Which of the following is most closely associated with the concept of "sampling error"? A. Operational definitions in experimentation B. Differences between males and females on the dependent measure C. Electronic hardware failures during sampling D. Natural variability among the means Question 15 of 40 2.5/ 2.5 Points If error variance were to occur in an experiment: A. the mean of the groups would be increased. B. the mean of the groups would be decreased. C. participants would be affected systematically. D. participants would be affected at random. Question 16 of 40 2.5/ 2.5 Points One of the chief weaknesses of an ex post facto procedure is that: A. it is only valid in research on children. B. no dependent variable can be manipulated. C. the researcher is unable to eliminate rival hypotheses. D. there are no confounding variables. Question 17 of 40 2.5/ 2.5 Points In order to test the effects of the 1988 heat wave on worker productivity, 48 machinists were randomly assigned to two groups of 24 machinists each. Each group was tested at a different room temperature (cool and hot) using dependent measures of number of parts produced and accuracy. What type of design does this study represent? A. A single-group, pretest-posttest design B. A Solomon four-group design C. A multilevel, completely randomized, between-subjects design D. A randomized, posttest-only, control-group design Question 18 of 40 0.0/ 2.5 Points An experimenter hopes to find that the predicted variation: A. leads to accepting the null hypothesis. B. reduces the difference between-groups. C. increases the within-groups variation. D. is due to the experimental manipulation. Question 19 of 40 2.5/ 2.5 Points Dr. Schmo is doing a study examining the effects of fear on midterm grades in a psychology
course. He sets up three conditions (high fear, moderate fear, no fear). An appropriate manipulation check would be to: A. give a test of fear to participants and compare the three groups. B. give an alternative psychology midterm. C. compare test scores between three groups. D. None of the above Question 20 of 40 2.5/ 2.5 Points Whenever the F-ratio is near 1.00, it means that: A. a mistake has been made in the computation. B. there are large systematic effects present. C. the experimental manipulation probably had the predicted effects. D. the between-groups variation is no larger than would be expected by chance alone. Part 2 of 2 - 35.0/ 50.0 Points Question 21 of 40 2.5/ 2.5 Points Matching several variables simultaneously: A. can lead to egregious errors when analyzing the data set. B. is commonly done when the researcher has only a few participants to work with. C. is usually not a workable solution. D. is easy and is far superior to a within-subjects design. Question 22 of 40 2.5/ 2.5 Points Which of the following is a potential confounding factor in within-subjects designs but NOT in a between-subjects design? A. Regression to the mean B. Sequence effects C. Attrition D. History Question 23 of 40 2.5/ 2.5 Points Compared with between-subjects designs, within-subjects designs are: A. more sensitive to effects of the independent variable. B. less sensitive to sequence effects. C. more sensitive to 4-way ANOVAs.