TN Musician Vol. 69 No. 2

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The Official Publication of the Tennessee Music Education Association<br />

Expanding the<br />

Vision of Self:<br />

Why the Arts<br />

Matter<br />

by Linda F. Nathan<br />

p. 16<br />

Music Literacy<br />

Techniques<br />

for Teaching<br />

Successful<br />

Sight-Reading<br />

by Carol King-Chipman<br />

p. 24<br />

VOLUME <strong>69</strong>, NO. 2

䴀 唀 匀 䤀 䌀<br />

䄀 䌀 栀 爀 椀 猀 琀 ⴀ 挀 攀 渀 琀 攀 爀 攀 搀 甀 渀 椀 瘀 攀 爀 猀 椀 琀 礀 椀 渀 猀 漀 甀 琀 栀 攀 愀 猀 琀 吀 攀 渀 渀 攀 猀 猀 攀 攀<br />

眀 椀 琀 栀 昀 愀 挀 甀 氀 琀 礀 Ⰰ 挀 甀 爀 爀 椀 挀 甀 氀 甀 洀 Ⰰ 昀 愀 挀 椀 氀 椀 琀 椀 攀 猀 Ⰰ 愀 渀 搀 漀 瀀 瀀 漀 爀 琀 甀 渀 椀 琀 椀 攀 猀<br />

琀 漀 瀀 爀 攀 瀀 愀 爀 攀 礀 漀 甀 昀 漀 爀 礀 漀 甀 爀 最 漀 愀 氀 猀 愀 猀 琀 漀 洀 漀 爀 爀 漀 眀 ᤠ 猀 洀 甀 猀 椀 挀 椀 愀 渀 ⸀<br />

唀 一 䐀 䔀 刀 䜀 刀 䄀 䐀 唀 䄀 吀 䔀 䐀 䔀 䜀 刀 䔀 䔀 匀<br />

䈀 愀 挀 栀 攀 氀 漀 爀 漀 昀 䄀 爀 琀 猀 椀 渀 䴀 甀 猀 椀 挀 ∠ 䈀 愀 挀 栀 攀 氀 漀 爀 漀 昀 䴀 甀 猀 椀 挀 䔀 搀 甀 挀 愀 琀 椀 漀 渀 ∠ 䈀 愀 挀 栀 攀 氀 漀 爀 漀 昀 䴀 甀 猀 椀 挀 椀 渀 倀 攀 爀 昀 漀 爀 洀 愀 渀 挀 攀<br />

䈀 愀 挀 栀 攀 氀 漀 爀 漀 昀 䴀 甀 猀 椀 挀 椀 渀 䌀 栀 甀 爀 挀 栀 䴀 甀 猀 椀 挀 ∠ 䈀 愀 挀 栀 攀 氀 漀 爀 漀 昀 匀 挀 椀 攀 渀 挀 攀 ⴀ 䴀 甀 猀 椀 挀 䈀 甀 猀 椀 渀 攀 猀 猀<br />

䜀 刀 䄀 䐀 唀 䄀 吀 䔀 䐀 䔀 䜀 刀 䔀 䔀 匀<br />

䴀 愀 猀 琀 攀 爀 漀 昀 䴀 甀 猀 椀 挀 ⴀ 䔀 搀 甀 挀 愀 琀 椀 漀 渀 ∠ 䴀 愀 猀 琀 攀 爀 漀 昀 䴀 甀 猀 椀 挀 ⴀ 倀 攀 爀 昀 漀 爀 洀 愀 渀 挀 攀<br />

䴀 愀 猀 琀 攀 爀 漀 昀 䴀 甀 猀 椀 挀 ⴀ 䌀 漀 渀 搀 甀 挀 琀 椀 渀 最 ∠ 䴀 愀 猀 琀 攀 爀 漀 昀 䌀 栀 甀 爀 挀 栀 䴀 甀 猀 椀 挀<br />

䰀 䔀 䔀 唀 一 䤀 嘀 䔀 刀 匀 䤀 吀 夀 ⸀ 攀 搀 甀 ⼀ 洀 甀 猀 椀 挀


Michael W. Chester<br />

Managing Editor and Advertising Manager<br />

Justin T. Scott<br />

Associate Editor<br />

Laura Boucher<br />

Associate Style Editor<br />

Jazmin Jordan<br />

Social Media Director<br />

Allison Segel<br />

Pre-Production Editor<br />

Contributing Editors<br />

Matthew Clark<br />

Susan Mullen<br />

Doug Phillips<br />

Carol King-Chipman<br />

Jerome Souther<br />


6024 45th Street<br />

Lubbock, Texas 79407<br />

(800) 794-5594 office<br />

(806) 794-1305 fax<br />

Director of Creative Services<br />

Rico Vega<br />

Graphic Design<br />

Taylor Sutherland<br />

Account Executive<br />

Ian Spector<br />

TABLE OF CONTENTS | 2017 | VOLUME <strong>69</strong>, NO. 2<br />

Prelude – A Message from the Editor 6<br />

Michael Chester<br />

TMEA President’s Message 8<br />

Johnathan Vest, Ed. D.<br />

TMEA - By the Numbers/Verbatim 12<br />

Mathew Clark<br />


Expanding the Vision of Self: Why the Arts Matter 16<br />

Linda F. Nathan<br />

Music Literacy Techniques for Teaching Successful Sight-Reading 24<br />

Carol King-Chipman<br />

Tennessee <strong>Musician</strong> Advertiser Index 27<br />

TMEA Back Then 28<br />

All editorial materials should be sent to: Michael Chester, Managing<br />

Editor (615-873-0605) E-mail: editor@tnmea.org.<br />

Submit materials by e-mail in Microsoft Word format.<br />

Advertising: Information requests and ad orders should be<br />

directed to: Michael Chester, Managing Editor (615-<br />

873-0605) e-mail: editor@tnmea.org. All advertising<br />

information is on the TMEA web site, www.tnmea.org.<br />

Deadlines for advertisement orders and editorial materials:<br />

Issue <strong>No</strong>. 1 – Deadline: August 15 (in home delivery<br />

date October 15); Issue <strong>No</strong>. 2 – Deadline: October 15 (in<br />

home delivery date December 15); Issue <strong>No</strong>. 3 – Deadline:<br />

December 15 (in home delivery date March 15);<br />

Issue <strong>No</strong>. 4 – Deadline: February 15 (in home delivery<br />

date May 15)<br />

Tennessee <strong>Musician</strong> is copyrighted. Reproduction in<br />

any form is illegal without the express permission of<br />

the editor.<br />


MUSIC<br />

Visit WWW.MILLIGAN.EDU/MUSIC for a list of related<br />

majors and audition dates. SCHOLARSHIPS AVAILABLE.<br />

Postmaster: Send address changes to: Tennessee <strong>Musician</strong>,<br />

c/o National Association for Music Education<br />

(NAfME), 1806 Robert Fulton Drive, Reston, VA<br />

20191-4348.<br />

<strong>No</strong>n-Profit 501(c)(3) Organization U.S. Postage Paid<br />

at Lubbock, Texas. ISSN Number 0400-3332; EIN<br />

number 20-3325550


TMEA OFFICERS 2016-2017<br />


Ron Meers<br />

execdirector@tnmea.org<br />


Johnathan Vest, Ed. D.<br />

president@tnmea.org<br />



Linzie Mullins<br />

genmusicchair@tnmea.org<br />


Gerald Patton<br />

pattong@rcschools.net<br />


Michelle Clupper<br />

michelle.clupper@knoxschools.org<br />


David Chipman<br />

banddir@bellsouth.net<br />


Ryan Fisher, Ph. D.<br />

rfisher3@memphis.edu<br />



Linzie Mullins<br />

genmusicchair@tnmea.org<br />


Information not received<br />


Lalania Vaughn<br />

lvaughn@rebelmail.net<br />


Christopher Davis<br />

davischristophert@gmail.com<br />


Stephen Price<br />

prices@gcssd.org<br />


Ollie Liddell<br />

ollie_liddell@hotmail.com<br />


Alexis Yatuzis-Derryberry<br />

derryberrya@rcschools.net<br />


Information not recived<br />


Michael Choate<br />

choatem@pcsstn.com<br />


Lafe Cook<br />

pres-elect@tnmea.org<br />

2 | TENNESSEE MUSICIAN | 2017 | <strong>Vol</strong>ume <strong>69</strong>, <strong>No</strong>. 2<br />


Jeff Phillips, Ed. D.<br />

jeffrey.phillips@sumnerschools.org<br />


Jennifer Vannatta-Hall, Ed. D.<br />

jennifer.vannatta-hall@mtsu.edu<br />



John Womack<br />

webmaster@tnmea.com<br />



Michael Chester<br />

editor@tnmea.org<br />


Justin Scott<br />

justin.scott@tcsedu.net<br />



Christopher Dye, Ed. D.<br />

christopher.dye@mtsu.edu<br />


David Aydelott<br />

president@mtsboa.org<br />


Debbie Burton<br />

dlburton98@gmail.com<br />


Margaret Moore<br />

mamcmoore57@aol.com<br />


Marcus Smith<br />

marcus.smith@knoxschools.org<br />


Kenton Deitch<br />

kenton.deitch@knoxschools.org<br />


Stephanie Coker<br />

scoker@acs.ac<br />


Gary Wilkes<br />

gwilkes428@gmail.com<br />


Alan Hunt<br />

ahunt@bradleyschools.org<br />



Brad Turner<br />

brad.turner@acsk-12.org<br />


Paul Waters<br />

paulwaters.tmea@gmail.com<br />


Jo Ann Hood<br />

jhood10105@aol.com<br />


<strong>TN</strong> ALL-STATE CHORAL GENERAL CHAIR:<br />

Amanda Ragan<br />

aragan@ortn.edu<br />



Tiffany Barton<br />

tntreblechoir@gmail.com<br />

<strong>TN</strong> ALL-STATE SATB ENSEMBLE CHAIR:<br />

Kim McLemore<br />

kimberly.mclemore@mnps.org<br />


Amanda Short<br />

amandalovellshort@gmail.com<br />


Johnny Kimbrough<br />

johnny.kimbrough@jcseagles.org<br />

<strong>TN</strong> ALL-STATE 9TH - 10TH GRADE STRING<br />


Andy Smith<br />

andy.smith@sumnerschools.org<br />



Position unfulfilled at this time<br />


Chip Henderson<br />

paul.henderson@mtsu.edu<br />


Richard Ripani<br />

richard.ripani@mnps.org<br />



Dr. Jamila L. McWhirter, Ph. D.<br />

jamila.mcwhirter@mtsu.edu<br />



Rick DeJonge<br />

rick.dejonge@khsmusic.com<br />


Mark Garey<br />

mgarey86@comcast.net<br />



John Mears<br />

mearsj@rcschools.net<br />


Jo Ann Hood<br />

jhood10105@aol.com<br />

<strong>TN</strong> ALL-STATE INSTRUMENTAL<br />


Martin McFarlane<br />

martin.mcfarlane@tcsedu.net<br />

<strong>TN</strong> ALL-STATE 11TH - 12TH GRADE SYMPHONIC<br />


Jessica Peck<br />

peck_j@hcde.org<br />

<strong>TN</strong> ALL-STATE 9TH - 10TH GRADE CONCERT<br />


J.R. Baker<br />

john.baker@rcstn.net<br />

<strong>TN</strong> ALL-STATE 11TH - 12TH GRADE CONCERT<br />


Carter <strong>No</strong>blin<br />

noblinc@wcschools.com<br />

<strong>TN</strong> ALL-STATE JAZZ BAND CHAIR:<br />

Cord Martin<br />

corderyl.martin@gmail.com<br />


John Womack<br />

webmaster@tnmea.org<br />


Todd Shipley<br />

todd.shipley@mnps.org<br />



Tiffany Barton<br />

tntreblechoir@gmail.com<br />


Position unfulfilled at this time<br />


Bobby Jean Frost<br />


MusicatTech<br />




Friday, January 27, 2017<br />

Friday, February 24, 2017<br />

Friday, March 17, 2017<br />

Cody Hoenie, a junior from Knoxville, Tennessee, is majoring in percussion performance, and studies with Dr. Colin J. Hill. PHOTO BY WARREN LAFEVER.<br />

You have dreams, goals, plans for your future. You want to teach; you<br />

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Complete information<br />

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Department of Music<br />

Department of Music<br />

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Johnson City, Tennessee 37614<br />

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4 | TENNESSEE MUSICIAN | 2017 | <strong>Vol</strong>ume <strong>69</strong>, <strong>No</strong>. 2

TM<br />




It’s easy to add your voice to our growing<br />

movement by making a donation of $10.<br />

Text “MUSICED GNF” to 20222<br />

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Michael Chester<br />

Music educators may be faced with some<br />

tough questions as we move forward.<br />

These questions may require us to<br />

completely rethink our philosophical and<br />

ideological views when it comes to music<br />

education in the next decades to come.<br />


a speculative premise. Do we think that<br />

it’s possible that music educators might<br />

one day be looked at as great healers? I<br />

don’t necessarily mean in the medical<br />

sense of the word, but rather from a holistic<br />

perspective. Maybe this seems like<br />

a far-fetched notion. I ponder this question<br />

because of late, it feels like the world<br />

has completely immersed itself in the fear<br />

of the unknown. On both a personal and<br />

professional level, it seems that the wake<br />

of the current political climate seems almost<br />

unavoidable. The elephant in the<br />

room seems to be the invisible tension of<br />

the unknown. There is no question that we<br />

are on the brink of change. In a world riddled<br />

with the strife of uncertainty, whether<br />

we want to realize it or not, we seem to be<br />

standing on the precipice of a great quickening.<br />

Even if one completely disregards<br />

politics, the confluences of innovation and<br />

technology seem more and more intertwined.<br />

Progress seems to be taking civilization<br />

on quite a remarkable journey. Still<br />

unanswered is the ever looming question<br />

of morality. Where does the idea of morality<br />

fit within the trifecta of progress? As I<br />

contemplate this very notion I am reminded<br />

(rather humorously, I might add) of a<br />

quote from the movie Jurassic Park. The<br />

character of Dr. Ian Malcom, played by<br />

actor Jeff Goldblum, is a mathematician<br />

whose specialization is chaos theory. In<br />

a particular scene Dr. Malcom voices his<br />

ethical objections at the science and technology<br />

of Jurassic Park: “. . . your scientists<br />

were so preoccupied with whether or not<br />

they could that they didn’t stop to think if<br />

they should.” That quote seems rather poignant<br />

in the face of reality as we hail the<br />

new frontiers of today.<br />

As I’ve thought about this more and more,<br />

it seems that music educators may be faced<br />

with some tough questions as we move forward.<br />

These questions may require us to<br />

completely rethink our philosophical and<br />

ideological views when it comes to music<br />

education in the next decades to come.<br />

What will the reality of teaching music in a<br />

public school, private school, college or university<br />

look like?<br />

Before we can begin to answer that question,<br />

let’s take a moment to look around.<br />

<strong>No</strong>w let’s ask a fundamental question.<br />

Where are we now? The shifting geopolitical<br />

landscape of the world coupled with the<br />

divisiveness of post-election America, will<br />

surely illicit changes that will eventually<br />

seep into our local communities, whether<br />

we like it or not. For me, and honestly, I understand<br />

that change is the only constant.<br />

I don’t think that change bothers me as<br />

much as the uncertainty of the underlying<br />

results and unintended consequences that<br />

we either can’t see or haven’t thought of.<br />

As music educators, how will we change?<br />

Will what we value fundamentally change<br />

or perhaps even be challenged? I often<br />

wonder about the generations of music educators<br />

of the past and how they dealt with<br />

political or social change. How did music<br />

educators deal with the unrest of the civil<br />

rights movements and the war in Vietnam<br />

in the 1960s? Even going back further<br />

in time to the first half of the twentieth<br />

century, how did the music educators of<br />

the time deal with not one, but two world<br />

wars? Perhaps the simplest answer to this<br />

6 | TENNESSEE MUSICIAN | 2017 | <strong>Vol</strong>ume <strong>69</strong>, <strong>No</strong>. 2

question is “they just dealt with it.” There<br />

is no doubt that they did just that. History<br />

shows that the capacity of human spirit<br />

can be quite resilient. Music education still<br />

continued through all of the turmoil of the<br />

twentieth century. My question in all of<br />

that is how did music educators adapt?<br />

My guess is that the very nature of what<br />

we do transcends all of the ugliness and<br />

chaos that sometimes oversaturates the<br />

psyche of humankind. Music educators<br />

of the past used the power of their craft to<br />

teach a subject that is universal.<br />

<strong>No</strong> one can know for certain what the<br />

future may hold. It is the very uncertainty<br />

that can tear the delicate threads of the<br />

social fabric. It is quite possible that now,<br />

more than ever, as society stares into the<br />

face of the unknown, that students need<br />

a music educator in their life. Even today,<br />

as it was in the previous century, music<br />

educators have an uncanny ability to heal.<br />

The healing comes in the form of the communal<br />

bond that students share in the music<br />

classroom. Music educators create a<br />

safe space. This space is an environment<br />

where musical concepts are taught. These<br />

concepts are free from the barriers of politics,<br />

religion, race, socioeconomic status . .<br />

. and the list goes on and on. Music educators<br />

make it possible for students to leave<br />

the troubles and the fears of the outside<br />

world behind, if even for a brief moment.<br />

Music educators are healers then, as they<br />

not only teach the mind, but also teach the<br />

soul. This nurturing has the power to heal<br />

by bringing together and engaging students<br />

from all walks of life. Never forget that we<br />

can teach this generation how to have compassion<br />

and empathy, and how to connect<br />

with the deepest part of our humanity.<br />

If we truly want to leave our mark and<br />

make the world a better place, it must start<br />

in our classrooms and our rehearsal halls.<br />

<strong>No</strong>w is the time that our students need<br />

their music educators. Our classrooms<br />

and our rehearsal halls become much<br />

more than a place to teach, but rather laboratories<br />

of the human condition. What we<br />

teach now becomes just as important as<br />

how we teach it.<br />

We sometimes take for granted the<br />

transformative power of music. Yet if we<br />

are to aid in the quest of restoring the faith<br />

in the world around us, it will be done in<br />

our classrooms, in our rehearsal halls, in<br />

our concert halls, on the football fields,<br />

and the streets of towns and cities. We truly<br />

have the power to engage with our community<br />

in ways that harken back to earlier<br />

times. Let our communities take comfort<br />

as we showcase the art of our students. Let<br />

the music making of our students heal us<br />

and bring us together.<br />

Let ‘s begin weaving a new tapestry of the<br />

American experience. We have the power to<br />

shape uncertainty into a progressive movement<br />

of enlightenment. Let’s not be paralyzed<br />

by fear. Though there are many things<br />

that are outside of our immediate control,<br />

we do have the power over ourselves to<br />

make the choice and determination to impact<br />

our students in a positive manner.<br />

Michael Chester<br />

Managing Editor<br />

Music Education - General/Vocal/Instrumental k-12<br />

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Carson-Newman University | Jefferson City, <strong>TN</strong> 37760<br />

(865) 471-3328 | music@cn.edu | cn.edu/music<br />

Tennessee Music Education Assocation | www.tnmea.org | 7


Johnathan Vest, Ed. D.<br />




I<br />


that I would like to focus on advocacy during my term as president.<br />

I am happy to say that we have made strides in this area<br />

already! We have hired Milsap & Gowan, an educational lobbying<br />

firm, to keep us informed of any legislation that could positively<br />

or negatively affect music education. With this partnership, we<br />

participate in a conference call briefing every week, and they are<br />

helping us plan our first ever Tennessee Music Education Association<br />

Hill Day on March 7. Several of our regional associations, as<br />

well as the National Association for Music Merchants (NAMM),<br />

are assisting financially in this effort. At the end of this calendar<br />

year, if we feel pleased with the results of this partnership, then we<br />

will consider renewing the contract for another year.<br />

Because of our increased advocacy efforts, we have added the<br />

position of Advocacy and Government Relations Chair to the<br />

board. Dr. Christopher Dye from Middle Tennessee State University<br />

is serving in this role, and is already hard at work doing a<br />

fantastic job. He is involved in the conference call briefings and<br />

planning of Hill Day. If you haven’t checked his blog, please do; it’s<br />

under the “Advocacy” tab on our TMEA home page, and contains<br />

some great information!<br />

I know that these are tumultuous political times, with many<br />

people disagreeing on which paths our country should take.<br />

Amidst these political disagreements, I feel like we can, no – we<br />

MUST find common ground when it comes to policies that affect<br />

our discipline. This means TMEA may take a stand for or against<br />

something proposed by a politician/representative for whom you<br />

or I may have voted. I think it’s important that we put aside politics<br />

and focus on policies. TMEA will never be in the business of<br />

endorsing a particular party or candidate; however, to be an effective<br />

advocacy organization, we must look at each candidate’s<br />

record on education (particularly arts education) and make our<br />

voices heard in support or opposition to that record.<br />

I know these waters can be tricky, but I’m confident we can<br />

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8 | TENNESSEE MUSICIAN | 2017 | <strong>Vol</strong>ume <strong>69</strong>, <strong>No</strong>. 2

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10 | TENNESSEE MUSICIAN | 2017 | <strong>Vol</strong>ume <strong>69</strong>, <strong>No</strong>. 2

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Tennessee Music Education Assocation | www.tnmea.org | 11<br />

Middle Tennessee State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, or disability. See our full policy at mtsu.edu/titleix.


by Matthew Clark<br />


“For the artist, the goal of the painting<br />

or musical composition is not to convey<br />

literal truth, but an aspect of a universal<br />

truth that if successful, will continue to<br />

move and to touch people even as contexts,<br />

societies and cultures change.<br />

For the scientist, the goal of a theory is<br />

to convey “truth for now”--to replace<br />

an old truth, while accepting that someday<br />

this theory, too, will be replaced by<br />

a new “truth,” because that is the way<br />

science advances.”<br />

Daniel J. Levitin, This Is Your Brain on Music:<br />

The Science of a Human Obsession<br />

“The inexpressible depth of music, so<br />

easy to understand and yet so inexplicable,<br />

is due to the fact that it reproduces<br />

all the emotions of our innermost<br />

being, but entirely without reality and<br />

remote from its pain...Music expresses<br />

only the quintessence of life and of its<br />

events, never these themselves.”<br />

Oliver Sacks, Musicophilia: Tales of Music and<br />

the Brain<br />

Internationally-recognized musical pieces tied to the Olympic Games, the next of which<br />

will be held in Pyeongchang during the winter of 2018. Although John Williams deserves<br />

credit for his many contributions to music of the Olympics—most notably, his 1984<br />

Olympic Fanfare and Theme—the most- commonly played selected, Bugler’s Dream,<br />

was composed by Leo Arnaud. The oldest, Greek composer Spyros Samaras’s Olympic<br />

Hymn, was written for the inaugural round of the modern Olympic Games in 1896 and is<br />

still played at the conclusion of each Games.<br />

400,000<br />

Number of fans that will attend DCI events<br />

this summer, according to a Yamaha survey<br />

2.1 MILLION<br />


DOE study suggests that, based on high student–<br />

teacher ratios, over 2.1 million students in the United<br />

States receive no music education at all, highlighting<br />

the disparity between what a school may offer versus<br />

what students are actually receiving.<br />

Opportunity • Comprehensiveness<br />

Research • Collaboration<br />

Leadership • Responsibility<br />

80<br />


0<br />

percentage of secondary<br />

music teachers who<br />

indicated inadequate time for<br />

individual or collaborative<br />

planning, according to the<br />

same DOE study.<br />

percentage of secondary<br />

music teachers who indicated<br />

a need for more technology<br />

to be used in the study and<br />

creation of music<br />

percentage of elementary<br />

music specialists who<br />

indicated inadequate funding<br />

for their school music<br />

programs<br />

percentage of elementary<br />

music specialists who<br />

indicated inadequate<br />

number of music teachers.<br />

28% indicated inadequate<br />

instructional time.<br />

12 | TENNESSEE MUSICIAN | 2017 | <strong>Vol</strong>ume <strong>69</strong>, <strong>No</strong>. 2

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14 | TENNESSEE MUSICIAN | 2017 | <strong>Vol</strong>ume <strong>69</strong>, <strong>No</strong>. 2


U N I V E R S I T Y O F T E N N E S S E E<br />


Music Majors and Music Minors<br />

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our website www.utbands.com or call us at 865-974-5031.<br />

Connect with UT Bands<br />

Tennessee Music Education Assocation | www.tnmea.org | 15


by Linda F. Nathan<br />

In this reflective essay, Linda F. Nathan, the founding headmaster of the<br />

Boston Arts Academy and currently the executive director of Center for<br />

Arts in Education at Boston Arts Academy, shares a story about how one<br />

student, Ronald, expands his vision of self through his engagement with the<br />

arts. In presenting this reflection on Ronald’s experience, Nathan highlights<br />

the power of the arts in helping students define and construct their identity.<br />

16 | TENNESSEE MUSICIAN | 2017 | <strong>Vol</strong>ume <strong>69</strong>, <strong>No</strong>. 2

I<br />


principal’s office, where, as an eighth grader, he spent a lot of<br />

time sitting with a huge scowl on his face and his arms folded<br />

defensively against his broad chest. Ronald had been accepted<br />

to Boston Arts Academy, the city’s visual and per forming arts public<br />

high school—as a vocal music student— but his graduating from<br />

middle school was doubtful. He bounced in and out of school because<br />

of suspensions for fighting. It was the “usual” middle school<br />

stuff: defending his or his mother’s reputation against taunts, fighting<br />

because someone looked at you sideways or made a crack about<br />

your sneakers or your neighborhood. And Ronald had a trigger temper.<br />

He had gained a reputation in school as a fighter. Rumor had<br />

it that he was even being recruited by a local gang. His mother or<br />

grandmother would come up to school after suspensions, but they<br />

were tired of his antics. He always fought no matter how many<br />

counselors or teachers or the principal tried to guide him differently.<br />

The principal had named her bench “Ronald’s bench,” given<br />

the amount of time he spent there. Everyone at his school cared<br />

about him but were at a loss as to how to make graduation more<br />

important to him than fighting for his reputation.<br />

In my thirty-five years as a teacher and principal, I have seen<br />

students develop a form of artistic identity that blends their reputation<br />

in school with their reputation outside of school through<br />

the arts. Making creative work as an actor, musician, dancer,<br />

sculptor, or graffiti artist gives students bragging rights and credibility,<br />

both critical to healthy adolescent development. It was this<br />

vision of self that we hoped to instill in students like Ronald.<br />

Early in my career, I ran a theater program for a group of students<br />

who were being drawn into the pushes and pulls of street<br />

life. Their neighborhoods were battered by rising gang violence,<br />

and my students often experienced this violence firsthand. Using<br />

theater games and lots of improvisation, we wrote our own plays<br />

about many of the turbulent issues of urban teen life. We used<br />

various forms of popular culture in our pieces, including rap, top<br />

chart songs, and break dancing. At first, my students’ attendance<br />

was erratic, but when we began to tour our work to other communities,<br />

my students became the experts, answering questions<br />

about race, power, identity development, violence, gender roles.<br />

In “talk backs” after the shows, students began to enjoy their<br />

newfound stardom and expertise. When word got out about our<br />

shows, younger students began asking for autographs even before<br />

a performance. Remixing popular culture into a play that successfully<br />

confronted tough issues gave my students a new kind of power<br />

and credibility.<br />

Over time, my students began to see themselves as real actors<br />

with important contributions to make to the larger society. They<br />

had lived the lives of many of the characters they portrayed; they<br />

could talk genuinely about the struggles they had overcome to<br />

get on that stage, and, on top of it all, they were becoming good<br />

actors. My students were transformed as they realized that audiences<br />

wanted to hear their stories and that their ideas, stories,<br />

and words counted for something. One of my students wanted to<br />

name the troupe The Real Thing because that’s how they came to<br />

see themselves—as actors telling the truth about life.<br />

In 1998 I helped found the Boston Arts Academy, which placed<br />

the arts at the center of the school’s mission. Our intention was<br />

to create an environment where popular culture would not be<br />

relegated to “after school” but, rather, studied as a credible form<br />

of expression and creativity. We wanted a school where knowing<br />

every Mary J. Blige song mattered, where krumping was respected.<br />

Students would connect to great artists who came before them<br />

and be both disciplined and inventive with their interpretations of<br />

great works. Ronald’s stor y is that of a young person who was able<br />

to use his artistic skills as a way to expand his vision of his self. As<br />

Ronald’s principal, I had the good fortune to observe and interact<br />

with Ronald when he stumbled and when he succeeded—both of<br />

which were important to Ronald’s journey. Ultimately, this is a<br />

story of how education can matter.<br />

Ronald made it out of middle school, much to his principal’s delight,<br />

but he was over whelmed when he entered his freshmen year.<br />

The idea of refining his work—both academically and artistically—<br />

was foreign to him. He was used to the quick accolades he received<br />

as a singer, not the pushing, critiquing, and prodding he got from<br />

his new teachers. Furthermore, he quickly found out that credibility<br />

was no longer measured by your ability to win a fight but by your<br />

artistic prowess. If you could hit that high note, sustain that treble,<br />

or come in right on time, people noticed you—in a good way.<br />

Tennessee Music Education Assocation | www.tnmea.org | 17

This was not an easy transition to<br />

master, however. Ronald was suspended<br />

early on during his freshman<br />

year for fighting. When he returned<br />

to school, his music teacher,<br />

Mr. Candon, sat him down and explained<br />

that he was impressed with Ronald’s vocal<br />

abilities and wanted him to lead the tenor<br />

section of the school’s Lyric Choir, which is<br />

comprised of ninth and tenth graders, even<br />

to do a short solo in the piece that the chorus<br />

was working on. But the fighting had<br />

to stop. Mr. Candon had also realized that<br />

Ronald did not know how to read music,<br />

that he did everything by ear. As a result,<br />

music theory class frustrated Ronald, and<br />

he often acted up. The two of them made<br />

a pact. Mr. Candon would tutor Ronald<br />

privately in sight-reading if Ronald would<br />

work hard to keep his negative comments<br />

and his fists to himself. The pact worked.<br />

As Ronald became more confident in his<br />

music-reading abilities, his acting out in<br />

class disappeared. He wanted to answer<br />

questions correctly, he wanted to lead<br />

the tenor section, and he wanted to sing<br />

a solo.<br />

One day, after I had obser ved a choir rehearsal,<br />

I caught up with Ronald on his way<br />

down the stairs to lunch. “You know, Mr.<br />

Candon really counts on you in rehearsal,”<br />

I said.<br />

“Yeah,” Ronald smiled ever so slightly,<br />

“I’m the one the other tenors listen to. I know<br />

where to come in and where to breathe. I<br />

watch Mr. Candon really well when he conducts.”<br />

I could tell that Ronald was beginning<br />

to create a different vision of himself as<br />

a credible and trusted member of the chorus<br />

and, therefore, his school community.<br />

Ronald was selected for a prestigious<br />

summer program in music at the end of<br />

his freshmen year, but he could not attend<br />

because he had failed too many academic<br />

courses and had to go to summer school.<br />

He tried to slough off the disappointment<br />

as if he did not really care, but as his peers<br />

got ready to leave for the program, Ronald<br />

asked me if he could put off summer school<br />

for a year so he could attend as well. Even<br />

though he ultimately wasn’t allowed to attend,<br />

I still believe this was a watershed<br />

moment in Ronald’s life. After a rocky<br />

start, he had tasted a little success his first<br />

year in high school. Even though he had not<br />

done well in terms of academic grades, he<br />

had begun to believe that there was something<br />

out there in the world that he cared<br />

about and wanted—being good at music.<br />

He wanted the credibility that being good<br />

at music gave him, and he wanted to be recognized<br />

for his emerging skills.<br />

In his end-of-year review that year—a<br />

meeting in which each student reflects on<br />

his school year with an adviser and a family<br />

member—Ronald promised to make his<br />

teachers proud, especially his music teacher.<br />

I work at my music it makes people feel<br />

things—sorrow and joy and lots of other<br />

emotions, too. It’s much better this way than<br />

fighting. I know that. I can make people see<br />

things and go places with my singing.<br />

I know Mr. Candon selected me to<br />

lead and he gave me a solo at the endof-year<br />

concert and he’ll see that I really<br />

do lead next year! <strong>No</strong> more fighting.<br />

That’s over. I know that when I<br />

work at my music it makes people feel<br />

things—sorrow and joy and lots of other<br />

emotions, too. It’s much better this<br />

way than fighting. I know that. I can<br />

make people see things and go places<br />

with my singing. And I’m going to do<br />

that and more.<br />

Ronald’s mother did not show for his<br />

review, and during his sophomore and junior<br />

year Ronald experienced more family<br />

difficulties. His mother did not believe<br />

that a major in music would get him anywhere<br />

in life. She insisted that he transfer<br />

to another school, but he refused. He was<br />

thrown out of the house for a time and had<br />

to live with friends and other relatives.<br />

Despite all of his personal challenges,<br />

Ronald kept his focus on his academic and<br />

musical studies.<br />

I felt that Ronald was beginning to articulate<br />

new ways in which he could interact<br />

with and earn the attention of his peers,<br />

and even inspire them. He received positive<br />

accolades from his teachers and applause<br />

from audiences after performances.<br />

As a member, and leader, of the chorus, he<br />

was beginning to see how good it could feel<br />

to be counted on by others. This combination<br />

was a powerful formula that gave him<br />

the grit to continue perfecting his artistic<br />

skills and, eventually, the determination to<br />

improve his academic skills, too.<br />

As he became more proficient as a<br />

singer, his academic teachers also noticed<br />

his changing attitudes toward<br />

classes. He was no longer satisfied with<br />

a D+ or C–, and he often wanted to revise<br />

papers or retake quizzes. The skill of perseverance<br />

and the belief in the power of<br />

refining work that first appeared in his<br />

vocal classes was now showing up in other<br />

areas as well. In a reflective essay he<br />

wrote during his senior year, he acknowledged<br />

this growth:<br />

Throughout my journey here I have<br />

learned plenty. Freshmen year I<br />

lacked ambition as a student. I was<br />

pretty angry still. I was used to being<br />

recognized as a fighter, but when my<br />

music teacher selected me to lead<br />

my section and then the entire choir,<br />

I knew I had to accept my past mistakes<br />

and do better in the future. I<br />

was learning to work with others, and<br />

I liked how that felt. My junior year<br />

I learned that constant revision will<br />

push my life further in ever y direction.<br />

Lastly, my senior year I learned<br />

that I couldn’t always chose my circumstances<br />

but I can choose my attitude.<br />

I want to be someone who does<br />

well and who others can count on—<br />

not just in music but in all things!<br />

18 | TENNESSEE MUSICIAN | 2017 | <strong>Vol</strong>ume <strong>69</strong>, <strong>No</strong>. 2

As Ronald prepared for his senior recital—a<br />

capstone experience of his high<br />

school career—he talked about how his<br />

mother, who had never come to see any of<br />

his performances, would show up for this<br />

big event. Ronald’s recital program included<br />

classical pieces in Italian and German<br />

that he had spent hours rehearsing with<br />

his voice teacher, perfecting both his pronunciation<br />

and musical inflections as well<br />

as figuring how to best express the melody<br />

and the lyrics. He also now read music fluently.<br />

Most notably, he learned to commit<br />

to the musical choices he was making in<br />

the pieces. Ronald wrote:<br />

Most students grow up and have opinions<br />

that are extremely biased because<br />

they conformed to the views that they<br />

have been fed by adult educators instead<br />

of being taught to inquire, question,<br />

observe and experience. When I<br />

prepared for my senior recital, I had to<br />

decide what my pieces meant and why<br />

I connected to them. I chose “Come<br />

Raggio di sol” because I love how<br />

rhythmic it is. It grabs at your heart<br />

and is full of emotion and of a love that<br />

you can’t ever have. It is so much easier<br />

for me now that I read music well.<br />

His program also included two other<br />

more popular songs, one R&B (Stevie Wonder)<br />

and the other gospel (Kirk Franklin),<br />

both of which involved working with an<br />

ensemble of singers and instrumentalists.<br />

Ronald was a big fan of Stevie Wonder and<br />

loved the challenge of figuring out how to<br />

say something new with words and music<br />

that audiences have treasured in their original<br />

form for decades. Students appreciated<br />

working with Ronald as the ensemble<br />

leader, since he always listened carefully<br />

and gave good feedback so that ever yone<br />

sounded their best. He also insisted on<br />

students being on time for rehearsal. He<br />

would tell his charges, “Remember, no matter<br />

what else is going on, leave the drama at<br />

the door! If I can do it, you can do it! What<br />

do we say? ‘The show’s got to go on!’”<br />

On the recital evening, Ronald<br />

looked fantastic in his tuxedo and<br />

red cummerbund and matching<br />

handkerchief. (A teacher had taken<br />

him to buy it after Ronald admitted<br />

that his mom did not have the time<br />

or resources to help him.) As the theater<br />

grew more crowded, I looked around for<br />

his mother. It was time for him to begin<br />

and she hadn’t arrived.<br />

One of Ronald’s friends came to get me<br />

out of the audience. “He won’t go on,” India<br />

told me. “He can’t stop crying. He really believed<br />

his mom would come.”<br />

I went backstage and there was Ronald<br />

looking completely despondent in his<br />

now-rumpled tuxedo. I urged him to go onstage.<br />

“Ronald, remember what you always<br />

say to your ensemble: ‘Leave the drama at<br />

the door! The show’s got to go on!’ You have<br />

a big audience waiting for you out there!”<br />

Tears kept streaming down his face as he<br />

repeated, “But she said she’d come . . .”<br />

Finally, another member of the ensemble,<br />

Candace, pulled him up roughly and<br />

said, “Look, we know you are mad and<br />

disappointed, but what about us? You gonna<br />

let us all down? We’ve rehearsed for<br />

Tennessee Music Education Assocation | www.tnmea.org | 19

GO WHERE<br />



months with you! We bought dresses that match your tux and we<br />

look fresh! We are ready to do this! Come on!” With that admonishment,<br />

something snapped for Ronald, and he lumbered to his<br />

feet with cheers from his friends and took the stage.<br />

His first number was shaky, but he gained confidence as the<br />

program went on. He received a standing ovation at the end of the<br />

recital, and, as a result of his performance as well as his positive<br />

growth as a musician, he won a prestigious scholarship to the Tanglewood<br />

Institute for summer music study.<br />

Long after the clapping subsided, I could still hear Ronald singing<br />

the sweet notes of “Isn’t She Lovely” and see him leading his<br />

musicians through difficult sections. I couldn’t stop grinning. Ronald<br />

had taught me something about persistence even through pain.<br />

I was proud of him.<br />

After the recital, Ronald plunged into his final humanities<br />

course, Art and Aesthetics. The change in attitude about himself<br />

and his relations to others was evident. In his first paper for the<br />

class, he wrote:<br />

I came to Boston Arts Academy thinking I was an artist already.<br />

I could sing and that impressed people on my block.<br />

But I knew nothing about the origins and roots of music. <strong>No</strong>w,<br />

when I tell people I am an artist, I can discuss and write about<br />

various genres of art and their histor y. I know how to analyze<br />

art nearly professionally! And I know how to write and think<br />

for myself. I’m not afraid of college either. I have come a long<br />

way in these last four years as an artist, scholar and citizen.<br />

I think about all the trouble I gave my principal in middle<br />

school. She would be proud of me now.<br />

Opera Theater Production of Cinderella<br />

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to aspiring musicians from across the country so that they can<br />

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calendar at belmont.edu/music.<br />


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11.12.16 • 1.20.17 • 2.17.17 • 2.24.17<br />

For Ronald, music grew from a middle school interest to a<br />

high school and life passion. Music was the vehicle to help<br />

him see and understand the world and all its complexities,<br />

even the painful parts. It also became a powerful source of<br />

his conception of himself. Music helped him traverse the<br />

different arenas he inhabited—both in and out of school.<br />

The fist-flying angry young man in ninth grade slowly learned<br />

to control his temper and to focus his energy in more productive<br />

ways. The exhausting demands of demonstrating a vision of self<br />

that conflicted with school were replaced with a credibility that<br />

his peers respected and that integrated school into an important<br />

part of Ronald’s life. Even though he almost gave up, in the<br />

end Ronald would not let down his peers and teachers. In a final<br />

reflection, he wrote, “Life continues regardless, and the only aspect<br />

that I can change is how I look at the circumstances that<br />

life gives me.” Ronald cannot easily share the pain he feels at being<br />

abandoned by his mother, or her lack of understanding of his<br />

passion as an emerging opera singer, but he chose to persevere<br />

and fin- ish high school.<br />

He now knows something he didn’t know in middle school—a lot<br />

about music. He can discuss, write, and perform what he knows,<br />

and that gives him a kind of credibility that winning fights in middle<br />

school never accomplished. He can belt out a gospel song like<br />

Kirk Franklin and sing a jazz standard in the style of Joe Williams,<br />

and when he sings an aria and his diaphragm expands like<br />

Pavarotti, girls swoon and young men stamp their feet in appreciation.<br />

He argues about why Stevie Wonder is the best musician ever<br />

and laces his points with evidence and even citations from critical<br />

20 | TENNESSEE MUSICIAN | 2017 | <strong>Vol</strong>ume <strong>69</strong>, <strong>No</strong>. 2

theory that he studied in academic classes<br />

at Boston Arts Academy. He understands<br />

that knowing something really well, both<br />

academically and artistically, impresses<br />

his peers and teachers alike.<br />

Ronald graduated proudly with a promise<br />

that he wouldn’t forsake his music. He<br />

has to work full time now to support himself,<br />

given his family situation, but he is<br />

taking a night class at a community college<br />

in order to pursue a degree, and he continues<br />

to compose and sing. When we last<br />

met, Ronald brought me some of the songs<br />

he was working on. With some sadness,<br />

he told me that he wished he’d been able<br />

to go to college full time, “But I’m helping<br />

my mom now.” I looked at him surprised.<br />

“Yeah, we get along better now. I think she<br />

finally understands how important music<br />

is to me.”<br />

Of course, I wish that Ronald had been<br />

able to attend a four-year college and that<br />

his journey through high school had been<br />

less fraught with difficulties and pain,<br />

but I have to believe that he learned more<br />

about resiliency then many young people.<br />

I also recognize that Ronald helped reaffirm<br />

my own convictions about why arts<br />

are so critical in schools. When I fight for<br />

arts inclusion in schools, I think of Ronald’s<br />

experience.<br />

If all students had the chance to perform<br />

or exhibit work that reflects their deep<br />

interests and passions, school would be a<br />

radically different place—one that matters<br />

deeply to young people. If students are<br />

given an opportunity to pursue success<br />

in ways that resonate with their own personal<br />

experiences, school could become a<br />

source that generates credibility outside<br />

of its walls. We need to ensure that the arts<br />

have their rightful place in the landscape of<br />

each of our communities and schools. If we<br />

do so, we can also be confident that more<br />

of our students will use the arts to develop<br />

positive identities and that school can<br />

be a place where strong visions of self can<br />

be made and established. In this way, I am<br />

confident that more young men and women<br />

like Ronald will find that education—<br />

and school—is worth it.<br />

Leave the drama<br />

at the door!<br />

The show’s got<br />

to go on!<br />

Special thanks to Laura Clos for assistance<br />

with this article. This article originally<br />

appeared in the Harvard Educational<br />

Review. <strong>Vol</strong>. 83 <strong>No</strong>. 1 pp.47-53. Reprinted with<br />

permission.<br />

Tennessee Music Education Assocation | www.tnmea.org | 21

Some are born with<br />

If authenticity had a<br />

soul, you would find it<br />

in Memphis. Creativity<br />

flows through our veins.<br />

This is the kind of city and<br />

university where original<br />

people are elevating the art<br />

of music in unforgettable<br />

ways. If you were born<br />

with music in your blood,<br />

you belong at the UofM.<br />


B.M., M.M., D.M.A., Ph.D.<br />


Dec. 3, 2016<br />

Feb. 4, 2017<br />

Feb. 18, 2017<br />

Feb. 25, 2017<br />

in their souls<br />



You may open the score.<br />

Before performing, you<br />

have six minutes to review<br />

the music with your<br />

students beginning now.<br />

That’s the sight-reading room phrase of which many a band<br />

director’s nightmare is made, and I’ve been there. However,<br />

it doesn’t have to be that way. Teaching our students to be<br />

musically literate through sight-reading year round is the<br />

key. I’ll share some effective sight-reading teaching strategies<br />

that I use daily with my middle and high school students. Then,<br />

we’ll review the sight-reading successful process that all of<br />

my students use at concert festivals. Here’s the rule to which I<br />

always refer: KISS Keep It Simple Stupid. Do keep sight-reading<br />

interesting and engaging for your students and especially<br />

yourself…above all keep your sanity.<br />

Work Backwards<br />

Know how you want your band to sound at checkpoints in the<br />

school year, for example, my middle school points are: October,<br />

December, then March, April & May. I use three objectives:<br />

Tone, Technical Accuracy and Musicality for achievement,<br />

learning and assessment. Write the objectives on the board,<br />

add subcategories under each, and have the students to recite<br />

daily. For example, as subcategories for Tone include: Posture,<br />

Stick-Height (Always Include Percussion!), Air (Speed, Focus),<br />

Tuning, and Balance & Blend. My students have these from<br />

memory and it pays off. Everything in Band World is connected<br />

to one of these objectives. Therefore modeling, rehearsing and<br />

assessing using the three main objectives and sub-objectives (in<br />

kid friendly terms) with your students daily in class is a must.<br />

Work On Rhythms Daily<br />

The metronome is your best friend. Mine is connected<br />

to speakers close to the ensemble, with the metronome on<br />

my conductor’s stand. ALWAYS use the metronome when<br />

rehearsing rhythms! My students affectionately (sarcasm) call<br />

it “Mr. Clicky”. The ensemble should count aloud the rhythms<br />

with the metronome while you write the counts, on the board<br />

under the rhythms, to reinforce understanding. Next, have the<br />

students “sizzle” the rhythms, while in playing position, again<br />

with the metronome. It’s an “sssss” sound like a snake, but<br />

the mouthpieces are not to the lips and the flute head joints<br />

are to the left of their embouchures. Next review the rhythms<br />

by Dr. Carol King-Chipman<br />

by changing tempos, dynamics and style. This is also a golden<br />

opportunity to practice tuning that pesky Concert E (or any<br />

other note) while performing rhythm patterns. Competitions<br />

between the brass, woodwinds & percussion combining any<br />

of the above ideas always entice student interest. Here’s one<br />

of my favorites schemes: In your rehearsal order written on<br />

the board, have a favorite song they like to perform listed last.<br />

Remind the students that when the rhythms are performed<br />

accurately, we get closer to playing their most beloved song.<br />

You can always use a rhythm book of your choice or just have<br />

a two-four-measure rhythm on the board when the students<br />

enter the class. I like to pick a rhythm that is missed more from<br />

concert music and use that as the rhythm of the day or week.<br />

Dotted rhythms are always great, rhythms that change time<br />

signatures, or select rhythmic values we adults perceive as easy<br />

like whole, half and quarter notes.<br />

Always Sight-Read New Concert Music and Practice Sight-Reading<br />

Techniques So They Become Routine<br />

Always sight-read, even in August when your ears are still<br />

bleeding! There are times that my students are sight-reading a<br />

complex piece of music and we “chunk” the sight-reading in to a<br />

few smaller sections – but we always sight-read. It’s always a good<br />

idea to sight-read pieces that allow your students to get a bit out<br />

of their comfort zone. Record your sight-reading sessions often<br />

and play them back for your students, that’s a big dose of reality<br />

sometimes but it pays off in the students’ understanding of the<br />

need for musical literacy. I usually rehearse sight-reading with<br />

my students without the metronome. This makes the learning<br />

experience more real life. This is also less stressful for director<br />

and students. Remember, there are no metronomes in the concert<br />

festival sight-reading room or concert performances. Watching<br />

the stick is a significant student learned behavior always worthy<br />

of practice. Teach your students to look for “surprises” while<br />

sight-reading: accidentals, key-signature changes, and<br />

style/tempo changes. Teach students to identify the last<br />

flat or sharp note in their key signature, and to locate<br />

that in their music. That’s usually the note, which is<br />

missed during sight-reading. Also instruct students<br />

to locate repeated patterns of notes (including<br />

repeated accidentals), rests and rhythms in<br />

their music. I teach students that a rest,<br />

which falls on the count before playing, is a<br />

breath mark. “Breathe the count before you<br />

play” is a significant, simple sight-reading<br />

procedure but often overlooked. My students<br />

identify these specific rests as BYF (Breathe You<br />

Fool). This BYF Technique aids air support during<br />

sight-reading, since tone quality often suffers due<br />

to lack of confidence and nerves.<br />

Performance Time: What do I say to my Students in the<br />

Sight-Reading Room?<br />

The same procedure you’ve practiced numerous times during<br />

in class while sight-reading. Yes, time yourself while giving<br />

instructions. If you’re given 6 or 8 minutes in a concert festival<br />

24 | TENNESSEE MUSICIAN | 2017 | <strong>Vol</strong>ume <strong>69</strong>, <strong>No</strong>. 2

sight-reading assessment, then that’s how much time you allow<br />

yourself to teach instructions during class. Here’s the usual<br />

procedure my middle and high school students and I use during<br />

sight-reading:<br />

Time Signature:<br />

• Ask the students to sizzle the downbeats of the beginning time<br />

signature while you conduct a few measures.<br />

• Does the time signature change? Where? Does the beginning<br />

time signature return as in an overture? Tell students to place<br />

their fingers on these places in their music as you indicate<br />

areas of change. Sizzle a few measures of the additional time<br />

signatures too.<br />

Key Signature:<br />

• “Who has three flats in their key signature?” Those concert<br />

pitch students raise their hands. “Find all of the Ab’s in your<br />

music” Repeat this for all instrument groups with the same key<br />

signatures.<br />

• Always have students locate all of the notes, which correspond<br />

with the last flat or sharp in each key signature, in their music.<br />

• Avoid surprises: Have the students locate the sharp or flat<br />

note missing from the key signature. This would be a note<br />

that is commonly used in their performance, for example:<br />

Also & Bari Saxes need to find the F Naturals, French Horns<br />

locate the B Naturals, Concert Pitch Instruments E Naturals<br />

• Does the key signature Change? Have students to place<br />

their fingers on these places in their music as you indicate<br />

areas of change.<br />

Road Map (Repeats):<br />

• The “Road Map” includes all directions for going through the<br />

process in order once you have taught the students all the above<br />

techniques. These include: Repeats, 1st and 2nd Endings, Coda.<br />

• Teacher demonstrates & Sizzle Tempo Changes, Fermatas and<br />

Odd Entrances<br />

• Remind students to breathe the count before they play<br />

Sizzle:<br />

Students sizzle last measures, transitions, soli sections and then<br />

first measures; next, sizzle the entire piece. As the students<br />

are sizzling, you call attention to accidentals, when to breath,<br />

dynamics, etc.<br />

Ask Students if Anyone Needs a Cue:<br />

• This will help them focus on the odd entrances<br />

Ask Students if they Have Questions:<br />

Reteach<br />

Perform – Go Forth and Conquer!!<br />

As you can see, there’s a good amount of instruction that must<br />

occur in the sight-reading room. When you & your students have<br />

practiced this drill together many times throughout the school year,<br />

it becomes second nature. Successful sight-reading is a culmination<br />

of objective driven instruction and assessment, teaching rhythms<br />

daily, and practicing sight-reading year round. Musical literacy is a<br />

lifetime gift that we can help our students achieve.<br />

Special thanks to Deborah W. McCoy for contributions to this article.


to exalt<br />

to inspire<br />

Jackson, Tennessee<br />

731.661.5345<br />

uu.edu/music<br />



TENNESSEE MUSICIAN ADVERTISER INDEX | VOLUME <strong>69</strong>, <strong>No</strong>. 2<br />

A very special<br />

thank you to all<br />

of our advertisers<br />

who support the<br />

work of music<br />

educators at all<br />

levels in the State<br />

of Tennessee.<br />


Belmont University 20<br />

Carson Newman College 7<br />

East Tennessee State University 3<br />

Lee University<br />

Inside front Cover<br />

Middle Tennessee State University 11<br />

Milligan College 1<br />

NAMM Foundation 9<br />

Slate Group<br />

Outside Back Cover<br />

Smoky Mountain Music Festival 8<br />

Tennessee State University 22<br />

Tennessee Technological University 2<br />

Union University 26<br />

University of Memphis 23<br />

University of Tennessee at Knoxville Bands 15<br />

University of Tennessee at Knoxville School of Music 14<br />

University of Tennessee at Martin 10<br />

Yamaha Corporation of America 13<br />

Tennessee Music Education Assocation | www.tnmea.org | 27


• In this conference edition of the<br />

Tennessee <strong>Musician</strong>, three informational<br />

columns appeared in a section titled<br />

“Letters.” In his column, then TMEA<br />

President Solie Fott, encouraged<br />

performing groups to submit recordings<br />

to be selected for performances at the<br />

MENC (now NAfME) Southern Division<br />

Conference. He also encouraged the<br />

membership to attend the annual TMEA<br />

In-Service Conference. With the help of<br />

Joe Giles, Fott took on the additional<br />

responsibility of writing letters to every<br />

superintendent in every Tennessee school<br />

district to solicit for validity and support<br />

of the TMEA In-Service Conference. His<br />

letters asked that music educators be given<br />

adequate release time to attend the TMEA<br />

In-Service Conference for professional<br />

development purposes.<br />

• Then TMEA Executive Secretary-<br />

Treasurer John Bright reported that<br />

TMEA had completed paper work and<br />

received both a state charter and a tax<br />

exemption number. In addition, the TMEA<br />

business files and archives were now<br />

being housed at the Nashville Community<br />

School for the Arts, along with office<br />

space for the organization. Bright also<br />

reported on his recent experience at the<br />

Georgia Music Educators Conference.<br />

He compared the differences between<br />

the Georgia and Tennessee Conferences,<br />

noting that Georgia had a separate All-<br />

State event, which freed music educators<br />

from the burden of chaperoning students<br />

at their conference. He was hopeful that<br />

Tennessee would perhaps one day adopt<br />

that model for future TMEA conferences.<br />

• Joe Giles, then Tennessee State<br />

Department of Education Director of<br />

Arts Education, reported on a committee,<br />

chaired by Charlie Ball, that called for<br />

the formation of goals and directions<br />

for music education in Tennessee. The<br />

“all-star” committee, as Giles described,<br />

included Jack Connell, Kay Schneider,<br />

Earl Hinton, W.J. Julian, Jay Craven,<br />

Nancy Boone, Lynn Jordan, Lulah<br />

Hedgeman, Howard (Zeke) Nicar, and<br />

Charles Clark.<br />

• Ric Best, then ETSBOA President,<br />

gave an update in the instrumental music<br />

column on the Better Schools Program.<br />

At the time of his column, there was a<br />

very low percentage of music teachers in<br />

Tennessee who were achieving Career<br />

Ladder Level II or Level III status.<br />

Best’s column goes on to describe the<br />

inconsistencies of the evaluation system<br />

and possible strategies at addressing the<br />

requirements of the evaluation tool. Those<br />

who were able to achieve Career Ladder<br />

Level II or Level III status were evidently<br />

incentivized monetarily with a bonus<br />

amount of $35,000.00 paid over the course<br />

of five years.<br />

• The TMEA In-Service Conference<br />

was held on April 3-5, 1986 at the Hyatt<br />

Regency in Nashville, Tennessee (now the<br />

Sheraton Grand Nashville Downtown).<br />

Ray Bell and Nancy Ferguson served<br />

as conference chairs. Registration for the<br />

TMEA In-Service Conference was $10.00<br />

for pre-registration and $12.00 for on-site<br />

registration. Room accommodations at the<br />

Hyatt Regency Nashville were $52.00 per<br />

night for single occupancy.<br />


<strong>Vol</strong>ume 38, <strong>No</strong>. 3 – 48 pgs.<br />

Solie Fott, TMEA President<br />

Cynthia R. Curtis, Editor<br />

28 | TENNESSEE MUSICIAN | 2017 | <strong>Vol</strong>ume <strong>69</strong>, <strong>No</strong>. 2

IT’S A NEW ERA<br />


What does that mean for you as a music educator?<br />

Music advocates have begun the hard work of ensuring the<br />

Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is properly implemented<br />

across the country. With music included as part of a wellrounded<br />

education, now more than ever, your voice and<br />

expertise as a music educator is critical.<br />

NAfME is here to help you make a strong case for music<br />

education under ESSA.<br />

“Everything ESSA”<br />

Visit bit.ly/NCLBends for all the resources you need to understand ESSA and take action to<br />

ensure implementation includes music at the state level. NAfME’s Toolkits include:<br />

• ESSA in Plain English: What It Means for You: Learn more about this historical law and see our<br />

detailed FAQ that features questions asked by music educators just like you.<br />

• ESSA Implementation Toolkit: This thorough resource links your program with admissible<br />

provisions in ESSA so you can make your case for your program where you work.<br />

• NAfME Field Guide to State Lobbying: This document explains the ins and outs of what you<br />

can do to lobby at the state level.<br />

Webinars<br />

At bit.ly/NCLBends, you can receive recognition for professional development valued at one<br />

contact hour for watching these webinars:<br />

• ESSA Passage and Next Steps<br />

• Title IV, Opportunities to Learn, and You!<br />

• Federal Funding Facts<br />

Grassroots Action Center<br />

Right now, you can make your voice heard on Capitol Hill. At bit.ly/NAfMEgrassroots, you can:<br />

• Support music education in federal education policy<br />

• Be involved with the legislative process<br />

• Engage your members of Congress via ready-to-send letters on ESSA funding<br />

Your Association. Your Profession. Your Voice.

Tennessee Music Education Association<br />

129 Paschal Drive<br />

Murfreesboro, Tennessee 37128<br />

Slate Group is a proud print partner<br />

of Tennessee <strong>Musician</strong> and other<br />

state Music Education Associations.<br />


800.794.5594 | ian@slategroup.com<br />


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