Derek Smith Margaret Tuckson
Janet DeBoos Doug Alexander Penny Riley
Dulce Herd (Vic)
Jean Robins (WA)
Joyce Scott (SA)
Margaret McNaught (Old)
Penny Smith (Tas)
President of the Potters' Society
of A ustralia Dennis Pile
Please address all correspondence to
The Editor 0/ "Pollery in Australia"
48 Burton Street, Darlinghu"t, N.S.W. 2010
Telephone: (02) 31-3151. Private: (02)44-6396
COVER : PETER HOOK, "Don'! count your chickens": porcelain slip with low-fired
enamels, iron, wood and wire. 45 cm x 40 cm. From the Exhibition of Australian Crafts 1978.
Photograph by lohn Deloeollr lor the Cra/ls Board, A IIstralia Council
Published by the Potters' Society of Australia
Vol. 17, No.1, 1978
Three Dollars Filty Cell/J
Time for Re-assessment
Haruo Shimada, Master Potter
Ceramic Fibre Kilns-Dawn of a New Age Joe Davis
A New Energy-saving Kiln for Potters Max Murray
Leonie Ryan and Cheryl Small
Australian Pottery J 900-1950
Lyrebird Ridge Pottery
An Airing about De-airing Pugmills
A Clay Mixer
Leadless Insoluble Low-temperature Glazes Leigh Roberts
Pottery in Crete
Some Thoughts on Cracks and Textures Stephen Skillitzi
Compiled by Janet DeBoos
Bendigo College 1977 Graduate Exhibition
The Craftsman Potters' Association of Britain Beryl Barton
Book and Magazine Reviews
The Potters' Society of Australia
Competitions and Exhibitions
Notice to Subscribers and Subscription Forms
The publication date of this issue of
Pottery in A ustralia coincides with the opening of
the first National Ceramic Conference for
Potters. This conference, which many of the leading
potters in Australia are attending, will have
sessions allocated to the technical, educational
and philosophical aspects of ceramics. A four- or
five-day conference cannot possibly hope to
cover in any detail such a wide field but the
greatest gain will be, I'm sure, the meeting together
of the pottery community of Australia. To mark
the occasion of the Conference, Pottery in Australia
has reproduced a colour photograph for the
cover of this issue. In future issues of the
magazine we hope to introduce more and more
colour and possibly a change in layout.
Peter Hook's cover piece may be apt, however,
warning us "Don't count your chickens".
TIME FOR RE-ASSESSMENT
An Introduction to the National Ceramic Conference
From the first moment that the National Ceramic Conference for Potters was
suggested it showed the possibility of being the most exciting event in the Australian
ceramic scene. Enthusiasm spontaneously illuminated everyone contacted
with the news.
Australia has now possibly more than 20,000 people actively taking part in
pottery making. With such a large number involved one immediately asks :
"What sort of people are they?"
"For what reasons are they doing it?"
Recent surveys have compiled much information but the processing of this
material is almost out-dated since the growth of the craft has escalated yearly to
an almost unknown point. The potter with his long hours of devoted labour probably
has less opportunity to discover where he fits into the fabric of the contemporary
The first National Ceramic Conference for Potters gives the exciting prospect
of potters meeting other potters, finding by social contact a sense of identity and
a relief to that feeling of isolation imposed upon them by the physical demands
of the craft. The social contact is the essence of the conference, the diverse
technical and aesthetic papers secondary.
Twenty-two years ago four Sydney polters founded the Potters' Society of
Australia. Barely anyone knew they existed, or even thought there was such a
thing as local handmade ceramics. But from this small group, and a few isolated
others, grew the vigorous pottery scene of today that has expanded into a diverse
range of styles removed from its initial aesthetic stimulu~. Australia, without
ceramic traditions, or a ceramic heritage from its indigenous people, stepped off
with the inspiration of Bernard Leach wherein the great periods of Chinese and
Japanese ceramics became the criteria. Traces of mediaeval England and other
small personal eclectic predilections were absorbed and the influences were spread
as this small core of potters taught and exhibited.
Now a generation has passed and the new craftsman, a product of today's
complex society, is open to the overall influences of media and education. His
work should become more relevant to the time as it reveals the conscious or subconscious
influence of his environment. He has the opportunity to choose his own
vocation and not have his future determined by inheriting a trade passed down from
father to son or by I iving in a specialised community from which he fears to leave. A
temperament that leans toward aesthetic response and the ability to express it
manually assists his choice and the acceptance of the craftsman's lifestyle implies
his need for an alternative to that offered by present society.
The craft revival was a reaction against the nineteenth century industrialization
. But many involved felt the need to preserve the past. Consequently, some
perpetuated traditions that finally became mere exercises in virtuosity no longer
relevant to the present society. Others, more concerned with creative process,
allowed evolution to adapt to society's needs and today the new craftsman is concerned
that the materials make statements communicating his personal aesthetic
response to the world around him. His higher education, toward creative thinking,
rejects the routine of the early craftsman. He tries to make each object a new
statement, even the repetition of one form is a series of fresh possibilities no
matter how subtle or minute the difference. His attitude shows his self-awareness
and it is comparable to that of the fine artist. His statements reflect with equal
right that of the painter and sculptor. His work is seen and becoming known; and
the world is being enriched again by a consciousness of the special qualities of
But how many people involved in craft making fit this image? Certainly there
are some very beautiful, exciting and imaginative craft objects being made that
are unique to this period; and they are executed by the dedicated few who are
artists as well as craftsmen. How many such craftsmen are in Australia? How
much handmade pottery in Australia has a special quality that justifies its existence?
The truth is that craft shops everywhere are filled with crafty junk. Most is
designless and crudely made and even domestic pottery is non-functional-plates
that are too heavy, casseroles with awkward handles, jars with ill-fitting .1 ids,
glazes that are overfired or underfired, shapes ugly, colours depressing, touch
horrid, originality nil. Even the attempted traditional, for which one has guidelines,
is bad but the contrived efforts from those trying to find novelty is much
worse. No doubt the creator enjoyed the making or did he? Was it merely the
result of a hurried routine, not reviewed by any kind of critical eye in order to
supply quickly something to the local craft shop? After all someone might buy it.
The Craft Revival of the nineteenth century was not just a rejection of the
machine made, it was an objection to the banality and poor design of mass produced
products. Many accepted the cballenge. The Great Arts and Crafts Exhibition
of 1888 in London saw works of the craftsmen acclaimed. Each decade
since has produced new masters as the interest in the crafts continued. But only
since the last World War has craft consciousness escalated into the explosion of
craft activity today with millions of people in the Western world, and thousands
in Australia finding pleasure in making.
Why then is there so much tbat is bad? Realising that very few people have
the natural ability to relate the elements of a work to each other so that a unified
design results and that most people practising crafts have had very little design
training, if any, it is not surprising. However, tbe pleasure of making is open to
all of us and should not be denied. But just how many of the results that will
become permanent is what we need to worry about. And this is of the greatest
importance to pottery, an almost indestructible medium which will allow the bad
and the good to survive time, both becoming a record of their day.
This Conference through its social contact and dialogue, I hope, will help
the potters of Australia:
1. understand their significance in society in human and aesthetic terms;
2. realise that it is the responsibility of each potter to advance his manual
technique, his technical knowledge and his aesthetic awareness in order
to execute his ideas with excellence;
3. to become more self-critical of his work and be able to reject what is
inferior before and not just after firing makes it permanent;
4. to hold on to the joy of making and never lose it to the joy of selling.
The future of the potter's craft lies not in the depth of his creativity, since
the biggest volume of potters will be makers not innovators, but in the integrity
of each potter to attempt honestly to make each object as best he can.
PETER TRAVIS is a well-known ceramic artist who toured for the Crafts Council in 1977. He
has just returned from being guest lecturer in ceramics at Banff School of Fine Arts, Canada.
He is a past president of the Potters' Society and chairman of the National Ceramic Conference
HARUO SHIMADA, MASTER POTTER
Photographs: Andrew Halford
Haruo Shimada, master potter, is one of the few remaining Japanese potters still
making the large jars used for storage of water and grain. As the demand for these
jars is no longer sufficient for economic viability, Shimada san has developed an
extended range of ware to keep the pottery in full production. Today it is very
busy with twelve people employed and a constant demand for all the workshop
Andrew Halford, an Australian potter, has been apprenticed to Shimada san
for some time and together they will visit Australia later this year, giving demonstrations
The Shimada Pottery is just outside Gotsu city in Shimane prefecture on the
side of a mountain which overlooks the Sea of Japan. Clay for the pottery is dug
locally. For the large pots, it is put three times through a rough mixer with rollers.
For the smaller pots, the cl ay is further refined, using a blunger and pugmill.
Everything in the pottery is thrown and the range extends from the smallest sauce
bowls to teapots, platters, umbrella stands and the six-foot-high jars. Much of the
ware is slip decorated with iron oxide and sgraffito decoration. Glazes include a
clear, an iron glaze and an opaque copper green. A large thirteen-chamber climbing
kiln is fired every two months, although often only the first six chambers are
used. The large jars go into this kiln , the doorways being enlarged to allow their
entry. A large gas kiln is used to fire the smaller pieces and this is fired every
The large jars are made by a coil and throw method. The base is thrown up
to a height of fourteen or more inches and then coils "as thick as a man's wrist"
are added and thrown until the pot is complete. Several pots are made simultaneously
on Korean-type wheels.
As President of the Gotsu branch of the Bussankan, a national organization
which sells and promotes the work of craftsmen, Shimada san is constantly heing
called upon to advise and mediate. Sometimes artists from Tokyo come to the
pottery to decorate large platters which Shimada san has thrown for them and
there is a feeling of purpose and progress in the workshop. Shimada san is a
traditional craftsman with a modern attitude and a broad and generous outlook,
adapting his work to the needs of the community.
JANET MANSFIELD visited the Shimada Pottery while on a study tour of Ja pan in 1977 on a
grant from the Australia-Japan Foundation.
Shoji Hamada was not only a great potter, like Bernard Leach he was a "builder of the
bridge between East and West"--as Leach described tbeir activities-a pioneer in the development
of an international community of potters and an international c.eramic idiom. We are
all deeply indebted to him.
Older members of the potting communilY in Sydney will have happy memories of
Hamada's visit to Sydney in 1964. He was scheduled for about a week in Sydney. and we
had planned a full program of visits and excursions, and some demonstrations. On arrival,
however, on being shown the wheel, clay, and raw-dip glazes that had been prepared for his
demonstrations, he said he felt he could make a better contribution to potting in Sydney
by sitting down in the one place and making pots. And this is just what he did, topping it
off with his two most memorable demonslrations at the University of New South Wales.
He will be remembered-and missed-by those who got to koow him not only as a
good potter, but as a friendly, generous and humble person.
/ VO II M cMeekill
One of the greatest Japanese potters of the twentieth century, Shoji Hamada, who perfected
Mashiko ware, died on the 5th of January, 1978.
When he returned to Japan from England in 1924, Shoji Hamada went to li ve at a littleknown
village ca ll ed Mashiko, where he continued developing what is known today as
Mashiko ware, using clay from around that vi llage in his work.
The beauty of Mashiko ware comes from its simple yet unique design. Shoji Hamada
taught and gave demonstrations of his art in many countries, and definitely contributed to
the current world-wide boom in pottery.
In 1965 Hamada came to Australia, where he taught at the University of New South
Wales, using a stick wheel provided by the university. Many people in Australia were deepl y
impressed by this artist and his work, and recall particula rl y the beauty of hIS hand move.
ments while throwing.
The Japanese Travelling Ceramic Exhibition, which toured Australia in 1976, included
a large bowl made by Shoji Hamada with a magnificently dynamic and free feeling.
, believe that Shoji Hamada was one of the truly great purely Ja panese potters, and
hi s death is like the going out of a great light in the East.
The 35th International Exhibition of Contemporary Ceramics Arts presented the
work of 190 artists from 30 countries, at Faenza, Italy, in October 1977. Sandra
Taylor of Sydney received a gold medal for her piece, "Gucci Handbag", made
from porcelain with lustre decoration. Seven Australian potters have now
received gold medals from Faenza. Altogether seventeen awards were made at
Faenza's 1977 exhibition.
TLDICO POLGAR (Hungary) : "Idols", 33 x 48 cm. Gold Medal. (above)
BAN KAJlTANI (USA): "Canyon Spirit"; partially wedged and thrown stoneware
in three colours; 28 cm. Gold Medal. (opp., lOp)
BATTISTA VALENTINT ( Jtaly): "Rotation", 80 x 46 cm. Tnternational Gold Medal.
ARTS VICTORIA 78; CRAFTS FESTIVAL
The long-awaited crafts festival, Arts Victoria 78, was officially opened at the Myer Music
Bowl on Sunday, 5th February, by the Premier and Minister of the Arts, the Hon. R. J.
There were 10,000 uDglazed ceramic tiles in the gardens and the Premier invited every·
one present to decorate a tile and lay it on a pathway marked out under the trees. These
tiles were taken away and fired and many of them will be incorporated into a permanent
ceramic pathway in ODe of Melbourne's public gardens.
American ceramist, Elaine Katzer, the first of the international craftsmen to arrive in
Victoria to take up residence for six months during festival year, was present to advise and
assist. At a later date, when a garden venue has been selected, Elaine Katzer will be involved
in the design and construction of a permanent pathway to commemorate the Arts Victoria 78
The first exhibition of the festival, "Collection Pieces", was held at the National Gallery.
"Colleclion Pieces", an exhibition drawn from public and corporate collections all over Australia,
was sponsored by The Age newspaper.
The other major exhibition will be later in the year (October) and will centre around
Victorian Colonial Crafts, from early settlement to post-Federation 1920.
Six overseas craftsmen have been chosen to work in Victoria next year in an institution,
school, or suitable workshop area. Each will remain in Victoria for a period of six
Applications were received from 150 craftsmen from 23 different countries. The six
craftsmen who have been chosen to work here are Eva Almeberg, a Swedish glassworker;
Noel Dyrenforth, an English Batik craftsman; Elaine Katzer, an American ceramist; Christine
O'Loughlin, an Australian ceramist who has been working in Japan for the past two
years; David Poston, an English jeweller; and Hiroshi Seto, a Japanese potter. All bave an
outstanding record of achievement, in tbeir own country and internationally.
The Premier bas approved expenditure of $40,000 to be spent on a Festival Collection
which will be a lasting record of the 1978 festival.
Work was purchased for inclusion in tbis Collection from the Purchasing Exhibition and
Craft Fair at the Metropolitan Meat Market in North Melbourne at Easter. The Metropolitan
Meat Market will be the new home of the crafts in Victoria and the Festival Collection will
eventually be permanently housed there.
Myer Melbourne will be staging an exhibition/ workshop in the Myer Gallery for two
weeks, opening at tbe time of tbe Queen's Birthday weekend (3rd June), and exhibits will
include work by six craftsmen-in-residence.
Regional galleries are co-operating and will feature craft exhibitions throughout the year.
The craft sections at tbe Royal Show will be extended to attract professional craftsmen
with prizes ranging from $500 to $ 1500. The craftsman judged as "Craftsman of the Show"
will be flown to Japan to attend the World Craft Council Conference in Kyoto. All prizewinners'
exhibits will be displayed in the new Government Pavilion at the Royal Showgrounds.
A Festival Handbook has been produced. This will be a lasting record of the festival
and will also act as an on-going reference book for several years ahead, listing craft shops,
courses, organisations, workshops, etc. The handbook has been sponsored by Rothmans of
ELAINE KATZER pictured witb her "Sea Chanty"-a stoneware ceramic wall
designed for tbe Chula Vista Public Library, California.
CERAMIC FIBRE KILNS
THE DAWN OF A NEW AGE
At the outset it must be stated that the ceramic fibre kiln was not initiated by
people who were, first and foremost, ceramists.
Our many years of association with all aspects of ceramic and refractories
production had highlighted the technological shortcomings of established clay
On the large-scale commercial level, and particularly in the heavy clay side
of ceramics production-that is the production of building bricks, tiles, sewer
pipes, etc., some attempt has been made to bring modern technology into play.
But the typical small traditional kiln used by the individual potter is, from the
technological viewpoint, at best, an anachronism left over from the Middle Ages.
To illustrate this, let us look really critically at the manner in which the
heating energy put into that unit is actually dissipated.
For tbis exercise we can take a fairly typical LPG-fired down-draft kiln of
about 10 cu ft setting with a 9 in overall wall thickness, using fire-brick on the
inside and insulating brick outside th is.
It is not unusual for a kiln of this capacity to use up to 150 Ibs of gas for a
stoneware firing. A well-packed glost kiln will on average have about 10 Ibs of
pottery per cubic foot of space, so that the kiln we are discussing will hold about
100 Ibs of ware.
The only reason we are putting heat into the kiln is to mature the clay and
glazes on this 100 Ibs of pottery. Consequently, it is true to say that in fact the
only really useful heat is that which is being absorbed by the pottery itself. When
we calculate this theoretical amount of heat, we find an almost unbelievable
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of J 00 Jbs of pottery
to 1280°C is no more than that released by burning approximately 21bs of gas!
Before commenting further on this, it is necessary to investigate where the
heat from the other 148 Ibs of gas goes to. The kiln structure itself, consisting of
some 500 bricks, will weigh about 3000 Ibs. Only the inside face of the kiln
reaches top temperature, but it is quite straightforward to calculate an average
temperature for the whole structure. These calculations show that something over
30 Ibs of gas will be used to heat up the structure.
On basic design, this type of high temperature equipment will never have
an efficiency over 25-30% , that is, 25-30% of the total beat input is the
maximum that can be used for actual heating. This efficiency is an inherent
thermodynamic characteristic of all kilns. Because of it, the 32-35 Ibs of gas will
be but 25-30% of the total at best.
This accounts fo r the remaining 100 Ibs or so being used in the kiln.
So, summing up, we have a piece of equipment which uses 150lbs of gas each
time it is fired, yet we are obtaining a heating benefit from only 32-35 Ibs of gas,
and it is a cold hard fact that we are really only interested in the effects of a
mere 2 Ibs of this fuel!
If this proposition is now transferred to a solid or liquid fuel-fired kiln, we
find that the efficiency is reduced to about half that shown above, and we finish up
with a umt In which less than I % of the total fuel input is being used for the
actual job for which it was intended.
It is now nearly a decade since we first checked out these calculations, and
it appeared glaringly obvious that one of the major disadvantages of a brick kiln
of this general capacity was that while both kiln and contents required to be
heated, in effect 15 times more heat was being absorbed by the structure, or
deadload, than was being absorbed by the payload.
The solution was quite simple-get rid of the deadload. Theoretically, if
you bring the dead load down to, say, 3001bs, you are heating up only one-tenth
of the structure that you were heating previously.
Let us just look again at the figures for a conventional kiln .... Total heat
absorbed = 351bs gas (33 Ibs kiln and 2lbs ware) . With 25% efficiency this is
equivalent to 140 Ibs gas total.
Now for a super light-weight kiln .... Total heat absorbed = 5.3 lbs gas
(3.3Ibs kiln and 21bs ware). Again, with 25 % efficiency, this is equivalent to
22 Ibs gas. Of course, ten years ago, such a proposal was quite preposterous. The
mathematics were quite straightforward-perhaps too straightforward-and they
were only figures. Nowhere in the world had it been done.
The prototype models showed immediately that the fuel savings anticipate
A NEW ENERGY - SAVING KILN
Max J. Murray
Details are given of the design and construction of a 1300°C ceramic fibre
insulated pottery kiln with 0.75 cu m (27 cu ft) of ware capacity. Gas-fired
burners draw pre-heated air for combustion through the hollow roof and wall
panels, thus achieving low fuel usage.
Following the article on kiln design which appeared in the Autumn 1976
issue of Pottery in A ustralia, numerous requests were received from potters for
a kiln design which would use ceramic fibre as the main insulation material. In
response to the requests, I spent six months in assessing what the majority of
potters wanted from a kiln and 1 am indebted to many good potting friends for
their comments and patience.
From this assessment it became apparent tbat most potters have common
requirements when it comes to kilns. I then set to work to try to design a kiln
which might go some way to satisfying their demands.
There were three main aims to begin with, to find an optimum size or capacity,
to improve thermal efficiency and thereby reduce fuel usage and to achieve
better temperature uniformity than is often achieved with existing kilns. It seems
that a majority of potters have experienced a similar pattern of development.
They initially buy or build a .small kiln and then quickly outgrow its capabilities.
The ideal size according to many potters is between 20 and 30 cu ft (0.4-0.6 cu m)
in volume, yet there has been a shortage of designs for kilns of this size.
This then established a size for the new kiln; it would be just under 30 cu ft
in volume. The shape would be of a cubic geometry, because this has a minimum
surface area to volume ratio and as requested the main insulation would bc
formed from layers of ceramic fibre blanket or felt.
Three different ceramic fibre materials were chosen to form the main insulation.
The inside or hot-face of the kiln required a fibre blanket capable of withstanding
temperatures up to 1340°C; however, this type of fibre is expensive and
has to be kept to a minimum. The hot-face layer was followed with several overlapping
layers of less costly fibre blanket with an upper temperature limit of
1260°C. On the cooler outer layer, low temperature rockwool insulation would be
Numerous calculations were then required to determine an economically
suitable combination of these insulation layers. The insulation thickness was found
to be optimum at 125 mm and was made up of a 25 mm thick layer of "Fiberfrax
H", 3 x 25 mm thick layers of "Locon" and a 25 mm layer of rockwool. A
greater thickness than this would obviously reduce heat losses still further but
it was considered that the increased cost did not warrant the use. Even so the
125 mm thick layer of fibres is equivalent to over 250 mm of refractory fire-brick
Calculations to determine the heat storage capacity of the fibre combination
showed that 15 000 kilocalories would be lost th rough storage in the fibre insulated
walls and roof, compared to 180 000 kilocalories lost, every fir ing, in a
Kiln in the raised position,
showing freedom of access.
Shelving and ware has
just been removed after
Kiln in the closed position.
Hinged cover is open, ready
for lighting the burners.
efractory fire-brick structure of the same size. On this basis it would not take
many firings to pay for the higher cost of the ceramic fibre with savings in fuel.
As the kiln design evolved, a new approach was found to several previously
accepted methods of kiln construction. The first of these changes was achieved
with the kiln frame. In conventional construction techniques in which refractory
bricks are used the supporting framework and outer cladding is generally formed
from heavy steel structural elements. This method of construction, however,
becomes redundant when light-weight fibre insulation is utilized. Instead lightgauge
metal panels can be used.
A reinforced hollow panel fabricated from sheet metal was developed for this
purpose. Ribs were incorporated in the panel for stiffening purposes. By modifying
the panels, channels could be created through which cooling air would be
circulated when the kiln was in operation. The circulated air, which is preheated
by this operation, could then be directed to the burners as the main air supply for
This would have a three-fold advantage. Firstly, by raising the temperature
of the incoming combustion air the efficiency of combustion would increase,
thereby reducing the fuel usage. Secondly, raising the starting temperature of the
incoming air would enable a higher ceiling temperature to be attained and permit
the use of simple burners. Thirdly, by providing a moving air stream over the kiln
outer surfaces, less insulation could be used without risk of overheating.
The anchoring pins used for supporting the fibre insulation are generally in
the form of threaded stainless steel rods. Most fibre-kiln manufacturers fix the
rods to the steel backing plate by spot welding, but a number of failures have
.. resulted from this technique. A more reliable fixing method was therefore sought
; for this kiln design. The result is that rods pass through the panels and are fixed
on either side with nuts. A nut-shaped recess was punched into the outer face of
the panels to prevent the outer nuts from protruding, and a spacing tube inserted
over each rod within the duct cavity. The rods therefore pass through two layers
of the panelling, 25 mm apart, and when clamped up they are completely rigid
and incapable of being tom out. The outer surface is covered with a metal sheet,
hiding. the recessed nuts from view and providing further strength and rigidity.
Figure 1 shows the technique which was used.
The stainless steel rods which are fitted to the panels are used to support
flanged refractory tubes which in turn clamp the fibre in place. Because of the
permeable nature of ceramic fibre, kiln gases can penetrate and condense on the
surface of the metal supporting panel. The condensate is generally acidic and as a
result corrosion can quickly set in. The inside faces of the supporting panels were
therefore coated with a heat- and acid-resistant polyester acrylic before the fibre
lining was installed.
The panels bolt together to form the four sides and top of the kiln and are
designed to sit on a rigid hearth containing the burners and flue. The panels are
extremely light in weight, each complete side of the kiln weighing only 29 kg. This
feature then led to another break from conventional kiln design. The light-weight
panels have eliminated the need for a heavy hinged-door, or the primitive wicket
door which has to be built up and dismantled with each firing. Instead the whole
side of the kiln can be lifted aside by one person. This means that access can be
made through the front, side, back or top of the kiln, or through two sides if
necessary. The kiln can even be used as a top hat structure by lifting the whole of
the fibre insulated top section aside, by using a simple hoist. This enables the
advantages of a top hat kiln to be achieved at a fraction of the usual cost.
25"" .... .
~p"ti~ ' ''be.
DETAILS OF PANEL CONSTRUCTION
The hearth is mainly constructed from conventional insulating refractory
bricks. It was required to be rigid, strong and flat and to incorporate the flue
channels and chimney. Most potters, if they are rebuilding a kiln, like to re-use
their old bricks. The hearth and chimney of this kiln therefore provide a useful
application for these recycled materials.
The base slab of the kiln was formed from light-weight vermiculite concrete.
Ducts were incorporated in the base for the passage of cooling air. The insulating
bricks were laid over this base and the floor of the kiln chamber given additional
insulation with a single layer of ceramic fibre.
r-:- , ~
;: :, ·:r ~
should enable potters to be more imaginative with the size and shape of their
The kiln can also be used as a small industrial unit. The top hat version is
particularly suitable for industrial use. In this situation more than one hearth
could be built, possibly using a back-to-back configuration and sharing a common
chimney. The ware could then be loaded on to one hearth while the other hearth
was firing. Upon completion of the first firing the canopy would be lifted on to
the loaded hearth and immediately fired, minimising delays caused by setting and
unloading. The two-hearth system would also lend itself to the use of a second
simple canopy as a drier. The green ware could then be loaded directly on to the
kiln shelves, dried and fi.red without further handling.
The main disadvantage with this new kiln is the cost. Ceramic fibre insulation
is more expensive than refractory bricks, although when bricklaying charges are
included the more easily installed ceramic fibre comes out about equal. The
simple panelised construction has enabled for the first time a kiln of this size to
be portable. It can be rapidly dismantled, transported and re-assembled without
any lifting equipment. Two sides of the kiln will fit into the boot of the average
family car and the top will neatly fit on a pack rack, enabling potters to take their
kiln with them whenever they move house or just decide to re-arrange their studio.
In designing this kiln an attempt was made to use the most up-to-date technology
and materials. I hope this has been achieved.
Potting colleagues are welcome to any help or advice that I can give should
they be interested in building a similar kiln.
I bag of Ciment Fondu
4 bags of Vermiculite
I drum of Air-set Mortar
190 approx. RI-26 Insulating Bricks. (Newbold General Refractories)
210 approx. "Litebrik" (South Yarra Firebrick Co.)
The Sides and Roof
4 Ducted wall panels (1280 x 1000 mrn)
I Ducted roof (1310 x 1310 mm )
12 Bats of 25 mm Rockwool (900 x 750 mm) . (Bradford Insulation)
22 Pieces of 25 mm " LoCon" (600 x 1200 mm). (Carborundum Co.)
9 Pieces of 25 mm "LoCon" (600 x 900 mm). (Carborundum Co.)
2 Pieces of 25 mm "Fiberfrax H" (600 x 1200 mm) . (Carborundum Co.)
8 Pieces of 25 mm "Fiberfrax H" (600 x 900 mm) . (Carborundum Co.)
110 Ceramic Anchors
130 Stainless steel rods with 3 nuts each
4 Gas burner/ mixer sets 1 in . SSP
M~X .MURRA Y. is an . electrical and mechanic~l e~gineer ~ith tbe CSIRO Building Research
D,v,s,on at HIghet! In Melbourne. He speclahses In ceramIC materials and processes.
BILL REID CENTERING ARM-Available from Ihe Polters' Gallery,
48 Burton 51., Darlinghurst 2010. Ph. (02) 31 31 51.
LEONIE RYAN and CHERYL SMALL
Leonie Ryan and Cheryl Small are honours graduates from Prahran College of
Both these potters have received grants from the Craft Board of the Australia
Council-a unique achievement for two students in the same year of training.
Leonie works in genre scenes depicting the environs of the shearing shed and
the cocky farmer, as she recalls the area where she spent her childhood.
She identifies very strongly with this life, and believes the influence of the
country ways is still a powerful force in Australia. Bush music will be played at
Leonie has carried out exhaustive research in her subject. All aspects of
country life are depicted in authentic detail. This regard for detail extends further
than just the material-to the curiosity of sheep, the tiredness of a work horse,
and the care of a farmer for his animals. The movement of people and animals
and the sag of the shearing shed roof are described vividly.
Leonie will be showing her work in her first exhibition, during April 1978,
in the town hall of her home town, Pyalong, in Victoria.
LEONIE RYAN: "Shearing Shed"
"Peter the hot
bread roll container" :
matt glaze inside.
engobe and matt dry
glaze outside. All
Cheryl Small works in a style loosely based on the Greek Classic.
Upon strong shapes she uses a sgraffito line through coloured engobe. She
glazes the inside of the functional ware with soft matt glazes. The outside of these
pots has a "dug-up" look, the result of the discreet use of almost dry glaze and
subtle application of oxides.
Cheryl will be exhibiting at the Craft Centre in Melbourne during late 1978.
Both of these artists use clay intuitively, working on their own creative
themes with strength of design and clear visual approach.
In this world, where humanity follows the natural urge to create, these two
potters are contributing to its enrichment.
HARRY M EMMOTT, potter and author, is in cbarge of the Ceramics Department of the Prahran
College of Advanced Education.
AUSTRALIAN POTTERY 1900-1950
Although a great deal of work has been done on the history of Australian painting early
pottery in this country bas received very little attention. Merric Boyd is well know~ as a
pioneer potter, having established what is generally regarded as Australia's first artist-potters'
studio, at Murrumbeena (Victoria) in 191 I. But one suspects that it is his family name which
has secured his reputation rather than a familiarity or understanding of his impressive body
of work. Even today good Boyd pieces remain unnoticed in junk shops.
But what of the artist-potters who followed Boyd? People such as Anne Dangar, Gladys
Reynell, Marguerite Mahood, Maude Poynter, Klytie Pate, F. E. Cox and others establisbed
a strong tradition which tended to be cut off with the introduction of stoneware pottery and
tbe Japanese influence in the fifties, a tradition which had strong links with the modernist
movement and echoed its interest in establishing a nationalistic Australian art.
There are isolated examples in public collections, most acquired in the early days and
now tucked away in basement cupboards. Only the National Gallery of Victoria and the
Shepparton Arts Centre (in north·east Victoria) are now systematically collecting early Aus.
tralian pottery, although the Australian National Gallery has acquired some fine examples
over tbe past few years.
The Shepparton Arts Centre is now preparing a survey exhibition, Australian Pottery
1900-1950, to be sbown in August-September this year, and which will thereafter tour two
or three other venues. One important aspect of this show will be a comprehensive catalogue,
collating much of the available information on this period for the first time.
The exhibition will not, at this early stage, be definitive. It is intended primarily to
establish public interest and as a basis for further work. It will comprise about 100 pieces.
Anyone with information which might assist in the preparation of the show, in particular
biograpbical information, is invited to contact Shepparton Arts Centre, Civic Centre, 3630.
Illustrated is a vase by Klytie Pate (about 1941) from Shepparton's collection.
Shepparton Arts Centre.
L YREBIRD RIDGE POTTERY
This workshop is located at Springbrook in the hinterland of Queensland's Gold
Coast. Brisbane is two hours' driving time away to the north-west. Springbrook
is part of the McPherson Ranges that lie east-west and form the border between
Queensland and the Northern Rivers District of New South Wales. Elevated,
rugged country, it is an eroded plateau, the result of Mount Warning's ancient
The workshop gets its name from the ridge it clings to where the Prince Albert
lyrebirds' beautiful caBs can be heard, mostly during the winter months. I use
the word "cling" because it best describes the way the workshop is situated gn
the steep rain forest slope. We look east and north out over the Gold Coast strip
to the Moreton Bay islands.
Our choice of Springbrook as a site for the pottery was due mainly to our
love of the high, rain forest country. The basalts give us beautiful red soil but
no usable clays.
This brings one to the question of whether or not a pottery should be set up
close to the materials source. I argue it is preferable to be in a good market area
and transport the clays. The amount of clay any studio-workshop uses is so little
compared to the income it generates that transport costs are not a real concern.
This south-east corner of Queensland is developing fast and the market potential
I was trained as a teacher, then spent two years at the Technical College Art
School in Brisbane. Here I met Carl McConnell and Milton Moon and my
involvement in pottery began; that was 1962. A spot of teaching art in high
school, then in December of 1964 I began full-time potting. For ten years 1
worked mostly on my own. During these years I saw myself as an artist-potter
primarily concerned with making individual pieces. For a while I made and
exhibited ceramic sculptures but gradually recognised the trap I was getting intoa
no-man's-land somewhere between being a potter and being a sculptor but
being neither. The year was 1971 and for me it was a turning point. I was at last
getting myself together. I could see my limitations and the all-too-obvious limitations
of my primitive workshop-but no regrets. The preceding years had given
me time. Time to learn and time to think of how things might be.
How does an Australian potter survive? Does he live off the earnings of his
craft or does he have a second job? A lot teach-some make pots. The teaching
doesn't appeal to me though I see myself as a teacher. I choose to produce
domestic wares for my living and I take trainees into my workshop. Teaching in
the work situation is different from what takes place in an institution. It is a natural
process-immediate and obvious. The workshop-trained potter is being equipped
for survival as a craftsperson.
I am first a craftsman and if by chance ] am also an artist then that is a
bonus. But if J am only a craftsman then that is enough. My craft provides me
with a lifestyle of interesting making; it allows me to live in the environment of
my choice and it feeds me.
There is a developing market for handmade domestic pottery that is of a
consistently good quality, reasonably priced and continually available. A potter
at Lyrebird Ridge
working alone is at a disadvantage should he decide to meet this market demand.
He cannot possibly make a wide enough range without fragmenting his working
week and besides it doesn't pay to make pots in short runs. Preparing for five
potters takes little extra time than preparing for one. A large kiln fires in the
same time as a small one. From the retailer's point of view he can hardly be
expected to pay you a visit to pick up a handful of pots. He needs voLume and
he needs to select from a reasonable range of wares.
With these sorts of attitudes the planning of the workshop began. It would
be a workshop for five potters-a good number. Big enough to manage without
my being a manager. For the first three or four years I would put aside my own
work and concentrate on developing a range and style of domestic wares. We
would wholesale our pots, wherever and to whomever we could. Consignment
selling is out of the question. That is no way to run a business, particularly when
there are wages to meet at the end of each week.
In May ) 975 I began the building of the first workshed. I had demolished
an old building on the mountain that had fallen into absolute disrepair. It provided
me with most of the milled timber I needed. An old dairy went the same
way. This was built of hand-split hardwoods and the old slabs were beautifully
weathered and grey. With a farmer neighbour I exchanged a few days of labour
for tallow-wood logs from his forest to use as my main uprights and cross-ties.
Months of working with adze and mortise chisel and I had a pottery that felt
good to be in. As a potter friend whose prefabricated shed went up in a matter
of days said, "You must have really wanted to take that trip."
Martin Kelly was the first trainee in the new workshop-a school teacher,
twenty-one years of age. He heard 1 was looking for a trainee in June 1975 and
started with me in J anuary 1976. A true pottery "freak" who gave up his secure
job with a future to settle for a doubtful one on a trainee's wage. He is now in
his third and final year. Martin has received Crafts Board assistance for each of
his three years of training.
rt rains a Jot on Springbrook. We can spend days at a time drifting in and
out of low, saturating cloud that reduces the landscape to a series of greyed backdrops-one
fading behind another. For this reason at least we have to build
enclosed workrooms. The workshop was up but not enclosed when Martin arrived.
I was building the kiln and he had to put in his five hours a day practising on the
wheel. After that he helped with the kiln. It was the wet season, everything was
damp. The kiln's foundations filled with water seeping down from the mountainside.
The mildew was rampant. Eventually the kiln was completed with the help
of a local, Barry Walsh, who would wander in and put in a few hours' work. Two
firings before the year's end and then without a break headlong into the new
year. Barry joined us as the new trainee. He was a wood joiner by trade but had
become disillusioned by the way his trade was losing all its hand skills and
quality of product. Things weren't so good. We didn't have sufficient outlets for
our wares and we were getting a certain amount of reaction against what we were
doing. We were being " knocked" for producing a "workshop article". Nobody, it
seemed to us then, wanted to know about Lyrebird Ridge Pottery. They would
have much preferred to sell the individual personality of Errol Barnes. All wares
The workshop at Lyrebird Ridge Pottery.
made in the pottery bear the workshop seal no matter who makes the pot. No
individual marks appear on workshop pieces. Comments like "Oh! Hasn't Errol's
work changed" were to be heard.
We survived and things improved. Our first major showing of workshop
pieces was held in Brisbane at the Potters' Gallery in September 1977. The
volume of work on display impressed some and dismayed others. This wasn't a
one-man show but a selling exhibition of a workshop's domestic wares. It sold
very well. Since then we have reached the stage where we cannot fully meet the
The kiln is large--too large for our present needs. Firing is every eight
weeks whereas I prefer to fire each month. Once the building program is completed
and with the introduction of another experienced potter I believe the oncemonthly
target will be achieved. The bogey-hearth kiln is fuelled with drip-fed
distillate and holds between 800 and 1000 pots of mixed sizes per firing. The
natural draught is provided by 26 feet of stack. We fire for 22 hours to 1280°C
and the evenness of the firing is quite remarkable for such a large chamber. The
materials for this kiln were purchased with the assistance of a Crafts Board grant.
Monica Breedon, our third trainee, started this year. I am very careful in
my selection of trainees. When I decided to take trainees into the new workshop
I gave the matter a great deal of thought. As I see it the motives for a young
person selecting the craft as an occupation are varied. Anyone person's decision
is a combination of factors-aside from any desire to be an artist: a desire to
make pots, the lifestyle potting affords, income earning, social standing.
1 take on trainees for a period of three to five years depending on age and
education. Martin is here for three. Monica, who is sixteen, is here for five. With
each trainee I have an individual agreement that states the conditions of our
working together. We have compulsory discussions at six-monthly intervals when
tHis agreement can be reviewed. Sometimes a compromise is required. The work
load in the workshop is spread as evenly as possible with no specialisation. All
aspects of workshop procedure are covered with one exception-l take sale control
of firings. They observe and to a limited degree assist, but too much is at stake
to allow a trainee to take charge of a firing. When a planned small kiln is
installed they will then be able to have firings of their own.
We don't "victimise" new trainees. They corne here to make pots and the
sooner they do the better. This means the workshop loses on a trainee until his
making reaches an acceptable standard. For each making cycle the trainee is set
a program to follow. This program repeats known skills and introduces one or
two new ones. The teaching is aimed at the development of skills and the transfer
of technical knowledge. Simple business principles and practice are also dealt with.
While a trainee is in my workshop he remains within the discipline of function al
I do not think it is possible to maintain a traditional employer-employee
relationship in a workshop of this size. There has to be room for friendship.
There can never be any doubt where the final decision-making lies but suggestions
from the trainees are sought and considered.
I have taken a major step in my career as a potter by accepting trainees
into the workshop. Obviously I believe on-the-job training for young potters is a
good thing. There has to be a future for the shared workshop.
AN AIRING ABOUT DE-AIRING
Let me be rather adamant and state that I think that a de-airing pugmill is only
secondary in importance to the kiln on the full-time potter's equipment list. To
qualify this statement I will explain the principle and benefits of de-airing clay,
and how the potter can justify the financial outlay for this piece of equipment in
terms of creativity and increased productivity.
Firstly it is important to understand the action of de-airing on plastic clay
and the method of achieving this. Basically the clay is fed by hand into the hopper
at the beginning of the pugmill, a series of blades chop the clay and move it forward
along the barrel, then augers force the clay through a screen into the
vacuum chamber; in a shredded state, the air pockets explode due to the vacuum
and the air is removed. The clay is then further mixed by blades and is finally
re-united and compressed by augers at the tapered exit nozzle of the pugmill.
It is a misconception on the part of many potters that de-airing improves
plasticity; this is not so. A good de-airing pugmill neither impairs nor improves
plasticity. Its action increases workability by bringing the clay particles into closer
contact, with a greater overall friction, without affecting their capacity to slide,
that is their plasticity. What is gained is an increase in strength. Thus "workability"
on the potter's wheel, pulling handles, making slabs, etc., are greatly
improved with the denser and more uniform clay that de-airing pugmills produce
in contrast to hand-wedged clay.
If we accept that plasticity is improved by souring and ageing, I would
suggest that the potter only pugs the clay once prior to using it for the making
process, after letting it sour and age after the primary mixing.
One aspect that should be clarified at this point is that pugmills are only
secondary clay mixers. The primary mixing of the clay should be done by blunging,
then filter pressing or drying beds, dough mixer, z-arm or whatever favourite
form of primary mixing one chooses to employ.
This brings us to the benefits of the de-airing pugmill in relation to productivity.
Given one is using a pugmill with a capacity of say 500 kg per hour,
it is easy to say that productivity will increase because the potter will greatly
reduce the time spent wedging, and with better de-aired and compressed clay
used straight from the pug, will have more time to make pots. Thus with a
machine performing one of the semi-skilled labour intensive areas in a more
efficient and quicker manner, there will be more pots at the end of the day, thus
more money which will quickly pay for the pugmill.
The facility to re-cycle scraps and turnings is also a most important feature
of a de-airing pugmill, especially for the potter who makes a lot of flat ware; and
it does allow the more critical potter to discard those nasty shapes before they
reach the kiln, with the knowledge that there will not be much effort involved
to re-cycle the clay. Plus there are such things as tiles and other extrusions which
a pugmill makes possible, that could be potentially creative areas for exploration.
The two basic designs of de-airing pugmi1ls are two-stage barrels and the
single-barrel type. The two-stage barrel type is common to industry. The reason
for the two stages is that the action of the vacuum has a tendency to pull the clay
back towards the vacuum source. By using gravity to counteract this action, the
rwo:rrAGE BARREL PUGMILL
shredded clay falls to the lower level, keeping the vacuum chamber from becoming
blocked with clay. The problem with this design is not one of performance
but the cost of manufacture. A new machine of this design is far beyond the
average potter's budget.
The single-barrel design is simpler to make with less engineering, thus a
lower final cost. Harry Davis, a potter well known to most in the pottery world,
produced a plan several years ago which went a long way towards reducing the
problem of the vacuum pulling clay into the vacuum chamber. He overcame this
by using a single shaft with blades set at differential pitches and what he termed
a breather valve in the vacuum chamber. A number of potters built these
machines and they have given good service, except for two problems: the mild
steel blades pit and corrode badly over a period of time, and the hinged breather
valve needs constant maintenance.
During 1975 Geoff Hill, who manufactures Yenco wheels, approached Harry
Davis to enquire if he could use Harry's design with some modifications. This was
agreed upon, so Geoff set about re-designing the original pugmill and it is now
available on the market. The main modifications were the use of a split aluminium
barrel (easier to clean) , a stainless steel shaft and blades (less resistance so a
smaller motor needed to power the pug) , a plunger on the hopper, which makes
the machine safer and also enables turnings and slops to be more easily fed into
the pug, a high-capacity piston vacuum pump with water trap and a vacuum
reading of 26 in-28 in mercury. One notices an appreciable difference when the
vacuum reads above 22 in mercury. Milking machine vacuum pumps are not
very suitable because they are designed to operate at 15 in mercury. ln theory
and practice, the higher the vacuum the better quality clay produced. There are
other minor innovations on the Venco pug, such as a heavy perspex cover on top
of the vacuum chamber, which is quickly removed for cleaning. But the most innovative
and important feature is the solution for maintaining the vacuum to the
shredded clay in the vacuum chamber, and inhibiting the action of tbe vacuum
in drawing the clay towards the source of vacuum. This solution eliminates the
moving parts involved with Harry Davis's breather valve. In the Venco design
one blade on the shaft scrapes an opening slit to the vacuum source each revolution;
When considering the size and capacity of a pugmill, it's wise to go neither
too small nor too large. Most of the small pugrnills with 4 in barrels and 2 in
extrusions are only toys to the serious potter. One could knead more clay per
hour by hand than these small pugs produce and very few of them are de-airing
models, though some have an application in the re-cycling of scraps. Large pugmills
above 8 in diameter barrels are usually designed to be fed by a primary
mixer, not by hand, so one could have problems keeping up the feed to these
machines; also the barrel could hold a massive quantity of clay before the
machine started pugging, a problem if one wanted to run a new body through the
So my recommendation would be a pugmill with a barrel diameter of 8 in
and extrusion diameter of 4 in; this size would have the capacity to produce
one-half to three-quarters tonne per hour, depending on the rate of feed and
whether the screens were clean or partially blocked. The logic behind the choice
is that one would normally only use 100 kg of clay per throwing day, unless very
large pots were made. This 100 kg of clay could be put out and run through the
pugmill in about ten minutes. If cutting harps were used instead of weighing out,
the kneading and balling up time would be reduced by 90% .
One bas the choice of building a pugmill, buying a second-band unit, or
buying a new one. Harry Davis's plans are still available; if you are either a good
welder or have access to cheap engineering, building your own is still a proposition.
Some good second-hand machines appear occasionally, both two-stage and
single barrels. Try to purchase these at auction or privately as they are usually
bargains. Some small commercial potteries are currently going to the wall, so
keep your eyes open and ears to the ground.
If buying new I would recommend the Venco Mark IT de-airing pugrnill for
a number of reasons : its good design, impeccable engineering, the geared motor
drive (less maintenance), the performance, and the man who makes it donates
$50 for every machine sold to Harry Davis's Peru project, and provides one of
the best back-up services in Australia. Should I say it? Yes, I will: Geoff Hill
listens to potters' problems and tries to design to suit their needs, a rare situation
in Australia, and his machine is less than half the price of its imported equivalents.
Finally f will offer some bard-learned hints on how to get the best out of
your de-airing pugrnill. Given one accepts that the pugmill is not a primary mixer,
and does not try to feed in dry clay and water, expecting perfect plastic clay at
the other end, there are few problems to be encountered.
The screens can block up and slow the flow of clay, especially if one uses
heavily grogged clay. We clean the screens periodically, usually when the rate of
extrusion and capacity of feed considerably slow down. It's amazing what is
found on the screens-hair, lost sponges, pot stamps, ciggy butts-you name it, if
you have lost it, it's in there. Vacuum leaks are sometimes a problem. if the
gauge is not giving a high enough reading, turn the motor off and listen for leaks.
Once traced, the leak can be sealed with heavy-duty, waterproof grease or thick
paint applied while the vacuum pump is on. The only other major problem that
can topple the miracle machine is feeding in very sloppy clay. What happens is
that the slip lubricates the barrel and the whole mass revolves on the shaft. The
remedy is to feed in some very firm plastic clay, which should force the slops
With regular care and maintenance these machines give little trouble. If one
covers the hopper and exit with plastic after using each time, the clay in the
barrel will not dry out. It is a good practice to pull the machine down once a
year, clean it, and check for wear.
Pugmills are quite suitable for school use if treated with respect and no
foreign matter is introduced into the machine. In all situations the best results
are achieved when clay of throwing consistency is pugged.
I believe that the de-airing pugmill can assist the aspiring professional potter
to rise above just surviving economically to a more creative and productive
DOUG ALEXANDER is currently potting at Cuppacumbalong Pottery, Tharwa, A.C.T., with four
assistants. He built his own Harry Davis--designed pugmitt several years ago. It is still in use
for preparing bodies for slab pots. He also uses a Venco Mark II de-airing pugmill for fine
bodies for functional ware.
DESIGNING FOR CRAFT
A residential school covering all aspects of design theory and practice
including colour and design education
AT RIVERlNA COLLEGE OF ADVANCED EDUCATION
FROM 17 TO 21 JULY 1978
TUTORS: Penny Whitchurch - Marcella Hempel
Jim Riley Bob Harris Des Simpson
Full Program and Enrolment Details from
Continuing Education Officer, Regional Services,
Riverina CAE, P.O. Box 588, Wagga Wagga 2650
A joint project of Craft Association of NSW and Riverina CAE
MAYFAIR CERAMIC AWARD
You are invited to participate in the second biennial ceramic exhibition. An
award of $1000 will be given to acquire work for a public collection. The exhibition
will be shown at the Crafts Council of Australia Gallery, Sydney, October
28-November 26, 1978. The closing date for applications is May 12, 1978.
Application forms and further information are available from your State Craft
Association or :
CRAFTS COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIA
27 King Street
SYDNEY NSW 2000 Tel. (02) 29.6261
A CLAY MIXER
Finding a reliable clay of good quality has always been a problem for me. Commercial
clay bodies, although expensive, can be variable so I decided to experiment
making my own. Basically there are two methods of preparing clay bodies,
the wet and the dry. *
The wet method involves drying the clay fully, mixing it in an excess of
water to a slip, sieving it, allowing it to settle, draining off the excess water, then
putting it on to the drying board, then dry to the plastic condition. It is then
wedged and stored for use. In the dry method the dry clay is combined with just
enough water to bring it to the plastic state. If plasticity is at a premium then the
wet method is preferable. 1 chose to use the dry method due to its convenience
and the small amount of space required.
"'-- 1. " I f'"i ,.
With some help from a letter in Vol. I, No. 1, of Studio Potter I designed
and built a clay mixer which is now in use in my studio. The mixer bin is made
from a sheet of 16 gauge galvanised iron, 3 ft wide x 4 ft 2 in long. The ends of
the bin are made by cutting four sections from a tin pineboard that is laminated
on one face. Two pieces are glued together on their non-laminated faces, giving
a solid 1 t in board. The sheet metal is wrapped around the end boards and
attached to it every two inches with I t in self-tapping screws. Next the 1 t in
holes for the shaft are cut through the ends and the whole bin screwed and bolted
into an angIe iron frame. The bearings should now be bolted to the ends of the
bin . Drill the shaft with t in x t in deep holes for the siting of the blades and
push it into place. The blades are made from 6t in x t in rods with 8 in x 1 in
x ! in flat bars welded to the top. These are now placed in the holes in the shaft
at such an angle that they just overlap each other by t in. Once their position is
set they are welded into place. The shaft should now be locked in with the bearing
collars. I used a one h.p. single phase motor with 1440 r.p.m. I used a 2 : I
reduction to the gearbox, which is a 10 : 1 ratio, and a 3 : 1 reduction from the
gearbox to the shaft, giving 24 Lp.m.
Clay mixing: a bag of dry powdered clay is tipped into the mixer with the
required feldspar and silica. I mix this dry, using a lid on the mixer to contain the
dust. Any colouring oxide is mixed with the water to give a better distribution
and added by means of a watering can. Within five minutes the mix is finished
ready for the pugmill. One load of 50 kilos of plastic clay takes about half an
hour to process, so in 10 hours I usually have a tonne. I have calculated the cost
per tonne to be $53, which is approximately 2tc per pound.
Recently I have found that putting 16 gauge wires in between the blades gives
a wedging action and improves the performance of the machine. They are attached
between parallel blades every two inches or so.
1 x sheet galvanised iron, 16 gauge, 3 ft x 4 ft 2 in.
1 sheet laminated pineboard, 3 ft x 3 ft 3 in.
1 x 43 in x I t in bright steel shaft.
8 x 8 in x 1 in x ! in flat steel bars.
2 x UCF 208-24 (It in) bearings.
30 ft x 1 t in x J t in x i in angle iron for frame.
1 x J h.p. single phase motor.
1 gearbox at least 10 : I.
4 pulleys and belts. I used ordinary A section pulleys and belts for the motor and
gearbox but B section belts for the gearbox to mixer drive as a lot of torque and
resistance is met here.
LEN SMITH is a potter and leacher and also editor of the Palters' Society Technical Bulletill.
Len's pottery is at The King's School, Parramalla. He is willing to help anyone furtber with
information on his clay mixer; his clay body recipes have been published in tbe Technical
Bulletin, available from the POllers' Society, 20 cents plus postage.
NEW ZEALAND POTTER
Publishe d a t Wellington by the Editorial Committe e , ,wice y e arly
in August and De cember. Tlte yearly subscription is $ A4.50
and ,lte magazine may b e obtained from
New Ze aland Pot' e r, P.O. Box J2162, Well;n9fon North, Ne w Zealand.
WARREN PALMER :
Shino glaze, cone 10, ht 66 em.
PoUers' Gallery, Brisbane.
gfllph : Johll M cKay
RECENT WORK (continued)
uehara. the fireman",
34 em. Austral ian
Johll D elacour for Ihe
A ustralia Council.
1975 : white stoneware
with copper oxide;
thrown and slabbuilt;
19 x 17 em.
Delacour for Ihe
A uslralia Council.
RECENT WORK (continued)
Allegro Gallery, 1977.
Photograph: "ilia Malnic
RECENT WORK (continued)
BEN KYPRIDAKIS: Bowl; refired 5 times, using decals and lustres; 1270· C; diameter 40 cm.
Pugrnili Exhibition, SA. Photograph: Grant Hancock
DON JONES: Bowls, dolomite glaze, I 280· C. diameter 20 cm. Pugmill Exhibition, SA.
Photograph: Grant Hancock
RECENT WORK (continued)
River red gum jar, porcelain
and lustre, hI 17 em.
Potters' Gallery. Sydney.
SANDRA BLACK (WA ):
Three carved bowls, ht 8 em,
From Ten WACraftsmen
Exhibition, WA State Art
Gallery, June 1977.
Photograph: Alia" Williams
RECENT WORK (continued)
ROBIN TREMBLE: Stoneware casseroles with brass handles; mustard-coloured glaze;
25 x 20 cm. Potters' Gallery. Brisbane. Photograph: John McKay
KAY SCOTT: Non-functional tea·pots, 15-20 cm. Exhibition : Potters' Cottage.
Photograph: Dulce Herd (boltom)
RECENT WORK (continued)
GREG DALY :
Lidded, Outed POL;
tenmoku; ht 24 em.
Since 1968 I have been teaching general art and ceramics in Tasmanian high
schools. From this experience I was acutely aware of the problems facing art
teachers who have not had a thorough background in ceramics, especially in
glaze formulation, as was my case. To rectify this and because of my deep interest
in ceramics I applied for a fourth year at the Tasmanian College of Advanced
Education, Hobart, to study ceramics under Les Blakebrough, Gwyn Hanssen
and Penny Smith.
The Tasmanian Education Department has wisely ruled that lead in any
form may not be used in schools. Because of this ruling and other factors such
as lack of time, expertise, and suitable glaze recipes, teachers have generally used
commercial glazes, usually with most uninspiring results. I found that these were
often faulty and crawled badly, did not melt at the specified temperature, or
cemented in the bottom of glaze containers; some of them deteriorated markedly
when kept for a period of time. I decided, therefore, to eliminate all these undesirable
characteristics, if possible, in any glazes that I planned to develop.
As almost every Tasmanian school that includes ceramics in its curriculum
uses electric kilns, most of which will not fire over IISO°C, I have designed the
glazes to fire in an oxidizing atmosphere over a range from just below 1 100°C up
to l1S0°C, with an ideal maturing temperature of I 120°C. This range is purposely
wide because school conditions are not as closely controlled as in a pottery
studio and because of the variety of kilns in use. The raku glazes are designed to
mature at 900°C but will melt at least 20 degrees below this and will become
rather fluid over about 950°C. All the glazes were tested on red bodies (Relbia
clay, Humes pipeclay, Hayes Gaol Farm clay) and on a white body (Bendigo
clay) and in large and small electric kilns and also in a wood-fired kiln. As well
as being suitable for use on bisqued ware, many of the glazes are suitable for rawglazing
without recipe adjustment-an advantage in the school situation.
During the initial stages of research I investigated literature containing glaze
recipes in search of leadless, insoluble recipes to use as a basis for experiment. I
found no published glazes that were suitable so I used formulae from Dr F.
Singer's book Ceramic Glazes. Daniel Rhodes' book Clay and Glazes for the
Potter and Harry Fraser's book Ceramic Glazes were also informative. The article
by G. Snape which appeared in the Spring issue (Vol. 15, No.2) of this magazine
would also be useful for anyone interested in this area, as it contains theoretical
information which complements this article.
As well as using Singer'S formulae, I noted any recipes I came across that
could have been useful, such as those by Ivan Englund published in this magazine
in an article entitled "Middle Fire Glazes". Any recipes taken in this way were
adjusted to fulfil my criteria. Most of the recipes are based on Cesco Frit 2, a
calcium-borate frit which is readily available and melts on its own at 900°C.
Many of the glazes contain more than four ingredients, but I found this necessary
to maintain glaze qUality. The raku glazes are simpler in composition but greater
difficulty was experienced in developing a workable base for raku glazes than for
an earthenware base glaze. The problem was finding a substance that would flux
at a very low temperature in combination with Cesco Frit 2 and Ball clay "C".
The material that worked beautifully was lithium carbonate, which is relatively
expensive but is only used in small quantities.
GLAZES FOR 1120°C
Clear. shiny glaze
Cesco Frit 2
Clear to white shiny glaze
Cesco Prit 2
Zinc oxide .. ..
Shiny. blue-grey glaze
Cesco Frit 2
T in oxide
Glos.ry. speckled cream glaze
Cesco Prit 2
Red iron oxide
Glossy, variegated brown glaze
Cesco Frit 2 65
Potash feldspar 10
Red iron oxide ..
Semi-opaque. glossy white glaze
Cesco Frit 2 53
Sail Clay "c" 14
White semi-matt glaze
Cesco Frit 2 30
San clay "c" 13
Titanium dioxide 5
Red iron oxide 0.5
Shiny. clear amber glaze
Cesco Prit 2
Red iron oxide
A venlurille glaze
Cesco Frit 2
Red iron oxide
Dolerite .. .
This glaze devitrifies very easily in a slow cooling
kiln and will produce vivid mauves; therefore quick
cooling to 750· C is essential if this is to be avoided.
The de vitrification usually occurs mainly on red
bodies where the glaze has been thickly applied.
This glaze is slightly fluid and on a red body is usually
a.mber with areas of blue and tan. The allractive
effects in this glaze are due to the titanium dioxide,
which has the ability to draw colour from the body
This slightly fluid glaze may pool attractively into
dark blue glassy areas.
On a white body this glaze is a glossy cream with
fine specks of brown and blue. On a red body it is a
broken greenish-cream with specks of blue and green.
This ~Iaze is lighter on a white body; on 3 red body
subtle mauve-blue areas may appear.
This glaze works best on a red body.
This glaze varies in surface quality depending on the
body, thickness of application, and firing and cooling
conditions. rt is an extremely dark, metallic
"blue-brown-black" and often exhibits "orange-gold"
spangled areas, but is fascinatingly unpredictable as
far as the final effect is concerned.
This is an opaque, matt, stone-like glaze which is
yellowish-green to tan on a light body and on a red
Clear 10 white cryslallilaze
Cesco Prit 2
Zinc oxide ..
body varies from pale to deep olive-greens, yellows
and rich tans and browns. The dolerite used came
from the Hobart Quarries.
This glossy glaze produces an opalescent, glassy area
when it pools, especially in the presence of iron oxide.
The crystalline opalescence is readily achieved
on a white body; blue effects are more commonly
seen on a red body. It may vary from a clear amber
to a shiny opaque white on a red body, depending on
the cooling conditions of the kiln.
Shiny base glaze (suitable also as a raw glaze)
Cesco Frit 2
31 Colouring oxides have been added to the above glaze
Ball Clav "C"
57 to create the following glazes, which may also b.
3 used raw. None of these glazes should be applied
4 thickly as crawling will result.
Opaque blue-green ..
Speckled, warm brown
Opaque dark brown
Speckled creamy tan
Opaque creamy mustard
Mall base II/au
Cesco Prit 2
Ball Clay "C"
Shiny base + 0.5 cobalt oxide, 0.5 red oxide.
Shiny base + 0.5 chrome oxide.
Shiny base + 1 chrome oxide, I cobalt oxide.
Shiny base + 4 manganese dioxide.
Shiny base + 8 red iron oxide.
Shiny base + 16 red iron oxide.
Shiny base + 3 red iron oxide, 8 tin oxide.
Shiny base + 4 manganese dioxide, 2 cobalt oxide, 4
red iron oxide.
Shiny base + 8 rutile flour.
Oxides may be added to this base to give a variety of
matt and semi-matt glazes, but the colour response is
not as good as that of the shiny base.
There are two bases for the raku glazes, both clear and glossy, No. 2 being the
shinier. These bases do not alter during reduction but when oxides are added the
possibilities are endless, and as each firing is unique the following descriptions can
only be in general terms. The hotter the glazes get, the greater will be the transmutations
Base No. I clear glaze
Cesco Frit 2
Base No.2 shiny clear glaze
Cesco Frit 2
Ball Clay "C" . .
To obtain a turquoise in oxidation or a copper red
in reduction, add 4% tin oxide and 3% copper carbonate.
For a tin white which will give silver lustre
effects in reduction, add 10% tin oxide. For a shiny
blue·black which will give a wide variety of effects
when reduced, add 4 % copper carbonate, 3% cobalt
oxide and 4% red iron oxide.
I have tried a variety of oxides with this base and
all worked well in oxidation; some tended to be dull
when reduced. Promising results have been obtained
using the following combinations: I chrome oxide, 1
cobalt oxide, 3 tin oxide (gives a dark green which
transmutes to blue in reduction). 10% tin oxide and
10% red iron oxide gives an attractive creamy-mustard
when oxidized but may change to a murky green
when reduced. 10% red iron oxide gives a golden
amber when oxidized and a browner colour when
LEIGH ROBERTS is a teacher of art and ceramics. This article is a condensed version of a
complete text on Raku/ Earthenware Glazes at present being compiled in kit form (complete
with slides) by the Media Centre, Hobart, Tasmania.
POTTERY IN CRETE
In April 1976 a group of potters, weavers and interested observers set off on a
tour organized by the Ceramic Study Group to Iran, Greece and Turkey. Particular
emphasis was laid in the itinerary on spending a week in Crete, where it was hoped
to locate potters in small villages, and especially to study the ancient large pottery
storage vessels ("pithoi") , and their modern equivalents if such were still being
made. We had previously read an article by a Greek potter, Maria Voyatzoglou,
describing how the potters journey each year [rom their villages in the mountains
of Crete and spend a few days in various outlying villages where they set to work
digging the local clay, building a kiln, setting up their wheels, and making huge
storage jars which they fire on the spot, sell to the local villagers, and then move
on their way.
A short three-quarter hour fl ight from Athens landed us in Heraklion, capital
of Crete, a picturesque city of over 50,000 people on the northern shore of the
island. Here we visited the famous Heraklion Museum, built in 1878, with a
ground-floor court housing artefacts of many kinds (pottery, jewellery, stone-carvings,
precious jewels and seals) and an upper court displaying frescoes from the
ancient palaces of Crete, notably from Knossos and Phaestos, dating from the
Numerous showcases contained votive offerings ranging from exquisitely carved
stune to pottery, gold objects adorned with precious jewels, carved stone seals,
and other valuables, down to tiny clay figu res of men and beasts--offerings to the
gods from those with little to give except something they could make with their
hands. Many of these objects had been buried in tombs with their owners and were
retrieved, often intact, when the great excavations of the nineteenth century took
The storage jars and sarcophagi were truly colossal, both in size and in the
range of design and decoration.
We left Hcrakl:('n by bus for a one-day trip to the mountains 45 km to the
west. Our destination W:l~ the village of Margarites Rethymnon, and it truly lived
up to its name: the ht'IO' l~rough which we drove and walked were a glowing
carpet of yellow mall'ucl,le, !n 'h'! village we came upon a young potter, Emmanuel
Kallergis. work ing ID a .. c' room on a kickwheel. He uses local red clays
which he biscuits to about 950°C ar.d glazes to 1000°C in an electric British
Ceramics kl:n . His glazes are bought ready-made from Athens. This young man
had a line of ·trick" pots: a magic cup that leaks water if overfilled, and a drinking
vessel ~ haped like a jug with a spout. The upper part of the body had holes in
it through which water pours if you try to drink in the conventional manner from
the rim. To get water one has to suck through a hole in the spout; the water rises
through the hollow handle and through the hollow rim of the jug (formed over a
piece of string, he told us) . When we arrived Emmanuel was turning some tiny
flat flasks no more than 6 em across which he had thrown on the wheel, resting
them in a dish-shaped chuck of clay. Later he added a small neck and an impressed
decoration in the form of the daisy namesake of the village, and lugs for handles of
leather thonging; he told us these were holy-water flasks. Later in a museum I saw
a same-shaped little flask dating from Byzantine times-the original no doubt for
Emmanuel's modern-day version.
Still we had not found the jar-makers. We continued our walk uphill through
the picturesque village with its whitewashed houses opening on to narrow cobbled
streets, balconies spilling bright falls of geraniums and fuchsias in profusion. Here
and there was evidence of what we sought: a couple of large broken jars lying on
their sides in a ramshackle garden; even an upturned, bottomless pot in use as a
chimney on the roof of a house. At last we came to our destination-a garden in a
deserted, locked-up house. A primitive trellis, presumably used in summer to give
shade, reared up over a long bench cut in the earth. At ground level below the
bench was a row of five wheels. Here the potter would sit with the wheel at about
knee level, or stand as his pots grew taller. His helper would squat on the ground
at his feet, turning the wheel slowly by means of a round stick stuck through its
spindle. Gradually the potter would build up a large pot, going just so far before
he had to leave it to stiffen up, then moving on to the next wheel to repeat the
process and continuing along to the end of the line adding fat coils to each. By the
time the last pot had been built up to the desired level, the first would have dried
sufficiently for more work to be done on it. The potter would return and add more
coils to the first one, patiently making his way along the row and building, building,
until finally the jars stood some five or six feet high. This work can only be done in
the summer when the weather is warm enough for them to dry out quickly.
The kiln was nearby, a very primitive affair about two metres across, with
a low firebox, a pottery grid floor, and an open roof which would be rebuilt for each
firing with broken shards. Alas! the place was deserted; only ghost potters were there
and we had to imagine the processes. Fortunately some of our party visited the
site only a few days later and found work going on. Apparently only two or three
potters go out from Margarites into the surrounding villages nowadays, most of
the others being content to make their pots within their home environs. Even that
is a dying art because no young boys are coming forward to be apprenticed, and
no doubt it will all soon be a thing of the past.
Two days later we set out in a different direction for the village of Thrapsanos.
where the jar-makers were reported to be at work. Here we visited the work-
Smaller kiln near Thrapsanos, with small biscuilcd water·iars nearby.
c.. L4P ~"'T F I"-'-' TO fJ.
shop of Nikolaos Ploumakis, who was throwing tall, slim oil jars on a kickwheel.
He uses two kinds of clay, a red and a grey, decorating them with impressed designs
with a stamp dipped in glazes which he prepares from local stone, a honey
and a green.
A second potter in this village, Emmanuel Hatzinikolakis, was throwing water
storage jars in an interesting way. These are made in two operations. A large lump
of clay is opened, drawn up, and closed over completely on the top. The pots are
set on boards and placed outside in the su n to dry with a piece of canvas wrapped
around them to protect the sides but with the tops left exposed. Later they are
brought indoors again and inverted or to the wheel into a flattish, dished chuck
covered with cloth. The firmed-up "top" of the pot thus becomes the "bottom", and
the soft clay on the new top is opened up, coils added, and the upper part rethrown
into a neck. Handles are added and the pot becomes a very handsome storage jar
for liquids. Emmanuel told us that his parents had wanted him to be a blacksmith
but he had become a potter, starting in 1949. He farms in the winter but had
started potting one week before we arrived and would continue until September or
October when the weather again became cold. He did not travel any more to outlying
villages to make pots but worked only in his own place. He received about
40-60 drachmae for a water pot (Dr 16 = $Al )-enough, as he said, for "salada"
Finally it came time to see the place where the great storage jars of ancient
times had been used in such numbers-the ruins of the palace of King Minos at
Knossos. Many of these powerful giants had been left standing in the excavated
storerooms following their discovery by Minos Kalairkerinos in 1878 and the later
excavations by Sir Arthur Evans from 1900 to 1935. Some of the jars are over 6 ft
high. One could imagine them standing in serried rows in the palace storerooms,
filled with oil and grain, representing the great wealth of the king. Decorations on
some of them reproduced the patterns and textures of the ropes which must ha\>e
been needed to move them about; indeed many had numerous lugs big enough f ; 1/
ropes to be threaded through to form handles. There was usually a trougl! in the
stone floor of the storehouse, a canny thought which could save the contents if ever
a jar was broken, either by accident or as a result of the earthquake~ which periodically
shake the region . It was a great earthquake on the nearb I island of
Santorinj, followed by a tidal wave, that finally brought about the d~ ~ tru
SOME THOUGHTS ON CRACKS
Cracks and fissures in clay and crazing and crawling in glazes usually strike dismay
into potters' hearts-for both good and bad reasons. Kitchen and table ware
has little room for the unhygienic crack, nor a flower vase for a crack that
leaks. But when the same attitude to cracks automatically extends to decorative
ceramics or to pots where the function is not impaired by a crack or two, then
we need to consider the example of a ceramic culture greatly admired by most
potters--Japan. Shoji Hamada is the leading exponent of the folk pottery movement
and a Living National Treasure. Pots that are deemed unworthy of his
personal endorsement (a certificate of authenticity) are sold merely as humble
workshop pots. Seconds dog the heels of every potter, great or small. Nevertheless,
amongst the pots he does acknowledge as his own and which fetch fantastic prices
are to be fo und some with clay fire cracks. One Hamada bottle seen in Adelaide
had a firing crack half way up each of its four sides. Such cracked pots of
Hamada's would be viewed with suspicion by some of Australia's craft galleries
and potters, and much of our buying public for that matter. Obviously the value
judgements of East and West are still quite divergent in this regard. One can't
generalise about Japanese ceramics today-it encompasses functional-folk to
funk-fantasy, Shigaraki to slipware, porous to porcelain ware. But perhaps one
can say that our Oriental counterparts accept and quietly contemplate the natural
outcome of the struggle between matter and the elemental forces that shape that
matter--ocean waves against a soft rockface, strong wind against Hexing trees, and
Harne pitted against clay and glaze. Matter, like man himself, reveals its latent
proclivities and limitations when subjected to ageing and extreme stress conditions.
To the Oriental mind the results of this fundamental process are not to be
despised in nature or in pottery. But to the traditional Occidental mind complete
subjugation of matter and process to his will is equated with mastery of
his craft. Is it any wonder that the industrial revolution, which subscribed to the
"mastery" concept, should have developed the totally controlled and dehumanized
mass-produced pot, where any irregularity or flaw undermined the belief in
"mind over matter". This Stoke-on-Trent, industry-spawned attitude to clay and
glaze Haws permeates our craft ceramics more than many realise, for better or for
worse. In stark contrast are the comments of the TV Perspective program on
Japanese Crafts, which defined crafts as "any object that, during manufacture,
is continually at risk".
However, there is a growing acceptance by Western potters of the "happyaccident"
and the judicious use of glaze faults (crazing, crawling, bubbling, etc.) .
For example, Lucie Rie (England ) with her crater-like glazes, Otto and Gertrude
Natzler (USA) with their melt fissured and textured glazes, or Helen Mason
(New Zealand) with her "the survivors are the exhibition" approach to runny
ash chuns, etc.
Peter Voulkos and followers, with their dynamic pummel, slash and dribble
expressionism in clay and glaze, set the pace for USA ceramics of the late 50s and
early 60s. Whilst West Coast-derived Pop/ Funk movements' "feti sh finish"
approach has clearly stolen the limelight, there still remains general empathy for
ceramists who allow their medium to "do what comes naturally". Nevertheless,
for many aspiring potters there is confusion about the fine line between a sloppy,
mindless, anything-goes approach (e.g. the worst of abstract expressionist
ceramics), and on the other hand, being taken on a guided tour of ceramics'
dynamic spontaneity, by exploiting the peculiar, plastic language of clay and glaze
immortalized by fire. The survivors are often worth exhibiting (with crack, crawl
and all). The process of becoming can be clearly seen and the materials' limits
of endurance are all exposed to the sympathetic, unshackled eye. We potters have
learnt to pay homage to the Tamba anagama-fired seed storage jar, shoulders
peppered with roof droppings floating in a greenjbrown sea of fly ash glaze; we
also understand the significance of the 19a water jar with the dramatic fire crack,
illustrated, it seems, in every Japanese ceramic text. In fact, the Japanese cult of
the fire crack was popular enough for some unscrupulous potters to ingeniously
carve in fake cracks before firing.
Admittedly many pots with kiln cracks can't be justified on aesthetic or
philosophic grounds especially if its utility is sacrificed. I guess it depends on
one's viewpoint which cracks, if any, are acceptable. To one potter glaze-flashing
(through reduction) is anathema, to another it is a "gift of the gods". Some
years back the CPA of England published a series of letters by Gwyn Hanssen
and David Leach on what to do with "seconds". Gwyn advocated the hammer,
David a "sell at reduced price" policy. Neither persuaded the other but they did
seem to agree on what a first and second rate pot was. Hamada may not have
agreed with their viewpoints, but each to his own.
If one seriously examines the visual significance and great variety of the
deliberate and unintentional crack in ceramics by a "crackpot" potter, one may
well acknowledge the validity of those nominal flaws. After all, suppose this
potter were to juxtapose clay fissures with various impact-cracks, along with a
network of surface crazes in clay or glaze, one would expect a harmony of sorts.
Or what if he were to use stretched, dry ball clay surface texture, with a wax
embedded crackle technique, with a high shrink crackle glaze, coupled with
neriaged clays of different shrinkages. He might have a fired result that reflects the
character of the dried up, wizened face of South Australia's outback landscapethe
driest state in the driest continent. The dehydrated waterhole clay shrinks and
cracks feet-deep, fired by the summer sun. The splintered, textured surfaces of
the stringybark trees are backdropped by aeons-old Flinders Range's stratified
coloured rock eroded by the elements. Or is it ochred and laminated clays, sliced
through by the potter's hand (neriage style) that this potter really sees? Is there
nothing new under the sun but the restating of the old? Probably no. Can a few
square inches of fired clay evoke a feeling of an aged and decayed landscape?
STEPHEN SKILLITZI is lecturer in charge of the ceramics department at the Adelaide School of
Art. He is equally well known for his glass blowing as for his ceramics.
STURT CRAFT WORKSHOPS
Two Positions Vacant:
Potter to manage Pottery Workshop
Craftsman for Screen printing and Dye Workshop
For detailed in/ormation, please write to
Duty Manager, Sturt Workshops,
P.O. Box 34, Mittagong 2575
Teachlna Staff Subjecl$ Offered Gcncrul NOles
Mossnlan $t ..
Arnlidalc. N.S. W. 2350
Phone: ?2 1244
Diploma 0/ T eachillR
(Art & Crah mujor)
3 years 3 ho urs per
(3 hours per week per
wee k 6 sem- course
M. Fuller (Head. Runge o f subjeci s in 1st nnd 2nd The:: nllljor siudy is in le nded to deyelop
Centre fot Expres- sem. then speciulisnlion in cer- Ihe stude nt pe rsonally - it 'is not directly
sive Arts) nmics. Improvised kiln building reluted 10 IctlchinR. where:'ls'electivcs
P. S. Pine(Cerllmics) in school phlYRround is offered. >Ire.
Dripstone Rd .
N.T . 5792
(1'.0 . Box 40146.
Diploma ill FiliI! Art
(Cerumics mujor .
Associate Diploma 0/
Ceram ics (UG))
4 years :\0 hours per
2 yeurs :'\0 hours per
Yincenl McGralh Mujors: Cerumic.s. sculpture. Professional lruininp: for intcndinlotsludio
( Head) puint i n~ . prinlm ~lkin~ , photo- ceramists. industril.ll cerumists or
Terry Dllvies s::raphy (nil nfler common 1st teachers.
(plus visitinR starn No electives. All subjects; cluy, Supplies relevant eruCt skills for studio
ulazes. craft munus::ement. kilns. potters w.orking in the field.
drawing. history. 20/ 30 st udy.
W.A. Institute of
Dept. of Art & Design
Haymnn Rd .• Bentley
P.O. Bo" 199. Ocndigo
t. B.A . (An Education)
with Ce ramics major
2. B.A . (Desi~n) with
Ce rllmics major
), Assoc. Dip/oma i"
Art with Ceramics
Diplamp 0/ An and
B.A . (Ceramics)
2-4 yenrs 1)-27 hours
per wee k
3 yellrs FIT
:\ yea rs FIT
A . K . Ru ssell (He... dJ Design. drawing. 1m history. 1. Education and traininj.! of craft
D. Walker ceramics. ceramic technoloRY. teac hers.
L Pritchurd plus elec tives chose n from 2. EducmiQl\ ,lI1d trainin~ for cmfts as u
1. Kusnic co ll e~e - \Vide courses. \'oc:ltion.
.:l. TmininJl (or community members with
ceram ic sturn
an interest in CfllftS.
DennisO'Hoy CHeud) Cerum ics. drawi " R. design, print· Aims to provide an educmiona' opper-
Richurd Rofe muki ng. ph o l ~ rnph y. sc ulpt u re, Wn ity fQr students to QUlI lify for
Marga M cEvoy urI hisl ory.communic.uio ns. professional positions within the fields
Shunichi Inoue production methods. science of te.lchinR or studio prucli.ce. Common
(plus o thers expert st udies. liberal studies. etc. 1st year. then specialisulion.
in various areus)
Gipps lund Institute of
P.O. Box 42. Ch urchill
Diploma 0/ A rl$
Graduate DiplQma i"
.1 yeurs F/T FIT or
(or equivn· PIT
I yeur FIT
or eq ui\,;.tlent
Hedley Pons 24 units (or diploma. 6 semesters Due to nbility of students to plnn th eir
(plus visitin~ FIT. One semester comprises: ow n prO)o!fl.Ims in consulultion with
lec turer prosrnlll. 2 units multi-disciplinury supervisi ns:: lec. lur ers .Ir:lditi on ~ 11 barriers
Oth er vi su:.ll arts swff st udio of ceramics. p:linting. sculpture. printn\'~
i1ab l e) 1 unit un rese"lrch mukinj.! and design are often crossed.
I unit uri th eory
Student access 10 ceramics studio is
IIvu illlble " ufter hours" for kiln buildin~
H units of ud\'unced work over lind firin~.
:11 le .. st 2 sc mesters The G.LA.E. courses ure professional
Fine Arts courses. However. there is
offered a teacher educution course ulsa
(qUile separate from visuu l artsl .
Bendigo College of Advanced Education
Final Year 1977 Graduates' Exhibition at Bendigo Art Gallery
Photogr aphs: D ellllis O'Hoy
RAYMOND STUCHBERY: Large rectangular slab form; a stoneware ehamotte body;
ht 56 em, width 33 em. (below)
CHRISTOPHER LANGTON: Slab form, stoneware chamotte body with rubbed oxide
textures; ht 42 em, width 42 em. (opp., top)
NOELA MILLS: White porcelain bottle with gold and copper lustre figures;
ht 17 cm, width 8 cm. (app., bOllam, right)
CHRISTOPHER PLUMRIDGE: Lidded container, porcelain body with iron glaze;
ht 6.5 cm, width 12 cm. (app., bOllam, left)
William C. Alexander
Considering the number and variety of ceramic materials available to the contemporary
potter, it seems inevitable that some of them would be hazardous, and
a surprisingly large number are. Some of these are toxic, causing illness or even
death if ingested, and others are dangerous if inhaled. Most potters are aware of the
dangers of such things as lead compounds and inhaled silica dust and take at least
some precautions to prevent exposure. Many other materials, however, are equally
dangerous and, because they are not recognized as such, are the most hazardous
materials to be found in a potshop.
Those materials which are chemically non-toxic, but damaging to the
lungs if inhaled, are discussed in the first section of this paper and those which act
as poisons will be considered in the second.
Silicosis is a disease which has long been associated with the pottery and other
dust producing industries. It is caused by breathing finely ground silica dust or
potter's Bint as it is often called. Silicosis has been widely researched primarily
because of its prevalence among mine workers. Silicosis, in and of itself, is rarely
fatal, but those having silicosis are more susceptible to other pulmonary diseases
and are less likely to survive potentially fatal diseases such as pneumonia due to
their already weakened condition. The pathological evidence is nodulation and
fibrosis in the lungs. The external symptoms are shortness of breath, chronic cough,
pain in the chest and especial1y, decreased vital capacity or, in lay terms, decreased
ability to perform work requiring physical exertion.
Unfortunately, the damage to the lungs is permanent, and so the disability is
also permanent. Medical science can offer a certain amount of relief by treating
the symptoms, but no treatment fo r the disease itself has ever been proved effective.
As a rule when silicosis is diagnosed, the patient is urged to remove himself from
further possible contact immediately. Past middle age, when silicosis is most frequently
diagnosed, it is very difficult to change jobs, particularly when a complete
change is the only answer. The mental distress brought on by an enforced career
change in later life may be worse than continued exposure at a reduced rate.
Most treatises on the subject of silicosis report that one exposure is not particularly
dangerous and generally agree that ten to twenty years are needed to produce
really serious symptoms, although disability has been reported after only six
months. The factors regulating the length of time necessary to produce symptoms
are the concentration of silica dust in the air and the size of the silica particles. The
higher the concentration and the smaller the particle size, the shorter the period
required to exhibit noticeable symptoms of silicosis.
Studies have shown that coarser particles of dust tend to be trapped in the
nasal passages and the upper reaches of the bronchial passages. This region of
the lungs is covered by minute hairlike cilia which are constantly at work moving
foreign particles upward to the esophagus where they are either swallowed or expectorated.
Dust trapped in this manner is only temporarily irritating and poses
no real threat. Finer particles, those which are 5 microns in diameter and less, can
escape this natural dust filter and penetrate into the alveoli in the deepest recesses
of the lungs. Here there are no cilia and the deposition is permanent. These par-
ticles act as constant irritants to the lung tissue resulting in the fibrosis and nodulation
Unforunately, silica is not the only material that will cause silicosis. Diatomaceous
earth is composed largely of silica and is also a known cause of silicosis.
Nor is silicosis the only respiratory disease whch poses a threat to the potter. There
are numerous other materials in common use by the contemporary potter which
produce respiratory diseases common enough to have names. They are contracted
in the same manner as silicosis and, as above, the smaller the particle, the
greater the danger.
Alumina produces a disease known as aluminosis. To the layman, it is practically
indistinguishable from silicosis, with shortness of breath, cough, decreased
vital capacity and chronic bronchitis being the chief symptoms. Like silicosis, there
is no cure, but some remission of symptoms can sometimes be effected by complete
removal from further exposure.
Kaolin and china clays cause kaolinosis if inhaled. The highest acceptable
concentration is 20 million particles/ cubic foot of air. This seems high but is really
quite low considering the submicroscopic size of the clay particle. The symptoms
are the same as silicosis except that it may also lead directly to emphysema and
tuberculosis. The disease comes in stages beginning with minor nodulation of the
lungs and progressing to severe fibrosis. The disability may be permanent.
Mica, including muscovite, vermiculite and lipidolite, all lead to lung irritation
but are apparently less dangerous than silica.
Gum arabic has been associated with asthma and may produce asthmatic
conditions where none were present before contact. In addition it may cause eye
inflamation called conjunctivitis. Anyone already suffering a pulmonary disease
should avoid contact.
Iron oxide produces a disease called siderosis which refers to the mineral
siderite or iron carbonate. It is less serious than silicosis and may have no permanent
Feldspar of any sort leads to a condition known as pneumoconiosis. It is not
critical in itself, but weakens the body in resisting other more dangerous diseases.
Ochre causes pneumoconiosis.
Inhalation of talc leads to a disease common enough to have been named talcosis.
It is evidenced by granulation and fibrosis of the lungs and symptoms similar
to silicosis. It may lead directly to emphysema. Some forms of talc have a small
percentage of asbestos.
Tin oxide causes a white pigmentation of the lungs and some nodulation but
rarely goes beyond that. As a rule the pulmonary function remains normal except
for a slight cough and some shortness of breath.
In the last several years the increasing incidence of lung cancer in workers in
the asbestos industry has brought about considerable research on the hazards
posed by this natural mineral fibre. Indications are that in an alarmingly large percentage
of cases asbestosis, which exhibits symptoms similar to silicosis, leads
directly to lung cancer even after rather minor exposure. Medical literature is filled
with horror stories on the dangers of this material including one in which a whole
family was afflicted simply because the father's work clothes were washed in the
same machine as those of his wife and children.
Considering our present knowledge about asbestos, it is a prime candidate for
the list of those materials which should be permanently banned from the potshop,
even in the form of heat resistant gloves. Moreover, recent research has given
strong indications that mineral fibres in any form present much more serious
hazards than previously believed. Materials such as the fibre blanket insulation used
in some kilns and Wallastonite, a calcium slicate, both of which are fibrous in
nature, have come into more common usage in the last few years. Considering
that it took over fifty years to recognize the dangers of asbestos, they may be
equally dangerous, but simply not recognized as such because of lack of specific
The same holds true for other materials as well. Talc, kaolin and feldspar
have been in common usage in the ceramic and other industries for years. It stands
to reason that diseases and disorders directly traceable to them would have been
discovered and documented by now. But what of the many newer materials which
are not listed? Is inhaled nepheline syenite any less dangerous than feldspar, or ball
clay less debilitating than kaolin? One can only doubt those conclusions. Surely
any particulate substance in sufficient concentration would cause some effect on the
lungs, perhaps even to the extent of causing diseases and disabilities such as
It is important. to note that there is no known positive cure for any of these
pulmonary diseases. The treatment most usually suggested is "symptomatic and
supportive", meaning that the best that can be done is to offer some relief from
the miseries of the symptoms and support the rest of the system to produce as good
a state of health as is possible. More research has been carried out on silicosis than
the other named diseases due to its prevalence particularly in the mining industzry
and some effort has been made to treat the actual disease rather than simply relieve
the symptoms. Positive pressure breathing designed to increase lung capacity and
various decongestants have been tried, but the results so far have been inconclusive.
Modern innovations in the preparation and distribution of ceramic materials
have greatly increased the potential hazards to the contemporary potter. In earlier
times, many glaze materials such as flint and feldspar were marketed in sand form.
They were then mixed in the proper proportions and ball milled to a glaze slip of
the proper fineness. Clay was either dug or bought in lump form after which it was
blunged and the resulting slip stiffened to the plastic state. In neither case was very
much dust produced and that which was stirred up was very likely much too large
to penetrate into the alveoli of the lungs.
Today, however, most ceramic materials are sold after considerable preparation
and are usually water ground or air floated. It is common to find flint which
has been graded to pass through a 400 mesh screen. This means that the largest
particles will be a maximum of 38 microns in diameter and it is likely that a significant
portion will be small enough to penetrate the defence mechanism of the
lungs. Clay provides an even more dramatic illustration in that in some ball clays
as much as 75 % of the individual particles are less than 0.5 microns in diameter,
precisely that size range which is most dangerous. Under these conditions much
shorter total exposure time will be needed to produce symptoms.
By now, the reader has likely reached a point of some distress, perhaps even
that depth of despair which prompted one young lady to call me from considerable
distance after having read an earlier version of this paper to ask, "Are we aU going
to die?" Obviously the only answer to that question is, "Yes . .. eventually." But
not necessarily of the diseases mentioned above.
With the exception of a very few, particularly hazardous materials such as
asbestos, all ceramic materials, even in the form in which they are currently marketed,
can be handled in perfect safety if adequate precautionary and preventive
measures are employed. Among the possible dust control measures, adequate ventilation
is most frequently mentioned. Dust producing activities, such as clay and
glaze mixing, should be isolated as much as possible and those areas equipped with
ventilation fans. For maximum efficiency in ridding the atmosphere of dust particles
which are trying to settle, the exhaust fans should be placed as close to floor
level as possible with air intakes in or near the ceiling.
Filter respirators can be very effective in preventing the inhalation of airborn
dust and should be worn during the course of any dust producing activity. In tbe
United States, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
has set forth criteria for respirators for use in dust producing industries. Criteria
change according to the conditions encountered, but in general a mask which removes
99% of all particulate matter in the range of 0.4-0.6 microns diameter is
considered to be adequate. Several respirators meeting these standards are available
on the open market. Some resemble World War I gas masks and are a nuisance to
wear and maintain, but there are others which are light weight, comfortable, inexpensive
and just as effective.
Of almost equal importance is some provision for regular shop clean up of
shop floors and work areas by a means other than a dry broom. Regular hosing is
the ideal, but most home studios are not equipped with floor drains. Vacuum
sweeping is an excellent alternative, but only if the vacuum cleaner is equipped
with an adequate dust filter. As a last resort, a sweepi ng compound such as oiled
sawdust can be used to trap as much dust as possible before sweeping begins.
[The second part of this article, Toxicants, will be printed in the next issue.]
BILL ALEXANDER is head of Ceramics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado,
THE CRAFTSMAN POTTERS'
ASSOCIATION OF BRITAIN
On a recent visit to England I took the
opportunity to call at the Craftsman Potters'
Association, William Blake House, Marshall
Street, London, and discuss with Stephan
Brayne, the Executive Secretary, the role of
the Association. The locality is in tbe beart
of the West End, just off Carnaby Street,
and near the Palladium, so that international
visitors are virtually destined to pass
by. r knew in general terms our Potters'
Society had been fashioned on similar
grounds and it waS on this surmise 1 wished
to assess the similarity or digression.
Tbe daily domestic activities are under
the control of the Executive Secretary in
co·operation with the Honorary Secretary,
David Canter, who has fulfilled this role for
some 12 years or more. Da vid is an
imaginative business man, primarily involved
with "Cranks'\ a commercial vellture
of health-food restaurants and food retailing,
as well as other craft outlets, and
his talent for sound economics and exposure
of excellent craft is a ltreat asset to the
Association. These two, David and Stephan,
along with a staff of four, implement the
directions of the 13-man committee, which
meets fi ve times per year, the retailing of
members' pots, sale of literature, postcards,
a small range of tools, and are generally the
public relations officers for the members of
the Association. Tbe most disturbing problem
met recently was the large increase in
rent levied by the Greater London Council.
The burden would have made the continuation
of business very worrying and tenuous,
but on perseverance and persuasion by
David he was able to have a percentage of
the anticipated increase re-considered although
the Association is still under pres-
sure. It is th is type of financial burden
which can spell doom to the most virile of
societies as the subscription is unable to be
increased to the extent inflationary trends
The aims of the Association are to serve
its members, both professional and associate,
by furthering the knowledge and
techniques of ceramics, by the publishing
and distribution of Ceramic Review bimonthly,
by organising workshops both
weekend and longer, by holding monthly
discussion and film nights, by serving as a
sales outlet for professional potters' work,
and as a show-case for new concepts in clay.
To become a member of the CPA it is
necessary for a person firstly to submit coloured
slides of his work; these are considered,
and if more than 50% of the panel,
which comprises the entire l3-man committee,
consider the work appears to be the
required standard, then the potter is requested
to present a selection of his work.
There are four such selection times during
the year and of recent years an a verage of
8-10 new members is the growth rate of the
Association. Remembering the population of
the British Isles is 51 million and the number
of colleges teaching ceramics on a vocational
level is about 20, the increase in
membership is small. There is currently a
re-assessment of standard being carried out
by the committee. In this instance the committee
must carry a two-thirds majority at
all times for the retention or resignation of
the member. Little imagination is needed
to realise the careful and studied assessing
needed by the members of the committee in
this delicate but important situation. However,
for the continued growth and high standard
which the Association demands it is a
necessary procedure. Members are advised of
the time of re-assessing, and if the craftsman
so requests the re-assessing can be held over
for a period for reasons such as ill-health,
teaching commitments, kiln failure, etc.
There is a small percentage of outright
purchases made for resale in the shop. The
choice is left to Stephan and David, and
here pure economics dictate the type of
work purcbased. There is a limited amount
of cash which can be used for stock purchases,
therefore stock·on-hand becomes
those wares which have excellent craftsmanship
and meet the steady requests of the
public. Other work is submitted on a sale
or return basis. Commission sa les are ex~
pected to be turned over by lbe respective
craftsman each month. By implementing
this policy it ensures tbe craftsman reviews
his stock and is very aware as to public response.
Tbere is a 42 t % mark-up on wholesale
prices and this is considered to be a
minimum to COYer the overhead of rent,
wages, paper, postage, telepbone, etc., and
includes tbe iniquitous V A T (value added
tax) taken from the sale price of each
article sold by the CPA. Continentals are
already well aware of pottery and form a
noticeably large proportion of customers at
the shop, and with pride Stephan stated
the standard of British polters is such
that there is now a healthy export trade in
well crafted domestic ware with Germany
and France. Something I enjoyed wben purchasing
a few items was the placing of
tbese within a sturdy brown carry-bag with
the logo of the CPA and its name and
address printed clearly. I felt this was good
sound advertising, and I would personally
prefer to show a message of this nature
rather than the local super-store or the "in"
brand in jeans. I also blessed its sheer convenience.
Each potier has an area of shelving whicb
bears his name; in some cases it is shared
with another craftsman, and likewise if need
be the craftsman or workshop may have
more than one shelf which is an area of
75 x 60 cm slatted shelving. The overall impression
within the shop is of pots, polished
pine, brick, sand and more pots. Pots by tbe
score on the shelves, but the display area
within the centre of the shop has an openness.
Tbe two large street windows lend a
feeling of space and light, especially to the
monthly exhibitions allocated to those members
who indicate a desire for a one-man
show, or joint exhibition. For the very
diminutive pots there is a special glassed
lockable display cabinet. It is a pity such
action is necessary but in this present day it
seems the small must be safeguarded. Often
these small articles are very fragile"" that
special care must be taken in their storage
Payment of sales is made the month following
tbe purcbase, by cheque, the potter
being advised as to the date and description
(by number) of the work sold. November
and December have, as one would imagine,
tbe highest sales figures and these two
months tend to carry the shop expenses and
wages bill for tbe very lean months of
January and February. I thougbt, in general,
the price structure was low, and wben
I asked Step ban his opinion of this, his response
was that tbe craftsman's attitude to
his occupation was to keep the price of his
work on a basis whereby every man is able
r am sure there is little needs to be said
for the Ceramic Review bi-montbly publication.
I know it has a large sale within
Australia and is acquired by a growing percentage
of libraries. The articles, the advertising
content from manufacturers of materials
and equipment, along with the private
sales of equipment, workshop space,
and work opportunity columns, are read
avidly by local as well as overseas potters.
The magazine endeavours to present a very
wide coverage by photographs of "today's"
objects, and welcomes the new members by
a short bibliography and photograph of
work and potter. The many and varied subjects
covered in small paperback, and hard
cover, altbougb written in the majority of
zases by members of the CPA, are compiled
privately and personally, and are marketed
only through tbe CPA. This applies
also to the many films now available. Polters
is the title of the new directory, the
fourth, just completed and on sale. It is
serving as an excellent guide to pottery
workshops and potters within the British
Isles, and as such, means there can be a
healthy sale of work direct from the workshop.
Stephan said it is hoped that the
craftsman sells above the wholesale rate, but
below the retail price of the CPA. There is
no rule in this matter, but he hopes common
sense prevai ls.
There bave been three camps organised
of recent years. The venue for the two previous
camps was Loseley Park, Guildford,
where clay was the only medium for expression,
instruction and participation. Last
year the camp held over the Jubilee weekend
was located at Dartington, and attended
by over 500 people to watch demonstrations
by distinguished craftsmen working in clay,
textile, jewellery, glass, wood, bookbinding,
blacksmithing, calligraphy and children's
workshops. Such a superb coverage of
crafts, and apparently very successful. The
compilation of notes for report tabling and
services of the craftsmen in this instance
and on similar occasions is given free, such
is the co-operative spirit and loyalty to the
Association. In the specific case of the Dartington
Craft Conference '77 there has been
a souvenir booklet produced with articles,
editing and layout given by the participating
craftsmen and staff of the CPA, so tbat this
booklet has been able to be produced purely
for the cost of printing.
It appeared to me that botb the CPA and
the PSA bave their sigbts set on professionalism
of tbe highest possible standard within
the medium, expecting and insisting on
this at all times from their members.
Both the CPA and the PSA have been
able to remain independent bodies, receiving
no funding for the administration of the respective
As I suspected at the commencement of
the interview with Stephan, the PSA has
been generally fasbioned on tbe lines of the
CPA, our problems seem common in domestic
organisation and our aims are identical,
the constant search for quality and
imagination of expression in clay.
BERYL BARTON is a Sydney potter and the immediate past president Potters' Society of Aus·
tralia. She teaches at Gymea Technical College and has recently returned from three months
working in Britain.
MAY DA VIS WRlTES FROM IZCUCHACA,
The Izcuchaca Pottery is going well and after a bout of illness Harry is hard at
work again, Another kiln has been built, also a new shed, and the standard of
work is improving.
Robin Cox of Tasmania has offered a job to one of the Izcuchaca potters,
Jairer, at her pottery at Belmont, Lonford.
Donations are being accepted at the Potters' Gallery, 48 Burton Street,
Darlinghurst, for the Izcuchaca project.
POTTERS' COTTAGE, Warrandyte, Vic., tbis year celebrates its 20th Anniversary. It was
officially opened by Dame Mabel Brookes on 25 September, 1958. The Anniversary will be
marked by a Potters' Cottage Prize Exhibition.
ALDGA TE CRAFfS, Aldgate, South Australia, is for sale. After ten years of working hard
to establish a quality outlet for Australian crafts, Rhonda and Keith Ogilvie have decided to
sell their gallery. Jones, Lang and Wootton of Adelaide are the sole agents.
THE WORKSHOPS GALLERY in St George's Road, Upper Beaconsfield, Vic., welcomes
visitors. Works of Ian Sprague's Mungeribar Pottery and Vic Greenaway's Broomhill Pottery.
One of the two trainees at Broomhill, Bruce Heggie, is leaving to set up his own workshop
in July. Julie is a past student of Prahran College. A new trainee from Darwin, Paul Winspear,
has taken Bruce's place.
WORK OPPORTUNITY WANTED. In lune or July of this year two New Zealand potters,
John and Kathleen Ing of Nelson District, would like to spend about a month working with
a potter in the Eltbam district. Their address is R.D.I Motuera, New Zealand.
An ertract from the foreword to the catalogue
written by David Brawshaw, who was
consultant to the exhibition.
This exhibition "Collection Pieces"
essentially surveys, as far as possible,
the type and variety of Australian
craft 17 selected public or corporate
collections have acquired during the
past seven years. The over-all intent
was to have a well balanced exhibition
with all the crafts given considerable
prominence. This to a large extent was
not possible because certain crafts
have not yet found their way into important
collections, or at the best are
very poorly represented. Besides this it
was hoped to survey the changes of
style or direction of work adopted by
craftsmen over this period. This too
proved difficult. It was found that due
to policy changes such as the discontinuing
of specific programs or in fact
through lack of funds in particular
years, there was little evidence of an
evenly weighted buying pattern over
the seven-year period. However, with
craftsmen who were well known and
established prior to 1970 it was possible
to some extent to show a progression
of their work. By borrowing
from such diverse collections it was
also intended to show that craft collecting
is not solely the province of the
museum or art gallery. It can be
seen from this exhibition that significant
craft works are now being
assembled not only by government or
semi-government bodies but also by
commerce, teaching institutions, student
associations and other organisations.
If this is recognised this exhibition
may act as a catalyst or provide an
incentive for other organisations to
consider craft collecting as a worthwhile
DAVID FINCHER: Stoneware lady;
ht 39 cm. Owned by the Penata Collection.
Collection Pieces, Australian Crafts
1970-1977, at the National Gallery of
Victoria, February-March 1978.
MANLY ART GALLERY
Manly Art Gallery and Historical Collection
has a permanent display of
works by early artists, early and contemporary
works of some of our living
painters, and paintings by significant
artists whose work is not always
on view in state galleries. It also
houses an extensive collection of historical
records of the area, and is
steadily increasing its collection of contemporary
The Collection was started in 1924
with the purchase by public subscription
of a painting by James R. J ackson,
"Middle Harbour from Manly
The Gallery is administered on behalf
of Manly Municipal Council. It is
open every day from 2 p.m. until 5
p.m. (except Monday) . In March each
year a Selection Exhibition is held
from which paintings are purchased for
In 1968 the committee demonstrated
its interest in contemporary
Australian ceramics by holding an exhibition
from which it bought a pot by
Hiroe Swen for permanent display.
I ts next purchase, in 1970, was a
lidded jar by Harry and May Davis,
from an exhibition at the Bonython
Gallery. Since 1975 an annual invita-
tion ceramic exhibition has been held;
this brings together the work of about
twenty potters and purchases are made
from these exhibitions as well as from
other sources. The Collection now includes
work by Janet Barriskill, Les
Blakebrough, Len Castle, Harry and
May Davis, Diogenes Farri, John Gilbert,
Jessica Hawes, Shunicbi Inoue,
Renata de Lambert, Janet Mansfield,
Rachel Roxburgh, Peter Rushforth,
Bill Samuels, Shiga Shigeo, Derek
Smith, Hiroe Swen and Peter Travis.
Financial assistance given by the Craft
Board of the Australia Council over
the past two years has helped considerably
with these purchases and grants
from the Premier's Department (Division
of Cultural Activities) have been
received to photograph the Gallery
Collection, improve the lighting and install
another display case for pottery.
The Manly Gallery, intimate and
well established, is unique in some
ways, and to all interested in painting,
pottery or history, has much to offer.
Photographs: Stall ley Hawes
The most comprehensive listing of artist-potters
in Australia, with photographs of their work, signatures
or marks, and biographical notes.
POTTERS IN AUSTRALIA
Three major essays are included, written by
Milton Moon, Wanda Garnsey and Doug. Alexander.
Potters in Australia will be of special interest to
potters, gallery owners, exhibition organizers,
collectors and students.
Publication of the book was assisted by a grant from the Crafts Board
of the Australia Council.
Available now 'rom the Editor,
48 Burton Street, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010
$2.50 or $3.00 posted
Pastoral Gallery, Old Cooma Road
Hiroe Swen's current exhibition was to
be one of the highlights of this year's
series of craft exhibitions.
Here is the idealistic example of the
artist loving the material but not being
dominated by it. Clay in Hiroe's hands
does what she wants it to do.
This particular exhibition is not just
an exhibition of current work; it has
been carefully selected by the artist to
show what she feels is the strongest work
to date. It does just that. Eaeh piece reflects
the strong and simplistic character
of the artist. Her work stands apart from
the norm of Australian pottery, for each
piece contains the preciousness of sculptural
form. Each piece deserves its own
special position in any environment.
Hiroe's work grows in strength as the
years pass. For example, form used to be
her greatest concern. This latest work
shows greater concentration on glazing,
but not glazing just for the sake of it.
The aim is to enhance and magnify the
There are many successful examples. Tn
particular, there is a set of six centrally
p05itioned platters, which accommodate
extensive glaze work. Each piece could
stand on its own but the strength lies in
the completeness of the group. The controlled
glaze pattern leads the eye from
one platter to the next. It binds the six
individual pieces into one complete work.
Other exquisite examples are seen in
smooth-surfaced pieces where Hare's Fur
glazes are used. The effect is accomplished
through a complicated doubleglazing
technique and works particularly
well on some of the larger forms. In
some cases the glaze contrasts but does
not fight with the form.
The more textural pieces are also receiving
more glaze attention. Lines
created by overlapping layers of clay are
emphasised by the use of glazes that
break thinly over the higher relief. Again
this works particularly well on the larger
bowl forms. There are also some new dry
alkaline glazes, the most dramatic being
the smooth turquoise. In contrast to most
dry glazes, the unique feature of these is
that while they look dry and rough they
are in fact creamy smooth. The glazes
are visually "dry" because of their
Coilbuilt, flask· shaped ceramic by Hiroe
Swen from her Seventh Solo Exhibition at
Pastoral Gallery, during November
December, 1977. Swirling "ribbonimpressions"
on a hessian patterned
surface provide an unusual, decorative
touch. A high-sheen glaze in various browns
gives this ceramic a transparent quality.
Fired to I 280·C in a top-loading electric
kiln . Dimensions : 28 em high x 34 em long
x 13 em wide.
Photograph: John Turnbllll
macro-crystalline structure and the effect
is obtained through cooling the kiln very
The show is quite extensive, with over
200 pieces on exhibition, but the gallery
space is open, which allows the work to
be spread over a large area. When you
go, be prepared to spend some time. If
you do take the time to really get to
know the work, you will be pleasantly
surprised with the magic of it.
Canberra Times, Nov. 6, 1977
At the Allegro is a one-man, mixedmedia
exhibition by French-born Frederic
Chepeaux, who at 32 has developed
an innovative approach to the media he
exploits, mainly timber, terracotta and
Several pieces by Chepeaux were
selected to represent Australia this year
at the Intemational Exhibition at Faenza
Photograph: illTla Malnic
(Italy), where a critic noted that he
"demonstrates to what extent the ceramic
material possesses the expressive qualities
necessary to put it to the service of
sculpture" (Carlo Munari in Corriere
Veneto, 20/ 911977).
Cbepeaux treads a tricky patb between
art and craft, but is one of the few who
manages successfully to bridge the gap.
The major factors include technical
facility and a highly imaginative juxtaposition
of symbolic forms, usually of a
representational nature. To enjoy the
works fully in his new exhibition it is
necessary not only to look, but to touch
and even to smell. The viewer opens,
closes, explores textures and reacts to the
smells of timber and stands.
An underlying concern for tbe human
condition gives a sense of conceptual
unity to the exhibition. It is almost impossible
to isolate anyone work, as each
piece conveys another aspect of a total
vision or philosophy.
A recurring image is that of the
human head, usually created from unglazed
terracotta. Many of tbe boxed
forms are symbolic torsos surmounted
by lifesized clay heads. At times these
heads convey rather theatrical expres-
sions almost in the tradition of theatre of
mime. Seldom are the facial expressions
deeply moving, and I am not sure if tbis
is intentional on Chepeaux's part. Perhaps
Cbepeaux is deliberately devising
an impersonal language of facial expression
representing the common man? In
pieces such as the Pragmatist I feel there
is a need for greater intensity of expression,
as viewer reaction is distanced by
the blandness of the facial gesture.
This calculated blandness works best
in Recognition, consisting of 16 terracotta
heads in timber pigeonholes. Only
two break the overall frontal aspect, one
on the top row being angled to acknowledge
the existence of another, also
angled, on tbe bottom level. These heads
are reminiscent of ceramic Victorian
dolls' beads, completely hairless, and
creating a cbilling comment on communication
problems in human society.
A work of similar format is The Deviant,
but instead of heads Cbepeaux has
created pear forms out of clay. Baldessin's
monumental sculpted pears in the
Art Gallery of NSW collection convey
almost fleshily human forms witb highly
sensuous overtones in much the same
way as Chepeaux's boxed pears. Of the
20 pear symbols in Chepeaux's creation
only one is conspicuously different, a
change of emphasis in modelling resulting
in a form suggestive of a provocatively
sbaped bare buttock.
All of the work in this exhibition reflects
Chepeaux's cheeky sense of
humour. Sexual references are treated
witb a refresbing unselfconscious candor,
as in the boxed phallic torso and
tootbbrush forms of Travelling Light.
Penis and tootbbrush-what more could
a gentleman on the road to success need?
Fantasy elements of an almost fairytale
nature are open to Freudian interpretation
just as Alice in Wonderland is.
Works sucb as Concierge to Her Heart
and Time Bomb Virgin are as evocative
of sin sex and secrecy as the Polish filmmake;
Borowczyk's beautiful but disturbing
celluloid masterpieces. Because Chepeaux's
symbols are mostly created from
natural media there is also a sense of
The A IIs/raUon , Dec. 8, 1977
Copacabana beach (near Gosford), is a
In this array of wicked send-ups of
behavioural patterns and faithfully rendered
period styles, Taylor's Trocadero,
a star-studded, midnight blue c1oudland.
straight out of the big band era, is the
crowning glory. The pigs never had it so
Sydney Morning Herald, Dec. 17, 1977
The Sandra Taylor exhibition of ceramics,
at the Art of Man Gallery is the
most infectiously enjoyable sho"; of the
'The more you enjoy your work, the
better you do it," is the guiding principle
that motivates this Cheeky but goodhumoured
manipulator of clay who recently
scooped up a coveted gold medal
at the 35th International Competition of
Ceramics in Faenza, Italy.
Appropriately, the piece which won
her the medal belonged to a series of
Gucci handbags, those status symbols, so
much a part of the affiuent life style.
These white stoneware bags, which
proudly bear the Gucci stamp, are inlaid
with liquid gold, and gold-plated
ball bearings, pl aced inside to highlight
the reflective qualities, provide the ultimate
touch of Midas magic.
There is no mi staking the delicious
social satire implicit in Taylor's zany
assortment of ceramic pigs, cockatoos
an~ urbane, multi-coloured slugs, in a
senes of Slug Plates. Could anyone look
a slug in the eye again?
Only the ceramic landscapes with their
stencilled cloud or bird patterns presse:l
into the clay, her breezily ornamental
Island Scenes and some circular plates
with rippling Art Nouveau or cockatoo
designs, stay within the bounds of the
The absurd incongruity of her Room
pieces, where snotty-nosed, beady-eyed,
obnoxious pigs recline in ostentatiousll·
trendy interiors, calls to mind George
Orwell's Animal Farm, although the
sharp Orwellian message of anti-authoritarianism
is missing. Here, where apparently
the pigs, slugs and cockatoos are
all equal, with the pigs more equal than
the others, luxuriating in the salubrious
life, indoors as well as outdoors on
RENATA de LAMBERT
Renata de Lambert's exhibition of rll n-:
tional pottery at the Beaver Galleries
brings together a mastery of t he craft
with a boldness and freedom of design.
For an exhibition of "functillOal pottery"
.1 w~s amazed by the large range
and dlvefSlty of shapes, forms and sizes;
Renata de Lambert achieves a successful
marriage of creative ceramic art with
Born in Germany, Renata de Lambert
studied ceramics in Sydney, Engl and and
Germany and in 1974 became the master
potter in charge of the established
pottery at Lake Constance in West Germany.
Throughout the exhibition there is a
feeling of grace and ease with which she
handles teChnique; it is an elegant simplicity
which is attained. The decorations
which she applied to her pots have the
same atmosphere of fluency and sense of
freedom from contrived artificiality. She
has a mastery of glaze application ranging
from the stencil spray technique to
the clear, pale glaze finish .
In . her large pottery-like the large
stand 109 Jars, open plate dishes and the
low casseroles- she has the quality of
loose decorative masses that resist becoming
cluttered or pretty. They stand
direct, clear and undisguised.
Renata de Lambert's exhibition is a
demonstration of how Irad itional aspects
of pottery can gain a vilality when treated
with skill and sensitIvity.
.~ osha G rishin
Canberra Thnes, Oct. 15, 1977
JEAN-JACQUES V ASCHALDE and
Joy Bowman Galleries
Joy Bowman Galleries make a very beautiful
environment for the pottery exhibition
of husband and wife team Jean
Jacques Vaschalde and Nina Bierman.
Jean-Jacques' very individual ceramics
include platters and large bottle forms
where magic has resulted from the idea
of letting his wife's hands hug, ever so
gently, the form before firing, so that
the hands are impressed on the wet glaze
only and then fuse with it in the firing.
Another charming pot form which is
Jean-Jacques' speciality is a plump pumpkin
form with a delicate frilly, nondetachable
Nina shows numerous spheric forms
with nipples. These sensual pieces have
no connotations with funky art. She explains
them as the natural result of recent
motherhood. Nina's outstanding
piece, however, is a large platter with a
superb sang-de-boeuf glaze.
Dr Gertrude Langer
Courier Mail, Nov. 5, 1977
JEAN JACQUES VASCHALDE
Imago Gallery, and
There's a generous feeling about much of
Chris Sanders' pottery exhibited at
Imago Gallery, 3 Powell Street, South
The exhibition presents a range of
tableware, including a complete dinner
setting, tea service with a family-size teapot,
tureen sets, jars, goblets, various
boxes, and some large pots.
The shapes and glazes in this primarily
functional exhibition are of a kind to
appeal to those who admire pottery that
is earthy without being rough, smart
without being slick, and liberal in size
and proportion without being gross.
The tureen sets glazed in rich tan combined
with pale interiors for the tureens
are excellent examples of these qualities.
The accompanying ladles are also fine
to look at and to hold. But the potter
should consider altering the position of
the lips for more comfortable and efficient
pouring, without sacrificing their
otherWise strong design.
Of the more ornamental pieces, one
large pot with incised markings below
the neck and decorated in pale, subtle
glazes also illustrates his natura.l feeling
for the sensuous in shape and proportion.
His work will not obtrude upon the
households it eventually occupies, but
will bring warmth to the day-to-day living
of the occupants.
At Potters' Cottage, Warrandyte, Dulce
Herd also brings to her tableware a
sound appreciation for the ultimate use
of her pieces.
Although she is inclined to cast her
net a little too wide in searching for
fresh designs to perform traditional functions,
her skills in structure and finish
serve her well.
The large dinner service in dull greenyellow
is the best illustration of her consistency
The Age, Sept. 19, 1977
SLOpS, for the range of technique and
expertise is incredible.
Most impressive are the platters, where
the lava-like flowing and erupting of
colour shows off best.
His brusbwork decoration is a trifle
overdone, but one can sense the rhythm
which takes over the potter's brush and
he is to be forgiven the gilding of the
Opening night saw a sellout and the
assembled viewers were the creme de fa
creme of tbe craft world in Australia.
You might call it discreet buying by
all the government bodies concerned
with tbe crafts, for every group seemed
to have bought something, a few more
wisely than otbers.
There are sti ll a few rough spots in the
works-lid fitting, "S" cracks and weight
of objects, but it's a top marks exhibition.
Another potter who continues to
make the same form over and over is
Colin Browne, now at Clive Parry Galleries,
His elliptical, ovoid objects are given
greater sensuality with some magnificent
black glazes, both shiny and matt.
A generation younger than Reg, Colin
is a potters' potter, as is Preston, but he
has had the benefit of tbe "knowledge
explosion" in the crafts; as a result he has
not had to cope with the massive amount
of experimentation of his predecessors,
nor is he as rigid in his aesthetics.
Colin Browne will be known for his
shapes, Reg Preston for his brilliant use
of glaze. See them both-it's quite an experience.
The S1I1I , Sept. 12, 1977
Craft Centre, and
Clive Parry Galleries
You can't help but feel you're in a Japanese
master potter's workshop when
viewing the recent output of pots by Reg
Preston at the Craft Centre, 309 Toorak
Road, South Yarra.
His forms are traditional storage jars,
and there is nothing new in their shap~
or concept. We've seen Reg do them time
and again. But the glazes are something
The man can glaze, and in this showing
of 165 pieces he's pulled out all the
REG PRESTON: Large square platter,
40 em square. Photograph: Dulce Herd
Eminent po: ,er Milton Moon wears at
least two ha" ID his latest exhibition at
the Crnlt Centre, 309 Toorak Road,
First there i. Milton Moon the glazepainter
casting a soft spell over a series
of bowls and platlers.
The images are ephemeral. They hint
at pink blossom and wispy foliage .
Sometimes a stronger splash or rich
brown glaze cuts across a part of the
platter to suggest a ground-plane for the
growth, while behind the soft elusive
marks lies a fine pearly crackle glaze I·"
act as background.
He backs this collection with a group
of more defined bowls and vessels still
wit h a pearly crackle glaze, but ' with
these it's darker in tonI! and the overglaze
decoration is firmer and presented
as a un!t, such as a sprig of foliage.
WOOl.ng though all this might be, it
was MIlton Moon the "Yohen" potter
who interested me most.
I presume the label "Yohen" refers to
a Japanese district, family or kiln with
which I am not familiar, and therefore
I cannot compare these pots with those
from this source.
These pots are made from a clay bodv
which fires to a rich biscuit with patches
of red and orange, and on which the potter
decorates with dull oxides and a thick
glossy treacle-like glaze on the interior
walls which spills out down the outsides
from the necks.
The contrast hetween glazed and unglazed
sections is st riking and very satisfying
in colour and manipulation.
The large floor pots could he ~"n,>Jered
as technical /Ours de forct'. BUI
si mply a virtuosic dis play would not be
The pots possess a rare quality-a feeling
imparted by the residual imprint of
the heat to which they have been subjected.
This glowing legacy helps a viewer
to share some of the potter's ow n
excitement in the Chemistry of his craft.
Th e A ge, Oct. 3, 1977
WALKER CERAMIC AWARD 1977
The first annual Walker Ceramic Award
was held at the Caulfield Arts Centre,
December 5-18, 1977 . It was open to
full-time ceramic students throughout
Australia, undertaking the final year of
their studies at a tertiary institution. The
award attracted fifty-one students represen.tmg
.most of t~e major teaching institutions
ID Australia. The judging was to
be assessed on four pieces representing
the work of the participants.
The judging panel of three were as
follows: Kenneth Hood, Deputy Director
of the National Gallery of Victoria:
Harold Hughan. the highly distinguished
A~stralian potter; and Felicity Abraham,
Director of the Resource Centre of the
The winner of this significant $1000
award was Jenny Hayes from the Bendigo
College of Advanced Education.
The winning group consisted of four
large, slab-built, chamotte bodied boxes,
feldspathic blue glazed, with gold lust red
The following were highly commended
and acquilcd for the Walker Collection
Tim Der Kinderen, Ri ve rina College of
Advanced Education: Salt Jar.
Paul Greenaway, SA School of Arts:
JENN IFER HAYES: Box form, stoneware
chamotte body, mall glazes with gold
lustres; ht 39 cm, width 27 em. A set of
four won the Walker Ceramic Award for
1977. Photograph: D elZlZis O'Hoy
Adele Hollywood, Prahran College of
Advanced Education: Large open form
with pftal rim.
Lorene Kelly, Bendigo College of Advanced
Education: Celadon stoneware
Christoph?r Langtnn, Bendigo College of
Advanced Education: Three chamotte
Judy Pearn ain, Bendigo College of Advanced
Ed'lcation: Seven stoneware
Peter Pilven, Ralhlfat College of Advanced
Educatilln: Tall vase.
Lawrence Wolf, Caulfield Institute of
Technology: Three square silver-edged
Comprising 196 entries, the overall
standard of the work was very high, and
demonstrated the diversity of techniques
and approaches fnllowed by the various
colleges. The skills attained by these students
indicate a prosperous development
for Australian ceramics in the years
ahead. The pieces purchased by Walker
Ceramics have been used to form the
nucleus of a collection which will eventually
be used as a travelling exhibition.
Finally the management of Walker
Ceramics must be congratulated for organising
the award, which must ultimately
benefit all engaged with ceramics.
Belldigo College oj Advanced
TIM MOOR HEAD: "Australian Parrots";
white stoneware, blue onglaze, decal
decoration; ht 45 cm.
Photograph: David Feathersoll
Clive Parry Galleries
"Decade Down Under," March, 1978
There were about fifty pieces exhibited,
all completed during Tim's Creative Arts
Fellowship at ANU. The ceramic surface
decoration technique called Photo
Decalcomania, which he commenced
work on several years ago at the Prahran
College of Advanced Education, is used
Tim commenced his Fellowship year
late May, after working as an Education
and Development Officer with the Crafts
Section of the Department of Further
Education in South Australia since 1973.
He sees his Fellowship as a transition
period between nine years of administering
art courses and re-establishing himself
as a full-time artist/ craftsman. On
completing his Fellowship he and his
wife Sue, also an artist/ craftsman, plan
to move into their unique home and
studio in the old copper town of Burra,
100 miles north of Adelaide. The old
stone bu ilding, originall y a Salvation
Army Citadel, had been vacant for thirty
to forty years before the Moorheads
realised its potential.
BOOK AND MAGAZINE REVIEWS
TRADITIONAL POTTERY TECH
N IQUI:.-S OF PAKISTAN: by Owen S.
Rye and Clifford Evans. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington, 1976.
This is an intriguing account of a very
thorough investigation of the pottery and
potters of Pakistan-a most useful documentation
of what is probably a fast disappearing
An astonishing variety of ways of
forming and firing pots is described, but
I found the chapter on techniques and
analytical studies of greatest interest,
especially the material on the production
of alkaline glazed ware. I feel that this
is an idiom that has been overlooked by
Australian craftsmen-potters. The brilliance
and clarity of the colours that can
be achieved with these glazes make it
well worth having a look at the problems
that may be invoved in adapting this
technique to Australian materials and
conditions. This excellent and detailed
account of the Pakistani technique could
form the point of departure for such a
venture, and hopefully result in another
alternative to lead-glazed earthenware,
now that we have become so much more
aware of the toxicity of lead.
I found the cold-blooded academic
style of the publication a little off-putting,
but the amassed data are most valuable.
I wish academics would allow tbemselves
to express feelings and to speculate
- after all there's nothing disreputable
I cannot help regretting that the
opportunity to make this type of comprehensive
and remarkably detailed study
of some of the Chinese traditional stoneware
and porcelain craft technologies has
been missed. I cannot recall any of the
nineteenth or early twentieth century accounts
of these wares that even approach
this study in breadth of treatment or in
detail. Now that the industry in China has
been modernised and some Western
techniques introduced, it seems the
chance has been missed. It is to be boped
that the Smithsonian Institution will not
allow political bias to stand in the way
of any opportunity that may still exist
for studies in this area and some of the
other areas of major ceramic significance.
These studies can be of great
value to contemporary craftsmen-potters,
and a counter to t he corrosive and destructive
effects of the spread of Western
Ivan M cMeekin
ELECTRIC KILN CONSTRUCTION
FOR POTTERS: by Robert Fournier.
Van Nostrand Reinhold ($ 12.95).
This is easily the best book on the subject
I have seen. If you have ever dreamt of
building yourself an electric kiln, tben
this book should make it possible for you
to realise this dream.
It begins with background information
about electricity and electric circuits and
the wires--or rods-used as "elements"
in electric kilns, and about the insulating
and conducting properties of various
materials which govern the philosophy of
the design of electric kilns. It proceeds
to provide instructions on how to decide
on the dimensions of your kiln, the
type and amount of insulation needed,
the gauge and length of wire required for
the elements, etc., and then clear and
concise directions as to how to construct
the kiln box. wind the elements
and connect them up. It concludes with
details of temperature controls and indicators,
useful comments on using electric
kilns, and detailed calculation of the
materials required for five typical kilns
and how to assemble them.
In discussing thermocouples the
author makes the statement that
chromel-alumel must not be used for
firings above 1l00°CJ2010°F . Whilst
this material certainly has a reduced life
when used up to stoneware temperatures,
it is so much cheaper than the
alternative platinum-platinum rhodium
that its use up to 1260°C or so can be
well worth while. Apart from this minor
point, and the need to emphasise perhaps
rather more than Mr Fournier does
that the installation of power points and
the checking of devices to be connected
to the mains supply must be done by a
licensed electrician, the book can be
recommended without qualification.
MODERN AUSTRALIAN SCULP
TURE: Multi-media with clay. Ron
Rowe. Published by Rigby.
Any survey of a particular art is to be
welcomed and tbis book presents the
work of a variety of artists who bave
worked in clay or included it in their
work in conjunction with other materials.
In some ways tbe emphasis on clay is a
little misleading for many of the works
relegate clay to a minor role. Most of the
works, representing 21 artists, are from
the early 1970s, giving a valuable cross-
section of some of the ceramic sculpture
of that time. The directions taken by the
sculptors are varied as are their treatments
of their materials. There are organic
forms, geometric forms, surrealism,
social statements, totems, produced
in many different clay treatments,
modelled, thrown, press moulded, slipcast,
painted, glazed, and in conjunction
with glass, plastic, feathers, wood
and so On. Nearly all the works illustrated
are small in scale, claimed to
have been conceived spontaneously, and
are united by a certain experimental
whimsy. The book is really a picture
book with most of the photographs reproduced
in colour and it is unfortunate
that many of these are fuzzy with
bad colour rendering. 1 would have
liked more information about the artists
and their ways of working as well as a
critical survey of the period of their
works io relation to other art forms. The
short statements by each artist in the book
do very little for the reader. In spite of
the fact that this book shows sculpture
in its most minor form, the book is a
must for every artist and craftsman.
PRACTICAL GUIDE TO POTTERY:
Colin Gerard. Hutchinson. Available
from the Potters' Gallery ($8.95 plus 60c
My first impression of this book was
"Oh, no, not another book for beginners"
and on a flick through was disappointed
with the quality of the reproduced
photographs done in a sort of
sepia blue tone, but on closer examina·
tion 1 became more impressed with the
contents. It covers the basic knowledge
of the potters' craft as completely and
lucidly as I have yet seen in a beginner's
book. As the book was mapped out
by Michael Casson, I suppose it is not
surprising that Colin Gerard has done a
craftsman·like job of presenting the material.
He starts the book with a Glossary
of Terms, works into Basic Materials,
Preparation and Storage of Clay. He then
attacks the how to section with Pot Maki
ng Without a Wheel. In this section he
packs an amazing amount of useful information
and techniques with good line
drawings, enough photos of good pots
(unfortunately badly reproduced) and
diverse ideas for projects. Wheel work is
covered well in the following chapter.
He treats kilns by starting with bonfire
and sawdust firing-giving a design for
a wood-fired kiln and then an oil-fired
one with a design for a simple burner.
He then discusses types of kilns and
packing and firing the kiln. There are
two Chapters on glazing; both explain
simply a complex subject, and decoration
is treated fully. The book is finished
off with chapters on setting up a
School Pottery, the Potters' Heritage
and the Appendix.
This book must come close to being
the most complete of its type and I am
going to suggest to my students next
year that it become their basic text.
Reviewed by Janet DeBoos
CERAMICS MONTHLY: Ten issues/
year. SUSI I for one year; $USI9 for two
years; $US26 for three years. Available
from "Ceramics Monthly", Box 12448,
Columbus, Ohio, 43212.
One of the longest running ceramics
magazines; previously all black and
white, has recently branched out into
colour covers and spreads. Used to have
a decidedly "hobby potter-handy hints"
flavour which grows less pronounced
with each issue. Even if only one article
per issue proves to be of interest to the
subscriber, it is well worth it at under
one dollar per magazine on the longest
subscription. Articles vary from the historical
to the technical to the survey of
who's done what and where. Also quite
large section on shows, schools, etc.,
across the States.
EARTH GARDEN: Four issues/ year.
$7 (postage included) for one year from
"Earth Garden", PO Box 378, Epping,
Less a magazine for potters than fur
those into alternative life styles. Does
have some sections of a "how-to-do-i,"
nature that deal with pottery, but very
much beginners' level. The interest for
potters would probably lie more in the
articles on how to get a good milker,
make mud bricks or generate solar
CRAFTSMAN: Journal of the Ontario
Crafts Council. $Can.IS per year for
A black and white publication that is
mainly pictures with brief articles accompanying
them. Covers the usual crafts,
but in no great depth. At over $2 per
issue (of approximately 18 pages), one
would have to have considerable inter·
est in Canadian crafts to make it worth
buying. Despite this the layout and general
appearance are good.
THE POITERS' SOCIETY OF AUSTRALIA
48 Burton Street, Darlinghurst 2010. Tel. 3 1 3151
The Society was established in 1956 to encourage and foster the development,
appreciation and recognition of pottery made by individual craftsmen and designers
in a ceramic medium. From four members it has grown to its present
strength of 180 exhibiting members and more than 300 associate members. As
a national body, through its members in all States, it acts in liaison with other
groups and associations concerned with the promotion of the crafts, and its
practical assistance to potters generally helps to raise the standard of the craft
throughout Australia. Amongst its many activities, the Society publishes Pottery
in Australia and maintains the Potters' Gallery and Workshop School at 48
Burton Street, Darlinghurst. Summer schools under the direction of leading potters
are held in January each year, visits by overseas potters, lectures and social
occasions are organised.
The Society has been wholly self-supporting apart from cultural grants given
by the Australia Council Crafts Board and the N.S.W. Government for special
educational projects and workshop equipment for the Society's workshop.
Organisation of the Society, which is a non-profit distributing organisation, is in
the hands of an annually elected Committee of Members headed by a President.
POTTERS' lNFORMATlON CENTRE
The Potters' Gallery, 48 Burton Street, Darlinghurst
The Potters' Society of Australia has set up a display area where visitors to the Gallery can
see a wide range of materials and workshop equipment available to the potter from the
various manufacturers and distributors in Australia. Brochures are available.
Centre open during gallery hours.
This logo has been designed by Miriam Sm ith
especially for the National Ceramic
Conference. Tee shirts with the Conference
IJg0 are available from the Potters' Gallery for
$4.50 each or $5 posted. When ordering
please state si zes, S, M, or L.
MEMBERSHIP : There are three categories of membership.
Exhibiting Members-should work creatively in a ceramic medium, architectural, sculptural
or domestic. at a professional standard. Applicants sbould apply in writing and are required
to submit examples of recent work and/ or slides and photographs to the Membership Selection
Committee, which meets four times a year. When applicants are elected to membership
they may exhibit selected work in any of the Society'S exhibitions, or at tbe Potters' Gallery.
Annual Subscription : $15.00-
COMPETITIONS AND EXHIBITIONS
RAS, Royal Easler Show, Sydney
Judge : Janet De Boos
$200 Major ceramic work (container form)-Tim Der Kinderen
$200 Ceramic work (sculptural)-Julje Brackenreg
1977 Pug Mill Award (functional ceramics)
Judge: Kym Bonython
$500 Functional ceramics-Anne Mercer
Gosford Sbire Art Exhibition 1978 13-27 May 1978
Judge: Gillian Grigg
Pottery-Section 5, wheelthrown; section 6, hand built. 0 purchase is expected to exceed
$250 and acquisitions will not exceed $500.
Open for viewing at. 225 Mann Street, Gosford
Details: Committee Chairman, 75 Mann Street, Gosford 2250
Dubbo Art & Crafls Sociely Art and Crafl Purchase 2-7 June 1978
Judge: Janet DeBoos
Ceramics-Section B I. Craft purchases to $1000 total
Open for viewing at Dubbo Civic Centre
Details: Exhibition Secretary, Box 889, PO., Dubbo, NSW 2830
Pllg Mill Award 1-22 October 1978
Acquisitive functional competition
Judge: to be appointed by the Craft Association of South Australia
Open for viewing at the ram Factory Gallery, St Peters, SA
Townsville Pacific Festival
26 MaY-5 June
Details: Executive Director, Townsville Pacific Festival, PO Box 809, Townsville, Qld 4810
Armidale Community Craft Festival 1978
29 September-8 October
Open prize for ceramics--non-acquisitive.
Enquiries: Secretary, PO Box 724, Armidale 2350
"Australian Crafts", an exhibition of recent work by Australian craftsmen, opened in February
1978 as part of the Adelaide Festival of Arts and is now touring major galleries in Australia
during the remainder of 1978 prior to an extended international tour.
The exhibition surveys current directions in the Australian crafts movement. There are I 16
exhibits representing tbe work of 65 craftsmen in various craft media. Major emphasis has
been placed upon ceramics and jewellery as these two crafts are emerging strongl y in Australia
at the present time. There are 60 ceramics exhibits and 37 exhibits in jewellery/ metal:
fibre and glass are also represented. With a few exceptions, the Crafts Board has purchased
the exhibits with a view to their forming the basis of a permanent collection in a future
Australian museum of contemporary crafts.
Selection was made by Bernard Sahm, leading Australian ceramic craftsman and lecturerin-charge
of Ceramics, Sydney College of the Arts. In his selection, Bernard Sahm states he
looked for works with an inventive theme, where the craftsman used his particular chosen
medium, be it clay, fibre, or metal, to explore and articulate ideas. Wbile the exhibition
seeks to present a balanced view of directions in Australian crafts in the late '70s, there is
an emphasis on individuality in expression.
Accompanying the exhibition will be a comprehensive catalogue, including an introductory
essay by Bernard Sahm, and illust rations of exhibits.
Art Gallery of South Australia
Art Gallery of New South Wales
Caulfield Arts Centre, Victoria
Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery
Brisbane Civic Art Gallery and Museum
Undercroft Gallery, Western Australia
25 February-27 March 1978
13 April-14 May 1978
30 May-2 July 1978
8 August-IO September 1978
10 October- I 2 November 1978
4 Deceml:er-24 December 1978
Lidums Art Gallery, Mt Barker, SA Feb. 26-M arch 19
Jam Factory, Adelaide
Potters' Guild of SA
Sheila Sykes Bill Frazer Mitcham Village Arts & Crafts, SA March
SA Studio Potters' Club
Audrey and George Treadway
7th Mildura Sculpture Triennial
Dennis Monks, Kerry Selwood,
Meg Thompson, lanet Crompton
Victor Greenaway, Shiga Sbigeo
Shunichi Inoue, Alan Watt
Ceramics & Glass
Pots for Cbeese
Ten SA Potters
Beaumaris Group 10
lames and lean Tyler
Ikebana & Pots
Renata de Lambert
"A Day for Mugs"
Experimental Sculptural Forms
Aus!ralian Pottery 1900·1950
Victorian Ceramic Group
Royal (SA) Society of Arts
Beaver Galleries, Red Hill, ACf
Craft Association of Q Gallery,
Potters' Gallery, Spring Hill, Q
Narek Galleries, Cuppacumbalong,
Potters' Cottage, Warrandyte
Craft Centre, Sth Yarra, V
Aldgate Crafts, Aldgate, SA
Clive Parry Galleries, Beaumaris, V
Craft Association of Q Gallery
Potters' Gallery, Spring Hill . Q
Mildura Arts Centre
Downs Gallery and Arts Centre,
Clive Parry Galleries, Beaumaris, V
Narek, Tharwa, ACf
Craft Centre, Sth Yarra, V
Potters' Gallery. Spring Hill, Q
Jam Factory, Adelaide. SA
Clive Parry Galleries. Beaumaris, V
Crafts Council Gallery, Sydney
Art of Man Gallery, Paddington, NSW
Macquarie Galleries, Sydney
Potters' Gallery, Spring Hill, Q
Laburnum Gallery, Blackburn, V
Holdsworth Gallery, Woollahra, NSW
Craft Revival, Artarmon. NSW
Potlers' Gallery, Sydney
Potlers' Cottage, Warrandyte, V
Art of Man Gallery, Paddington, NSW
Potters' Gallery, Spring Hill, Q
Cooks Hill Galleries, Newcastle, NSW
Fremantle Arts Centre
Caulfield Arts Centre
Craft Centre, Sth Yarra, V
Potters' Gallery, Sydney
Potters' Gallery, Spring Hill, Q
Hogarth Galleries, Paddington, NSW
Laburnum Gallery, Blackburn, V
Craft Revival, Artarmon, NSW
Potters' Gallery, Sydney
Jam Factory, St Peters, SA
Caulfield Arts Centre, V
Aldgate Crafts, SA
Fine Arts Gallery, University of
Shepparton Arts Centre, V
Beaver Galleries. Red Hill , ACT
Caulfield Arts Centre, V
Aldgate Crafts, SA
March 5·April 2
March 19-April 2
March IS-April 5
Mar. 31-April 26
March/ April /
April 9-May 7
April 29-May 17
May 13-J une 3
May 16-June 3
May 20-J une 3
May 23-June 10
May 26-June 12
May 28-June 12
June 13-July 1
June 30-J uly 14
July 16-Aug. 6
July 19-Aug. 6
July 24-Aug. 4
Aug. 5-0cl. 9
Pat Pearson, Barbara Mason,
Valerie Wilson, loan Wilkinson
Cau lfield City
Potters' Cottage PrIu
Pottery Exhibitions (continuous)
Craft Centre, Sth Yarra, V
Fremantle Arts Centre
Potters' Cottage, Warrandyte, V
Cooks Rill Galleries, Newcastle
Crafts Council Gallery
Gryphon Gallery, Carlton, V
Potters' Gallery, Sydney
Aldgate Crafts, Aldgate, SA
Caulfield Arts Centre, V
Solander Gallery, ACf
Potters' Cottage, Warrandyte, V
Clive Parry Galleries, Beaumaris, V
Craft Centre, Sth Yarra, V
Potters' Cottage, Warrandyte, V
Workshop Arts Centre, Willoughby,
Aldgate Crafts, SA
Aldgate Crafts, SA
Pastoral Gallery, Queanbeyan, NSW
Old Bakery Gallery, Lane Cove, NSW
Crafts Council Gallery
Manyung Gallery, Nepean Highway,
Mt Eliza, V
Sept. 17-0ct. 9
Sept. 21-0ct. 1
Sept. 30-0ct. 18
Oct. 28-Nov. II
Nov. 4-Dec. 16
NEW GALLERY. Gallery 180, 180 Toorak Road, South Yarra, Vic., has opened and welcomes
BANGLES GALLERY at Cobargo, NSW, is open seven days a week and welcomes visitors.
PATRICIA ENGLUND - stoneware and porcelain, specialising in celadons, chuns and
copper reds. By appointment-telephone 358-4987.
GEELONG CERAMIC GROUP entered its second year with the Annual General Meeting
held at the end of March. During its successful first year a two-day workshop was held in
February 1977 by Norio Naeshiro and Brian Kemp. Alan Watt gave a one-day workshop on
porcelain, and in the middle of the year-and to brighten up winter- a raku firing was held
at Graeme Wilkie's pottery at Lome. Over 150 people attended this very successful day.
The climax of the year was the Group Exhibition held at Geelong College with over forty
potlers contributing. For this year members are eagerly awaiting a workshop by Doug
Alexander and later in the year one from John &lye on salt-glazing. Enquiries: Secretary,
Geelong Ceramic Group, PO Box 96, Belmont, Vic. 3216.
VICfORIAN CERAMIC GROUP. 1978 promises to be a year of "highlights", stimulating
and informative. This is Arts Victoria 78: Crafts, the second triennial festival of the
Ministry for the Arts and the first devoted entirely to the crafts, and Victorian Ceramic
Group was fortunate to be involved in their program in the ceramic area, with public
lectures and workshops that VCG will hold with the overseaS craftsmen-in-residence
brought out by the Ministry for this festival year.
The Annual Members' Exhibition will be held at the Caulfield Arts Cent.re, 441 Inkerman
Road, North Caulfield, in August, and will be a members' selling exhibition.
Tbe Group meets the first Monday of each month from March to November inclusive
in the Lecture Theatre, New Arts Building, Melbourne State College, corner Grattan and
Swanston Streets, Carlton, at 8 p.m. New members are always welcome. Enquiries: Victorian
Ceramic Group, PO Box 4096, Spencer Street, Melbourne 3001 (Membersblp Officer).
PORT HACKING POTTERS' GROUP will hold its 17th Annual Competition at Sutherland
Civic Centre from Friday, 28 July, to Saturday, 5 August. Pots may be delivered to The
Potters' Gallery at 48 Burton Street, Darlinghurst, and will be collected by the Group if
competitors are unable to deliver to the Civic Centre. Entry forms will be available in May.
EnqUiries: Secretary, PO Box 7 I , Miranda, NSW 2228.
NEWCASTLE CERAMIC GROUP continues to enjoy a healthy expansion, having a rapidly
growing membership. The new committee for 1978, which is incidentally the tenth anniversary
of the foundation of tbe Group, is headed by President Irene Shaw.
A financially successful year was enjoyed by all members. Several shows were organised,
including the Annual Review, which was held in September at the Newcastle University.
The Newcastle Group continues to be involved with community affairs and a recent
display at the Newcastle Show was very well received. Weekend schools included a visit
from Gillian Grigg, who concentrated on slipware techniques. Enquiries: Secretary, 13 Lucas
Crescent. Adamstown Heights. NSW 2289.
QUEENSLAND POTTERS' ASSOCIATION has an interesting line-up of schools, workshops
and exhibitions for 1978. In March, New Zealand potter Royce McGlashen gave two
two-day participation workshops, and there was an exhibition of his work at the Potters'
In May Alan Peascod will give a two-day lecture/ demonstration, with an exhibition at
the Potters' Gallery.
From February to November, fifteen classes at three-week intervals under the title of
"Direction Finding" will be held by Robert Forster, with practic.al work and firing to be
done between sessions. An exhibition of the work from this school will be held in January
1979_ From February to April a ten-week course in Oriental brushwork was conducted by
Mrs Hee Chung_
CENTRAL COAST POTTERS' SOCIETY reports another successful year for 1977. Traditionally
the last meeting for the year was combined with the Christmas party held at Jim and
Jean Tyler's pottery studio, set in glorious bushland at Terriga!.
The Annual Open Day held at Chillamurra Gardens in August was an outstanding
success, with a wide range of craft activity being presented to a large and appreciative group
The proposed Community Arts Centre at Caroline Bay, East Gosford, slowly moves
towards becoming a reality. If the tenacity of the Society's committee docs not falter, official
apathy should be sufficiently overcome to enable building to start early in 1978.
The year was marked by several weekend schools and bus trips, and an interesting
schedule has been arranged for 1978. Enquiries: Don Kelly «043) 24-3471 - day,
THE CERAMIC STUDY GROUP has a busy year planned ahead. It started with an Activity
Day in February, with throwing, sculpture, screen printing on tiles, and many other demonstrations.
In March the group held a two-day lecture/ demonstration with New Zealand potter
Royce McGlashen, and in May there will be another two-day lecturel demonstration with
Jeff Mincham from Adelaide.
The Fifth Biennial Tour departs in May for a ceramic study tour of UK and Scandinavia.
The Spring School (residential) will be held in September this year at Bowra!.
The CSG holds meetings On the fourth Thursday of the month from March to November
inclusive at McMahons Point Community Centre Hall, Blues Point Road, McMahons
Point. Enquiries: Secretary. Box 5239, GPO, Sydney 2001 (tel. Mrs Jan Roebuck, 44-1624).
PERTH POTTERS' CLUB. Having paid for the large new workroom, the Club has now
decided to replace the old original cottage. Tbe new building, which is in progress, will contain
a large display room, commodious office and library, and kitchen. It is hoped to open
this new home of Perth potters in May with a small exhibition representing every member
of the Club. Enquiries: PO Box 3, Cottesloe, WA 60 I J.
THE CERAMICS STUDY GROUP OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA has completed a successful
year, during which time members have been working on a stoneware clay body for
throwing made from local materials; this bas now reached the production stage. Several
local potters have visited the group and demonstrated their special skills. Other activities
have been a visit to country potters at Collie and Bridgetown, and a Group Exhibition
which was held at the Fremantle Arts Centre. Enquiries: Secretary, 37 Congdon Street,
Swanbourne, WA 6010.
TASMAN IAN POTTERS' SOCIETY, SOUTHERN BRANCH, holds regular quarterly meetings
at which guest speakers talk on different aspects of the craft. The annual general meeting
will be in July.
The Group's annual State-wide exhibition wa~ held in March at. the State Library of
Tasmania in Hobart. In June VIctor Greenaway WIll gIve workshops m Hobart, Launceston
and Burnie. In July potters from the north and north-west will meet southern potters at
Campbelltown for tbe annual weekend get-together, when Gerald Makin will be guest lecturer.
In September Penny Smith will hold workshop for southern members and it is hoped
to arrange a workshop in August with one other Tasmanian potter.
THE POlTERS' GUILD OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA, representing the full-time professional
potter in South Australia, was officially constituted in April 1977. The Guild meets on tbe
last Friday of each month at Fullarton Park, Adelaide, with guest speakers, interstate visitors,
critiques of members' pottery, slides, and discussions on topics relevant to pollers.
Members operate a bulk purchase scheme for expensive items such as kiln shelves,
with considerable savings to members. Advice and help are available to members on professional
and business problems.
During its short life the Guild has brought the full-time potters of the State together.
This has been recognised by government bodies, which have sought the Guild's opinions on
certain matters relevant to potters and craft. Enquiries: Greg Pitt, Hadleigh Rise, Upper
Sturt, South Australia.
THE DARWIN POlTERS' GROUP, which is a craft section within the Craft Association of
North Australia, was formed following Cyclone Tracy in 1974. Since that time participation
in the group has grown rapidly. Workshop facilities at the "shed" and the Darwin Community
College enable a number of classes and workshops to operate throughout the year.
1978 is again to be a !busy year with workshops by Ian Sprague, Janet Mansfield and
Lorraine Jenyns. The Crafts Council is sending a small Les Blakebnrough collection, and the
exhibition "Functional Ceramics" is arriving later in the year. "The Back-to-Darwin" festivities
in May include a craft exhibition and a throw-a-thon as the Group's contribution to the
Undoubtedly the highpoint of the year will come in September, when the Museums and
Art Galleries of the Northern Territory will sponsor the first $1000 Northern Territory Acquisition
Convenor: Vincent McGrath, Ceramics Department, Darwin Community College.
PUBLICATIONS available from the Editor, 48 Burton Street, Darlinghurst 2010.
Please add 30 cents postage extra per copy.
Pottery in Australia (back numbers) 10/ 2, II/ I, 1112, 12/ 1 (70 cents each);
12/ 2, 13/ 1, 13/ 2 ($1.50 each); 14/ 2 ($2.00); 15/ 1 ($2.00); 16/ 1 ($2.50) ;
16/ 2 ($3.50) .
ELECTRIC KILN (Arthur Higgs) ; price 75 cents.
GAS KILN, CATENARY ARCH (Les Blakebrough); price 80 cents.
GAS KILN, TOP LOADING (Ivan Englund); price 80 cents.
RAKU ; price 80 cents.
A SIMPLE WOODFIRED KILN (Ivan Englund) ; price 80 cents.
HIGH-TEMPERATURE WOOD-BURNING KILN (Ivan McMeekin):
price $ 1.00.
A 10 cu. ft. OIL-FIRED KILN PLAN (Alan Peascod) ; price $2.00.
BRISBANE ROCK GLAZES. and
THE BUMBO LATITE, both by Ivan Englund ; price 30 cents each.
KICK-WHEEL PLAN (set of four diagrams); price $1.00.
POTTERS IN AUSTRALIA; price $3 .00 (including postage).
A LOW COST KICK WHEEL (Leonard Smith); price $1.00.
"... a true museum-piece, too good to be owned by just one art-lover!"
Tha t I sHowPeop le Hespond edT a Ther en t rePi e ce
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Since I tsr i rstSholilingl nNov&Oec77- ThisU!ork
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r orr urthcr l nformation-P leaseContactUs :
POBox381 / Oueanbeyan2620/Ph( 062) 971 ~ 1 5
specialising in australian and
asian / pacific art and ceramics.
• antique oriental ceramics from khmer,
sukhotai, sawankolok, annamese, chinese
and japanese kilns
• traditional melanesian pottery
• contemporary australian potters
potter shiga shlgeo
stoneware, iron oxide decoration
45 elizabeth bay road
sydney 2011 tel. 358-4493
tuesday to saturday 10-6 p.m.
Day and Evening Pottery Classes
Instruction In prepara tion of clay, slob.bullt pots.
call pots. wheel work, various glazings. stockIng and
Rick Ball 95 6540 Hildegard An.tice 48 5675
Renata de lambert 43,(766 John Turvey 5298461
Gwen Whitie 48 562.
Term 1 13 Feb-6 May, 1978
Term 2 29 May-19 Augu.t, 1978
Pa inting; drawing; etching: lithography; sil k-screen;
woodcuts; sculpture; creative weaving; creative em.
broidery; macra me; moso ic; jewellery-making; general
design; o rt d a sses for children and young people.
33 Laurel Street, Willoughby, 2068
Tel. 95-6540. (Enquiries 9.30-4.30)
Half-term students accepted
WHEN IT COMES TO KILNS
WOODROW kilns are in a class
by themselves! Ten years and
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Engineered for the potter, these heavy
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the other brands) with a full-time
Come out and inspect the full range of
front- and top-loading kilns at our
new factory or phone for a brochure.
Compare the prices-you'll be
surprised! See the new Woodrow
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And if you're a do-it-yourself buff, talk
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WOODROW & PARTNERS PTY. LTD.
_19 COSGROVE RD., ENFIELD, NSW. PH. 642-8111
1. t FLOOR, enr. GREY and RUSSELL STS., SOUTH· BRISBANE. PH. 44-2858
RUSSELL COWAN PTY. LTD.
Materials and Equipment tor the Craft Potter
Agent and Distributor for
ACME MARLS LTD.
Manufacturers of finest quality High Alumina
KILN PROPS AND FITIINGS
Available throughout Australia
ORTON PYROMETRIC CONES
Blister packs of Small Cones
Available from . ..
RUSSELL COWAN PTY. LTD.
128-138 PACIFIC HIGHWAY, WAITARA N.S.W. 2077
Telegrams: RUSSCOWAN Phone 47-0294
RUSSELL COWAN, WALKER and IMPORTED CLAYS
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ACME MARLS KILN FURNITURE
TETLOW KILNS and WHEELS
PODMORE PUGMILLS and MIXERS
MODELLING TOOLS, BOOKS, BRUSHES
all miscellaneous pottery supplies
wholesale and retail
RUSSELL COWAN PTY . LTD.
128-138 PACIFIC HIGHWAY, WAITARA NSW 2077
Telegrams: Russcowan Phone 47.0294
Exhibiti ng t ~ e work of
Australia's finest craftsmen
Situated within the Cuppacumbalong Art & Craft Centre,
which includes the Cuppacumbalong Gallery, Coffee Shop,
Pottery Studio (resident craftsman Doug Alexander) and
Woodturning Studio (resident craftsman Simon Raffan),
NAREK GALLERIES, CUPPACUMBALONG, NAAS ROAD, THARWA, A.C.T. PH: 375116
HOU ~ 5 : Wednesday to Sunday 11 a.m,·5 p.m. and public holidays
quality australian handcraft
9a salisbury avenue
Of SEM PROVIDED
OF POT BY.JUST
JUMPING JACK POTTERS' WHEELS
n .. ns ILLUSTHAJlOI~
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WHFFlHFAO DESlGN~D TO
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fORFI~I""lSTACiESOf POT rHROw'~,a
Rear 865 HIGH STREET THORNBURY VIC. 3071 Tel. 44-7157
R. C. ELECTRIC WH EEL
MOTOR: If. h.p" 240 volt single phase.
CONTROL: Sliding foot control will hold
at seJected speed.
SPEED RANGE: Infinitely variable up to
CONE & DISC : The cone and friction disc
disengage while the wheel is off to prevent
damage to the disc. To reduce wear in use
the friction disc is made of a tough poly·
OVERLOAD CLUTCH: An overload clutch
has been built In to help prevent damage
HEAD: Cast iron 242 mm (9 1/2") diameter,
worki ng height 553 mm (21 lt.").
TRAY: Flbreglass construction 565 mm
(22"1 x 483 mm (19··, x 92 mm (3'/,",.
SEAT: Part of main construction removable
for ~ransport .
BEARINGS: Sealed self-aligning ball race.
DIMENSIONS, Height 560 mm (22··).
width 483 mm (l9"i.length 10}6 mm (40") ,
WEIGHT, 52 kg (142 IbS,.
BODY: Steel construction, bronze colOUr
enamel paint finish.
SUGGEST ED RETAIL
P.O. Box 193, Collaroy Beach, N.S.w. 2097
Telephone : Sydney (02) 981 ·3575
FRAME: Welded steel, bronze colour
enamel paint finish,
V: Fibreglass, 565 mm
(22", x 483 mm (19", x
92 mm (3 1 1z.") ,
Part of construction and
FLY WHEEL: Weighted concrete.
Diameter 460 mm (16") thickness
90mm (31/2"). total weight 40.8 kg
DRIVE: By foot pedal.
BEARINGS: Self·alignlng sealed ball
WEIGHT: Gross 74 kg (163 112 Ib).
DIMENSIONS, Height 790 mm (31").
width 650 mm (331f2") ,length 1040 mm
Specifications and prices may change
Factory and Showroom:-
Boronia Road, WANTIRNA, Victoria 3152
CLAY AND SUPPLIES AT
The Pugmill, 17A Rose Street, MILE END 5031, Adelaide.
Bulgin's Potters Shop, 51 Arthur Street, FORESTVILLE 2087,
Sydney. 'Phone: 451-5562
Sydney: Russell Cowan Pty. Ltd., 128-138 Pacific Highway,
WAITARA 2077, 'Phone: 47-0294
Perth: Meg Sheen, 306-308 Hay Street,
SUBIACO 6008, 'Phone: 81-8215
Jackson Ceramics, 391 Hay Street,
SUBIACO 6008 'Phone: 81-2441
Nonporite (W.A.) Pty. Ltd., 6 Peel Street,
O'CONNOR 6163. 'Phone: 37-4600
Canberra: Phillip Craft Supplies, 53 Colbee Court,
PHILLIP 2606, 'Phone: 82-2929
Belconnen Art & Craft, Oatley Court,
BELCONNEN 2617 'Phone: 51-4258
Brisbane: Pottery Supplies, 262 Given Terrace,
PADDINGTON 4064, 'Phone: 36-3633
J. M. & O. S. Adams, Unit 15,
617 Seventeen Mile Rocks Road, JINDALEE 4074
'Phone: 378-7431 (After Hours)
Country potters note: Please write for your nearest distributor.
CLAY & BODIES: Now 27 different types covering terra cotta
blends, pottery clays and earthenware bodies, raku, handbuilding
bodies all temperatures and colours, stoneware, porcelain,
translucent porcelain, covering throwing, hand-building,
casting and pressing techniques.
Special bodies prepared by quotation.
Factory and Showroom:-
Boronia Road, WANTIRNA, Victoria 3152
FRITS AND COLOURS
BODY STAINS & GLAZE STAINS
Golds and lustres
COPPER ENAMELS, BLANCS AND EQUIPMENT
CHINA PAINTING Blancs, colours, brushes
China painting, earthenware,
Custombuilt or 'Build-Your-Own'
All gas equipment-burners
Australian Agent for Sphinx
Bats, props etc.
Venco, Fact, Armstrong, Imported
Japanese Shimpo, Tetlow, Brent
Corks, tools, taps, tongs, sieves etc.
Complete range from elementary to
FULL INFORMATION CATALOGUE AVAILABLE
Boronia Road ,
Request us lor your
nearest Agent to supply
$493.67 including sales
tax ; sl ightly higher in
(Price dependent on
ruling exchange rate.)
The world renowned and most reliable professional potter's wheel is now
readily available in Australia. Manufactured in Japan to give the potter a
quiet, smooth, sensitive touch within a durable mechanical system.
Rotational direction is reversible.
* Wheel head speed: 0-200 r.p.m.
* Motor: Yo h.p. single phase.
* Dimensions: L 622 mm x W. 506 mm x H. 499 mm
'-, Wheel head:
Aluminium, 300 mm.
,~ Weight: Nett 39 kgB.
Please write for further information on other Shimpo wheels, pugmills and
oil fired kilns.
THE "DOALL" ELECTRIC
This sit-down model - foot operated
cone drive variable speed (0/200
r.p.m.) - with 12" diameter throwing
plate - full length (high impact) Plastic
Tray - Rust resistant cabinet
ON/ OFF water proof switch - 240V
V. hp motor with plug and lead for
normal household power point.
Foot and hand speed control.
Stand up models and Kick Wheels also available.
THE "DOALL" STUDIO
MODEL ELECTRIC POTTERS'
A top-loading Kiln with a capacity of 60 Ibs.
Inside measurements 15" x 15" x 18" deep - The
lid can be raised to accommodate tall
pots - Temperature range to 1280' C on either
single or two phase power.
Sturdy metal frame with heat resistant
cladding - Best quality K23 bricks with
Kanthal Wire elements, drawing 4.8 KW.
Drying rack on lid - Weight 135 Kg.
" School" model as supplied to ald.
Education Dept, also available.
THE "DOALL" L.P. GAS
A top-loading kiln with a capacity of 4.8 cubic
It -Inside measurements 19V2" x 19V2" x 21 "
(approx). Best quality K23 bricks and
insulation - Economical single jet air controlled
" Venturi" burner, uses only 20 lb. to 30 Ibs.
gas per firing.
Temperature range to 1300' C - The lid
can be raised to accommodate tall pots
Drying rack on lid, weigh ing only 155 Kg.
6 cubic It and 8 cubic ft models available
Enquiries to Manufacturer - 00811 Service Pty Ltd,
12·14 Nile Street, Woolloongabba, Qld, 4102 Phone 391 4467
Russell Cowan Pty Ltd, 128·138 Pacific Highway, Waitara, N.S.W. 2007
Phone 47 0294 (Distributor for wheels only.)
LEACH POTTER'S WHEEL
Made in Australia by arrangement with the Leach Pottery,
St. Ives, Cornwall, U.K.
The Wheel made by Craftsmen for the discriminating Potte'.
Timber construction -
Clear Flat Lacquer Finish
Epoxy tray 4V2 ins. deep
10 inch dia. C.1. head
Adjustable leg action
Also Motor Wheels
J. H. WILSON
68a Christian Road
Punchbowl, N.S.W. 2196
GENUINE PUGGOON CLAY
PUGGOON EXTRUDED CLAYS: "Prepared" bodies ready to use in 12.5 kg
plastic sealed packs. Range - red earthenware, white earthenware, buff
middlefire, white stoneware.
PUG GOON MILLED CLAYS: Airfloated to 200 mesh (or as required) in 31 kg
paper packs. Range: 4 clays (2 white, 1 buff, 1 terracotta). Also 1 clay
suitable for kiln furniture etc.
PUGGOON CRUDE CLAYS: Quarried raw clays in 50 kg jute bags or bulk
supplied. Range: 7 clays.
Sample packs of each group available from Gulgong only, $4.50 per pack, post paid.
For brochures, price lists, information, sample pack, or supplies, contact:
PUGGOON KAOLIN CO.
P.O. Box 89
Gulgong, N.S.W., 2852
"The town on the $10,00 not.··
DIAMOND CIRAMIC SUPPLIES IN.S.WJ PlY. LTD.
POTTERS' EQUIPMENT AT THE RIGHT PRICE
...... '" 1" I
tor the Australian Ceramic Industry
• STAINS • CASTING SLIPS
• GLAZES • EARTHENWARE BODIES
• ENGOBES • STONEWARE BODIES
• TURNTABLES • RAW MATERIALS
• FRITS • TERRA COTTA BODIES
• CONES • KILN FURNITURE
• UNDERGLAZES • ONGLAZE COLOURS
CESCO "FLOW-RITE" BRUSH-ON GLAZES & OXIDES
Cadmium Red - Orange - Yellaw 980°C - lO60°C
POTTERS' WHEELS, PUGMILLS
KILNS, VENCO POTTERS' WHEELS AND PUGMILLS
CERAMIC SUPPLY COMPANY
61 lAKI MIA STREIT, IUMORE
7 59.13 .....
SALES, REPAIRS and REMOVALS
All enquiries to
CERAMIC SUPPLY CO
61 LAKEMBA ST
Manufactured in New Zealand by The Talisman Potters Supplies Co. Ltd.
PORTABLE ELECTRIC WHEEL
* V4 hp split phase balanced motor
* ring-cone principle
* variable speed 10 to 200+ rpm
* fixed speed lock
* 10" aluminium wheelhead
* throwing load 12 kg
* weight approximately 30 kg
* low maintenance
* detachable fibreglass bowl, wheelhead,
pedals and feet.
CADET ELECTRIC WHEEL
* Y4 hp split phase balanced motor
* ring-cone principle
* variable speed 15 to 200 rpm
* throwing load 3.5 kg
* can be used on a bench with operator
standing or on a stool with operator sitting
* weight approximately 17 kg
* special bench stool optional.
* quick and easy to use
* meshes interchangeable - 40, 60, 80, 100,
120, 150 and 200 mesh available
* easy to clean
* fits any round container from a small bucket
to a large bin.
POTTERS' SOCIETY OF AUSTRALIA
48 Burton St., Darlinghurst 2010
Ph 31 3151
Queensland Distributor: Queensland Potters' Association,
cnr. Le ichhardt & Burley Sts •• Spring Hili 4000. Ph. 2119-498.
SOLID FUEL REDUCTION
AUTOMATIC OR MANUAL CONTROL
9 Vanessa Avenue, Baulkham Hills, NSW, 2153 Phone 639-2547
8 Orana Crescent, Peakhurst, NSW, 2210 Phone 53·6606
, CERAMIC SUPPLIES
DISTRIBUTORS SILICON CARBIDE
& HIGHLUMINA KILN FURNITURE,
CLAY, BLYTHE GLAZES & RAW
MATERIALS, TOOLS, KICK WHEELS.
46 Derwent Street, Glebe. 660 7831
24b Norman Street, Peakhurst
14 PITT STREET RINGWOOD 3134
VICTORIA AUSTRALIA 870 7533 729 2857
Importers of ROBERT BRENT Corp. Pottery
Electronically controlled pottery wheels with D.C.
motors, having a speed range of 0-240 r.p.m.,
giving high torque at low speed and dispensing
with the conventional use of cone drive. Two
years' warranty on all wheels. These dependable,
powerful and vibration-free wheels are proving
most successful with professional potters.
MODEL A-'h h.p. 12 in. wheelhead. Centres up
to 251b. of clay. Removable moulded splash pan.
Portable 48 lb. weight machine.
Removable pan model
MODEL B-'h hp. 12 in. wheelhead. Centres up
, to 25 lb. of clay. 100 lb. weight machine.
Removable pan model Fixed pan model
MODEL C-Y2 h.p. 12 in. wheelhead. Centres up
to 50 lb. of clay. 120 lb. weight machine.
Removable pan model Fixed pan model
MODEL CXC--1 h.p. 14 in. wheelhead. Centres
to 100 lb. of clay. 140 lb. weight machine.
Removable pan model Fixed pan model
KICK WHEEL KIT - of wheelhead, shaft, bearings,
flanges, accessories, plans
KICK WHEEL MOTORISING KIT -
K.W.K. using Y4 h.p. A.C. motor
B, C, CXC
B, C, CXC
HANDEXTRUDER - of coils, tubes, handles,
bars, slabs, etc., for sculptural projects, coil and
decorated pots, etc.
SLAB ROLLERS - 14 in., 22 in., and 36 in. wide
hand builders' machine to roll clay to thicknesses
of from Ya to 1 Y4 in., handling up to 25
lb. of moist clay in one pass.
S.A. 14" (Table model) S.A. 14" (including legs)
S.R. 22" (including legs) S.A. 36" (including legs)
(Slab Rollers-approximately 12 weeks delivery)
ALUMINIUM BATS-310 mm (12 Y4 in.) diameter,
5 mm thick
TAPS AND DIES - aluminium taps (including
reamers) and dies for threading flasks, jars, containers,
bungs, tops etc. Set 1 Y4 " , 2", 2~"
Hire wheels and clay available.
Catalogues on request.
Bulgin's Potters Shop Phone 451-5562
Shop 3/51 Arthur Street, Forestville, N.S.W. 2087
CLAYS AND BODIES -
Full range of Walker Clays and Slips.
Ferro, Blythe, Cesco.
Hire wheels Venco Electric.
WHEELS For sale Venco - Fact - Kraus - Tetlow -
Electric or L.P. Gas. Also "build yourself" gas
kilns. All gas equipment, pyrometric equipment,
Raw materials, tools, corks, sieves, Orton cones, etc.
FRITS - Ferro & Blythe.
Any further Information please ring 451-5562
Keith & Joy Bulgin
DESIGNED & BUILT IN AUSTRALIA FOR ART POTTERS & HOBBYISTS
Why Gas? Because gas allows every aspect of pottery firing to be
explored to the full.
Why Port-O-Kiln Gas? Because:
1. Port-O-Kiln has been designed technically to give the operator full
fi ring control.
2. The technical back-up service through the unique " Port-O-Club"
makes firing even easier.
Why Revolutionary? Because:
1. The kilns are constructed primarily from ultra-light-weight
ceramic fibre refractories.
2. Fuel usage is well under one-third of that from a comparable
3. For the first time ever, rapid firing schedules are limited only by the
clay ware and not by the brick structure.
4. The kilns are fully portable, the 3.4 cu. ft. and 8.5 cu. ft. models
weighing approximately 50 kg and 110 kg respectively.
PORT-O-KILN is an approved research organisation under the auspices of
the Australian Industrial Research and Development Incentives Board.
Available In Sydney through
DEREK SMITH, BLACKFRIARS POTTERY, ABERCROMBIE ST., CHIPPENDALE,
N.S.W. 2008. Ph: 6601928
PORT-O-KILN, 12 AIRLIE AVE., DANDENONG, VIC. 3175. Ph: (03) 791 6918
and DIAMOND CERAMIC SUPPLIES (N.S.W.) PTY. LTD., RYDALMERE 2116. Ph : 6383774
Devoted exclusively to display and sales
Ph (062) 95 9803
Director: BETTY BEAVER
Hours: Wednesday -
10.30 am - 5 pm.
9 INVESTIGATOR STREET
RED HILL ACT 2603
High precision table balance
weighing to 100 grams in divisions
of 1/10th gram. Boxed weights are
included. An essential requirement
of the craftsman for measuring oxides,
test glazes, dyestuff, etc.
Mail orders: $36.50 covers packaging
and postage anywhere in Australia.
If supplying a sales tax
exemption form, deduct $4.50.
BATIK OETORO write: P.O. Box 324, Coogee N.S.W. 2034
phone: 6658326, call: 201 Avoca SI. Randwick
Stoneware, Earthenware and Porcelain Pots by Australian
Upstairs in the
"BOOT & FLOGGER"
Green Square, Jardine Street,
Kingston, CANBERRA, A.C.T. 2604
A place where potters and craft lovers can meet, view and
purchase ceramics, sample wines and dine at low prices
OPEN - TUESDAY TO SATURDAY - 10 am-4 pm
SUNDAY - 1 pm-5 pm Ph (062) 95 8425
74 WILSON STREET, NEWTOWN, NSW 2042
UPRIGHT ELECTRIC MODEL
Featuring Tubular Steel
Adjustable Height Seat
Fibre Glass Slip Tray with Drain
V3 h.p. Motor Cone Drive
Variable Speed 0 to 250 r.p.m.
10" Aluminium Wheel Head
LOW-DOWN ELECTRIC MODEL
Heavy Gauge Steel Construction
Va h.p. Motor Cone Drive
Variable Speed 0 to 250 r.p.m.
Fibre Glass Slip Tray with Drain
and Removable Seat
10" Aluminium Wheel Head
NOTE: BOTH MODELS AVAILABLE WITH ELECTRONIC CONTROLLED
MOTORS ARE RING CONE FREE
STONEWARE - EARTHEN OVENPROOF
- WHITE EARTHENWARE
(packed in 28 Ib (approx.) plastic bagged blocks)
Write or phone for prompt assistance with prices,
techn ical details, transport arrangements.
We despatch Australia wide.
We Invite you to visit Australia's Oldest Pottery
Workshop to experience the craft being carried
out much as It was du ring the late 1800's.
BENDIGO POTTERY P.O. BOX 688 EPSOM VIC 3551, (STD 054 484404)
NEW & USED
• BALL MILLS
• HAMMER MILLS
• SLIP MIXERS
• PUG MILLS
• OVENS & KILNS
• SIEVES ETC,
79 Derby Street, Auburn, N.S.W. 2144
Tel. : (02) 648 0421
Just up the hill from Broadway,
a display of attractive
by Anne Alexander
and other local potters. University
Mon - Fri 1Z - 5.30
Bendigo, Cowan 8 Walker clay
Cesc:o brusb-on glazes
corks, bandies, taps, macrame materials
brushes, tools, sieves, cones, wax
8 King Street,
Newtown nsw Z04Z
Phone SX6 I3SX
ELECTRIC POTTERS WHEELS, PUG MILLS
DE-AIRING PUG MILLS
VENCO COMPACT-SIT-DOWN CONE-DRIVE WHEEL
SHAFT: ¥4 " diameter ground silver steel
MAIN BEARINGS : Self lubricating bronze
with double "0" ring seals
LINKAGE BEARINGS: Self lubricating
SPEED RANGE: 30-240 rpm, infinitely
variable-Wheel head " free Wheels"
in the " off" position
SIZE: 23" x 19" x 21 " high
MOTOR: 1'. HP resilient mounted
WHEEL HEAD : 11 " diameter aluminium
NOTE SEAT SHOWN IS STANDARD EQUIPMENT ON ALL WHEELS
• Light weight compact electrict potters wheel with a cone drive infinitely
variable speed control and " free wheeling" wheel head.
• Corrosion resistant aluminium tray and wheel head. Steel frame/body, zinc
plated and painted with durable epoxy paint-heat cured.
• Resilient mounted motor for smooth quiet operation. All control linkages
mounted on vibration-resistant lubricated for life polyurethane bearings.
All internal components zinc plated.
• Foot operated speed control.
• Comfortable padded seat (can be folded for easy storage).
• Guaranteed for 12 months against defective parts, or faulty workmanship.
• Major features of this wheel are smooth, quiet operation and low cost
relative to comparable wheels available.
ELECTRIC POTTERS WHEELS, PUG MILLS
DE-AIRING PUG MILLS
VENCO SIT DOWN WHEELS
No.3 & No. 5 (Heavy Duty)
• 11 " & 13" ALUMINIUM FREE
• SOLID CAST ALUMINIUM TRAY WITH
l Y. " DRAIN HOLE.
• SPEED RANGE 3O-2~O
• Y • • \'I & Yz HP RESILIENT MOUNTED
MOTORS WITH OVERLOAD
• SPEED LOCK (H EAVY DUTY MODEL).
• ALL INTERNAL COMPONENTS ZINC
HI.TEMPERATURE BAKED EPOXY
3EAT SHOWN-OPTIONAL EXTAA
VENCO PORTABLE CONE DRIVE No. 2 WHEEL
• LIGHTWEIGHT (~8 LBS) WHEEL.
• % HP RESILIENT MOUNTED MOTOR WITH OVERLOAD
• 11 " ALUMINIUM WHEEL HEAD.
• HIP OR HAND OPERATED SPEED CONTROL
VENCO STAND UP (No.4) WHEEL
AGENTS : see following page.
ELECTRIC POTTERS WHEELS, PUG MILLS
DE-AIRING PUG MILLS
VENCO 3" & 4" NOZZLE
STANDARD PUG MILLS
• STAINLESS STEEL SHAFT & BLADES.
• % HP RESILIENT MOUNTED MOTOR
WITH THERMAL OVERLOAD
• SHOCK RESISTANT "V" BELT DRIVE.
• BARREL HI·TEMPERATURE EPOXY
PAINT COATED ALUMINIUM
(3" MODEL) OR GALVANISED STEEL
• ALL STEEL COMPONENTS ZINC
PLATED AND EPOXY OR ACRYLIC
• SPLIT BARREL AVAILABLE ON BOTH
VENCO 8" ALUMINIUM BARREL 4" NOZZLE DE-AIRING PUG MILL
• SPLIT BARREL
• STAINLESS STEEL SHAFT & BLADES.
• SHOCK·RESISTANT DOUBLE " V" BELT DRIVE.
• 2 HP THREE·PHASE MOTOR (SINGLE PHASE AVAILABLE).
• HIGH CAPACITY PISTON VACUUM PUMP 126"·28" MERCURY) .
• CAPACITY '12.'14 TONNE/HOUR.
PRICE SI45G-EX·FACTORY PLUS PACKAG ING & FREIGHT (A SALES TAX IF APPLICABLE).
SINGLE PHASE MOTOR-EXTRA S1 00.
AGENTS: see list on following page
ELECTRIC POTTERS WHEELS, PUG MILLS
DE-AIRING PUG MILLS
1 Y, HP GEARED MOTOR DRIVE-3 PHASE-(SINGLE PHASE AVAILABLE AT HIGHER cosn.
SEPARATELY DRIVEN Ph HP SINGLE PHASE MOTOR) HIGH CAPACITY PISTON VACUUM PUMP
• 6" DIAMETER . " NOZZLE SPLIT ALUMINIUM BARREL WITH HI·TEMPERATURE BAKED EPOXY PAINT.
• STAINLESS STEEL SHAFT & BLADES.
• CAPACITY y,.~ TONNE/HOUR.
PR ICE ,1850-EX. FACTORY-PLUS PACKAGING • FRE IGHT (& SAlES TAX IF APPLICABLE)
SINGLE PHASE MOTOR ' 100 EXTRA.
PATON POTTERY SUPPLIES
32 Esse x St .. Wembley, WA .
MEG SHEEN. 306--308 Hay St., Subiaco,
WA 6008. Phone 818215.
JACKSON 'S CERAMIC CRAFTS.
391 Hay St., Subiaco, WA 6008.
Phones 812441 . 812488.
R. MICKAN, The Pug Mill,
178 Rose St.. Mile End, SA.
WALKER CERAMICS. Boronla Rd .,
Wantirna. Vic 3152. Phone 7294755.
COLOUR PRODUCTS (AUSn P/L,
101 Malr 51 .• Ballarat. Vic 3350.
Phones 582898. 585955.
PEPPERS POnERY, Rear, 54 Watsons Ad.,
Newcomb. Vic 3219. Phone 216758.
J. & S. WATT, 5 East View Pde, Belmont,
Vic. Phone 432445.
REDBYANE POTTERY, P.O. Box 2 • •
Old Dookie Ad., Shepparton, Vic 3630.
JOHN CRUMP, P.O. Box 55.
Wendouree, Vic 3355
BANOOL STUDIO SUPPLIES, Towe, St..
Bendigo, Vic 3550. Phone 437000.
EDINBURGH POTTERY. Eddy Ave.
Mt Helen, Ballarat, Vic 3350. Phone 413318.
T. & B. COCHRAM. Potters Croft,
PI. Leo Rd .• Red Hill South, Vic.
B. SCHOFIELD. 50 Alleyne Ave,
Torquay. Vic. Phone 612578.
SETTLERS ART STORE, 12 Camp St ..
Beechworth. Vic 3747. Phone 281097.
NEW SOUTH WALES
CERAMIC SUPPLY COMPANY,
61 Lakemba St .• Belmore. NSW 2192.
Phones 7591344. 7593891.
HUNTER VALLEY ART SUPPLIES P/L,
4 Union St.. Newcastle, NSW.
M. & C. WANGMAN ,
Bermagul. N.S.W. Phone 0&49·34257
WAGGA POTTERY SUPPLIES,
1 Ka ren St.. Wagga Wagga, NSW.
A.C.T. POTTERY, 72 Morgan Crescent.
Curtin. A.C.T. 2605. Phone 81«67.
POTTERY SUPPLIES, 262 Given Tee,
Padding lon, Brisbane, Q 4064.
THE POITERY PLACE . 7 KurraJong St.,
Earlville. Carins, Nth a.
Phone. 5-41332 (a/h), 533685.
SPAAEX AUSTRALIA, 430 Ross Aivers Rd .•
Townsville, Q 4810. Phone 794128.
5 Saden Powell St. .
Wandal, Rockhampton, a.
THE WORKSHOPS GALLERY
DISPLAYING FOR SALE THE WORKS OF IAN SPRAGUE'S MUNGERIBAR
POTTERY AND VIC GREENAWAY'S BROOMHILL POTTERY.
A wide selection of domestic stoneware and porcelain, architectural
ceramics and individual pieces.
MANAGER : Judy Greenaway. Telephone: (059) 44 3573.
HOURS: Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday, 11 .00 a.m. to 4.30 p.m.
DIRECTIONS: From Melbourne take the Mulgrave Freeway and Princes
Highway through Berwick to Beaconsfield. Turn left on Emerald Road to
Upper Beaconsfield. Turn left into St. George's Road . The WORKSHOPS
GALLERY is 1 km on the right-hand side. Distance from Melbourne-50 km .
262 GIVEN TERRACE, PADDINGTON
BRISBANE, OLD. 4064
CLAYS WHEELS MATERIALS GLAZES
FEENEY'S VENCO BODY BLYTHE
CESCO FACT AND CESCO
COWAN CRAIG GLAZE COWAN
WALKERS SHIMPO FERRO
WENGERS JAPAN) VENCO
PODMORE WENGERS CONES
KILNS K23 ORTON
TOOLS - BRICKS - CORKS - TAPS - BOOKS - MOULDS
CESCO WHITE E/W, STONEWARE AND PORCELAIN SLIPS
BLANKS - COLOURS - BRUSHES - OILS - DESIGNS - KILNS
Phone: (07) 363633
EQUIPMENT 12A George Street. Blackburn. 3130 Phone : 877 4418
FEATURES OF OUR POTTERY KILNS
• Angle iron frame clad in sheet steel zinc coated for longer life. • Bricks K23 hot
face insulating, backed up by insulating material. • Electric kilns are fitted with
safety switch, energy regulator, warning light, Kanthal AI elements, approved
• Natural & L.P. gas kilns can be supplied. They are lined with K26 hot face
bricks, supplied with all gas fittings. Front load only. • Electric kilns can be
supplied as front or top load. • Kilns can be fitted with drop down doors, vertical
opening doors or swing doors. • Stainless steel can be fitted for extra life.
• Mini temperature controllers can be fitted to all kilns. These instruments can be
fitted with a cut out device to close kiln down on reach ing temperature.
• All equipment is supplied net ex works, packing & freight extra.
• Sixteen models in a standard range. Specials built to order. • Kilns can be
supplied for a variety of uses, pottery, copper enamelling, china painting, heat
treatment, glass, laboratory.
• We also manufacture a range of spray booths, clay mixers and ball mills.
• Pottery wheels. Six mOdels.
PLEASE WRITE OR PHONE FOR PRICE LIST AND BROCHURES.
CLAY MIXER, PUG MILL
MADE IN AUSTRALIA
UNDER LICENSE BY
B. & L TETLOW PTY. LTD.
PATENT No. 487431
21'Vl " 700 mm
An indispensable money saving piece 01 equipment lor the potter. This efficient clay mixer
could save the studio hundreds 01 dollars. by eliminating the problem 01 waste clay. It
turns every bit 01 clay scrap and wheel slop into useable clay again.
It has twin mixing barrel. large sell feeding hopper litted with lid and safety switch.
1% H.P. 1 Phase 240 volt motor. 50-1 reduction gear box.
Cast aluminium barrel and stainless steel blade and shaft.
Extrudes a 2" wad. Will mix up to 600 Ibs of clay per hour.
This machine has been designed for those people who wish to mix and prepare their own
clay body or to reclaim waste clay.
It has been designed to process large quantities of material and is very robust in its
design features, and would be ideally suited lor prolessional potters, artists. craftsmen,
school and hobbyists alike.
Plugs into standard power point.
Weight 200lbs (91 kg).
12A George Street,
Phone: 877 4418
K7 WITH MIt\!
K7 FRONT LOAD
K ILNS, FURNACES, POTTERY WHEELS, POTTERY & CERAMIC EOUIPMENT
CLAY MIXERS, BALL MILLS, MODULAR SPRAY BOOTHS
12A George Street,
Phone : 8774418
12 Months Guarantee
After Sales Service and Spare Parts are Always Available ,
FEATURES OF OUR POTTERY WHEELS
• Welded 1 01 squa r.e tube frame .
*AII moving parts have bearings or bronze bushes.
.Tanks and drain pipes are moulded from high impact plaStic,
* Heads 11" Aluminium.
*Finish - industrial lacquer for easy cleaning.
*Motors NEW % hp.
*Drive Ring and Cone
*Speed range - 0·275 rpm.
Optional Extras -
1/3 hp and % hp motors
13" Aluminium Head;
Seats padded, adjustable height
KILNS, FURNACES, POTTERY WHEELS, POTTERY & CERAMIC EQUIPMENT
CLAY MIXERS, BALL MILLS, MODULAR SPRAY BOOTHS
NEW SUB S C RIP T ION Application Form
Pottery in Australia
48 BURTON STREET
DARLING H U RST NSW 2010
Annual Subscription $A 7
( i ncl uding postage)
Two issues per annum
Name (block letters)
Subscription to commence with Issue No.
(Cheques, Money Orders and Postal Notes should be made payable to
Pottery In Australia. Stamps are not acceptable.)
Pottery in Australia
48 Burton Street
Darlinghurst NSW 2010
Please send me copies of POTTERS IN AUSTRALIA @ $3.00
each (including postage) . Cheque/ money order enclosed.
Name ............. . .. . . . ..... .... .. . ........ ... . . . . . . .. . ... .. ... .
Address .. .. ......... . ............. ... ................... .. ..... . .
. . .. . ................ ....... .. .. . . . . .. . ..... . . . Post Code ........ .
Notice to Subscribers
POllery ill A lIstralia is published twice annually, in Spring and Autumn. The annual subscription
is $A7, including postage. Renewal notices will be sent when due. These are stamped
"Subscriptions now due", No further issues will be forwarded until new subscription is
received. New subscription application form printed at the back of the magazine to help NEW
subscribers. When forwarding subscriptions, if not using printed form, please advise name,
fuU address and date, in BLOCK LETTERS. State which issue required when commencing subscription.
Please address all correspondence to:
All material published in POllery 1ft A ustralia is tbe copyrigbt of the P·otters' Society of Australia.
Requests for permission to reprint must be made to the Editor.
No responsibility is accepted by POllery in Australia for tbe content of articles nor for claims
made by advertisers.
Advertising Rates: Full page $90
Hal f page $50
One third page $35
Plus block and setting costs
Articles and pbotograpbs for inclusion in
POllery ill Australia sbould reacb tbe Editor
by 15th Marcb for the Autumn issue and
15th August for tbe Spring issue, for selection
by the Editorial Committee,
Re-building, Brickwork, Insulation, Elements,
Electrical, Thermocouples, Steelwork,
Door Repairs, etc·
Earthenware, Stoneware, Heat Treatment and
P.O. Box 233
3 Corunna Avenue
North Rocks 2151
We would like to draw your attention to the fact that due
to improved servicing techniques it is now possible for our
firm to carry out more economical and efficient servicing
of kilns, statewide. We are now able to offer are-building
service on most kilns which may, in the past, have been
regarded by some other firms as being uneconomically
repairable-therefore creating unnecessarily high and
premature expenditure on replacement kilns.
We have considerable experience in all aspects of electric
pottery kiln servicing, including brickwork, re-wiring, replacement
of elements, automatic controls, etc. on most
brands of kilns, e.g. Woodrow, Hi-Temp, Jackson, Ward,
Jeko, etc., and also on several custom-built kilns.
We offer prompt attention and first-class workmanship
and materials in all repairs and, due to the improved servicing
techniques mentioned above, you will find our
prices are extremely competitive on all repairs, large or
small. Costs being of the utmost importance to budgets.
If we can be of any assistance to you, please do not hesitate
to contact us on Sydney 871 4583.
CANBERRA SCHOOL OF ART
. DIPLOMA OF ARTS
Major Study in Ceramics
The Diploma course of the Canberra School of
Art is a three-year, full-time course of study
which is designed to form the basis of the
creative development of an artist and
Ceramics, one of the major studies available
within the Diploma course, covers Pottery,
Ceramic Sculpture and Glass. Ceramics
students may diversify or specialise according
to their individual needs. Emphasis is placed
on the attainment of high standards by
thorough practical and theoretical training.
Students who wish to attend the Diploma of
Arts (Visual) course with a view to majoring in
Ceramics should write to the School for
application forms in September or October
1978. Applications close 31st October 1978 and
a selection program wi" be held in November.
Enquiries and application forms may be
obtained from :
Canberra School of Art
CANBERRA CITY ACT 2601-
(PO Box 1287
CANBERRA CITY ACT 2601)
Telephone: (062) 47 0022
Printed by Edward. &: Shaw Pty Ltd ,84 Sussex Street Sydney NSW .000