, 2 – forupto class 8, 3 - for upto class 10, 4 – for upto class 12, 5 – for upto bachelor degree, and 6 –for above. This was combined through taking samples from the family members with bothsexes under different age class and adding the weightage. The social status was assessed byconsidering various assets like T.V, L.P.G, type of house, household income, type of houseowned and assigning value 1 for availability and 0 for non availability. For type of house, theweightage was 1 for kuchha, 2 for semi pucca and 3 for pucca. These all weightage were addedbased on the availability and thus, converted into social status index.OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTSThe data from the households were analysed to explore the issue under consideration (Table1). The average age of the head of households was 42.82 years and it varied from minimum 212ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


years to maximum 92 years. The size of family was more than 6 members for most households.The land holding were classified under irrigated, unirrigated and fallow land to know thestatus of productivity of the land. The land status was poor and mostly it was unirrigatedwith mean of 2.06 Bigha for irrigated, 5.67 Bigha for unirrigated and 1.27 Bigha for fallow withan average of 9 Bigha land per family (1 Bigha). Only 5% household use kerosene as cookingenergy, however 33% has L.P.G. but it is being utilized occasionally. The distance travelled tocollect fodder varied from 1 km to 6 km depending on the availability of fodder from forestwith the mean distance travelled was 3.69 km. The proportion of pucca house was high (66%)while the remaining had semi pucca house (18%) and kuchha houses (16%). The number ofrooms per house varied greatly from single room to eight rooms. About 26 per cent householdhad three rooms, 24 per cent two rooms, 21 per cent four rooms while only 5 per cent had morethan five rooms in their houses.Table 1: Descriptive statistics for social and economic parameters.Parameters Minimum Maximum Mean ± SDAge of Household Head 21 92 42.82 ± 13.56Family Size 3 14 6.57 ± 2.10ACU 1.0 10.5 4.87 ± 2.03Fodder Collected (Kg/day) 0 120 65.10 ± 22.01Time Spent for Fodder Collection (Hours/day) 0 6 3.42 ± 1.36Land (Bigha) 2 40 9.00 ± 5.88Social Status 0 5 2.91 ± 1.15Income 1 5 2.40 ± 0.87Family Education 2 40 7.67 ± 5.72Most of the household revealed that they were farmers by profession, but due to lack ofirrigation facilities and problems in many farm activities, the farm productivity is very low.Therefore for household welfare, they were involved into secondary occupation too forsupplementing their household needs. The primary occupation for 88 percent household wasfarming; 6 per cent were engaged in laborer and rests were engaged in either business orservice. Eighty seven percent households were engaged into secondary occupation with 60 percent in daily wage labor. However, 12 and 15 percent household was engaged in agricultureand other occupation like business etc. for their subsistence. The household monthly incomevaried from one thousand to ten thousand with the mean household income of Rs. 5000. Theproportion of income among the surveyed households was 10% for upto Rs. 2000, 55% for2000-4000, 25% for 4000-6000, 7% for 6000-8000 and 3% for 8000-10000.LIVESTOCK STATUSThe composition of livestock population was cows, buffaloes, goats and oxen in the studyregion. In few households mules and horses were also found. The average number of cows perhousehold was 1.93, buffalo was 1.04 and goat was 2.12. The livestock productivity was verylow as revealed by the respondents. They are being reared primarily for during production forcomposting. The cause of low productivity was revealed to be seasonal fluctuation in fodderavailability and financial constraints. The average milk production per day was only 0.5 to1 litre for cow and 1.5 litre for buffalo, which testify the fact that the productivity of milchcattle is poor. Goats were reared mainly for sacrifice during festivals (male) or to supplementtheir income during adverse financial constraints. In the study region, 31 per cent householdhas one cow and 46 percent has two pair of bullocks for draught power. 34 percent of theong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 3


household did not own any oxen. In case of buffaloes, 36 percent households had 1 buffaloand 20 percent owned 2 buffaloes. Only 5 percent of the household had more than 2 buffaloes.Goat rearing is also practiced in the region by nearly 50% households with 2 and 4 goats werereared by 13 percent of the household and 9 percent of the household owned 5 goats, whileless than 3 percent owned 6-15 goats.It was observed that the women folk look after the fodder collection, cleaning of cattle beds,feeding of livestock while male counterpart was either engaged in cultivation or worked ondaily wages. The livestock care includes feeding of livestock, bathing of livestock, cleaning ofcattle beds and huts, cleaning of containers used for feeding purposes. The fodder collectedfrom the forest or private trees or grassland is given directly to the cattle without anyprocessing in most of cases. However, a few household were processing fodder into smallpieces by chopper so that feeding by livestock becomes easy. During winter the tree fodderis mixed with the dry fodder (stored grass) due to high preference by the livestock. It wasobserved that the grazing of livestock was practiced as a group activity and all cows gatherat a common place and then move for grazing in the nearby forest area. It was observed thatbuffaloes and calves were not part of herds for grazing. Buffaloes due to their massive bodystructure find difficulty in moving in narrow hilly paths and calves have the danger of movingand predation by wild animals too. The goats were left for grazing in the nearby areas onlyand not allowed to go far due to the danger of wild animals.FODDER COLLECTION, AVAILABILITY AND PREFERENCESIt was observed that the fodder collection is done by women and in some cases childrenaccompany them. In general, fodder and fuelwood collection practiced together. The collectionof fodder comprises of small bundles called “phula” and the total collection comprises of 7-8“phula” per day by one person. The fodder collection depends on the size of herds being rearedand available man power with maximum collection of 120 kg in a day as observed duringsurvey. The mean collection of fodder for livestock was nearly 65 kg per day from forest.However, a few households, who has only one or two livestock do not visit forests to collectfodder and prefer collection from own land nearby. It was also found that during summer andrainy season the villagers go for grass and tree fodder collection two times a day while duringwinter season only one time collection was practiced due to its less quantum of availability.The most common fodder species was oak (Quercus species) i.e. Quercus leucotrichophoraand Quercus semicarpifolia, which was abundantly distributed in the surveyed area and usedextensively for fodder. The bedding materials (crop residues, leaf litter, left over forage andfeed) are spread in the animal shed for mixing with dung and urine for composting. The useof raw materials for bedding varies from place to place depending on forest species, forestcondition and socio-economic circumstances.FACTOR AFFECTING FODDER COLLECTIONBased on the survey, relationship was established for fodder extraction from forest with land,labor, capital and forest access to know the effect of these parameters on fodder collection.The linear relationship between these parameters and fodder collection was significant and 88percent variation in fodder quantity collected is being explained by these parameters. However,most of the parameters under study were non significant. Therefore stepwise regression wasused. The result of step wise regression revealed that the significant parameters, which wereresponsible for the variation in fodder collection was family size, time spent and social status.These all parameters were linearly and positively related with the fodder collection. From4ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


ICRISAT-Patancheru, India. ( Ed. Birthal, P. and Parthasarathy Rao, P.), National ong>Centreong> forAgricultural Economics and Policy Research and International Crops Research Institute for theSemi-Arid Tropics. New Delhi. pp. 220.Sati, V.P. 2005. Natural resource conditions and economic development in the UttaranchalHimalaya, India. Journal of Mountain Science 2(4): 336-350.Singh, P. and Majumdar, A.B. 1992. Current status of feed and fodder management of livestock.Agricultural Situation in India, August: pp. 375-382.Yang, W.Y. 1971. Methods of Farm Management Investigation. Agricultural Development PaperNo. 8. Rome: FAO.6ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


STATUS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN MANDAKINIVALLEY OF RUDRAPRAYAG DISTRICTIN UTTARAKHADINTRODUCTIONG.R. Gargya and L.D. GargyaSociety for Environment Research and Social Development,Chaka-Silli (Agastyamuni), Rudraprayag, Uttarakhand, IndiaThe uses of medicinal plants for human health are probably as old as human beings themselves.The Ayurvedic System of Medicines is more than 5000 years old, which is based on a holisticmedicine approach and it has its roots in Vedic culture. India has a huge treasure of Ayurvedicdrugs and medicines, which are derived from different plant species from nature. It is estimatedthat over 6000 plant species are being used as traditional herbal medicines in the world andover 2500 plant species have been identified as medicinal plants in India (Gargya, 2011).The north - west Himalaya has a large array of floral diversity, which provides a matchlesswealth of highly valuable medicinal and aromatic plants due to its undulating topographicalstructure and climatic conditions. North – west Himalaya harbours about 8000 species ofhigher plants of which 1,478 are used for medicinal purposes (Semwal et al., 2010). Rudraprayagdistrict of Uttarakhand state is situated between 30 0 12 / 58 // to 30 0 56 / 47 // N latitude and 78 050 / 07 // to 79 0 22 / 34 // E longitude in Garhwal Himalaya with a total geographical area of2,328 km 2 . The total population of this district is 2, 36, 857 with the density of 119/sq. km. Thealtitudes vary from 500 to 6940 masl and the climate of the area is subtropical to alpine. Inthe lower altitudes the maximum temperature ranges between 38 0 and 40 0 C in the months ofMay and June, while high altitudes are covered with snow from November to March in winterseason. July and August are the months of highest rainfall. Major part of agriculture in thearea is rainfed and is practiced in traditional way. The agricultural yields are very low and donot support majority of families even for 3-4 months.Continuous extraction of several medicinal plant species from the wild and substantial lossof their habitats during last two decades have resulted into decline of many highly valuablemedicinal plant species in the region (Uniyal et al., 2006). Cultivation and sustainableharvesting of medicinal plants with scientific knowledge and proper marketing system mightbe a big source of additional income for improvement of livelihood of rural people. Thispaper highlights the habitat of some important medicinal plants on the basis of their climaticcondition, status and conservation strategy in Mandakini valley of Rudraprayag district. Largenumber of medicinal plants are naturally growing in the valley however, species those growin the temperate and sub alpine to alpine zones have high medicinal properties with preciousvalue. Some important medicinal plants species and their parts used are listed below (Table 1).Table 1: List of medicinal plants with their threat categories found in Mandakini valley.Subtropical zoneBotanical name Local/trade name Habit Parts usedAbrus precatorius Rati, Gunchi Climber SeedAcorus calamus 1 Bach Perennial herb RhizomeAchyranthes aspera Apamarg Herb RootAdhatoda vasica Basingha, Vasak Shrub LeavesAegle marmelos Bel Tree Fruitong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 7


Aloe vera Ghritkumari, Gheekwar Perennial herb LeavesAsparagus adscendens Satmuli, Jhirna Shrub RootAsparagus racemosus Satawari Shrub RootBerberis aristata 3 Kirmor, Daruhaldi Shrub RootBoerhavia diffusa Punarnava Herb LeavesCentella asiatica Mandukparni Herb Whole plantCinnamomum tamla Tejpat Tree Leaves, barkDioscorea deltoidea Genthi, Tarur Climber RhizomeEmblica officinalis Awanla Tree FruitGloriosa superba Kalihari Herb TuberHedychium spicatum 3 Kapoor kachari Herb RootHypericum perforatum Phuinli, Basanti Herb Whole plantLitsea chinensis Maida ki lakri Tree Stem barkMucuna puriens Kaunch Climber SeedPhyllanthus niruri Bhumi awanla Herb Whole plantPistacia khinjuk Kakarsinghi Tree Leaf gallsPlumbago zeylanica Chitrak Herb Whole plantPueraria tuberosa Vidarikand Climber TuberRauvolfia serpentina Sarpgandha Shrub RootSolanum nigrum Makoi Herb Whole plantSolanum xanthocarpum Kantkari Shrub SeedStephania glabra Gindaru Climber TuberTerminalia belerica Bahera Tree FruitsTerminalia chebula Harar Tree FruitsTinospora cordifolia Giloe Climber StemZanthoxylmm armatum Temru Shrub Seed, twigTemperate zoneBerginia ciliata 3 Pashanbhed Perennial herb RootBerginia stracheyi 3 Pashanbhed Perennial herb RootHabenaria intermedia Ridhi Herb TuberJuglans regia Akharot Tree Root barkMyrica esculenta Kaphal Tree Stem barkPotentilla fulgens Bajradanti Herb Leaves, rootRhododendron arboreum Burans Tree FlowerRubia cordifolia Manjit Climber LeavesSkimmia laureola Nairpati Shrub LeavesSwertia chirata Chirayata Herb Whole plantTaxus baccata 1 Thuner Tree Stem barkThymus seryphyllum Ban ajwain Herb Whole plantTrichosanthes tricuspidata Indrayan Herb SeedValeriana wallichii 1 Muskbala Herb RootViola odorata Banfsa Herb FlowerSub alpine and Alpine zoneAconitum heterophyllum 1 Atis Herb TuberAconitum balfouri 2 Gobriya Herb TuberAconitum falconeri 3 Bish, Kalmegh Herb TuberAllium humile Jambu Herb Leaves, flowerAllium stracheyi Farar Herb Leaves, flowerAngelica glauca 1 Chora Herb RootArnebia benthamii 1 Balchhar Herb RootCarum carvi 3 Kala zira Herb SeedDactylorhiza hatagirea 1 Hathjari, Salampanja Herb Tuber/rhizomeDelphinium denudatum 1 Nirbishi Herb RootEphedra gerardiana 3 Somlata Shrub StemGentiana kurroo 1 Neelkanthi Herb Whole plant8ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


Hyoscymus niger Khursani ajwain Herb seedJurinea dolomiaea 4 Dhoop Herb RootNardostachys jatamansi 2 Jatamansi Herb RhizomePicrorrhiza kurrooa 2 Kutki, Karwi Herb RhizomePodophyllum hexandrum 1 Bankakari Herb RootRheum emodi 3 Archu Herb RootSaussurea obvallata 2 Brahm kamal Herb RootSassurea lappa 2 Kuth Herb RootSelinum tenuifolium Bhootkeshi Herb RootThalictrum foliolosum 3 Mamiri Herb Root1=Critical; 2= Endangered; 3= Vulnerable; 4= Low riskTHREAT STATUS AND MARKET POTENTIALOwing to high market price and demand in the national and global markets many of thesespecies are being extensively extracted from this region. The over exploitation has changedthe environmental conditions and original habitats, which led to the gradual decline in ofthe population of these important plants resulting in severe threat to their existence andregeneration. Further more, these wild medicinal plants are collected before the onset of seedsetting (through untrained and unskilled labours), which is often destructive in nature and alsocontributes to their lesser availability in the natural habitats. Few of these species of this regionthat have already been classified under different threat categories by BSI (Nayar and Sastry,1987-90) are indicated in Table 2. Uttarakhand Forest Development Corporation, Governmentof Uttarakhand has fixed the rate of some medicinal and aromatic plants (Table 2) and purchasethe raw material directly from registered farmers and growers. However, rate of many of themedicinal plants in the national and global market is volatile and change from time to time.Table 2: Market rate of some medicinal plants.Name of medicinal plants/materials purchasedPurchasing rate(Rs./kg )Aegle marmelos (pulp) 8.00Berginia ciliata 10.00Boerhavia diffusa (Root) 9.00Centella asiatica 6.00Cinnamomum tamla 15.00Emblica officinalis (without seed) 18.00Gentiana kurroo 20.00Hedychium spicatum 8.00Mucuna puriens (seed) 5.00Phyllanthus niruri 6.00Plumbago zeylanica 4.00Pueraria tuberosa 8.00Solanum nigrum 5.00Terminalia belerica (without seed) 5.00Terminalia chebula (without seed) 15.00Thymus seryphyllum 15.00Trichosanthes tricuspidata 60.00Viola odorata (flowers) 150.00Zanthoxylum armatum (seed) 25.00Source: Uttarakhand Forest Development Corporation, Dehradunong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 9


A report of WHO showed that about 80% population of the world depends on plant resourcesfor their traditional system of medicines. Demand of the high quality medicinal plants isincreasing day-by-day in the national and global market. In the global market, the trade ofherbal medicines is about Rs. 27 billion per year whereas in India it is about Rs. 3.5 billion peryear and it is increasing at the rate of 7% per year (Anonymous, 2003). Increasing demandand low availability of medicinal and aromatic plant resources in the nature has put aserious problem for herbal practitioners as well as pharmaceutical industries. Several highlyvaluable medicinal plants of high altitudes are facing extinction in their natural habitats due todestructive harvesting. Therefore, protection of the genetic pool of this valuable wealth in thenature is urgently required. Measures such as cultivation of these species in non forest areasin the region and domestication of medicinal plants should be encouraged. Farmers can bemotivated towards ‘health care farming’ and they should be promoted to grow the medicinalplants in their own lands instead of exploiting from nature. This approach will be helpful tomitigate the pressure on the natural resources and also employment can be generated for localpeople. Germplasm/gene pool centres and nurseries of important and rare plant species canbe established in the area according to their ecological and climatic conditions and plantingmaterials should be provided to farmers free of cost or at marginal rates. Also proper trainingand education should be provided to herb collectors for safe harvesting of endangered andrare species. Some of these measures could be helpful in reviving the production of medicinaland aromatic plants in their natural habitats in the study region.REFERENCESAnonymous, 2003. Aushadhiya Paudhaun ki Kheti Sambandhi Yojanayein. Rajya Aushadhiya PadapBoard, Haryana, Forest Department, Haryana.Gargya, G.R. 2011. Cordyceps sinensis: An entomogenous medicinal fungus. MFP NEWS XXI (2):18-19.Nayar, M.P. and Sastry, A.R.K. 1987-90. Red Data Book, Vol. 1 to 3, Director, BSI, Calcutta.Semwal, D.P., Saradhi, P.P., Kala, C.P. and Sajwan, B.S. 2010. Medicinal plants used by localVaidyas in Ukhimath block, Uttarakhand. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 9(3): 480-485.Uniyal, S.K., Singh, K.N., Jammal, P. and Lal, B. 2006. Traditional use of medicinal plants amongthe tribal communities of Chhota Bhangalet, Western Himalaya. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed.14: 1-8.10ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY PRACTICES AMONGST THE WANCHOAND NOCTE TRIBES IN TIRAP DISTRICT OF ARUNACHALPRADESH, INDIAA.H. Akand 1 , R.B. Sharma 2 and A. Borgohai 31Division of Vet.. and AH Extension, FVSc and AH, SKUAST-K, Shuhama, Alusteng,Srinagar- 190006, J&K, India2AFPRO - Guwahati, Pub Sarania, Bye lane-04 (west), Assam- 781003, India3CVSc, AAU, Khanapara, Guwahati, Assam- 781022, IndiaINTRODUCTIONLife in the mountains of Arunachal Pradesh is solely dependent upon natural resources,livestock and traditional agriculture where livestock component links the man with wildvegetation and play a crucial role in household economy and development (Chander andMukherjee, 1995). However, communities residing in the hilly parts of the state are stillfollowing the techniques and practices as used by the ancestors. They practice shiftingcultivation and animal husbandry in a traditional manner that involves reckless cutting oftrees and indiscriminate use of grazing areas. In the absence of rehabilitation program, thispractice leads to denudation of hill slopes and rampant soil erosion, which has resulted incritically low biomass availability and adverse effects on livestock production. Consequently,the livestock productivity is comparatively very low leading to import of various livestockproducts from the other states. Considering the present scenario, an attempt was made to studythe animal husbandry practices in Tirap district of Arunachal Pradesh among the Wanchoand Nocte tribes to understand farmer perceptions, priorities and suggestions with regardsto crop-livestock combinations and their productivity and interactions. Equally importantwas an understanding of social and gender issues, which influence the system profoundly. Adistinct difference in respect of major crops and livestock maintained by these social groupsin the production systems was also observed by Rangnekar (1992 a&b) amongst pastoralists,agro-pastoralists, non-tribal farmers and tribal farmers.MATERIALS AND METHODSArunachal Pradesh is situated between 26 0 28’ and 29 0 30’ North latitudes and 97 0 30’ and97 0 30’ East Longitudes covering an area of 83743 sq. km. Tirap district is situated in a uniquegeographical setting bounded by Burma in the south, Assam in the North, Nagaland in thewest and Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh in the east. The land has a picturesquebeauty of its own. The district derives its name from its principal river the Tirap, which flowssouth-north through the main land and finally joins the Noa-Dehing River. In this study sixvillages were selected under Khonsa and Longding sub Divisions of Tirap districts thoserepresented each tribe equally. Of the six selected villages, three villages namely Lonkai, K.Noknu and Mington are inhibited by entirely Wancho tribe while other three villages namelyChikoi, Bera and Paniduria are inhibited by Nocte tribe. Data required for the study werecollected using a mixture of several methods viz., a pre-designed questionnaire (containinggeneral animal husbandry practices), direct observation, transect walk, group discussion andfew PRA tools. Simple statistical tools viz. frequency, percentage and mean were used fordrawing inferences.ong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 11


RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONTHE PEOPLEVillages selected for this study are located in remote from the nearest townships and roads,except for Bera village. Population varied from 450-1440 among the studied villages (Table 1).Chieftainship is an important feature of their society. Both the Noctes and the Wanchos havechiefs in their villages. Above the village chiefs there exist major chiefs who receive tributefrom the subordinate villages. Although with the introduction of Panchayati Raj system in thevillages the role of the chiefs has changed to great extent particularly among Nocte villagesbut they still enjoy privileges in their community particularly in Wancho tribes. Subsidiaryoccupations includes stone selling, daily wage labour, bamboo cutting, pineapple cultivation,collection and selling of wood (e.g. Fulsapa wood) sold by the Paniduria people after collectingfrom fallow Jhum land and forest etc.Table 1: Population details of the study villages.VillageHouseholdsPopulationMale Female Boys Girls TotalWancho tribe villagesLonkai 146 249 247 160 169 825K. Noknu 246 262 261 437 480 1440Mington 104 305 327 337 345 1314Sub total 496 816 835 934 994 3579Per cent 65.5 65.8 63.3 73.7 74.3 69.3Nocte tribe villagesChinkoi 87 125 150 145 130 550Bera 77 125 175 62 88 450Paniduria 97 174 160 126 126 586Sub total 261 424 485 333 344 1586Per cent 34.48 34.2 36.7 26.3 25.7 30.7Total 757 1240 1320 1267 1338 5165Percent 24.0 25.6 24.5 25.9 100EDUCATIONLiteracy rate was found to be very low in the study villages. It is only in the recent yearsvillagers have started to send their children for education. All the younger generations aregoing to school, though dropout rate is high due to poor financial condition. Others couldafford to send their children to boarding schools of Khonsa, Mington and Longding which isfar away from the villages. Though all the villages have Lower Primary School, none of themhave any higher institutions for further study. On an average, literacy rate among Nocte tribeis more than double than that of Wancho tribe which 11.81 and 24.81 per cent, respectively(Table 2).Table 2: Literacy status in the villages.Village Literate Percent Illiterate PercentWancho TribeLonkai 54 10.9 442 89.1K.Noknu 87 16.6 436 83.4Mintong 54 8.54 578 91.5Total 195 11.8 1456 88.212ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


Nocte tribeChinkoi 13 4.7 262 95.3Bera 40 13.3 260 86.7Paniduria 172 51.5 162 48.5Total 225 24.8 684 75.3AGRICULTURENocte and the Wancho tribes are solely dependent on subsistence agriculture. Land is ownedby the community as a whole. Individual ownership of land is recognized in certain areaswhich is confined to homestead and settled farmland. Among the studied villages the numberof household having individual land ownership in plain land is as follows: Lonkai (12), K.Noknu (21), Mington (7), Chinkoi (11), Bera (25) and maximum Paniduria (40). Of the totalhousehold only a few of them have small plot of plain land at bank of the stream / river.Shifting cultivation (Jhum) is practiced by each village in a particular demarcated area and thepower of distribution of land to individual families is vested in the headman/king or villagecounsel. A total 63 Jhum plots belonged to these six village: Lonkai (9 plots), K. Noknu (9),Mington (10), Bera (12), Chinkoi (10) and Paniduria (13).Table 3: Livestock population of the villages.LivestockspeciesLonkai K Nongnu Mintong Bera Chinkoi Paniduria TotalL C L C L C L C L C L CCattle 150 0 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 0 230Buffalo 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100Mithun 0 0 300 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 300Sheep 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Goat 400 0 200 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 610Pig 136 0 178 0 100 0 272 330 75 0 70 0 1161Chicken 2000 0 450 0 0 0 1800 0 250 0 350 0 4850Duck 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 48 0 52L= Local variety; C= Cross-bred varietyAGRICULTUREThe land is abandoned after 2 years of cultivation.Jhum plots of Chinkoi village based on PRA isgiven in Fig. 1. Jhum cultivation is done mainlyin two Jhum lands simultaneously (one hill siteis new Jhum while the other under old Jhumsite). New Jhum land is the land which is usedfor the first time (after completion of Jhum cycle)for mixed cultivation of millet (Kani Dhan) andvarieties of crops like lettuce, chilies, pumpkin,brinjal, tapioca, colocasia, yam (Dioscoreaesculenta), maize, beans, sesame, king chiliesand soybean etc. The old Jhum area is usedfor sowing solely local paddy (Ahu Dhan). Theproduction of crops irrespective of type of landFig.1: Different Jhum plots of Chinkoi villagesdrawn by villagers during PRA exerciseong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 13


(new or old), hardly meet the food requirement of the village people. Rice produced from oldJhum land is utilized for one meal a day and during festivals. Other food crops are substitutedby non-conventional feeds like yam in the meals. Rice, millet, yam, tapioca and maize are themajor food for the villagers. As rice is not available for round the year they have to consume yamand tapioca as substitute for rice particularly in Wancho tribe. Meat of Pig, Buffalo or Mithunis being consumed during the festivals or sometimes when some individual have to sell his Pigfor money. Otherwise boiled vegetables of yam, lettuce, soybean etc. are side dishes for them.ANIMAL HUSBANDRYLIVESTOCK POPULATIONThe distribution of livestock across the study villages is not uniform (Table 3). Out of the sixvillages, Cattle and Goat is being reared in 3 villages, Buffalo and Mithun is being reared onlyin 1 village whereas Pig is the only animal that is being reared by majority of the family in eachvillage. All the livestock are of local non descriptive variety except Duck and Goat, which areMuscovy and Black Bengal /Assam Hill Goat varieties respectively. However, 50.32 per centpig population in Bera village is cross breed with varied level of exotic genetic inheritance.This may be due to easy communication and more exposure of this village as it exist at roadside. The average herd/flock size of any animals/birds was very low. Most of the familiesprefer to rear only one or two pigs. It was revealed during discussion with village people thatthe trend of livestock keeping is changing over time. Earlier, Cattle and Mithun was rearedby every family, which is no more in practice except in K. Noknu and Lonkai village. Thenumber of livestock in the villages have reduced by many fold and the trend still exists in allthe villages.MANAGEMENT PRACTICESThe practice of livestock rearing differs from speciesto species. Cattle/Buffalo/Mithun are being let loosein the jungle to graze freely and brought back homeas per requirement of the owner, either by catchingor hunting (gun shot/local weapons) for slaughterduring any festival or ceremony. Besides, the villagepeople bring their cows along with calf back home aftercalving to implant identification mark by ear notchingand release them subsequently. Each farmer knows theidentification marks put by village people on their cattle.Since the animals are reared in jungle (free grazing),other management aspects such as breeding, feeding,healthcare, insurance etc. are not known or followed byvillagers. However, few farmers (Lonkai, Chikoi) wererearing cattle by semi-intensive system until few yearsback, which they have stopped due to certain constraints(e.g. lack of time).Pig is reared under various methods-intensive, semiintensiveand scavenging. Intensive and semi-intensivesystems are more prevalent among Nocte tribal villages(Bera, Paniduria and Chinkoi) than Wancho villages.Under the intensive system of rearing most of the peopleFig. 2: Intensive system of pig rearing:kept under raised floor latrineFig. 3: Pigs under intensive system:adjacent to dwelling house14ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


keep the animal in an enclosure made under the raised floor of open latrine (Fig. 2). Theanimals are allowed to eat human excreta as the main source of food. This is more prevalentin Wancho tribe than Nocte. Other people keep their pig in a small dwarf sty made up ofwooden plank or more popularly bamboo. Under the semi-intensive system Pigs are kept inan enclosure but not under the latrine (Fig. 3). During the day times, they tether them by tyingaround thoracic region. Under the scavenging method (which is an old practice still exclusivelyused by every villager), Pigs are let loose in the village for their entire life period not givendue attention on any management aspects. Due to general awareness about the environmentalaspect and repeated pressure from insurgent group people are now on the verge of give awaythe practice. But this method is still in practice mostly in Wancho village (Lonkai, Chinkoi andMintong). Other than scavenging system of rearing Pigs restricted supplementary feeds likekitchen waste, forest produces either in boiled form or as raw is given to the animals. Sincemost of the farmers rear Pigs for about a year and use them for their own consumption, theyare hardly aware about breeding practices for reproduction. Goats are let loose during thewhole day and assembled back to home to spend the night. Chicken and Ducks are beingreared by the villagers and Chicken outnumber Ducks. Ducks are reared only by Nocte tribe,whereas chicken are reared by both the communities. Poultry is reared in backyard system.There are two types of housing system for poultry. Some people make a small enclosure belowtheir dwelling house and some make a small triangular shaped bamboo structure inside whichbirds are kept at night time. They are also provided with solid household waste like brokenrice, millet, rice husk etc. (Fig. 4-6).4 5 6Fig. (4,5,6): Different arrangements for poultry rearing among tribal peopleDISEASES INCIDENCESMost of the livestock and poultry disease incidences remain un-noticed because of poorattention and prevailing system of rearing. There is no awareness regarding diseases oflivestock and economic loss due to diseases amongst the villagers. However, people are awareabout the yearly epidemic in poultry when most of the birds in the village die within a shortspan of time. Similarly, epidemic also occurs in case of Pig as described by the villagers. Itwas surprising to note that except in Bera village, none of the framers had ever approachedto any government institution / personnel for treating their animal. They are even not awareabout the existence of veterinary institution near by their villages. Despite a good number ofveterinary institutions village people could not utilize these facilities due to sporadic set up ofvillages and poor communication. Villagers have to travel about 5 to 28 km to avail any basichealth facility for animals from government institutions generally by walking.CONTRIBUTION BY LIVESTOCKAnimals are the main source of cash income in the study villages, particularly amongst theong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 15


Wancho tribe. Tribal people by tradition do not consume liquid milk in the study villages theyrear animals mostly for meat required during the festival and also sell them at the time of financialcrisis. Buffalo and Mithun have higher market value (about Rs. 12,000/- each at 2-3 years ofage) than the cattle which costs about Rs. 5000 – 7000. Besides, the animal rearing is associatedwith social rituals (e.g. among the Nocte tribe Chicken is scarified at the time of initiating Jhumcultivation) and also for curing (e.g., a boiled egg in 4 pieces is to be taken by person sufferingfrom abdominal pain), etc. Other aspect include; Groom has to give at least one pig to bride’shouse at the time of marriage; possessing Mithun as the symbol of social status, etc. are some ofthe uses associated with animal husbandry. A Pig of 1 year age attains 40-45 kg weight and itsmarket value varies between Rs. 5,000–7,000 based on girth circumference. Pig has the highestmarket potential. Selling of any livestock and its product in a market place is not a practice in theentire study villages. All the livestock and poultry are sold within and in between the villagesonly, which happens generally during the major festivals. Most frequently sold animal is Pig,which is sometimes slaughtered in the village for selling pork.PROBLEMS/CONSTRAINTS AS PERCEIVED BY VILLAGERS IN ANIMAL HUSBANDRYIn contrast to common belief that animal husbandry is a subsidiary and or complementaryoccupation for agro-based rural India, villagers of all the six villages studied rear animalsfor own consumption and rarely sold as a source of cash income. However, the trend hasbeen changing its momentum in the recent years. Mithun – a symbol of social status - is nomore found in the villages. Following are few constraints of animal husbandry practices asperceived by the villagers: (i) Mithuns buffaloes and goats have become a major problemfor the sustenance of agriculture activities as grazing patches has limited and overgrazingby these animals is creating a problem and crops are being damaged; overgrazing also leadsto soil fertility loss, (ii) Pig reared under scavenging system causes unhygienic environment.From the foregoing, it is evident that both agriculture and animal husbandry in the studiedvillages is in grave situation and requires suitable technological and policy interventions.REFERENCEChander, M. and Mukherjee, R. 1995. Indigenous cattle for sustainability in Himalayan regions ofIndia. Asian livestock 20: 141-143.Rangnekar, D.V. 1992a. Study of traditional livestock production systems of the pastoralist andtheir perceptions about production system and attitude to change. Proceedings of Workshopon Transhumant Pastoralism in Gujarat - July 24-25, 1992 at Institute of Rural Management,Anand, Gujarat.Rangnekar, S.D. 1992b. A woman in livestock production in rural India. Proceedings of 6 th AAAPAnimal Science Congress - 23-28 November 1992– Bangkok, Thailand.16ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


ECONOMIC, MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS: THEIRDISTRIBUTION, TRADE AND UTILISATION IN THE COLDDESERT AREAS OF HIMACHAL PRADESHN.S. ChauhanDepartment of Forest Products,Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry,Nauni, Solan- 173230, Himachal Pradesh, IndiaINTRODUCTIONIndia is bestowed with rich natural resources, diverse ecological conditions and long practiceof traditional farming systems consistent with their ethnic diversity and ancient civilization.Traditionally, it produces enormous plant–based raw material used globally in drugs,pharmaceuticals, perfumery, cosmetics, aroma-chemicals and related industries. It has richmedicinal plant flora of over 8000 documented species having medicinal value. 1100 speciesare used in different systems of medicines and out of these 600–700 species are much in usein the country, mostly by local industries. About 150 species are used commercially. Many ofthese are exported to various countries of the world. Western Himalayas contains 50% plantdrugs as mentioned in British Pharmacopoea. It caters to 80% Ayurvedic, 46% Unani and 33%Allopathic system of medicines and contributes a major share in economy to rural farmers andtribals.MEDICINAL PLANTS OF COLD DESERTS IN H.P.The typical cold deserts in Himachal Pradesh include Ladakh in J&K, Pooh in Kinnaur district,Spiti in Lahaul and Spiti district and Pir Panjal in Chamba district. Lahaul region is physicallymore accessible and Rohtang Pass is a gateway to this region connecting it with Kullu. Spiti onthe other hand abounds in high peaks, many of which are above 6000 masl high and includeseveral unnamed and unscaled ones. Pooh division in Kinnaur is another typical cold desertregion having steep, high mountain ranges with scanty vegetation and rugged terrain. Thevegetation of this area is dominated by bushes majority of which form spinescent cushions,stunted forms, twisted and bent nature of stems. 74 species have been identified as medicinal andaromatic plants in the area. Among the plants of commerce and known medicinal importanceare: Ephedra gerardiana, Artemisia brevifolia, Arnebia euchroma, Rheum australe, Gentiana kurroo,Dactylorrhiza hatagirea, Heracleum candicans, Bergenia stracheyi, Achillea millefolium, Taraxacumoffcinale, Betula jacquemontii, Juniperus communis, Rhododendron lepidotum and Physochlaina sp.etc. In Spiti 104 species have been recorded as plants of ethnobotanical importance. The mainspecies of plants used by traditional experts to cure diseases are: Thermopsis inflata, Astragalusgrhahamianus, Convovulus arvensis, Saussurea obvalata, Delphinium vestitum, Berginia stracheyi,Aquilegia fragrans, Thymus serpyllum, Hyssopus officinalis and Fraxinus xanthoxyloides. The floraof the cold deserts is chiefly of central Asian or Siberian characters also of dry alpine natureat lower elevations on account of scanty rainfall and extremely cold climate. The cold desertcan boast of many valuable, high value, low volume herbs (medicinal and aromatic) whichare used by local vaids and Tibetan medicine men and some most important ones are givenin Table 1.ong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 17


Table 1: Inventory of key economic medicinal and aromatic plants and their current status anddistribution.Sr.No.1.2.3.4.5.6.7.Latin Name/(Local Vern.Names)Allium carolinianum(Laot, Jangli Lahasun)A.jaquemontii(Konche, Pharna)Arnebia euchroma(Khamet, Ratanjot)Achillea millefolium(Gandana, Millfoil)Artemisia brevifolia(Nurcha, Seinki)Bergenia stracheyi(Gatikpa, Pashandbhed)Betula jaquemontii(Bhojpatra, Bhuj)Area of distributionKee Gompa, Kibber, Gueand GullingKibber, Sagnum, Dumla,La DarchaKibber, Dumla, Rangrikand Pin valleySporadic in Pin ValleyTabo, Gue, La Darcha,Pin areaMane lake area andSagnum glacier areaDemule PasturesUsesLeaves edible, flower heads used ascondimentsLeaves, bulbs and flower used ascondimentDyeing/colouring of silk, wool,foodstuffs, hair oil; Root used in eyediseases, toothache and earaches, anticancerousBitter, pungent, essential oil asastringent, tonic and diaphoreticEssential oil insecticidal, Santonin inbitter pills against hookwormsRoot diuretic and used for expulsion ofurinary bladder stones, AnalgesicBark is acrid, pungent, heating, tonic,alexiteric, useful in convulsions,bronchitis8.Carum carvi(Shingu, Dru, Mawo)More common inGue and Gulling andsporadic elsewhereFruits as condiments regardedaromatic, pungent, stomachic,carminative and useful in flatulence9.10.11.12.13.14.Corydalis govaniana(Bhutjata)Dactylorrhiza hatagirea(Angbolaghp, Panja,Salampanja)Ephedra gerardiana(Som, Chha, Tutganthaa,Chhedang)Gentiana kurroo(Tikta, Karu, Kour)Gentanella moorcroftiana(Tikta)Hyoscyamus niger(Khurasani ajwain,Henbane)Demule pasturesMudh area and ShegoTwisted entwined, brown rootstocksare used as tonic, diuretic and in eyediseasesRoots are used as farinaceous food,nervine tonic and aphrodisicCommon betweenEphedrin useful in asthma andSumdo, Tabo, Mane lake,respiratory problemsetc.Sagnum Pasture onlyModerate in Pin ValleyCommon near villagesall over the area andmore so in the valley.The root is a bitter tonic useful in thediseases of liver and spleenPlant is used in colic, sore throat andchest complaintsUsed in nervous affections, asthmaand whooping cough. Leaves yieldHyosyamine and Hyoscine usedin various formulations in modernmedicines18ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


15.16.17.18.19.20.21.22.23.Heracleum condicans(Heypomo Padara)Hyssopus officinallis(Tengu, Juffa)Juniperus communis(Hauber, Dhuppi)Juniperus macropoda(Dhup, Dhoop)Malva rotundifolia(Khubasi)Onoma hispidum(Ratanjot, Gaojaban)Physochlaina praealta(Laltang)Rhododendron anthopogon(Talis, Talispatra)Taraxacum officinale(Khurmang, Dandelion)Rangrik, gulling, Mudharea, Sagnum glacierCommon in Pin valleySporadic in Pin valleyPooh, Gue, Tabo, Lari,etc.Kaza and elsewhere nearvillagesSporadic in Gue, Ledang,Rangrik and SagnumareaSporadic in Mane andPin Valley areasAlpine area in Pin valley,Gulling, Bar and KungriSporadic to moderate allover the areaRoots yield xanthotoxin which ishighly efficaceous in the treatment ofleucoderma and psoriasisHighly scented herb yielding essentialoil. Flowering tops are used by locallamas in fevers and blood relateddiseaseIts fruits and essential oil is used indropsy and diseases of urinogenitaltractsWood is used for making pencils, penholdersand walking sticks; Volatileoil used as a substitute for oil of J.communisPlant is used as a pot herb and shootsas salad. Seeds are useful in bronchitis.Flowers contain tanninRed roots are adulterated in Ratanjot.Red dye obtained from the roots is usedfor dyeing and colouring food stuffs.Plant is regarded as tonic demulcent,dieuretic and refrigerant. Root pastecan be applied to cuts and woundsYield alkaloids like Aropene andHyoscyamine which enter into variousmodern formulations as antiodote,sedative, narcotic, anodyne and indilation of the pupilLeaves possess stimulant properties.These are aromatic and areadministered as an errhine to producesneezingRoots are used as diuretic, stomachic,hepatic stimulant and tonic. Youngplant is used as vegetableWith the advancement of knowledge, more and more plants are being brought underuse all over the world. There is ample scope for setting up of small scale extraction andmanufacturing units for indigenous medicines, pharmaceutical products, essential oils andthe food processing units. This will on one side check undesirable expenses in carriage andtransportation of raw material from far flung areas to the markets and on the other hand it willprovide ample employment opportunities for the local people. The plants which have potentialfor establishment of small scale/cottage units and which are in great demand and also fetchremunerative prices in the market have been listed in Table 2 and 3. Right holders collect andsell the material to the contractors who after deposition of required tax and obtaining exportpermit from respective DFO’s of the forest division sell the material in Delhi and Amritsarmarkets. Main collection centres are Keylong, Manali and Kullu for Lahaul; Pooh, Peo andRampur for Spiti and Pooh areas.ong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 19


Table 2: List of plants, their commercial product and market price.Product and Application Botanical/common name of source plant Rate (Rs./Kg)Important phyto-chemicalsEphedrine (useful in asthma ) Ephedra gerardiana (Soma, Chhedang) *Hyoscyamine, Atropine (Antidote, Hyoscyamus niger (Khurasani ajwain)sedative, narcotic, dilation of pupils ) Physochloina pracalta (Laltang)22000*Rutin (useful in capillary fragility) Fagopyrum esculentum *Santonin (Wormicide) Artemisia brevifolia (Sainski, Nurcha) 2225Xanthotoxin (used in leucoderma) Heracleum candicans (Padara, patrala) 150Aromatic plants yielding essential oilsAngelica oil Angelica glauca (Chora) 21,910Artemisia oil Artemisia spp. (Chharmar, Kubish) 1000Bhurse oil, Tansy Tanacetum nubigenum (Bhurse khamba) *Gandana oil Achillea millefolium 3200Juniper oil Juniperus communis (Hauber, Chhershi) *Juniper oil Juniperus macropoda (Shukpa, Dhoop) *Juniper oil Juniperus recurva (Thellu, Shingapallu) *Kalazira oil Carum carvi (Kalazira, Caraway) *Kuth oil Saussurea costus (kuth) 325Lamium oil Lamium album (White deadthisle) *Oil of terragon A. dracunculus *Ribuksu oil Nepeta podostachys (Ribuksu, Ribhuksu) *Spearmint oil Mentha longifolia (Pudina, Chhachri) *Tengu oil, Hyssop Hyssopus officinalis (Tengu,Tyangu, Juffa) *Thyme oil Thymus serpyllum (Ban ajwain) 1,721Thyme oil Micromeria biflora (Indian wild thyme) **Price not availableTable 3: List of some medicinal herbs with their market price.Botanical Name Common name Rate (Rs./Kg)Achillea millefilium Gandana, Biranjasif 125-150Aconitum heterophyllum Atis 2000-5000Allium carolinianum Laot, Jangli lahsun 50Allium przewalskianum Koche, Pharna 100Allium rubellum Neulagu 100Arctium lappa Jangli kuth 30Arnebia euchroma Ratanjot 80Bergenia stracheyi Khilche, Gatikpa 30Betula utilis Tajpa, Bhojpatra 100Carum carvi Kala zira 200Centaurea depressa Pashakha 65Crocus sativus Kesar 25000-4500020ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


Dactylorrhiza hatagirea Angbolanghpo, Salampanja 1200Delphinium vestitum Salyan 100Ephedra gerardiana Chhe, Chhedang 16Gentiana kurroo Karu, Tikta 150Heracleum candicans Heypomo, Padara 100Hyssopus officinalis Juffa 180Juniperus communis Hauber 45Jurinea dolomiaea Dhoop 55-65Mentha longifolia Pudini 25Onosma bracteatum Pasa, Gajaban 60-90Origanum vulgare Sathra 50Picrorrhiza kurrooa Kutki 180-300Rheum australe Revanchini (roots) 70Rheum moocroftianum Leechu, Revandchini 70Rhododendron anthopogon Talispatra 40Rhododendron companulatum Kashmiri patha 35-55Sausssurea costus Kuth (roots) 52Thalictrum foliolosum Pilijari 150Jurinea dolomiaea Dhoop (roots) 55CONCLUSIONThe cold deserts of Himachal Pradesh have quite a large number of medicinal and aromaticplants; majority of which are of local importance only and are used increasingly by thelocal practitioners, vaids and lamas whereas quite good number of herbs are hithertounexploited. The area provides a great potential for production of seed and planting materialfor all valuable herbs occurring in nature. Biosphere reserves for Rheum, Saussurea, Allium,Dactylorrhiza, Ephedra, Hysocyamus, Juniperus, Rhododendron, Hippophae, Arnebia, Heracleum,Juniperus, Gentiana, Pramurus Rhododendron, etc. has to be created in the region to protectthese economically valuable species from extermination. Extensive exploratory studies areexpected to add more valuable information on the total herbal resources of the region. Theinformation from the traditional healers in the region has to be documented for optimum useby the medical world. Small extraction units for essential oils and phyto-chemicals have agreat potential in the region, which can boost the economy of the people.ong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 21


ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY OF PLANTS USED BYGADDI TRIBE OF BHARMOUR AREA INHIMACHAL PRADESHB. Dutt 1 , S.S. Sharma 2 , K.R. Sharma 1 , A. Gupta 1 and H. Singh 11Department of Forest Product and 2 Department of Basic Sciences,Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry,Nauni Solan, Himachal Pradesh–173230, IndiaINTRODUCTIONThe Indian Himalayan region (IHR) is a rich reservoir of biological diversity in the worldand Himachal Pradesh; it is also well known for its rich repository of medicinal and aromaticplants. In tribal areas of Himachal Pradesh, people have been consistently dependent onforests for their day to day needs. Their sole source of health care is medicinal plants fromthese forests. In the process, they have discovered many ethnobotanical uses of the vast plantwealth. Ethnobotanical studies are also expected to provide new material for ever expandingpharmaceutical industry (Gupta, 2011). Keeping in view the importance of traditionalknowledge about local flora, present study deals with special emphasis on the traditionalknowledge on ethnomedico-botany in Bharmour area of H.P.The present study was conducted during 2007-09 in Bharmor, which falls in the Chambadistrict of Himachal Pradesh between latitude N 76 0 20’ 0” and N 76 0 52’ 30” and longitudeE 32 0 11’ 0” and E 320 36’ 0 0 with a total geographical area of 1797.28 Km 2 . Extensive fieldsurvey of the entire area of Bharmour, starting from the lower elevation at Dhakog (1800m) and higher elevation at Manimahesh (4100 m) was carried out. Collection of the voucherspecimens was undertaken during flowering and fruiting stage in the month of April to Octoberso as to facilitate the process of identification. Collected plant specimens were identifiedaccording to the field characters (already noted during collection) and consulting herbariaand various floras for conformation of identity. For description of specimens, macroscopiccharacters of gathered specimens and field observations were used. The importance regardingthe traditional knowledge, local name of the plant, plant part used, purpose for which used,mode of administration and curative properties were recorded through discussions with theknowledgeable and elderly local people of the study area.RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONSThe information collected on 70 spp. of medicinal and aromatic plants having ethnobotanicalimportance is given in Table 1. This information has been recorded from local elderly people,hermits, shepherds and Vaids (local physicians). Similar studies were undertaken by Dinanath(2007) in a survey conducted in the Pangi area of district Chamba of Himachal Pradesh. Theseplant species are being used frequently for curing various diseases occurring among localpeople. The local people believe in the efficacy of these herbs and ethnobotanical knowledgeis restricted to very few elderly folks. Similar studies were conducted by Kumar and Pullaiah(1998) and reported first hand information on 50 ethno medicinal plants used traditionally. Bhattet al. (1999) described 54 ethno-medicinal plants, which were used by tribals and rural peopleof Jhuni and adjoining villages in Bageshwar District of Uttrakhand State. Dey (1964) reportedmore than 100 medicinal plants of commercial and traditional importance in Baghirathi and22ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


Shillonger valley in Uttarkashi Forest division of Garhwal Himalaya. Information on herbalwealth as well as ethnobotanical studies of this particular tribal belt or Bharmour area has notbeen systematically documented and is available only in small bits and parts. This report willnot only provide the vital information for the future research on medicinal plants but wouldalso helps in conservation of our precious herbal wealth through realization of the immensevalue of the plants by the future generation.Table 1: List of medicinal plants with their ethnobotanical use in Bharmour area, H.P.Species NameAconitum heterophyllum Wall.ex RoyleAconogonum molle (D. Don)HaraAcorus calamus Besser Araceae BarainAesculus indica (Colebr. exCambess) Hook.FamilyCommonNameEthono Botanical UseGrounded roots mixed withRanunculaceae Patris sugar and taken with water torelieve stomach pain.Leaves are cooked as vegetablePolygonaceae Tarodiand sour young stems removethirst in case of unavailability ofwater.Root paste applied on chest toget rid of cold.Peeled and grounded whitishfruit put in water and atta (flour)like powder is cooked and eatenHippocastanaceae Goonto improve strength. In extremecold, it is eaten for 9-10 days togive resistance from cold. Thetop floating material is used forwashing clothes.Grounded leaves paste is appliedon pimples.Leaves are used as garlicsubstitute.Amaryllidaceae Nik Roots and leaves are put in oilfor frying which give flavour topulses and vegetables.Asteraceae Bhujlu Whitish thread like leaf fibersrubbed with runka (ironinstrument) is used to light fire.Small pieces of roots added topulses to cure obesity.Ajuga bracteosa Wall. Lamiaceae NeelkanthiAllium victoralis DC. Amaryllidaceae HappuAllium govanianum Wall.Anaphalis nubigena DC.Angelica glauca Edgew. Apiaceae ChoraAreneria festucoides Benth. Caryophyllaceae Mumri Considered as best sheep fodder.Aster himalaicus Clarke Asteraceae RaktjadiDecoction of roots gives instantrelief in blood dysentery.Berberis aristata DC. Berberidaceae KemalBoiled, bitter root extract purifyblood.Small pieces of rhizome are usedBistorta amplexicaulisto prepare tea like decoctionPolygonaceae Laal Chai(D. Don) Greenewhich provides immunityagainst cold.ong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 23


Berberis lycium Royle Berberidaceae KahmalCotinus coogyria Scop. Anacardiaceae TungDactylorhiza hetagirea (D.Don) SooOrchidaceaeSalampanjaRoots eaten in small doses act asa vermicide.Twigs are used as Datun (toothbrush) and give strength to gums.Roots are used to cure headache.Daphne mucronata Royle Thymelaeaceae NiggiCharcoal is made from the stemwhich easily catches fire. Blackink is also made from charcoal.Datura stramonium Linn. Solanaceae DhainturaGrounded dried seed powdermixed and boiled with mustardoil is effective in joint pains.Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. Dioscoreaceae KhaldriPowdered roots put in woodenpot with holes act as insecticideto protect woollen clothes.Elsholtzia eriostachya Benth. Lamiaceae Jangli tulsiDecoction of leaves relieve coldand cough.Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Apiaceae Saunf Used as condiment.Violet fruits are useful inGaultheria trichophylla Royle Ericaceae Niladu controlling breathlessness due tomountain climbing and in asthma.Gentiana kurroo Royle Gentianaceae Kaud Leaves are eaten to relieve fever.Gerbera gossypina (Royle)Kupdu Cotton substitute in makingAsteraceaeBeauvghas cotton linters for worshipping.Gynura cusimbua (D.Don) S.Stem and flowers are eaten whenAsteraceae DudliMooreyoung.Heracleum candicans Wall. exGrounded root paste is used inApiaceae PatralaDC.snake bite.When young, the plant is usedImpatiens balsamina Linn. Balsaminaceae Halvaas mehandi (dye) which producesvery dark colour. Seeds are edibleand delicious.Juglans regia Linn. Juglandaceae AkhrotDatun (Tooth brush) made outof the bark cure bad breath andstrengthens the gums.Juniperus indica Bertol. Cupressaceae BethreyLeaves and stems are used asdhoop (incense).Juniperus recurva Buch.-Ham.ex D.DonCupressaceaeBetherMeconopsis aculeata Royle Papaveraceae KalkottiMentha longifolia Linn. Lamiaceae PudiniMyrica nagi Thunb. Myricaceae KaphalaGaddis add its leaves overburning charcoal to act as dhoop(incense).Grounded roots along withcommon salt given to animalsdevelop disease resistance.Dried and powdered fresh rootswith pepper and thyme cure piles.Seeds are edible and takenwith warm water to preventconstipation.24ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


Origanum vulgare Linn. Lamiaceae MaruaUtensils used to store milk andghee are washed with leaves ofthis plant as it gives good aroma.Oxalis corniculata Linn. Oxalidaceae AmbluLeaf juice is useful in pit (Liver)problems.Oxyria digyna (Linn.) Hill PolygonaceaeChhoti Leaves taste very sour and usedchukri in making condiments.Chewing of 2-3 leaves actsPicrorhiza kurroa Royle exas antipyretic. Decoction ofScrophulariaceae KaudBenth.leaves sprinkled in wheat fieldsprevents insect attack.Plantago lanceolata Linn. Plantaginaceae IsabgolHusk is useful in stomachailments.Boiled seeds along with tea arePleurospermum candolii (DC.)Apiaceae Baandi useful to escape cold and are alsoClarkea substitute for fennel.Fruits and decoction of groundedroots with sugar are eaten byPodophyllum hexandrumGaddis as a medicine againstPodophyllaceae Bankakdu(Royle)Wedd.constipation persisting for long.Also used for stomach problemsin animals.Flowers are believed to havesupernatural power to ward offPrimula floribunda Wall. Primulaceae Baasdu devils and people knowingwitchcraft. Flowers are used byladies to decorate their hairs.Prinsepia utilis Wall. Rosaceae BiklainSeeds are ground to yield edibleoil which is used as substitute forcooking oil.Prunella vulgaris Linn. Lamiaceae GudliYoung stems are kept as clustersin living rooms as a protectionagainst mosquitoes and flies.Rhododendron anthopogonLeaves are used for making teaEricaceae BanchaiD. Donwhich is useful in cold.10 g of dried and powderedRhododendron campanulatumEricaceae Sarangad leaves taken daily for a month isD. Donuseful to get rid of old sinus.Rhus punjabensis Stewart Anacardiaceae DhuriSeeds taste sour and eaten incase of constipation.Rosa moschata Miller Rosaceae KojaiFruit is eaten and has vermicidalproperties.Selinium vaginatum Clarke Apiaceae BhootkaisiRoots grounded with wheat flouralong with seed are used to makegood quality wine.Salix disperma Roxb. exD.DonSalicaceae Bedah Twigs are used as toothbrushes.ong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 25


Sarcococca pruniformis(D.Don) Muell. Arg.Saussurea gossypiphoraD.DonBuxaceaeAsteraceaeAiraGuggiSaussurea taraxifolia Wall. Asteraceae ShivjataSaussurea lappa(Decne.) Sch. Bip.AsteraceaeKuthSedum ewersii Ledeb. Crassulaceae KirtiSempervirens sedoidesDecaisneSkimmia laureola (DC.)Sieb.& Zucc. Ex Walp.Solanum nigrum Linn.Sorbaria tomentosa (Lindley)RehderCrassulaceaeRutaceaeSolanaceaeRosaceaeChidi dipinnadiGandhKapuraJanglicheerBaatiSwertia speciosa D. Don Gentianaceae BambiriTaxus baccata Zucc. Taxaceae BrammiThymus serphyllum Linn. Lamiaceae Ban-ajwainUrtica dioica Linn. Urticaceae SaagValeriana jatamansi Jones Valerianaceae Nak nahaniVerbascum thaspus Linn. Scrophulariaceae HanumanViburnum cylindricumBuch.- Ham. ex. D.DonSambucaceaeKarnehOvernight soaked leaves in waterare eaten as a tonic.Considered very auspicious andkept for worship along with baan(Quercus spp.) Also used in havans(religious ceremonies) and isknown to purify air.Grounded roots with boiling milkgiven to pregnant lady helps toprevent pain and easy delivery.Root powder is also used to washhairs to prevent their fall. Dhuni(Smoke) is also given to ward offevil spirits.Seed oil applied on aching jointsrelieves pain.Dried and grounded plant mixedwith hot milk is useful for patientsuffering from piles.Leaf paste useful in curing ofpimples.Aromatic leaves rubbed in handsand inhaled for few minutesinstantly relieve cold.Leaf paste with cow urine appliedon forehead cure headache.Fruits taken with warm waterrelieve constipation.Roots ground in water are putinto eyes like surma (dye) torelieve snow-burnt eyes.Leaves are used as dhoop(incense) and in havans (religiousceremonies).Whole plant is useful in stomachailments.Leaves boiled in hot water arecooked as vegetable.Roots and stems are used inhavans (religious ceremonies).Plant finds use in havans (religiousceremonies) and scaring evilspirits.Seeds taken with water relieveconstipation.26ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


Viburnum nervosum D. Don Sambucaceae TalanaViola pilosa Blume Violaceae BanakshanVitis parviflora Roxb.VitaceaeJangliangurZanthoxylem armatum DC. Rutaceae TirmiruREFERENCESFruits are edible and are usefulfor anemic people.Flower decoction is useful incough and cold.Fruits are edible and are useful insummer stroke.Twigs are used as tooth brushand leaf decoction applied onburns give quick relief fromburning sensation.Bhatt, D.C., Mehta, S.K. and Mitaliya, K.D. 1999. Ethno-medicinal plants of Shetrunjaya Hills ofPalitana, Gujrat. Ethnobotany 11(1/2): 22-25.Dey, A.C. 1964. Folklore of medicinal plants of Baghirathi and Bhilligna valley. InternationalSymposium on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Delhi University. pp. 7-29.Dinanath, 2007. Studies on diversity of medicinal and aromatic plants of Pangi valley of Chambadistrict of Himachal Pradesh. M.Sc. Thesis. Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture andForestry, Nauni, Solan (H.P.) India. pp. 223.Gupta, A. 2011. Ethnobotanical studies on Gaddi tribe of Bharmour area of Himachal PradeshPh.D. Thesis, Dr. YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, (HP),India. pp. 157.Kumar, R.V. and Pullaiah, T. 1998. Medicinal plants used by the tribals of Prakasam district AndhraPradesh. Ethnobotany 19(1/2): 97-102.ong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 27


SEDIMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF IMPHAL, THOUBALAND KHUGA RIVERS OF MANIPURS.D. Gurumayum 1 and U.C. Goswami 21Zoological Survey of India, Gopalpur Sea, Orissa-761002, India2Department of Zoology, Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam, IndiaINTRODUCTIONBottom sediment of a lotic ecosystem is a highly heterogeneous system consisting of bothinorganic and organic material and has direct and indirect effects on the biota of runningwaters. Though the river water is always moving, still the water flowing above is governed tosome extent by the existing bottom soil quality. The characteristics of the bottom soil play animportant role in the retention and leakage of nutrients into the water. Bottom sediment alsoprovides a surface to cling to or burrow in, shelter from current, material for construction ofcases and tubes and refuge from predators. River exhibit downstream decrease in gradientalong its length. Coarse particle including gravel and boulders are typical of upland stream,while a finer and softer substrate often is found in larger lowland rivers. Their diversegeography provides for almost unlimited variation in the biota. It has been well recognizedthat quality of bottom soil plays a vital role in the productivity of any water body. Therefore,it is very important to know the soil characteristics of the water body.MATERIALS AND METHODSThree rivers of Manipur have been selected for the study viz., the Imphal, the Khuga and theThoubal. Two sampling stations (both upstream and downstream) each for the Khuga andthe Thoubal rivers were selected. In case of the Imphal river three stations: upper, middle anddownstream were selected. The study was carried out during January 1999 to December 2000.Samples from the rivers were collected seasonally i.e., winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon andpost-monsoon. A representative surface (15 cm) soil samples were collected in the polythenebag and dried, powdered and passed through a 20 mm sieve and used for physical andchemical analysis. The analytical procedure followed for the above-mentioned parameterswere as described by APHA (1989), Welch (1948), Manivasakam (1985) and Jhingran et al.(1969).RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONSeasonal variation in sediment quality in upper and lower stretch of the Khuga river is givenin Table 1. In Khuga river pH of the soil is acidic to neutral and sediment was sandy in texture.The upstream of the Khuga river had the pH range of 6.4-7.0. Winter, pre monsoon and postmonsoon samples were acidic in reaction. During monsoon, pH changed from acidic toneutral. Sediment was sandy in character (86-89%). Silt showed minimum fluctuation (5.0-5.5%) whereas clay fluctuated between 6.0-8.5%. Both clay and silt percentage increased duringmonsoon season whereas contribution of sand decreased. In the lower stretch of the river, pHvalue of the sediment was not affected by seasonal changes and remained on acidic side (6.1-6.6) throughout the study period, however maximum pH was encountered during monsoon.Increase in the sand percentage (91-94.9%) was seen in the lower stretch but reduced in itscontribution during monsoon season. Contribution of clay decreased (0-2.5%) from upperstretch to lower stretch, whereas silt (5.1-6.5%) contribution increased.28ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


Table 1: Seasonal variation in sediment quality of the Khuga river.ParametersTextureSand (%) Silt (%) Clay (%)pHUpstreamWinter 87.9 5.1 6.0 6.6Pre-monsoon 89.0 5.0 6.0 6.4Monsoon 86.0 5.5 8.5 7.0Post-monsoon 88.6 5.0 6.3 6.5DownstreamWinter 93.4 5.5 1.1 6.3Pre-monsoon 94.5 5.0 0.5 6.2Monsoon 91.0 6.5 2.5 6.6Post-monsoon 94.9 5.1 0 6.1THOUBAL RIVERSeasonal variation in sediment quality of the Thoubal river is given in Table 2. The pH of thebottom sediment of the river fluctuated between acidic to neutral (6.4-7.1) and soil texture wassandy in character. In the upstream of the Thoubal river, pH value fluctuated between 6.4-7.1.Winter (6.6), pre monsoon (6.5) and post (6.4) monsoon had the minimum pH reflecting acidic innature, whereas during monsoon pH increased up to 7.1. This may be attributed to dilution byrainwater. Soil texture was sandy in character (98-100%). During pre and post monsoon sedimentshowed 100% sand, whereas during monsoon season sand percentage reduced to 99.3% and 98%,respectively. Contribution of silt was 0.3% and that of clay was 0.4% during winter. Silt and claycontribution increased to 1% of the total sediment during monsoon. In downstream, pH was inacidic range in all the seasons and pH value never become neutral and lack definite seasonal patterngiving almost constant value throughout the study period (6.5-6.58). Soil texture was sandy (91-92%) but its percentage contribution decreased from upstream. Percentage of soil in all the seasondid not show appreciable fluctuation as well. Silt (2.5-3.5%) and clay (5.5%) percentage increasedfrom upstream to downstream. Silt showed minimum percentage during monsoon (2.5%) whereas during winter and pre monsoon (3.0%) and post monsoon (3.5%) its contribution increased.Clay percentage (5.5%) remained stable throughout the seasons.Table 2. Seasonal variation in sediment quality of Thoubal river.ParametersTexturepHSand (%) Silt (%) Clay (%)UpstreamWinter 99.3 0.3 0.4 6.6Pre-monsoon 100 0 0 6.5Monsoon 98 1 1 7.1Post-monsoon 100 0 0 6.4DownstreamWinter 91.5 3 5.5 6.5Pre-monsoon 91.5 3.0 5.5 6.5Monsoon 92 2.5 5.5 6.5Post-monsoon 91 3.5 5.5 6.6IMPHAL RIVERIn Imphal river pH of the soil varied between 6.45-7.0 and soil texture was sandy in character.Silt and clay percentages fluctuated significantly (Table 3). In the upstream of the river, soilong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 29


was acidic in nature having pH value of 6.5-6.53 and their values were almost stable during thestudy period. Soil texture was sandy (97-98%), and lack definite seasonal variation. Minimumsand percentage was observed during monsoon. Silt and clay percentages were lesser in allthe seasons. Silt was completely absent during post monsoon where as during the remainingseasons its contribution was constant (1%). Clay percentage fluctuated between 1-2% and itwas minimum during pre monsoon season. At middle stretch of the Imphal river, pH showedacidic to neutral in character (6.3-7.0). It was the monsoon season that showed the neutralvalue and in rest of the seasons it was acidic in nature. Sand percentage decreased and siltpercentage increased from upper stretch to the middle stretch. The range of fluctuation ofsand was 90-92%, showing minimum seasonal variation. Percentage of silt was high in all theseasons, which fluctuated between 7.7-8.5%. Clay percentage remains almost same (0.3-1.5%)and showed little fluctuation. Both silt and clay percentage showed its lower value duringmonsoon season. At lower stretch of the river, pH of the soil remain acidic throughout theseasons (6.45-6.7) but during monsoon, pH increased to near neutral (6.7). Soil texture wassandy in character and the contribution of sand again decreased from middle stretch, and itvaried between 90.5-92.5%. Silt showed minimum fluctuation during the study and its overallpercentage decreased from the middle stretch (3.25-3.5%). Here, percentage of clay increased(4.25-6.0%) and showed seasonal fluctuation, monsoon and post monsoon have the maximumand minimum values, respectively.Table 3: Seasonal variation in sediment quality of the Imphal river.ParametersTexturepHSand (%) Silt (%) Clay (%)UpstreamWinter 97 1 2 6.5Pre-monsoon 98 1 1 6.5Monsoon 97 1 2 6.53Post-monsoon 98 0 2 6.5Middle stretchWinter 91.1 8.0 0.9 6.6Pre-monsoon 91 8.0 1 6.5Monsoon 90 8.5 1.5 7.0Post-monsoon 92 7.7 0.3 6.3DownstreamWinter 91.5 3.3 5.2 6.6Pre-monsoon 91.75 3.25 5.0 6.45Monsoon 90.5 3.5 6.0 6.7Post-monsoon 92.5 3.25 4.25 6.5Soil texture changes from upstream to downstream; generally the head portion of the riversediments is mainly composed of big boulders and sand. When the river flows throughthe plains, bottom sediments comprise different proportion of sand, silt and clay butsand percentage always dominate in the river bottom. This is a very common and naturalphenomena observed by many workers as well. Overall pH in the three rivers of Manipurranged between acidic to neutral (6.21-7.1). Pathak et al. (2001) also reported similar pH value(6.7-7.2) from the different stretches of river Mahanadi. But the same author found a range ofpH (7.0-7.5) from the tributaries of river Brahmaputra. A much alkaline value was observedfrom the river Ghaghara (7.01-8.75) by Singh (1997). The pH value of the river sediments went30ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


towards alkaline side during monsoon season irrespective of zonal variation which may beattributed to dilution by rain water. Similar observation was reported by Nath (2001) fromNarmada river. But Singh and Mahaver (1998) reported lower value of pH during monsoonin river Ghagrha.Soil texture in all the rivers studied was dominated by sand irrespective of seasons and spatialvariation. Generally, river sediments are dominated by sand as it is mainly derived from thesediments brought from the headwaters by the weathering of rocks. Dominance of sand inthe sediment quality in bottom soil of river and higher sand percentage in the upstream of therivers in the present finding corroborate with that of Pathak, et al. (2000 & 2001) in Mahanadiand tributaries of river Brahmaputra; Singh et al. (1997, 1998 & 1999) from the rivers Gangaand Ghaghra. Lower value of clay and silt was also observed by the same authors in thelower stretches of the river. In the present study sand percentage fluctuated between 86-100%but Singh (1999) reported much lower value of sand percentage (70-91%) from the differentstretches of river Ghagrha. However, Pathak et al. (2001) reported 96-99% sand from thedifferent stretches of Mahanadi.Silt and clay percentage fluctuated between 0-8.5% in these rivers. Maximum silt was observedin middle stretch of Imphal river and maximum clay was seen in upstream of Khuga river.Increase in silt and clay composition and decrease in sand percentage in downstream ofImphal and Thoubal rivers were clearly noticeable. In the Khuga river, percentage of clayshowed the maximum value and silt percentage was also high. Increased silt and clay valuesat downstream were reported by Singh et al. (1999) in Ghagrha river. The same author reporteda much higher value of clay and silt (5-19% and 4-13%, respectively) from the same river.Whereas Pathak et al. (2001) reported much lower range of silt (0.5-2.5%) and clay (0.5-2.0%)from the different stretches of river Mahanadi.CONCLUSIONBottom sediments of the three rivers of Manipur showed more inclination towards acidiccharacter (pH; 6.21-7.1). Soil texture of the three rivers was sandy in character and seasonalchanges have minimum effect on soil texture. However, decrease in percentage of sand couldbe found during monsoon. Percentage of sand decreased from upper stretch to lower stretchin Thoubal and Imphal rivers whereas increase in the percentage of sand in downstream ofKhuga river was recorded. Silt and clay percentage increased from upper to lower streches inThoubal and Imphal river while in Khuga river it was just the opposite.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThe author is grateful to the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi for financialassistance under A. P. Cess Fund Project on Ecology and Fisheries of the Rivers of NE statesand to the Director, CIFRI (ICAR), Barrackpore for providing necessary facilities.REFERENCESAPHA, 1989. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. American Public HealthAssociation. Washington D.C.Jhingran, V.G., Natarajan, A.V., Banerjee and David, A. 1969. Methodology on reservoir fisheries:Investigation in India. Bull. Cent. Inland Fish. Res. Inst., Barrackpore, India. 1: pp. 109.Manivasakam, N. 1985. Physico-chemical Examination of Water, Sewage and Industrial Effluents. PragatiPrakasha, Meerut (U. P.). pp. 275.ong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 31


Nath, D. 2001. Water and soil characteristics of the Narmada estuary before commissioning ofSardar Sarobar dam. J. Inland Fish. Soc. India 33(2): 37-41.Pathak, V., Mahaver, L.R. and Sarkar, A. 2001. Ecological status and production dynamics of astretch of river Mahanadi. J. Inland Fish. Soc. India 3(1): 25-31.Pathak, V., Choudhury, M., Laal, A.K., Bhattacharjee, B.K., Sarkar, A. and Mahavar, L.R. 2000.Ecology and production dynamics of river Brahmaputra with special emphasis on its tributaries.Bull. No. 97, Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Barrackpore, India.Singh, H.P. and Mahaver, L.R. 1997. Preliminary observation on soil sediments of river Ghaghra-atributaries of river Ganga. J. Inland Soc. India 30(2): 74-78.Singh, H.P. and Mahaver, L.R. 1998. Status of soil in the lower stretches of river Ganga fromSultanpur to Farakka. J. Inland Soc. India 29(2): 60-61.Singh, H.P., Mahaver, L.R. and Mishra, J.P. 1999. Limnochemical characteristic of river Ghagharain U. P. J. Inland Soc. India 31(10): 28-32.Welch, P.S. 1948. Limnological Methods, Mc Graw Hills book Co. Inc., New York. pp. 471.32ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


SEABUCKTHORN: A VALUABLE RESOURCE OF THE COLDDESERT (LADAKH)A. Ali and V. KaulDepartment of Botany,University of Jammu,Jammu–180006, J&K, IndiaINTRODUCTIONSeabuckthorn (SBT) has assumed tremendous importance during last few decades. Because ofits multiple uses it has earned several epithets such as the Golden Bush of Himalaya, LadakhGold and Wonder Plant. A member of family Eleagnaceae (Oleaster family), Seabuckthorn isnative to Europe and Asia (Hooker, 1878). Seabuckthorn holds the potential of changing theface of Ladakh if exploited the way it has been in China, Russia, Mongolia and Canada, etc.China is the largest producer of SBT products; the total value of which is a little over 20 millionUS dollars. It is therefore not surprising that the area under cultivation of Seabuckthorn indifferent regions of China has been extended from 6,67,000 ha in 1985 to about 1,000,000 hain 1990 (Rongsen, 1992). SBT products include foodstuffs, beverages, medicines, cosmetics,healthcare products, chemicals, industrial material and so on. Fed with SBT a sheep or goatproduces more mutton and cashmere.INDIAN SEABUCKTHORNIn India species of Hippophae grow in fivestates; 3 in the North-West (Himachal Pradesh,Uttaranchal and J&K) and 2 in the North-East(Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh) Himalaya(Dwevidi et al., 2006) over a vast stretch of harsh,inaccessible, temperate area in roughly 74,809sq. km (Awasthi and Sankhyan In: google/Hippophae.com). Four species, namely H.rhamnoides ssp. turkestanica, H. salicifolia, H.tibetana, and H. gyantsensis represent the genusin the country (Naithani, 2004). In J&K, SBTgrows over more than 11,000 ha of land in fivevalleys of Ladakh viz. Leh, Nubra, Zanskar,Suru and Changthang. As per literature (Singhand Dogra, 1996; Dwivedi et al., 2004) Ladakhhosts H. rhamnoides ssp. turkestanica and H.salicifolia. H. salicifolia is a tree, and H. rhamnoidesis mostly bushy, but at many places, it attainsthe size of a tree. Morphologically plants ofH. salicifolia are less thorny with long straightor curved willow like branches. H. gyantsensis(Rousi) Lian is similar to H. salicifolia but forits white bark, narrower leaves with whitishunder surface and elliptical fruits. H. tibetanaFig. 1 (a - e) Hippophae rhamnoides. a. Apopulation at Diskit, Nubra Valley; b. livestock foraging smaller plants; c. male plant inbloom; d and e. female plants at fruiting stage.ong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 33


is densely branched shrub bearing thick, knobby tortuous thorny stem. H. rhamnoides can bearboreal or bushy (Fig.1. a, b) and extremely variable which is attributed to its dioecious andcross pollinated nature (Fig 1. c, d). The 8 constituent subspecies of H. rhamnoides tend tointergrade with one another making their distinction arbitrary. H. rhamnoides ssp. turkestanicais a stiff shrub with erect or decumbent stems. Branches frequently dieback at the tips andbecome spiny. The plant species was exploited for greening the mountainous terrain underCold Desert Afforestation Programme and preparation of a herbal beverage under differenttrade names - Leh Berry, Ladakh Berry, Power Berry or Sindhu Berry (Dwivedi et al., 2006).Earlier, it was considered a weed and burnt off to clear the fields for cultivation (Singh, 2004).The nodulated roots bear Frankia sps. which fix nitrogen @80 kg/hectare/year. The quantitycan be as high as 180 kg/hectare/year (Akkernans et al., 1983).USESBecause of its varied applications the plant is sometimes considered ‘Kalptaru (Legendary treeof the epics that provides fruit as desired),” (Duhoon et al., 1996; Naithani, 2004). The mainuses of the plant are briefly listed below:(a) Stem is used as fuel which is a rare commodity in the alpine regions and burns withoutsmoke. Its calorific value is 4785 cal/kg (Chaurasia et al., 2003-04); (b) Bark is an effectiveblood purifier (Naithani 2004); (c) Leaves are utilized in preparing antioxidant rich beveragewhich is nutritious and refreshing (www.seabuckthorn.com). The protein rich leaves (23.9%)are used as fodder Chaurasia et al. (2003-04); (d) SBT juice is fibrous and does not freeze at subzero temperature and is nutritious and refreshing; (e) Fruits are used in making juice, jams,jellies, marmalades, pickles, snacks, SBT milk and yoghurt (www.seabuckthorn.com; Dwivediet al., 2006); (f) Seeds and fruits yield valuable oil which is in great demand in pharmaceuticaland cosmetic industries. Known to block UV radiation the oil is used in the preparationof sun screen lotions, hand and body creams, lip balm and lip gloss, SBT shampoos andconditioners and radio protective creams (Delabays and Slocanins, 1995; Xu et al., 1994; Xuet al., 2001); (g) The plant is a rich reservoir of 190 compounds present in its seed, fruit pulpand juice (Denise Code. In: www.seabuckthorn.com). These include a rare combination offat soluble and other vitamins like C, B 1and B 2, folic acid, 22 fatty acids (Chen et al., 1990),42 lipids, organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, tocopherols and flavonoids (Yuzhen &Fuheng, 1997), phenol, quercetin, terpenes and tannins and about 20 mineral elements (DeniseCode. In: www.seabuckthorn.com); (h) Presence of omega-3 fatty acids (i.e. linolenic acid)in SBT seed in quantities relatively higher than most other plant sources makes this plantappropriate for decreasing the risk of heart disease. The omega-3 fatty acids act by loweringtriglycerides. It is also useful in treating rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, multiple sclerosisand systemic lupus– disorders in which the immune response is hyper-stimulated. Linolenicacid acts on membrane phospholipids and thereby influences the immune system; (i) It findsuse in medicine as anti-inflammatory, anti-irritant, anti-microbial, anti-ageing agent, as autoimmunemoderator and skin conditioner. Its potential against atopic dermatitis, aphonia,cardio vascular disease, cancer, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases have also been reported(www.seabuckthorn.com); (j) It is considered a pioneer species and it colonizes open siteslike abandoned agricultural lands, infertile wastelands, riversides, hilltops, slopes and rockylands (Rongsen, 1992); (k) It helps binding loose soil with its extensive root system, preventingerosion and conserving soil moisture (Rongsen, 1992; Dhyani et al., 2007).With the present international market for SBT products, valued at over 60 billion US$ per year,it is high time to utilize this plant. Suitable programmes are required to realize the importance34ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


of this plant so that people can harness it for the economic development of Ladakh. Similarly,morphological, cytological and molecular markers need to be employed to assess geneticvariation for subsequent exploitation in breeding elite types of SBT. Hunt for spineless plantsin nature as well as by induced mutation should be pursued vigorously because spines are aserious impediment for harvesting fruits. Detailed studies on reproductive biology, pollinationecology and seed-to-seed cycle need to be carried out, which will ultimately lay the foundationfor selection and improvement of this nature’s gift.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe authors express their sincere thanks to Dr. A.K. Koul for motivating them to work onSeabuckthorn.REFERENCESAkkermans, A.D.L., Roelofsen N., Blom J., Huss, D. and Harkin, R. 1983. Utilization of carbonand nitrogen compound by Frankia in synthetic media and root nodules of Alnus glutinosa,Hippophae rhamnoides and Datisca cannabina. Can. J. Bot. 61: 2793-2800.Awasthi, R.P. and Sankhyan, H.P. Research and development status of Seabuckthorn in colddeserts of western Himalaya – India (Abstract only). In: www.Google/Hippophae.com.Chaurasia, O.P., Basant, B., Verma, A., Ahmad, Z. and Raut, B. 2003-04. Potential fodder plant ofLadakh, DIHAR (DRDO) Leh, Ladakh.Chen, Y., Jiang, Z., Qin, W., Ni, M., Li, X. and He, Y. 1990. Chemical composition and characteristicof Seabuckthorn fruit and its oil. Chem. Ind. Forest Prod.10(3): 163-175.Code, D. Seabuckthorn – Ancient Food of East and Future Food of West. In: www.seabuckthorn.com.Delabays, N. and Slocanins, I. 1995. Domestication and selection of new plant species of interest tothe cosmetic industry. Revue Suisse de viticulture, -d` Arboriculture-et-`Horticulture 27: 143-147.Dhyani, D., Maikhuri, R.K., Rao, K.S., Kumar, L., Purohit, V.K., Sundriyal, M. and Saxena, K.G.2007. Basic nutritional attributes of Hippophae rhamnoides (Seabuckthorn) populations fromUttarakhand Himalaya, India. Current Science 92(8): 1148-1152.Duhoon, S.S., Koopar, M.N. and Chandra, U. 1996. Seabuckthorn (Hippophae spp.) – A less knownwonder plant of Ethno-micro-botanical importance in cold desert of India. J. Econ. Taxon. Bot.Add. Ser. 12: 43-45.Dwivedi, S.K., Singh, R. and Raut, B. 2004. Present status and future thrust on seabuckthornresearch in Ladakh. In: Souvenir and Book of Abstracts of National Seminar on Cultivation,Harvesting and Scientific Exploitation of Seabuckthorn, pp. 38-44., August 26-27, 2004, FRL(DRDO), Leh, India, pp. 136.Dwivedi, S.K., Singh, R. and Ahmad, Z. 2006. The Seabuckthorn, FRL, Leh Ladakh.Hooker, J.D. 1878. Flora of British India. Vol. V th pp. 201(Reprint 1999).Naithani, H.B. 2004. Hippophae Linn. (Seabuckthorn) in India: A review. The Indian Forester 130(9):1045-1056.Rongsen, Lu. 1992. Seabuckthorn: A multipurpose plant species for fragile mountains. ICIMODOccasional Paper No. 20, Kathmandu, Nepal. pp. 1-50.ong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 35


Rongsen, Lu. Genetic resources of Hippophae and its utilization In: google/ISAexpert forum.com.Singh, V. and Dogra, K.K. 1996. Characteristics, distribution, biomass, degeneration and nutritionalvalues of seabuckthorn. The Indian Forester 122(6): 486-491.Singh, B. 2004. Seabuckthorn for food and Medicine. National Seminar on Seabuckthorn, FRL(DRDO) Leh. www.seabuckthorn.com. www.wikipedia/hippophae.com.Xu, M. 1994. The medicinal research and exploitation of sea buckthorn. Hippophae 7: 32-34.Xu, M., Sun, S. and Cui, J. 2001. The medicinal research on Seabuckthorn. Proc. Int. WorkshopSeabuckthorn. New Delhi, India. Feb 18-21, 2001.Yuzhen, Z. and Fuheng, W. 1997. Hippophae 10(1): 39-41.36ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


AGENTS OF CLIMATE CHANGEP. GhoshG.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment & Development,Garhwal Unit, Srinagar, Garhwal, Uttarakhand, IndiaThe earth’s climate results from the complex interaction of many components, the ocean,atmosphere, geosphere, cryosphere and biosphere. Although the climate system is ultimatelydriven by the external solar energy, changes to any of the internal components and how theyinteract with each other, as well as variability in the solar radiation, can lead to changes inclimatic conditions. These influences are often considered as ‘forcings’, changes to the energyinputs and outputs that result in modifications in the climate. Therefore, there are manycauses of climate change that operate on a variety of timescales. On the longest timescales aremechanisms such as geological processes and the changes in the earth’s orbit around the sun(Milankovitch-Croll effect). The latter is believed to be the mechanism underlying the cycleof ice ages and interglacials. Geological processes resulting from the movement of tectonicplates and consequent major changes in physical relief, continental distributions and oceanbasin shape and connectivity clearly have influenced global climate patterns. Geologicalprocesses can also work on a much shorter timescale through volcanism. Large explosivevolcanic eruptions can eject millions of tons of soot and ash into the middle atmosphere wherethey reflect solar radiation, creating a “global soot veil”. In addition to geological and orbitalchanges, the climate system is sensitive to inherent and periodic internal variability in anyone of its components such as ocean currents. These can be on decadal timescales such as theInterdecadal Pacific oscillation or the variations can be on near-interannual timescales suchas the well documented El-Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and North Atlantic Oscillation(NAO). During ENSO events when ocean upwelling in the eastern equatorial Pacific is weakerthan normal, the resulting changes to sea surface temperatures and to the wind patternsdramatically affect climate and consequently impact the biosphere across the region.Climate change involves the interaction of several systems with many variables that must becollectively considered. Natural climate changes have occurred throughout earth’s history.Large scale natural events as abrupt as those associated with human environment impactsare known to have occurred in the past. It is now held that human activities are a majorfactor affecting climate as one of the components of the environment. Climate in turn affectsnatural vegetation and agriculture. Only during the past few decades have the scale, intensityand permanence of human impacts on the environment been recognized and begun to beunderstood. The need to establish the pattern and causes of recent climate change to whichhuman activities have contributed is the main force behind the increasing scientific interest inenvironmental change. The human induced changes are superimposed on natural changes.The future course of natural climate change may in some cases exacerbate human inducedchange in other cases such changes may neutralize the human effects (Beniston, 2000). It isessential therefore to view current and future climate change and have a sound knowledge ofall the natural and human induced agents of climate change.Natural Forcing: The “Milankovitch theory” suggests that normal cyclical variations in threeof the earth’s orbital characteristics are probably responsible for the past climatic changes.Slight variations in the earth’s orbit lead to changes in the distribution and abundance ofsunlight reaching the earth’s surface. The third cyclical variation is related to the changes inong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 37


the tilt (obliquity) of the earth’s axis of rotation. At present the tilt of the earth’s axis is 2.5degrees. When the tilt is small there is less climatic variation between the summer and winterseasons in the middle and high latitude. Periods of larger tilt result in greater seasonal climaticvariation in the middle and high latitudes. Colder winters produce less snow because of loweratmospheric temperatures. Moreover the warmer summers produced by the larger tilt provideadditional energy to melt and evaporate the snow that fell and accumulated during the wintermonths. Glaciers in the polar regions should be generally receding with other contributingfactors constant during this part of the obliquity cycle (Agarwal, 2004).Atmospheric Chemistry Variations(i) Green house gases (GHGs): The crux of the enhanced greenhouse effect is that humanmodification of atmospheric concentration of the key radiation absorbing gases– CO 2, CH 4,N 2O and various halocarbons – has resulted in a radiative forcing of the climate system. Thesegases have been released primarily as a result of industrial, transport and domestic activitiesand to a lesser extent from agricultural activities and land use changes (IPCC, 1996). Radiativeforcings by GHGs is the primary cause of global warming. CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO 2, CFCs andO 3have the greatest effect on our climate. Water vapour with high variability abundance(0.5 – 4%) also has strong influence on climate. These trace gases are known as GHGs orradiatively important trace species (RITS) (Hardy, 2003). Green house gas concentrations inthe earth’s atmosphere have undergone natural changes over time and those changes havebeen closely followed by changes in climate. Warmer periods were associated with higherGHGs concentrations and cooler periods with lower GHGs concentrations. The main GHGs,their anthropogenic sources and their global warming potential are given in Table 1. Motorvehicle emissions are one of the major sources of GHGs. On clear warm days with a stableatmosphere vehicle combustion hydrocarbons and NO 2undergo a photochemical reaction toproduce a hazy air pollution condition called smog with high concentrations of ozone. Whilelower atmosphere (the troposphere) is warming, the upper atmosphere (the stratosphere) iscooling. As GHGs concentrations increase theory predicts that more heat will be trapped inthe troposphere instead of escaping to the stratosphere and space. A warmer troposphere willincrease evaporation of water from the oceans leading to a general global average increase inatmospheric water vapour and rainfall (Hardy, 2003).(ii) Aerosols: These are fine particles suspended in the air. Some of these such as sulphatewhich comes from the sulphur released in coal and oil burning are white so they scattersunlight and causes cooling. Sulphate aerosols increase acidity of the atmosphere and formacid rain (Hardy, 2003). Black carbon soot is a product of incomplete combustion especially ofdiesel fuel and coal. Soot absorbs sunlight and thus warms planet. Aerosols tend to increasethe number of cloud droplets thus making the clouds brighter and longer lived. Similarly,cement manufacture contributes CO 2when calcium carbonate is heated producing lime andCO 2and also as a result of burning fossil fuels. The cement industry produces 5% of globalman made CO 2emissions of which 50% is from chemical processes and 40% from burningfuel. The amount of CO 2emitted by the cement industry is nearly 900 kg of CO 2for every 1000kg of cement produced (Wikipedia.org, 2009).El Nino/Southern Oscillation: This external forcing has far reaching implications for manyregions including mountains. El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) represents a hugeinterplay of coupled ocean atmosphere phenomena. Mountain regions are affected by ENSOevents through extremes either of drought or floods because of the general reversal of normalprecipitation patterns. There is speculation that global warming may enhance the frequencyand intensity of ENSO events (Beniston, 2000).38ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


Volcanic Activity: A single major eruption that occurs several times per century can affectclimate causing cooling for a period of a few years. Huge eruptions known as large igneousprovinces occur only a few times every hundred million years but can reshape climate formillions of years and cause mass extinctions. Dust emitted into the atmosphere from largevolcanic eruptions is responsible for the cooling by partially blocking the transmission of solarradiation to the earth’s surface.Anthropogenic Pressure: The human induced changes are called ‘enhanced radiative forcings’and they lead to changes in temperature, precipitation and other climatic variables. Humanactivities are having major impact on biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems worldwide.Rapid urbanization and changes in rural populations are affecting ecosystems in often drasticways. Mismanagement of urban development has resulted in unplanned settlements, increasein natural disasters and depletion in natural resources. Proximate drivers are the immediatehuman activities that drive a particular environmental change, underlying drivers are relatedto the fundamental needs and desires of individuals and groups (Table 2). Proximate andunderlying drivers are the end points in a linked sequence with such intermediate linkages asmarkets, institutions, infrastructure, policy, political systems and cultural values.Table 1: The main GHGs, their anthropogenic sources and their global warming potential for 100-year time horizon. (Source: modified after UNEP 2001).Green house gasesChemicalformulaAnthropogenic sourcesGlobalwarmingpotential(GWP)Fossil fuel combustion, Land useCarbon dioxide CO 2conversion, Cement production1Fossil fuels, Rice paddies, Waste dumps,Methane CH 4Livestock21 aNitrous Oxide N 2O Fertilizer, Industrial processes, Combustion 310CFC-12 CCl 2F 2Liquid coolants, Foams 6200-7,100 bHCFC-22 CHClF 2Liquid coolants 1,300 – 1400 bPerfluoromethane CF 4Production of aluminium 6,500Sulfur hexa-fluoride SF 6Dielectric fluid 23,900aIncludes indirect effects of tropospheric ozone production and stratospheric water vapour production.bNet GWP (i.e. including the indirect effect due to ozone depletion).Table 2: Proximate and underlying drivers of human transformation of earth (Steffen and Tyson, 2001).LandAtmosphereWaterProximate DriverUnderlying DriverClearing (cutting forests and burning),agricultural practices (e.g. tillage, Demand for food, recreation, andfertilization, irrigation, pest control, other ecosystem goods and services.high yielding crops), abandonmentFossil fuel burning, land use change, Demand for mobility, consumerbiomass burning, industrial technology products, food.Dams, impoundments, waste disposaltechniques, management practicesDemand for water (direct humanuse), food (irrigation), consumerproducts (water usage in industrialprocesses).ong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 39


Coastal/MarineBiodiversityREFERENCESLand cover conversion, ground waterremoval, fishing intensity and technique, Demand for recreation, lifestyle,coastal building patterns, sewage food, employment.treatment technology, urbanizationClearing of forest/natural ecosystems,introduction of alien speciesDemand for food, safety, comfort,landscape amenity.Agarwal, S.K. 2004. Global warming and climate change. Past present and future. A.P.H.Publishing Corporation, New Delhi. pp. 364.Beniston, M. (ed.) 2000. Environmental Change in Mountains and Uplands. Arnold andOxford University Press, pp. 172.Hardy, J.T. 2003. Climate change causes, effects and solutions. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. England,pp. 247. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_change, accessed on 12.1.2009.IPCC, 1996. Climate change: the IPCC second assessment report, 3 volumes. CambridgeUniversity Press, Cambridge.Steffen, W. and Tyson, P. (ed.) 2001. Global change and the earth system: a planet underpressure. IGBP Science No. 4: pp. 2–18.United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 2001. Introduction to climate change.www.grida.no/climate/vital/intro.htm).40ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


COMPARATIVE FIELD PERFORMANCE OF SOMEAGRICULTURAL CROPS UNDER THE CANOPY OF POPULUSDELTOIDES AND ULMUS WALLICHIANAT.H. Masood 1 , N.A. Masoodi 1 , S.A. Gangoo 1 , S. Murtaza 2 and S.H. Sidique 11Wadura Sopore Kashmir, SKUAST of Kashmir, J&K, India2Faculty of Forestry, SKUAST-K, Shalimar, Srinagar-191121, J&K, IndiaINTRODUCTIONAgroforestry is relatively a recent area of research wherein the productivity is governedby a number of factors. Apart from physical factors, the naturally occurring phenomenonof allelopathy is being viewed to play a crucial role in determining the success of tree-cropassociations in agroforestry (Inderjit and Weston, 2001). Reports on allelopathic phenomenamost frequently focus on effects that are readily observed under controlled conditions.However, studies on soil ecology presents a greater scope to argue the exact phenomena ofallelopathy in nature. These allelopathic components play an important role by influencing thegrowth and establishment of plants and availability of soil inorganic ions (Bowen and Rovira,1999). However, after entering soil, allelochemicals encounter millions of microbes, whichgenerally degrade them to less toxic forms (Cheng, 1989). Thus, the presence of allelochemicalsper se does not necessarily demonstrate similar qualitative status that actually existed in theplant debris (Blum, 1998). The fate of a chemical in the soil environment will as such dependupon the kinetics and interactions of many processes in the course of time at a particular siteunder a set of natural conditions. Analyzing allelochemicals in the soil medium over a periodof time will thus provide useful information about the interaction of these compounds inexplaining the observed growth responses of recipient crops.MATERIALS AND METHODSThe main aim of this study was to assess the tree crop compatibility in agroforestry systeminvolving maize, beans and sunflower as agricultural crops and Populus Deltoides andUlmus. wallichiana as tree components. The experimental plantations (11 to 13 year old) of P.Deltoides and U. wallichiana located at Faculty of Agriculture, Wadura were used to evaluatethe performance of selected agricultural crops grown under their canopies. The study site issituated between 34° 17’ N latitude and 74° 33’ E longitude at 1590 masl altitude. The seedsowing of agricultural crops was done during first week of May in 10 × 10 m plots laid underthe canopy of each tree species planted at a distance of 3 x 4 m. The experiment was replicatedfour times within the tree stands and suitable control plots of similar size were also laidoutside the canopy in the open sunlight. The plots were irrigated once in every week and allthe cultural practices were carried out as per the recommended package of practices for thesecrops under the temperate conditions of Kashmir. Data presented in Table 1-3 on growthperformance of crops are mean for three years. To quantify changes in soil fertility status, thesoil samples were collected from ten randomly distributed places under the canopy of eachtree species. The soil samples were passed through 10-mesh sieve and immediately analyzed.The soil pH was determined in 1:2.5 soil water suspension using a digital portable kit (modelck 704) after appropriate calibration. The organic carbon content of soil was determined byong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 41


Walkley and Blacks Chromic acid digestion and rapid titration method (Piper, 1966). Availablenitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were respectively determined by alkaline permanganatemethod (Subbiah and Asija, 1956), molybdate blue method (Vogel, 1961) and thiozole yellowmethod (Young and Gill, 1951). Identification of allelopathic compounds was carried out bypaper chromatographic procedure modified by Kil (1992) from that of Lodhi and Rice (1971).RESULTSThe results pertaining to growth performance of maize under the canopy of selected treespecies are presented in Table 1. The data shows that inhibition of germination of maizeseeds was 10 percent under U. wallichiana and 5 percent under P. Deltoides tree stands. Therewas a concomitant decrease in plant height and dry weight, with respective inhibition of 3and 6 percent under P. Deltoides and U. wallichiana. Compared to control the flowering wasprolonged by 8 days under U. wallichiana and 6 days under P. Deltoides. The mean number oflines per cob was in order of 11.7 under U. wallichiana and 13.4 under P. Deltoides as comparedto 14.3 recorded under control. The number of seeds per cob was reduced by 14 and 10 percentunder U. wallichiana and P. Deltoides as compared to 203 seeds/cob recorded in plants undercontrol. The decrease in the test weight of seeds was 12 and 8 percent under the canopy of U.wallichiana and P. Deltoides, respectively. Consequently the yield was also reduced under boththe tree species with reduction of 18 and 9 percent under the canopies of U. wallichiana and P.Deltoides as against the average yield of 44.89 q/ ha recorded under control.Table 1: Performance of Maize under the canopy of P. Deltoides and U. wallichiana.Parameters Control Populus Deltoides Ulmus wallichianaGermination (%) 94.21 89.63 84.66Plant height (cm) 172.39 166.87 158.92Dry weight (g/plant) 283.17 264.70 251.09Lines per cob 14.33 13.43 11.71Seeds per cob 203.32 183.55 174.92Seed test weight (g/1000 seeds) 208.76 191.29 184.10Yield (Kg/ha) 4489.20 4063.40 3692.55The data recorded for beans (Table 2) shows that the germination, growth and yield of thiscrop was also reduced when sown under the canopies of selected tree species. The extent ofdecrease in germination was 8 and 4 percent under P. Deltoides and U. wallichiana, respectively.Height of bean plants was declined by 13 percent under the canopy of P. Deltoides and 5percent under U. wallichiana. The reduction in plant dry weight was recorded 21 and 12 percentunder the canopy of P. Deltoides and U. wallichiana, respectively. The initiation of floweringwas prolonged by 3 days under the canopy of P. Deltoides and 7 days under U. wallichiana.The reduction in the number of pods/ plant was 11 percent under P. Deltoides and 6 percentunder U. wallichiana. The minimum decrease in the number of seeds per pod was 15% underU. wallichiana as compared to 4.04 seeds per pod recorded under control. The test weight ofseeds was also inhibited with respective reduction of 6 and 3 percent under the canopy of P.Deltoides and U. wallichiana. The total yield declined to the extent of 14 percent in plants grownunder the canopy of P. Deltoides and 10 percent under U. wallichiana as compared to averageyield of 1902.54 Kg/ha recorded for control.42ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


Table 2: Performance of Beans under the canopy of P. Deltoides and U. wallichiana.Parameters Control Populus DeltoidesUlmuswallichianaGermination (%) 88.84 81.94 85.13Plant height (cm) 51.25 44.71 48.65Dry weight (g/plant) 32.78 25.67 29.80Lines per cob 10.66 09.53 09.98Seeds per cob 04.04 03.19 03.42Seed test weight (g/1000 seeds) 397.13 373.42 386.23Yield (Kg/ha) 1902.54 1640.10 1718.29The microhabitat under the canopy of both the tree species proved to be more hostile forsunflower as compared to maize and beans (Table 3). Contrary to control the respectiveinhibition of 15 and 11 percent was recorded under the canopy of U. wallichiana and P.Deltoides. The retardation of plant height was in order of 25 and 14 percent in plants grownunder U. wallichiana and P. Deltoides, respectively. The plant dry weight was reduced by 21and 9 percent under the canopy of U. wallichiana and P. Deltoides. The initiation of floweringwas prolonged by 9 days under U. wallichiana and 6 days under P. Deltoides.Table 3: Performance of Sunflower under the canopy of Populus Deltoides and Ulmus wallichiana.ParametersControlPopulusUlmusDeltoides wallichianaGermination (%) 92.57 82.15 78.98Plant height (cm) 130.63 112.41 97.92Dry weight (g/plant) 74.96 67.68 58.93Lines per cob 14.48 11.97 11.61Seeds per cob 405.21 368.61 350.53Seed test weight (g/1000 seeds) 68.58 63.93 61.41Yield (Kg/ha) 972.15 845.72 777.67The results on quantitative evaluation of yield parameters of sunflower show that diameterof capitulum, number of seeds per capitulum, test weight of seeds and total yield wereconspicuously reduced under the canopy of selected tree species. The maximum reductionin diameter of capitulum (20%) was recorded under U. wallichiana and least (17%) underP. Deltoides. The least reduction of 9 percent with respect to number of seeds/capitulumwas recorded under P. Deltoides. The test weight of seeds was 10 and 7 percent less underU. wallichiana and P. Deltoides. The yield of this crop was also retarded under both the treespecies. The average yield was 20 and 13 percent lower under U. wallichiana and P. Deltoides ascompared to 9.69 q/ha recorded under control. The remarkable observation recorded in thisstudy was that the reduction in germination, growth and yield of all the selected agriculturalcrops during the third year was less compared to that of preceding two years of study. Theseresults suggest that continuous soil working under the canopy of trees may be a positivefactor to improve microhabitat conditions for soil microbes which consume allelochemicals ascarbon sources and thus reduce their bio-availability and/or degrade them to less toxic form(Blum, 1998), These results are also in agreement to those reported by Chou et al. (1981) whofound that allelochemicals produced by plants are readily degraded under aerobic conditions.The data on soil reaction and changes in available nutrients under the canopy of P. Deltoidesand U. wallichiana is presented in Table 4. These data reveal that the soil fertility is remarkablyong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 43


ejuvenating under the canopy of both the selected tree species. While soil pH has increasedfrom 6.20 to 6.90 under P. Deltoides and 6.74 to 7.15 U. wallichiana, the OC has respectivelydecreased by 19 and 29% under the canopy of these two species. The data further shows thatavailable N has increased by 6 and 19%, available P by 24 and 32%, and available K by 8 and19% under the canopy of P. Deltoides and U. wallichiana, respectively. From the preceedingresults it is clear that continuous soil working not only enhances the rate of decomposition oforganic carbon but also improves the soil absorptive power and with the result allelopathiccompounds leached in the soil are rendered less toxic by the process of adsorption. Thechromatographic investigation of extracts reveals that the soils under P. Deltoides and U.wallichiana were composed of four identical phenolic acids, identified as: benzoic acid, cafficacid, salicylic acid and vanilic acid (Table 4). The two additional phenolic acids identified inthe soils under U. wallichiana included p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and hydroquinone. Amongthe phenolic glycosides and aliphatic hydrocarbons, populin was identified in the soil samplescollected under the canopies of P. Deltoides and betulin in samples collected under the canopy ofU. wallichiana. The results (Table 4) show that soils developing under the different species differin their composition of allelopathic components. This variation in allelochemical compositionin soils supporting different plant species can be partially explained by differences in litterproperties among the tree species. The critical examination of data further reveals that exceptfor caffic acid, all other allelochemicals disappeared and were no longer recovered in samplesobtained after second or third year of cultivation under the canopy of these two selectedbroadleaved tree species. Hepperly et al. (1992) and Cheng (1992) have also stated that undernatural conditions, residues can remain on the surface of soil for extended period withoutany significant precipitation and their degradation increases with soil tillage and increases insoil pH. The results of this study thus show that although allelopathic interactions persist inthe field under agroforestry systems, the accumulation and phyto-toxicity of plant chemicalsis highly dependent on soil factors especially those governing their rate of production,adsorption, desorption and degradation in soil. These allelopathic interactions reported inthis paper could thus be explored more precisely for improved management of traditionalagro-ecosystems of Kashmir to increase the overall productivity of the land.Table 4: Allelopathic compounds in soil under the canopy of P. Deltoides and U. wallichiana.Chemical componentPopulus DeltoidesUlmus wallichiana1 st year 2 nd year 3 rd year 1 st year 2 nd year 3 rd yearBenzoic acid + + - + + -Caffic acid + + + + + +p-hydroxybenzaldehyde - - - + + -Salicylic acid + - - + - -Hyroquinone - - - + + -Vanilic acid + - - + - -Populin + + - - - -Betulin - - - - + -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe authors are thankful to Dr. O.P. Sharma (Principal Scientist, Agroforestry), Dr. Solanki(ADG, Agroforestry) and Dr. Samra (DDG, NRM, ICAR) for encouragement and keeninterest in this work. We greatly appreciate Dr. G.R. Nagar, Dr. A.K. Honda and Dr. SanjeevChauhan for valuable discussions, suggestions and constructive comments. We also thank44ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


our Vice Chancellor Prof. Anwar Alam and Associate Dean, Dr. S.D. Masoodi for providingall necessary facilities to carry out this work . Funding for this work was provided by ICAR,New Delhi under AP CESS Fund Scheme (Grant No. 5(27) 2001-SW & DF dated 16-8-2002).REFERENCESBowen, G.D. and Rovira, A.D. 1999. The rhizosphere and its management to improve plantgrowth. Adv. Agron., 66: pp. 1-102. [ISI]Blum, U. 1998. Effects of microbial utilization of phenolic acids and their breakdown productson allelopathic interactions. J. Chem. Eco1., 24: pp. 685-708 [ISI].Cheng, H.H. 1989. Assessment of fate and transport of allelochemicals in soils. pp. 209-215.In: C.S.Chou and G.R. Waller (eds.) Phytochemical Ecology: Allelochemicals, Mycotoxinsand Insect Pheromones and Allomones. Academia Sinica Monograph Ser. No. 9, Inst. ofBotany, Taipei, ROC.Cheng, H.H. 1992. A conceptual framework for assessing allelochemicals in the soilenvironment. In: Allelopathy: Basic and Applied Aspects. Eds. S.J.H. Rizvi and V. Rizvi.,pp. 21-30. New York: Chamman and Hall.Chou, C.H., Chiang, Y.C. and Cgeng, H.H. 1981. Autointoxication mechanisms of Oryza sativaIII. Effect of temperature on phytotoxins production during rice straw decomposition insoil. J. Chem. Ecol. 7: 741-52.Hepperly, P., Aguilar-Erazo, H., Perez, R Diaz, M. and Reyes, C. 1992. Pigeon pea and velvetbean allelopathy. In: Allelopathy: Basic and Applied Aspects. Eds. S.J.H. Rizvi and V.Rizvi, pp. 357-370. New York: Chamman and Hall.Inderjit and Weston, L.A. 2001. Root interactions in higher plants: Allelopathy and competition.In: C.W.P.M.Blom and E.J.W.Visser (eds.) Root Ecology. Springer- Verlag, Heidelberg.Kil, B.S. 1992. Effect of pine allelochemicals on selected species in Korea. In: Allelopathy: Basicand Applied Aspects. Eds. S.J.H. Rizvi and V. Rizvi, pp. 205-241. New york: Chammanand Hall.Lodhi, M.A.K. and Rice, E.L. 1971. Allelopathic effects of Celtis laevigata. Bull. Torrey Bot.Club, 98: 83-90.Piper, G.S. 1966. Soil and Plant Analysis. Hans Publications. Bombay, pp. 368.Subbiah, B.V. and Asija, C.L. 1956. A rapid procedure for the estimation of available nitrogenin soil. Current Science 25: 259-260.Vogel, J.A. 1961. Quantitative inorganic analysis including elementry instrumental analysis.Longman, Green and Co. Ltd., London.Young, H.Y. and Gill, R.F. 1951. Determination of magnesium in soil and plant tissue withthiazole-yellow. Soil Chemical Analysis 23: 751-754.ong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 45


Selected Abstracts1Bhattacharyya, R.; 2Kunde,S.; 1Srivastva, A.K.; 3Gupta,H.S.; 1 Prakash, V. & 1 Bhatt, J.C.2011. Long term fertilizationeffects on soil organic carbonpools in a sandy loam soil ofthe Indian sub-Himalayas.Plant and Soil 341(1&2): 109-124.1Vivekananda Institute of HillAgriculture (Indian Council ofAgricultural Research), Almora-263 601, Uttarakhand, India.2Environmental Soil ScienceDivision, Indian Institute of SoilScience, Nabibagh, Bhopal, India.3Indian Agricultural ResearchInstitute, New Delhi- 110 012,India. [CARBON RETENTIONIN SOIL; SOIL ORGANICC FRACTIONS; FARMYARDMANURE APPLICATION;RAINFED SOYEAN - WHEATROTATION; LABILE ANDRECALCITRANT POOLS; INDIANHIMALAYAS]1Bharali, S. & 2Khan, M.L.2011. Climate change andits impact on biodiversity:Some management optionsfor mitigation in ArunachalPradesh. Current Science 101(7)855-860. 1 Department of Forestry,North Eastern Regional Instituteof Science and Technology(Deemed University), Nirjuli-791 109, Arunachal Pradesh,India. 2 Department of Botany,Guru Ghasidas University,Koni- 495 009, Chattisgarh,India. [BIODIVERSITY;CLIMATE CHANGE; HABITAT;MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES;THREATS]46An understanding of the dynamics of soil organic carbon(SOC) as affected by farming practices is imperative formaintaining soil productivity and mitigating globalwarming. Results of a long-term (32 years) experimentin the Indian Himalayas under rainfed soybean (Glycinemax L.)- wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation wasanalyzed to determine the effects of mineral fertilizerand farmyard manure (FYM) application at 10 Mgha-1on SOC stocks and depth distribution of the labile andrecalcitrant pools of SOC. Results indicate all treatmentsincreased SOC contents over the control. The annualapplication of NPK significantly (P


1Chandra, A.; 1Saradhi, P.P.;2Maikhuri, R.K.; 3 Saxena, K.G.& 4 Rao, K.S. 2011. Traditionalagrodiversity management: Acase study of central Himalayanvillage ecosystem. Journal ofMountain Sciences 8(1): 62-74.1Department of EnvironmentalBiology, University of Delhi,Delhi- 110 007, India. 2G.B.Pant Institute of HimalayanEnvironment and Development,Garhwal Unit, Srinagar- 246174, Uttarakhand, India.3School of EnvironmentalSciences, Jawaharal NehruUniversity, New Delhi- 110 067,India. 4 Department of Botany,University of Delhi, Delhi- 110007, India. [TRADITIONALAGRICULTURAL PRACTICES;H I M A L A Y A S - R A I N F E DMANAGEMENT]Environmental, biological, socio-cultural and economicstatus variation existing in the central Himalaya haveled to the evolution of diverse and unique traditionalagroecosystems, crop species and livestock, which facilitatethe traditional mountain farming societies to sustainthemselves. Indigenous agroecosystems are highly sitespecific and differ from place to place, as they have evolvedalong divergent lines. For maintenance of traditionalagrodiversity management the farmers of the CentralHimalaya have evolved various types of crop rotations inconsonance with the varied environmental conditions andagronomic requirements. In irrigated flat lands two cropsare harvested in a year with negligible fallow period but inrainfed conditions if a cropping sequence is presumed to bestarting after winter fallow phase then four major croppingseasons can be identified namely first kharif season (firstcrop season), first rabi season (second crop season), secondkharif season (third crop season) and second rabi season(fourth crop season). Highest crop diversity is present inkharif season in comparison to rabi season. Traditionallythe fields are left fallow after harvest of the second kharifseason crop. Important characteristics of agrodiversitymanagement are the use of bullocks for draught power,human energy as labour, crop residues as animal feed andanimal waste mixed with forest litter as organic input torestore soil fertility levels. Women provide most of thehuman labour except for ploughing and threshing grain.The present study deals with assessment of traditionalagrodiversity management such as (i) crop diversity,(ii) realized yield under the traditional practices and (iii)assess the differences of realized yields under sole andmixed cropping systems. It indicated that crop rotationis an important feature of the Central Himalayan villageecosystem which helps to continue the diversity of speciesgrown, as are the distribution of crops in the growingperiod and the management of soil fertility. The croppingdiversity existing and the sequences practiced by thetraditional farmers seems to have achieved high degreeof specialization and thus even when the yield/biomassvariations are about 60%, the farmers continue to practicethese sequences as they need to maintain diversity andsynergistic relationships of crops in addition to manage thefood and labour requirements for crop husbandry. Cropyields are generally higher in irrigated systems than rainfedsystems and in sole cropping as compared with mixedcropping. However, gross biological and economic yieldsare higher in mixed cropping than sole cropping systems.ong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 47


1Gaira, K.S.; 2 Dhar, U. & 3 Belwal,O.K. 2011. Potential of herbariumrecords to sequence phenologicalpattern: A case study of Aconitumheterophyllum in the Himalaya.Biodivers Conserv 20(10): 2201-2210.1G.B. Pant Institute of HimalayanEnvironment and Development,Sikkim Unit, Pangthang, PostBox-24, Gangtok-737 104,Sikkim, India. 2Department ofBotany, Hamdard University(Jamia Hamdard), HamdardNagar, New Delhi- 110 062,India. 3 Department of Statistics,H.N.B. Garhwal University,Srinagar Garhwal- 246 174,Uttarakhand, India. [ACONITUMHETEROPHYLLUM; EARLYFLOWERING; GENERALIZEDADDITIVEMODEL;HERBARIUM SPECIMENS;INDIAN HIMALAYANREGION; PHENOLOGY;TEMPERATURE]1Gosai, K.; Arunachalam, A.;2Dutta, B.K. & 3 Prasanna, K.G.V.2011. Indigenous knowledge of soilfertility management in the humidtropics of Arunachal Pradesh.Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge10(3): 508-511. 1 Restoration EcologyLaboratory, Department of Forestry,North Eastern Regional Institute ofScience and Technology, Nirjuli-791 109, Arunachal Pradesh, India.2Department of Ecology andEnvironmental Science, AssamUniversity, Silchar- 788 015, Assam,India. 3 Department of AgriculturalEngineering, North Eastern RegionalInstitute of Science and Technology,Nirjuli- 791 109, Arunachal Pradesh,India. [ARUNACHAL PRADESH;FERTILITY; INDIGENOUSSOIL KNOWLEDGE; LANDSUITABILITY; NORTHEASTINDIA; NYSHIS; TEXTURE]48Several pieces of evidence indicate that global climate changeis affecting biological systems all across the world. Phenologyis one of the tools that may indicate changing patterns. Thepaper focuses on the phenological pattern of alpine/sub-alpinespecies Aconitum heterophyllum, a high value medicinal herbof the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR), a global hotspot andknown to be sensitive to climatic change. In all 117 herbariumspecimens of the species collected from three provinces(Western Himalaya, North West Himalaya and TransHimalaya) of the region were recorded. Historic herbariumrecords (1848-2003) were analyzed to predict the floweringpatterns using Generalized Additive Model (GAM) in viewof complexity in the herbarium-based data structure. GAMindicated that the flowering time responded significantly, 26days earlier per 1,000 m (P


1Jeganathan, C.; 2 Roy, P.S. & 3 Jha,M.N. 2011. Bayesian modelingfor forest cover dynamics inShimla district. The IndianForester 137(2): 164-174. 1 Schoolof Geography, University ofSouthampton, United Kingdom.2National Remote Sensingong>Centreong>, Hyderabad, AndhraPradesh, India. 3 Forest ResearchInstitute University, Dehradun,Uttarakhand, India. [LANDCOVER CHANGE; BAYESIANMODEL; PREDICTION;ENVIRONMENTALPARAMETERS;TOPOGRAPHY; LANDSCAPE;LAND-WATER]1Kamp, U; 1 Byrne, M. & 2 Bolch,T. 2011. Glacier fluctuationsbetween 1975 and 2008 in thegreater Himalaya range ofZanskar, southern Ladakh.Journal of Mountain Science8(3): 374-389. 1Department ofGeography, The University ofMontana, Missoula, MT- 59812,USA. 2 Geographisches Institute,Universitat Zurich- 8057, Zurich,Switzerland. [GLACIERMAPPING; HIMALAYA;LADAKH; MONITORING;ZANSKAR]Decision making in land use planning needs understandingabout the pattern of changes. The current study aims toanalyse and predict the land use and land cover change, withthe focus on forests, in Shimla District using Bayesian model.Population growth, agricultural-horticulture demands,tourism growth are putting pressure on the valuable forestecosystem and natural resources of the district. In this study,land cover maps were prepared for the periods 1970s, 1980sand 1990s using remote sensing data. The actual positivechanges (i.e., increase in forest) and negative changes (i.e.,decrease in forest) derived from the time-series land covermaps were used as a priori evidence in the Bayesian modelto derive the statistical weights for various environmentalparameters. The environmental parameters were analysedunder 4 major group of factors i.e., topographic, land use,landscape, land-water. The probabilistic contribution (i.e.,weight) of each attribute under each map was utilised withinthe weighted summation model to derive spatial maps ofpotential positive and negative change. The accuracy of themodel was validated using actual change maps. Accuracy ofthe model was 85% for the positive change and 80% for thenegative change. The resultant predicted maps of positiveand negative change were overlaid together and potentialzones of conservation and afforestation were identified.Glaciers in the Himalaya are often heavily covered withsupraglacial debris, making them difficult to study withremotely-sensed imagery alone. Various methods such asband ratios can be used effectively to map clean-ice glaciers;however, a thicker layer of debris often makes it impossibleto distinguish between supraglacial debris and thesurrounding terrain. Previously, a morphometric mappingapproach employing an ASTER- derived digital elevationmodel has been used to map glaciers in the Khumbu Himaland the Tien Shan. This study on glaciers in the GreaterHimalaya Range in Zanskar, southern Ladakh, aims (i) touse the morphometric approach to map large debris-coveredglaciers; and (ii) to use Landsat and ASTER data and GPSand field measurements to document glacier change overthe past four decades. Field work was carried out in thesummers of 2008. For clean ice, band ratios from the ASTERdataset were used to distinguish glacial features. For debriscoveredglaciers, topographic features such as slope werecombined with thermal imagery and supervised classifiersto map glacial margins. The method is promising for largeglaciers, although problems occurred in the distal and lateralparts and in the fore field of the glaciers. A multi-temporalanalysis of glaciers in Zanskar showed that in general theyhave receded since at least the mid-to late-1970s. However,some few glaciers that advanced or oscillated- probablybecause of specific local environmental conditions- do exist.ong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 49


1Maikhuri, R.K.; 1Rawat, L.S.;1Negi, V.S.; 2 Purohit, V.K.; 3 Rao,K.S. & 4Saxena, K. G. 2011.Managing natural resourcesthrough simple and appropriatetechnological interventionsfor sustainable mountaindevelopment. Current Science100(7): 992-997. 1 G.B. Pant Instituteof Himalayan Environmentand Development, GarhwalUnit, Srinagar Garhwal-246174, Uttarakhand, India. 2 HighAltitude Plant PhysiologyResearch ong>Centreong>, H.N.B. GarhwalUniversity, Srinagar Garhwal 246174, India; 3 Department of Botany,University of Delhi, Delhi- 110 007,India. 4 School of EnvironmentalSciences, Jawaharlal NehruUniversity, New Delhi- 110 067,India. [CAPACITY BUILDING;MOUNTAINS;RESOURCES; SUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENT;TECHNOLOGICALINTERVENTIONS]NATURALMakino, Y. 2011. Lopping ofOaks in central Himalaya, India,the link between the Garhwalipeople and their forests. MountainResearch and Development 31(1):35-44. South Asia SustainableDevelopment Department,The World Bank Group, MSNDACWB, Dhaka, Bangladesh (POBox 27839, Washington, DC 20038-7839, USA). [LOPPING; FORESTUSE; FODDER; OAKS; QUERCUSLEUCOTRICHOPHORA;QUERCUS FLORIBUNDA;GENDER; INDIGENOUSRESOURCE USE; GARHWALHIMALAYA; UTTARAKHAND]Poor access to appropriate technologies due to difficulttopographies and tough mountain conditions is one of themajor causes of poverty, drudgery and natural resourcesdegradation not only in the Indian central Himalaya, butalso in other parts of the Hindu-Kush Himalaya. Of late,development planners have realized the importance of suitableor appropriate technologies and practices, and therefore havestressed upon the need for large-scale demonstration, on-sitetraining, capacity building and skill development of usergroups in rural and marginal areas of the region. The GarhwalUnit of G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment andDevelopment is one among the few organizations in the IndianHimalayan region involved in testing, developing, upgrading,validating and demonstrating appropriate technologiesthrough action and participatory research. As a result of theseefforts, a number of farmers and other stakeholders, includingNGOs and educational institutions have adopted some of thepotential rural technologies at various levels. The technologiespreferred and adopted by the farmers include protectedcultivation, water-harvesting tank technology, zero-energycool chamber, bio- and vermi-composting, bio-prospectingof wild resources, biobrequetting, mushroom cultivation andsloping watershed environmental engineering technology. Itis hoped that the improved capacities of local farmers will helpin the widespread adoption of rural technologies in CentralHimalaya and other countries in the Hindu-Kush Himalayanregion facing common problems/issues and having similarenvironmental and socio-economic conditions.This study examines the practice of lopping of Quercusleucotrichophora A. Camus and Quercus floribunda Lindleyex Rehder in Garhwal Himalaya. The study objectives wereto investigate the lopping process, the factors that influenceit, and the changes it has undergone between 1993 and2006, specifically, age and gender roles, method of foddercollection, type of branches and trees lopped, and weightof oak foliage bundles. Data were collected for 49 foddercollection trips in Beli village, Tehri Garhwal District, GarhwalDivision. Four closely interlinked factors influenced forestuse—gender roles, availability of oak foliage in the forest,number and type of livestock per household, and type ofagricultural crops planted. The results indicate that loppingpractice is not static. It has undergone fundamental changesbetween 1993 and 2006. Beli villagers continued to collectfodder basis, varied the fodder species collected, and rotatedthe location of trees lopped throughout the year in 2006, asthey did in 1993. Foliage collection intensified until early2000 when there was a marked decrease in the amount offoliage available in the forest. As a result, the villagers beganto reduce their total reliance on the forest and agriculture forincome and instead began to send their children to school in50ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


preparation for employment outside the village. This changein livelihood strategy is reflected in the lopping practice.Fodder collection trips decreased from 5 in 1993 to 3 timesa day in 2006. The number of people collecting Q. floribundadecreased from 26 to 12, with fodder being collected mainlyby women aged 21 to 26. This has resulted in females carryingsignificantly greater loads in 2006 (P = 0.0004). Examining thelopping practice provides insights into the impact of foddercollection on forest ecosystems and, in turn, the forest’simpact on peoples’ lives.1Mao, A.A. & 2 Hynniewta, M.T.2011. Plants used as agriculturalseasons indicator by Mao Nagatribe, Manipur, India. IndianJournal of Traditional Knowledge10(3): 578-580. 1 Botanical Surveyof India, Arunachal PradeshCircle, Senki View, Itanagar-791 111, Arunachal Pradesh,India. 2 Botanical Survey of India,Eastern Circle, Laitumkhrah,Shillong- 793 003, Manipur,India. [MAO NAGA TRIBE;MANIPUR; INDICATORPLANTS; AGRICULTURALSEASONS]The paper presents four plants used as an agriculturalseason indicator by Mao Naga tribe of Manipur, India.Agriculture is the main occupation of the tribe andthey have a unique way of knowing plantation seasonfor different crops by observing the flowering of someplants. The indicator plants are peach (Prunus persica),wild cherry (P. carmesina), camel foot (Bauhinia purpurea)and dancing girl (Mantisia spathulata). The information onplants used as season indicators may help understandingthe global warming and climate change in recent years.There is a need for involving interdisciplinary research tounveil the mystery of folklore science for the prosperityof mankind.Misra, A.K. 2011. Impact ofurbanization on the hydrologyof Ganga basin (India). WaterResources Management 25(2)705-719. Department of CivilEngineering, ITM University,Sector 23A, Palam Vihar,HUDA, Gurgaon, Haryana,India. [URBANIZATION;POPULATION GROWTH;GANGA BASIN; SOILSALMITY-WATER QUALITY;CLIMATE CHANGE; URBANINFRASTRUCTURE]Large scale emigrations from rural areas and populationgrowth have been uninterrupted and acceleratingphenomena in parts of Ganga basin, where urbanization isincreasing at an unprecedented rate. Urban agglomerationis causing radical changes in groundwater recharge andmodifying the existing mechanisms. Majority of the citiesare sited on unconfined or semi confined aquifers dependupon river water and groundwater for most of their watersupply and disposal of most of their liquid effluents andsolid residues to the rivers and ground. There has alsobeen an inevitable rise in waste production. Drainageof surface water has been disrupted as the small naturalchannels and low lying areas have been in filled, oftenwith municipal waste. Total water potential of the Gangabasin including surface water potential and ground waterpotential is around 525.02 km 3 and 170.00 km 3 respectively.Basin supports approximately 42% of the total populationin India. Water tables are declining at approximately anaverage of 0.20 m per year in many parts of the basin andthere is a trend of deteriorating groundwater quality. Thedemand of water has been increased many folds and mostong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 51


of the areas are highly reliant upon the groundwater tomeet this increasing demand for water, but unfortunatelydegradation of groundwater both in terms of quantity andquality has deteriorated the situation. Studies shows thatchange in climate may increase temperature by 2 to 6 0 C andcan reduce precipitation up to 16%, which could reducethe groundwater recharge by 50%. In densely populatedGanga basin urban drainage consumes a high proportionof the investments into urban infrastructure and needsintegrated approach for the sustainable developmentof water management, water education regardingconservation and population caused by urbanization.1Nimachow, G.; 1 Joshi, R.C. &2Dai, O. 2011. Role of indigenousknowledge system inconservation of forest resources:A case study of the Aka tribes ofArunachal Pradesh. Indian Journalof Traditional Knowledge 10(2): 276-280. 1 Department of Geography,Rajiv Gandhi University, Itanagar-791 112, Arunachal Pradesh, India.2Department of Botany, RajivGandhi University, Itanagar- 791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India.[FOREST CONSERVATION;INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE;SACRED GROVES; TABOOS;AKA TRIBES]Palita1, S.K.; Ponkshe, A.V. &Dhar, U. 2011. Habitat enrichmentand its impact on avian diversity:A study at GBPIHED, Kosi-Katarmal, Uttarakhand, India.Current Science 100(11): 1681-1689. 1 Department of Zoology,Kendrapara AutonomousCollege, Kendrapara- 754 211,Orissa, India. 2Department ofBiodiversity, M.E.S. AbasahebGarware College, Pune- 411 004,Maharashtra. India. 3HamdardUniversity (Jamia Hamdard), NewDelhi- 110 062, India. [AVIANDIVERSITY; FRUGIVORY;HABITAT ENRICHMENT;H O M O G E N I Z A T I O N ;URBANIZATION]52Indigenous knowledge is the basis for local level decisionmakingin agriculture, healthcare, food preparation,education, natural resource management and a host ofother activities in rural communities. Forest resourceconservation is a global issue. Arunachal Pradeshinhabits about 26 major tribes and number of sub tribes.Forest is their main source of economy and livelihood.Tribes have evolved Indigenous knowledge system(IKS) that is vital in conservation of forest resources. Anattempt has been made to analyze the role of IKS, beliefsand sacred groves of the Aka tribes in conservation offorest resources. The indigenous knowledge systems ofconservation of plants, animals, sacred groves, etc. havebeen discussed. Primary data has been generated byconducting survey in 37 villages inhabited by Aka tribe.This study deals with the influence of habitat enrichmentthrough landscape heterogeneity on avian diversity insuburban habitat (human habitat) versus pine forestand open exposed shrub land (non-human habitat)at the G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environmentand Development (GBPIHED) campus (1100–1250 mamsl), Kosi-Katarmal, Almora, Uttarakhand, India. Birddiversity on fruiting plants was also studied to knowthe occurrence and richness of fruit plants on overallbird diversity. The study area, which consisted of thethen degraded gentle slopes, has transformed into thickvegetation cover due to plantation of a large number offruit and ornamental plants. Line transect and stationarypoint count methods were followed during the entirestudy. Out of a total of 61 bird species observed, 28 arenew reports from the study site. The human habitat hasa higher avian species richness (S = 50) in comparisonto non-human habitat (S = 44). A significantly higherdensity of Jungle Myna, Common Myna and Red-ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


illed Blue Magpie in suburban habitat, and restricteddistribution of House Sparrow and Blue Rock Pigeonin the same habitat may be due to availability of highfeeding and nesting opportunities. Increase in thenumber of human associated species in suburban habitatindicates progressive urbanization of the area. However,lack of significant difference in Shannon diversity indexbetween the two habitats indicates that homogenizationdue to urbanization is still at a low level.1Rawat, Y.S & 2 Vishvakarma,S.C.R. 2011. Ecological analysisof indigenous agroforestrysystems in Kullu and Lahaulvalleys, Himachal Pradesh,India. Proceding NationalAcademy of Sciences India.Sect. B 81(II): 160-170. 1G.B.Pant Institute of HimalayanEnvironment and Development,Kosi-Katarmal, Almora- 263 643,Uttarakhand, India. 2NationalAgriculture Innovation Project(NAIP) Office, Dream House,Bhariva Chauraha, NearPost Office, Champawat-262 523, Uttarakhand,India. [AGROFORESTRY;TREE-FODDER; LOPPING;UTILIZATION PATTERN;LIVESTOCK; KULLU;LAHAUL; NORTH-WESTERNHIMALAYA]1Sidh, S.N. & 2 Basu, S. 2011.Women's Contributionto household food andeconomic security: A studyin the Garhwal Himalayas,India. Mountain Research andDevelopment 31(2):102-111.1Department of Geography,Government College, Gairsain(Chamoli), Uttarakhand,India. 2 ong>Centreong> for the Study ofRegional Development (CSRD),Jawaharlal Nehru University(JNU), New Delhi- 110 067,India.Agriculture and animal husbandry are prime occupationsof rural people of the Kullu and Lahaul valleys. Livestockis an integral part of the livelihood, which rely mostlyon fodder extracted from forests, grasslands, agricultureand agroforestry. In north-western Himalaya,farmers follow an indigenous agroforestry systemby maintaining naturally regenerating tree species,particularly on the edges of terraced agriculture fieldswithout any significant input of manpower. The authorsexamined this agroforestry system in five villages ofthe Kullu and Lahaul valleys. The diversity of fodderspecies decreased with increasing elevation. The totalnumber of fodder species was 67 comprising 43% trees,27% small trees and 30% shrubs. The per tree fodderproduction was maximum at intermediate elevation.The utilization pattern of the fodder species varied alongthe elevation; higher number of species occurred inlower altitudes as compared to higher altitudes. Majorityof the fodder species are used as multipurpose specieswhich contribute to socio-economics of the region. Thediversity, distribution and utilization pattern of thefodder species is important for their prioritization intheir conservation and management.Poverty and household food security are muchdebated issues in development literature, and women'scontributions to food and economic security havereceived attention for the last 15 years. Collection ofnatural resources is usually carried out entirely bywomen in developing countries, particularly in fragileand rugged mountain environments. Our study in theGarwhal Himalaya attempted to monetize this unpaidwork by women through a survey conducted byresearchers of time use on a recall basis for the last 7 days.The value of women's contributions was then computedby 2 methods: opportunity costs and output method. Theresults show that women are at the forefront of food andeconomic security and in some cases are breadwinners.Policies must address the specific problems of fodderong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 53


[GENDER DIVISION OFLABOR; TIME USE ANALYSIS;MONETIZATION; UNPAIDWORK; OPPORTUNITY COSTS;OUTPUT METHOD; FOODAND ECONOMIC SECURITY;INDIA]and fuelwood collection in mountains by promotingrenewable and nonconventional energy resources suchas biogas and solar energy and by involving women ingrassroots participation. This will significantly lessen thedrudgery of women’s work.54ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


News & ViewsTree line shift in Gangotriworries environmentalistsTHE PIONEERJanuary 15, 2011Tarai villagers protest, call forimplementation of Forest ActTHE PIONEERFebruary 03, 2011Vegetation shifting towards north in Uttarakhand’s Gangotriglacier mainly due to ‘global warming’ seems to have comeas major cause of concern for the environmentalists. Treelinewhich was discovered at 3,840 meter in 1976 in the glaciers,had now shifted towards north up to 4,230 meter, as pera survey. The fact is that while the tree line shifted onlyaround 30 meter in 14 years between 1976 and 1990 in theGangotri glaciers reaching up to 3,870 meter, it witnessedan expansion of about 10 meter in the next decade till 1999reaching 3,880 meter. So whereas, there was a constant risein shifting of glaciers till 1990, in the next few years till 2006-2007, there was a quantum jump in this process with treelineshifting up to 4,230 meter. Given increasing industrial aswell as other commercial activities over the years as theatmospheric conditions have only deteriorated, the treelinemay have only gone up. So keeping in view these concernsin mind, the Uttarakhand Space Application ong>Centreong> (USAC)has again started a study in this glaciers, said KS Rawat, asenior scientist at the USAC while talking to The Pioneer.The study is being conducted basically to understand thepresent conditions of the Gangotrai glaciers and how it hasaffected our ecological system over the years, the scientistfurther said. Vegetation shifting in these areas is possibleonly when the temperature goes up. So this is a clearindication how the atmospheric conditions have changed,Rawat added. Shifting of treeline is just an indication of howthe atmospheric conditions have suffered due to increasingindustrial activities and unscientific exploitation of thenatural resources.People of over a dozen forest villages took out a major protesthere on wednesday against increasing number man-animalconflicts and demanded immediate implementation of ForestAct -2006 and revenue status to these villages. The agitatorsalso demanded that the compensation which is granted to thevictim of wild animal should increase from Rs. one lakh toRs. 10 lakh. The fact is that due to non-revenue status, thesevillages are still deprived of basic facilities like drinking water,electricity connection, health services, education, to namea few. More importantly, tougher forest laws have onlymade their lives more vulnerable, alleged the villagers. Thisindifferent attitude towards these forest and non-revenuevillages of the respective governments has only had an adverseimpact on wildlife conservation efforts, alleged the villagers.Since these non-revenue villages or khattas are adjacent toforests, the Government was supposed to implement ForestLaw—2006 to address the due concerns of the villagers. Butnothing has moved, resulting in increasing number of man-animal conflicts over the years.ong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 55


Acquisition limit for forest landincreasedTHE PIONEERFebruary 06, 2011Help forest dwellers be awareof rights: MinisterTHE PIONEERMarch 03, 2011Uttarakhand Chief Secretary Subhash Kumar informedthat in a recently held meeting in New Delhi headedby Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, it was decided toincrease the land acquisition limit for the forest land fromone hectare to two hectare. According to him, the recentlytaken decision would be proved extremely beneficial tobring various beneficiary projects to the ground-leveland would push the State further on the path of progress.He told that Prime Minister Singh has assured thatevery possible step would be taken for green bonus. Itis noteworthy that the Chief Minister Ramesh PokhriyalNishank wrote a letter to Prime Minister demanding toimplement green bonus scheme, so that conservationof forest could be done on the large scale. Nishank alsoasked to grant a sum of `5,000 crore to bear the lossesthat the State underwent in the last 10 years. The ChiefSecretary also informed that Prime Minister Singh hasalso applauded the State Government’s role for assistingresidents who were hit by the natural calamites thatrocked the entire Uttarakhand in the last year.The Uttarakhand Van Panchayat Sangharsh Morchaorganised two-day deliberations on the Forest RightsAct in Uttarakhand, its conditions and possibilities.Addressing the gathering on the first day of deliberations,Kandari exhorted members of the forest dwellingcommunities to pursue their forest rights religiouslywhile denying the allegation that the Government wasnot doing enough for them. He stressed that insteadof considering the Government solely responsible,the members of forest dwelling communities shouldbecome more aware about their forest rights. Speakingon the occasion, the member of Central Forests RightsAct review committee Ashish Kothari informed thatout of a total of 30 lakh claims received under the ForestRights Act from across the nation, 10 lakh have evengot titles. However the condition of nomadic tribes likeBaddis and Gujjars has remained poor in general. Thecondition for them giving a proof of their permanentaddress of residence is not easy to follow because of thenomadic nature of these communities. Addressing thegathering, forest rights issues expert Madhu Sarin spokeon the importance of the Forest Rights Act in facilitatingaccess to legal rights of forest dwelling communities.The efficiency in implementation of this act differs in thevarious States of India, she added.56ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


More leopards outside‘protected’ forest areas inUttarakhandTHE PIONEERMarch 17, 2011IGNOU online course onHimalayan eco-systemsTHE HINDUApril 11, 2011According to forest department statistics, out of the total2,335 leopards counted in the State in the 2008 census,only 593 were counted inside protected areas whereas1,742 were counted outside protected areas. Accordingto the National Tiger Conservation Authority memberand former honorary wildlife warden of the CorbettNational Park, Brijendra Singh, and the prey base ofthe leopard has been decimated in its natural habitat,especially in forests near villages. The resulting risein conflict with humans is turning the leopard into avillain for the general public even though the feline isbeing forced to stray out of protected areas in orderto survive due to anthropogenic factors. As leopardsare more adaptable to different environments they areinvolved in a greater number of conflicts with humansas compared to tigers. Since 2001, 204 humans havebeen killed and 363 injured by leopards in the State.During this time period, a total of 566 leopard deathswere recorded and 90 leopards declared man-eaters.The forest department has established two transitrehabilitation centers for problem big cats with oneeach in Almora and Haridwar forest divisions whichare not yet in use.Indira Gandhi National Open University’s School ofExtension and Development Studies and Chair forSustainable Development has launched an onlineleadership programme on Himalayan eco-systems forscientists and policy makers working in the areas ofagriculture, rural development, environmental scienceand sustainable development. Member of ParliamentDr. Karan Singh who launched the programme earlierthis week, he also cited the spiritual, ecological andenvironmental aspects of the Himalayas. Admissionto this course will be available to students throughoutthe year in four academic cycles during February, May,August and November. The programme ranges from aminimum of one month to a maximum of six monthsduration. The objective of the programme is to sensitiseand strengthen awareness regarding the Himalayanecosystems in the context of sustainable development.The course content consists of an introduction tothe mountain ecosystem, Himalayan livelihoodsystems and also addresses challenges to sustainabledevelopment.ong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 57


Forest dept for conservation oftraditional water sourcesTHE PIONEERMay 29, 2011Greens want a ministry forHimalayasTIMES OF INDIASeptember 10, 201158The Uttarakhand Forest Department has decided totake steps for conservation of small natural water springssupplied through traditional systems locally called naulas.The State Principal Chief Conservator of Forests hasinstructed department officials to facilitate measures forconservation of such traditional natural sources of waterin at least 88 locations in the mountainous regions of theState. The quantity of water discharge has decreased dueto different factors in most of these sources which areused by both humans and fauna. Water sources in themountainous regions have been negatively affected byrapid and unplanned development, lifestyle changes andclimatic changes caused by environmental deterioration.Women in mountainous regions are those worst-affectedby this problem, considering this the department will alsofacilitate tree plantation in areas adjoining the 88 naulasand khals marked for conservation. Using CompensatoryAfforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority(CAMPA) funds allocated for water conservation thedepartment will not only facilitate the conservation of thesesources but also take steps to increase the water discharge.The Divisional Forest Officers and Forest Conservators havebeen instructed to ensure that work on conservation of atleast five such water sources is undertaken in 2011-12 ineach forest division. Such work has cost about ` 50,000 pernaula in Nainital. Sites marked for such water conservationwork include 12 in Pauri District, eight in Chamoli, fivein Rudraprayag, 11 in Tehri, seven in Uttarkashi, five inDehradun, eight in Nainital, 10 in Almora, six in Champawatand eight each in Pithoragarh and Bageshwar.An independent ministry must be set up for theHimalayan region which faces unique ecological threats,the fallouts of which will affect the entire countryin the near future, a group of environmentalists andsocial activists said on Friday. Marking September 9as Himalayan Day, the group said the region neededthe immediate intervention of national leaders,policymakers and people. “The Himalayas are dying dueto rampant commercial activities, a number of hydroprojectscoming up on major rivers, forest degradationand threats posed by climate change. The ong>Centreong> mustset up a separate ministry for Himalayan regions toformulate a strategy to save the hills,” said Anil Joshi ofthe Himalayan Unity Movement, an umbrella body ofenvironmental and social organizations that organizedthe meet. P D Rai, MP from Sikkim, said there is aproposal to set up a working group for the Himalayanregion in the Planning Commission. Minister of state forrural development Agatha Sangma and environmentalistSundarlal Bahuguna also spoke on the occasion.ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


Role of Himalayan ecology tobe brought to lightTHE PIONEERSeptember 24, 2011World heritage site status soonfor Great Himalayan NationalParkTHE TRIBUNEDecember 18, 2011The Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology (WIHG), theUttarakhand Space Application ong>Centreong> (USAC) and theHimalayan Environmental Studies and ConservationOrganisation (HESCO) are jointly organising a twodayworkshop on the subject of Himalayan glaciers andcommunity responsibility. WIHG director, professor AnilK Gupta said that the Himalayas and rivers originatingin these ranges directly sustain and affect the lives ofabout 40 percent of the population in India. Consideringthe importance of the Himalayas, the workshop isbeing organised in order to bring together scientistsworking on Himalayan glaciers, climate change and nongovernmental organisations to interact on the scientificand societal issues of the Himalayan mountain systemand the local communities for facilitating sustainableregional development. The impacts of climate change inthe mountains have socio economic implications whichinclude change in water resources, hydropower generationand natural hazards like avalanches and the impact onglacier lakes that directly affect the livelihood of localcommunities. USAC director, MM Kimothi said that theworkshop had been divided in to seven sessions on subjectsincluding Indian climate and ecosystem responses, impactof climate change on glaciers, community responsibilityand response, climate change in Himalayan ecosystem,water resources and community adaptation and responses.HESCO founder Anil Prakash Joshi said that the workshopwas the first initiative of its type being undertaken to linkscience, community that takes into account both upstreamand down stream areas affected by the Himalayan riversystem. “Glaciers are among the most important and inrecent times, controversial components of the environment.Evaluation of the Great Himalayan National Park (GHNP)for being declared a UNESCO World Heritage site is likelyto take place early next year as the nomination has alreadybeen accepted. This was stated by Chief Minister P.K.Dhumal while chairing the 5th Wildlife Board meetingheld here yesterday. “The rationalisation process of the 33wildlife sanctuaries and two national parks spread over anarea of 7,161 km is underway to take the inhabited areasout of the purview of the sanctuaries,” he said. He said therationalisation process was nearing completion and wouldtake 1.5 lakh population of 775 villages out of the sanctuaryarea, which had been a pressing demand of the villagersfalling in the area. The Himalayan Snow Leopard Researchong>Centreong> would soon be developed near Kibbar village of theong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 59


Spiti valley at a cost of Rs. 5.15 crore to preserve the animalin its natural habitat and carry research and developmentprogramme. He said a migratory bird research centre wouldalso be set up at the Pong Dam by including local youthin their preservation. He said a conservation and breedingprogramme of Monal would also be strengthened bydeveloping a phesantry near Manali and Rs. 2 crore wouldbe spent in the first phase. Dhumal said a wildlife crimebureau would also be set up by working out modalitieswith the ong>Centreong>. He underlined the need for setting up ofan online wildlife information management system.60ong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


Lkekpkj voyksdufgekpy dks feysaxslkS djksM+vej mtkyktuojh 18] 2011vYeksM+k gksxkfculj vH;kj.;dk eq[;ky;vej mtkykQjojh 13, 2011dkcZu ØsfMV izkstsDV ds varxZr fgekpy dks lkS djksM+ :i, feysaxsAvkxkeh chl lky ds fy, rS;kj fd, x, izkstsDV dks fo'o cSad lslS)kafrd eatwjh fey pqdh gSA bl izkstsDV ds fy, dkcZu ds jsV dhnjksa ds fy, pkyw ekg esa cSBdsa gksuh gSaA blds ckn gh izkstsDV ds rgrfeyus okyh jkf'k dk lkykuk ctV cusxkA ,d izkstsDV dks fo'o cSaddh gjh >aMh feyus ds ckn ou foHkkx us nwljk izkstsDV cukus dk dke'kq: dj fn;k gSA igys izkstsDV ds rgr fgekpy dks vkxkeh chl lkyksaesa yxHkx 100 djksM+ :i, dh jkf'k feyuh gSA vxys izLrkfor izkstsDVesa foHkkx us izkstsDV esa 'kkfey gksus okyh Hkwfe vkSj jkf'k esa btkQk djusdk QSlyk fy;k gSA igys izkstsDV esa pkj gtkj gsDVs;j Hkwfe 'kkfeygS vkSj bldh vof/k chl lky gSA foHkkx dk nkok gS fd foHkkx nwljsizkstsDV dks igys ds eqdkcys tYn gh eatwj djok ysxkA iz/kku lfpoou lqn`Irks jk; us crk;k fd igys izkstsDV dh Lohd`fr ds ckn nwljsizkstsDV ij dke djuk 'kq: dj fn;k gSA'kklu ls vkns'k tkjh gks tkus ds ckn fculj vH;kj.; dks fte dkcsZVikdZ jkeuxj ls gVkdj flfoy lks;e ou izHkkx vYeksM+k ds v/khu djfn;k x;k gSA fculj vH;kj.; esa dk;Zjr deZpkjh vkSj vf/kdkjh Hkhflfoy lks;e ou izHkkx vYeksM+k dks LFkkukarfjr dj fn, x, gSaA fculjvH;kj.; ds oU; tho izfrikyd dk dk;ZHkkj flfoy lks;e ou izHkkx ds,lMhvks ,eds cgq[kaMh dks lkSai fn;k x;k gSA vH;kj.; flfoy lks;eds v/khu vk tkus ls vklikl jgus okys xzkeh.kksa dks vc leL;kvksads fy, jkeuxj ds pDdj ugha dkVus iM+saxsA mYys[kuh; gS fd 4707gsDVs;j {ks= esa QSyk fculj tho vH;kj.; dbZ o"kksZa ls dkcsZV us'kuyikdZ jkeuxj ds v/khu FkkA vH;kj.; ds taxyh tkuoj rsanq,] canj]lqvj vk, fnu vklikl ds xkaoksa esa jgus okys yksxksa ds ikyrw tkuojksarFkk Qlyksa dks {kfr igqapkrs jgrs gSaA blls yksxksa dks viuh leL;k lsdkcsZV us'kuy ikdZ ds vf/kdkfj;ksa rd igqapkus esa fnDdrksa dk lkeukdjuk iM+rk FkkA {ks= ds yksx vH;kj.; dks ftys ds ou foHkkx ds v/khudjus dh ekax mBkrs jgs FksA yksxksa dh ekax dks ns[krs gq, 'kklu us chrsfnuksa fculj vH;kj.; dks flfoy lks;e ou izHkkx esa 'kkfey djus dkvkns'k tkjh dj fn;k FkkA flfoy lks;e ou izHkkx vYeksM+k ds Mh,Qvksizse dqekj us crk;k fd 'kklukns'k gksus ds ckn vc vH;kj.; iwjh rjgflfoy lks;x ou izHkkx dks gLrkarfjr gks x;k gSA vH;kj.; {ks= esadk;Zjr oU; tho izfrikyd] jsatj ds vykok djhc ,d ntZu vU;deZpkjh Hkh flfoy lks;e dk VªkalQj gks x, gSaA oU; tho izfrikyddk dk;ZHkkj fQygky ,lMhvks ,e ds cgq[kaMh dks lkSaik x;k gSA vcfculj vH;kj.; ls lacaf/kr lHkh dke dkt jkeuxj ds ctk; vYeksM+kls lapkfyr gks jgs gSaA mUgksaus ;g Hkh crk;k fd fculj vH;kj.; dsvklikl ds xkaoksa esa i'kq gkfu ls lacaf/kr eqvkots dk Hkqxrku yksxksa dks'kh?kz dj fn;k tk,xkAong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 61


fgeky; dh lsgrcrk,axh frrfy;k¡nSfud tkxj.kQjojh 13, 2011pkSad x;s u! i;kZoj.k vlarqyu dh oSf'od fpark ls lges ,d ls,d rkdroj ns'k tc dqN ugha dj ik jgs gaS rks eklwe&lh frrfy;k¡fgeky; dh lsgr ds ckjs esa dSls crk,axh\ vkus okys fnuksa esa ;fndhV&iraxs ;g dkjukek dj fn[kk,a rks blesa gSjr ughaA dqN dhVoSKkfudksa }kjk bl fn'kk esa fd;s tk jgs v/;;u esa frrfy;ksa dkbLrseky ck;ks baMhdsVj ¼thoar ladsrd½ ds :i esa fd;k tk jgk gSAdqekÅ¡ ds vYeksM+k vkSj ckx'oj tuinksa dh ouksa ls vkPNkfnr ioZrJ`a[kykvksa esa ^taxy dh lsgr^ dk v/;;u bu fnuksa tujy vkWQn ysihMksIVsfjLV ¼;w,l,l½ ds funsZ'ku esa dhV fo'ks"kK dj jgs gSaAfgeky; dh e/; jsat esa dhV&iraxksa us vc rd tks lans'k fn, gSa]muds vuqlkj cjlksa igys izkd`frd taxyksa dks iquthZfor djus ds fy,fd, x, ikS/kjksi.k ds nkSjku dbZ vuqi;ksxh iztkfr ds ikS/ks Hkh jksifn, x,A blls HkwxHkhZ; lzksrksa ij izHkko iM+k vkSj fgeky;h csYV dh'khryrk ?kVrh xbZA blls okrkoj.k esa ekStwn Å"ek dks fu;af=r djusokyh {kerk ij Hkh izfrdwy izHkko iM+k gSA tks dhV&iraxs bl csYVesa feys gSa] os bl ckr dk ladsr gS fd e/; fgeky; ds taxy viuhLokHkkfodrk [kks jgs gSaA uSuhrky ftys ds izeq[k ioZrh; dLcs Hkherkyesa twu LVsV fLFkr cVj ykbZ fjlpZ lsaVj ds funs'kd ,oa bl vfHk;kuds la;kstd ihVj LesVkpSd dgrs gSa fd LoLFk taxy esa fofHkUu izdkjdh ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa de ls de 1200 iztkfr ds dhV&iraxs ekStwn gksuspkfg,A ;s izd`fr dh ewy vko';drk dks le>us esa enn djrs gSaAmÙkjk[k.M esa fgeky; dh f'kokfyd ?kkfV;k¡ v/;;u ds fy, mi;qDrekuh tk jgh gSaA LesVkpSd ds vuqlkj nks ekg iwoZ mUgksaus Hkokyh ds';ke[ksr xkao ds ikl dkys&lQsn jax ds ia[kksa vkSj 'kjhj ij ihyh/kkjh okyh ,d frryh dks [kkst fudkyk] tks nqfu;k ds fy, fcydqyubZ iztkfr gSA bldk ukej.k lsfjDl fejkfofyl fd;k x;k gSA vcbl iraxs ds thou pØ vkSj izd`fr esa lkeatL; dk v/;;u gks jgkgSA ;gh ugha] fiNys ikap o"kkZas rd uSuhrky ls foyqIr jgk nqfu;kdk lcls cM+k dhV ,Vyl bl o"kZ fQj fn[kkbZ fn;kA ;g vfr o"kkZokys tksu esa gh ik;k tkrk gSA blls ladsr feyrs gaS fd uSuhrkydk izkd`frd larqyu dqN gn rd dk;e gqvk gksxkA mUgksaus vYeksM+k]fculj vkSj fiFkkSjkx


fodflr gksaxh 65 tM+h&cwVh ulZfj;k¡fgUnqLrkuQjojh 18, 2011dsanz ljdkj ds jk"Vªh; vkS"k/kh; ikni fe'ku us foÙkh; o"kZ 2010-11esa mÙkjk[k.M ds gj ftys esa tM+h&cwfV;ksa ds izpqjrk ls mRiknu dsfy, 5-5 ulZfj;k¡ fodflr djus ds jkT; ds izLrko dks gjh >aMh nsnh gSA xksis'oj fLFkr tM+h&cwVh 'kks/k laLFkku us jkT; ds 13 ftyksa esaulZfj;k¡ fodflr djuss ds fy, uki Hkwfe dk p;u Hkh dj fy;k gSAulZfj;ka fdlkuksa ds ekQZr fodflr dh tk,axhA dsUnz ljdkj fdlkuksadks tM+h&cwfV;ksa ds cht vkSj ikS/kksa ds fy, ulZjh dh dqy ykxr dk50 Qhlnh /ku tM+h&cwVh 'kks/k laLFkku ds ekQZr nsxkA fiNys foRrh;o"kZ 2009-10 esa tM+h&cwVh 'kks/k laLFkku us jkT; esa tM+h&cwVh dh 63ulZfj;k¡ fodflr djus dk dk;ZHkkj gkFk esa fy;k FkkA buds fy, HkwfevkSj fdlkuksa dk p;u gks pqdk gSA ekStwnk foÙkh; o"kZ ds fy, dsanzljdkj ds vkS"k/kh; iknu fe”ku us mÙkjk[k.M ds gj ftys esa 5-5tM+h&cwVh ulZfj;ka fodflr djus ds fy, tM+h&cwVh 'kks/k laLFkkudks /ku eatwj fd;k gSA bl rjg izns'k esa dqy 65 ulZfj;ka fodflrdh tk,axhA bl rjg izns'k esa dqy 450 gsDVs;j esa tM+h&cwfV;ksa dhulZjht rS;kj gksaxhA gj ftys esa [kqyus okyh ,d ekWMy ulZjh ,dgSDVs;j uki Hkwfe esa fodflr dh tk,xh vkSj y?kq ulZjh nl ukyhtehu ijA ulZjh fodflr djus ds bPNqd fdlku dks tM+h&cwVh 'kks/klaLFkku esa vkosnu djuk gksxk vkSj lkoZtfud {ks= ds cSad dk lgefri= vkosnu ds lkFk uRFkh djuk gksxkA lgefr i= esa cSad fdlkudh lqik=rk dh xkjaVh nsxkA laLFkku ds funs'kd vkjih lqanfj;ky dkdguk gS fd izns'k ds 13 ftyksa esa tM+h&cwVh dh ulZfj;ka rS;kj djusds fy, uki Hkwfe dk p;u fd;k tk pqdk gSA ulZfj;ka fodflr djusds fy, dqy 69 vkosnu laLFkku dks feys Fks ftuesa 52 fdlkuksa dsvkosnu Lohd`r fd, x, gSaA bu lHkh dk”rdkjksa ds vkosnu ou ,oaxzkE; fodkl vk;qDr dks eatjh ds fy, Hkst fn, x, gSaA ,d ekWMyulZjh dh ykxr 20 yk[k gksxh tcfd blesa


aaaai;kZoj.k cpkus dksvc /keZ dk lgkjknSfud tkxj.kekpZ 20, 2011oU; tho dkuwuksadh iqulZeh{kk t:jhfgUnqLrkuekpZ 20, 201164i;kZoj.k dh fcxM+rh lsgr orZeku esa iwjh nqfu;k ds fy, fpark dk fo"k;gS] ysfdu Hkkjr esa rks i;kZoj.k laj{k.k lnk ls laLd`fr o ijaijkvksa dkfgLlk jgk gSA fQj _f"k&eqfu;ksa dh ri%LFkyh nsoHkwfe mÙkjk[k.M rksizkphudky ls gh bl ekeys esa vOoy jgk gSA ;g vyx ckr gS fdcnyh ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa ;g ijaijk,a /kwfey iM+ xbZA bls ns[krs gq, ouegdes dh gkfy;k dksf'k'ksa iqjkru ijaijkvksa ls tqM+us ds lkFk i;kZoj.klaj{k.k dh fn'kk esa lkFkZd igy dgh tk ldrh gSA i;kZoj.k cpkusdks egdek u{k= o uox`g okfVdkvksa ds ckn okfVdk,a LFkkfir djustk jgk gSA ns'k ds vU; Hkkxksa dh rjg mÙkjk[kaM esa Hkh ouksa ij ladVvk;k rks ouLifr;ksa ds izfr vke tuekul dks tkx:d dj i;kZoj.klaj{k.k&lao)Zu esa mldh Hkkxhnkjh lqfuf'pr djus dks vfLrRo esa vkbZeq[;ea=h gfjr fodkl ;kstukA lwcs esa ou foHkkx ds ek/;e ls py jghbl ;kstuk ds rgr fofHkUu LFkkuksa ij vfLrRo esa vkbZ] u{k= o uox`gokfVdk,aA vc foHkkx us blh rjg nwljs /keksZa ij vk/kkfjr okfVdk,a cukusdk fu'p; fd;k gSA blds rgr fofHkUu LFkkuksa ij bLykeh ckxhpk] xq:ckx] rhFkZdj okfVdk] cq) okfVdk Hkh vkdkj ysaxhAfiNys dqN o"kksZ esa taxyh tkuojksa }kjk [ksrh dks pkSiV djus o ekuoksaij geyks a dh ?kVuk,a c


adkcsZV ds flj ck?k?kuRo dk rktnSfud tkxj.kekpZ 29, 2011fi:y ls cusxhfctyhfgUnqLrkuvizSy 07, 2011bartkj dh ?kfM+;k [kRe gqbZ vkSj tSlh mEehn Fkh] gqvk Hkh oSlk ghAjk"Vªh; i'kq ck?k ds laj{k.k dh fn'kk esa mÙkjk[kaM us u, vk;ke tksM+s gSaAns'kHkj esa lokZf/kd ck?k ?kuRo dk rkt cjdjkj j[kus ds lkFk gh bllwcs esa ck?kksa dh la[;k esa btkQk gqvk gSA dkcsZV us'kuy ikdZ esa ck?kksa dhla[;k esa c


aigyh ckj [khaph fgersanq, dh rLohjnSfud tkxj.kvizSy 19, 2011irk pysxh XykscyokfeZax dh gdhdrnSfud tkxj.kvizSy 23, 2011vc fge rs anq, fdLls&dgkfu;ks a rd lhfer ugha jgsA izns'k es a igyh ckjfge rs anq, dks dSejs es a dSn fd;k x;k gSA Hkkjrh; oU; tho laLFkku¼MCywvkbvkb½ dh rjQ ls yxk, x, dSejk VSªi us peksyh ftys ds eykjhes a ,d fge rs anq, dh rLohj [khph gSA oSKkfudks a dks mEehn gS fd fge rs anq,dh dqN vkSj rLohjs a lkeus vk,axh rks ;g Hkh irk yx ik,xk fd mÙkjk[kaM{ks= es a fge rs anqvks a dh la[;k fdruh gSA mPp fgeky;h cqX;kyks a vkSj cQhZys{ks=ks a es a jgus okys fge rs anqvks a dh tkudkjh vHkh xMfj;ks a] catkjks a] ioZrkjksghnLrks a ls feyrh FkhA Luks ysiMZ ds ckjs es a muds iatks a ds fu'kku ls ghd;kl yxk, tkrs jgs gSA mudh lVhd tkudkjh ds fy, okbYM ykbQbaLVhV~;wV] nsgjknwu us ou foHkkx dh enn ls fnlaEcj es a uank nsoh tSovkfjf{kr {ks=] Qwyks a dh ?kkVh] yQry] eykjh o /kjklh vkfn mPp fgeky;h{ks=ks a es a Lopkfyr dSejk VSªi yxk, FksA djhc pkj ekg ds yacs bartkj dsckn 10 viz Sy 'kke ikap ctdj 23 feuV ij peksyh ftys ds eykjh {ks=es a dSejk VSªi us ikl ls xqtj jgs fge rs anq, dh QksVks [khaphA MCY;wvkbvkbds ofj"B Mk- ,l- lR;dqekj us crk;k fd uank nsoh ck;ksfLQ;j fjtoZ ikdZo vklikl ds Ng gtkj oxZ fdeh {ks= es a 15 dSejk VªSi yxk, x, gS aAvHkh rd fge rs anq, dh QksVks flQZ eykjh {ks= es a yxs dSejk VªSi us dSndh gSA mEehn gS fd tYn vU; dSejks a es a Hkh fge rs anq, utj vk,axsA fgers anq, dh tks Hkh rLohjs a feys axh] mudh fo'ks"k lkWVos;j dh enn ls igpkudjkbZ tk,xhA rkfd ,d gh fge rs anqvk nks ckj u fxuk tk,A igyh ckjpyk, x, bl vfHk;ku ls ;g irk py tk,xk fd izns'k es a fge rs anqvksdh la[;k fdruh gSAiwjk fo'o Xykscy okfeZax ls Xysf'k;jksa ij [krjs dh vk'kadk trk jgkgSA mÙkjk[kaM ds Xysf'k;jksa dks ysdj Hkh ;gka ds oSKkfud fpafrr gSAysfdu D;k okLro esa Xykscy okfeZax dh yiVsa cQZ ds BaMs igkM+ksa dksrsth ls fi?kyk jgh gSA bl ij fo'ks"kKksa dh viuh&viuh jk; gSA dkj.kgS Xysf'k;jksa ¼fgeunksa½ ds rkieku dh lVhd tkudkjh u gksukA vcbldk gy Hkh


anqfu;k dh /kjksgj gSfgeky; % izkbljk"Vªh; lgkjkebZ 03, 2011fgeky;h {ks=ksa dsfy, cus vyx lewgjk"Vªh; lgkjkebZ 23, 2011o"kZ 2007 esa vesfjdh mi jk"Vªifr vy xksj vkSj Hkkjrh; oSKkfud Mk0vkjds ipkSjh ds lkFk la;qDr :i ls ukscy iqjLdkj izkIr djus okysoSKkfud izks0 ekfVZu izkbl us dgk fd fgeky; Hkkjr vkSj nf{k.k ,f'k;kgh ugha oju iwjh nqfu;k dk /kjksgj gSA ;gka lalk/kuksa ds vikj HkaMkj gSaexj budk ykHk nwljs yksx mBk jgs gSaA ;gka jg jgs yksx blds ykHkksals vNwrs gSaA fygktk fgeky;h {ks=ksa ds lalk/kuksa ds ewY;kadu ,oa mudslqfu;ksftr mi;ksx djus dh vko';drk gS] rkfd ;gka ls gks jgs izfrHkkiyk;u dks jksdk tk lds vkSj yksx ;gka viuh izfrHkk dk mi;ksx djusds fy, vk,aA uSuhrky Dyc esa vk;ksftr varjjk"Vªh; laxks"Bh ds nkSjku^jk"Vªh; lgkjk^ ls izks- izkbl us fgeky;h {ks= ds yksxksa dks vius lalk/kuvkSj lsokvksa ds leqfpr ewY;kadu djus dh lh[k nhA mudk dguk Fkkfd nqfu;k dh vuwBh o vpwd vkS"kf/k;ka gSaA dsoy buls ;g {ks= nqfu;kdk lcls /kuh {ks= cu ldrk gSA mUgksaus ;gka iufctyh dh lokZf/kdlaHkkouk,a crkrs gq, NksVs cka/k gh cuk, tkus dh jk; nhA mUgksaus dgkfd fgeky; iwjh nqfu;k dks lokZf/kd izHkkfor djus okyk ioZr gSa bllsdsoy nf{k.k ,f'k;k esa gh 1.3 fcfy;u yksx izHkkfor gksrs gSaA izfrHkkiyk;u dh fn'kk igkM+ dh vksj djus ds fy, mUgksaus ea= lq>k;k fd ;gkackgj ls vkus okys yksxksa dks de ls de igkM+ksa rd lapkj dh eksckby]lsVsykbV Qksu o csgrj ;krk;kr o vkoklh; lqfo/kk nsuh gksxhA ,slkgksus ij ;gka 'kks/k ds fy, gh cM+h la[;k esa ns'kh&fons'kh yksx igqapsaxsAflfDde ls yksdlHkk lnL; ihMh jk; us ds anzh; ;kstuk vk;ksx Lrj ijfgeky;h {ks=ks a ds fy, fof'k"V lewg ds xBu ij cy fn;k gSA ;g lewgfgeky;h {ks=ks a ds fy, Bksl dk;Z;kstuk rS;kj djsxkA mUgks aus fgeky;h {ks=kses a vk jgs ifjorZuks a ds lkFk thfodk ds {ks= es a vf/kd dk;Z djus ij Hkhtksj fn;kA Jh jk; mÙkjka[kM iz'kklu vdkneh es a py jgh nks fnolh;bafM;k ekmaVsu buhf'k,fVo dh ^lLVsuscy ekmaVsu Msosyies aV lfeV 2011*ds vafre fnu dh dk;Z'kkyk es a cksy jgs FksA mÙkjk[k.M ds izeq[k lfpoi;ZVu jkds'k 'kekZ us izns'k ds vafre xkao ek.kk dk mnkgj.k nsrs gq, ogkaxzkeh.k i;ZVu ds ckjs es a tkudkjh nhA lkFk gh ioZrkjksg.k] bZdks i;ZVu vkSjjkfVx dh lEHkkoukvks a ds ckjs es a crk;kA baVjus'kuy teZu dksvkijs'kuthvkbZtsM ds eSuQsM gSfcx us xzkeh.k i;ZVu dks c


jkT; dks fey ldrk gSxzhu cksuljk"Vªh; lgkjktwu 02, 2011c


fpark djus dh t:jrugha] iwjh rjg egQwtgSa Xysf'k;jfgUnqLrkutwu 22, 2011vxj vc Hkh u psrsrks iwjh rjg ohjkugks tk,axs igkM+AfgUnqLrkutwu 26, 2011DykbesaV psat ls Xysf'k;j [kRe gksus dh psrkouh ds chp dqN jkgr Hkjhckr Hkh gSA okfM;k baLVhV~;wV vkWQ fgeky;u ft;ksykWth] thch- iari;kZoj.k ,oa fodkl laLFkku ds csl v/;;uksa ls rqyuk djrh bljksadh fjiksVZ Xysf'k;jksa ds Hkfo"; dks ysdj vk'oLr djrh gSaA gkykafd]vf/kdrj Xysf'k;j ihNs f[kld jgs gS] ysfdu mudk vkbl LVkWd ;kekl cSysal bruk fparktud ugha gS fd os dqN n'kd esa gh xk;cgks tk,aA mÙkjk[k.M] fgeky; o tEew&d'ehj ds Xysf'k;jksa esa vf/kdcnyko ugha vk jgk gSA HkkxhjFkh csflu ds lcls cM+s Xysf'k;j xaxks=hds ihNs f[kldus dh nj de gqbZ gSA lcls vf/kd fpark mÙkj iwohZ jkT;ksads Xysf'k;j gSa] tks lcls T;knk ihNs f[kld jgs gSA bldk dkj.k budklwjt dks vf/kd Qsl djuk vkSj vkdkj esa NksVk gksuk ekuk tk jgkgSA DykesaV past dh F;ksjh dks mu Xysf'k;jksa ls Hkh pqukSrh fey jgh gS]tks ?kVus ds ctk, c


gfj}kj] nsgjknwu lesr fofHkUu dLcksa ds lalk/kuksa vkSj tulqfo/kkvsa ijutj vkus yxk gSA vkus okys lkyksa esa bu dLcksa esa gkykr vkSj Hkh [kjkcgksaxsA vkcknh dk rjktw tSls gh eSnku dh >qd jgk gS oSls gh igkM+ksa dksifjlheu dk >Vdk yxkA Ng fo/kkulHkk lhVhksa ds jktuhfrd uqdlkuds lkFk mls yxHkx 100 djksM+ :i, ¼fo/kk;d fuf/k o vU; fodkl en½ls T;knk dk vkfFkZd uqdlku vxys ikap lkyksa esa gksxkA nwljk >VdkHk”kk ds loky ij yxk gSA tkfgj gS fd vkcknh dk tks jsyk mÙkjk[kaMesa nkf[ky gqvk gS mldk ,d jktuhfrd] vkfFkZd vkSj lkaLd`frd ,tsaMkgSA blds vkØked rsojksa ls igkM+h jkT; dh vo/kkj.kk flj ds cy [kM+hgks xbZ gSA vc le; vk x;k gS fd igkM+ ds yksxksa ds vYila[;d gksusij ge fpafrr gksa vkSj dqN ,sls Bksl iz;kl djsa ftlls phuh lhek ijvkus okys laHkkfor [krjs ls fuiVk tk ldsaAcjxn] ikdM+ vkSjihiy cpkus esa tqVs gSaMkW- f'ko izlknfgUnqLrkutqykbZ 05, 2011ckat ds taxyksa esaphM+ dh n[kyfgUnqLrkutqykbZ 10, 201170/kjrh ij gfj;kyh cph jgsA ;gh mudh reUuk gSA og ?kj ij gh xeysesa ikS/k rS;kj dj mls eqr esa yksxksa dks ckaVrs gSA fofHkUu iztkfr;ksa dslaj{k.k esa og 15 o"kksZa ls tqVs gSaA pwafd cjlkr dk ekSle 'kq: gks x;k gS]lks mudh lfØ;rk Hkh c


vYeksM+k ou izHkkx dh leh{kk ds nkSjku ;g rF; lkeus vk;k fd ckatds yxHkx ,d gtkj gsDVs;j {ks=Qy esa phM+ dk lkezkT; QSy pqdk gSAckat bekjrh ydM+h ds vykok ty laj{k.k] dVkok jksdus vkSj pkjk iÙkhds fy, dkQh lgk;d gS] tcfd phM+ ds fi:y ls ges’kk taxyksa esa vkxyxus dk [krjk cuk jgrk gSA Mk- jkor us dgk fd ftl Hkh fMohtuesa ckat ds taxy phM+ esa rCnhy gks jgs gSaA mu {ks=ksa esa phM+ ds dVkuds fy, ;fn Hkkjr ljdkj ls vuqefr yh tk,xkhA cSBd esa ty laj{k.kds fy, pky&[kky cukus ds Hkh funsZ’k fn, x,A cSBd esa ihlhlh,Q¼okbYM ykbQ½ Jhdkar pUnksyk] ihlhlh,Q ¼ifj;kstuk,a½ chuk ‘ks[kjh]ou fuxe ds izca/k funs’kd vfuy nÙk] ou laj{kd dqekÅa th,u lseokyds lkFk vYeksM+k] ujsUnzuxj vkSj ofdZax Iyku ds Mh,Qvks jSad ds vQljekStwn FksAvf/kdkjh lksrs jgsvkSj lkQ gksrs jgstaxyvej mtkyktqykbZ 13, 2011ou foHkkx ds gfj;kyh c


;qok isM+ lks[krs gSaT;knk dkcZufgUnqLrkutqykbZ 14, 2011P;wjk lq/kkjsxkekyh gkyrnSfud tkxj.kvxLr 01, 201172isM+ Hkkstu cukus dh izfØ;k esa dkcZu ysdj vkDlhtu NksM+rs gSaA oudkcZu lks[kus esa fdruh enn ns jgs gSa vc mldh ek= tkuuk laHko gksx;k gSA 'kq:vkrh v/;;u esa irk pyk gS fd ifjiDo isM+ksa dh ctk;;qok isM+ T;knk dkcZu lks[krs gSaA bafM;u Lisl ,Iyhds'ku lsUVj ¼bljks½vgenkckn dh vksj ls ,QvkjvkbZ ds taxy esa yxk, lhVksVw ,ukykbtjVkoj ls ;g irk pyk gSA Vkoj dks lsVsykbV ls Hkh tksM+k x;k gSAlhvksVw ,ukykbtj LFkkfir djus okys bljksa ds oSKkfud Mk- foeksyHkV~Vkpk;Z us crk;k fd lsaljksa ls feys MkVk ds fo'ys"k.k ls ;g irk pykgSA mUgksaus crk;k fd lsaljksa ls feys MkVk ds fo'ys"k.k ls ;g irk pykgSA mUgksaus crk;k fd ekStwnk 13 ehVj dk Vkoj vkB lky ds phM+ dsou eas yxk gSA bljksa ,d vkSj Vkoj ifjiDo ou esa yxk,xk tks 30 ehVjÅapk gksxhA HkV~VkpZ us crk;k lhvksVw ,ukykbtj ls izfrfnu dk MkVkysdj] ohdyh fjiksVZ bljks dks Hksth tkrh gSA vc rd 72 fjiksVZ bljksdks Hksth tk pqdh gSaA 60 lky ls vf/kd vk;q ds isM+ksa dh dkcZu lks[kusdh {kerk izfro"kZ 5 ls 10 izfr'kr dh nj ls de gksus dk vuqeku gSAtcfd 8-40 vk;q oxZ ds isM+ lcls vf/kd dkcZu lks[krs gSaA ,QvkjvkbZls bdksykWth foHkkx dh gsM Mk- y{eh crkrh gS] ohdyh fjiksVZ dk bljksals feyus okyk fu"d"kZ laLFkku esa LVksj fd;k tk jgk gSA blls] vyxekSle esa isM+ksa ds dkcZu lks[kus dh {kerk dh tkudkjh lkeus vk,xhA,QvkjvkbZ esa Vkoj dk iz;ksx lQy jgus ds ckn bljks ns'k ds dqNvkSj LFkkuksa ij bUgsa LFkkfir djus tk jgk gSA rkfd ogka ls Hkh dkcZulks[kus dh {kerk dh tkudkjh fey ldsaAmÙkjk[kaM esa cgqrk;r ls ik;k tkus okys ^bafM;u cVj Vªh^ ¼P;wjk½ vc ;wagh csdkj ugha tk,xkA jk"Vªh; d`f"k ,oa xzkeh.k fodkl cSad us P;wjk dksmÙkjk[kaM esa vkenuh dk egRoiw.kZ tfj;k cukus dh dksf'k'k 'kq: dj nhgSA blls rsy fudkyus ds ckn cpus okys osLV ls dbZ mi;ksxh phtsarS;kj dh tk,axh] tks gtkjksa gkFkksa dks dke rks nsaxh gh] lkFk gh jkT;dh vkenuh esa Hkh btkQk gksxkA jkT; ds ioZrh; ftyksa ds ?kkVh okys{ks=ksa esa gksus okys P;wjk ds Qy esa i;kZIr clk gksrk gSA bl dkj.k bls^bafM;u cVj Vªh^ Hkh dgk tkrk gSA blds chtksa esa dqy Hkkj dk 42 ls 47izfr'kr rd rsy fudyrk gSA vHkh rd ioZrh; bykdksa esa P;wjs dh ifÙk;ksadks tkuojksa dks f[kykus vkSj blds cht ls rsy fudkyus ds ckn cpusokyh [kyh dks Qsad fn;k tkrk gSA dqN xzkeh.k bykdksa esa ijEijkxr:i ls bldk mi;ksx eNyh ekjus] ePNj Hkxkus] lkaiksa dks vkcknh lsnwj j[kus vkfn ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA jk"Vªh; d`f"k ,oa xzkeh.k fodklcSad ukckMZ us bl ijEijkxr Kku dks igpku dj bls uoksUes"k Js.kh esa'kkfey dj fy;k gS] ftlds rgr ijaijkxr Kku dks cktkj rd igq¡pkusds fy, ;kstuk rS;kj dh xbZ gSA ukckMZ ds ftyk izca/kd fodkl HkV~Vds eqrkfcd P;wjs ds osLV ls ePNj ekj vxjcÙkh] lqxaf/kr vxjcÙkh] goulkexzh vkSj nnZ fuokjd eyge rS;kj fd;k tk,xkA mRikn rS;kj djusdh ftEesnkjh Lo;a lgk;rk lewgksa dk QsMjs'ku laHkkysxkA ;g ;kstukioZrh; {ks= ds xzkeh.kksa dh vkfFkZd fLFkfr esa Hkkjh cnyko yk;sxhA ;kstukds lapkyu dk nkf;Ro Lo;alsoh laLFkk fuf/k dks lkSik x;k gSAong>ENVISong> ong>Centreong>, GBPIHED


lkbcsfj;u ljlksansxh ck;ks&;wyvej mtkykvxLr 06, 2011lkbcsfj;k dh ljlksa ¼dSfefyuk LVkfob;k½ ls vc tsVªksQk dh rjg ghck;ks ;wy rS;kj djus dh dksf'k'k gksus yxh gSA fMQsal baLVhV;wV vkWQck;ks ,uthZ fjlpZ ¼MhvkbZchbZvkj½ bl ij fjlpZ esa tqVk gSA bl Øeesa iz;ksx ds rkSj ij fiFkkSjkx


vkf[kjdkj dsanz ljdkj taxyksa dh j{kk djus vkSj iznw"k.k dks de djusesa muds ;ksxnku ds fy, fgeky;h jkT;ksa dks xzhu cksul nsus dks rS;kjgks xbZ gSA th-ch- iar fgeky; i;kZoj.k ,oa fodkl laLFkku ds funs'kdMk- ,y,e,l ikyuh us crk;k fd vizSy 2012 ls ykxw gksus tk jgh 12ohaiapo"khZ; ;kstuk esa ns'k ds fgeky;h jkT;ksa dks izksRlkgu jkf'k vFkok xzhucksul ds uke ij 5000 djksM+ :i;s fn, tk,axsA bleas ls djhc 200djksM+ :i;s mÙkjk[kaM dks feysaxsA Mk- ikyuh us crk;k fd fgeky;h{ks= esa pkj gtkj ehVj ls vf/kd Å¡pkbZ ij ouLifr vkSj isM+ vkfn ughamx ldrsA bl vk/kkj ij vc rd mÙkjk[kaM dk oukPNkfnr {ks= 42izfr'kr ekuk tkrk Fkk ysfdu vc dsUnz ljdkj us pkj gtkj ehVj lsvf/kd Å¡pkbZ okys {ks= dks Hkh blesa 'kkfey dj fy;k gSAisM+ksa ds dVku ls ekSleds fetkt esa cnykonSfud tkxj.kvDVwcj 10, 2011vc dkcsZV ikdZ dsdkWfjMksj cpkus dh pqukSrhnSfud tkxj.kvDVwcj 19, 201174mÙkjk[kaM ds igkM+ksa dh xquxquh /kwi vc rst xehZ iSnk dj jgh gS vkSjjkrsa nksigj ds eqdkcys rhu xquk rd vf/kd lnZA fnu vkSj jkr dsrkieku ds chp dk varj yxkrkj c


l fjiksZV ds eqrkfcd ikdZ dh lhek ls lVs eksgku] fVdqyh] ljpwyk] lkoYns]ko dsaæ ljdkj dks fn;k FkkA exj ml ijHkh vey ugha gqvkA tkfgj gS dM+s dne u mBk, x, rks oU;thoksa dklaj{k.k] i;kZoj.k lqj{kk rFkk ekuo dkWfjMksj cpk ikuk Hkh cM+h pqukSrhcu tk,xkAong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 75


fgekpy izns’k ds dqYyw ?kkVh esa tyok;q ifjorZu ls lsc dh [ksrh easvk;k cnyko% ,d fo’ys"k.klkjka’ktxnh’k pUnz dqfu;ky v ] lqHkk"k pUnz jke fo’odekZ c ,oa ihrkEcj izlkn /;kuh cvxks0 c0 iUr fgeky; i;kZoj.k ,oa fodkl laLFkku] fgekpy bdkbZ]eksgy&dqYyw & 175 126] fgekpy izns’k] Hkkjrcxks0 c0 iUr fgeky; i;kZoj.k ,oa fodkl laLFkku] dkslh&dVkjey]vYeksM+k & 263 643] mRrjk[k.M] Hkkjrfgekpy izns’k ds m".k dfVcU/kh; rFkk 'khrks".k HkwHkkx ij fofHkUu Qyksa dh [ksrh dh tkrh gS ftUkesa lsceq[; gSA lsc] tks eq[;r% le’khrks".k tyok;q dk Qy gS] dh izns’k ds jktLo ds lkFk&lkFk d`"kdksa dksvkfFkZd ykHk nsus esa egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk jgh gSA izns’k ds iwjs HkkSxksfyd {ks=Qy ds yxHkx 1.4 izfr’krHkwHkkx esa lsc dh [ksrh dh tkrh gSA ijUrq lsc dh [ksrh esa ukSosa ls nlosa n’kd ds njfe;ku yxHkx 49-6izfr’kr {ks= esa c


Fkk vkM+w bR;kfn fgekpy izns’k esa mxk,s tkrs gSa] ysfdu lsc tks yxHkx 1-4 izfr’kr HkkSxksfyd {ks=Qyesa mxk;k tkrk gS] lEiw.kZ jkT; ds jktLo vftZr djus esa eq[; Hkwfedk vnk djrk gSA lEiw.kZ lsc dh[ksrh dk yxHkx 41 izfr’kr {ks= f’keyk ftys esa gh vkrk gS tks fd lcls vf/kd gSA blds i’pkr dqYywrFkk e.Mh ftyksa esa Øe’k% 23 izfr’kr rFkk 16 izfr’kr HkwHkkx esa lsc dh [ksrh dh tkrh gSA fgekpy dsvU; ftyksa esa lsc dh [ksrh cgqr de gksrh gSA tgka rd lsc ds mRiknu dk iz’u gS] f’keyk ¼65 izfr’krlEiw.kZ mRiknu dk½ rFkk dqYyw ¼24 izfr’kr lEiw.kZ mRiknu dk½ ftys blesa vxz.kh gaSAvdsys dqYyw ftys esa yxHkx 537 fefy;u :i;s dk izfro"kZ mRiknu fd;k tkrk gSA ;g lp gS fdfgekpy izns’k ds izR;sd ftys esa Qyksa dh [ksrh dh tkrh gS ysfdu tyok;q ifjorZu dh otg ls yxkrkjmRiknu esa Hkh fxjkoV ntZ dh x;h gSA lsc eq[; :i ls ,slk Qy gS tks dkQh gn rd tyok;q ¼rkieku]o"kkZ rFkk cQZ½ dh n’kkvksa ij fuHkZj djrk gSAv/;;u {ks=k ,oa tyok;qorZeku v?;;u {ks= ‘dqYyw ?kkVh’] nf{k.k esa ykjth ¼957 eh0½ ls mRrj esa jksgrkax pksVh ¼4038 eh0½rd yxHkx 80 fd0eh0 dh yEckbZ rFkk 3 fd0eh0 dh vf/kdre pkSM+kbZ esa C;kl unh ds fdukjs QSyk gSA;g v/;;u {ks= e/; igkfM+;ak mi&vknzZ mi&’khrks".k ¼915 ls 1523 eh0½ rFkk mPp igkfM+;ka ‘khrks".kue d`f"k&tyok;q n’kkvksa esa fLFkr gSA lw{e&tyok;q Lrj ds fo’ys"k.k ds fglkc ls ?kkVh dks iqu% rhumi&Hkkxksa esa foHkkftr dj ldrs gSaA ;s rhuksa mi&Hkkx mRrj ls nf{k.k fn’kk dh vksj gSa & Åijh dqYyw?kkVh ¼jksgrkax pksVh ls eukyh½] e/;e dqYyw ?kkVh ¼eukyh ls dqYyw½ rFkk fuEu dqYyw ?kkVh ¼dqYyw lsykjth½A dqYyw ?kkVh ds e/;e {ks= lsc dh xgu [ksrh ds fy, dkQh izfl) gSaA uxj e/; dqYyw ?kkVhdh ,d ,slh lw{e HkkSxksfyd bdkbZ gS tks C;kl unh ds ck;sa fdukjs ij clk gS vkSj izkphu dky esa dqYywHkwriwoZ dqYyw fj;klr dh jkt/kkuh jgk gSA bl lw{e HkkSxksfyd {ks= dh okf"kZd vkSlr o"kkZ pkj n’kdksads njfe;ku ¼1963&1970 ls 1991&1999½ U;wure 96-4 ls0eh0 vkBosa n’kd esa rFkk vf/kdre 120-84ls0eh0 ukSoasa n’kd esa jgkA tcfd bUgha pkj n’kdksa esa vkSlr U;wure cQZ 59-87 ls0eh0 lkrosa n’kd esarFkk vf/kdre 82-32 ls0eh0 vkBosa n’kd esa jghA ;gka ij fnlEcj ls ekpZ ekg esa rkieku fxj tkrk gSSAvf/kdre rkieku 10-9º ls0xzs0 ¼tuojh½ ls 28º ls0xzs0 ¼twu½ rd vkadk x;k gSA tcfd vkSlr U;wurerkieku tuojh esa 0-9º ls0xzs0 ls tqykbZ esa 18-1º ls0xsz0 rd jgrk gSAvkadM+s rFkk fof/kbl ‘kks/k i= esa lHkh vkadM+ksa dk lzksr f}rh; jgk gSA lsc ds vUrxZr {ks= ,oa mRiknu ls lEcfU/kr vkadM+sQyksRiknu foHkkx] f’keyk rFkk dqYyw ls fy, x, gSaA ftys esa iwjs mRiknu dks mDr Qly ds vUrxZrlEiw.kZ {ks= ls Hkkx nsdj izfr gSDVs;j fefVªd Vu mRiknu ¼Vu izfr gSDVs;j½ fudkyk x;kA lsc dsvUrxZr {ks= ¼gSDVs;j½ rFkk lEiw.kZ mRiknu ¼Vu½ ds chp esa dkyZ fi;jlu lg&lEcU/k ds ek/;e ls Hkhns[kk x;kA blh izdkj {ks= ¼gSDVs;j½ rFkk izfr gSDVs;j lsc ds mRiknu ¼Vu izfr gSDVs;j½ ds chp esa Hkhlg&lEcU/k ns[kk x;kA tyok;q ifjorZu ls lEcfU/kr vkadM+ksa esa eq[; :i ls rkieku] o"kkZ rFkk cQZ dsvkadM+s ¼1963 ls 2007½ Hkkjrh; d`f"k vuqla/kku laLFkku] {ks=h; LVs’ku] dVjkbZa ls bdV~Bs fd;s x;sA lHkhbdV~Bs fd;s x;s vkadM+ksa dks n’kd ds vk/kkj ij ,d&,d djds fofHkUu mi&lewg cuk;s x;sA mnkgj.kds fy, 1963 ls 1970 rd ds vkadM+ksa dks 7oka n’kd] 1971 ls 1980 rd ds vkadM+ksa dks 8oka n’kd]1981 ls 1990 rd ds vkadM+ksa dks 9oka n’kd] 1991 ls 2000 rd ds vkadM+ksa dks 10oka n’kd rFkk 2001ls 2007 rd ds vkadM+ksa dks 21oha lnh ds igys n’kd ls izfrfuf/kRo fn;k x;kA tcfd v/k%iru ¼o"kkZong>ENVISong> ong>Bulletinong> : Himalayan Ecology 19, 2011 77


o cQZ½ fudkyus ds fy, okf"kZd vkSlr ¼1963 ls 2007½ fudkyk x;kA ,d fof’k"V o"kZ dh o"kkZ dh ek=kdks mlh o"kZ dh cQZ dh ek=k ls foHkkftr djds o"kkZ rFkk cQZ dk vuqikr fudkyk x;kAbl izzdkj ls 45 o"kkZsa ds miyC/k vkadM+ksa ds vk/kkj ij lsc dh izfr gSDVs;j {ks= esa mRiknu dks eq[; rhuoxksZasa esa foHkkftr fd;k x;k gS tSls U;wure ¼5 Vu izfr gSDVs;j½ mRiknuA vkSlru :i ls tyok;q vkadM+ksa dks eq[; :i ls N% vPNs mRiknuoxZ esa j[kk x;k gSA blh izdkj ls tyok;q ds N% U;wure mRiknu o"kZ] fofHkUu oxkZsa esa lfEefyr fd;sx;s gaSA ,df=r vkadM+ksa dks N% fofHkUu U;wure mRiknu o"kksZa esa vkSlr djds foHkkftr fd;k x;k gSA ;gvkadM+s uoEcj ls vizSy ekg esa lfEefyr fd;s x;s gSa D;ksafd bl le; lsc esas dfy;ksa dk QVuk] Qwyksa dkcuuk rFkk Qyksa ds cuus dh izfØ;k ds fy, U;wUkre rkieku okys ¼fpfyax½ ?kaVksa dh vko’;drk jgrh gSAifj.kkelsc dk mRiknu izfr:idqYyw ?kkVh vFkok lEiw.kZ dqYyw tuin eas lsc ds mRiknu dks vxj ns[ksa rks lsc ds varxZr gj o"kZ {ks=c


asaaa Zatyok;q ifjorZutyok;q ifjorZu vkt dh izeq[k i;kZoj.kh; leL;kvksa dks tUe nsus esa ,d vge Hkwfedk vnk djrk gSAc


tks fd eq[; :i ls vf/kdre rFkk U;wure rkieku es a o`f) rFkk feV~Vh dh vknz Zrk es a deh dks n’kkZrk gSAblh 21oha lnh ds igys n’kd esa vkSlr okf"kZd v/k%iru esa &16-1 ls0eh0 o"kkZ rFkk &14-67 ls0eh0 cQZdh deh ntZ dh xbZA la{ksi esa ;g dgk tk ldrk gS fd rkieku yxkrkj c


fo’ks"k Hkwfedk vnk djrh gSaA rkRi;Z ;g gS fd lsc dh dfy;ksa dks QVus ds le; vkSlru 7º ls0xsz0 lsuhps rkieku yxHkx 1200 ?kaVs rd pkfg,A tyok;q ifjorZu dk lcls cqjk vlj U;wure rkieku esavf/kdre c


Waalh/ks :Ik esa /kwi dh fdj.ksa igqaprh gSaSA ysfdu vxj ckxokuksa dh ckr ekusa rks bl o"kZ lsc dh Qly dsmRiknu esa deh ek= fuEu Lrj dh vknzZrk crk;h tkrh gSA ysfdu ;g lR; Hkh udkjk ugha tk ldrk gSfd ckxhpksa esa de ls de 33 izfr’kr ikWyhukbtjksa dh la[;k ls lsc dh vPNh iSnkokj laHko gSA ysfduoSKkfud n`f"Vdks.k ls vxj ns[kk tk, rks lsc dh vPNh iSnkokj esa mi;ZqDr dkj.k ,d lkFk lkeqfgd :iesa ns[ks tkus pkfg,A ek= ,d dkj.k de mRiknu ds fy, ftEesnkj ugha gSAlq>kolaf{kIr :i es a rkieku rFkk eǹk vknz Zrk eq[; :i ls lsc dh [ksrh dks izHkkfor djus okys dkjd jgs gS aA vxjtyok;q n’kk,a fujarj cnyrs Lo:i tSls fd orZeku le; es a jg jgh ga S] lsc dh iztkfr;ka yacs le; rdizHkkoh ugha jg ldrh gS aA dqN egRoiw.kZ lsc dh iztkfr;ka tyok;q ifjorZu es a lek;kstu djus es a lgk;d gksldrh gS a ysfdu yxkrkj rkieku es a c

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