Pottery in Australia Vol 17 No 1 Autumn 1978

australianceramics

EDITORIAL COMMITTEE

Editor

Janet Mansfield

Derek Smith Margaret Tuckson

Janet DeBoos Doug Alexander Penny Riley

Business Manager

State Correspondents

Dulce Herd (Vic)

Jean Robins (WA)

Joyce Scott (SA)

Margaret McNaught (Old)

Penny Smith (Tas)

President of the Potters' Society

of A ustralia Dennis Pile

PhilHpa Southwell-Keeley

Please address all correspondence to

The Editor 0/ "Pollery in Australia"

48 Burton Street, Darlinghu"t, N.S.W. 2010

Telephone: (02) 31-3151. Private: (02)44-6396

COVER : PETER HOOK, "Don'! count your chickens": porcelain slip with low-fired

enamels, iron, wood and wire. 45 cm x 40 cm. From the Exhibition of Australian Crafts 1978.

Photograph by lohn Deloeollr lor the Cra/ls Board, A IIstralia Council


POTTERY

IN AUSTRALIA

Published by the Potters' Society of Australia

Vol. 17, No.1, 1978

Three Dollars Filty Cell/J

CONTENTS

Editorial

Time for Re-assessment

Peter Travis

Haruo Shimada, Master Potter

Janet Mansfield

Faenza 1977

Ceramic Fibre Kilns-Dawn of a New Age Joe Davis

A New Energy-saving Kiln for Potters Max Murray

Leonie Ryan and Cheryl Small

Harry Memmott

Australian Pottery J 900-1950

Peter Timms

Lyrebird Ridge Pottery

Erro/ Barnes

An Airing about De-airing Pugmills

Doug Alexander

A Clay Mixer

Leonard Smith

Recent Work

Leadless Insoluble Low-temperature Glazes Leigh Roberts

Pottery in Crete

Penny Riley

Some Thoughts on Cracks and Textures Stephen Skillitzi

College Courses

Compiled by Janet DeBoos

Bendigo College 1977 Graduate Exhibition

Ceramic Toxicology

William Alexander

The Craftsman Potters' Association of Britain Beryl Barton

Acquisitions

Exhibition Reviews

Book and Magazine Reviews

The Potters' Society of Australia

Competitions and Exhibitions

News

Notice to Subscribers and Subscription Forms

page 2

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108


EDITORIAL

The publication date of this issue of

Pottery in A ustralia coincides with the opening of

the first National Ceramic Conference for

Potters. This conference, which many of the leading

potters in Australia are attending, will have

sessions allocated to the technical, educational

and philosophical aspects of ceramics. A four- or

five-day conference cannot possibly hope to

cover in any detail such a wide field but the

greatest gain will be, I'm sure, the meeting together

of the pottery community of Australia. To mark

the occasion of the Conference, Pottery in Australia

has reproduced a colour photograph for the

cover of this issue. In future issues of the

magazine we hope to introduce more and more

colour and possibly a change in layout.

Peter Hook's cover piece may be apt, however,

warning us "Don't count your chickens".

2


TIME FOR RE-ASSESSMENT

An Introduction to the National Ceramic Conference

Peter Travis

From the first moment that the National Ceramic Conference for Potters was

suggested it showed the possibility of being the most exciting event in the Australian

ceramic scene. Enthusiasm spontaneously illuminated everyone contacted

with the news.

Australia has now possibly more than 20,000 people actively taking part in

pottery making. With such a large number involved one immediately asks :

"What sort of people are they?"

"For what reasons are they doing it?"

Recent surveys have compiled much information but the processing of this

material is almost out-dated since the growth of the craft has escalated yearly to

an almost unknown point. The potter with his long hours of devoted labour probably

has less opportunity to discover where he fits into the fabric of the contemporary

scene.

The first National Ceramic Conference for Potters gives the exciting prospect

of potters meeting other potters, finding by social contact a sense of identity and

a relief to that feeling of isolation imposed upon them by the physical demands

of the craft. The social contact is the essence of the conference, the diverse

technical and aesthetic papers secondary.

Twenty-two years ago four Sydney polters founded the Potters' Society of

Australia. Barely anyone knew they existed, or even thought there was such a

thing as local handmade ceramics. But from this small group, and a few isolated

others, grew the vigorous pottery scene of today that has expanded into a diverse

range of styles removed from its initial aesthetic stimulu~. Australia, without

ceramic traditions, or a ceramic heritage from its indigenous people, stepped off

with the inspiration of Bernard Leach wherein the great periods of Chinese and

Japanese ceramics became the criteria. Traces of mediaeval England and other

small personal eclectic predilections were absorbed and the influences were spread

as this small core of potters taught and exhibited.

Now a generation has passed and the new craftsman, a product of today's

complex society, is open to the overall influences of media and education. His

work should become more relevant to the time as it reveals the conscious or subconscious

influence of his environment. He has the opportunity to choose his own

vocation and not have his future determined by inheriting a trade passed down from

father to son or by I iving in a specialised community from which he fears to leave. A

temperament that leans toward aesthetic response and the ability to express it

manually assists his choice and the acceptance of the craftsman's lifestyle implies

his need for an alternative to that offered by present society.

The craft revival was a reaction against the nineteenth century industrialization

. But many involved felt the need to preserve the past. Consequently, some

perpetuated traditions that finally became mere exercises in virtuosity no longer

relevant to the present society. Others, more concerned with creative process,

allowed evolution to adapt to society's needs and today the new craftsman is concerned

that the materials make statements communicating his personal aesthetic

response to the world around him. His higher education, toward creative thinking,

rejects the routine of the early craftsman. He tries to make each object a new

3


statement, even the repetition of one form is a series of fresh possibilities no

matter how subtle or minute the difference. His attitude shows his self-awareness

and it is comparable to that of the fine artist. His statements reflect with equal

right that of the painter and sculptor. His work is seen and becoming known; and

the world is being enriched again by a consciousness of the special qualities of

handmade objects.

But how many people involved in craft making fit this image? Certainly there

are some very beautiful, exciting and imaginative craft objects being made that

are unique to this period; and they are executed by the dedicated few who are

artists as well as craftsmen. How many such craftsmen are in Australia? How

much handmade pottery in Australia has a special quality that justifies its existence?

The truth is that craft shops everywhere are filled with crafty junk. Most is

designless and crudely made and even domestic pottery is non-functional-plates

that are too heavy, casseroles with awkward handles, jars with ill-fitting .1 ids,

glazes that are overfired or underfired, shapes ugly, colours depressing, touch

horrid, originality nil. Even the attempted traditional, for which one has guidelines,

is bad but the contrived efforts from those trying to find novelty is much

worse. No doubt the creator enjoyed the making or did he? Was it merely the

result of a hurried routine, not reviewed by any kind of critical eye in order to

supply quickly something to the local craft shop? After all someone might buy it.

The Craft Revival of the nineteenth century was not just a rejection of the

machine made, it was an objection to the banality and poor design of mass produced

products. Many accepted the cballenge. The Great Arts and Crafts Exhibition

of 1888 in London saw works of the craftsmen acclaimed. Each decade

since has produced new masters as the interest in the crafts continued. But only

since the last World War has craft consciousness escalated into the explosion of

craft activity today with millions of people in the Western world, and thousands

in Australia finding pleasure in making.

Why then is there so much tbat is bad? Realising that very few people have

the natural ability to relate the elements of a work to each other so that a unified

design results and that most people practising crafts have had very little design

training, if any, it is not surprising. However, tbe pleasure of making is open to

all of us and should not be denied. But just how many of the results that will

become permanent is what we need to worry about. And this is of the greatest

importance to pottery, an almost indestructible medium which will allow the bad

and the good to survive time, both becoming a record of their day.

This Conference through its social contact and dialogue, I hope, will help

the potters of Australia:

1. understand their significance in society in human and aesthetic terms;

2. realise that it is the responsibility of each potter to advance his manual

technique, his technical knowledge and his aesthetic awareness in order

to execute his ideas with excellence;

3. to become more self-critical of his work and be able to reject what is

inferior before and not just after firing makes it permanent;

4. to hold on to the joy of making and never lose it to the joy of selling.

The future of the potter's craft lies not in the depth of his creativity, since

the biggest volume of potters will be makers not innovators, but in the integrity

of each potter to attempt honestly to make each object as best he can.

PETER TRAVIS is a well-known ceramic artist who toured for the Crafts Council in 1977. He

has just returned from being guest lecturer in ceramics at Banff School of Fine Arts, Canada.

He is a past president of the Potters' Society and chairman of the National Ceramic Conference

for Potters.

4


HARUO SHIMADA, MASTER POTTER

Janet Mansfield

Photographs: Andrew Halford

Haruo Shimada, master potter, is one of the few remaining Japanese potters still

making the large jars used for storage of water and grain. As the demand for these

jars is no longer sufficient for economic viability, Shimada san has developed an

extended range of ware to keep the pottery in full production. Today it is very

busy with twelve people employed and a constant demand for all the workshop

output.

Andrew Halford, an Australian potter, has been apprenticed to Shimada san

for some time and together they will visit Australia later this year, giving demonstrations

and workshops.

The Shimada Pottery is just outside Gotsu city in Shimane prefecture on the

side of a mountain which overlooks the Sea of Japan. Clay for the pottery is dug

5


6


locally. For the large pots, it is put three times through a rough mixer with rollers.

For the smaller pots, the cl ay is further refined, using a blunger and pugmill.

Everything in the pottery is thrown and the range extends from the smallest sauce

bowls to teapots, platters, umbrella stands and the six-foot-high jars. Much of the

ware is slip decorated with iron oxide and sgraffito decoration. Glazes include a

clear, an iron glaze and an opaque copper green. A large thirteen-chamber climbing

kiln is fired every two months, although often only the first six chambers are

used. The large jars go into this kiln , the doorways being enlarged to allow their

entry. A large gas kiln is used to fire the smaller pieces and this is fired every

three days.

The large jars are made by a coil and throw method. The base is thrown up

to a height of fourteen or more inches and then coils "as thick as a man's wrist"

are added and thrown until the pot is complete. Several pots are made simultaneously

on Korean-type wheels.

As President of the Gotsu branch of the Bussankan, a national organization

which sells and promotes the work of craftsmen, Shimada san is constantly heing

called upon to advise and mediate. Sometimes artists from Tokyo come to the

pottery to decorate large platters which Shimada san has thrown for them and

there is a feeling of purpose and progress in the workshop. Shimada san is a

traditional craftsman with a modern attitude and a broad and generous outlook,

adapting his work to the needs of the community.

JANET MANSFIELD visited the Shimada Pottery while on a study tour of Ja pan in 1977 on a

grant from the Australia-Japan Foundation.

HAMADA

Shoji Hamada was not only a great potter, like Bernard Leach he was a "builder of the

bridge between East and West"--as Leach described tbeir activities-a pioneer in the development

of an international community of potters and an international c.eramic idiom. We are

all deeply indebted to him.

Older members of the potting communilY in Sydney will have happy memories of

Hamada's visit to Sydney in 1964. He was scheduled for about a week in Sydney. and we

had planned a full program of visits and excursions, and some demonstrations. On arrival,

however, on being shown the wheel, clay, and raw-dip glazes that had been prepared for his

demonstrations, he said he felt he could make a better contribution to potting in Sydney

by sitting down in the one place and making pots. And this is just what he did, topping it

off with his two most memorable demonslrations at the University of New South Wales.

He will be remembered-and missed-by those who got to koow him not only as a

good potter, but as a friendly, generous and humble person.

/ VO II M cMeekill

One of the greatest Japanese potters of the twentieth century, Shoji Hamada, who perfected

Mashiko ware, died on the 5th of January, 1978.

When he returned to Japan from England in 1924, Shoji Hamada went to li ve at a littleknown

village ca ll ed Mashiko, where he continued developing what is known today as

Mashiko ware, using clay from around that vi llage in his work.

The beauty of Mashiko ware comes from its simple yet unique design. Shoji Hamada

taught and gave demonstrations of his art in many countries, and definitely contributed to

the current world-wide boom in pottery.

In 1965 Hamada came to Australia, where he taught at the University of New South

Wales, using a stick wheel provided by the university. Many people in Australia were deepl y

impressed by this artist and his work, and recall particula rl y the beauty of hIS hand move.

ments while throwing.

The Japanese Travelling Ceramic Exhibition, which toured Australia in 1976, included

a large bowl made by Shoji Hamada with a magnificently dynamic and free feeling.

, believe that Shoji Hamada was one of the truly great purely Ja panese potters, and

hi s death is like the going out of a great light in the East.

Shigeo Shiga

7


FAENZA 1977

The 35th International Exhibition of Contemporary Ceramics Arts presented the

work of 190 artists from 30 countries, at Faenza, Italy, in October 1977. Sandra

Taylor of Sydney received a gold medal for her piece, "Gucci Handbag", made

from porcelain with lustre decoration. Seven Australian potters have now

received gold medals from Faenza. Altogether seventeen awards were made at

Faenza's 1977 exhibition.

TLDICO POLGAR (Hungary) : "Idols", 33 x 48 cm. Gold Medal. (above)

BAN KAJlTANI (USA): "Canyon Spirit"; partially wedged and thrown stoneware

in three colours; 28 cm. Gold Medal. (opp., lOp)

BATTISTA VALENTINT ( Jtaly): "Rotation", 80 x 46 cm. Tnternational Gold Medal.

(opp., below)

8


ARTS VICTORIA 78; CRAFTS FESTIVAL

The long-awaited crafts festival, Arts Victoria 78, was officially opened at the Myer Music

Bowl on Sunday, 5th February, by the Premier and Minister of the Arts, the Hon. R. J.

Hamer.

There were 10,000 uDglazed ceramic tiles in the gardens and the Premier invited every·

one present to decorate a tile and lay it on a pathway marked out under the trees. These

tiles were taken away and fired and many of them will be incorporated into a permanent

ceramic pathway in ODe of Melbourne's public gardens.

American ceramist, Elaine Katzer, the first of the international craftsmen to arrive in

Victoria to take up residence for six months during festival year, was present to advise and

assist. At a later date, when a garden venue has been selected, Elaine Katzer will be involved

in the design and construction of a permanent pathway to commemorate the Arts Victoria 78

festival.

The first exhibition of the festival, "Collection Pieces", was held at the National Gallery.

"Colleclion Pieces", an exhibition drawn from public and corporate collections all over Australia,

was sponsored by The Age newspaper.

The other major exhibition will be later in the year (October) and will centre around

Victorian Colonial Crafts, from early settlement to post-Federation 1920.

Six overseas craftsmen have been chosen to work in Victoria next year in an institution,

school, or suitable workshop area. Each will remain in Victoria for a period of six

months.

Applications were received from 150 craftsmen from 23 different countries. The six

craftsmen who have been chosen to work here are Eva Almeberg, a Swedish glassworker;

Noel Dyrenforth, an English Batik craftsman; Elaine Katzer, an American ceramist; Christine

O'Loughlin, an Australian ceramist who has been working in Japan for the past two

years; David Poston, an English jeweller; and Hiroshi Seto, a Japanese potter. All bave an

outstanding record of achievement, in tbeir own country and internationally.

The Premier bas approved expenditure of $40,000 to be spent on a Festival Collection

which will be a lasting record of the 1978 festival.

Work was purchased for inclusion in tbis Collection from the Purchasing Exhibition and

Craft Fair at the Metropolitan Meat Market in North Melbourne at Easter. The Metropolitan

Meat Market will be the new home of the crafts in Victoria and the Festival Collection will

eventually be permanently housed there.

Myer Melbourne will be staging an exhibition/ workshop in the Myer Gallery for two

weeks, opening at tbe time of tbe Queen's Birthday weekend (3rd June), and exhibits will

include work by six craftsmen-in-residence.

Regional galleries are co-operating and will feature craft exhibitions throughout the year.

The craft sections at tbe Royal Show will be extended to attract professional craftsmen

with prizes ranging from $500 to $ 1500. The craftsman judged as "Craftsman of the Show"

will be flown to Japan to attend the World Craft Council Conference in Kyoto. All prizewinners'

exhibits will be displayed in the new Government Pavilion at the Royal Showgrounds.

A Festival Handbook has been produced. This will be a lasting record of the festival

and will also act as an on-going reference book for several years ahead, listing craft shops,

courses, organisations, workshops, etc. The handbook has been sponsored by Rothmans of

Pall Mall.

ELAINE KATZER pictured witb her "Sea Chanty"-a stoneware ceramic wall

designed for tbe Chula Vista Public Library, California.

10


CERAMIC FIBRE KILNS ­

THE DAWN OF A NEW AGE

Joe Davis

At the outset it must be stated that the ceramic fibre kiln was not initiated by

people who were, first and foremost, ceramists.

Our many years of association with all aspects of ceramic and refractories

production had highlighted the technological shortcomings of established clay

firing procedures.

On the large-scale commercial level, and particularly in the heavy clay side

of ceramics production-that is the production of building bricks, tiles, sewer

pipes, etc., some attempt has been made to bring modern technology into play.

But the typical small traditional kiln used by the individual potter is, from the

technological viewpoint, at best, an anachronism left over from the Middle Ages.

To illustrate this, let us look really critically at the manner in which the

heating energy put into that unit is actually dissipated.

For tbis exercise we can take a fairly typical LPG-fired down-draft kiln of

about 10 cu ft setting with a 9 in overall wall thickness, using fire-brick on the

inside and insulating brick outside th is.

It is not unusual for a kiln of this capacity to use up to 150 Ibs of gas for a

stoneware firing. A well-packed glost kiln will on average have about 10 Ibs of

pottery per cubic foot of space, so that the kiln we are discussing will hold about

100 Ibs of ware.

The only reason we are putting heat into the kiln is to mature the clay and

glazes on this 100 Ibs of pottery. Consequently, it is true to say that in fact the

only really useful heat is that which is being absorbed by the pottery itself. When

we calculate this theoretical amount of heat, we find an almost unbelievable

situation.

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of J 00 Jbs of pottery

to 1280°C is no more than that released by burning approximately 21bs of gas!

Before commenting further on this, it is necessary to investigate where the

heat from the other 148 Ibs of gas goes to. The kiln structure itself, consisting of

some 500 bricks, will weigh about 3000 Ibs. Only the inside face of the kiln

reaches top temperature, but it is quite straightforward to calculate an average

temperature for the whole structure. These calculations show that something over

30 Ibs of gas will be used to heat up the structure.

On basic design, this type of high temperature equipment will never have

an efficiency over 25-30% , that is, 25-30% of the total beat input is the

maximum that can be used for actual heating. This efficiency is an inherent

thermodynamic characteristic of all kilns. Because of it, the 32-35 Ibs of gas will

be but 25-30% of the total at best.

This accounts fo r the remaining 100 Ibs or so being used in the kiln.

So, summing up, we have a piece of equipment which uses 150lbs of gas each

time it is fired, yet we are obtaining a heating benefit from only 32-35 Ibs of gas,

and it is a cold hard fact that we are really only interested in the effects of a

mere 2 Ibs of this fuel!

If this proposition is now transferred to a solid or liquid fuel-fired kiln, we

find that the efficiency is reduced to about half that shown above, and we finish up

II


with a umt In which less than I % of the total fuel input is being used for the

actual job for which it was intended.

It is now nearly a decade since we first checked out these calculations, and

it appeared glaringly obvious that one of the major disadvantages of a brick kiln

of this general capacity was that while both kiln and contents required to be

heated, in effect 15 times more heat was being absorbed by the structure, or

deadload, than was being absorbed by the payload.

The solution was quite simple-get rid of the deadload. Theoretically, if

you bring the dead load down to, say, 3001bs, you are heating up only one-tenth

of the structure that you were heating previously.

Let us just look again at the figures for a conventional kiln .... Total heat

absorbed = 351bs gas (33 Ibs kiln and 2lbs ware) . With 25% efficiency this is

equivalent to 140 Ibs gas total.

Now for a super light-weight kiln .... Total heat absorbed = 5.3 lbs gas

(3.3Ibs kiln and 21bs ware). Again, with 25 % efficiency, this is equivalent to

22 Ibs gas. Of course, ten years ago, such a proposal was quite preposterous. The

mathematics were quite straightforward-perhaps too straightforward-and they

were only figures. Nowhere in the world had it been done.

The prototype models showed immediately that the fuel savings anticipate


A NEW ENERGY - SAVING KILN

FOR POTTERS

Max J. Murray

Summary

Details are given of the design and construction of a 1300°C ceramic fibre

insulated pottery kiln with 0.75 cu m (27 cu ft) of ware capacity. Gas-fired

burners draw pre-heated air for combustion through the hollow roof and wall

panels, thus achieving low fuel usage.

Introduction

Following the article on kiln design which appeared in the Autumn 1976

issue of Pottery in A ustralia, numerous requests were received from potters for

a kiln design which would use ceramic fibre as the main insulation material. In

response to the requests, I spent six months in assessing what the majority of

potters wanted from a kiln and 1 am indebted to many good potting friends for

their comments and patience.

From this assessment it became apparent tbat most potters have common

requirements when it comes to kilns. I then set to work to try to design a kiln

which might go some way to satisfying their demands.

There were three main aims to begin with, to find an optimum size or capacity,

to improve thermal efficiency and thereby reduce fuel usage and to achieve

better temperature uniformity than is often achieved with existing kilns. It seems

that a majority of potters have experienced a similar pattern of development.

They initially buy or build a .small kiln and then quickly outgrow its capabilities.

The ideal size according to many potters is between 20 and 30 cu ft (0.4-0.6 cu m)

in volume, yet there has been a shortage of designs for kilns of this size.

This then established a size for the new kiln; it would be just under 30 cu ft

in volume. The shape would be of a cubic geometry, because this has a minimum

surface area to volume ratio and as requested the main insulation would bc

formed from layers of ceramic fibre blanket or felt.

Three different ceramic fibre materials were chosen to form the main insulation.

The inside or hot-face of the kiln required a fibre blanket capable of withstanding

temperatures up to 1340°C; however, this type of fibre is expensive and

has to be kept to a minimum. The hot-face layer was followed with several overlapping

layers of less costly fibre blanket with an upper temperature limit of

1260°C. On the cooler outer layer, low temperature rockwool insulation would be

used.

Numerous calculations were then required to determine an economically

suitable combination of these insulation layers. The insulation thickness was found

to be optimum at 125 mm and was made up of a 25 mm thick layer of "Fiberfrax

H", 3 x 25 mm thick layers of "Locon" and a 25 mm layer of rockwool. A

greater thickness than this would obviously reduce heat losses still further but

it was considered that the increased cost did not warrant the use. Even so the

125 mm thick layer of fibres is equivalent to over 250 mm of refractory fire-brick

insulation.

Calculations to determine the heat storage capacity of the fibre combination

showed that 15 000 kilocalories would be lost th rough storage in the fibre insulated

walls and roof, compared to 180 000 kilocalories lost, every fir ing, in a

13


Kiln in the raised position,

showing freedom of access.

Shelving and ware has

just been removed after

firing.

Kiln in the closed position.

Hinged cover is open, ready

for lighting the burners.


efractory fire-brick structure of the same size. On this basis it would not take

many firings to pay for the higher cost of the ceramic fibre with savings in fuel.

As the kiln design evolved, a new approach was found to several previously

accepted methods of kiln construction. The first of these changes was achieved

with the kiln frame. In conventional construction techniques in which refractory

bricks are used the supporting framework and outer cladding is generally formed

from heavy steel structural elements. This method of construction, however,

becomes redundant when light-weight fibre insulation is utilized. Instead lightgauge

metal panels can be used.

A reinforced hollow panel fabricated from sheet metal was developed for this

purpose. Ribs were incorporated in the panel for stiffening purposes. By modifying

the panels, channels could be created through which cooling air would be

circulated when the kiln was in operation. The circulated air, which is preheated

by this operation, could then be directed to the burners as the main air supply for

combustion.

This would have a three-fold advantage. Firstly, by raising the temperature

of the incoming combustion air the efficiency of combustion would increase,

thereby reducing the fuel usage. Secondly, raising the starting temperature of the

incoming air would enable a higher ceiling temperature to be attained and permit

the use of simple burners. Thirdly, by providing a moving air stream over the kiln

outer surfaces, less insulation could be used without risk of overheating.

The anchoring pins used for supporting the fibre insulation are generally in

the form of threaded stainless steel rods. Most fibre-kiln manufacturers fix the

rods to the steel backing plate by spot welding, but a number of failures have

.. resulted from this technique. A more reliable fixing method was therefore sought

; for this kiln design. The result is that rods pass through the panels and are fixed

on either side with nuts. A nut-shaped recess was punched into the outer face of

the panels to prevent the outer nuts from protruding, and a spacing tube inserted

over each rod within the duct cavity. The rods therefore pass through two layers

of the panelling, 25 mm apart, and when clamped up they are completely rigid

and incapable of being tom out. The outer surface is covered with a metal sheet,

hiding. the recessed nuts from view and providing further strength and rigidity.

Figure 1 shows the technique which was used.

The stainless steel rods which are fitted to the panels are used to support

flanged refractory tubes which in turn clamp the fibre in place. Because of the

permeable nature of ceramic fibre, kiln gases can penetrate and condense on the

surface of the metal supporting panel. The condensate is generally acidic and as a

result corrosion can quickly set in. The inside faces of the supporting panels were

therefore coated with a heat- and acid-resistant polyester acrylic before the fibre

lining was installed.

The panels bolt together to form the four sides and top of the kiln and are

designed to sit on a rigid hearth containing the burners and flue. The panels are

extremely light in weight, each complete side of the kiln weighing only 29 kg. This

feature then led to another break from conventional kiln design. The light-weight

panels have eliminated the need for a heavy hinged-door, or the primitive wicket

door which has to be built up and dismantled with each firing. Instead the whole

side of the kiln can be lifted aside by one person. This means that access can be

made through the front, side, back or top of the kiln, or through two sides if

necessary. The kiln can even be used as a top hat structure by lifting the whole of

the fibre insulated top section aside, by using a simple hoist. This enables the

advantages of a top hat kiln to be achieved at a fraction of the usual cost.

15


25"" .... .

'L~ -CO'"

VlQa~~r -----=--------·--~~--------------~R~c-C~k-~--OC-r\-­

~p"ti~ ' ''be.

DETAILS OF PANEL CONSTRUCTION

The hearth is mainly constructed from conventional insulating refractory

bricks. It was required to be rigid, strong and flat and to incorporate the flue

channels and chimney. Most potters, if they are rebuilding a kiln, like to re-use

their old bricks. The hearth and chimney of this kiln therefore provide a useful

application for these recycled materials.

The base slab of the kiln was formed from light-weight vermiculite concrete.

Ducts were incorporated in the base for the passage of cooling air. The insulating

bricks were laid over this base and the floor of the kiln chamber given additional

insulation with a single layer of ceramic fibre.


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should enable potters to be more imaginative with the size and shape of their

products.

The kiln can also be used as a small industrial unit. The top hat version is

particularly suitable for industrial use. In this situation more than one hearth

could be built, possibly using a back-to-back configuration and sharing a common

chimney. The ware could then be loaded on to one hearth while the other hearth

was firing. Upon completion of the first firing the canopy would be lifted on to

the loaded hearth and immediately fired, minimising delays caused by setting and

unloading. The two-hearth system would also lend itself to the use of a second

simple canopy as a drier. The green ware could then be loaded directly on to the

kiln shelves, dried and fi.red without further handling.

The main disadvantage with this new kiln is the cost. Ceramic fibre insulation

is more expensive than refractory bricks, although when bricklaying charges are

included the more easily installed ceramic fibre comes out about equal. The

simple panelised construction has enabled for the first time a kiln of this size to

be portable. It can be rapidly dismantled, transported and re-assembled without

any lifting equipment. Two sides of the kiln will fit into the boot of the average

family car and the top will neatly fit on a pack rack, enabling potters to take their

kiln with them whenever they move house or just decide to re-arrange their studio.

In designing this kiln an attempt was made to use the most up-to-date technology

and materials. I hope this has been achieved.

Potting colleagues are welcome to any help or advice that I can give should

they be interested in building a similar kiln.

MATERIALS LIST

The Base

I bag of Ciment Fondu

4 bags of Vermiculite

I drum of Air-set Mortar

190 approx. RI-26 Insulating Bricks. (Newbold General Refractories)

210 approx. "Litebrik" (South Yarra Firebrick Co.)

The Sides and Roof

4 Ducted wall panels (1280 x 1000 mrn)

I Ducted roof (1310 x 1310 mm )

12 Bats of 25 mm Rockwool (900 x 750 mm) . (Bradford Insulation)

22 Pieces of 25 mm " LoCon" (600 x 1200 mm). (Carborundum Co.)

9 Pieces of 25 mm "LoCon" (600 x 900 mm). (Carborundum Co.)

2 Pieces of 25 mm "Fiberfrax H" (600 x 1200 mm) . (Carborundum Co.)

8 Pieces of 25 mm "Fiberfrax H" (600 x 900 mm) . (Carborundum Co.)

110 Ceramic Anchors

130 Stainless steel rods with 3 nuts each

Accessories

4 Gas burner/ mixer sets 1 in . SSP

M~X .MURRA Y. is an . electrical and mechanic~l e~gineer ~ith tbe CSIRO Building Research

D,v,s,on at HIghet! In Melbourne. He speclahses In ceramIC materials and processes.

BILL REID CENTERING ARM-Available from Ihe Polters' Gallery,

48 Burton 51., Darlinghurst 2010. Ph. (02) 31 31 51.

19


LEONIE RYAN and CHERYL SMALL

Harry Memmott

Leonie Ryan and Cheryl Small are honours graduates from Prahran College of

Advanced Education.

Both these potters have received grants from the Craft Board of the Australia

Council-a unique achievement for two students in the same year of training.

Leonie works in genre scenes depicting the environs of the shearing shed and

the cocky farmer, as she recalls the area where she spent her childhood.

She identifies very strongly with this life, and believes the influence of the

country ways is still a powerful force in Australia. Bush music will be played at

her exhibition.

Leonie has carried out exhaustive research in her subject. All aspects of

country life are depicted in authentic detail. This regard for detail extends further

than just the material-to the curiosity of sheep, the tiredness of a work horse,

and the care of a farmer for his animals. The movement of people and animals

and the sag of the shearing shed roof are described vividly.

Leonie will be showing her work in her first exhibition, during April 1978,

in the town hall of her home town, Pyalong, in Victoria.

LEONIE RYAN: "Shearing Shed"

20


CHERYL SMALL:

"Peter the hot

bread roll container" :

matt glaze inside.

engobe and matt dry

glaze outside. All

local materials.

Cheryl Small works in a style loosely based on the Greek Classic.

Upon strong shapes she uses a sgraffito line through coloured engobe. She

glazes the inside of the functional ware with soft matt glazes. The outside of these

pots has a "dug-up" look, the result of the discreet use of almost dry glaze and

subtle application of oxides.

Cheryl will be exhibiting at the Craft Centre in Melbourne during late 1978.

Both of these artists use clay intuitively, working on their own creative

themes with strength of design and clear visual approach.

In this world, where humanity follows the natural urge to create, these two

potters are contributing to its enrichment.

HARRY M EMMOTT, potter and author, is in cbarge of the Ceramics Department of the Prahran

College of Advanced Education.

2 1


AUSTRALIAN POTTERY 1900-1950

Although a great deal of work has been done on the history of Australian painting early

pottery in this country bas received very little attention. Merric Boyd is well know~ as a

pioneer potter, having established what is generally regarded as Australia's first artist-potters'

studio, at Murrumbeena (Victoria) in 191 I. But one suspects that it is his family name which

has secured his reputation rather than a familiarity or understanding of his impressive body

of work. Even today good Boyd pieces remain unnoticed in junk shops.

But what of the artist-potters who followed Boyd? People such as Anne Dangar, Gladys

Reynell, Marguerite Mahood, Maude Poynter, Klytie Pate, F. E. Cox and others establisbed

a strong tradition which tended to be cut off with the introduction of stoneware pottery and

tbe Japanese influence in the fifties, a tradition which had strong links with the modernist

movement and echoed its interest in establishing a nationalistic Australian art.

There are isolated examples in public collections, most acquired in the early days and

now tucked away in basement cupboards. Only the National Gallery of Victoria and the

Shepparton Arts Centre (in north·east Victoria) are now systematically collecting early Aus.

tralian pottery, although the Australian National Gallery has acquired some fine examples

over tbe past few years.

The Shepparton Arts Centre is now preparing a survey exhibition, Australian Pottery

1900-1950, to be sbown in August-September this year, and which will thereafter tour two

or three other venues. One important aspect of this show will be a comprehensive catalogue,

collating much of the available information on this period for the first time.

The exhibition will not, at this early stage, be definitive. It is intended primarily to

establish public interest and as a basis for further work. It will comprise about 100 pieces.

Anyone with information which might assist in the preparation of the show, in particular

biograpbical information, is invited to contact Shepparton Arts Centre, Civic Centre, 3630.

Illustrated is a vase by Klytie Pate (about 1941) from Shepparton's collection.

Peter Timms,

Director,

Shepparton Arts Centre.

22


L YREBIRD RIDGE POTTERY­

A BEGINNING

Errol Barnes

This workshop is located at Springbrook in the hinterland of Queensland's Gold

Coast. Brisbane is two hours' driving time away to the north-west. Springbrook

is part of the McPherson Ranges that lie east-west and form the border between

Queensland and the Northern Rivers District of New South Wales. Elevated,

rugged country, it is an eroded plateau, the result of Mount Warning's ancient

volcanic eruptions.

The workshop gets its name from the ridge it clings to where the Prince Albert

lyrebirds' beautiful caBs can be heard, mostly during the winter months. I use

the word "cling" because it best describes the way the workshop is situated gn

the steep rain forest slope. We look east and north out over the Gold Coast strip

to the Moreton Bay islands.

Our choice of Springbrook as a site for the pottery was due mainly to our

love of the high, rain forest country. The basalts give us beautiful red soil but

no usable clays.

This brings one to the question of whether or not a pottery should be set up

close to the materials source. I argue it is preferable to be in a good market area

and transport the clays. The amount of clay any studio-workshop uses is so little

compared to the income it generates that transport costs are not a real concern.

This south-east corner of Queensland is developing fast and the market potential

is good.

I was trained as a teacher, then spent two years at the Technical College Art

School in Brisbane. Here I met Carl McConnell and Milton Moon and my

involvement in pottery began; that was 1962. A spot of teaching art in high

school, then in December of 1964 I began full-time potting. For ten years 1

worked mostly on my own. During these years I saw myself as an artist-potter

primarily concerned with making individual pieces. For a while I made and

exhibited ceramic sculptures but gradually recognised the trap I was getting intoa

no-man's-land somewhere between being a potter and being a sculptor but

being neither. The year was 1971 and for me it was a turning point. I was at last

getting myself together. I could see my limitations and the all-too-obvious limitations

of my primitive workshop-but no regrets. The preceding years had given

me time. Time to learn and time to think of how things might be.

How does an Australian potter survive? Does he live off the earnings of his

craft or does he have a second job? A lot teach-some make pots. The teaching

doesn't appeal to me though I see myself as a teacher. I choose to produce

domestic wares for my living and I take trainees into my workshop. Teaching in

the work situation is different from what takes place in an institution. It is a natural

process-immediate and obvious. The workshop-trained potter is being equipped

for survival as a craftsperson.

I am first a craftsman and if by chance ] am also an artist then that is a

bonus. But if J am only a craftsman then that is enough. My craft provides me

with a lifestyle of interesting making; it allows me to live in the environment of

my choice and it feeds me.

There is a developing market for handmade domestic pottery that is of a

consistently good quality, reasonably priced and continually available. A potter


ERROL BARNES

at Lyrebird Ridge

working alone is at a disadvantage should he decide to meet this market demand.

He cannot possibly make a wide enough range without fragmenting his working

week and besides it doesn't pay to make pots in short runs. Preparing for five

potters takes little extra time than preparing for one. A large kiln fires in the

same time as a small one. From the retailer's point of view he can hardly be

expected to pay you a visit to pick up a handful of pots. He needs voLume and

he needs to select from a reasonable range of wares.

With these sorts of attitudes the planning of the workshop began. It would

be a workshop for five potters-a good number. Big enough to manage without

my being a manager. For the first three or four years I would put aside my own

work and concentrate on developing a range and style of domestic wares. We

would wholesale our pots, wherever and to whomever we could. Consignment

selling is out of the question. That is no way to run a business, particularly when

there are wages to meet at the end of each week.

In May ) 975 I began the building of the first workshed. I had demolished

an old building on the mountain that had fallen into absolute disrepair. It provided

me with most of the milled timber I needed. An old dairy went the same

way. This was built of hand-split hardwoods and the old slabs were beautifully

weathered and grey. With a farmer neighbour I exchanged a few days of labour

for tallow-wood logs from his forest to use as my main uprights and cross-ties.

Months of working with adze and mortise chisel and I had a pottery that felt

good to be in. As a potter friend whose prefabricated shed went up in a matter

of days said, "You must have really wanted to take that trip."

24


Martin Kelly was the first trainee in the new workshop-a school teacher,

twenty-one years of age. He heard 1 was looking for a trainee in June 1975 and

started with me in J anuary 1976. A true pottery "freak" who gave up his secure

job with a future to settle for a doubtful one on a trainee's wage. He is now in

his third and final year. Martin has received Crafts Board assistance for each of

his three years of training.

rt rains a Jot on Springbrook. We can spend days at a time drifting in and

out of low, saturating cloud that reduces the landscape to a series of greyed backdrops-one

fading behind another. For this reason at least we have to build

enclosed workrooms. The workshop was up but not enclosed when Martin arrived.

I was building the kiln and he had to put in his five hours a day practising on the

wheel. After that he helped with the kiln. It was the wet season, everything was

damp. The kiln's foundations filled with water seeping down from the mountainside.

The mildew was rampant. Eventually the kiln was completed with the help

of a local, Barry Walsh, who would wander in and put in a few hours' work. Two

firings before the year's end and then without a break headlong into the new

year. Barry joined us as the new trainee. He was a wood joiner by trade but had

become disillusioned by the way his trade was losing all its hand skills and

quality of product. Things weren't so good. We didn't have sufficient outlets for

our wares and we were getting a certain amount of reaction against what we were

doing. We were being " knocked" for producing a "workshop article". Nobody, it

seemed to us then, wanted to know about Lyrebird Ridge Pottery. They would

have much preferred to sell the individual personality of Errol Barnes. All wares

The workshop at Lyrebird Ridge Pottery.

25


made in the pottery bear the workshop seal no matter who makes the pot. No

individual marks appear on workshop pieces. Comments like "Oh! Hasn't Errol's

work changed" were to be heard.

We survived and things improved. Our first major showing of workshop

pieces was held in Brisbane at the Potters' Gallery in September 1977. The

volume of work on display impressed some and dismayed others. This wasn't a

one-man show but a selling exhibition of a workshop's domestic wares. It sold

very well. Since then we have reached the stage where we cannot fully meet the

demand.

The kiln is large--too large for our present needs. Firing is every eight

weeks whereas I prefer to fire each month. Once the building program is completed

and with the introduction of another experienced potter I believe the oncemonthly

target will be achieved. The bogey-hearth kiln is fuelled with drip-fed

distillate and holds between 800 and 1000 pots of mixed sizes per firing. The

natural draught is provided by 26 feet of stack. We fire for 22 hours to 1280°C

and the evenness of the firing is quite remarkable for such a large chamber. The

materials for this kiln were purchased with the assistance of a Crafts Board grant.

Monica Breedon, our third trainee, started this year. I am very careful in

my selection of trainees. When I decided to take trainees into the new workshop

I gave the matter a great deal of thought. As I see it the motives for a young

person selecting the craft as an occupation are varied. Anyone person's decision

is a combination of factors-aside from any desire to be an artist: a desire to

make pots, the lifestyle potting affords, income earning, social standing.

1 take on trainees for a period of three to five years depending on age and

education. Martin is here for three. Monica, who is sixteen, is here for five. With

each trainee I have an individual agreement that states the conditions of our

working together. We have compulsory discussions at six-monthly intervals when

tHis agreement can be reviewed. Sometimes a compromise is required. The work

load in the workshop is spread as evenly as possible with no specialisation. All

aspects of workshop procedure are covered with one exception-l take sale control

of firings. They observe and to a limited degree assist, but too much is at stake

to allow a trainee to take charge of a firing. When a planned small kiln is

installed they will then be able to have firings of their own.

We don't "victimise" new trainees. They corne here to make pots and the

sooner they do the better. This means the workshop loses on a trainee until his

making reaches an acceptable standard. For each making cycle the trainee is set

a program to follow. This program repeats known skills and introduces one or

two new ones. The teaching is aimed at the development of skills and the transfer

of technical knowledge. Simple business principles and practice are also dealt with.

While a trainee is in my workshop he remains within the discipline of function al

potting.

I do not think it is possible to maintain a traditional employer-employee

relationship in a workshop of this size. There has to be room for friendship.

There can never be any doubt where the final decision-making lies but suggestions

from the trainees are sought and considered.

I have taken a major step in my career as a potter by accepting trainees

into the workshop. Obviously I believe on-the-job training for young potters is a

good thing. There has to be a future for the shared workshop.

26


AN AIRING ABOUT DE-AIRING

PUGMILLS

Doug Alexander

Let me be rather adamant and state that I think that a de-airing pugmill is only

secondary in importance to the kiln on the full-time potter's equipment list. To

qualify this statement I will explain the principle and benefits of de-airing clay,

and how the potter can justify the financial outlay for this piece of equipment in

terms of creativity and increased productivity.

Firstly it is important to understand the action of de-airing on plastic clay

and the method of achieving this. Basically the clay is fed by hand into the hopper

at the beginning of the pugmill, a series of blades chop the clay and move it forward

along the barrel, then augers force the clay through a screen into the

vacuum chamber; in a shredded state, the air pockets explode due to the vacuum

and the air is removed. The clay is then further mixed by blades and is finally

re-united and compressed by augers at the tapered exit nozzle of the pugmill.

It is a misconception on the part of many potters that de-airing improves

plasticity; this is not so. A good de-airing pugmill neither impairs nor improves

plasticity. Its action increases workability by bringing the clay particles into closer

contact, with a greater overall friction, without affecting their capacity to slide,

that is their plasticity. What is gained is an increase in strength. Thus "workability"

on the potter's wheel, pulling handles, making slabs, etc., are greatly

improved with the denser and more uniform clay that de-airing pugmills produce

in contrast to hand-wedged clay.

If we accept that plasticity is improved by souring and ageing, I would

suggest that the potter only pugs the clay once prior to using it for the making

process, after letting it sour and age after the primary mixing.

One aspect that should be clarified at this point is that pugmills are only

secondary clay mixers. The primary mixing of the clay should be done by blunging,

then filter pressing or drying beds, dough mixer, z-arm or whatever favourite

form of primary mixing one chooses to employ.

This brings us to the benefits of the de-airing pugmill in relation to productivity.

Given one is using a pugmill with a capacity of say 500 kg per hour,

it is easy to say that productivity will increase because the potter will greatly

reduce the time spent wedging, and with better de-aired and compressed clay

used straight from the pug, will have more time to make pots. Thus with a

machine performing one of the semi-skilled labour intensive areas in a more

efficient and quicker manner, there will be more pots at the end of the day, thus

more money which will quickly pay for the pugmill.

The facility to re-cycle scraps and turnings is also a most important feature

of a de-airing pugmill, especially for the potter who makes a lot of flat ware; and

it does allow the more critical potter to discard those nasty shapes before they

reach the kiln, with the knowledge that there will not be much effort involved

to re-cycle the clay. Plus there are such things as tiles and other extrusions which

a pugmill makes possible, that could be potentially creative areas for exploration.

The two basic designs of de-airing pugmi1ls are two-stage barrels and the

single-barrel type. The two-stage barrel type is common to industry. The reason

for the two stages is that the action of the vacuum has a tendency to pull the clay

back towards the vacuum source. By using gravity to counteract this action, the

27


1

\I~c-uum

(;.\lAt"n!!>F.9..

....

PUCsMILL

rwo:rrAGE BARREL PUGMILL

SINGLE-BARREL PUGMll.L

shredded clay falls to the lower level, keeping the vacuum chamber from becoming

blocked with clay. The problem with this design is not one of performance

but the cost of manufacture. A new machine of this design is far beyond the

average potter's budget.

The single-barrel design is simpler to make with less engineering, thus a

lower final cost. Harry Davis, a potter well known to most in the pottery world,

produced a plan several years ago which went a long way towards reducing the

problem of the vacuum pulling clay into the vacuum chamber. He overcame this

by using a single shaft with blades set at differential pitches and what he termed

a breather valve in the vacuum chamber. A number of potters built these

machines and they have given good service, except for two problems: the mild

steel blades pit and corrode badly over a period of time, and the hinged breather

valve needs constant maintenance.

During 1975 Geoff Hill, who manufactures Yenco wheels, approached Harry

Davis to enquire if he could use Harry's design with some modifications. This was

agreed upon, so Geoff set about re-designing the original pugmill and it is now

available on the market. The main modifications were the use of a split aluminium

barrel (easier to clean) , a stainless steel shaft and blades (less resistance so a

smaller motor needed to power the pug) , a plunger on the hopper, which makes

the machine safer and also enables turnings and slops to be more easily fed into

the pug, a high-capacity piston vacuum pump with water trap and a vacuum

reading of 26 in-28 in mercury. One notices an appreciable difference when the

vacuum reads above 22 in mercury. Milking machine vacuum pumps are not

very suitable because they are designed to operate at 15 in mercury. ln theory

and practice, the higher the vacuum the better quality clay produced. There are

28


other minor innovations on the Venco pug, such as a heavy perspex cover on top

of the vacuum chamber, which is quickly removed for cleaning. But the most innovative

and important feature is the solution for maintaining the vacuum to the

shredded clay in the vacuum chamber, and inhibiting the action of tbe vacuum

in drawing the clay towards the source of vacuum. This solution eliminates the

moving parts involved with Harry Davis's breather valve. In the Venco design

one blade on the shaft scrapes an opening slit to the vacuum source each revolution;

it's foolproof.

When considering the size and capacity of a pugmill, it's wise to go neither

too small nor too large. Most of the small pugrnills with 4 in barrels and 2 in

extrusions are only toys to the serious potter. One could knead more clay per

hour by hand than these small pugs produce and very few of them are de-airing

models, though some have an application in the re-cycling of scraps. Large pugmills

above 8 in diameter barrels are usually designed to be fed by a primary

mixer, not by hand, so one could have problems keeping up the feed to these

machines; also the barrel could hold a massive quantity of clay before the

machine started pugging, a problem if one wanted to run a new body through the

machine.

So my recommendation would be a pugmill with a barrel diameter of 8 in

and extrusion diameter of 4 in; this size would have the capacity to produce

one-half to three-quarters tonne per hour, depending on the rate of feed and

whether the screens were clean or partially blocked. The logic behind the choice

is that one would normally only use 100 kg of clay per throwing day, unless very

large pots were made. This 100 kg of clay could be put out and run through the

pugmill in about ten minutes. If cutting harps were used instead of weighing out,

the kneading and balling up time would be reduced by 90% .

One bas the choice of building a pugmill, buying a second-band unit, or

buying a new one. Harry Davis's plans are still available; if you are either a good

welder or have access to cheap engineering, building your own is still a proposition.

Some good second-hand machines appear occasionally, both two-stage and

single barrels. Try to purchase these at auction or privately as they are usually

bargains. Some small commercial potteries are currently going to the wall, so

keep your eyes open and ears to the ground.

If buying new I would recommend the Venco Mark IT de-airing pugrnill for

a number of reasons : its good design, impeccable engineering, the geared motor

drive (less maintenance), the performance, and the man who makes it donates

$50 for every machine sold to Harry Davis's Peru project, and provides one of

the best back-up services in Australia. Should I say it? Yes, I will: Geoff Hill

listens to potters' problems and tries to design to suit their needs, a rare situation

in Australia, and his machine is less than half the price of its imported equivalents.

Finally f will offer some bard-learned hints on how to get the best out of

your de-airing pugrnill. Given one accepts that the pugmill is not a primary mixer,

and does not try to feed in dry clay and water, expecting perfect plastic clay at

the other end, there are few problems to be encountered.

The screens can block up and slow the flow of clay, especially if one uses

heavily grogged clay. We clean the screens periodically, usually when the rate of

extrusion and capacity of feed considerably slow down. It's amazing what is

found on the screens-hair, lost sponges, pot stamps, ciggy butts-you name it, if

you have lost it, it's in there. Vacuum leaks are sometimes a problem. if the

gauge is not giving a high enough reading, turn the motor off and listen for leaks.

Once traced, the leak can be sealed with heavy-duty, waterproof grease or thick

29


paint applied while the vacuum pump is on. The only other major problem that

can topple the miracle machine is feeding in very sloppy clay. What happens is

that the slip lubricates the barrel and the whole mass revolves on the shaft. The

remedy is to feed in some very firm plastic clay, which should force the slops

through.

With regular care and maintenance these machines give little trouble. If one

covers the hopper and exit with plastic after using each time, the clay in the

barrel will not dry out. It is a good practice to pull the machine down once a

year, clean it, and check for wear.

Pugmills are quite suitable for school use if treated with respect and no

foreign matter is introduced into the machine. In all situations the best results

are achieved when clay of throwing consistency is pugged.

I believe that the de-airing pugmill can assist the aspiring professional potter

to rise above just surviving economically to a more creative and productive

livelihood.

DOUG ALEXANDER is currently potting at Cuppacumbalong Pottery, Tharwa, A.C.T., with four

assistants. He built his own Harry Davis--designed pugmitt several years ago. It is still in use

for preparing bodies for slab pots. He also uses a Venco Mark II de-airing pugmill for fine

bodies for functional ware.

DESIGNING FOR CRAFT

A residential school covering all aspects of design theory and practice

including colour and design education

AT RIVERlNA COLLEGE OF ADVANCED EDUCATION

FROM 17 TO 21 JULY 1978

TUTORS: Penny Whitchurch - Marcella Hempel

Jim Riley Bob Harris Des Simpson

Full Program and Enrolment Details from

Continuing Education Officer, Regional Services,

Riverina CAE, P.O. Box 588, Wagga Wagga 2650

A joint project of Craft Association of NSW and Riverina CAE

MAYFAIR CERAMIC AWARD

You are invited to participate in the second biennial ceramic exhibition. An

award of $1000 will be given to acquire work for a public collection. The exhibition

will be shown at the Crafts Council of Australia Gallery, Sydney, October

28-November 26, 1978. The closing date for applications is May 12, 1978.

Application forms and further information are available from your State Craft

Association or :

Exhibitions Officer

CRAFTS COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIA

27 King Street

SYDNEY NSW 2000 Tel. (02) 29.6261

30


----------------

A CLAY MIXER

Leonard Smith

Finding a reliable clay of good quality has always been a problem for me. Commercial

clay bodies, although expensive, can be variable so I decided to experiment

making my own. Basically there are two methods of preparing clay bodies,

the wet and the dry. *

The wet method involves drying the clay fully, mixing it in an excess of

water to a slip, sieving it, allowing it to settle, draining off the excess water, then

putting it on to the drying board, then dry to the plastic condition. It is then

wedged and stored for use. In the dry method the dry clay is combined with just

enough water to bring it to the plastic state. If plasticity is at a premium then the

wet method is preferable. 1 chose to use the dry method due to its convenience

and the small amount of space required.

"'-- 1. " I f'"i ,.

1-


With some help from a letter in Vol. I, No. 1, of Studio Potter I designed

and built a clay mixer which is now in use in my studio. The mixer bin is made

from a sheet of 16 gauge galvanised iron, 3 ft wide x 4 ft 2 in long. The ends of

the bin are made by cutting four sections from a tin pineboard that is laminated

on one face. Two pieces are glued together on their non-laminated faces, giving

a solid 1 t in board. The sheet metal is wrapped around the end boards and

attached to it every two inches with I t in self-tapping screws. Next the 1 t in

holes for the shaft are cut through the ends and the whole bin screwed and bolted

into an angIe iron frame. The bearings should now be bolted to the ends of the

bin . Drill the shaft with t in x t in deep holes for the siting of the blades and

push it into place. The blades are made from 6t in x t in rods with 8 in x 1 in

x ! in flat bars welded to the top. These are now placed in the holes in the shaft

at such an angle that they just overlap each other by t in. Once their position is

set they are welded into place. The shaft should now be locked in with the bearing

collars. I used a one h.p. single phase motor with 1440 r.p.m. I used a 2 : I

reduction to the gearbox, which is a 10 : 1 ratio, and a 3 : 1 reduction from the

gearbox to the shaft, giving 24 Lp.m.

Clay mixing: a bag of dry powdered clay is tipped into the mixer with the

required feldspar and silica. I mix this dry, using a lid on the mixer to contain the

dust. Any colouring oxide is mixed with the water to give a better distribution

and added by means of a watering can. Within five minutes the mix is finished

ready for the pugmill. One load of 50 kilos of plastic clay takes about half an

hour to process, so in 10 hours I usually have a tonne. I have calculated the cost

per tonne to be $53, which is approximately 2tc per pound.

Recently I have found that putting 16 gauge wires in between the blades gives

a wedging action and improves the performance of the machine. They are attached

between parallel blades every two inches or so.

Materials:

1 x sheet galvanised iron, 16 gauge, 3 ft x 4 ft 2 in.

1 sheet laminated pineboard, 3 ft x 3 ft 3 in.

1 x 43 in x I t in bright steel shaft.

8 x 8 in x 1 in x ! in flat steel bars.

2 x UCF 208-24 (It in) bearings.

30 ft x 1 t in x J t in x i in angle iron for frame.

1 x J h.p. single phase motor.

1 gearbox at least 10 : I.

4 pulleys and belts. I used ordinary A section pulleys and belts for the motor and

gearbox but B section belts for the gearbox to mixer drive as a lot of torque and

resistance is met here.

LEN SMITH is a potter and leacher and also editor of the Palters' Society Technical Bulletill.

Len's pottery is at The King's School, Parramalla. He is willing to help anyone furtber with

information on his clay mixer; his clay body recipes have been published in tbe Technical

Bulletin, available from the POllers' Society, 20 cents plus postage.

32

NEW ZEALAND POTTER

Publishe d a t Wellington by the Editorial Committe e , ,wice y e arly

in August and De cember. Tlte yearly subscription is $ A4.50

and ,lte magazine may b e obtained from

New Ze aland Pot' e r, P.O. Box J2162, Well;n9fon North, Ne w Zealand.


WARREN PALMER :

Shino glaze, cone 10, ht 66 em.

PoUers' Gallery, Brisbane.

RECENT WORK

Ph%

gfllph : Johll M cKay

33


RECENT WORK (continued)

THAN COUPlE:

uehara. the fireman",

1977; salt-glazed

stoneware, handbuilt,

34 em. Austral ian

Crafts Exhibition,

1978. Pholograph:

Johll D elacour for Ihe

Cra/ls Board,

A ustralia Council.

MELINDALE

GUAY: Planter,

1975 : white stoneware

with copper oxide;

thrown and slabbuilt;

19 x 17 em.

Australian Crafts

Exhibition, 1978.

Pholograph: John

Delacour for Ihe

Cratls Board,

A uslralia Council.

34


RECENT WORK (continued)

FREDERIC CHEPEAUX:

Allegro Gallery, 1977.

Photograph: "ilia Malnic

35


RECENT WORK (continued)

BEN KYPRIDAKIS: Bowl; refired 5 times, using decals and lustres; 1270· C; diameter 40 cm.

Pugrnili Exhibition, SA. Photograph: Grant Hancock

DON JONES: Bowls, dolomite glaze, I 280· C. diameter 20 cm. Pugmill Exhibition, SA.

Photograph: Grant Hancock

36


RECENT WORK (continued)

IAN WfNTER:

River red gum jar, porcelain

and lustre, hI 17 em.

Potters' Gallery. Sydney.

SANDRA BLACK (WA ):

Three carved bowls, ht 8 em,

porcelain, transparent

glaze.

From Ten WACraftsmen

Exhibition, WA State Art

Gallery, June 1977.

Photograph: Alia" Williams

37


RECENT WORK (continued)

ROBIN TREMBLE: Stoneware casseroles with brass handles; mustard-coloured glaze;

25 x 20 cm. Potters' Gallery. Brisbane. Photograph: John McKay

KAY SCOTT: Non-functional tea·pots, 15-20 cm. Exhibition : Potters' Cottage.

Photograph: Dulce Herd (boltom)

38


RECENT WORK (continued)

GREG DALY :

Lidded, Outed POL;

stoneware

tenmoku; ht 24 em.

Photograph:

Greg Daly

PETER PINE:

Casserole, ht

17em.

Phofo~raph :

Shirley Dawson

39


LEADLESS, INSOLUBLE,

LOW-TEMPERATURE GLAZES

Leigh Roberts

Since 1968 I have been teaching general art and ceramics in Tasmanian high

schools. From this experience I was acutely aware of the problems facing art

teachers who have not had a thorough background in ceramics, especially in

glaze formulation, as was my case. To rectify this and because of my deep interest

in ceramics I applied for a fourth year at the Tasmanian College of Advanced

Education, Hobart, to study ceramics under Les Blakebrough, Gwyn Hanssen

and Penny Smith.

The Tasmanian Education Department has wisely ruled that lead in any

form may not be used in schools. Because of this ruling and other factors such

as lack of time, expertise, and suitable glaze recipes, teachers have generally used

commercial glazes, usually with most uninspiring results. I found that these were

often faulty and crawled badly, did not melt at the specified temperature, or

cemented in the bottom of glaze containers; some of them deteriorated markedly

when kept for a period of time. I decided, therefore, to eliminate all these undesirable

characteristics, if possible, in any glazes that I planned to develop.

As almost every Tasmanian school that includes ceramics in its curriculum

uses electric kilns, most of which will not fire over IISO°C, I have designed the

glazes to fire in an oxidizing atmosphere over a range from just below 1 100°C up

to l1S0°C, with an ideal maturing temperature of I 120°C. This range is purposely

wide because school conditions are not as closely controlled as in a pottery

studio and because of the variety of kilns in use. The raku glazes are designed to

mature at 900°C but will melt at least 20 degrees below this and will become

rather fluid over about 950°C. All the glazes were tested on red bodies (Relbia

clay, Humes pipeclay, Hayes Gaol Farm clay) and on a white body (Bendigo

clay) and in large and small electric kilns and also in a wood-fired kiln. As well

as being suitable for use on bisqued ware, many of the glazes are suitable for rawglazing

without recipe adjustment-an advantage in the school situation.

During the initial stages of research I investigated literature containing glaze

recipes in search of leadless, insoluble recipes to use as a basis for experiment. I

found no published glazes that were suitable so I used formulae from Dr F.

Singer's book Ceramic Glazes. Daniel Rhodes' book Clay and Glazes for the

Potter and Harry Fraser's book Ceramic Glazes were also informative. The article

by G. Snape which appeared in the Spring issue (Vol. 15, No.2) of this magazine

would also be useful for anyone interested in this area, as it contains theoretical

information which complements this article.

As well as using Singer'S formulae, I noted any recipes I came across that

could have been useful, such as those by Ivan Englund published in this magazine

in an article entitled "Middle Fire Glazes". Any recipes taken in this way were

adjusted to fulfil my criteria. Most of the recipes are based on Cesco Frit 2, a

calcium-borate frit which is readily available and melts on its own at 900°C.

Many of the glazes contain more than four ingredients, but I found this necessary

to maintain glaze qUality. The raku glazes are simpler in composition but greater

difficulty was experienced in developing a workable base for raku glazes than for

an earthenware base glaze. The problem was finding a substance that would flux

at a very low temperature in combination with Cesco Frit 2 and Ball clay "C".

40


The material that worked beautifully was lithium carbonate, which is relatively

expensive but is only used in small quantities.

GLAZES FOR 1120°C

Clear. shiny glaze

Cesco Frit 2

Potash Fcldspar

Whiting

Kaolin

Silica

Clear to white shiny glaze

Cesco Prit 2

Kaolin

Tin oxide

Zinc oxide .. ..

Titanium dioxide

Shiny. blue-grey glaze

Cesco Frit 2

Kaolin

T in oxide

Dolomite

Glos.ry. speckled cream glaze

Cesco Prit 2

Granular rutile

Red clay

Red iron oxide

48

33

I

14

4

90

14

7

18

4

72

8.5

4.5

12

58.5

12.5

29

1.8

Glossy, variegated brown glaze

Cesco Frit 2 65

Potash feldspar 10

Kaolin

Tin oxide

5

10

Red iron oxide ..

Manganese dioxide

5

5

Semi-opaque. glossy white glaze

Cesco Frit 2 53

Whiting 6

Sail Clay "c" 14

Kaolin 13

Silica 10

White semi-matt glaze

Cesco Frit 2 30

San clay "c" 13

Titanium dioxide 5

Red iron oxide 0.5

Shiny. clear amber glaze

Cesco Prit 2

Whiting

Kaolin

Red clay

Red iron oxide

Silica

A venlurille glaze

Cesco Frit 2

Lithium carbonate

Sarium carbonate

Red iron oxide

Kaolin

Silica

Dolerite glaze

Dolerite .. .

Lithium carbonate

53

6

13

14

2

10

41

II

14

25

6

3

50

12

This glaze devitrifies very easily in a slow cooling

kiln and will produce vivid mauves; therefore quick

cooling to 750· C is essential if this is to be avoided.

The de vitrification usually occurs mainly on red

bodies where the glaze has been thickly applied.

This glaze is slightly fluid and on a red body is usually

a.mber with areas of blue and tan. The allractive

effects in this glaze are due to the titanium dioxide,

which has the ability to draw colour from the body

below.

This slightly fluid glaze may pool attractively into

dark blue glassy areas.

On a white body this glaze is a glossy cream with

fine specks of brown and blue. On a red body it is a

broken greenish-cream with specks of blue and green.

This ~Iaze is lighter on a white body; on 3 red body

subtle mauve-blue areas may appear.

This glaze works best on a red body.

This glaze varies in surface quality depending on the

body, thickness of application, and firing and cooling

conditions. rt is an extremely dark, metallic

"blue-brown-black" and often exhibits "orange-gold"

spangled areas, but is fascinatingly unpredictable as

far as the final effect is concerned.

This is an opaque, matt, stone-like glaze which is

yellowish-green to tan on a light body and on a red

41


Barium carbonate

Silica

Clear 10 white cryslallilaze

Cesco Prit 2

Whiting

Kaolin

Silica

Zinc oxide ..

Barium carbonate

Titanium dioxide

70

18

53

9

13

2

15

3

5

body varies from pale to deep olive-greens, yellows

and rich tans and browns. The dolerite used came

from the Hobart Quarries.

This glossy glaze produces an opalescent, glassy area

when it pools, especially in the presence of iron oxide.

The crystalline opalescence is readily achieved

on a white body; blue effects are more commonly

seen on a red body. It may vary from a clear amber

to a shiny opaque white on a red body, depending on

the cooling conditions of the kiln.

Shiny base glaze (suitable also as a raw glaze)

Cesco Frit 2

31 Colouring oxides have been added to the above glaze

Ball Clav "C"

57 to create the following glazes, which may also b.

Dolomite

3 used raw. None of these glazes should be applied

Zinc oxide

4 thickly as crawling will result.

Whiting

5

Opaque blue

Opaque milk-coffee

Opaque blue-green ..

Speckled, warm brown

Mottled, moss-green

Opaque dark brown

Speckled creamy tan

Shiny blue-black

Opaque creamy mustard

Mall base II/au

Cesco Prit 2

Ball Clay "C"

Potash feldspar

Dolomite

Whiting

Kaolin

Silica

14

29

17

5

14

16

5

Shiny base + 0.5 cobalt oxide, 0.5 red oxide.

Shiny base + 0.5 chrome oxide.

Shiny base + 1 chrome oxide, I cobalt oxide.

Shiny base + 4 manganese dioxide.

Shiny base + 8 red iron oxide.

Shiny base + 16 red iron oxide.

Shiny base + 3 red iron oxide, 8 tin oxide.

Shiny base + 4 manganese dioxide, 2 cobalt oxide, 4

red iron oxide.

Shiny base + 8 rutile flour.

Oxides may be added to this base to give a variety of

matt and semi-matt glazes, but the colour response is

not as good as that of the shiny base.

RAKU GLAZES

There are two bases for the raku glazes, both clear and glossy, No. 2 being the

shinier. These bases do not alter during reduction but when oxides are added the

possibilities are endless, and as each firing is unique the following descriptions can

only be in general terms. The hotter the glazes get, the greater will be the transmutations

in reduction.

Base No. I clear glaze

Cesco Frit 2

Kaolin

Lithium carbonate

Silica

Base No.2 shiny clear glaze

Cesco Frit 2

Ball Clay "C" . .

Lithium carbonate

70

6

10

14

70

15

15

To obtain a turquoise in oxidation or a copper red

in reduction, add 4% tin oxide and 3% copper carbonate.

For a tin white which will give silver lustre

effects in reduction, add 10% tin oxide. For a shiny

blue·black which will give a wide variety of effects

when reduced, add 4 % copper carbonate, 3% cobalt

oxide and 4% red iron oxide.

I have tried a variety of oxides with this base and

all worked well in oxidation; some tended to be dull

when reduced. Promising results have been obtained

using the following combinations: I chrome oxide, 1

cobalt oxide, 3 tin oxide (gives a dark green which

transmutes to blue in reduction). 10% tin oxide and

10% red iron oxide gives an attractive creamy-mustard

when oxidized but may change to a murky green

when reduced. 10% red iron oxide gives a golden

amber when oxidized and a browner colour when

reduced.

LEIGH ROBERTS is a teacher of art and ceramics. This article is a condensed version of a

complete text on Raku/ Earthenware Glazes at present being compiled in kit form (complete

with slides) by the Media Centre, Hobart, Tasmania.

42


POTTERY IN CRETE

Penny Riley

In April 1976 a group of potters, weavers and interested observers set off on a

tour organized by the Ceramic Study Group to Iran, Greece and Turkey. Particular

emphasis was laid in the itinerary on spending a week in Crete, where it was hoped

to locate potters in small villages, and especially to study the ancient large pottery

storage vessels ("pithoi") , and their modern equivalents if such were still being

made. We had previously read an article by a Greek potter, Maria Voyatzoglou,

describing how the potters journey each year [rom their villages in the mountains

of Crete and spend a few days in various outlying villages where they set to work

digging the local clay, building a kiln, setting up their wheels, and making huge

storage jars which they fire on the spot, sell to the local villagers, and then move

on their way.

A short three-quarter hour fl ight from Athens landed us in Heraklion, capital

of Crete, a picturesque city of over 50,000 people on the northern shore of the

island. Here we visited the famous Heraklion Museum, built in 1878, with a

ground-floor court housing artefacts of many kinds (pottery, jewellery, stone-carvings,

precious jewels and seals) and an upper court displaying frescoes from the

ancient palaces of Crete, notably from Knossos and Phaestos, dating from the

Minuan civilization.

Numerous showcases contained votive offerings ranging from exquisitely carved

stune to pottery, gold objects adorned with precious jewels, carved stone seals,

and other valuables, down to tiny clay figu res of men and beasts--offerings to the

gods from those with little to give except something they could make with their

hands. Many of these objects had been buried in tombs with their owners and were

retrieved, often intact, when the great excavations of the nineteenth century took

place.

The storage jars and sarcophagi were truly colossal, both in size and in the

range of design and decoration.

We left Hcrakl:('n by bus for a one-day trip to the mountains 45 km to the

west. Our destination W:l~ the village of Margarites Rethymnon, and it truly lived

up to its name: the ht'IO' l~rough which we drove and walked were a glowing

carpet of yellow mall'ucl,le, !n 'h'! village we came upon a young potter, Emmanuel

Kallergis. work ing ID a .. c' room on a kickwheel. He uses local red clays

which he biscuits to about 950°C ar.d glazes to 1000°C in an electric British

Ceramics kl:n . His glazes are bought ready-made from Athens. This young man

had a line of ·trick" pots: a magic cup that leaks water if overfilled, and a drinking

vessel ~ haped like a jug with a spout. The upper part of the body had holes in

it through which water pours if you try to drink in the conventional manner from

the rim. To get water one has to suck through a hole in the spout; the water rises

through the hollow handle and through the hollow rim of the jug (formed over a

piece of string, he told us) . When we arrived Emmanuel was turning some tiny

flat flasks no more than 6 em across which he had thrown on the wheel, resting

them in a dish-shaped chuck of clay. Later he added a small neck and an impressed

decoration in the form of the daisy namesake of the village, and lugs for handles of

leather thonging; he told us these were holy-water flasks. Later in a museum I saw

a same-shaped little flask dating from Byzantine times-the original no doubt for

Emmanuel's modern-day version.

Still we had not found the jar-makers. We continued our walk uphill through

43


the picturesque village with its whitewashed houses opening on to narrow cobbled

streets, balconies spilling bright falls of geraniums and fuchsias in profusion. Here

and there was evidence of what we sought: a couple of large broken jars lying on

their sides in a ramshackle garden; even an upturned, bottomless pot in use as a

chimney on the roof of a house. At last we came to our destination-a garden in a

deserted, locked-up house. A primitive trellis, presumably used in summer to give

shade, reared up over a long bench cut in the earth. At ground level below the

bench was a row of five wheels. Here the potter would sit with the wheel at about

knee level, or stand as his pots grew taller. His helper would squat on the ground

at his feet, turning the wheel slowly by means of a round stick stuck through its

spindle. Gradually the potter would build up a large pot, going just so far before

he had to leave it to stiffen up, then moving on to the next wheel to repeat the

process and continuing along to the end of the line adding fat coils to each. By the

time the last pot had been built up to the desired level, the first would have dried

sufficiently for more work to be done on it. The potter would return and add more

coils to the first one, patiently making his way along the row and building, building,

until finally the jars stood some five or six feet high. This work can only be done in

the summer when the weather is warm enough for them to dry out quickly.

The kiln was nearby, a very primitive affair about two metres across, with

a low firebox, a pottery grid floor, and an open roof which would be rebuilt for each

firing with broken shards. Alas! the place was deserted; only ghost potters were there

and we had to imagine the processes. Fortunately some of our party visited the

site only a few days later and found work going on. Apparently only two or three

potters go out from Margarites into the surrounding villages nowadays, most of

the others being content to make their pots within their home environs. Even that

is a dying art because no young boys are coming forward to be apprenticed, and

no doubt it will all soon be a thing of the past.

Two days later we set out in a different direction for the village of Thrapsanos.

where the jar-makers were reported to be at work. Here we visited the work-

Smaller kiln near Thrapsanos, with small biscuilcd water·iars nearby.

44


"'"eT

c.. L4P ~"'T F I"-'-' TO fJ.


.-""

T

~

Draun.ngs by

Ewart CoUings

shop of Nikolaos Ploumakis, who was throwing tall, slim oil jars on a kickwheel.

He uses two kinds of clay, a red and a grey, decorating them with impressed designs

with a stamp dipped in glazes which he prepares from local stone, a honey

and a green.

A second potter in this village, Emmanuel Hatzinikolakis, was throwing water

storage jars in an interesting way. These are made in two operations. A large lump

of clay is opened, drawn up, and closed over completely on the top. The pots are

set on boards and placed outside in the su n to dry with a piece of canvas wrapped

around them to protect the sides but with the tops left exposed. Later they are

brought indoors again and inverted or to the wheel into a flattish, dished chuck

covered with cloth. The firmed-up "top" of the pot thus becomes the "bottom", and

the soft clay on the new top is opened up, coils added, and the upper part rethrown

into a neck. Handles are added and the pot becomes a very handsome storage jar

for liquids. Emmanuel told us that his parents had wanted him to be a blacksmith

but he had become a potter, starting in 1949. He farms in the winter but had

started potting one week before we arrived and would continue until September or

October when the weather again became cold. He did not travel any more to outlying

villages to make pots but worked only in his own place. He received about

40-60 drachmae for a water pot (Dr 16 = $Al )-enough, as he said, for "salada"

only.

45


Finally it came time to see the place where the great storage jars of ancient

times had been used in such numbers-the ruins of the palace of King Minos at

Knossos. Many of these powerful giants had been left standing in the excavated

storerooms following their discovery by Minos Kalairkerinos in 1878 and the later

excavations by Sir Arthur Evans from 1900 to 1935. Some of the jars are over 6 ft

high. One could imagine them standing in serried rows in the palace storerooms,

filled with oil and grain, representing the great wealth of the king. Decorations on

some of them reproduced the patterns and textures of the ropes which must ha\>e

been needed to move them about; indeed many had numerous lugs big enough f ; 1/

ropes to be threaded through to form handles. There was usually a trougl! in the

stone floor of the storehouse, a canny thought which could save the contents if ever

a jar was broken, either by accident or as a result of the earthquake~ which periodically

shake the region . It was a great earthquake on the nearb I island of

Santorinj, followed by a tidal wave, that finally brought about the d~ ~ tru


SOME THOUGHTS ON CRACKS

AND TEXTURE

Stephen Skillitzi

Cracks and fissures in clay and crazing and crawling in glazes usually strike dismay

into potters' hearts-for both good and bad reasons. Kitchen and table ware

has little room for the unhygienic crack, nor a flower vase for a crack that

leaks. But when the same attitude to cracks automatically extends to decorative

ceramics or to pots where the function is not impaired by a crack or two, then

we need to consider the example of a ceramic culture greatly admired by most

potters--Japan. Shoji Hamada is the leading exponent of the folk pottery movement

and a Living National Treasure. Pots that are deemed unworthy of his

personal endorsement (a certificate of authenticity) are sold merely as humble

workshop pots. Seconds dog the heels of every potter, great or small. Nevertheless,

amongst the pots he does acknowledge as his own and which fetch fantastic prices

are to be fo und some with clay fire cracks. One Hamada bottle seen in Adelaide

had a firing crack half way up each of its four sides. Such cracked pots of

Hamada's would be viewed with suspicion by some of Australia's craft galleries

and potters, and much of our buying public for that matter. Obviously the value

judgements of East and West are still quite divergent in this regard. One can't

generalise about Japanese ceramics today-it encompasses functional-folk to

funk-fantasy, Shigaraki to slipware, porous to porcelain ware. But perhaps one

can say that our Oriental counterparts accept and quietly contemplate the natural

outcome of the struggle between matter and the elemental forces that shape that

matter--ocean waves against a soft rockface, strong wind against Hexing trees, and

Harne pitted against clay and glaze. Matter, like man himself, reveals its latent

proclivities and limitations when subjected to ageing and extreme stress conditions.

To the Oriental mind the results of this fundamental process are not to be

despised in nature or in pottery. But to the traditional Occidental mind complete

subjugation of matter and process to his will is equated with mastery of

his craft. Is it any wonder that the industrial revolution, which subscribed to the

"mastery" concept, should have developed the totally controlled and dehumanized

mass-produced pot, where any irregularity or flaw undermined the belief in

"mind over matter". This Stoke-on-Trent, industry-spawned attitude to clay and

glaze Haws permeates our craft ceramics more than many realise, for better or for

worse. In stark contrast are the comments of the TV Perspective program on

Japanese Crafts, which defined crafts as "any object that, during manufacture,

is continually at risk".

However, there is a growing acceptance by Western potters of the "happyaccident"

and the judicious use of glaze faults (crazing, crawling, bubbling, etc.) .

For example, Lucie Rie (England ) with her crater-like glazes, Otto and Gertrude

Natzler (USA) with their melt fissured and textured glazes, or Helen Mason

(New Zealand) with her "the survivors are the exhibition" approach to runny

ash chuns, etc.

Peter Voulkos and followers, with their dynamic pummel, slash and dribble

expressionism in clay and glaze, set the pace for USA ceramics of the late 50s and

early 60s. Whilst West Coast-derived Pop/ Funk movements' "feti sh finish"

approach has clearly stolen the limelight, there still remains general empathy for

ceramists who allow their medium to "do what comes naturally". Nevertheless,

47


for many aspiring potters there is confusion about the fine line between a sloppy,

mindless, anything-goes approach (e.g. the worst of abstract expressionist

ceramics), and on the other hand, being taken on a guided tour of ceramics'

dynamic spontaneity, by exploiting the peculiar, plastic language of clay and glaze

immortalized by fire. The survivors are often worth exhibiting (with crack, crawl

and all). The process of becoming can be clearly seen and the materials' limits

of endurance are all exposed to the sympathetic, unshackled eye. We potters have

learnt to pay homage to the Tamba anagama-fired seed storage jar, shoulders

peppered with roof droppings floating in a greenjbrown sea of fly ash glaze; we

also understand the significance of the 19a water jar with the dramatic fire crack,

illustrated, it seems, in every Japanese ceramic text. In fact, the Japanese cult of

the fire crack was popular enough for some unscrupulous potters to ingeniously

carve in fake cracks before firing.

Admittedly many pots with kiln cracks can't be justified on aesthetic or

philosophic grounds especially if its utility is sacrificed. I guess it depends on

one's viewpoint which cracks, if any, are acceptable. To one potter glaze-flashing

(through reduction) is anathema, to another it is a "gift of the gods". Some

years back the CPA of England published a series of letters by Gwyn Hanssen

and David Leach on what to do with "seconds". Gwyn advocated the hammer,

David a "sell at reduced price" policy. Neither persuaded the other but they did

seem to agree on what a first and second rate pot was. Hamada may not have

agreed with their viewpoints, but each to his own.

If one seriously examines the visual significance and great variety of the

deliberate and unintentional crack in ceramics by a "crackpot" potter, one may

well acknowledge the validity of those nominal flaws. After all, suppose this

potter were to juxtapose clay fissures with various impact-cracks, along with a

network of surface crazes in clay or glaze, one would expect a harmony of sorts.

Or what if he were to use stretched, dry ball clay surface texture, with a wax

embedded crackle technique, with a high shrink crackle glaze, coupled with

neriaged clays of different shrinkages. He might have a fired result that reflects the

character of the dried up, wizened face of South Australia's outback landscapethe

driest state in the driest continent. The dehydrated waterhole clay shrinks and

cracks feet-deep, fired by the summer sun. The splintered, textured surfaces of

the stringybark trees are backdropped by aeons-old Flinders Range's stratified

coloured rock eroded by the elements. Or is it ochred and laminated clays, sliced

through by the potter's hand (neriage style) that this potter really sees? Is there

nothing new under the sun but the restating of the old? Probably no. Can a few

square inches of fired clay evoke a feeling of an aged and decayed landscape?

Probably yes.

STEPHEN SKILLITZI is lecturer in charge of the ceramics department at the Adelaide School of

Art. He is equally well known for his glass blowing as for his ceramics.

STURT CRAFT WORKSHOPS

Two Positions Vacant:

Potter to manage Pottery Workshop

Craftsman for Screen printing and Dye Workshop

For detailed in/ormation, please write to

Duty Manager, Sturt Workshops,

P.O. Box 34, Mittagong 2575

48


College Courses

Col h~lIe

Coursels) Offered

Dundon of

Course

Hours of

Altend.nce

Teachlna Staff Subjecl$ Offered Gcncrul NOles

J\tembers

Armidalc C.A.E.

Mossnlan $t ..

Arnlidalc. N.S. W. 2350

Phone: ?2 1244

Diploma 0/ T eachillR

(Art & Crah mujor)

3 years 3 ho urs per

(3 hours per week per

wee k 6 sem- course

esters) underlaken

M. Fuller (Head. Runge o f subjeci s in 1st nnd 2nd The:: nllljor siudy is in le nded to deyelop

Centre fot Expres- sem. then speciulisnlion in cer- Ihe stude nt pe rsonally - it 'is not directly

sive Arts) nmics. Improvised kiln building reluted 10 IctlchinR. where:'ls'electivcs

P. S. Pine(Cerllmics) in school phlYRround is offered. >Ire.

Darwin Comlllunity

College

Dripstone Rd .

Casuarinu, Darwin

N.T . 5792

(1'.0 . Box 40146.

Casuurinll)

Diploma ill FiliI! Art

(Cerumics mujor .

Associate Diploma 0/

Ceram ics (UG))

4 years :\0 hours per

week

2 yeurs :'\0 hours per

week

Yincenl McGralh Mujors: Cerumic.s. sculpture. Professional lruininp: for intcndinlotsludio

( Head) puint i n~ . prinlm ~lkin~ , photo- ceramists. industril.ll cerumists or

Terry Dllvies s::raphy (nil nfler common 1st teachers.

Joy Burwick

year).

(plus visitinR starn No electives. All subjects; cluy, Supplies relevant eruCt skills for studio

ulazes. craft munus::ement. kilns. potters w.orking in the field.

drawing. history. 20/ 30 st udy.

studio prnctice.

W.A. Institute of

Technology -

Dept. of Art & Design

Haymnn Rd .• Bentley

W.A.6102

Dendigo C.A.l'!.

P.O. Bo" 199. Ocndigo

Victoria 3550

t. B.A . (An Education)

with Ce ramics major

2. B.A . (Desi~n) with

Ce rllmics major

), Assoc. Dip/oma i"

Art with Ceramics

mtljor

Diplamp 0/ An and

DesiJ,!1I (Ceramics)

B.A . (Ceramics)

2-4 yenrs 1)-27 hours

per wee k

3 yellrs FIT

:\ yea rs FIT

A . K . Ru ssell (He... dJ Design. drawing. 1m history. 1. Education and traininj.! of craft

D. Walker ceramics. ceramic technoloRY. teac hers.

L Pritchurd plus elec tives chose n from 2. EducmiQl\ ,lI1d trainin~ for cmfts as u

1. Kusnic co ll e~e - \Vide courses. \'oc:ltion.

(plus \lisitin~

.:l. TmininJl (or community members with

ceram ic sturn

an interest in CfllftS.

DennisO'Hoy CHeud) Cerum ics. drawi " R. design, print· Aims to provide an educmiona' opper-

Richurd Rofe muki ng. ph o l ~ rnph y. sc ulpt u re, Wn ity fQr students to QUlI lify for

Marga M cEvoy urI hisl ory.communic.uio ns. professional positions within the fields

Shunichi Inoue production methods. science of te.lchinR or studio prucli.ce. Common

(plus o thers expert st udies. liberal studies. etc. 1st year. then specialisulion.

in various areus)

..

'"

Gipps lund Institute of

Advl.Ulced &Juc'llion

P.O. Box 42. Ch urchill

Victoria JH42

Diploma 0/ A rl$

(Visulil Arts)

Graduate DiplQma i"

Visual Arts

.1 yeurs F/T FIT or

(or equivn· PIT

lent PIT)

I yeur FIT

or eq ui\,;.tlent

F/Tor

PIT

Hedley Pons 24 units (or diploma. 6 semesters Due to nbility of students to plnn th eir

(plus visitin~ FIT. One semester comprises: ow n prO)o!fl.Ims in consulultion with

lec turer prosrnlll. 2 units multi-disciplinury supervisi ns:: lec. lur ers .Ir:lditi on ~ 11 barriers

Oth er vi su:.ll arts swff st udio of ceramics. p:linting. sculpture. printn\'~

i1ab l e) 1 unit un rese"lrch mukinj.! and design are often crossed.

I unit uri th eory

Student access 10 ceramics studio is

IIvu illlble " ufter hours" for kiln buildin~

H units of ud\'unced work over lind firin~.

:11 le .. st 2 sc mesters The G.LA.E. courses ure professional

Fine Arts courses. However. there is

offered a teacher educution course ulsa

(qUile separate from visuu l artsl .


Bendigo College of Advanced Education

Final Year 1977 Graduates' Exhibition at Bendigo Art Gallery

Photogr aphs: D ellllis O'Hoy

RAYMOND STUCHBERY: Large rectangular slab form; a stoneware ehamotte body;

ht 56 em, width 33 em. (below)

CHRISTOPHER LANGTON: Slab form, stoneware chamotte body with rubbed oxide

textures; ht 42 em, width 42 em. (opp., top)

NOELA MILLS: White porcelain bottle with gold and copper lustre figures;

ht 17 cm, width 8 cm. (app., bOllam, right)

CHRISTOPHER PLUMRIDGE: Lidded container, porcelain body with iron glaze;

ht 6.5 cm, width 12 cm. (app., bOllam, left)

50


51


CERAMIC TOXICOLOGY

William C. Alexander

Considering the number and variety of ceramic materials available to the contemporary

potter, it seems inevitable that some of them would be hazardous, and

a surprisingly large number are. Some of these are toxic, causing illness or even

death if ingested, and others are dangerous if inhaled. Most potters are aware of the

dangers of such things as lead compounds and inhaled silica dust and take at least

some precautions to prevent exposure. Many other materials, however, are equally

dangerous and, because they are not recognized as such, are the most hazardous

materials to be found in a potshop.

Those materials which are chemically non-toxic, but damaging to the

lungs if inhaled, are discussed in the first section of this paper and those which act

as poisons will be considered in the second.

Inhalants

Silicosis is a disease which has long been associated with the pottery and other

dust producing industries. It is caused by breathing finely ground silica dust or

potter's Bint as it is often called. Silicosis has been widely researched primarily

because of its prevalence among mine workers. Silicosis, in and of itself, is rarely

fatal, but those having silicosis are more susceptible to other pulmonary diseases

and are less likely to survive potentially fatal diseases such as pneumonia due to

their already weakened condition. The pathological evidence is nodulation and

fibrosis in the lungs. The external symptoms are shortness of breath, chronic cough,

pain in the chest and especial1y, decreased vital capacity or, in lay terms, decreased

ability to perform work requiring physical exertion.

Unfortunately, the damage to the lungs is permanent, and so the disability is

also permanent. Medical science can offer a certain amount of relief by treating

the symptoms, but no treatment fo r the disease itself has ever been proved effective.

As a rule when silicosis is diagnosed, the patient is urged to remove himself from

further possible contact immediately. Past middle age, when silicosis is most frequently

diagnosed, it is very difficult to change jobs, particularly when a complete

change is the only answer. The mental distress brought on by an enforced career

change in later life may be worse than continued exposure at a reduced rate.

Most treatises on the subject of silicosis report that one exposure is not particularly

dangerous and generally agree that ten to twenty years are needed to produce

really serious symptoms, although disability has been reported after only six

months. The factors regulating the length of time necessary to produce symptoms

are the concentration of silica dust in the air and the size of the silica particles. The

higher the concentration and the smaller the particle size, the shorter the period

required to exhibit noticeable symptoms of silicosis.

Studies have shown that coarser particles of dust tend to be trapped in the

nasal passages and the upper reaches of the bronchial passages. This region of

the lungs is covered by minute hairlike cilia which are constantly at work moving

foreign particles upward to the esophagus where they are either swallowed or expectorated.

Dust trapped in this manner is only temporarily irritating and poses

no real threat. Finer particles, those which are 5 microns in diameter and less, can

escape this natural dust filter and penetrate into the alveoli in the deepest recesses

of the lungs. Here there are no cilia and the deposition is permanent. These par-

52


ticles act as constant irritants to the lung tissue resulting in the fibrosis and nodulation

mentioned above.

Unforunately, silica is not the only material that will cause silicosis. Diatomaceous

earth is composed largely of silica and is also a known cause of silicosis.

Nor is silicosis the only respiratory disease whch poses a threat to the potter. There

are numerous other materials in common use by the contemporary potter which

produce respiratory diseases common enough to have names. They are contracted

in the same manner as silicosis and, as above, the smaller the particle, the

greater the danger.

Alumina produces a disease known as aluminosis. To the layman, it is practically

indistinguishable from silicosis, with shortness of breath, cough, decreased

vital capacity and chronic bronchitis being the chief symptoms. Like silicosis, there

is no cure, but some remission of symptoms can sometimes be effected by complete

removal from further exposure.

Kaolin and china clays cause kaolinosis if inhaled. The highest acceptable

concentration is 20 million particles/ cubic foot of air. This seems high but is really

quite low considering the submicroscopic size of the clay particle. The symptoms

are the same as silicosis except that it may also lead directly to emphysema and

tuberculosis. The disease comes in stages beginning with minor nodulation of the

lungs and progressing to severe fibrosis. The disability may be permanent.

Mica, including muscovite, vermiculite and lipidolite, all lead to lung irritation

but are apparently less dangerous than silica.

Gum arabic has been associated with asthma and may produce asthmatic

conditions where none were present before contact. In addition it may cause eye

inflamation called conjunctivitis. Anyone already suffering a pulmonary disease

should avoid contact.

Iron oxide produces a disease called siderosis which refers to the mineral

siderite or iron carbonate. It is less serious than silicosis and may have no permanent

effects.

Feldspar of any sort leads to a condition known as pneumoconiosis. It is not

critical in itself, but weakens the body in resisting other more dangerous diseases.

Ochre causes pneumoconiosis.

Inhalation of talc leads to a disease common enough to have been named talcosis.

It is evidenced by granulation and fibrosis of the lungs and symptoms similar

to silicosis. It may lead directly to emphysema. Some forms of talc have a small

percentage of asbestos.

Tin oxide causes a white pigmentation of the lungs and some nodulation but

rarely goes beyond that. As a rule the pulmonary function remains normal except

for a slight cough and some shortness of breath.

In the last several years the increasing incidence of lung cancer in workers in

the asbestos industry has brought about considerable research on the hazards

posed by this natural mineral fibre. Indications are that in an alarmingly large percentage

of cases asbestosis, which exhibits symptoms similar to silicosis, leads

directly to lung cancer even after rather minor exposure. Medical literature is filled

with horror stories on the dangers of this material including one in which a whole

family was afflicted simply because the father's work clothes were washed in the

same machine as those of his wife and children.

Considering our present knowledge about asbestos, it is a prime candidate for

the list of those materials which should be permanently banned from the potshop,

even in the form of heat resistant gloves. Moreover, recent research has given

strong indications that mineral fibres in any form present much more serious

53


hazards than previously believed. Materials such as the fibre blanket insulation used

in some kilns and Wallastonite, a calcium slicate, both of which are fibrous in

nature, have come into more common usage in the last few years. Considering

that it took over fifty years to recognize the dangers of asbestos, they may be

equally dangerous, but simply not recognized as such because of lack of specific

research.

The same holds true for other materials as well. Talc, kaolin and feldspar

have been in common usage in the ceramic and other industries for years. It stands

to reason that diseases and disorders directly traceable to them would have been

discovered and documented by now. But what of the many newer materials which

are not listed? Is inhaled nepheline syenite any less dangerous than feldspar, or ball

clay less debilitating than kaolin? One can only doubt those conclusions. Surely

any particulate substance in sufficient concentration would cause some effect on the

lungs, perhaps even to the extent of causing diseases and disabilities such as

listed above.

It is important. to note that there is no known positive cure for any of these

pulmonary diseases. The treatment most usually suggested is "symptomatic and

supportive", meaning that the best that can be done is to offer some relief from

the miseries of the symptoms and support the rest of the system to produce as good

a state of health as is possible. More research has been carried out on silicosis than

the other named diseases due to its prevalence particularly in the mining industzry

and some effort has been made to treat the actual disease rather than simply relieve

the symptoms. Positive pressure breathing designed to increase lung capacity and

various decongestants have been tried, but the results so far have been inconclusive.

Modern innovations in the preparation and distribution of ceramic materials

have greatly increased the potential hazards to the contemporary potter. In earlier

times, many glaze materials such as flint and feldspar were marketed in sand form.

They were then mixed in the proper proportions and ball milled to a glaze slip of

the proper fineness. Clay was either dug or bought in lump form after which it was

blunged and the resulting slip stiffened to the plastic state. In neither case was very

much dust produced and that which was stirred up was very likely much too large

to penetrate into the alveoli of the lungs.

Today, however, most ceramic materials are sold after considerable preparation

and are usually water ground or air floated. It is common to find flint which

has been graded to pass through a 400 mesh screen. This means that the largest

particles will be a maximum of 38 microns in diameter and it is likely that a significant

portion will be small enough to penetrate the defence mechanism of the

lungs. Clay provides an even more dramatic illustration in that in some ball clays

as much as 75 % of the individual particles are less than 0.5 microns in diameter,

precisely that size range which is most dangerous. Under these conditions much

shorter total exposure time will be needed to produce symptoms.

By now, the reader has likely reached a point of some distress, perhaps even

that depth of despair which prompted one young lady to call me from considerable

distance after having read an earlier version of this paper to ask, "Are we aU going

to die?" Obviously the only answer to that question is, "Yes . .. eventually." But

not necessarily of the diseases mentioned above.

With the exception of a very few, particularly hazardous materials such as

asbestos, all ceramic materials, even in the form in which they are currently marketed,

can be handled in perfect safety if adequate precautionary and preventive

measures are employed. Among the possible dust control measures, adequate ventilation

is most frequently mentioned. Dust producing activities, such as clay and


54


glaze mixing, should be isolated as much as possible and those areas equipped with

ventilation fans. For maximum efficiency in ridding the atmosphere of dust particles

which are trying to settle, the exhaust fans should be placed as close to floor

level as possible with air intakes in or near the ceiling.

Filter respirators can be very effective in preventing the inhalation of airborn

dust and should be worn during the course of any dust producing activity. In tbe

United States, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)

has set forth criteria for respirators for use in dust producing industries. Criteria

change according to the conditions encountered, but in general a mask which removes

99% of all particulate matter in the range of 0.4-0.6 microns diameter is

considered to be adequate. Several respirators meeting these standards are available

on the open market. Some resemble World War I gas masks and are a nuisance to

wear and maintain, but there are others which are light weight, comfortable, inexpensive

and just as effective.

Of almost equal importance is some provision for regular shop clean up of

shop floors and work areas by a means other than a dry broom. Regular hosing is

the ideal, but most home studios are not equipped with floor drains. Vacuum

sweeping is an excellent alternative, but only if the vacuum cleaner is equipped

with an adequate dust filter. As a last resort, a sweepi ng compound such as oiled

sawdust can be used to trap as much dust as possible before sweeping begins.

[The second part of this article, Toxicants, will be printed in the next issue.]

BILL ALEXANDER is head of Ceramics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado,

U.S.A.

THE CRAFTSMAN POTTERS'

ASSOCIATION OF BRITAIN

Beryl Barton

On a recent visit to England I took the

opportunity to call at the Craftsman Potters'

Association, William Blake House, Marshall

Street, London, and discuss with Stephan

Brayne, the Executive Secretary, the role of

the Association. The locality is in tbe beart

of the West End, just off Carnaby Street,

and near the Palladium, so that international

visitors are virtually destined to pass

by. r knew in general terms our Potters'

Society had been fashioned on similar

grounds and it waS on this surmise 1 wished

to assess the similarity or digression.

Tbe daily domestic activities are under

the control of the Executive Secretary in

co·operation with the Honorary Secretary,

David Canter, who has fulfilled this role for

some 12 years or more. Da vid is an

imaginative business man, primarily involved

with "Cranks'\ a commercial vellture

of health-food restaurants and food retailing,

as well as other craft outlets, and

his talent for sound economics and exposure

of excellent craft is a ltreat asset to the

Association. These two, David and Stephan,

along with a staff of four, implement the

directions of the 13-man committee, which

meets fi ve times per year, the retailing of

members' pots, sale of literature, postcards,

a small range of tools, and are generally the

public relations officers for the members of

the Association. Tbe most disturbing problem

met recently was the large increase in

rent levied by the Greater London Council.

The burden would have made the continuation

of business very worrying and tenuous,

but on perseverance and persuasion by

David he was able to have a percentage of

the anticipated increase re-considered although

the Association is still under pres-

55


sure. It is th is type of financial burden

which can spell doom to the most virile of

societies as the subscription is unable to be

increased to the extent inflationary trends

demand.

The aims of the Association are to serve

its members, both professional and associate,

by furthering the knowledge and

techniques of ceramics, by the publishing

and distribution of Ceramic Review bimonthly,

by organising workshops both

weekend and longer, by holding monthly

discussion and film nights, by serving as a

sales outlet for professional potters' work,

and as a show-case for new concepts in clay.

To become a member of the CPA it is

necessary for a person firstly to submit coloured

slides of his work; these are considered,

and if more than 50% of the panel,

which comprises the entire l3-man committee,

consider the work appears to be the

required standard, then the potter is requested

to present a selection of his work.

There are four such selection times during

the year and of recent years an a verage of

8-10 new members is the growth rate of the

Association. Remembering the population of

the British Isles is 51 million and the number

of colleges teaching ceramics on a vocational

level is about 20, the increase in

membership is small. There is currently a

re-assessment of standard being carried out

by the committee. In this instance the committee

must carry a two-thirds majority at

all times for the retention or resignation of

the member. Little imagination is needed

to realise the careful and studied assessing

needed by the members of the committee in

this delicate but important situation. However,

for the continued growth and high standard

which the Association demands it is a

necessary procedure. Members are advised of

the time of re-assessing, and if the craftsman

so requests the re-assessing can be held over

for a period for reasons such as ill-health,

teaching commitments, kiln failure, etc.

There is a small percentage of outright

purchases made for resale in the shop. The

choice is left to Stephan and David, and

here pure economics dictate the type of

work purcbased. There is a limited amount

of cash which can be used for stock purchases,

therefore stock·on-hand becomes

those wares which have excellent craftsmanship

and meet the steady requests of the

public. Other work is submitted on a sale

or return basis. Commission sa les are ex~

pected to be turned over by lbe respective

craftsman each month. By implementing

this policy it ensures tbe craftsman reviews

his stock and is very aware as to public response.

Tbere is a 42 t % mark-up on wholesale

prices and this is considered to be a

minimum to COYer the overhead of rent,

wages, paper, postage, telepbone, etc., and

includes tbe iniquitous V A T (value added

tax) taken from the sale price of each

article sold by the CPA. Continentals are

already well aware of pottery and form a

noticeably large proportion of customers at

the shop, and with pride Stephan stated

the standard of British polters is such

that there is now a healthy export trade in

well crafted domestic ware with Germany

and France. Something I enjoyed wben purchasing

a few items was the placing of

tbese within a sturdy brown carry-bag with

the logo of the CPA and its name and

address printed clearly. I felt this was good

sound advertising, and I would personally

prefer to show a message of this nature

rather than the local super-store or the "in"

brand in jeans. I also blessed its sheer convenience.

Each potier has an area of shelving whicb

bears his name; in some cases it is shared

with another craftsman, and likewise if need

be the craftsman or workshop may have

more than one shelf which is an area of

75 x 60 cm slatted shelving. The overall impression

within the shop is of pots, polished

pine, brick, sand and more pots. Pots by tbe

score on the shelves, but the display area

within the centre of the shop has an openness.

Tbe two large street windows lend a

feeling of space and light, especially to the

monthly exhibitions allocated to those members

who indicate a desire for a one-man

show, or joint exhibition. For the very

diminutive pots there is a special glassed

lockable display cabinet. It is a pity such

action is necessary but in this present day it

seems the small must be safeguarded. Often

these small articles are very fragile"" that

special care must be taken in their storage

and handling.

Payment of sales is made the month following

tbe purcbase, by cheque, the potter

being advised as to the date and description

(by number) of the work sold. November

and December have, as one would imagine,

tbe highest sales figures and these two

months tend to carry the shop expenses and

wages bill for tbe very lean months of

January and February. I thougbt, in general,

the price structure was low, and wben

I asked Step ban his opinion of this, his response

was that tbe craftsman's attitude to

his occupation was to keep the price of his

work on a basis whereby every man is able

to purchase.

r am sure there is little needs to be said

for the Ceramic Review bi-montbly publication.

I know it has a large sale within

Australia and is acquired by a growing percentage

of libraries. The articles, the advertising

content from manufacturers of materials

and equipment, along with the private

sales of equipment, workshop space,

and work opportunity columns, are read

avidly by local as well as overseas potters.

The magazine endeavours to present a very

wide coverage by photographs of "today's"

objects, and welcomes the new members by

a short bibliography and photograph of

work and potter. The many and varied subjects

covered in small paperback, and hard

cover, altbougb written in the majority of

zases by members of the CPA, are compiled

privately and personally, and are marketed

only through tbe CPA. This applies

also to the many films now available. Polters

is the title of the new directory, the

fourth, just completed and on sale. It is

56


serving as an excellent guide to pottery

workshops and potters within the British

Isles, and as such, means there can be a

healthy sale of work direct from the workshop.

Stephan said it is hoped that the

craftsman sells above the wholesale rate, but

below the retail price of the CPA. There is

no rule in this matter, but he hopes common

sense prevai ls.

There bave been three camps organised

of recent years. The venue for the two previous

camps was Loseley Park, Guildford,

where clay was the only medium for expression,

instruction and participation. Last

year the camp held over the Jubilee weekend

was located at Dartington, and attended

by over 500 people to watch demonstrations

by distinguished craftsmen working in clay,

textile, jewellery, glass, wood, bookbinding,

blacksmithing, calligraphy and children's

workshops. Such a superb coverage of

crafts, and apparently very successful. The

compilation of notes for report tabling and

services of the craftsmen in this instance

and on similar occasions is given free, such

is the co-operative spirit and loyalty to the

Association. In the specific case of the Dartington

Craft Conference '77 there has been

a souvenir booklet produced with articles,

editing and layout given by the participating

craftsmen and staff of the CPA, so tbat this

booklet has been able to be produced purely

for the cost of printing.

It appeared to me that botb the CPA and

the PSA bave their sigbts set on professionalism

of tbe highest possible standard within

the medium, expecting and insisting on

this at all times from their members.

Both the CPA and the PSA have been

able to remain independent bodies, receiving

no funding for the administration of the respective

organisations.

As I suspected at the commencement of

the interview with Stephan, the PSA has

been generally fasbioned on tbe lines of the

CPA, our problems seem common in domestic

organisation and our aims are identical,

the constant search for quality and

imagination of expression in clay.

BERYL BARTON is a Sydney potter and the immediate past president Potters' Society of Aus·

tralia. She teaches at Gymea Technical College and has recently returned from three months

working in Britain.

MAY DA VIS WRlTES FROM IZCUCHACA,

The Izcuchaca Pottery is going well and after a bout of illness Harry is hard at

work again, Another kiln has been built, also a new shed, and the standard of

work is improving.

Robin Cox of Tasmania has offered a job to one of the Izcuchaca potters,

Jairer, at her pottery at Belmont, Lonford.

Donations are being accepted at the Potters' Gallery, 48 Burton Street,

Darlinghurst, for the Izcuchaca project.

POTTERS' COTTAGE, Warrandyte, Vic., tbis year celebrates its 20th Anniversary. It was

officially opened by Dame Mabel Brookes on 25 September, 1958. The Anniversary will be

marked by a Potters' Cottage Prize Exhibition.

ALDGA TE CRAFfS, Aldgate, South Australia, is for sale. After ten years of working hard

to establish a quality outlet for Australian crafts, Rhonda and Keith Ogilvie have decided to

sell their gallery. Jones, Lang and Wootton of Adelaide are the sole agents.

THE WORKSHOPS GALLERY in St George's Road, Upper Beaconsfield, Vic., welcomes

visitors. Works of Ian Sprague's Mungeribar Pottery and Vic Greenaway's Broomhill Pottery.

One of the two trainees at Broomhill, Bruce Heggie, is leaving to set up his own workshop

in July. Julie is a past student of Prahran College. A new trainee from Darwin, Paul Winspear,

has taken Bruce's place.

WORK OPPORTUNITY WANTED. In lune or July of this year two New Zealand potters,

John and Kathleen Ing of Nelson District, would like to spend about a month working with

a potter in the Eltbam district. Their address is R.D.I Motuera, New Zealand.

57


ACQUISITIONS

COLLECTION PIECES

An ertract from the foreword to the catalogue

written by David Brawshaw, who was

consultant to the exhibition.

This exhibition "Collection Pieces"

essentially surveys, as far as possible,

the type and variety of Australian

craft 17 selected public or corporate

collections have acquired during the

past seven years. The over-all intent

was to have a well balanced exhibition

with all the crafts given considerable

prominence. This to a large extent was

not possible because certain crafts

have not yet found their way into important

collections, or at the best are

very poorly represented. Besides this it

was hoped to survey the changes of

style or direction of work adopted by

craftsmen over this period. This too

proved difficult. It was found that due

to policy changes such as the discontinuing

of specific programs or in fact

through lack of funds in particular

years, there was little evidence of an

evenly weighted buying pattern over

the seven-year period. However, with

craftsmen who were well known and

established prior to 1970 it was possible

to some extent to show a progression

of their work. By borrowing

from such diverse collections it was

also intended to show that craft collecting

is not solely the province of the

museum or art gallery. It can be

seen from this exhibition that significant

craft works are now being

assembled not only by government or

semi-government bodies but also by

commerce, teaching institutions, student

associations and other organisations.

If this is recognised this exhibition

may act as a catalyst or provide an

incentive for other organisations to

consider craft collecting as a worthwhile

endeavour.

DAVID FINCHER: Stoneware lady;

ht 39 cm. Owned by the Penata Collection.

Collection Pieces, Australian Crafts

1970-1977, at the National Gallery of

Victoria, February-March 1978.

MANLY ART GALLERY

Manly Art Gallery and Historical Collection

has a permanent display of

works by early artists, early and contemporary

works of some of our living

painters, and paintings by significant

artists whose work is not always

BILL SAMUELS

58


on view in state galleries. It also

houses an extensive collection of historical

records of the area, and is

steadily increasing its collection of contemporary

Australian pottery.

The Collection was started in 1924

with the purchase by public subscription

of a painting by James R. J ackson,

"Middle Harbour from Manly

Heights".

The Gallery is administered on behalf

of Manly Municipal Council. It is

open every day from 2 p.m. until 5

p.m. (except Monday) . In March each

year a Selection Exhibition is held

from which paintings are purchased for

the Collection.

In 1968 the committee demonstrated

its interest in contemporary

Australian ceramics by holding an exhibition

from which it bought a pot by

Hiroe Swen for permanent display.

I ts next purchase, in 1970, was a

lidded jar by Harry and May Davis,

from an exhibition at the Bonython

Gallery. Since 1975 an annual invita-

SHUNICHI INOUE

JESSICA HAWES

tion ceramic exhibition has been held;

this brings together the work of about

twenty potters and purchases are made

from these exhibitions as well as from

other sources. The Collection now includes

work by Janet Barriskill, Les

Blakebrough, Len Castle, Harry and

May Davis, Diogenes Farri, John Gilbert,

Jessica Hawes, Shunicbi Inoue,

Renata de Lambert, Janet Mansfield,

Rachel Roxburgh, Peter Rushforth,

Bill Samuels, Shiga Shigeo, Derek

Smith, Hiroe Swen and Peter Travis.

Financial assistance given by the Craft

Board of the Australia Council over

the past two years has helped considerably

with these purchases and grants

from the Premier's Department (Division

of Cultural Activities) have been

received to photograph the Gallery

Collection, improve the lighting and install

another display case for pottery.

The Manly Gallery, intimate and

well established, is unique in some

ways, and to all interested in painting,

pottery or history, has much to offer.

Clarice Thomas,

Honorary Director

Photographs: Stall ley Hawes

59


The most comprehensive listing of artist-potters

in Australia, with photographs of their work, signatures

or marks, and biographical notes.

POTTERS IN AUSTRALIA

Three major essays are included, written by

Milton Moon, Wanda Garnsey and Doug. Alexander.

Potters in Australia will be of special interest to

potters, gallery owners, exhibition organizers,

collectors and students.

Publication of the book was assisted by a grant from the Crafts Board

of the Australia Council.

Available now 'rom the Editor,

48 Burton Street, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010

$2.50 or $3.00 posted

60


EXHIBITION REVIEWS

H1ROESWEN

Pastoral Gallery, Old Cooma Road

Queanbeyan

Hiroe Swen's current exhibition was to

be one of the highlights of this year's

series of craft exhibitions.

Here is the idealistic example of the

artist loving the material but not being

dominated by it. Clay in Hiroe's hands

does what she wants it to do.

This particular exhibition is not just

an exhibition of current work; it has

been carefully selected by the artist to

show what she feels is the strongest work

to date. It does just that. Eaeh piece reflects

the strong and simplistic character

of the artist. Her work stands apart from

the norm of Australian pottery, for each

piece contains the preciousness of sculptural

form. Each piece deserves its own

special position in any environment.

Hiroe's work grows in strength as the

years pass. For example, form used to be

her greatest concern. This latest work

shows greater concentration on glazing,

but not glazing just for the sake of it.

The aim is to enhance and magnify the

overall form.

There are many successful examples. Tn

particular, there is a set of six centrally

p05itioned platters, which accommodate

extensive glaze work. Each piece could

stand on its own but the strength lies in

the completeness of the group. The controlled

glaze pattern leads the eye from

one platter to the next. It binds the six

individual pieces into one complete work.

Other exquisite examples are seen in

smooth-surfaced pieces where Hare's Fur

glazes are used. The effect is accomplished

through a complicated doubleglazing

technique and works particularly

well on some of the larger forms. In

some cases the glaze contrasts but does

not fight with the form.

The more textural pieces are also receiving

more glaze attention. Lines

created by overlapping layers of clay are

emphasised by the use of glazes that

break thinly over the higher relief. Again

this works particularly well on the larger

bowl forms. There are also some new dry

alkaline glazes, the most dramatic being

the smooth turquoise. In contrast to most

dry glazes, the unique feature of these is

that while they look dry and rough they

are in fact creamy smooth. The glazes

are visually "dry" because of their

HIROE SWEN:

Coilbuilt, flask· shaped ceramic by Hiroe

Swen from her Seventh Solo Exhibition at

Pastoral Gallery, during November­

December, 1977. Swirling "ribbonimpressions"

on a hessian patterned

surface provide an unusual, decorative

touch. A high-sheen glaze in various browns

gives this ceramic a transparent quality.

Fired to I 280·C in a top-loading electric

kiln . Dimensions : 28 em high x 34 em long

x 13 em wide.

Photograph: John Turnbllll

macro-crystalline structure and the effect

is obtained through cooling the kiln very

slowly.

The show is quite extensive, with over

200 pieces on exhibition, but the gallery

space is open, which allows the work to

be spread over a large area. When you

go, be prepared to spend some time. If

you do take the time to really get to

know the work, you will be pleasantly

surprised with the magic of it.

Tim Moorhead

Canberra Times, Nov. 6, 1977

FREDERIC CHEPEAUX

At the Allegro is a one-man, mixedmedia

exhibition by French-born Frederic

Chepeaux, who at 32 has developed

an innovative approach to the media he

exploits, mainly timber, terracotta and

metals.

Several pieces by Chepeaux were

selected to represent Australia this year

at the Intemational Exhibition at Faenza

61


FREDERIC CHEPEAUX

Photograph: illTla Malnic

(Italy), where a critic noted that he

"demonstrates to what extent the ceramic

material possesses the expressive qualities

necessary to put it to the service of

sculpture" (Carlo Munari in Corriere

Veneto, 20/ 911977).

Cbepeaux treads a tricky patb between

art and craft, but is one of the few who

manages successfully to bridge the gap.

The major factors include technical

facility and a highly imaginative juxtaposition

of symbolic forms, usually of a

representational nature. To enjoy the

works fully in his new exhibition it is

necessary not only to look, but to touch

and even to smell. The viewer opens,

closes, explores textures and reacts to the

smells of timber and stands.

An underlying concern for tbe human

condition gives a sense of conceptual

unity to the exhibition. It is almost impossible

to isolate anyone work, as each

piece conveys another aspect of a total

vision or philosophy.

A recurring image is that of the

human head, usually created from unglazed

terracotta. Many of tbe boxed

forms are symbolic torsos surmounted

by lifesized clay heads. At times these

heads convey rather theatrical expres-

sions almost in the tradition of theatre of

mime. Seldom are the facial expressions

deeply moving, and I am not sure if tbis

is intentional on Chepeaux's part. Perhaps

Cbepeaux is deliberately devising

an impersonal language of facial expression

representing the common man? In

pieces such as the Pragmatist I feel there

is a need for greater intensity of expression,

as viewer reaction is distanced by

the blandness of the facial gesture.

This calculated blandness works best

in Recognition, consisting of 16 terracotta

heads in timber pigeonholes. Only

two break the overall frontal aspect, one

on the top row being angled to acknowledge

the existence of another, also

angled, on tbe bottom level. These heads

are reminiscent of ceramic Victorian

dolls' beads, completely hairless, and

creating a cbilling comment on communication

problems in human society.

A work of similar format is The Deviant,

but instead of heads Cbepeaux has

created pear forms out of clay. Baldessin's

monumental sculpted pears in the

Art Gallery of NSW collection convey

almost fleshily human forms witb highly

sensuous overtones in much the same

way as Chepeaux's boxed pears. Of the

20 pear symbols in Chepeaux's creation

only one is conspicuously different, a

change of emphasis in modelling resulting

in a form suggestive of a provocatively

sbaped bare buttock.

All of the work in this exhibition reflects

Chepeaux's cheeky sense of

humour. Sexual references are treated

witb a refresbing unselfconscious candor,

as in the boxed phallic torso and

tootbbrush forms of Travelling Light.

Penis and tootbbrush-what more could

a gentleman on the road to success need?

Fantasy elements of an almost fairytale

nature are open to Freudian interpretation

just as Alice in Wonderland is.

Works sucb as Concierge to Her Heart

and Time Bomb Virgin are as evocative

of sin sex and secrecy as the Polish filmmake;

Borowczyk's beautiful but disturbing

celluloid masterpieces. Because Chepeaux's

symbols are mostly created from

natural media there is also a sense of

timelessness.

Arthllr Mclntyre

The A IIs/raUon , Dec. 8, 1977

62


Copacabana beach (near Gosford), is a

fait accompli.

In this array of wicked send-ups of

behavioural patterns and faithfully rendered

period styles, Taylor's Trocadero,

a star-studded, midnight blue c1oudland.

straight out of the big band era, is the

crowning glory. The pigs never had it so

good.

Nancy BorJase

Sydney Morning Herald, Dec. 17, 1977

SANDRA TAYLOR

The Sandra Taylor exhibition of ceramics,

at the Art of Man Gallery is the

most infectiously enjoyable sho"; of the

year.

'The more you enjoy your work, the

better you do it," is the guiding principle

that motivates this Cheeky but goodhumoured

manipulator of clay who recently

scooped up a coveted gold medal

at the 35th International Competition of

Ceramics in Faenza, Italy.

Appropriately, the piece which won

her the medal belonged to a series of

Gucci handbags, those status symbols, so

much a part of the affiuent life style.

These white stoneware bags, which

proudly bear the Gucci stamp, are inlaid

with liquid gold, and gold-plated

ball bearings, pl aced inside to highlight

the reflective qualities, provide the ultimate

touch of Midas magic.

There is no mi staking the delicious

social satire implicit in Taylor's zany

assortment of ceramic pigs, cockatoos

an~ urbane, multi-coloured slugs, in a

senes of Slug Plates. Could anyone look

a slug in the eye again?

Only the ceramic landscapes with their

stencilled cloud or bird patterns presse:l

into the clay, her breezily ornamental

Island Scenes and some circular plates

with rippling Art Nouveau or cockatoo

designs, stay within the bounds of the

decorative arts.

The absurd incongruity of her Room

pieces, where snotty-nosed, beady-eyed,

obnoxious pigs recline in ostentatiousll·

trendy interiors, calls to mind George

Orwell's Animal Farm, although the

sharp Orwellian message of anti-authoritarianism

is missing. Here, where apparently

the pigs, slugs and cockatoos are

all equal, with the pigs more equal than

the others, luxuriating in the salubrious

life, indoors as well as outdoors on

RENATA de LAMBERT

Beaver Galleries

Renata de Lambert's exhibition of rll n-:­

tional pottery at the Beaver Galleries

brings together a mastery of t he craft

with a boldness and freedom of design.

For an exhibition of "functillOal pottery"

.1 w~s amazed by the large range

and dlvefSlty of shapes, forms and sizes;

Renata de Lambert achieves a successful

marriage of creative ceramic art with

functional design.

Born in Germany, Renata de Lambert

studied ceramics in Sydney, Engl and and

Germany and in 1974 became the master

potter in charge of the established

pottery at Lake Constance in West Germany.

Throughout the exhibition there is a

feeling of grace and ease with which she

handles teChnique; it is an elegant simplicity

which is attained. The decorations

which she applied to her pots have the

same atmosphere of fluency and sense of

freedom from contrived artificiality. She

has a mastery of glaze application ranging

from the stencil spray technique to

the clear, pale glaze finish .

In . her large pottery-like the large

stand 109 Jars, open plate dishes and the

low casseroles- she has the quality of

loose decorative masses that resist becoming

cluttered or pretty. They stand

direct, clear and undisguised.

Renata de Lambert's exhibition is a

demonstration of how Irad itional aspects

of pottery can gain a vilality when treated

with skill and sensitIvity.

.~ osha G rishin

Canberra Thnes, Oct. 15, 1977

63


JEAN-JACQUES V ASCHALDE and

NINA BIERMAN

Joy Bowman Galleries

Joy Bowman Galleries make a very beautiful

environment for the pottery exhibition

of husband and wife team Jean­

Jacques Vaschalde and Nina Bierman.

Jean-Jacques' very individual ceramics

include platters and large bottle forms

where magic has resulted from the idea

of letting his wife's hands hug, ever so

gently, the form before firing, so that

the hands are impressed on the wet glaze

only and then fuse with it in the firing.

Another charming pot form which is

Jean-Jacques' speciality is a plump pumpkin

form with a delicate frilly, nondetachable

lid .

Nina shows numerous spheric forms

with nipples. These sensual pieces have

no connotations with funky art. She explains

them as the natural result of recent

motherhood. Nina's outstanding

piece, however, is a large platter with a

superb sang-de-boeuf glaze.

Dr Gertrude Langer

Courier Mail, Nov. 5, 1977

JEAN JACQUES VASCHALDE

NJNA BJERMAN

CHRIS SANDERS

Imago Gallery, and

DULCE HERD

Potters' Cottage

There's a generous feeling about much of

Chris Sanders' pottery exhibited at

Imago Gallery, 3 Powell Street, South

Yarra.

The exhibition presents a range of

tableware, including a complete dinner

setting, tea service with a family-size teapot,

tureen sets, jars, goblets, various

boxes, and some large pots.

The shapes and glazes in this primarily

functional exhibition are of a kind to

appeal to those who admire pottery that

is earthy without being rough, smart

without being slick, and liberal in size

and proportion without being gross.

The tureen sets glazed in rich tan combined

with pale interiors for the tureens

are excellent examples of these qualities.

The accompanying ladles are also fine

to look at and to hold. But the potter

should consider altering the position of

the lips for more comfortable and efficient

pouring, without sacrificing their

otherWise strong design.

Of the more ornamental pieces, one

large pot with incised markings below

the neck and decorated in pale, subtle

glazes also illustrates his natura.l feeling

for the sensuous in shape and proportion.

His work will not obtrude upon the

households it eventually occupies, but

will bring warmth to the day-to-day living

of the occupants.

64


DULCE HERD

At Potters' Cottage, Warrandyte, Dulce

Herd also brings to her tableware a

sound appreciation for the ultimate use

of her pieces.

DULCE HERD

Although she is inclined to cast her

net a little too wide in searching for

fresh designs to perform traditional functions,

her skills in structure and finish

serve her well.

The large dinner service in dull greenyellow

is the best illustration of her consistency

and craftsmanship.

Ted Greenwood

The Age, Sept. 19, 1977

SLOpS, for the range of technique and

expertise is incredible.

Most impressive are the platters, where

the lava-like flowing and erupting of

colour shows off best.

His brusbwork decoration is a trifle

overdone, but one can sense the rhythm

which takes over the potter's brush and

he is to be forgiven the gilding of the

lily.

Opening night saw a sellout and the

assembled viewers were the creme de fa

creme of tbe craft world in Australia.

You might call it discreet buying by

all the government bodies concerned

with tbe crafts, for every group seemed

to have bought something, a few more

wisely than otbers.

There are sti ll a few rough spots in the

works-lid fitting, "S" cracks and weight

of objects, but it's a top marks exhibition.

Another potter who continues to

make the same form over and over is

Colin Browne, now at Clive Parry Galleries,

Beaumaris.

His elliptical, ovoid objects are given

greater sensuality with some magnificent

black glazes, both shiny and matt.

A generation younger than Reg, Colin

is a potters' potter, as is Preston, but he

has had the benefit of tbe "knowledge

explosion" in the crafts; as a result he has

not had to cope with the massive amount

of experimentation of his predecessors,

nor is he as rigid in his aesthetics.

Colin Browne will be known for his

shapes, Reg Preston for his brilliant use

of glaze. See them both-it's quite an experience.

David Hartmaier

The S1I1I , Sept. 12, 1977

REG PRESTON

Craft Centre, and

COLIN BROWNE

Clive Parry Galleries

You can't help but feel you're in a Japanese

master potter's workshop when

viewing the recent output of pots by Reg

Preston at the Craft Centre, 309 Toorak

Road, South Yarra.

His forms are traditional storage jars,

and there is nothing new in their shap~

or concept. We've seen Reg do them time

and again. But the glazes are something

else.

The man can glaze, and in this showing

of 165 pieces he's pulled out all the

REG PRESTON: Large square platter,

40 em square. Photograph: Dulce Herd

65


MILTON MOON

Craft Centre

Eminent po: ,er Milton Moon wears at

least two ha" ID his latest exhibition at

the Crnlt Centre, 309 Toorak Road,

South rarra.

First there i. Milton Moon the glazepainter

casting a soft spell over a series

of bowls and platlers.

The images are ephemeral. They hint

at pink blossom and wispy foliage .

Sometimes a stronger splash or rich

brown glaze cuts across a part of the

platter to suggest a ground-plane for the

growth, while behind the soft elusive

marks lies a fine pearly crackle glaze I·"

act as background.

He backs this collection with a group

of more defined bowls and vessels still

wit h a pearly crackle glaze, but ' with

these it's darker in tonI! and the overglaze

decoration is firmer and presented

as a un!t, such as a sprig of foliage.

WOOl.ng though all this might be, it

was MIlton Moon the "Yohen" potter

who interested me most.

I presume the label "Yohen" refers to

a Japanese district, family or kiln with

which I am not familiar, and therefore

I cannot compare these pots with those

from this source.

These pots are made from a clay bodv

which fires to a rich biscuit with patches

of red and orange, and on which the potter

decorates with dull oxides and a thick

glossy treacle-like glaze on the interior

walls which spills out down the outsides

from the necks.

The contrast hetween glazed and unglazed

sections is st riking and very satisfying

in colour and manipulation.

The large floor pots could he ~"n,>Jered

as technical /Ours de forct'. BUI

si mply a virtuosic dis play would not be

enough.

The pots possess a rare quality-a feeling

imparted by the residual imprint of

the heat to which they have been subjected.

This glowing legacy helps a viewer

to share some of the potter's ow n

excitement in the Chemistry of his craft.

Ted Greenwood

Th e A ge, Oct. 3, 1977

WALKER CERAMIC AWARD 1977

The first annual Walker Ceramic Award

was held at the Caulfield Arts Centre,

December 5-18, 1977 . It was open to

full-time ceramic students throughout

Australia, undertaking the final year of

their studies at a tertiary institution. The

award attracted fifty-one students represen.tmg

.most of t~e major teaching institutions

ID Australia. The judging was to

be assessed on four pieces representing

the work of the participants.

The judging panel of three were as

follows: Kenneth Hood, Deputy Director

of the National Gallery of Victoria:

Harold Hughan. the highly distinguished

A~stralian potter; and Felicity Abraham,

Director of the Resource Centre of the

Crafts Council.

The winner of this significant $1000

award was Jenny Hayes from the Bendigo

College of Advanced Education.

The winning group consisted of four

large, slab-built, chamotte bodied boxes,

feldspathic blue glazed, with gold lust red

bands.

The following were highly commended

and acquilcd for the Walker Collection

:

Tim Der Kinderen, Ri ve rina College of

Advanced Education: Salt Jar.

Paul Greenaway, SA School of Arts:

Boxed dragons.

JENN IFER HAYES: Box form, stoneware

chamotte body, mall glazes with gold

lustres; ht 39 cm, width 27 em. A set of

four won the Walker Ceramic Award for

1977. Photograph: D elZlZis O'Hoy

66


Adele Hollywood, Prahran College of

Advanced Education: Large open form

with pftal rim.

Lorene Kelly, Bendigo College of Advanced

Education: Celadon stoneware

salad set.

Christoph?r Langtnn, Bendigo College of

Advanced Education: Three chamotte

bodied fonns.

Judy Pearn ain, Bendigo College of Advanced

Ed'lcation: Seven stoneware

bottles.

Peter Pilven, Ralhlfat College of Advanced

Educatilln: Tall vase.

Lawrence Wolf, Caulfield Institute of

Technology: Three square silver-edged

jewellery boxes.

Comprising 196 entries, the overall

standard of the work was very high, and

demonstrated the diversity of techniques

and approaches fnllowed by the various

colleges. The skills attained by these students

indicate a prosperous development

for Australian ceramics in the years

ahead. The pieces purchased by Walker

Ceramics have been used to form the

nucleus of a collection which will eventually

be used as a travelling exhibition.

Finally the management of Walker

Ceramics must be congratulated for organising

the award, which must ultimately

benefit all engaged with ceramics.

Dennis O'Hoy

Belldigo College oj Advanced

Education

TIM MOOR HEAD: "Australian Parrots";

white stoneware, blue onglaze, decal

decoration; ht 45 cm.

Photograph: David Feathersoll

TIM MOORHEAD

Clive Parry Galleries

"Decade Down Under," March, 1978

There were about fifty pieces exhibited,

all completed during Tim's Creative Arts

Fellowship at ANU. The ceramic surface

decoration technique called Photo­

Decalcomania, which he commenced

work on several years ago at the Prahran

College of Advanced Education, is used

throughout.

Tim commenced his Fellowship year

late May, after working as an Education

and Development Officer with the Crafts

Section of the Department of Further

Education in South Australia since 1973.

He sees his Fellowship as a transition

period between nine years of administering

art courses and re-establishing himself

as a full-time artist/ craftsman. On

completing his Fellowship he and his

wife Sue, also an artist/ craftsman, plan

to move into their unique home and

studio in the old copper town of Burra,

100 miles north of Adelaide. The old

stone bu ilding, originall y a Salvation

Army Citadel, had been vacant for thirty

to forty years before the Moorheads

realised its potential.

Jlllle Dellholm

67


J

BOOK AND MAGAZINE REVIEWS

TRADITIONAL POTTERY TECH­

N IQUI:.-S OF PAKISTAN: by Owen S.

Rye and Clifford Evans. Smithsonian

Institution Press, Washington, 1976.

This is an intriguing account of a very

thorough investigation of the pottery and

potters of Pakistan-a most useful documentation

of what is probably a fast disappearing

traditional craft.

An astonishing variety of ways of

forming and firing pots is described, but

I found the chapter on techniques and

analytical studies of greatest interest,

especially the material on the production

of alkaline glazed ware. I feel that this

is an idiom that has been overlooked by

Australian craftsmen-potters. The brilliance

and clarity of the colours that can

be achieved with these glazes make it

well worth having a look at the problems

that may be invoved in adapting this

technique to Australian materials and

conditions. This excellent and detailed

account of the Pakistani technique could

form the point of departure for such a

venture, and hopefully result in another

alternative to lead-glazed earthenware,

now that we have become so much more

aware of the toxicity of lead.

I found the cold-blooded academic

style of the publication a little off-putting,

but the amassed data are most valuable.

I wish academics would allow tbemselves

to express feelings and to speculate

- after all there's nothing disreputable

about it.

I cannot help regretting that the

opportunity to make this type of comprehensive

and remarkably detailed study

of some of the Chinese traditional stoneware

and porcelain craft technologies has

been missed. I cannot recall any of the

nineteenth or early twentieth century accounts

of these wares that even approach

this study in breadth of treatment or in

detail. Now that the industry in China has

been modernised and some Western

techniques introduced, it seems the

chance has been missed. It is to be boped

that the Smithsonian Institution will not

allow political bias to stand in the way

of any opportunity that may still exist

for studies in this area and some of the

other areas of major ceramic significance.

These studies can be of great

value to contemporary craftsmen-potters,

and a counter to t he corrosive and destructive

effects of the spread of Western

industrial technology.

Ivan M cMeekin

ELECTRIC KILN CONSTRUCTION

FOR POTTERS: by Robert Fournier.

Van Nostrand Reinhold ($ 12.95).

This is easily the best book on the subject

I have seen. If you have ever dreamt of

building yourself an electric kiln, tben

this book should make it possible for you

to realise this dream.

It begins with background information

about electricity and electric circuits and

the wires--or rods-used as "elements"

in electric kilns, and about the insulating

and conducting properties of various

materials which govern the philosophy of

the design of electric kilns. It proceeds

to provide instructions on how to decide

on the dimensions of your kiln, the

type and amount of insulation needed,

the gauge and length of wire required for

the elements, etc., and then clear and

concise directions as to how to construct

the kiln box. wind the elements

and connect them up. It concludes with

details of temperature controls and indicators,

useful comments on using electric

kilns, and detailed calculation of the

materials required for five typical kilns

and how to assemble them.

In discussing thermocouples the

author makes the statement that

chromel-alumel must not be used for

firings above 1l00°CJ2010°F . Whilst

this material certainly has a reduced life

when used up to stoneware temperatures,

it is so much cheaper than the

alternative platinum-platinum rhodium

that its use up to 1260°C or so can be

well worth while. Apart from this minor

point, and the need to emphasise perhaps

rather more than Mr Fournier does

that the installation of power points and

the checking of devices to be connected

to the mains supply must be done by a

licensed electrician, the book can be

recommended without qualification.

Arthur Higgs

MODERN AUSTRALIAN SCULP­

TURE: Multi-media with clay. Ron

Rowe. Published by Rigby.

Any survey of a particular art is to be

welcomed and tbis book presents the

work of a variety of artists who bave

worked in clay or included it in their

work in conjunction with other materials.

In some ways tbe emphasis on clay is a

little misleading for many of the works

relegate clay to a minor role. Most of the

works, representing 21 artists, are from

the early 1970s, giving a valuable cross-

68


section of some of the ceramic sculpture

of that time. The directions taken by the

sculptors are varied as are their treatments

of their materials. There are organic

forms, geometric forms, surrealism,

social statements, totems, produced

in many different clay treatments,

modelled, thrown, press moulded, slipcast,

painted, glazed, and in conjunction

with glass, plastic, feathers, wood

and so On. Nearly all the works illustrated

are small in scale, claimed to

have been conceived spontaneously, and

are united by a certain experimental

whimsy. The book is really a picture

book with most of the photographs reproduced

in colour and it is unfortunate

that many of these are fuzzy with

bad colour rendering. 1 would have

liked more information about the artists

and their ways of working as well as a

critical survey of the period of their

works io relation to other art forms. The

short statements by each artist in the book

do very little for the reader. In spite of

the fact that this book shows sculpture

in its most minor form, the book is a

must for every artist and craftsman.

Ivan Englllnd

PRACTICAL GUIDE TO POTTERY:

Colin Gerard. Hutchinson. Available

from the Potters' Gallery ($8.95 plus 60c

postage).

My first impression of this book was

"Oh, no, not another book for beginners"

and on a flick through was disappointed

with the quality of the reproduced

photographs done in a sort of

sepia blue tone, but on closer examin

tion 1 became more impressed with the

contents. It covers the basic knowledge

of the potters' craft as completely and

lucidly as I have yet seen in a beginner's

book. As the book was mapped out

by Michael Casson, I suppose it is not

surprising that Colin Gerard has done a

craftsman·like job of presenting the material.

He starts the book with a Glossary

of Terms, works into Basic Materials,

Preparation and Storage of Clay. He then

attacks the how to section with Pot Maki

ng Without a Wheel. In this section he

packs an amazing amount of useful information

and techniques with good line

drawings, enough photos of good pots

(unfortunately badly reproduced) and

diverse ideas for projects. Wheel work is

covered well in the following chapter.

He treats kilns by starting with bonfire

and sawdust firing-giving a design for

a wood-fired kiln and then an oil-fired

one with a design for a simple burner.

He then discusses types of kilns and

packing and firing the kiln. There are

two Chapters on glazing; both explain

simply a complex subject, and decoration

is treated fully. The book is finished

off with chapters on setting up a

School Pottery, the Potters' Heritage

and the Appendix.

This book must come close to being

the most complete of its type and I am

going to suggest to my students next

year that it become their basic text.

Leonard Smith

MAGAZINES

Reviewed by Janet DeBoos

CERAMICS MONTHLY: Ten issues/

year. SUSI I for one year; $USI9 for two

years; $US26 for three years. Available

from "Ceramics Monthly", Box 12448,

Columbus, Ohio, 43212.

One of the longest running ceramics

magazines; previously all black and

white, has recently branched out into

colour covers and spreads. Used to have

a decidedly "hobby potter-handy hints"

flavour which grows less pronounced

with each issue. Even if only one article

per issue proves to be of interest to the

subscriber, it is well worth it at under

one dollar per magazine on the longest

subscription. Articles vary from the historical

to the technical to the survey of

who's done what and where. Also quite

large section on shows, schools, etc.,

across the States.

EARTH GARDEN: Four issues/ year.

$7 (postage included) for one year from

"Earth Garden", PO Box 378, Epping,

NSW, 2121.

Less a magazine for potters than fur

those into alternative life styles. Does

have some sections of a "how-to-do-i,"

nature that deal with pottery, but very

much beginners' level. The interest for

potters would probably lie more in the

articles on how to get a good milker,

make mud bricks or generate solar

power.

CRAFTSMAN: Journal of the Ontario

Crafts Council. $Can.IS per year for

six issues.

A black and white publication that is

mainly pictures with brief articles accompanying

them. Covers the usual crafts,

but in no great depth. At over $2 per

issue (of approximately 18 pages), one

would have to have considerable inter·

est in Canadian crafts to make it worth

buying. Despite this the layout and general

appearance are good.

69


THE POITERS' SOCIETY OF AUSTRALIA

48 Burton Street, Darlinghurst 2010. Tel. 3 1 3151

The Society was established in 1956 to encourage and foster the development,

appreciation and recognition of pottery made by individual craftsmen and designers

in a ceramic medium. From four members it has grown to its present

strength of 180 exhibiting members and more than 300 associate members. As

a national body, through its members in all States, it acts in liaison with other

groups and associations concerned with the promotion of the crafts, and its

practical assistance to potters generally helps to raise the standard of the craft

throughout Australia. Amongst its many activities, the Society publishes Pottery

in Australia and maintains the Potters' Gallery and Workshop School at 48

Burton Street, Darlinghurst. Summer schools under the direction of leading potters

are held in January each year, visits by overseas potters, lectures and social

occasions are organised.

The Society has been wholly self-supporting apart from cultural grants given

by the Australia Council Crafts Board and the N.S.W. Government for special

educational projects and workshop equipment for the Society's workshop.

Organisation of the Society, which is a non-profit distributing organisation, is in

the hands of an annually elected Committee of Members headed by a President.

POTTERS' lNFORMATlON CENTRE

The Potters' Gallery, 48 Burton Street, Darlinghurst

The Potters' Society of Australia has set up a display area where visitors to the Gallery can

see a wide range of materials and workshop equipment available to the potter from the

various manufacturers and distributors in Australia. Brochures are available.

Centre open during gallery hours.

This logo has been designed by Miriam Sm ith

especially for the National Ceramic

Conference. Tee shirts with the Conference

IJg0 are available from the Potters' Gallery for

$4.50 each or $5 posted. When ordering

please state si zes, S, M, or L.

70


MEMBERSHIP : There are three categories of membership.

Exhibiting Members-should work creatively in a ceramic medium, architectural, sculptural

or domestic. at a professional standard. Applicants sbould apply in writing and are required

to submit examples of recent work and/ or slides and photographs to the Membership Selection

Committee, which meets four times a year. When applicants are elected to membership

they may exhibit selected work in any of the Society'S exhibitions, or at tbe Potters' Gallery.

Annual Subscription : $15.00-


COMPETITIONS AND EXHIBITIONS

COMPETITION AWARDS

RAS, Royal Easler Show, Sydney

Judge : Janet De Boos

$200 Major ceramic work (container form)-Tim Der Kinderen

$200 Ceramic work (sculptural)-Julje Brackenreg

1977 Pug Mill Award (functional ceramics)

Judge: Kym Bonython

$500 Functional ceramics-Anne Mercer

COMPETITIONS

Gosford Sbire Art Exhibition 1978 13-27 May 1978

Judge: Gillian Grigg

Pottery-Section 5, wheelthrown; section 6, hand built. 0 purchase is expected to exceed

$250 and acquisitions will not exceed $500.

Open for viewing at. 225 Mann Street, Gosford

Details: Committee Chairman, 75 Mann Street, Gosford 2250

Dubbo Art & Crafls Sociely Art and Crafl Purchase 2-7 June 1978

Judge: Janet DeBoos

Ceramics-Section B I. Craft purchases to $1000 total

Open for viewing at Dubbo Civic Centre

Details: Exhibition Secretary, Box 889, PO., Dubbo, NSW 2830

Pllg Mill Award 1-22 October 1978

Acquisitive functional competition

Judge: to be appointed by the Craft Association of South Australia

Open for viewing at the ram Factory Gallery, St Peters, SA

Townsville Pacific Festival

26 MaY-5 June

Pottery Competition

Details: Executive Director, Townsville Pacific Festival, PO Box 809, Townsville, Qld 4810

(723213)

Armidale Community Craft Festival 1978

29 September-8 October

Open prize for ceramics--non-acquisitive.

Enquiries: Secretary, PO Box 724, Armidale 2350

"AUSTRALIAN CRAFTS"

"Australian Crafts", an exhibition of recent work by Australian craftsmen, opened in February

1978 as part of the Adelaide Festival of Arts and is now touring major galleries in Australia

during the remainder of 1978 prior to an extended international tour.

The exhibition surveys current directions in the Australian crafts movement. There are I 16

exhibits representing tbe work of 65 craftsmen in various craft media. Major emphasis has

been placed upon ceramics and jewellery as these two crafts are emerging strongl y in Australia

at the present time. There are 60 ceramics exhibits and 37 exhibits in jewellery/ metal:

fibre and glass are also represented. With a few exceptions, the Crafts Board has purchased

the exhibits with a view to their forming the basis of a permanent collection in a future

Australian museum of contemporary crafts.

Selection was made by Bernard Sahm, leading Australian ceramic craftsman and lecturerin-charge

of Ceramics, Sydney College of the Arts. In his selection, Bernard Sahm states he

looked for works with an inventive theme, where the craftsman used his particular chosen

medium, be it clay, fibre, or metal, to explore and articulate ideas. Wbile the exhibition

seeks to present a balanced view of directions in Australian crafts in the late '70s, there is

an emphasis on individuality in expression.

Accompanying the exhibition will be a comprehensive catalogue, including an introductory

essay by Bernard Sahm, and illust rations of exhibits.

AustraUan itinerary

Art Gallery of South Australia

Art Gallery of New South Wales

Caulfield Arts Centre, Victoria

Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery

Brisbane Civic Art Gallery and Museum

Undercroft Gallery, Western Australia

25 February-27 March 1978

13 April-14 May 1978

30 May-2 July 1978

8 August-IO September 1978

10 October- I 2 November 1978

4 Deceml:er-24 December 1978

EXHIBITIONS

Barrie Wraith

Kaye Wraltb

Lidums Art Gallery, Mt Barker, SA Feb. 26-M arch 19

Millon Moon

Jam Factory, Adelaide

March

Potters' Guild of SA

Aldgate Crafts

March

Sheila Sykes Bill Frazer Mitcham Village Arts & Crafts, SA March

72


SA Studio Potters' Club

Jolanta Janavicius

Audrey and George Treadway

Royce McGlashcn

Doug Alexander

Greg Daly

Martin Russ.U

Kingsley Marks

Tim Moorhead

Geoff Curtis

David Smith

7th Mildura Sculpture Triennial

Ceramics

Rhonda Ogilvie

Paul Davis

Dennis Monks, Kerry Selwood,

Tony Nankervis

Dawn Slade

John Dermer

Meg Thompson, lanet Crompton

Shunicbi Inoue

Victor Greenaway, Shiga Sbigeo

Shunichi Inoue, Alan Watt

Ceramic Sculpture

Ceramics & Glass

Ceramics

Members' Exhibition

Pots for Cbeese

Stepben Skillitzi

Audrey Stockwin

Ten SA Potters

Beaumaris Group 10

Frederic Cbepeaull

Alan Peascod

lames and lean Tyler

Erica Letscb

Sandra Black

Australian Crafts

Colin Browne

Ikebana & Pots

Nell Petrie

Rutb Evatt

Laurie Mitchell

Renata de Lambert

New Members

Les Blakehrough

Kaye Nadole

"A Day for Mugs"

Experimental Sculptural Forms

Aus!ralian Pottery 1900·1950

Rod Pedlar

Victorian Ceramic Group

Henri Luijckx

Royal (SA) Society of Arts

Beaver Galleries, Red Hill, ACf

Craft Association of Q Gallery,

Spring Hill

Potters' Gallery, Spring Hill, Q

Narek Galleries, Cuppacumbalong,

Tharwa, ACf

Potters' Cottage, Warrandyte

Craft Centre, Sth Yarra, V

Aldgate Crafts, Aldgate, SA

Clive Parry Galleries, Beaumaris, V

Craft Association of Q Gallery

Potters' Gallery, Spring Hill . Q

Mildura Arts Centre

Downs Gallery and Arts Centre,

Toowoomba

Aldgate Crafts

Clive Parry Galleries, Beaumaris, V

Narek, Tharwa, ACf

Aldgate Crafts

Craft Centre, Sth Yarra, V

Potters' Gallery. Spring Hill, Q

Jam Factory, Adelaide. SA

Clive Parry Galleries. Beaumaris, V

Crafts Council Gallery, Sydney

Art of Man Gallery, Paddington, NSW

Macquarie Galleries, Sydney

Potters' Gallery, Spring Hill, Q

Laburnum Gallery, Blackburn, V

Holdsworth Gallery, Woollahra, NSW

Craft Revival, Artarmon. NSW

Potlers' Gallery, Sydney

Potlers' Cottage, Warrandyte, V

Art of Man Gallery, Paddington, NSW

Potters' Gallery, Spring Hill, Q

Cooks Hill Galleries, Newcastle, NSW

Aldgate Crafts

Fremantle Arts Centre

Caulfield Arts Centre

Craft Centre, Sth Yarra, V

Potters' Gallery, Sydney

Potters' Gallery, Spring Hill, Q

Hogarth Galleries, Paddington, NSW

Laburnum Gallery, Blackburn, V

Craft Revival, Artarmon, NSW

Potters' Gallery, Sydney

Jam Factory, St Peters, SA

Caulfield Arts Centre, V

Aldgate Crafts, SA

Fine Arts Gallery, University of

Tasmania, Hobart

Shepparton Arts Centre, V

Beaver Galleries. Red Hill , ACT

Caulfield Arts Centre, V

Aldgate Crafts, SA

March

March 5

March 3·29

March 3·25

March 5·April 2

March 16-30

March 14-25

March 19-April 2

March IS-April 5

Mar. 31-April 26

March 31

March/ April /

May

April 3

April 7-21

April 8-26

April 9-May 7

April 9-25

April 10-22

April 21

April21-May 14

April 29-May 17

May

May

May

May 5

May5-19

May 9·20

May 13-J une 3

May 16-June 3

May 20-J une 3

May 23-June 10

May 26

May 26-June 12

May 28-June 12

May

May Ji-July2

June 12-24

June 13-July 1

June 18

June

June 30-J uly 14

June

July 16-Aug. 6

July 19-Aug. 6

July 9-23

July 24-Aug. 4

Aug. 5-0cl. 9

Aug. 13-27

Aug. 20-27

Aug.20-Sepl. 10

73


Bill Samuels

Jan Sprague

Sylvia Halpern

Iris Galbraith

Functional Ceramics

lohn Tescebendorff

Pat Pearson, Barbara Mason,

Valerie Wilson, loan Wilkinson

AJan Watt

Cau lfield City

Council Acquisitive

loyce Scott

Gus McLaren

ludy Lorraine

Kerry Selwood

Potters' Cottage PrIu

Sculpture

Evelyn Elbay

Ceramics

Riroe Swen

Iolanta lanavicIus

Mayfair Ceramics

Pottery Exhibitions (continuous)

Craft Centre, Sth Yarra, V

Fremantle Arts Centre

Potters' Cottage, Warrandyte, V

Cooks Rill Galleries, Newcastle

Crafts Council Gallery

Gryphon Gallery, Carlton, V

Potters' Gallery, Sydney

Aldgate Crafts, Aldgate, SA

Caulfield Arts Centre, V

Solander Gallery, ACf

Potters' Cottage, Warrandyte, V

Clive Parry Galleries, Beaumaris, V

Craft Centre, Sth Yarra, V

Potters' Cottage, Warrandyte, V

Workshop Arts Centre, Willoughby,

NSW

Aldgate Crafts, SA

Aldgate Crafts, SA

Pastoral Gallery, Queanbeyan, NSW

Old Bakery Gallery, Lane Cove, NSW

Crafts Council Gallery

Manyung Gallery, Nepean Highway,

Mt Eliza, V

August

August

August

Aug. 18-28

September

Sept. 4-15

Sept. 5-23

Sept. 17-0ct. 9

Sept. 21-0ct. 1

Sept.

Sept.

Sept. 30-0ct. 18

Sept.

October

Oct. 7-21

Oct. 15-29

Oct. 28-Nov. II

Nov. 4-Dec. 16

November

November

NEW GALLERY. Gallery 180, 180 Toorak Road, South Yarra, Vic., has opened and welcomes

visitors.

BANGLES GALLERY at Cobargo, NSW, is open seven days a week and welcomes visitors.

PATRICIA ENGLUND - stoneware and porcelain, specialising in celadons, chuns and

copper reds. By appointment-telephone 358-4987.

NEWS

GEELONG CERAMIC GROUP entered its second year with the Annual General Meeting

held at the end of March. During its successful first year a two-day workshop was held in

February 1977 by Norio Naeshiro and Brian Kemp. Alan Watt gave a one-day workshop on

porcelain, and in the middle of the year-and to brighten up winter- a raku firing was held

at Graeme Wilkie's pottery at Lome. Over 150 people attended this very successful day.

The climax of the year was the Group Exhibition held at Geelong College with over forty

potlers contributing. For this year members are eagerly awaiting a workshop by Doug

Alexander and later in the year one from John &lye on salt-glazing. Enquiries: Secretary,

Geelong Ceramic Group, PO Box 96, Belmont, Vic. 3216.

VICfORIAN CERAMIC GROUP. 1978 promises to be a year of "highlights", stimulating

and informative. This is Arts Victoria 78: Crafts, the second triennial festival of the

Ministry for the Arts and the first devoted entirely to the crafts, and Victorian Ceramic

Group was fortunate to be involved in their program in the ceramic area, with public

lectures and workshops that VCG will hold with the overseaS craftsmen-in-residence

brought out by the Ministry for this festival year.

The Annual Members' Exhibition will be held at the Caulfield Arts Cent.re, 441 Inkerman

Road, North Caulfield, in August, and will be a members' selling exhibition.

Tbe Group meets the first Monday of each month from March to November inclusive

in the Lecture Theatre, New Arts Building, Melbourne State College, corner Grattan and

Swanston Streets, Carlton, at 8 p.m. New members are always welcome. Enquiries: Victorian

Ceramic Group, PO Box 4096, Spencer Street, Melbourne 3001 (Membersblp Officer).

PORT HACKING POTTERS' GROUP will hold its 17th Annual Competition at Sutherland

Civic Centre from Friday, 28 July, to Saturday, 5 August. Pots may be delivered to The

Potters' Gallery at 48 Burton Street, Darlinghurst, and will be collected by the Group if

competitors are unable to deliver to the Civic Centre. Entry forms will be available in May.

EnqUiries: Secretary, PO Box 7 I , Miranda, NSW 2228.

74


NEWCASTLE CERAMIC GROUP continues to enjoy a healthy expansion, having a rapidly

growing membership. The new committee for 1978, which is incidentally the tenth anniversary

of the foundation of tbe Group, is headed by President Irene Shaw.

A financially successful year was enjoyed by all members. Several shows were organised,

including the Annual Review, which was held in September at the Newcastle University.

The Newcastle Group continues to be involved with community affairs and a recent

display at the Newcastle Show was very well received. Weekend schools included a visit

from Gillian Grigg, who concentrated on slipware techniques. Enquiries: Secretary, 13 Lucas

Crescent. Adamstown Heights. NSW 2289.

QUEENSLAND POTTERS' ASSOCIATION has an interesting line-up of schools, workshops

and exhibitions for 1978. In March, New Zealand potter Royce McGlashen gave two

two-day participation workshops, and there was an exhibition of his work at the Potters'

Gallery.

In May Alan Peascod will give a two-day lecture/ demonstration, with an exhibition at

the Potters' Gallery.

From February to November, fifteen classes at three-week intervals under the title of

"Direction Finding" will be held by Robert Forster, with practic.al work and firing to be

done between sessions. An exhibition of the work from this school will be held in January

1979_ From February to April a ten-week course in Oriental brushwork was conducted by

Mrs Hee Chung_

CENTRAL COAST POTTERS' SOCIETY reports another successful year for 1977. Traditionally

the last meeting for the year was combined with the Christmas party held at Jim and

Jean Tyler's pottery studio, set in glorious bushland at Terriga!.

The Annual Open Day held at Chillamurra Gardens in August was an outstanding

success, with a wide range of craft activity being presented to a large and appreciative group

of visitors.

The proposed Community Arts Centre at Caroline Bay, East Gosford, slowly moves

towards becoming a reality. If the tenacity of the Society's committee docs not falter, official

apathy should be sufficiently overcome to enable building to start early in 1978.

The year was marked by several weekend schools and bus trips, and an interesting

schedule has been arranged for 1978. Enquiries: Don Kelly «043) 24-3471 - day,

(043) 25-1038-home)_

THE CERAMIC STUDY GROUP has a busy year planned ahead. It started with an Activity

Day in February, with throwing, sculpture, screen printing on tiles, and many other demonstrations.

In March the group held a two-day lecture/ demonstration with New Zealand potter

Royce McGlashen, and in May there will be another two-day lecturel demonstration with

Jeff Mincham from Adelaide.

The Fifth Biennial Tour departs in May for a ceramic study tour of UK and Scandinavia.

The Spring School (residential) will be held in September this year at Bowra!.

The CSG holds meetings On the fourth Thursday of the month from March to November

inclusive at McMahons Point Community Centre Hall, Blues Point Road, McMahons

Point. Enquiries: Secretary. Box 5239, GPO, Sydney 2001 (tel. Mrs Jan Roebuck, 44-1624).

PERTH POTTERS' CLUB. Having paid for the large new workroom, the Club has now

decided to replace the old original cottage. Tbe new building, which is in progress, will contain

a large display room, commodious office and library, and kitchen. It is hoped to open

this new home of Perth potters in May with a small exhibition representing every member

of the Club. Enquiries: PO Box 3, Cottesloe, WA 60 I J.

THE CERAMICS STUDY GROUP OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA has completed a successful

year, during which time members have been working on a stoneware clay body for

throwing made from local materials; this bas now reached the production stage. Several

local potters have visited the group and demonstrated their special skills. Other activities

have been a visit to country potters at Collie and Bridgetown, and a Group Exhibition

which was held at the Fremantle Arts Centre. Enquiries: Secretary, 37 Congdon Street,

Swanbourne, WA 6010.

TASMAN IAN POTTERS' SOCIETY, SOUTHERN BRANCH, holds regular quarterly meetings

at which guest speakers talk on different aspects of the craft. The annual general meeting

will be in July.

The Group's annual State-wide exhibition wa~ held in March at. the State Library of

Tasmania in Hobart. In June VIctor Greenaway WIll gIve workshops m Hobart, Launceston

and Burnie. In July potters from the north and north-west will meet southern potters at

Campbelltown for tbe annual weekend get-together, when Gerald Makin will be guest lecturer.

In September Penny Smith will hold workshop for southern members and it is hoped

to arrange a workshop in August with one other Tasmanian potter.

75


THE POlTERS' GUILD OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA, representing the full-time professional

potter in South Australia, was officially constituted in April 1977. The Guild meets on tbe

last Friday of each month at Fullarton Park, Adelaide, with guest speakers, interstate visitors,

critiques of members' pottery, slides, and discussions on topics relevant to pollers.

Members operate a bulk purchase scheme for expensive items such as kiln shelves,

with considerable savings to members. Advice and help are available to members on professional

and business problems.

During its short life the Guild has brought the full-time potters of the State together.

This has been recognised by government bodies, which have sought the Guild's opinions on

certain matters relevant to potters and craft. Enquiries: Greg Pitt, Hadleigh Rise, Upper

Sturt, South Australia.

THE DARWIN POlTERS' GROUP, which is a craft section within the Craft Association of

North Australia, was formed following Cyclone Tracy in 1974. Since that time participation

in the group has grown rapidly. Workshop facilities at the "shed" and the Darwin Community

College enable a number of classes and workshops to operate throughout the year.

1978 is again to be a !busy year with workshops by Ian Sprague, Janet Mansfield and

Lorraine Jenyns. The Crafts Council is sending a small Les Blakebnrough collection, and the

exhibition "Functional Ceramics" is arriving later in the year. "The Back-to-Darwin" festivities

in May include a craft exhibition and a throw-a-thon as the Group's contribution to the

celebrations.

Undoubtedly the highpoint of the year will come in September, when the Museums and

Art Galleries of the Northern Territory will sponsor the first $1000 Northern Territory Acquisition

Craft Award.

Convenor: Vincent McGrath, Ceramics Department, Darwin Community College.

PUBLICATIONS available from the Editor, 48 Burton Street, Darlinghurst 2010.

Please add 30 cents postage extra per copy.

Pottery in Australia (back numbers) 10/ 2, II/ I, 1112, 12/ 1 (70 cents each);

12/ 2, 13/ 1, 13/ 2 ($1.50 each); 14/ 2 ($2.00); 15/ 1 ($2.00); 16/ 1 ($2.50) ;

16/ 2 ($3.50) .

Booklets:

ELECTRIC KILN (Arthur Higgs) ; price 75 cents.

GAS KILN, CATENARY ARCH (Les Blakebrough); price 80 cents.

GAS KILN, TOP LOADING (Ivan Englund); price 80 cents.

RAKU ; price 80 cents.

A SIMPLE WOODFIRED KILN (Ivan Englund) ; price 80 cents.

HIGH-TEMPERATURE WOOD-BURNING KILN (Ivan McMeekin):

price $ 1.00.

A 10 cu. ft. OIL-FIRED KILN PLAN (Alan Peascod) ; price $2.00.

BRISBANE ROCK GLAZES. and

THE BUMBO LATITE, both by Ivan Englund ; price 30 cents each.

KICK-WHEEL PLAN (set of four diagrams); price $1.00.

POTTERS IN AUSTRALIA; price $3 .00 (including postage).

A LOW COST KICK WHEEL (Leonard Smith); price $1.00.

76


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78


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RUSSELL COWAN PTY. LTD.

128-138 PACIFIC HIGHWAY, WAITARA N.S.W. 2077

Telegrams: RUSSCOWAN Phone 47-0294

80


RUSSELL COWAN's

for

RUSSELL COWAN, WALKER and IMPORTED CLAYS

GLAZES and FRITS

COLOURS,GOLD,LUSTRES

ACME MARLS KILN FURNITURE

ORTON CONES

TETLOW KILNS and WHEELS

PODMORE PUGMILLS and MIXERS

MODELLING TOOLS, BOOKS, BRUSHES

and

all miscellaneous pottery supplies

wholesale and retail

RUSSELL COWAN PTY . LTD.

128-138 PACIFIC HIGHWAY, WAITARA NSW 2077

Telegrams: Russcowan Phone 47.0294

81


~AREK GALLERIES

Exhibiti ng t ~ e work of

Australia's finest craftsmen

CANBERRA

Situated within the Cuppacumbalong Art & Craft Centre,

which includes the Cuppacumbalong Gallery, Coffee Shop,

Pottery Studio (resident craftsman Doug Alexander) and

Woodturning Studio (resident craftsman Simon Raffan),

NAREK GALLERIES, CUPPACUMBALONG, NAAS ROAD, THARWA, A.C.T. PH: 375116

HOU ~ 5 : Wednesday to Sunday 11 a.m,·5 p.m. and public holidays

laburnum gallery

for

quality australian handcraft

ceramics

copper

graphics

jewellery

pewter

weaving

woodcraft

workshop

9a salisbury avenue

blackburn, 3130

phone: 8780842

EXT~A _E:.IJTH

Of SEM PROVIDED

so POTTERC,lJ1OBS·

ERYE PRQf>t)nTlONS

OF POT BY.JUST

SLIDING

BACK

JUMPING JACK POTTERS' WHEELS

n .. ns ILLUSTHAJlOI~

SHOWS NE'W TYPE Of

WHFFlHFAO DESlGN~D TO

ACCOMMOOAjE 6ATS WITH

EA5£: "'tiO SPEED

PART PRINT TOOLING

HEIGHT OF WHfELHEAD

SHOULD BE APf'RQlt

4 A80V£SEAT

T"C::::;~=r ··- - -- t

: BOWL cl,rr AWAY

'l"f===:;m:;m==:==j ~=++::::j", t : ig~~~~~

PEDA~PoSlTlON TO

l

r .. ~~~~rcOMP-

MADLE TOil.

.. SlANOAROCHA:R

, ,.

BE SET AT ~ ' OST COIJFQRrABLE

AllGlE TO PfIOOUCE SPEED NEEDED

fORFI~I""lSTACiESOf POT rHROw'~,a

Rear 865 HIGH STREET THORNBURY VIC. 3071 Tel. 44-7157

82


KRAUS

R. C. ELECTRIC WH EEL

MOTOR: If. h.p" 240 volt single phase.

CONTROL: Sliding foot control will hold

at seJected speed.

SPEED RANGE: Infinitely variable up to

200 r.p.m.

CONE & DISC : The cone and friction disc

disengage while the wheel is off to prevent

damage to the disc. To reduce wear in use

the friction disc is made of a tough poly·

urethane material.

OVERLOAD CLUTCH: An overload clutch

has been built In to help prevent damage

tt"!rough misuse.

HEAD: Cast iron 242 mm (9 1/2") diameter,

worki ng height 553 mm (21 lt.").

TRAY: Flbreglass construction 565 mm

(22"1 x 483 mm (19··, x 92 mm (3'/,",.

SEAT: Part of main construction removable

for ~ransport .

BEARINGS: Sealed self-aligning ball race.

DIMENSIONS, Height 560 mm (22··).

width 483 mm (l9"i.length 10}6 mm (40") ,

WEIGHT, 52 kg (142 IbS,.

BODY: Steel construction, bronze colOUr

enamel paint finish.

SUGGEST ED RETAIL

KRAUS

POTTER'S WHEELS

P.O. Box 193, Collaroy Beach, N.S.w. 2097

Telephone : Sydney (02) 981 ·3575

KRAUS

KICK WHEEL

FRAME: Welded steel, bronze colour

enamel paint finish,

HEAD,

$232

SUGGESTED RETAIL

d!ustabie.

V: Fibreglass, 565 mm

(22", x 483 mm (19", x

92 mm (3 1 1z.") ,

Part of construction and

FLY WHEEL: Weighted concrete.

Diameter 460 mm (16") thickness

90mm (31/2"). total weight 40.8 kg

(90Ib,.

DRIVE: By foot pedal.

BEARINGS: Self·alignlng sealed ball

race.

WEIGHT: Gross 74 kg (163 112 Ib).

DIMENSIONS, Height 790 mm (31").

width 650 mm (331f2") ,length 1040 mm

(41"'.

Specifications and prices may change

without notice.

83


WALKER CERAMICS

Factory and Showroom:-

Boronia Road, WANTIRNA, Victoria 3152

'Phone: 729-4755

CLAY AND SUPPLIES AT

ADELAIDE:

The Pugmill, 17A Rose Street, MILE END 5031, Adelaide.

'Phone: 43-4544

SYDNEY:

Bulgin's Potters Shop, 51 Arthur Street, FORESTVILLE 2087,

Sydney. 'Phone: 451-5562

Clay Distributors

Sydney: Russell Cowan Pty. Ltd., 128-138 Pacific Highway,

WAITARA 2077, 'Phone: 47-0294

Perth: Meg Sheen, 306-308 Hay Street,

SUBIACO 6008, 'Phone: 81-8215

Jackson Ceramics, 391 Hay Street,

SUBIACO 6008 'Phone: 81-2441

Nonporite (W.A.) Pty. Ltd., 6 Peel Street,

O'CONNOR 6163. 'Phone: 37-4600

Canberra: Phillip Craft Supplies, 53 Colbee Court,

PHILLIP 2606, 'Phone: 82-2929

Belconnen Art & Craft, Oatley Court,

BELCONNEN 2617 'Phone: 51-4258

Brisbane: Pottery Supplies, 262 Given Terrace,

PADDINGTON 4064, 'Phone: 36-3633

J. M. & O. S. Adams, Unit 15,

617 Seventeen Mile Rocks Road, JINDALEE 4074

'Phone: 378-7431 (After Hours)

Country potters note: Please write for your nearest distributor.

CLAY & BODIES: Now 27 different types covering terra cotta

blends, pottery clays and earthenware bodies, raku, handbuilding

bodies all temperatures and colours, stoneware, porcelain,

translucent porcelain, covering throwing, hand-building,

casting and pressing techniques.

Special bodies prepared by quotation.

84


WALKER CERAMICS

Factory and Showroom:-

Boronia Road, WANTIRNA, Victoria 3152

'Phone: 729-4755

GLAZES

Earthenware

Raku

Stoneware

Powder

Paint-on

FRITS AND COLOURS

BODY STAINS & GLAZE STAINS

DECORATION

Onglaze colours

Underglaze colours

Golds and lustres

COPPER ENAMELS, BLANCS AND EQUIPMENT

CHINA PAINTING Blancs, colours, brushes

MATERIALS

All supplies

KILNS

KILN FURNITURE

PUGMILLS

WHEELS

SUNDRIES

BOOKS

ADVISORY SERVICE

Electric

Gas

China painting, earthenware,

stoneware

Custombuilt or 'Build-Your-Own'

All gas equipment-burners

Pyrometric equipment

Australian Agent for Sphinx

Acme Marls

Bats, props etc.

Orton Cones

3 models-'Venco'

Venco, Fact, Armstrong, Imported

Japanese Shimpo, Tetlow, Brent

Corks, tools, taps, tongs, sieves etc.

Complete range from elementary to

technical-all crafts

FULL INFORMATION CATALOGUE AVAILABLE

ON APPLICATION

85


SHIMPD®

Potter's Wheel

So/e Australian

Distributor:

WALKER CERAMICS,

Boronia Road ,

WANTIRNA, 3152,

Victoria.

'Phone: 729.4755.

Request us lor your

nearest Agent to supply

Victorian price:

$493.67 including sales

tax ; sl ightly higher in

some States.

(Price dependent on

ruling exchange rate.)

The world renowned and most reliable professional potter's wheel is now

readily available in Australia. Manufactured in Japan to give the potter a

quiet, smooth, sensitive touch within a durable mechanical system.

Rotational direction is reversible.

* Wheel head speed: 0-200 r.p.m.

* Motor: Yo h.p. single phase.

* Dimensions: L 622 mm x W. 506 mm x H. 499 mm

'-, Wheel head:

Aluminium, 300 mm.

,~ Weight: Nett 39 kgB.

Please write for further information on other Shimpo wheels, pugmills and

oil fired kilns.

86


POTTERS EQUIPMENT

by DOALL

THE "DOALL" ELECTRIC

POTTERS' WHEEL

This sit-down model - foot operated

cone drive variable speed (0/200

r.p.m.) - with 12" diameter throwing

plate - full length (high impact) Plastic

Tray - Rust resistant cabinet­

ON/ OFF water proof switch - 240V

V. hp motor with plug and lead for

normal household power point.

Foot and hand speed control.

Stand up models and Kick Wheels also available.

THE "DOALL" STUDIO

MODEL ELECTRIC POTTERS'

KILN

A top-loading Kiln with a capacity of 60 Ibs.

Inside measurements 15" x 15" x 18" deep - The

lid can be raised to accommodate tall

pots - Temperature range to 1280' C on either

single or two phase power.

Sturdy metal frame with heat resistant

cladding - Best quality K23 bricks with

Kanthal Wire elements, drawing 4.8 KW.

Drying rack on lid - Weight 135 Kg.

" School" model as supplied to ald.

Education Dept, also available.

THE "DOALL" L.P. GAS

POTTERS' KILN

A top-loading kiln with a capacity of 4.8 cubic

It -Inside measurements 19V2" x 19V2" x 21 "

(approx). Best quality K23 bricks and

insulation - Economical single jet air controlled

" Venturi" burner, uses only 20 lb. to 30 Ibs.

gas per firing.

Temperature range to 1300' C - The lid

can be raised to accommodate tall pots­

Drying rack on lid, weigh ing only 155 Kg.

(Portable).

6 cubic It and 8 cubic ft models available

on request.

Enquiries to Manufacturer - 00811 Service Pty Ltd,

12·14 Nile Street, Woolloongabba, Qld, 4102 Phone 391 4467

Russell Cowan Pty Ltd, 128·138 Pacific Highway, Waitara, N.S.W. 2007

Phone 47 0294 (Distributor for wheels only.)

87


LEACH POTTER'S WHEEL

Made in Australia by arrangement with the Leach Pottery,

St. Ives, Cornwall, U.K.

The Wheel made by Craftsmen for the discriminating Potte'.

Timber construction -

Clear Flat Lacquer Finish

Epoxy tray 4V2 ins. deep

10 inch dia. C.1. head

Adjustable leg action

Also Motor Wheels

from

J. H. WILSON

68a Christian Road

Punchbowl, N.S.W. 2196

Phone 750·8389

GENUINE PUGGOON CLAY

PUGGOON EXTRUDED CLAYS: "Prepared" bodies ready to use in 12.5 kg

plastic sealed packs. Range - red earthenware, white earthenware, buff

middlefire, white stoneware.

PUG GOON MILLED CLAYS: Airfloated to 200 mesh (or as required) in 31 kg

paper packs. Range: 4 clays (2 white, 1 buff, 1 terracotta). Also 1 clay

suitable for kiln furniture etc.

PUGGOON CRUDE CLAYS: Quarried raw clays in 50 kg jute bags or bulk

supplied. Range: 7 clays.

Sample packs of each group available from Gulgong only, $4.50 per pack, post paid.

For brochures, price lists, information, sample pack, or supplies, contact:

The Manager

PUGGOON KAOLIN CO.

P.O. Box 89

Gulgong, N.S.W., 2852

"The town on the $10,00 not.··

Telephone (063)

Tallawang 75·9611

88


DIAMOND CIRAMIC SUPPLIES IN.S.WJ PlY. LTD.

for

POTTERS' EQUIPMENT AT THE RIGHT PRICE

(

1

...... '" 1" I


1s_a91

AUSTRALIAN MADE

tor the Australian Ceramic Industry

CESCO

• STAINS • CASTING SLIPS

• GLAZES • EARTHENWARE BODIES

• ENGOBES • STONEWARE BODIES

• TURNTABLES • RAW MATERIALS

• FRITS • TERRA COTTA BODIES

• CONES • KILN FURNITURE

• UNDERGLAZES • ONGLAZE COLOURS

CESCO "FLOW-RITE" BRUSH-ON GLAZES & OXIDES

Cadmium Red - Orange - Yellaw 980°C - lO60°C

POTTERS' WHEELS, PUGMILLS

KILNS, VENCO POTTERS' WHEELS AND PUGMILLS

CERAMIC SUPPLY COMPANY

61 lAKI MIA STREIT, IUMORE

N,S.W., 2192

7 59.13 .....

HI-TEMP KILNS

SALES, REPAIRS and REMOVALS

PUGMILLS, WHEELS

All enquiries to

CERAMIC SUPPLY CO

61 LAKEMBA ST

BELMORE

90


TALISMAN

POTIERS' EQUIPMENT

Manufactured in New Zealand by The Talisman Potters Supplies Co. Ltd.

PORTABLE ELECTRIC WHEEL

* V4 hp split phase balanced motor

* ring-cone principle

* variable speed 10 to 200+ rpm

* fixed speed lock

* 10" aluminium wheelhead

* throwing load 12 kg

* weight approximately 30 kg

* low maintenance

* detachable fibreglass bowl, wheelhead,

pedals and feet.

CADET ELECTRIC WHEEL

* Y4 hp split phase balanced motor

* ring-cone principle

* variable speed 15 to 200 rpm

* throwing load 3.5 kg

* can be used on a bench with operator

standing or on a stool with operator sitting

down

* weight approximately 17 kg

* special bench stool optional.

GLAZE SIEVE

* quick and easy to use

* meshes interchangeable - 40, 60, 80, 100,

120, 150 and 200 mesh available

* easy to clean

* fits any round container from a small bucket

to a large bin.

N.S.W. Agent:

POTTERS' SOCIETY OF AUSTRALIA

48 Burton St., Darlinghurst 2010

Ph 31 3151

Queensland Distributor: Queensland Potters' Association,

cnr. Le ichhardt & Burley Sts •• Spring Hili 4000. Ph. 2119-498.

91


ELECTRIC

POTIERY

KILNS

BIG KILNS

MEDIUM KILNS

L1TILE KILNS

STONEWARE FIRING

SOLID FUEL REDUCTION

AUTOMATIC OR MANUAL CONTROL

HILLDAV INDUSTRIES

9 Vanessa Avenue, Baulkham Hills, NSW, 2153 Phone 639-2547

8 Orana Crescent, Peakhurst, NSW, 2210 Phone 53·6606

, CERAMIC SUPPLIES

DISTRIBUTORS SILICON CARBIDE

& HIGHLUMINA KILN FURNITURE,

CLAY, BLYTHE GLAZES & RAW

MATERIALS, TOOLS, KICK WHEELS.

46 Derwent Street, Glebe. 660 7831

24b Norman Street, Peakhurst

92


POTTERS EQUIPMENT

14 PITT STREET RINGWOOD 3134

VICTORIA AUSTRALIA 870 7533 729 2857

Importers of ROBERT BRENT Corp. Pottery

Equipment.

Electronically controlled pottery wheels with D.C.

motors, having a speed range of 0-240 r.p.m.,

giving high torque at low speed and dispensing

with the conventional use of cone drive. Two

years' warranty on all wheels. These dependable,

powerful and vibration-free wheels are proving

most successful with professional potters.

MODEL A-'h h.p. 12 in. wheelhead. Centres up

to 251b. of clay. Removable moulded splash pan.

Portable 48 lb. weight machine.

Removable pan model

REMOVABLE PAN

MODEL II

MODEL B-'h hp. 12 in. wheelhead. Centres up

, to 25 lb. of clay. 100 lb. weight machine.

Removable pan model Fixed pan model

MODEL C-Y2 h.p. 12 in. wheelhead. Centres up

to 50 lb. of clay. 120 lb. weight machine.

Removable pan model Fixed pan model

MODEL CXC--1 h.p. 14 in. wheelhead. Centres

to 100 lb. of clay. 140 lb. weight machine.

Removable pan model Fixed pan model

KICK WHEEL KIT - of wheelhead, shaft, bearings,

flanges, accessories, plans

KICK WHEEL MOTORISING KIT -

K.W.K. using Y4 h.p. A.C. motor

motorises

REMOVABLE PAN

FIXED PAN

B, C, CXC

B, C, CXC

HANDEXTRUDER - of coils, tubes, handles,

bars, slabs, etc., for sculptural projects, coil and

decorated pots, etc.

SLAB ROLLERS - 14 in., 22 in., and 36 in. wide

hand builders' machine to roll clay to thicknesses

of from Ya to 1 Y4 in., handling up to 25

lb. of moist clay in one pass.

S.A. 14" (Table model) S.A. 14" (including legs)

S.R. 22" (including legs) S.A. 36" (including legs)

(Slab Rollers-approximately 12 weeks delivery)

ALUMINIUM BATS-310 mm (12 Y4 in.) diameter,

5 mm thick

TAPS AND DIES - aluminium taps (including

reamers) and dies for threading flasks, jars, containers,

bungs, tops etc. Set 1 Y4 " , 2", 2~"

Hire wheels and clay available.

Catalogues on request.

93


Bulgin's Potters Shop Phone 451-5562

Shop 3/51 Arthur Street, Forestville, N.S.W. 2087

CLAYS AND BODIES -

GLAZES

WHEELS

Full range of Walker Clays and Slips.

Ferro, Blythe, Cesco.

Hire wheels Venco Electric.

WHEELS For sale Venco - Fact - Kraus - Tetlow -

Shimpo.

KILNS

Electric or L.P. Gas. Also "build yourself" gas

kilns. All gas equipment, pyrometric equipment,

kiln furniture.

Raw materials, tools, corks, sieves, Orton cones, etc.

FRITS - Ferro & Blythe.

Any further Information please ring 451-5562

Keith & Joy Bulgin

94


DESIGNED & BUILT IN AUSTRALIA FOR ART POTTERS & HOBBYISTS

,

REVOLUTIONARY GAS-FIRED

STONEWARE KILNS

Why Gas? Because gas allows every aspect of pottery firing to be

explored to the full.

Why Port-O-Kiln Gas? Because:

1. Port-O-Kiln has been designed technically to give the operator full

fi ring control.

2. The technical back-up service through the unique " Port-O-Club"

makes firing even easier.

Why Revolutionary? Because:

1. The kilns are constructed primarily from ultra-light-weight

ceramic fibre refractories.

2. Fuel usage is well under one-third of that from a comparable

brick-constructed kiln.

3. For the first time ever, rapid firing schedules are limited only by the

clay ware and not by the brick structure.

4. The kilns are fully portable, the 3.4 cu. ft. and 8.5 cu. ft. models

weighing approximately 50 kg and 110 kg respectively.

PORT-O-KILN is an approved research organisation under the auspices of

the Australian Industrial Research and Development Incentives Board.

Available In Sydney through

DEREK SMITH, BLACKFRIARS POTTERY, ABERCROMBIE ST., CHIPPENDALE,

N.S.W. 2008. Ph: 6601928

PORT-O-KILN, 12 AIRLIE AVE., DANDENONG, VIC. 3175. Ph: (03) 791 6918

and DIAMOND CERAMIC SUPPLIES (N.S.W.) PTY. LTD., RYDALMERE 2116. Ph : 6383774

95


SEAVER GALLERIES

CANBERRA

Devoted exclusively to display and sales

of craftwork

Ph (062) 95 9803

Director: BETTY BEAVER

Hours: Wednesday -

Sunday

10.30 am - 5 pm.

9 INVESTIGATOR STREET

RED HILL ACT 2603

FURNITURE

WOODCRAFT

BATIK

GLASS

POTTERY

WEAVING

SILVER

LEATHER

SCALES

High precision table balance

weighing to 100 grams in divisions

of 1/10th gram. Boxed weights are

included. An essential requirement

of the craftsman for measuring oxides,

test glazes, dyestuff, etc.

Mail orders: $36.50 covers packaging

and postage anywhere in Australia.

If supplying a sales tax

exemption form, deduct $4.50.

BATIK OETORO write: P.O. Box 324, Coogee N.S.W. 2034

phone: 6658326, call: 201 Avoca SI. Randwick

POTTERS' PLACE

Stoneware, Earthenware and Porcelain Pots by Australian

studio potters

Upstairs in the

"BOOT & FLOGGER"

Green Square, Jardine Street,

Kingston, CANBERRA, A.C.T. 2604

A place where potters and craft lovers can meet, view and

purchase ceramics, sample wines and dine at low prices

OPEN - TUESDAY TO SATURDAY - 10 am-4 pm

SUNDAY - 1 pm-5 pm Ph (062) 95 8425

96

Norma Shields


POTTERS' EQUIPMENT

74 WILSON STREET, NEWTOWN, NSW 2042

519-2921

L-E-C

UPRIGHT ELECTRIC MODEL

Featuring Tubular Steel

Construction

Adjustable Height Seat

Fibre Glass Slip Tray with Drain

Hose

V3 h.p. Motor Cone Drive

Variable Speed 0 to 250 r.p.m.

10" Aluminium Wheel Head

LOW-DOWN ELECTRIC MODEL

Heavy Gauge Steel Construction

Va h.p. Motor Cone Drive

Variable Speed 0 to 250 r.p.m.

Fibre Glass Slip Tray with Drain

Hose

Adjustable Height

and Removable Seat

10" Aluminium Wheel Head

NOTE: BOTH MODELS AVAILABLE WITH ELECTRONIC CONTROLLED

MOTORS ARE RING CONE FREE

97


BENDIGO POTTERY

prepared clays

STONEWARE - EARTHEN OVENPROOF

- WHITE EARTHENWARE

(packed in 28 Ib (approx.) plastic bagged blocks)

Write or phone for prompt assistance with prices,

techn ical details, transport arrangements.

We despatch Australia wide.

We Invite you to visit Australia's Oldest Pottery

Workshop to experience the craft being carried

out much as It was du ring the late 1800's.

BENDIGO POTTERY P.O. BOX 688 EPSOM VIC 3551, (STD 054 484404)

Pattlry ml~hiDIS

NEW & USED

EX-STOCK

• BALL MILLS

• HAMMER MILLS

• SLIP MIXERS

• PUG MILLS

• OVENS & KILNS

• SIEVES ETC,

79 Derby Street, Auburn, N.S.W. 2144

Tel. : (02) 648 0421

Cables: "MACHINEFlEMING"

98


terrapotta

stoneware by

anne alexander

Just up the hill from Broadway,

a display of attractive

functional pottery

by Anne Alexander

Sydney

and other local potters. University

Mon - Fri 1Z - 5.30

Sat 10-1

• terrapotta

terrapotta

Pottery Supplies

Bendigo, Cowan 8 Walker clay

Cesc:o brusb-on glazes

raw materials

corks, bandies, taps, macrame materials

brushes, tools, sieves, cones, wax

8 King Street,

Newtown nsw Z04Z

Phone SX6 I3SX

99


-------- -----------,

VENCO

ELECTRIC POTTERS WHEELS, PUG MILLS

DE-AIRING PUG MILLS

VENCO COMPACT-SIT-DOWN CONE-DRIVE WHEEL

(No.6 WHEEL)

~PECIFICATIONS

SHAFT: ¥4 " diameter ground silver steel

MAIN BEARINGS : Self lubricating bronze

with double "0" ring seals

LINKAGE BEARINGS: Self lubricating

resilient polyurethane

SPEED RANGE: 30-240 rpm, infinitely

variable-Wheel head " free Wheels"

in the " off" position

WEIGHT: 25Kg

SIZE: 23" x 19" x 21 " high

MOTOR: 1'. HP resilient mounted

WHEEL HEAD : 11 " diameter aluminium

NOTE SEAT SHOWN IS STANDARD EQUIPMENT ON ALL WHEELS

• Light weight compact electrict potters wheel with a cone drive infinitely

variable speed control and " free wheeling" wheel head.

• Corrosion resistant aluminium tray and wheel head. Steel frame/body, zinc

plated and painted with durable epoxy paint-heat cured.

• Resilient mounted motor for smooth quiet operation. All control linkages

mounted on vibration-resistant lubricated for life polyurethane bearings.

All internal components zinc plated.

• Foot operated speed control.

• Comfortable padded seat (can be folded for easy storage).

• Guaranteed for 12 months against defective parts, or faulty workmanship.

• Major features of this wheel are smooth, quiet operation and low cost

relative to comparable wheels available.

100


VENCD

ELECTRIC POTTERS WHEELS, PUG MILLS

DE-AIRING PUG MILLS

VENCO SIT DOWN WHEELS­

No.3 & No. 5 (Heavy Duty)

• 11 " & 13" ALUMINIUM FREE

WHEELING WHEELHEADS.

• SOLID CAST ALUMINIUM TRAY WITH

l Y. " DRAIN HOLE.

• SPEED RANGE 3O-2~O

RPM.

• Y • • \'I & Yz HP RESILIENT MOUNTED

MOTORS WITH OVERLOAD

PROJECTION.

• SPEED LOCK (H EAVY DUTY MODEL).

• ALL INTERNAL COMPONENTS ZINC

PLATED.

• CHASSIS/SURROUNO-5TEEL­

HI.TEMPERATURE BAKED EPOXY

PAINT FINISH.

3EAT SHOWN-OPTIONAL EXTAA

VENCO PORTABLE CONE DRIVE No. 2 WHEEL

• LIGHTWEIGHT (~8 LBS) WHEEL.

• % HP RESILIENT MOUNTED MOTOR WITH OVERLOAD

PROTECTION.

• 11 " ALUMINIUM WHEEL HEAD.

• HIP OR HAND OPERATED SPEED CONTROL

VENCO STAND UP (No.4) WHEEL

AGENTS : see following page.

101


VENCO

ELECTRIC POTTERS WHEELS, PUG MILLS

DE-AIRING PUG MILLS

VENCO 3" & 4" NOZZLE

STANDARD PUG MILLS

• STAINLESS STEEL SHAFT & BLADES.

• % HP RESILIENT MOUNTED MOTOR

WITH THERMAL OVERLOAD

PROTECTION.

• SHOCK RESISTANT "V" BELT DRIVE.

• BARREL HI·TEMPERATURE EPOXY

PAINT COATED ALUMINIUM

(3" MODEL) OR GALVANISED STEEL

(4" MODEL).

• ALL STEEL COMPONENTS ZINC

PLATED AND EPOXY OR ACRYLIC

PAINTED.

• SPLIT BARREL AVAILABLE ON BOTH

MODELS.

VENCO 8" ALUMINIUM BARREL 4" NOZZLE DE-AIRING PUG MILL

• SPLIT BARREL

• STAINLESS STEEL SHAFT & BLADES.

• SHOCK·RESISTANT DOUBLE " V" BELT DRIVE.

• 2 HP THREE·PHASE MOTOR (SINGLE PHASE AVAILABLE).

• HIGH CAPACITY PISTON VACUUM PUMP 126"·28" MERCURY) .

• CAPACITY '12.'14 TONNE/HOUR.

PRICE SI45G-EX·FACTORY PLUS PACKAG ING & FREIGHT (A SALES TAX IF APPLICABLE).

SINGLE PHASE MOTOR-EXTRA S1 00.

AGENTS: see list on following page

102


VENCO

ELECTRIC POTTERS WHEELS, PUG MILLS

DE-AIRING PUG MILLS

VENCO

MARK II

DE-AIRING

PUG MILL

1 Y, HP GEARED MOTOR DRIVE-3 PHASE-(SINGLE PHASE AVAILABLE AT HIGHER cosn.

SEPARATELY DRIVEN Ph HP SINGLE PHASE MOTOR) HIGH CAPACITY PISTON VACUUM PUMP

(26"·26" MERCURY).

• 6" DIAMETER . " NOZZLE SPLIT ALUMINIUM BARREL WITH HI·TEMPERATURE BAKED EPOXY PAINT.

• STAINLESS STEEL SHAFT & BLADES.

• CAPACITY y,.~ TONNE/HOUR.

PR ICE ,1850-EX. FACTORY-PLUS PACKAGING • FRE IGHT (& SAlES TAX IF APPLICABLE)

SINGLE PHASE MOTOR ' 100 EXTRA.

AGENTS

WESTERN AUSTRALIA

PATON POTTERY SUPPLIES

32 Esse x St .. Wembley, WA .

Phone 875625.

MEG SHEEN. 306--308 Hay St., Subiaco,

WA 6008. Phone 818215.

JACKSON 'S CERAMIC CRAFTS.

391 Hay St., Subiaco, WA 6008.

Phones 812441 . 812488.

SOUTH AUSTRALIA

R. MICKAN, The Pug Mill,

178 Rose St.. Mile End, SA.

VICTORIA

WALKER CERAMICS. Boronla Rd .,

Wantirna. Vic 3152. Phone 7294755.

COLOUR PRODUCTS (AUSn P/L,

101 Malr 51 .• Ballarat. Vic 3350.

Phones 582898. 585955.

PEPPERS POnERY, Rear, 54 Watsons Ad.,

Newcomb. Vic 3219. Phone 216758.

J. & S. WATT, 5 East View Pde, Belmont,

Vic. Phone 432445.

REDBYANE POTTERY, P.O. Box 2 • •

Old Dookie Ad., Shepparton, Vic 3630.

Phone 212753.

JOHN CRUMP, P.O. Box 55.

Wendouree, Vic 3355

BANOOL STUDIO SUPPLIES, Towe, St..

Bendigo, Vic 3550. Phone 437000.

EDINBURGH POTTERY. Eddy Ave.

Mt Helen, Ballarat, Vic 3350. Phone 413318.

T. & B. COCHRAM. Potters Croft,

PI. Leo Rd .• Red Hill South, Vic.

B. SCHOFIELD. 50 Alleyne Ave,

Torquay. Vic. Phone 612578.

SETTLERS ART STORE, 12 Camp St ..

Beechworth. Vic 3747. Phone 281097.

NEW SOUTH WALES

CERAMIC SUPPLY COMPANY,

61 Lakemba St .• Belmore. NSW 2192.

Phones 7591344. 7593891.

HUNTER VALLEY ART SUPPLIES P/L,

4 Union St.. Newcastle, NSW.

Phone 23423.

M. & C. WANGMAN ,

Bermagul Motors.

Bermagul. N.S.W. Phone 0&49·34257

WAGGA POTTERY SUPPLIES,

1 Ka ren St.. Wagga Wagga, NSW.

A.C.T.

A.C.T. POTTERY, 72 Morgan Crescent.

Curtin. A.C.T. 2605. Phone 81«67.

QUEENSLAND

POTTERY SUPPLIES, 262 Given Tee,

Padding lon, Brisbane, Q 4064.

Phone 363633.

THE POITERY PLACE . 7 KurraJong St.,

Earlville. Carins, Nth a.

Phone. 5-41332 (a/h), 533685.

SPAAEX AUSTRALIA, 430 Ross Aivers Rd .•

Townsville, Q 4810. Phone 794128.

RDS. BEASLEY,

5 Saden Powell St. .

Wandal, Rockhampton, a.

103


THE WORKSHOPS GALLERY

104

DISPLAYING FOR SALE THE WORKS OF IAN SPRAGUE'S MUNGERIBAR

POTTERY AND VIC GREENAWAY'S BROOMHILL POTTERY.

A wide selection of domestic stoneware and porcelain, architectural

ceramics and individual pieces.

MANAGER : Judy Greenaway. Telephone: (059) 44 3573.

HOURS: Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday, 11 .00 a.m. to 4.30 p.m.

DIRECTIONS: From Melbourne take the Mulgrave Freeway and Princes

Highway through Berwick to Beaconsfield. Turn left on Emerald Road to

Upper Beaconsfield. Turn left into St. George's Road . The WORKSHOPS

GALLERY is 1 km on the right-hand side. Distance from Melbourne-50 km .

POTTERY' SUPPLIES

262 GIVEN TERRACE, PADDINGTON

BRISBANE, OLD. 4064

CLAYS WHEELS MATERIALS GLAZES

FEENEY'S VENCO BODY BLYTHE

CESCO FACT AND CESCO

COWAN CRAIG GLAZE COWAN

WALKERS SHIMPO FERRO

(DIRECT

BENDIGO

PUGMILLS WENGERS

FROM

WENGERS JAPAN) VENCO

PODMORE WENGERS CONES

BRICKS

HARRISON

KILNS K23 ORTON

WARD K26

TOOLS - BRICKS - CORKS - TAPS - BOOKS - MOULDS

CESCO WHITE E/W, STONEWARE AND PORCELAIN SLIPS

CHINA PAINTING

BLANKS - COLOURS - BRUSHES - OILS - DESIGNS - KILNS

Phone: (07) 363633


KI LNS.

FURNACES.

POTTERY

WHE ELS.

POTTERY

&CERAMIC

EQUIPMENT 12A George Street. Blackburn. 3130 Phone : 877 4418

CLAY

MIXERS.

BALL

MILLS.

MODULAR

SPRAY

BOOTHS

FEATURES OF OUR POTTERY KILNS

• Angle iron frame clad in sheet steel zinc coated for longer life. • Bricks K23 hot

face insulating, backed up by insulating material. • Electric kilns are fitted with

safety switch, energy regulator, warning light, Kanthal AI elements, approved

by S.E.C.

• Natural & L.P. gas kilns can be supplied. They are lined with K26 hot face

bricks, supplied with all gas fittings. Front load only. • Electric kilns can be

supplied as front or top load. • Kilns can be fitted with drop down doors, vertical

opening doors or swing doors. • Stainless steel can be fitted for extra life.

• Mini temperature controllers can be fitted to all kilns. These instruments can be

fitted with a cut out device to close kiln down on reach ing temperature.

• All equipment is supplied net ex works, packing & freight extra.

KILNS

• Sixteen models in a standard range. Specials built to order. • Kilns can be

supplied for a variety of uses, pottery, copper enamelling, china painting, heat

treatment, glass, laboratory.

• We also manufacture a range of spray booths, clay mixers and ball mills.

Pottery wheels. Six mOdels.

PLEASE WRITE OR PHONE FOR PRICE LIST AND BROCHURES.

T

VAN WILDENBURG

CLAY MIXER, PUG MILL

MADE IN AUSTRALIA

UNDER LICENSE BY

B. & L TETLOW PTY. LTD.

PATENT No. 487431

21'Vl " 700 mm

An indispensable money saving piece 01 equipment lor the potter. This efficient clay mixer

could save the studio hundreds 01 dollars. by eliminating the problem 01 waste clay. It

turns every bit 01 clay scrap and wheel slop into useable clay again.

It has twin mixing barrel. large sell feeding hopper litted with lid and safety switch.

1% H.P. 1 Phase 240 volt motor. 50-1 reduction gear box.

Cast aluminium barrel and stainless steel blade and shaft.

Extrudes a 2" wad. Will mix up to 600 Ibs of clay per hour.

This machine has been designed for those people who wish to mix and prepare their own

clay body or to reclaim waste clay.

It has been designed to process large quantities of material and is very robust in its

design features, and would be ideally suited lor prolessional potters, artists. craftsmen,

school and hobbyists alike.

Plugs into standard power point.

Weight 200lbs (91 kg).

105


12A George Street,

Blackburn, 3130

Phone: 877 4418

..I

~71l


K6

o

K7 WITH MIt\!

!!I

K7 FRONT LOAD

WlTHMN

K ILNS, FURNACES, POTTERY WHEELS, POTTERY & CERAMIC EOUIPMENT

CLAY MIXERS, BALL MILLS, MODULAR SPRAY BOOTHS

106


12A George Street,

Blackburn, 3130

Phone : 8774418

wi

12 Months Guarantee

After Sales Service and Spare Parts are Always Available ,

FEATURES OF OUR POTTERY WHEELS

• Welded 1 01 squa r.e tube frame .

*AII moving parts have bearings or bronze bushes.

.Tanks and drain pipes are moulded from high impact plaStic,

* Heads 11" Aluminium.

*Finish - industrial lacquer for easy cleaning.

*Motors NEW % hp.

*Drive Ring and Cone

*Speed range - 0·275 rpm.

Optional Extras -

Reverse Switch

1/3 hp and % hp motors

13" Aluminium Head;

Seats padded, adjustable height

Under Development

EleCtronic Drive

KILNS, FURNACES, POTTERY WHEELS, POTTERY & CERAMIC EQUIPMENT

CLAY MIXERS, BALL MILLS, MODULAR SPRAY BOOTHS

107


NEW SUB S C RIP T ION Application Form

Pottery in Australia

48 BURTON STREET

DARLING H U RST NSW 2010

Annual Subscription $A 7

( i ncl uding postage)

Two issues per annum

Name (block letters)

Mr '/Mrs'/Miss

Street

Town

. State

Subscription to commence with Issue No.

Postcode

(Cheques, Money Orders and Postal Notes should be made payable to

Pottery In Australia. Stamps are not acceptable.)

The Editor

Pottery in Australia

48 Burton Street

Darlinghurst NSW 2010

Please send me copies of POTTERS IN AUSTRALIA @ $3.00

each (including postage) . Cheque/ money order enclosed.

Name ............. . .. . . . ..... .... .. . ........ ... . . . . . . .. . ... .. ... .

Address .. .. ......... . ............. ... ................... .. ..... . .

. . .. . ................ ....... .. .. . . . . .. . ..... . . . Post Code ........ .

Notice to Subscribers

POllery ill A lIstralia is published twice annually, in Spring and Autumn. The annual subscription

is $A7, including postage. Renewal notices will be sent when due. These are stamped

"Subscriptions now due", No further issues will be forwarded until new subscription is

received. New subscription application form printed at the back of the magazine to help NEW

subscribers. When forwarding subscriptions, if not using printed form, please advise name,

fuU address and date, in BLOCK LETTERS. State which issue required when commencing subscription.

Please address all correspondence to:

All material published in POllery 1ft A ustralia is tbe copyrigbt of the P·otters' Society of Australia.

Requests for permission to reprint must be made to the Editor.

No responsibility is accepted by POllery in Australia for tbe content of articles nor for claims

made by advertisers.

Advertising Rates: Full page $90

Hal f page $50

One third page $35

Plus block and setting costs

Articles and pbotograpbs for inclusion in

POllery ill Australia sbould reacb tbe Editor

by 15th Marcb for the Autumn issue and

15th August for tbe Spring issue, for selection

by the Editorial Committee,

108


KILN SERVICES

STATEWIDE REPAIRS

Re-building, Brickwork, Insulation, Elements,

Electrical, Thermocouples, Steelwork,

Door Repairs, etc·

Earthenware, Stoneware, Heat Treatment and

Postal Address:

P.O. Box 233

Eastwood 2122.

Enamelling Kilns

Phone

(02) 871-4583

Regd. Office:

3 Corunna Avenue

North Rocks 2151

We would like to draw your attention to the fact that due

to improved servicing techniques it is now possible for our

firm to carry out more economical and efficient servicing

of kilns, statewide. We are now able to offer are-building

service on most kilns which may, in the past, have been

regarded by some other firms as being uneconomically

repairable-therefore creating unnecessarily high and

premature expenditure on replacement kilns.

We have considerable experience in all aspects of electric

pottery kiln servicing, including brickwork, re-wiring, replacement

of elements, automatic controls, etc. on most

brands of kilns, e.g. Woodrow, Hi-Temp, Jackson, Ward,

Jeko, etc., and also on several custom-built kilns.

We offer prompt attention and first-class workmanship

and materials in all repairs and, due to the improved servicing

techniques mentioned above, you will find our

prices are extremely competitive on all repairs, large or

small. Costs being of the utmost importance to budgets.

If we can be of any assistance to you, please do not hesitate

to contact us on Sydney 871 4583.


CANBERRA SCHOOL OF ART

. DIPLOMA OF ARTS

(Visual)

Major Study in Ceramics

The Diploma course of the Canberra School of

Art is a three-year, full-time course of study

which is designed to form the basis of the

creative development of an artist and

craftsman.

Ceramics, one of the major studies available

within the Diploma course, covers Pottery,

Ceramic Sculpture and Glass. Ceramics

students may diversify or specialise according

to their individual needs. Emphasis is placed

on the attainment of high standards by

thorough practical and theoretical training.

Students who wish to attend the Diploma of

Arts (Visual) course with a view to majoring in

Ceramics should write to the School for

application forms in September or October

1978. Applications close 31st October 1978 and

a selection program wi" be held in November.

Enquiries and application forms may be

obtained from :

The Secretary

Canberra School of Art

University Avenue

CANBERRA CITY ACT 2601-

(PO Box 1287

CANBERRA CITY ACT 2601)

Telephone: (062) 47 0022

Printed by Edward. &: Shaw Pty Ltd ,84 Sussex Street Sydney NSW .000

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