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The Power of Creating Knowledge

A Transformative Design Approach 6

Hille von Seggern, Julia Werner, Lucia Grosse-Bächle

With Brains, Heart and Hands

For a Culture of Creativity in Scientific Theory and Practice 40

Wilhelm Krull

Designing as Working Knowledge 42

Helga Nowotny

Introduction 49

Hille von Seggern, Julia Werner, Lucia Grosse-Bächle

Designing as an Integrative Process of Creating Knowledge 59

Hille von Seggern, Julia Werner

Exploration Creativity, Understanding and idea

Exploration: Creativity, Understanding and Idea 83

Hille von Seggern

What Does Understanding Mean?

The Perspectives of Heidegger and Gadamer 91

Jean Grondin

Artistic Processes of Understanding among Language, Sign and Image

Selected Pictures by Trude Fumo 98

Anne D. Peiter

Creativity in the Balance between Action and Complexity 104

Hans Poser

The Neurobiological Preconditions for the Development of

Curiosity and Creativity 112

Gerald Hüther

The Maiuetics of Knowledge

Body, Sense and Language 119

Gustl Marlock

Creativity and Understanding

Neurobiology, Mimesis and Art 125

Hinderk M. Emrich

Curatorial Acting

Art, Work and Education 134

Beatrice von Bismarck

Projects at STUDIO URBANE LANDSCHAFTEN

Symposium: Research by Design 22 Evolution of a Spatial “Creating Knowledge Process” 25 Water Atlas 27 Elbe

Island Dyke Park 29 The Dyke Hut in Goetjensort 30 Deichpark 2 – Spreehafen 31 Kreetsand – Experiencing the Tidal

Land scape 32 Kirchdorfer Wiesen Resort 32 A Vision for the Wadden Coast Landscape in the Context of Climate Change

33 2Stromland – 2Riverland 34 Rhine Love 35 Expeditions in German Educational Landscapes 36 Lima Beyond the Park 37


Focus Urban Landscapes, Designing and Innovation Strategies

Focus: Urban Landscapes, Designing and Innovation Strategies 151

Hille von Seggern, Julia Werner

Understanding is Essential for Designing 164

Hille von Seggern

Improving the Quality of Fragmented Urban Landscapes –

a Global Challenge! 188

Thomas Sieverts

Productive Open Spaces 195

Undine Giseke

Design Knowledge 202

Martin Prominski

Ideas – How Can They Emerge?

Design Teaching at STUDIO URBANE LANDSCHAFTEN 212

Julia Werner

Design is Experimental Invention 240

Peter Latz

Manifold Horizons 257

Henri Bava

Stossworks: Hybridized, Expansive, Incomplete 265

Chris Reed

We Focus on People 274

Markus Gnüchtel

Multiscale Design

Ontwerpen door des schalen heen 282

Lodewijk van Nieuwenhuijze, Susanne Zeller

Dynamic Media

Water and Vegetation in Process-oriented Design 289

Lucia Grosse-Bächle

Designing through Experiment 302

Daniela Karow-Kluge

The “Park of Least Resistance”

An Inventory 309

Boris Sieverts

Appendix

The Authors 317

The Editors 319

Picture Index 320

Dragnet Investigation Designing Regions while Exploring Them 38 Transformative Narratives as Agents of Change 39

Designs with Experiments 44 Cliches, Prejudices, Stereotypes 57 Body and Space 71 Cult Glasses 79 “The Part and the

Whole“ 84 People Create Space 90 Rediscovering the Douro 157 KAMP-LINTFORT 162 Experiments in Luxemburg 178

The Spatial Vision 179 Urban Surfers 181 New Farmer. Farmland 184 An Image for the Altmark 230 On the Axis 236

Selection, Editing, Comments: Julia Werner, Hille von Seggern


The Power of Creating Knowledge

A Transformative Design Approach

Hille von Seggern, Julia Werner, Lucia Grosse-Bächle

Six years have passed since Creating Knowledge was first published. The integrative approach

to design that we outline in the book is the product of many years’ experience in practice and

research, and of exploratory teaching methods and reflection on design. To mark the occasion

of the book launch, we elected to apply our approach to designing for large-scale areas

in an open experiment among professionals. This was the starting point for an event funded

by the Volkswagen Foundation and conceived and implemented by STUDIO URBANE LAND-

SCHAFTEN as an experimental setting. In July 2008 we presented the book to international

colleagues, invited guests and students as part of a symposium on “Research by Design – the

case of urban landscapes” at the Leibniz University in Hanover.

Imagine some 100 people coming and going between a series of light-filled neutral spaces.

Hanging plants with blue blossoms hang from the ceiling of the main room, which one reaches

through a notional “cinematic sluice gate” comprised of two screens on which the banks of the

Elbe between Hamburg and the North Sea (filmed from the deck of a ship) slide gently by on

each side. Various people stand talking in groups while others sit on a sofa, reading and browsing

through handbooks, project work and research reports. At certain times, most of them

listen attentively to the “discussion carousel”, a panel discussion between international professionals

in which, at intervals, one person leaves the panel and another takes his or her place.

Ever more experts – researchers, practitioners, teachers and students from different disciplines

– take a seat at a long table and start to draw, glue, write or create collages. In the next room,

two people are working on a dance choreography inspired by the Elbe. Others simply watch and

observe. By the end of the day, some 50 pieces of paper are hanging on the wall: a colourful

bouquet of pictorial visions for the landscape of the Elbe, covered with a plethora of interesting

handwritten questions. (p. 22-24)

6

von Seggern I Werner I Grosse-Bächle

Hille I Julia I Lucia

The context for this setting was a one-day symposium that was simultaneously a discussion

forum, experimental concept and workshop. In addition to an exhibition, a library and a perpetually

running film of the River Elbe, the symposium featured a periodically recurring discussion

carousel and a parallel design workshop in the same room. The participants were able to move

around freely between the workshop area, the lecture area, the entrance and the space outside.

The rules were simple: participants could read, listen, take part in discussions and work as and

when they wished.

In this open experiment, the participants and organizers worked together to explore relevant

research questions and development possibilities for a chosen urban landscape. Every region

and every kind of urban landscape was in principle available as a potential subject of planning.

After consideration, STUDIO URBANE LANDSCHAFTEN elected to focus on a section of the

Elbe estuary that borders the federal states of Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony

in which a range of current and complex issues coincide. The region is exposed to an increased

risk of flooding as a result of rising sea levels, heavy rainfall, increasingly intensive shipping

use and the presence of a power station in the flooding zone. The region has contaminated

industrial wasteland that needs transforming and is subject to the competing interests of urban

settlement, recreation and nature protection – all within a section of the lower Elbe in the midst

of a wonderful estuary landscape.


EvOLUTION OF A SPATIAL

“CREATINg kNOWLEDgE PROCESS”

THE PRINCIPLE OF INvENTION AND LANDINg IN THE TIDAL LANDSCAPE OF THE ELBE RIvER ESTUARY

1

2

3

4

5

6

The images illustrate the stages of a Creating Knowledge process:

1) A complex, confusing, multidimensional performative space (Raumgeschehen), whose issues are yet to be revealed and elaborated. 2)

A casual, personal interest in sustainable water projects leads to … 3) a better understanding and a variety of practice-teaching-research

projects. 4) The projects – strategically chosen – “land” in the Elbe River Estuary region and address questions concerning large-scale development

in the area as a whole and in specifi c sub-regions. Landscape is understood as a process that can integrate climate change, flooding

and use of the river areas, simultaneously making wider reference to projects around the world. 5) The process spawns a series of concrete,

practical realisable projects … 6) and simultaneously makes reference to and gives rise to renewed consideration of wider issues such as education,

energy, regional development, and megacity development. (all images: Hille von Seggern)

Concrete projects within the tidal landscape of the Elbe, as well as in other landscapes, can be seen on the following pages..


Dyke Park 2.0

Klütjenfelder Dyke, Spreehafen

[8.2]

Living along the dyke and the Ernst August Canal

Dyke Boulevard Harburger Chaussee

Sheep pasture

Ridge pathway

Dyke bench

Berlin Promenade

Flotsam bank

Willow and reed bed zone; tidal zone

Hinterland Protection Land Foreland

former profile of the dyke

The Dyke Park is flood protection +

+ animals in the city + 2 kilometres of seating

+ water access and ability to experience the tide

+ ecological diversity

+ park infrastructure

Urban planning and open space competition for heightening a dyke; 1st

prize for the Klütjenfelder section of the main dyke; 2013. Team: Sabine Rabe

(SUL), Gerko Schröder (SUL), Hille von Seggern (SUL), Marcella Hartmann,

Julia Schulz, Rouven Wagner and Yellow Z, Berlin. Initiators of competition:

IBA Hamburg GmbH and Landesbetrieb Straßen, Brücken, Gewässer

The opening of the former customs fence by the IBA Hamburg and the

annulation of the free port zone made the Spreehafen harbour generally

accessible, creating an area with great recreational potential for

the Wilhelmsburg district of the city. This potential is best accessed

via the main dyke, which is due to be elevated to meet the new projected

high water levels. This presented an opportunity to initiate

an exemplary collaborative process involving different authorities to

explore the idea of a Dyke Park as part of a competition, and to implement

this in subsequent projects. The heightening of the dyke by

between 80 and 100 cm across a length of 2 kilometres made it possible

to combine flood control measures with recreational uses. An

additional challenge was to achieve this within the same footprint,

because the dyke elevation had to occur on top of the existing dyke.


Rhine Love

Joint development of the Rhine landscape between Bad Bellingen (GER) /

Communauté des Communes Portes des France Rhin Sud (F) and Möhlin/

Schwörstadt (CH)

F

“Old Love”

Seduction Landscape

D

Admiration Landscape

Existing Place of Admiration

The IBA Basel 2020 (International Building Exhibition) aims

to promote the joint development of the tri-national agglomeration

area around Basel and to facilitate a culture of cooperation

across national boundaries between France, Switzerland

and Germany. The River Rhine plays a specific role

as a connecting element. The “Rhine Love” study aims to

place the individual IBA projects in a wider context.

The particular features and idiosyncrasies of the Rhine landscape

are presented in the spatial vision entitled “Rhine

Love”, which characterises the space in four landscape typologies:

Admiration Landscape (steep slopes along the

Rhine), Seduction Landscape (banks of the Rhine), “Old

Love” (former alluvial land), and Closed-off Landscape (isolated

industrial and commercial areas). These describe the

different spatial qualities of the Rhine landscape. For each

of these landscape typologies, new questions were developed

for the future of the region that should help qualify

the IBA projects and generate ideas for new projects.

The design team developed initial ideas for the spatial vision

during a 3-day site visit. The visit began with a joint

initial exploration of the area by car, followed by discussions

and sketches in the evening. Thereafter each member

undertook day-long walks on their own equipped with

specific questions to address to the landscape, convening

in the evening to talk and sketch. To conclude, the group

undertook a river cruise and swam together in the Rhine.

CH

Rhine Love – Spatial Vision

Examples of spatial interventions

= enchanting encounters

10/2012 - 02/2013, Commissioned by: IBA Basel 2020,

Team: Sabine Rabe (SUL), Marcella Hartmann,

Thomas Gräbel (SUL) (all: rabelandschaften); Sigrun

Langner (SUL), Michael Rudolph, Aline Kamke, Sebastian

Pietzsch (all: Station C23), Consultants: Henrik Schultz

(SUL) (Stein+Schultz); Hille von Seggern (SUL) (Alltag-

Forschung-Kunst)

Left:

Admiration – Buvette (little wine bar) in the vineyards

(CH)

Right:

Temporary breach of a closed-off space (CH) –

Stairway over the quay wall

Left:

Seduction – A place to touch the Alt-Rhine (GER)

Right:

New love – Springboard and rain shower at the

Huningue Canal (F)


EXPEDITIONS IN GERMAN EDUCATIONAL

LANDSCAPES

DESIGN RESEARCH WITH ADOLESCENTS

Learning happens all the time and everywhere. This project aimed to find out

what role spatial dimensions play, as part of raumgeschehen, in these processes?

Using design research methods in conjunction with filmmaking, a team of landscape

architects, architects, town planners and documentary filmmakers went

in search of the challenges that teenagers face in their daily lives today. The

study investigated the lifestyles and everyday routine of fourteen-year-olds in

two contrasting regions of Germany: a rural area suffering from decline and a

growing metropolitan region.

Four teenagers from the rural community of Bodenfelde in Lower Saxony and

four teenagers living in Hamburg took on the role of “researchers”. Inventing

an exchange programme for this study, the teenagers visited each other

for four days and filmed the daily routines of the other teenager. After returning

to their hometown, they then developed a mini-documentary with the

help of the filmmakers.

The result is 4×2 cinematic portraits that tell the story of the life and challenges

of teenagers nowadays in cities and in rural areas.

Based on the documentaries and supplemented by interviews, mappings and

other workshop results, the research team described different individual learning

landscapes by translating the empirical material into mappings, images

and narrative descriptions, concluding with a portrayal of rural and urban educational

landscapes.

The team’s conclusions focus on the spatial dimension, describing its potential,

challenges and constraints as well as possible development strategies,

instruments and practices for the future. Building on the gathered stories in

a final think tank, teenagers and experts developed future visions for educational

landscapes.

Team: STUDIO URBANE LANDSCHAFTEN on the road – Thomas Gräbel,

Anke Schmidt, Sabine Rabe, Hille von Seggern in collaboration with: doktales

(Sarah Nüdling, Robert Paschmann) and Lilli Thalgott; Funding: Wüstenrot

Foundation; 2013-2015


24 RAUMBILD

DRAgNET INvESTIgATION

DESIgNINg REgIONS WHILE

ExPLORINg THEMsEttIng und chorEograFIE dEs ExpErImEnts

A STUDIO URBANE LANDSCHAFTEN ExPERIMENT

Das dreitägige Experiment „Rasterfahndung“ lässt sich im

Wesentlichen in vier phasen gliedern: die Einzelerkundungen

in den Quadranten (1), den Weg zur Denkwerkstatt in Günne

(2), den Austausch der Erfahrungsberichte (3) und den Bau des

Raumbilds als Modell (4):

15 people simultaneously undertook 15 explorative tours in 15 grid quadrants of a region

around the Möhnsee Lake in search of local specifi cs and characteristics, places, people

and everyday stories. Together they became part of a large-scale choreography, players in

an experimental search motion. The experiment “Dragnet Investigation” is part of a series

of research projects by the STUDIO URBANE LANDSCHAFTEN that examine new research

methods for large-scale landscapes.

sEttIng und chorEograFIE dEs ExpErImEnts

Das dreitägige Experiment „Rasterfahndung“ lässt sich im

Wesentlichen in vier phasen gliedern: die Einzelerkundungen

in den Quadranten (1), den Weg zur Denkwerkstatt in Günne

(2), den Austausch der Erfahrungsberichte (3) und den Bau des

Raumbilds als Modell (4):

1. Im Raster fahnden: Der Fahndungsraum wurde im vorfeld

des Workshops mit einem Raster aus 15 Quadranten überzogen.

Innerhalb der 15 Felder liegt jeweils der Ausgangspunkt

für die Einzelerkundungen der Gegend durch einen „Fahnder“

bzw. eine „Fahnderin“.

Setting and choreography

of the experiment: the

four phases

2. Unterwegs nach Günne: Gemeinsamer zielort der Erkundungstouren

ist die Denkwerkstatt der Montag Stiftungen in

Günne am Möhnesee; sie muss am Ende des zweiten Tages

von allen erreicht werden. Welche Route die „Mitspieler“ des

Experiments nehmen, welche Stationen sie während ihrer Erkundungen

aufsuchen, welche verkehrsmittel sie nutzen und

mit welchen Gesprächspartnern sie über die Region reden, ist

ihnen freigestellt.

1. Im Raster fahnden: Der Fahndungsraum wurde im vorfeld

des Workshops mit einem Raster aus 15 Quadranten überzogen.

Innerhalb der 15 Felder liegt jeweils der Ausgangspunkt

für die Einzelerkundungen der Gegend durch einen „Fahnder“

bzw. eine „Fahnderin“.

2. Unterwegs nach Günne: Gemeinsamer zielort der Erkundungstouren

ist die Denkwerkstatt der Montag Stiftungen in

Günne am Möhnesee; sie muss am Ende des zweiten Tages

von allen erreicht werden. Welche Route die „Mitspieler“ des

Experiments nehmen, welche Stationen sie während ihrer Erkundungen

aufsuchen, welche verkehrsmittel sie nutzen und

mit welchen Gesprächspartnern sie über die Region reden, ist

ihnen freigestellt.

3. Austausch: Am zielort angekommen werden die Erfahrungen

der Fahnder/innen untereinander ausgetauscht sowie Namen

und Bilder für die Region formuliert.

4. Ein Raumbild 09.03. 2012 entsteht: Gemeinsam entwickelt das STUDIO- 22:00

Team ein dreidimensionales Raumbild des Untersuchungsraums.

Es soll eine alltagsästhetische und potenziell zugeneigte

Sicht auf die Region vermitteln. Anschließend wird über die

Tragfähigkeit des Bildes diskutiert.

10.03. 2012 17:00

09.03. 2012 22:00

10.03. 2012 17:00

10.03. 2012 22:00

11.03. 2012 17:00

Setting und Choreografie des Experiments: die vier Phasen

EINFüHRUNG

7

3. Austausch: Am zielort angekommen werden die Erfahrungen

der Fahnder/innen untereinander ausgetauscht sowie Namen

und Bilder für die Region formuliert.

4. Ein Raumbild entsteht: Gemeinsam entwickelt das STUDIO-

Team ein dreidimensionales Raumbild des Untersuchungsraums.

Es soll eine alltagsästhetische und potenziell zugeneigte

Sicht auf die Region vermitteln. Anschließend wird über die

Tragfähigkeit des Bildes diskutiert.

10.03. 2012 22:00

a

f

k

b

g

l

11.03. 2012 17:00

Setting und Choreografie des Experiments: die vier Phasen

EINFüHRUNG

7

MODELLBILD "FR

– IST-zUSTAND U

Das Modellbild a

farbigem Klebeba

hervor. Wasser is

in der Region.

IMAGES OF THE MODEL “DRESSED LANDSCAPE” – CURRENT CONDITION AND SPACE OF POSSIBILITIES

The image of the model made from gray cardboard, newspaper and coloured sticky tape emphasizes the watercourses. Water is the connecting

element that defi nes the plotline of the region.

Denkwerkstatt der Montag Stiftungen gAG, Studio Urbane Landschaften (Ed.): Rasterfahndung. Regionen im Erkunden entwerfen.

Ein Experiment des STUDIO URBANE LANDSCHAFTEN. Hanover 2012.


STUDIO URBANE LANDSCHAFTEN

54

STUDIO URBANE LANDSCHAFTEN is an interdisciplinary network for teaching, research and practice at the

faculty for architecture and landscape at Leibniz University in Hanover, Germany. There are currently sixteen

members from the areas of landscape architecture, urban planning, architecture, civil engineering, biology,

sociology and water management who are working in research, teaching and office practice (most are active

in several areas). The STUDIO is the joint platform for questions of perception, planning and design of urban

landscapes, ranging from regional strategies to local projects.

In 2003 the STUDIO emerged as a model dedicated to teaching landscape design theoretical and always based

on experience and dialogue. The lack of space for a creative, design-oriented work led to a temporary use of

space for four years “off campus” in a nearly abandoned university building with large rooms, which were well

suited for this experiment. In 2008 the STUDIO returned to the faculty building.

Teams that are assembled according to task and schedules work experimentally, “with their own signatures”

on different focuses. At any rate, there is a conceptual and methodical shared approach: the STUDIO concept.

It is characterized by a comprehension of designing that combines rational, intuitive and experience-orientated

accesses to knowledge in the fields of theory, methodology and implementation. It uses both design and artistic

modes of work. The STUDIO concept is based on a “translation” of a hermeneutic understanding for design

processes and features a focus on creative idea-finding.

The meshing of concept and personnel makes possible a productive exchange among teaching, research and

practice: Research as design, design as research in academic, research, and practical projects as exciting interplay.

Inter- and trans-disciplinary network strategies are the precondition for the design of complex urban

landscapes. Design itself and appropriate communication and working forms become the bridge-building modes

of activity of STUDIO URBANE LANDSCHAFTEN.

The STUDIO at work, in dialogue, in exhibitions or at project presentations …


The STUDIO at work, in dialogue, in

exhibitions or at project presentations …

Members: Dipl.-Ing. Börries v. Detten, Dr.-

Ing. Lucia Grosse-Bächle, Dipl.-Sozialwiss.

Claudia Heinzelmann, Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Dr.-

phil. Sabine Kunst, Dipl.-Ing. Sigrun Langner,

Dipl.-Biol. Nikolai Panckow, Prof. Dr. Martin

Prominski, Dipl.-Ing. Sabine Rabe, Dipl.-Ing.

Anke Schmidt, Dr.-Ing. Carsten Scheer, Dipl.-Ing.

Henrik Schultz, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hille v. Seggern,

Prof. em. Thomas Sieverts, Prof. Antje Stokman,

Dipl.-Ing. Julia Werner, Dipl.-Ing. Susanne Zeller

(May 2008)


Exploration

Creativity,

Understanding

and idea


Exploration:

Creativity, Understanding

and Idea 1

Hille von Seggern

83

If one understands design as the creative capacity of human beings to take an active role in

the evolutionary shaping of the world, then that implies a responsibility to comprehend and

transmit creativity.

As Helga Nowotny says, design is “obliged to the creative act,” 2 because it depends on

the skilful interaction between ratio and intuition and intellect, feeling and body. “At the

moment of the highest creativity, intuition finally merges with comprehension and bears

progress” writes Gerald Traufetter 3 and thereby underscores the extraordinary productivity

of creative thought and action. But what is creativity? How are creativity and understanding

related?

The scientifically based principles are now at hand in the different fields of creativity research

for this equivocal term 4 . For instance, Rainer M. Holm-Hadulla 5 demonstrates the interaction

between talent, motivation, personality and general conditions. He names the characteristics of

creative people: Flexibility, associative thinking, self-confidence, goal orientation, intelligence,

non conformity, transcendence, interest, originality and curiosity, and indicates the significance

for early childhood and suitable living conditions for the development of a creative personality

structure. Furthermore, he names the phases of the creative processes that have been proven,

in part with other terms, in scientific investigations and practical experience: preparation, incubation,

illumination, realization and verification.

In my opinion, this now extensive knowledge can not simply be realized in creativity methods

that are independent of context, be it brainstorming or the headstand method. They are

thoroughly useful but compared with the “world changing bolt of mental lightning of famous

men”, which is frequently the subject of creativity research (and which as a rule is preceded by

extended processes of searching and work), the results are most often modest. In addition

these methods are most often not simply applicable to design processes, because they need a

conscious task and object related transmission and transformation.

If one now more narrowly focuses the question of creativity on the design of landscapes, what

sustains interest above all is the connection between the initial conditions or inventory status,

how the existing conditions are handled and the development of an actual idea. But how one

proceeds from the perception of the inventory to the design idea, is by no means clear.

I would like to bring up two observations, which are repeatedly made in connection with creativity

processes, because I suspect that they are especially revealing for the question of the

connection of inventory and idea:

1. A highly motivated, passionate, constant circling around a question, a feeling of excitement

and the almost “sense of getting lost” precedes the discovery of the idea. Hard work

and many attempts which might lead to a solution, belong to this intensive process. Something

other than pure industriousness, which as is already known does not produce ideas,

is at work here.

2. Nonetheless the appearance of an idea is accordingly described as sudden and unexpected;

it appears as a rule after a kind of (frustrating) emptiness. At the same time there is a certainty:

The idea seems to be self-evident, simple and clear, as if it were always there, and its appearance

is met with great joy.

von Seggern

Hille


People create space

Choreography

Summer semester 2007, Bachelor in the 2 nd semester, 4 th exercise in the

framework of STUDIO-lecture “Open space and designing:” Choreography on

the Küchengartenplatz: A dance through space. “Choreography I: Form as exactly

as possible a diagonal from the checkpoint over the surface with the whole

group; looking in the direction of the theatre…” “Choreography II: Everyone

leaves the position, which had been created in the previous choreography and

the group spreads out over the entire ‘stage’ of the Küchengartenplatz…”

Instructors: Hille von Seggern, Sabine Rabe

Choreo I graphy. Chore, from the Greek,

chora “open place, space, surface, land” 1.

A unified landscape, which is distinguished

from its environs. 2. The line surrounding

the chore, chorea “dance in chorus” and

so on. Choreography 3. Artistic design and

establishment of the steps and movements

of a ballet. (from the DUDEN, the great

foreign word dictionary, Mannheim, 2000)

Choreography I: standing diagonal, running diagonal , Choreography II: Corridor diagonal, the plaza diffuse


The Neurobiological

Preconditions

for the Development

of Curiosity and Creativity

Gerald Hüther

112

Creative people often do not even know exactly how they become inspired and arrive at their

brilliant ideas. Sometimes it seems that their ideas or achievements spring from “gut feelings“

or from “deep down in the heart.“ Strangely enough, we are most creative under conditions,

which according to conventional wisdom are not appropriate for high performance

brain activity: in a dreamy or half asleep state. It seems that creativity is an activity that can

not be attained by a special exertion of the thinking organ, in order to solve a certain problem.

The really creative ideas actually come at the very moment when we are able to use

our brains without pressure and without a targeted exertion. In a certain way, we resemble

the best songbirds, whose singing achievements Konrad Lorenz so fittingly described: “We

know very well that the bird song involves a species preserving performance in the establishment

of territorial boundaries, the attraction of females, the intimidation of intruders and

so on. However, we also know that the bird song reaches its pitch of perfection, and its richest

differentiation, when these functions no longer play a role. A bluethroat, or a blackbird

sings the most artistic, and for our sensibilities, most beautiful and objectively most complexely

constructed songs in those moments of slight arousal when they poetically 'pour

forth'. When the song serves a purpose, when the bird sings in opposition or struts before

a female, then the finer nuances are lost, and all one hears is a monotone repetition of the

loudest stanzas. It almost always amazed me, that the bird achieved its artistic peak performance

in song in exactly the same biological state and mood as the human being, namely

in a kind of psychic equilibrium, with a little distance, as it were, from the seriousness of life,

in a purely playful way.“ 1

If in that sense we now ask ourselves, when were our brains working at their best “in a kind of

psychic equilibrium, with a little distance, as it were, from the seriousness of life, and in a purely

playful way“, then for most people in our efficiency acclimated world of ideas this condition of

highest creativity will be the most memorable, where we had least suspected it: in early childhood.

It is worth the time to pursue the question of why this is so and how it happens, that so

many people lose this capacity sooner or later in the course of their lives.

How the potential for learning and creating is shaped

During childhood people are so curious, capable of enthusiasm, and open for everything

there is to experience in the world in a way that never recurs in later life. At the point of

birth the brain is not yet finished. Only the circuitry and networks in the older regions of

the brain that are absolutely necessary for survival are already fully functional at the time of

birth. They control all those functions which contribute to inner physical order, and also those

reactions which are set in motion, when this inner physical order is disturbed. Also certain

experiences, which have already been made in the womb, as well as inborn reflexes, are

stored in the brain in the form of certain connectivity patterns. Everything else, that means

almost everything that is important in later life, must be learned additionally and stored as

a new experience in the brain. The cerebrum, or more precisely the cerebral cortex, is that

region of the brain where this new knowledge is lodged in the form of certain patterns of

association between the nerve cells. It triples in volume in the first year of life and expands

considerably thereafter, not because more nerve cells are formed there, but because at the

point of birth already existing nerve cells grow out a multitude of processes and connect

Hüther

gerald


fokus

Urban

Landscapes,

Designing and

Innovation

Strategies


Senken werden zu Sümpfen

Kiesteiche werden zu Meeren

Moränen werden zu Gebirgen

Halden werden zu Steppen

Joker

KAMP-LINTFORt.

Landscape Dreams

Concept: Landscape islands as stabilizers. Archetypal landscapes

as “strange attractors” in the landscape, bound in a regional city

road network.

Sebastian Riesop, Eva Schiemann: diploma thesis, 2004;

Counsellors: Hille von Seggern, Norbert Rob Schittek

expanse steppe landscape…


exotischer

Kohlelagerplatz

163

im Blick: Wälder, Felder,

Wiesen und Kühe

Betonmauer

Zweisamkeit auf Europalette

buddhistischer

Blick auf Kamp-Lintfort

Mönchssitz

Einsamkeit

dem Himmel so nah

Gleitschirmflieger

unendliche Weite

schwarze

Rennstreifen

geschütze Mulde

die große Leere

Feuerwehrschlauch

als Kletterhilfe

frei

Wind

Gras

im Blick: qualmende Schornsteine, Fabriktürme

bis Dortmund gucken

Aufwinde

Dunst

schwebender Falke

verstecken im

Schilf

Autobahnverkehr

unten ganz leise

The waste pile Norddeutschland becomes

steppe: Inventory with ideas: View of

Kamp-Lintfort; in the view: Forests, fields,

pastures and cows; endless expanse; the

view includes: billowing smokestacks;

factory towers; the great emptiness; looking

all the way to Dortmund; hovering hawk;

paraglider; so close to the sky (excerpts)

START

Uses of the steppe landscape for flying

kites, getting away from it all or flying model

airplanes: Flexible use, steppe wolves,

endless expanses, steppe grass, lockers,

timberline

flexible Nutzung

flexible Nutzung

Steppenwölfe

Steppenwölfe

unendliche Weiten

unendliche Weiten

Personal equipment can be stored in lockers: kites,

deck chairs, music instruments…

Schließfächer

Schließfächer

Baumgrenze

Baumgrenze

Steppengras

Steppengras


water, but the effort of fetching it from the spring by the road to Cannobio demanded a means

of transport and a lot of time.

Why didn’t locals like my neighbour fetch the water, fill it into bottles (with screw-tops!) and sell it

to us? Would that be worthwhile? Extrapolations from the relief were useful at this point. If everyone

participated, if it was put on offer beyond Durone in Falmenta as well, and if – as one might

suppose – the non-local residents used the water for tea, coffee and even cooking as well – then,

169

“Systematised” Crown Cap Relief 2, Durone, continuing since 1995. How can a district that already has a “Central Park” be

developed? Three variations …

perhaps. The locals would have to appreciate the spring and realize that water from there is more

valuable to outsiders than that out of bottles. That would be difficult, for (chlorinated) water from

the tap – like television, freezers or cars – are only recent acquisitions permitting the locals to join

in a state of urban civilization. Further-reaching water topics such as the purification of sewage, the

handling of seepage, alternative ways to treat drinking water were also discussed (and rejected).

von Seggern

Hille

Translation to the professional sphere – mapping, analogy,

images ,pictures, questions, ideas

Around two years after the start of my ongoing “research report relief”, I was sitting in my

house in Durone once again, preparing a lecture for my application as professor of urban planning

and design. It suddenly became clear to me that the relief and its production process

were suitable as an analogy to the development of urban landscapes. I translated the process

and image of the relief to settlement areas in cities, which can be regarded as a type of urban

landscape, using the same simple rules that I had established to produce the relief: only the

crown caps from my own household, the same ones over the course of several years, rules

for height (length of the nails), materials and an arrangement for “construction” on the board.

The crown caps are interpreted as buildings, with minor additions representing special buildings

(like caps from sparkling wine bottles). The size of the board stood for a “meaningful size

of settlement area”. Specific, simple materials and constructions were “prescribed”. An area

remains recognizable during an “economic intermission” as well; the process-image is “finished”

at every point in time. Minor, occasionally appearing deviations from the basic materials

(red and white instead of blue and white crown caps) make the image livelier without losing the

principles of design. The area can cope with a “retrospective process of concentration”. This

all led to an extremely lively, yet aesthetically pleasing urban landscape. What a good thing that

I still have the lid of the sardine tin, which can pass for a small park. Otherwise, there would

not be enough open space in the area. Smiles among the listeners at my audition lecture. They

enjoyed following the analogy and the subsequent discussion was animated.


the spatial vision

179

Three examples from the work of

STUDIO URBANE LANDSCHAFTEN

1. The region South Luxembourg. Experiments and “spatial vision”. The application of four design

principles in the context of regional planning 44 : aesthetics of communication, affection,

experiments and “spatial vision” as pictorial metaphors

“Being in dialogue” is one quality of the overall development process of regional planning for Luxembourg, where

it has not existed as legally established planning in the past. Ursula Stein refers to this as “governance modus,” by

which “learning and communication situations are designed.” 45

Students 46 (with support) realized four experiments themselves, courageously designing them in Hanover without

having had an opportunity to visit the 200 square kilometres of the South Luxembourg region in advance. The

experiments were used to test whether affection for the large-scale urban landscape could be triggered through

small interventions. There were indeed many declarations of love, questions, and much shaking of the head. Above

all, the different elements of design helped to achieve a continuation of the voluntary regional planning process.

The spatial vision – Côte Rouge as a topographical “sea” landscape (Original scale M. 1:50.000)

The spatial vision for the region South Luxembourg: developed in a joint design workshop by Stein + Schultz urban, regional and

open space planners, Frankfurt am Main, and STUDIO URBANE LANDSCHAFTEN (Team: Hille von Seggern, Henrik Schultz, Sigrun

Langner, Sabine Rabe, Anke Schmidt), July 2007


223

Summer semester 2006, Advanced studies; 6 th exercise: Urban Landscapes – a research trip “… Embark on your own research

trip. Allow yourself to be inspired: you can read, conduct conversations, make sketches, take photos, go on a field trip, watch

films… Explore and use everything in which you suspect an answer… Your search should ideally start today and accompany

you in the next two weeks, by all means along the way… The task is to sound out your own ideas, thoughts, intuition, attitudes

to urban landscapes as well as to research them in books, conversations, films, field trips etc… and to depict your process of

understanding and your insights. The focus is on finding your own (subjective) path, your own type of research, your approach

and your soundings out of things. …”

We predefined a route of exploration for the first personal encounters with the Altmark in

which, in groups of two, the students took regional trains in different directions from a common

starting point to various stations – usually practically abandoned ones that belonged to small

villages – where they disembarked with their bicycles. They were instructed to cycle at least

five kilometers in a direction of their choice in a state of maximum concentration and curiosity

(which should be the basis of any inventory) paying attention to everything that they perceived

with their senses. They used notes, sketches, photos and objects found to record what they

saw, heard in conversations, smelled at field edges, touched in the forest or tasted, such as ripe

fruit along country roads. They were instructed to have at least three conversations with people

whom they encountered on their bicycle tours through seemingly abandoned villages and to

document them in short reports.

If we consider space to be a multidimensional – not only built – performative process, then

we are naturally interested in all of those dimensions when we encounter an area; the social,

historical, cultural, economic, ecological, aesthetic and in the people, who are just as much part

of space. 25

werner

Julia


244

Sketch on a napkin, Peter Latz 3, 4

Methods of design

I will now proceed to look at various methods of design, whereby I wish to begin with solution

processes for less complex tasks. Imitation or mimesis is at the bottom of the hierarchy.

Mimesis

Mimesis calls for high levels of skill and knowledge on the part of the designer. Mimesis

has long been at the forefront of most courses, particularly in the nineteenth century, and is

still used by many third-level colleges today. In the planning professions, mimesis involves

the repetition of examples that can be copied by surveys, verified and then applied to one’s

own work. Using this method either the form or the material are imitated. The buildings

designed by Thomas Jefferson in his home town of Charlottesville (before he became

American president), are good examples. He used the harmonious temple facades of the

Greek gymnasion to design a new university there. Interestingly, he copied the aesthetic

rules of the antiquity to give expression to the ideas of the new free America and its educational

aspirations.

Jefferson had the portico of the main building constructed of real marble columns imported

from the Mediterranean to America. The columns of the other buildings were made of wood

and covered in a marble imitation coating. Although this was an imitation, the process can certainly

be considered creative and innovative, especially in comparison to the neo-gothic building

style that was commonly used in America at the time.

latz

peter


StossWorks:

Hybridized,

Expansive,

Incomplete

Chris Reed

265

Stoss is a Boston-based design studio that has built its core practice around a set of hybridized

design and planning strategies known as landscape urbanism. This positioning within an

emerging field, itself a hybridization of landscape architecture and urbanism, enables both a

critical and a pragmatic broadening of landscape agendas. Here we move beyond simple visual

and decorative approaches to landscape improvements to those capable of addressing more

far-reaching issues of infrastructure and function, ecology and sustainability, flexible programming

and interim use, fiscal strategy and funding, as well as administration, management, and

maintenance.

For us, landscapes must be conceived and positioned relative to large-scale geographical, environmental,

and infrastructural systems, regardless of whether the landscape in question is

small or large. Landscapes must tap into the evolving dynamics of ecological, civic, or social

systems in order to remain healthy and resilient. Landscapes must set up conditions for a wide

range of uses and appropriations for both those we can imagine now and those we cannot in

order to be viable immediately and for years to come.

To achieve these ends, we favor a performance-based approach over one that is primarily

physical, spatial, or visual. We are especially interested in how landscapes work: how they

function urbanistically, socially, hydrologically, environmentally; how they reinforce existing

city frameworks; how they invent new ones; and how they may support a range of complementary

and sometimes contradictory civic programs across a multifaceted and dense urban

field.

Such an approach yields new types of open space, landscape, infrastructure, and urban strategies,

which simultaneously address functional, fiscal, social, political, as well as cultural goals.

These strategies are thoroughly grounded in the particularities of local conditions, yet they

are inventive and densely layered in order to tap into broader trends and larger systems. They

privilege a regenerative approach to civic space and urban landscapes as complex, living, and

evolving entities socially, ecologically, and fiscally robust. Two projects in particular manifest

these core principles.

Mt. Tabor Reservoirs. Portland, Oregon, USA

Stoss with Taylor + Burns Architects, Arup, et al.

Staging Mt. Tabor is a strategy for reuse, renewal, and regeneration. Mt. Tabor is a 150-acre

urban park with three late-nineteenth-century drinking water reservoirs, situated in Portland,

Oregon on the west coast of the United States. We were invited along with three other teams

to develop landscape schemes for the park in anticipation of a large-scale de- and re-commissioning

project for the reservoirs.

Three open reservoirs are situated in Mt. Tabor Park. Purified drinking water enters the

park reservoirs for temporary storage before being piped almost directly into nearby houses

and businesses. Given the public’s unrestricted access to the perimeter of these basins,

the city of Portland has always recognized the reservoirs’ vulnerability to potential

attack most likely in the form of a vial of something (arsenic, perhaps) being thrown or

poured into the basins and contaminating the drinking water supply. (Curiously, no one

seemed to be bothered by the ducks and birds constantly swimming and defecating in

these constructed ponds).

Reed

Chris


Dialogic understanding of design

In the 1980s, process-oriented design strategies had reached a status of great respect within

landscape planning. At that time Louis Le Roy, Karl Heinrich Hülbusch and many other representatives

of the Ecology Movement experimented with the idea of using the dynamic and

self-organizing characteristics of plants in their designs. Despite the innovative nature of these

approaches, they could not stop the ideologized conceptions of the Ecology and Nature Garden

Movement from leading it into a cul-de-sac. Dogmatic perception largely obstructed the further

development of an aesthetic language as an expression of a dialogic relationship between man

and nature. The backlash was that process-oriented design strategies generally lost popularity

in landscape architecture in the 1990s. Now, at the beginning of the twenty-first century, interest

in the creative potentials of natural processes is reawakening. A series of landscape architects

is now looking for strategies with which to integrate, accompany and manipulate dynamic

developments. Rather than aiming to protect nature, their objective is to enrich it on the basis

of ecological knowledge.

The relationship between man and plants is an interactive process, a dialogue. Specific methods

of design and vegetation management can take over the task of directing. They strive

towards never-ending series of changing images rather than static images.

A necessary prerequisite for working with the dynamic powers of vegetation – apart from

an attitude of respect and well-grounded knowledge of plants – is a broad comprehension

of design-relevant growth and development processes from phenological annual rhythms to

succession as well as basic knowledge of ecology and population biology. In this context, Nick

Robinson emphasizes that design with vegetation is always connected to the management

of natural processes even if the ultimate aim is to produce aesthetically pleasing results. “The

plant world has its own dynamic and developmental order. We can only manage it. We cannot

change it.” 17

In process-oriented design, methods are often

borrowed from the vegetation management

repertoire while forest planning methods are

also experimented with. 18 Maintenance and

design are planned together so that maintenance

strategies can become part of the design

process from the very beginning.

293

Grosse-Bächle

Lucia

Design strategies in practice

The following example projects demonstrate

various ways of highlighting and directing the

dynamics of vegetation development. Landscape

architects must leave room for undisturbed

growth while at the same time clearly

defining design frameworks and setting down

rules with which to direct and guide processes.

How can creative design be carried out using

the natural dynamics of vegetation?

Dialogic design: The relationship between man and

plants is perceived to be an interactive process.


Visionskarte Experimentierraum

COMMUNAUTé DES COMMUNES PORTES DES FRANCE RHIN SUD (F) AND MöHLIN/

SCHWöRSTADT (CH)

The IBA Basel 2020 (International Building Exhibition) aims

to promote the joint development of the tri-national agglomeration

area around Basel and to facilitate a culture of cooperation

across national boundaries between France, Switzerland

and Germany. The River Rhine plays a specific role

as a connecting element. The “Rhine Love” study aims to

place the individual IBA projects in a wider context.

The particular features and idiosyncrasies of the Rhine landscape

are presented in the spatial vision entitled “Rhine

“Old Love”

Love”, which characterises the space in four landscape typologies:

Admiration Landscape (steep slopes along the

Rhine), Seduction Landscape (banks of the Rhine), “Old

Love” (former alluvial land), and Closed-off Landscape (isolated

industrial and commercial areas). These describe the

D

different spatial qualities of the Rhine landscape. For each

Seduction Landscape

of these landscape typologies, new questions were developed

for the future of the region that should help qualify

the IBA projects and generate ideas for new projects.

F

The design team developed initial ideas for the spatial vision

during a 3-day site visit. The visit began with a joint

initial exploration of the area by car, followed by discussions

and sketches in the evening. Thereafter each member

undertook day-long walks on their own equipped with

Admiration Landscape

specific questions to address to the landscape, convening

in the evening to talk and sketch. To conclude, the group

Existing Place of Admiration undertook a river cruise and swam together in the Rhine.

CH

10/2012 - 02/2013, Commissioned by: IBA Basel 2020,

Team: Sabine Rabe (SUL), Marcella Hartmann,

Rhine Love – Spatial Vision

Thomas Gräbel (SUL) (all: rabelandschaften); Sigrun

Langner (SUL), Michael Rudolph, Aline Kamke, Sebastian

Pietzsch (all: Station C23), Consultants: Henrik Schultz

(SUL) (Stein+Schultz); Hille von Seggern (SUL) (Alltag-

Forschung-Kunst)

Examples of spatial interventions

= enchanting encounters

Left:

Admiration – Buvette (little wine bar) in the vineyards

(CH)

Right:

Temporary breach of a closed-off space (CH) –

Stairway over the quay wall

Left:

Seduction – A place to touch the Alt-Rhine (GER)

Right:

New love – Springboard and rain shower at the

Huningue Canal (F)

6

Architecture Urban space

eBook

Creating Knowledge

Innovation Strategies for

Designing Urban Landscapes

Hille von Seggern / Julia Werner /

Lucia Grosse-Bächle (eds.)

EXPANDED AND UPDATED

E-BOOK EDITION

With contributions by: Henri Bava, Beatrice

von Bismarck, Hinderk M. Emrich, Undine

Giseke, Markus Gnüchtel, Jean Grondin,

Lucia Grosse-Bächle, Gerald Hüther,

Daniela Karow-Kluge, Wilhelm Krull, Peter

Latz, Gustl Marlock, Helga Nowotny,

Lodewijk van Nieuwenhuijze, Anne Peiter,

Hans Poser, Martin Prominski, Chris Reed,

Hille von Seggern, Boris Sieverts, Thomas

Sieverts, Julia Werner, Susanne Zeller

ePDF

286 pages with approx. 200 plans and ill.

EUR (D) 20.99

ISBN 978-3-86859-886-5

Also available in German:

ISBN 978-3-86859-876-6

Climate change, water dynamics, multicultural living and humanitarian crisis are just

some of the complex phenomena shaping urban spatial performances – Raumgeschehen

– today. The spatial design disciplines must respond with increasingly innovative

approaches.

Creating Knowledge explores what designing means, how it operates as a fundamentally

creative competency, and how innovative design strategies can be formulated.

Proceeding from an understanding of place and the world around us as Raumgeschehen

– as innumerable spatial performances – the authors consider the urban landscape

from a spatial perspective. A new introductory essay discusses the specific

transformative capacity of design.

Experts from the fields of philosophy, neurobiology, science theory, psychology, sociology,

literature, art, urban design, and landscape architecture discuss how understanding

and creativity are connected in their respective fields, and the relevance this has

far beyond the realm of the design disciplines.

Examples of current work from STUDIO URBANE LANDSCHAFTEN along with internationally

renowned landscape architecture projects reveal how the production of

ideas, design practice, and aesthetic expression are closely bound up with the process

of understanding the landscape. Creating Knowledge formulates an interdisciplinary

and innovative design approach that is based on and reinterprets the concept of

understanding in Gadamerian hermeneutics.

RHINE LOvE

jOINT DEvELOPMENT OF THE RHINE LANDSCAPE BETWEEN BAD BELLINgEN (gER) /

the power oF Creating Knowledge

A Transformative Design Approach

Hille von Seggern, Julia Werner, Lucia Grosse-Bächle

Six years have passed since Creating Knowledge was first published. The integrative approach

to design that we outline in the book is the product of many years’ experience in practice and

research, and of exploratory teaching methods and reflection on design. To mark the occasion

of the book launch, we elected to apply our approach to designing for large-scale areas

in an open experiment among professionals. This was the starting point for an event funded

by the Volkswagen Foundation and conceived and implemented by STUDIO URBANE LAND-

SCHAFTEN as an experimental setting. In July 2008 we presented the book to international

colleagues, invited guests and students as part of a symposium on “Research by Design – the

case of urban landscapes” at the Leibniz University in Hanover.

Imagine some 100 people coming and going between a series of light-filled neutral spaces.

Hanging plants with blue blossoms hang from the ceiling of the main room, which one reaches

through a notional “cinematic sluice gate” comprised of two screens on which the banks of the

Elbe between Hamburg and the North Sea (filmed from the deck of a ship) slide gently by on

each side. Various people stand talking in groups while others sit on a sofa, reading and browsing

through handbooks, project work and research reports. At certain times, most of them

listen attentively to the “discussion carousel”, a panel discussion between international professionals

in which, at intervals, one person leaves the panel and another takes his or her place.

Ever more experts – researchers, practitioners, teachers and students from different disciplines

– take a seat at a long table and start to draw, glue, write or create collages. In the next room,

two people are working on a dance choreography inspired by the Elbe. Others simply watch and

observe. By the end of the day, some 50 pieces of paper are hanging on the wall: a colourful

bouquet of pictorial visions for the landscape of the Elbe, covered with a plethora of interesting

handwritten questions. (p. 22-24)

The context for this setting was a one-day symposium that was simultaneously a discussion

forum, experimental concept and workshop. In addition to an exhibition, a library and a perpetually

running film of the River Elbe, the symposium featured a periodically recurring discussion

carousel and a parallel design workshop in the same room. The participants were able to move

around freely between the workshop area, the lecture area, the entrance and the space outside.

The rules were simple: participants could read, listen, take part in discussions and work as and

when they wished.

In this open experiment, the participants and organizers worked together to explore relevant

research questions and development possibilities for a chosen urban landscape. Every region

and every kind of urban landscape was in principle available as a potential subject of planning.

After consideration, STUDIO URBANE LANDSCHAFTEN elected to focus on a section of the

Elbe estuary that borders the federal states of Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony

in which a range of current and complex issues coincide. The region is exposed to an increased

risk of flooding as a result of rising sea levels, heavy rainfall, increasingly intensive shipping

use and the presence of a power station in the flooding zone. The region has contaminated

industrial wasteland that needs transforming and is subject to the competing interests of urban

settlement, recreation and nature protection – all within a section of the lower Elbe in the midst

of a wonderful estuary landscape.

vON SEggERN I WERNER I gROSSE-BäCHLE

HILLE I JULIA I LUCIA

FoKUS

Urban

landSCapeS,

deSigning and

innovation

StrategieS

Summer semester 2006, Advanced studies; 6 th exercise: Urban Landscapes – a research trip “… Embark on your own research

trip. Allow yourself to be inspired: you can read, conduct conversations, make sketches, take photos, go on a field trip, watch

films… Explore and use everything in which you suspect an answer… Your search should ideally start today and accompany

you in the next two weeks, by all means along the way… The task is to sound out your own ideas, thoughts, intuition, attitudes

to urban landscapes as well as to research them in books, conversations, films, field trips etc… and to depict your process of

understanding and your insights. The focus is on finding your own (subjective) path, your own type of research, your approach

and your soundings out of things. …”

We predefined a route of exploration for the first personal encounters with the Altmark in

which, in groups of two, the students took regional trains in different directions from a common

starting point to various stations – usually practically abandoned ones that belonged to small

villages – where they disembarked with their bicycles. They were instructed to cycle at least

five kilometers in a direction of their choice in a state of maximum concentration and curiosity

(which should be the basis of any inventory) paying attention to everything that they perceived

with their senses. They used notes, sketches, photos and objects found to record what they

saw, heard in conversations, smelled at field edges, touched in the forest or tasted, such as ripe

fruit along country roads. They were instructed to have at least three conversations with people

whom they encountered on their bicycle tours through seemingly abandoned villages and to

document them in short reports.

If we consider space to be a multidimensional – not only built – performative process, then

we are naturally interested in all of those dimensions when we encounter an area; the social,

historical, cultural, economic, ecological, aesthetic and in the people, who are just as much part

of space. 25

223

WERNER

JULIA

jovis Verlag GmbH I KurfürstenstraSSe 15/16 I 10785 Berlin I fon 030-26 36 72-0 I fax 030-26 36 72-72 I jovis@jovis.de

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