Two Adams and Eden

Yes, there were indeed two Adams on the earth - The first mankind was created by Elohim and the Second Adam was created by YHVH. The first humans were created male and female and the second as male-female within Eden a gated Park of YHVH. Translations had not done justice to the original.

Yes, there were indeed two Adams on the earth - The first mankind was created by Elohim and the Second Adam was created by YHVH. The first humans were created male and female and the second as male-female within Eden a gated Park of YHVH. Translations had not done justice to the original.


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PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />





ADAM 24<br />
















PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />


While we claim to be interpreters of the Scripture <strong>and</strong> support a literal interpretation of the word directly<br />

given by God to Moses, it is surprising that most scholars refuse the idea that there are two creation stories<br />

in Genesis. <strong>Two</strong> different names of God - Elohim <strong>and</strong> YHVH of Elohim - are clearly mentioned who both<br />

created Man. Elohim who is considered as a plurality acting one with the entire sons of God in all<br />

dimension created mankind as many people on earth, in male <strong>and</strong> female form reflecting the image of the<br />

plurality within the Elohim. In contrast YHVH of Elohim is a single person who formed Adam out of the<br />

earth <strong>and</strong> gave life through breathing on the form. While the first Adam Mankind consisted of many with<br />

male <strong>and</strong> female, the second Adam was neither male or female but one person who was later operated<br />

upon by YHVH to separate the Female from Adam to form a pair Adam <strong>and</strong> Eve. There are numerous other<br />

differences. Thus a simple direct textual reading give two creation events. It is difficult to identify them as<br />

one event.<br />

However for some reason this literal reading is heavily discouraged giving us a 6000 year old earth from<br />

Adam <strong>and</strong> Eve. The problem is that there are real scientific evidences of fossils of humankind dating millions<br />

of years or even trillions of years. Yet if it is taken as dual creation <strong>and</strong> taken at the simple literal meaning<br />

as is read, everything will fit together with science <strong>and</strong> scripture in consonance. God is the author of both the<br />

books - scripture that is directly spoken to Moses <strong>and</strong> nature as we understood when we "till <strong>and</strong> keep" into<br />

the creation. We have developed theology <strong>and</strong> science to interpret them.<br />

If they don’t agree something is wrong with our human interpretation of either or both. Are we misreading<br />

any of them?<br />

The fear seems to be that any such acceptance may mean an acceptance of evolution of man from the<br />

bacteria <strong>and</strong> plants to monkeys <strong>and</strong> man. What I try in this study is to look into these realities <strong>and</strong> explain<br />

the scripture as it is read <strong>and</strong> understood by anyone without any preconceived assumptions. Scripture to<br />

me is in perfect consonance with the observed scientific evidence.<br />

I present this study for what it is worth for the scientific community within the faith community for a renewed<br />

look.<br />

Prof.M.M.Ninan<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />





Apparently the book of Genesis includes two very different creation stories with major differences. .<br />

The first, “Genesis 1” runs from verse 1:1 to the middle of 2:4 (2:4a).<br />

The second, “Genesis 2,” runs from verse 2:4b to 2:25.<br />

For convenience I give below the full biblical quote from Genesis side by side.<br />

Genesis 1:1 - 2:4a Genesis 2: 4b - 25<br />

1 In the beginning God created the heaven <strong>and</strong> the earth.<br />

2 And the earth was without form, <strong>and</strong> void; <strong>and</strong><br />

darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the<br />

Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.<br />

3 And God said, Let there be light: <strong>and</strong> there was light. 4<br />

And God saw the light, that it was good: <strong>and</strong> God divided the<br />

light from the darkness.5 And God called the light Day, <strong>and</strong> the<br />

darkness he called Night. And the evening <strong>and</strong> the morning were<br />

the first day.<br />

4 These are the generations of the heavens <strong>and</strong> of the<br />

earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord<br />

God made the earth <strong>and</strong> the heavens,<br />

5 And every plant of the field before it was in the<br />

earth, <strong>and</strong> every herb of the field before it grew: for<br />

the Lord God had not caused it to rain upon the earth,<br />

<strong>and</strong> there was not a man to till the ground.6 But there<br />

went up a mist from the earth, <strong>and</strong> watered the whole face<br />

of the ground.<br />

6 And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst<br />

of the waters, <strong>and</strong> let it divide the waters from the waters.7<br />

And God made the firmament, <strong>and</strong> divided the waters which<br />

were under the firmament from the waters which were above the<br />

firmament: <strong>and</strong> it was so.8 And God called the firmament<br />

Heaven. And the evening <strong>and</strong> the morning were the second day.<br />

9 And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered<br />

together unto one place, <strong>and</strong> let the dry l<strong>and</strong> appear: <strong>and</strong> it<br />

was so.10 And God called the dry l<strong>and</strong> Earth; <strong>and</strong> the gathering<br />


together of the waters called he Seas: <strong>and</strong> God saw that it was<br />

good.<br />

11 And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the<br />

herb yielding seed, <strong>and</strong> the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind,<br />

whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: <strong>and</strong> it was so.12 And the<br />

earth brought forth grass, <strong>and</strong> herb yielding seed after his kind,<br />

<strong>and</strong> the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind:<br />

<strong>and</strong> God saw that it was good.13 And the evening <strong>and</strong> the<br />

morning were the third day.<br />

14 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament<br />

of the heaven to divide the day from the night; <strong>and</strong> let them be<br />

for signs, <strong>and</strong> for seasons, <strong>and</strong> for days, <strong>and</strong> years:15 And let<br />

them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light<br />

upon the earth: <strong>and</strong> it was so.16 And God made two great lights;<br />

the greater light to rule the day, <strong>and</strong> the lesser light to rule the<br />

night: he made the stars also.17 And God set them in the<br />

firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth,18 And to<br />

rule over the day <strong>and</strong> over the night, <strong>and</strong> to divide the light from<br />

the darkness: <strong>and</strong> God saw that it was good.19 And the evening<br />

<strong>and</strong> the morning were the fourth day.<br />

20 And God said, Let the waters bring forth<br />

abundantly the moving creature that hath life, <strong>and</strong><br />

fowl that may fly above the earth in the open<br />

firmament of heaven.21 And God created great whales, <strong>and</strong><br />

every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth<br />

abundantly, after their kind, <strong>and</strong> every winged fowl after his kind:<br />

<strong>and</strong> God saw that it was good.22 And God blessed them, saying,<br />

Be fruitful, <strong>and</strong> multiply, <strong>and</strong> fill the waters in the seas, <strong>and</strong> let<br />

fowl multiply in the earth.23 And the evening <strong>and</strong> the morning<br />

were the fifth day.<br />

24 And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living<br />

creature after his kind, cattle, <strong>and</strong> creeping thing, <strong>and</strong> beast of<br />

the earth after his kind: <strong>and</strong> it was so.25 And God made the<br />

beast of the earth after his kind, <strong>and</strong> cattle after their kind, <strong>and</strong><br />

every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: <strong>and</strong> God<br />

saw that it was good.<br />

26 And God said, Let us make man in our image,<br />

after our likeness: <strong>and</strong> let them have dominion over<br />

the fish of the sea, <strong>and</strong> over the fowl of the air,<br />

<strong>and</strong> over the cattle, <strong>and</strong> over all the earth, <strong>and</strong><br />

over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the<br />

earth.27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of<br />

God created he him; male <strong>and</strong> female created he them.<br />


PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

28 And God blessed them, <strong>and</strong> God said unto them, Be<br />

fruitful, <strong>and</strong> multiply, <strong>and</strong> replenish the earth, <strong>and</strong><br />

subdue it: <strong>and</strong> have dominion over the fish of the sea, <strong>and</strong><br />

over the fowl of the air, <strong>and</strong> over every living thing that<br />

moveth upon the earth.<br />

29 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb<br />

bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, <strong>and</strong> every<br />

tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall<br />

7 And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the<br />

ground, <strong>and</strong> breathed into his nostrils the breath<br />

of life; <strong>and</strong> man became a living soul.<br />

8 And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in<br />

<strong>Eden</strong>; <strong>and</strong> there he put the man whom he had<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

be for meat.30 And to every beast of the earth, <strong>and</strong> to every fowl<br />

of the air, <strong>and</strong> to every thing that creepeth upon the earth,<br />

wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat:<br />

<strong>and</strong> it was so.31 And God saw every thing that he had made,<br />

<strong>and</strong>, behold, it was very good. And the evening <strong>and</strong> the morning<br />

were the sixth day.<br />

Genesis 2King James Version (KJV)<br />

2 Thus the heavens <strong>and</strong> the earth were finished, <strong>and</strong> all the host<br />

of them.2 And on the seventh day God ended his work which he<br />

had made; <strong>and</strong> he rested on the seventh day from all his work<br />

which he had made.3 And God blessed the seventh day, <strong>and</strong><br />

sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work<br />

which God created <strong>and</strong> made.<br />

formed.<br />

9 And out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every<br />

tree that is pleasant to the sight, <strong>and</strong> good for food;<br />

the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, <strong>and</strong> the<br />

tree of knowledge of good <strong>and</strong> evil.<br />

10 And a river went out of <strong>Eden</strong> to water the garden;<br />

<strong>and</strong> from thence it was parted, <strong>and</strong> became into four<br />

heads.11 The name of the first is Pison: that is it which<br />

compasseth the whole l<strong>and</strong> of Havilah, where there is<br />

gold;12 And the gold of that l<strong>and</strong> is good: there is bdellium<br />

<strong>and</strong> the onyx stone.13 And the name of the second river is<br />

Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole l<strong>and</strong> of<br />

Ethiopia.14 And the name of the third river is Hiddekel:<br />

that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria. And the<br />

fourth river is Euphrates.<br />

15 And the Lord God took the man, <strong>and</strong> put him into the<br />

garden of <strong>Eden</strong> to dress it <strong>and</strong> to keep it.<br />

16 And the Lord God comm<strong>and</strong>ed the man, saying, Of<br />

every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat:17 But of<br />

the tree of the knowledge of good <strong>and</strong> evil, thou shalt not<br />

eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt<br />

surely die.<br />

18 And the Lord God said, It is not good that the man<br />

should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him.<br />

19 And out of the ground the Lord God formed every<br />

beast of the field, <strong>and</strong> every fowl of the air; <strong>and</strong> brought<br />

them unto Adam to see what he would call them: <strong>and</strong><br />

whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was<br />

the name thereof.<br />

20 And Adam gave names to all cattle, <strong>and</strong> to the fowl<br />

of the air, <strong>and</strong> to every beast of the field; but for Adam<br />

there was not found an help meet for him.<br />

21 And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon<br />

Adam, <strong>and</strong> he slept: <strong>and</strong> he took one of his ribs, <strong>and</strong><br />

closed up the flesh instead thereof;<br />

22 And the rib, which the Lord God had taken from man,<br />

made he a woman, <strong>and</strong> brought her unto the man.<br />

23 And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, <strong>and</strong><br />

flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

she was taken out of Man.<br />

24 Therefore shall a man leave his father <strong>and</strong> his mother,<br />

<strong>and</strong> shall cleave unto his wife: <strong>and</strong> they shall be one flesh.<br />

25 And they were both naked, the man <strong>and</strong> his wife, <strong>and</strong><br />

were not ashamed.<br />

We have two option in treating with the Genesis 1 <strong>and</strong> 2.<br />

These are:<br />

1. They are continuation of the creation story in a consecutive way holding the view that Moses<br />

wrote them down in accordance with the revelation he received from God directly on the Mount of<br />

Zion.<br />

2.They are two separate creation stories collected in accordance with the Document Hypothesis in<br />

opposition to the authorship of Moses under the revelation of God. Or it is a continuation of the first<br />

story giving detailed accounts simply exp<strong>and</strong>ing on it.<br />

There is a third option which are not often even considered for fear that it may tread the<br />

conventional interpretations. It is the possibility <strong>and</strong> the consequence of this third option that form<br />

the major portion of this study.<br />

One major contention is that both these refer to the one <strong>and</strong> the same Adam. The logic of this is<br />

strenuous. Here is it<br />

Multiple Versions need not be distinct events.<br />

Genesis 1 <strong>and</strong> 2 is not the only place in the Bible where two different versions of the same story are<br />

placed side-by-side. For example,<br />

there are two genealogies in Genesis 4 <strong>and</strong> 5<br />

two accounts of the spread of humanity in Genesis 10 <strong>and</strong> 11.<br />

<br />

<br />

There are also two distinct histories of Israel, one in Samuel/Kings <strong>and</strong> the other Chronicles,<br />

<strong>and</strong><br />

four distinct tellings of the story of Jesus - four gospels.<br />

If this is the right interpretation<br />

they are not separate different stories<br />

nor<br />

are they the sequence continued.<br />

They are the same story told from different view points with different focuses.<br />

Having given an outline in the first story, the second story go on to exp<strong>and</strong>, giving details of the first.<br />

This is a common technique <strong>and</strong> need not be of concern. As such there is sufficient reason to<br />

consider the two creation stories as one <strong>and</strong> the same story where the second takes up the details<br />

of the first.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

If we take up this logic we need to see whether it justifies the claim. Are they in consonance with<br />

each other? Are there conflicts in the stories that render the argument invalid?<br />


https://biologos.org/blogs/guest/israels-two-creation-stories-part-1/P60;<br />

http://barryb<strong>and</strong>stra.com/rtot4/rtot4-04-ch1.html;<br />

Different Literary Styles: Liturgical Petry vs Narrative<br />

Genesis 1 <strong>and</strong> 2 are not written in the same literary style.<br />

Some label Genesis 1 as “poetry” <strong>and</strong> Genesis 2 as “narrative.”<br />

Gen 1 is a liturgy with intermittent repetition of<br />

"God said…….",<br />

"<strong>and</strong> it was so",<br />

….….<br />

"there was evening <strong>and</strong> morning day x"<br />

In typtical luturgical form.<br />

Or it can be thought of as a poem with rhythmic repetition.:<br />

Gen 2 : In contrast, most readers underst<strong>and</strong> Genesis 2 as a different kind of text a direct narration<br />

of a story.<br />

Then Hebrew Bible exhibits not just two literary styles, but a spectrum of styles.<br />

Different Views of God: Transcedent Spirit vs Present Father<br />

A more important difference between the two creation<br />

stories is how God is presented.<br />

In Genesis 1,<br />

God is transcendent:<br />

he is hovering over the waters;<br />

he is above it all,<br />

declaring things to be so.<br />

He is sovereign over creation, like a high king giving orders.<br />

He creates, but from a distance.<br />

This is the piicture of an Omni God <strong>and</strong> who is a spirit who has no form <strong>and</strong> whom we cannot<br />

underst<strong>and</strong> or know.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

In Genesis 2<br />

God is not aloof or distant.<br />

He is more “down to earth,” almost human-like.<br />

He participates in the affairs of man.<br />

Here we see a God who has conversations with Adam, Eve,<br />

<strong>and</strong> a serpent;<br />

He takes a stroll in the Garden with his son <strong>and</strong> daughter;<br />

He seeks the hiding children <strong>and</strong> interrogates Adam <strong>and</strong><br />

Eve to gain information about what happened;<br />

He disciplines them.<br />

The picture evidently is that of a Father who is in<br />

communion with His creation. Apparently he seems to have a human form <strong>and</strong> works with his<br />

h<strong>and</strong> to form <strong>and</strong> breaths with his mouth.<br />

God’s Names: Elohim vs YHVH Elohim<br />

In Genesis 1, the narrator refers to God as Elohim, translated “God” in English Bibles.<br />

In Genesis 2, the narrator refers to him as Yahweh Elohim, translated “LORD God.” We could<br />

probably translate it as YHVH of Elohim.<br />

++++++++++++++++++++><br />

https://bible.org/question/does-ielohimi-gen-11-mean-god-or-gods gives this explanation on<br />

Elohim.<br />

The Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, Vol. I, Moody Press, Editor, R. Laird Harris,<br />

Associate Editor, Gleason L. Archer, Jr., Associate Editor, Bruce K. Waltke, has the following to say<br />

about Elohim:<br />

ELOHIM<br />

Does Elohim in Gen. 1:1 mean God or gods?<br />

The Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, Vol. I, Moody Press, Editor, R. Laird Harris,<br />

Associate Editor, Gleason L. Archer, Jr., Associate Editor, Bruce K. Waltke, has the following to say<br />

about Elohim:<br />

Elohim. God, gods, judges, angels.<br />

Elohim:Plural Majesty:<br />

This word, which is generally viewed as the plural of eloah, is found far more frequently in Scripture<br />

than either el or eloah for the true God. The plural ending is usually described as a plural of majesty<br />

<strong>and</strong> not intended as a true plural when used of God. This is seen in the fact that the noun elohim is<br />

consistently used with a singular verb forms <strong>and</strong> with adjectives <strong>and</strong> pronouns in the singular.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

Elohim: Unity of God allowing for plurality of Persons<br />

Albright has suggested that the use of this majestic plural comes from the tendency in the ancient<br />

near east toward a universalism:… a better reason can be seen in Scripture itself where, in the very<br />

first chapter of Gen, the necessity of a term conveying both the untiy of the one God <strong>and</strong> yet<br />

allowing for a plurality of persons is found (Gen. 1:2, 26). This is further borne out by the fact that<br />

the form elohim occurs only in Hebrew <strong>and</strong> no other Semitic language, not even in Biblical<br />

Aramaic…<br />

The term occurs in the general sense of deity some 2570 times in Scripture. Yet … it is difficult to<br />

detect any discrepancy in use between the forms El, Eloah, <strong>and</strong> Elohim in Scripture.<br />

When indicating the true God, Elohim functions as the subject of all divine activity revealed to man<br />

<strong>and</strong> as the object of all true reverence <strong>and</strong> fear from men. Often, Elohim is accompanied by the<br />

personal name of God, Yahweh.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

.…………..In Deuteronomy 6:4, the well known passage called the Shema (from the Hebrew word<br />

meaning “to hear”), Hear, O Israel! The Lord is our God, the Lord is one!,” the word one is echad,<br />

which refers to one, not in the absolute sense, but one in the collective sense, like one bunch of<br />

grapes. Thus, even this passage does not destroy the concept of the trinity. While the trinity is not<br />

explicitly stated in either the Old or New Testaments, it is implicitly taught in a number of ways, but<br />

especially in the New Testament. …..<br />

A careful study of the New Testament demonstrates that not only did the authors of the New<br />

Testament declare that Jesus Christ was God in the flesh, but Christ himself believed <strong>and</strong> declared<br />

himself to be God <strong>and</strong> one in essence with the Father. The idea that he was only a god is<br />

polytheism, a concept totally contrary to both the Old <strong>and</strong> New Testaments. ….<br />

The passage in John 1:1 can in no way can be made to say that Jesus was only a god who was<br />

with the Father. It dramatically says that he is God of very God, yet distinct from the Father as God.<br />

The fact that “God” (Greek theos) is without the article does not mean “a god,” but, again, according<br />

to Greek grammar, is designed to stress the undiminished deity of the Logos, “the Word.”<br />

www.inthebeginning.org.<br />


PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

In order to avoid any attempt to be polytheistic it is necessary to underst<strong>and</strong> that the only reality is<br />

God. There is nothing outside of him. There is no inside or outside since God has no dimensions<br />

<strong>and</strong> if at all He fills it all. So if He has to create, He has to create a space within him <strong>and</strong> then<br />

create there. He has to hide to give them freedom even though He cannot really be absent.<br />

Hence even the creation is part of God. With what else <strong>and</strong> where else can He create? When<br />

the creation is a person, the person become part of God. When they have freewill to act <strong>and</strong><br />

create they are usually called Sons of God. They become co-creators with God to some extent<br />

within the dimensions God permits taking what is already there <strong>and</strong> forming. This evidently restricts<br />

God's authority within those regions. Thus this involves a voluntary sacrifice on the part of God.<br />

This is what is stated as " the lamb slain before the foundation of the world." There are Sons of God<br />

in all dimensions of creation <strong>and</strong> they are part of God <strong>and</strong> they are co-creators with God with the<br />

power given to them by God. Since to a limited extent the Sons of God can create - they can<br />

transform the world of their own within the limit. This is what provides the evolution. But it is<br />

limited to evolution within the species - which is referred to in Genesis as "in its own kind" Only the<br />

absolute God head (let us call Him El) can create from nothing. All Sons of God can only form or<br />

shape what is already there. It is this group that should be really be assumed to be referred in<br />

Genesis creation story as Elohim.<br />

In contrast YHVH is one of the members of the Elohim - a special member. In Christianity we<br />

believe in a triune god where there are three -referred to as Father, Son <strong>and</strong> Holy Spirit - who are<br />

special <strong>and</strong> share the essence of Godhead. On the other h<strong>and</strong> since God provides the space for<br />

the existence of Sons of God, they do not have the essence of God, they only have the emanations<br />

of God which is their content. Whenever a form of God is seen or experienced it is Jesus who is<br />

indirectly indicated. If God has a form, that is in the Son of God Jesus since he shares both the<br />

essence <strong>and</strong> the emanation. In the Eastern Churches we have concept that every son of God can<br />

grow into the likeness of God - known as theosis..Thus all these sons of God in all dimensions<br />

headed by the Trinity family form Elohim. They are indeed many. They all take part in the<br />

creation to some extent.<br />

Thus all the creation together is One in God.<br />

This form the Elohim.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

Thus it is my contention that Elohim represents the whole of the Trinity (including YHVH) along with<br />

the whole creation- the Sons <strong>and</strong> even other lower forms of creation. They represent many.<br />

Whereas YHVH Elohim is to be identified as YHVH of Elohim - one of the Elohim which we can<br />

identify with preincarnate Jesus - the Son of God especially in view of Paul's declarations.<br />

Hebrews 1:2 says, “In these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of<br />

all things, <strong>and</strong> through whom also he made the universe.”<br />

Christ is the agent of God’s creation; the world was created “through” Him. The Father <strong>and</strong> the Son<br />

had two distinct functions in creation yet Father, Son <strong>and</strong> the Holy Spirit along with all the sons of<br />

God worked together to bring about the cosmos. John says, “All things were made through [Jesus],<br />

<strong>and</strong> without [Jesus] was not anything made that was made” (John 1:3, ESV). The apostle Paul<br />

reiterates: “There is but one God, the Father, from whom all things came <strong>and</strong> for whom we live; <strong>and</strong><br />

there is but one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom all things came <strong>and</strong> through whom we live” (1<br />

Corinthians 8:6).<br />

We are even today called to be the co-creators with the universe where we are placed to till <strong>and</strong> to<br />

keep.<br />

I have spent time on these definitions because it is the foundation of my interpretations.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

<br />

The setting of the scene for creation is different in these two<br />

accounts.<br />

Genesis 1 begins with pre-existent chaotic matter—darkness <strong>and</strong> a watery deep—that is about to<br />

be “tamed” by God during the six-day sequence. The spirit of God hovers over the deep, <strong>and</strong><br />

begins the creation sequence by first making light (1:3-5) <strong>and</strong> then dividing the waters (1:6-10).<br />

Genesis 1 shows how God makes habitable what is uninhabitable. Chaos made Order.<br />

Genesis 2 depicts a similar transition from inhabitable to habitable, but it does not describe the<br />

primordial state in the same way.<br />

Gen 1:2 And the earth was without form, <strong>and</strong> void; <strong>and</strong> darkness was upon the face of the<br />

deep.<br />

Instead, we find ourselves in a l<strong>and</strong> that is not yet fully habitable.<br />

Gen 2: 4- 5 in the day that the Lord God made the earth <strong>and</strong> the heavens, And every plant of the<br />

field before it was in the earth, <strong>and</strong> every herb of the field before it grew: for the Lord God<br />

had not caused it to rain upon the earth, <strong>and</strong> there was not a man to till the ground.<br />

Are these the same state of transition described in a different way or do they describe totally<br />

different states of existence. The gap theory would suggest that they are the same situation<br />

causing a desolation <strong>and</strong> both explain that state from which recreation start. Or were there a<br />

second fall <strong>and</strong> a second generation also?<br />

Evidently the second creation does not start from total desolation of "without form <strong>and</strong> void" nor in<br />

"darkness". It was not fully in a state for proper settled inhabitation.<br />

There was no man to till the ground because mankind has not learned agricultural methods. There<br />

was no rain or agricultural crops.<br />

Different Methods of Creating: Royal Method by Order vs. Artist<br />

By h<strong>and</strong> process<br />

In Genesis 1, Elohim creates as a sovereign monarch giving orders from on high. God speaks “let<br />

there be” <strong>and</strong> things come into existence. He separates <strong>and</strong> divides, places the lights in the<br />

heavens, names, <strong>and</strong> blesses his activity. Elohim created Adam in their own image male <strong>and</strong><br />

female. No specific method is described. If we take up the method of Elohim who are spirits, the<br />

creation was using divine words. Adam was in Male <strong>and</strong> Female. Adam here is not made with<br />

matter or pre-existing material but only in the image of pre-existing beings. Were they only spirits?<br />

Or the image was made from clay? But they were given dominion over all creation <strong>and</strong> were<br />

asked to multiply. He then rests, observing from above a job well done. Here he is called Adam.<br />

obviously it could man mankind. And they were place not in <strong>Eden</strong> but on the earth. Probably ‏.אדם<br />

this creation covered all continents of the earth.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

In Genesis 2 YHVH of Elohim creates in a more down-to-earth h<strong>and</strong>s-on fashion. Yahweh does not<br />

speak life into existence from on high. Rather the two creation stories describe God’s methods of<br />

creating in two different ways.<br />

He forms the man from the earth like a potter (he also forms the animals). To animate this former<br />

lump of earth, God breathes life into him. He plants a garden. In order to give the man a suitable<br />

companion, he induces sleep on the man <strong>and</strong> (literally) builds a woman from part of the man’s side.<br />

In contrast to Gen 1 Elohim creation of Adam YHVH Elohim puts his h<strong>and</strong> on the pre-created<br />

matter <strong>and</strong> forms Adam as <strong>and</strong>rogynous -alone- <strong>and</strong> gives him life by breathing on him - a part of<br />

Divine <strong>and</strong> creates a new soul over <strong>and</strong> above other life forms. In this case the addition YHVH gave<br />

was a new dimension of existence - a soul similar to YHVH. Adam was given the status of the son<br />

of God. Here he is called ha-Adam ה-אדם or the specific Adam- "the Adam". This could not mean<br />

mankind but one particular man. Does this not suggest that God created mankind humanoids<br />

before this particular Adam. We see the lineage of Adam takes us to around 4000 BC <strong>and</strong> they<br />

started agriculture around the same period according to archeologists. So there existed a prior<br />

humanoid race before our Adam who was created around 6000 years ago? Is the bible saying<br />

that?<br />

Different Order of Events<br />

Genesis 1 <strong>and</strong> 2 not only begin with a different primordial scene.<br />

They also have distinct descriptions of what happens next, both in order <strong>and</strong> content.<br />

Genesis 1 describes the ordering of primordial chaos in the following sequence:<br />

First, God creates the habitable space: light, separation of waters, dry l<strong>and</strong> (days 1-3).<br />

Second, he fills the space: plants, heavenly lights, sea <strong>and</strong> sky creatures, l<strong>and</strong> animals, <strong>and</strong><br />

humans (male <strong>and</strong> female together )at the end (days 4-6).<br />

Genesis 2 follows a different order.<br />

” God creates ha-`adam (the man, or a specific Adam) out of dust<br />

<strong>and</strong> before there is any plant life (Genesis 1 says plant life preceded humanity)<br />

Next he creates a garden <strong>and</strong> puts the man there to till <strong>and</strong> to keep.<br />

After placing the man in the garden, God creates animals for him as helpers.<br />

Then, finding no suitable helper for man among the animals, God forms the woman out of the<br />

man’s side (whereas in Gen1 male <strong>and</strong> female were created together on the sixth day).<br />

++++++++++++++++++><br />

Plants on day 6<br />

Particularly noticeable is the fact on the creation of the vegetation.<br />

+++++++++++++++><br />

https://creation.com/adam-<strong>and</strong>-the-animals-day-6: Tim Chaffey, AiG–U.S., explains.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

The “Problem<br />

Elohim creation:<br />

"Then God said, “Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb that yields seed, <strong>and</strong> the fruit tree<br />

that yields fruit according to its kind, whose seed is in itself, on the earth”; <strong>and</strong> it was so. And the<br />

earth brought forth grass, the herb that yields seed according to its kind, <strong>and</strong> the tree that yields<br />

fruit, whose seed is in itself according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. So the evening <strong>and</strong><br />

the morning were the third day." (Genesis 1:11–13)<br />

YHVH of Elohim creation<br />

"This is the history of the heavens <strong>and</strong> the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord<br />

God made the earth <strong>and</strong> the heavens, before any plant of the field was in the earth <strong>and</strong> before any<br />

herb of the field had grown. For the Lord God had not caused it to rain on the earth, <strong>and</strong> there<br />

was no man to till the ground; but a mist went up from the earth <strong>and</strong> watered the whole face of the<br />

ground.<br />

And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, <strong>and</strong> breathed into his nostrils the breath of<br />

life; <strong>and</strong> man became a living being. The Lord God planted a garden eastward in <strong>Eden</strong>, <strong>and</strong> there<br />

He put the man whom He had formed. And out of the ground the Lord God made every tree grow<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

that is pleasant to the sight <strong>and</strong> good for food. The tree of life was also in the midst of the garden,<br />

<strong>and</strong> the tree of the knowledge of good <strong>and</strong> evil." (Genesis 2:4–9)<br />

The Solution<br />

On the third day of the Creation Week God made certain types of plants:<br />

“"grass, the herb that yields seed, <strong>and</strong> the fruit tree"” (Genesis 1:11).<br />

> grass (deshe’),<br />

the seed-yielding herbs (‘eseb mazria zera), <strong>and</strong><br />

the fruit trees (ets pariy).<br />

Beginning with the fourth verse of Genesis 2, on the sixth day.<br />

God made Adam (v. 7), the Garden of <strong>Eden</strong> along with the plants therein (specifically mentioned<br />

are the fruit trees, vs. 8–9), <strong>and</strong> Eve (v. 22).<br />

Verses 5 <strong>and</strong> 6 provide a description of what the world was like prior to the creation of man.<br />

<strong>Two</strong> specific types of plants are translated from specific Hebrew terms:<br />

> “plant of the field” (siah hassadeh) <strong>and</strong><br />

“herb of the field” (eseb hassadeh).<br />

Hebrew scholar Mark Futato defines these terms as:<br />

> “wild shrubs of the steppe” <strong>and</strong><br />

“cultivated grain”<br />

>> The herbs of the field were not around because Adam had not been created yet, so<br />

there was no one to till or cultivate the ground.<br />

>> The “wild shrubs of the steppe” are plants that often have thorns, <strong>and</strong> these thorns<br />

would not have been present until after the Curse…………"<br />


PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

In Genesis Chapter One<br />

Elohim Created<br />

In Genesis Chapter <strong>Two</strong><br />

YHVH of Elohim formed<br />

Image of God In the image of God No mention of the image of God<br />

Male <strong>and</strong> Female<br />

vs male alone<br />

Bara vs yatsar<br />

Created vs Formed<br />

No breath of life<br />

Vs<br />

Breath of life<br />

4. Fruitful <strong>and</strong><br />

Multiply<br />

From creation vs<br />

after flood<br />

5.<br />

6. Nature of Animals<br />

<strong>and</strong> Plants<br />

7.Rain<br />

8.<br />

They all (plural) were CREATED.<br />

Adam alone (singular) is FORMED.<br />

Created is Hebrew word #1254<br />

Formed is Hebrew word #3335<br />

bara'<br />

yatsar<br />

"...in <strong>Eden</strong>; <strong>and</strong> there he put the man<br />

"...male <strong>and</strong> female created He<br />

whom he had formed" (Gen. 2:8).<br />

them" (Gen. 1:27).<br />

They are created male <strong>and</strong> female at<br />

Adam is formed some time before Eve.<br />

the same time. No 'Adam's Rib<br />

She later being made from him.<br />

here!<br />

They were simply created since they<br />

were created in the image of God,<br />

they probably would have had the Adam given the breath of life,<br />

freedom of choice <strong>and</strong> was a living became a living soul.<br />

soul by nature.<br />

No such comm<strong>and</strong> given to Adam <strong>and</strong> Eve<br />

They are told to multiply.<br />

(Adam's family was told to multiply after<br />

"...Be fruitful <strong>and</strong> multiply..." (Gen.<br />

the flood; i.e., Noah's family was told in<br />

1:28).<br />

Gen. 9:1).<br />

Mankind given dominion over<br />

animals <strong>and</strong> fish. Co-Regent to God<br />

The animals were wild animals <strong>and</strong><br />

the plants were wild plants.<br />

No names given.<br />

There was not yet rain.<br />

Adam was a farmer. Slave of God. He<br />

needs to be released from the bondage.<br />

They were domestic animals<br />

<strong>and</strong> crop plants.<br />

Adam named these.<br />

"...went up a mist from the earth..."<br />

(Gen. 2:6)<br />

The creation was completed. All the But after that, in Gen. 2:5, YHVH saw that<br />

various races, men <strong>and</strong> women He "did not have a man to till the ground"<br />

alike, were created. THEN ---->>> (farmer). So YHVH FORMED Adam.<br />

Different Process in creating<br />

In Genesis 1:27 humans (Hebrew adam) are created on the sixth day. These humans are both<br />

male (zakhar) <strong>and</strong> female (neqeyvah) <strong>and</strong> they are created en masse <strong>and</strong> simultaneously. Genesis<br />

1 speaks of the mass creation of humans (male <strong>and</strong> female) at one time. Eve is not mentioned at all<br />

as being created or given as Adam's wife.<br />

In Genesis 2 one male (adam) is formed from the ground (adamah). Then later, in a separate<br />

creative act, one woman (ishah) is formed from the man (ish). Genesis 2 begins with one man, then<br />

one woman from the man in a separate act.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

The difference in vocabulary reflects the difference in perspective.<br />

If we carefully read the two creation stories we see two ways of creating Adam. In the first<br />

creation story, Adam was created by the word of God following the other creation modes of<br />

previous days. He was created in the image of God - evidently then not from the earth - but as a<br />

spirit being. They were created in the image of God male <strong>and</strong> female<br />

In contrast the Adam in the second creation was made from the dust of the earth formed by the<br />

h<strong>and</strong>s of God <strong>and</strong> then gave life by breathing. He has evolved partly from existing matter <strong>and</strong><br />

given life or soul specifically as part of God in God's breath. This suggests that the second Adam<br />

was not the same Adam as the first. The first Adam was a spirit probably with his wife also a spirit.<br />

We are not told anything about his wife in the creation story. Second Adam was a physical man<br />

with a spirit of God - a divine soul - received directly from God.<br />

The Hebrew language has three different words that denotes the processes in creation which may<br />

be translated as Made, Created <strong>and</strong> Formed : asah, bara, yatsar.<br />

The differences between make/made, create <strong>and</strong> form are:<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

- ברא - ‘Separated’ BARA - ‘Created’,<br />

Asah – aw-saw' - - to use existing material <strong>and</strong> make something from it, like fabrication when<br />

material goes into a factory <strong>and</strong> is fashioned into an item. - e.g., Gen. 1:7 And God made the<br />

firmament, ….”<br />

Yatsar – yaw-tsar' - - to form, slowly <strong>and</strong> in several steps, usually over time. A potter casting a<br />

pot; a baby formed in the womb. – e.g., Gen. 2:7 And the LORD God formed man [of] the dust of<br />

the ground, …. Yatsar is not found in the first creation account with its day-by-day details. This<br />

first use of yatsar in the Bible, at this verse, refers to all the creation process.<br />

Bara: to shape or create<br />

Asah: to do or make<br />

Gen. 1:1<br />

Gen. 1:7<br />

Gen. 1:16<br />

Gen. 1:21<br />

Gen. 1:25<br />

Gen. 1:27<br />

Gen. 2:3<br />

Gen. 1:31<br />

Gen. 2:3<br />

Gen. 2:4<br />

Gen. 2:4<br />

Gen 2:7<br />

Gen. 3:1<br />

Gen. 3:7<br />

Gen. 3:21<br />

Gen. 5:1<br />

Gen. 5:2<br />

Gen. 6:6<br />

created the heavens <strong>and</strong> earth<br />

made the expanse between the waters above <strong>and</strong> below<br />

made the sun, moon <strong>and</strong> stars<br />

created the sea creatures <strong>and</strong> birds<br />

made all l<strong>and</strong> creatures<br />

created man (both male <strong>and</strong> female)<br />

created <strong>and</strong> made all His works<br />

all that He made<br />

all His works which God created <strong>and</strong> made<br />

made heaven <strong>and</strong> earth<br />

created heavens <strong>and</strong> earth<br />

formed the man out of the dust of the ground.<br />

made the beasts of the field<br />

made loin clothes from fig leaves<br />

made garments from animal skins<br />

made man (referring to both male <strong>and</strong> female)<br />

created male <strong>and</strong> female<br />

made man<br />

Gen. 7:4 destroy every living thing that I have made<br />

Gen. 9:6 man made in the image of God<br />

Ps. 89:47 created all the sons of men<br />

Ps. 104:30 created sea creatures<br />

Ps. 148:5 created heavens, heights, angels, hosts, sun, moon <strong>and</strong> stars<br />

Is. 40:26 created stars<br />

Is. 40:26 created trees, rivers<br />

Is. 54:16 created the blacksmith <strong>and</strong> the destroyer<br />

Ps. 121:2 made the heavens <strong>and</strong> the earth<br />

Ps. 104:24 made the sea, sea creatures <strong>and</strong> l<strong>and</strong> animals<br />

Is. 41:20 done this, made the trees <strong>and</strong> rivers<br />

Is. 43:7 made, created <strong>and</strong> formed man<br />

Is. 45:18 made, formed, established <strong>and</strong> created the earth<br />

Here are the references to the creation with terms involving "made", "created" <strong>and</strong> "formed"<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

When nothing is in existence, God create, BARA. Here the created exists in more than the<br />

dimensions which were before. But when the material is already there, He ASAH, made or formed<br />

from the materials already there giving it a new form or shape combining what is already in<br />

existence.<br />

It is clear that in Gen. 1:27 God created man (both male <strong>and</strong> female). It was a creation out of<br />

nothing or humankind was made in a higher dimension than the animals in existence. This mankind<br />

lived in higher dimensions than the vegetation <strong>and</strong> the birds <strong>and</strong> beasts. But he did not partake of<br />

the breath of life directly from God. He did not enter the divine dimension.<br />

But in Gen 2:7 God formed the man out of the dust of the ground which was already there. And<br />

given the breath of life by breathing into him. He gives him a divine soul <strong>and</strong> this man the Adam<br />

was existing in the divine realms also. He was indeed a Son of God on earth<br />

“The Lord God formed (yatsar ‏(יצַָר the man from the dust of the ground <strong>and</strong> breathed into his<br />

nostrils the breath of life, <strong>and</strong> the man became a living being.”<br />

The Hebrew word yatsar speaks metaphorically <strong>and</strong> analogically of God as the potter of Adam, but<br />

also asserts the literal creation of the first man from the dust of the earth.<br />

Further there are other strange differences. First, the Hebrew verb used for the fashioning of both<br />

animals <strong>and</strong> humans is the same, yatsar, but when it is about animals (2:19), it is spelled yitser,<br />

with double yod. This double yod is unique ‏'יָצַר when it is about Man (2:7), it is spelled yyitser יָצַר<br />

<strong>and</strong> is not found anywhere else.. (https://www.skipmoen.com/2013/09/not-exactly/)<br />

Secondly, the formation of Man includes both nephesh <strong>and</strong> neshama (breath of life)<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

Neshama (Hebrew: נשמה ) is a Hebrew word which can mean "soul" or "spirit".<br />

soul-breath of life (Nishmat Chaim). Man [thus] became a living creature (Nefesh Chaya)" (Genesis<br />

2:7).<br />

Neh'-fesh נֶ֫פֶשׁ)‏ népēš) Noun Feminine<br />

soul, self, life, creature, person, appetite, mind, living being, desire, emotion, passion; that which<br />

breathes, the breathing substance or being, soul, the inner being of man; living being; living being<br />

(with life in the blood); seat of the appetites; seat of emotions <strong>and</strong> passions; activity of mind;<br />

activity of the will<br />

Animals have only nephesh. "animal soul" (Nefesh HaBehamit) which is contained in the blood, i.e.<br />

in the physio-chemical life processes. "The life-force of the flesh is in the blood" They cannot evolve<br />

into a being with neshma because neshma is of a different dimension - not of the same kind.. If you<br />

are locked inside one room, you cannot get out <strong>and</strong> go into a second room unless someone opens<br />

the room <strong>and</strong> allow you that extension possibility.<br />

Relationship with Humanity: Adam as tyrant ruler who subdues vs.<br />

Adam as Priest cum Laborer : keeper<br />

Genesis 1 presents humans as royal figures: they were created in Elohim’s image. Humans are<br />

placed on earth to represent God <strong>and</strong> rule for him by being given dominion over what God has<br />

made.<br />

“Have dominion over the fish of the sea, <strong>and</strong> over the birds of the air, <strong>and</strong> over the cattle, <strong>and</strong> over<br />

all the wild animals of the earth, <strong>and</strong> over every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth”<br />

The Hebrew word for dominion in the biblical text is râdâh. Râdâh means dominion, reign,<br />

to prevail against, <strong>and</strong> rule. It can also mean subjugation, to tread down upon,<br />

<strong>and</strong> even crumble off (Brown, Driver, <strong>and</strong> Briggs 2008, p. 921; Strong 1979).<br />

(https://www.quotescosmos.com/bible/bible-verses/Genesis-1-28-Be-fruitful,-<strong>and</strong>-multiply.html)<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

Genesis 2 presents humans not as one who subjugate, but as servants in the garden.<br />

Gen 1 speaks of “dominion” .<br />

Gen 2 speaks of "till <strong>and</strong> to keep".<br />

We will see that the word "till <strong>and</strong> keep" uses the same words assigned to the High Priestly job<br />

indicating that he was to be the mediator between the rest of creation <strong>and</strong> God, transforming <strong>and</strong><br />

reforming them.<br />

There is deeper aspect in the difference. In the kingdom of God one who rules over is not higher<br />

than the one who is ruled. Instead one who serves is higher than the one who is being served. So<br />

Adam was a tiller <strong>and</strong> keeper who is capable of forming from what is there. He cannot create out<br />

of nothing but he can create <strong>and</strong> form from what is given.<br />

The mankind as created in Gen1 has to enforce his will to make a living. “… [God] ordered<br />

mankind to ‘subdue’ the earth" This mankind represents the hunter gatherer in contrast to Gen 2<br />

Adam <strong>and</strong> Eve were to till <strong>and</strong> keep. We will take this up later. This has direct connection with the<br />

next in connection with what they are in partaking of God’s king as co-creators <strong>and</strong> being<br />

transformed into the likeness of YHVH.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

The domain of the two Adam are different:<br />

Gen 1:26 "<strong>and</strong> let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, <strong>and</strong> over<br />

the fowl of the air, <strong>and</strong> over the cattle, <strong>and</strong> over all the earth, <strong>and</strong> over<br />

every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth .... 28 And God<br />

blessed them, <strong>and</strong> God said unto them,<br />

Be fruitful, <strong>and</strong> multiply,<br />

<strong>and</strong> replenish [rather, fill] the earth,<br />

<strong>and</strong> subdue it: <strong>and</strong> have dominion<br />

over the fish of the sea, <strong>and</strong> over the fowl of the air, <strong>and</strong> over every living thing that moveth upon<br />

the earth.”<br />

The domain here is all the earth - l<strong>and</strong>, sea <strong>and</strong> the air : the fish of the sea, fowls of the air, cattle<br />

<strong>and</strong> all the earth - no particular place.<br />

Gen 2: 15 And the Lord God took the man, <strong>and</strong> put him into<br />

the garden of <strong>Eden</strong><br />

to dress it <strong>and</strong> to keep it.<br />

The domain here is a particular place - the garden of <strong>Eden</strong> alone<br />

somewhere in the east<br />

<strong>and</strong> that only - to dress it <strong>and</strong> keep it.<br />

If we assume that the two <strong>Adams</strong> are the same, then after his<br />

creation <strong>and</strong> giving him’ dominion of the wide earth’, God took him ‘immediately or after a period of<br />

time’ <strong>and</strong> put him in the Garden of <strong>Eden</strong> which God created to “till <strong>and</strong> to keep it”. It could also be<br />

interpreted that God took one of the mankind whom He has created –‘ the Adam’ <strong>and</strong> put him in the<br />

Holy Sanctuary of the earth – the Garden of <strong>Eden</strong> as the High Priest to the rest of mankind.<br />

Do we agree with the Tablets Theory of DH?<br />

The Documentary Hypotheses presents it without taking these narration as the direct revelation of<br />

God to Moses who acted practically as a scribe to God, writing what he was told. Documentary<br />

hypothesis is that the Book of Genesis (Luke 24:27, Luke 24:44) is written by Moses with help from<br />

actual written records available in his time. There are indicators of where these records begin <strong>and</strong><br />

end. Note the phrasing of Genesis 2:4, 5:1, 6:9, 10:1, 11:10, 11:27, 25:12, 25:19, 36:1, 36:9, 37:2.<br />

“Thus it is probable that the Book of Genesis was written originally by actual eyewitnesses of the<br />

events reported therein. Probably the original narratives were recorded on tables of stone or clay, in<br />

common practice of early times, <strong>and</strong> then h<strong>and</strong>ed down from father to son, finally coming into the<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

possession of Moses. Moses perhaps selected the appropriate sections for compilation, inserted<br />

his own editorial additions <strong>and</strong> comments, <strong>and</strong> provided smooth transitions from one document to<br />

the next, with the final result being the Book of Genesis as we have received it.” (Morris)<br />

We can see how much of a wide variation of explanations <strong>and</strong> hence variations in theory was<br />

developed to explain all these. All attempts to make these two stories as one cannot explain all the<br />

differences in the narratives.<br />

An honest appraisal will suggest that the two creation stories are not talking about the<br />

“same thing,”. They are two distinct stories of creation, both in terms of content <strong>and</strong> order. They<br />

cannot be harmonized—they were never intended to be. They describe two creations one of a<br />

mankind <strong>and</strong> other of a man Adam. We are not given what happened during the period in<br />

between.<br />

+++++++++++++++><br />

https://creation.com/genesis-1-2 gives the following interpretation asserting that there is no<br />

contradiction.<br />

The recapitulation theory<br />

"Real scholars underst<strong>and</strong> that Genesis 1 (which really ends at 2:3) is the summary outline of<br />

creation, while Genesis 2 focuses on the creation of man <strong>and</strong> explains it in more detail. This<br />

recapitulation was typical for narratives of the Ancient Near East. As explained by Gleason Archer<br />

(1916–2004), Professor of Old Testament <strong>and</strong> Semitics at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School,<br />

Deerfield, Illinois:<br />

"The technique of recapitulation was widely practiced in ancient Semitic literature. The author<br />

would first introduce his account with a short statement summarizing the whole transaction, <strong>and</strong><br />

then he would follow it up with a more detailed <strong>and</strong> circumstantial account when dealing with<br />

matters of special importance." [Archer, A Survey of Old Testament Introduction, p. 118, 1964.]<br />

Leading Egyptologist Kenneth Kitchen points out:<br />

"Skeptics claim that" Genesis 1 states that God made the birds <strong>and</strong> beasts before man, while<br />

Genesis 2:19 seems to state that God made birds <strong>and</strong> beasts after man. But the correct translation<br />

of wayyitser in this verse is the pluperfect “had formed”, which eliminates the alleged contradiction.<br />

"It is often claimed that Genesis 1 <strong>and</strong> 2 contain two different creation-narratives. In point of fact,<br />

however, the strictly complementary nature of the ‘two’ accounts is plain enough: Genesis 1<br />

mentions the creation of man as the last of a series, <strong>and</strong> without any details, whereas in Genesis 2<br />

man is the center of interest <strong>and</strong> more specific details are given about him <strong>and</strong> his setting. There is<br />

no incompatible duplication here at all. Failure to recognize the complementary nature of the<br />

subject-distinction between a skeleton outline of all creation on the one h<strong>and</strong>, <strong>and</strong> the concentration<br />

in detail on man <strong>and</strong> his immediate environment on the other, borders on obscurantism." [Kitchen,<br />

Ancient Orient <strong>and</strong> Old Testament, pp. 116–117, 1966.]<br />

Some translations introduce an apparent contradiction between Genesis 1 <strong>and</strong> 2 in Genesis 2:19,<br />

by rendering the phrase “God formed every beast …”. That is, Genesis 1 states that God made the<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

birds <strong>and</strong> beasts before man, while Genesis 2:19, if translated this way, seems to state that God<br />

made birds <strong>and</strong> beasts after man. Evidently here the created <strong>and</strong> formed comes to importance. In<br />

Gen 1 these were created from nothing but Gen 2 they were allowed to form to the Gen 2 in<br />

evolutionary modifications The ESV <strong>and</strong> the NIV–1984 are correct in this passage.<br />

As Lutheran Hebrew scholar H.C. Leupold points out:<br />

"Without any emphasis on the sequence of acts the account here records the making of the various<br />

creatures <strong>and</strong> the bringing of them to man. That in reality they had been made prior to the creation<br />

of man is so entirely apparent from chapter one as not to require explanation. But the reminder that<br />

God had ‘molded’ them makes obvious His power to bring them to man <strong>and</strong> so is quite<br />

appropriately mentioned here. It would not, in our estimation, be wrong to translate yatsar as a<br />

pluperfect in this instance: ‘He had molded.’ The insistence of the critics upon a plain past is partly<br />

the result of the attempt to make chapters one <strong>and</strong> two clash at as many points as possible."<br />

[Leupold, H.C., Exposition of Genesis 1:130, 1942]<br />

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^<br />

Traditionally, Moses has been taken to be the writer of both accounts.<br />

to be differences between the chronologies of chapters one <strong>and</strong> two<br />

If so, why do there appear<br />

Genesis 2 does not go into the details of the creations of heavens <strong>and</strong> earth. The second<br />

creation story opens with an introduction (Genesis 2:4) that closely mirrors Genesis 1:1: “This is the<br />

account of the heavens <strong>and</strong> the earth when they were created, when the Lord God made the earth<br />

<strong>and</strong> the heavens.” The verse in no way indicates that what follows is simply a more detailed look at<br />

creation from a different perspective, as Young Earth Creationists claim; it says, “This is the<br />

account.”<br />

I have given both sides of the argument. Those who want to assert a 6000 year old universe <strong>and</strong> a<br />

6000 year old mankind has to twist the words used with lot of ingenuity. If read entirely literally —<br />

they are completely contradictory <strong>and</strong> irreconcilable unless we consider it as a r<strong>and</strong>omly “cut <strong>and</strong><br />

paste” from various sources. Did Moses received the revelation as is from God directly or did he do<br />

a lot research in Babylonian <strong>and</strong> other cultural pagan myths of his period to write the Pentateuch?<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />


ADAM<br />

Major difference is that the first Genesis creation was done by Elohim <strong>and</strong> he created everything.<br />

Man was created in the image of Elohim where we see Male <strong>and</strong> Female with equal status with<br />

dominion over the animals that roamed <strong>and</strong> the fishes in the sea <strong>and</strong> the birds that flew.<br />

The Second Genesis creation was done by YHVH of Elohim <strong>and</strong> the word used is "Formed" not<br />

"created". The Second formed Adam was a tiller of the ground or a farmer. God creates Adam,<br />

then places him in the Garden of <strong>Eden</strong>.<br />

Afterwards, God decides to make a companion for Adam <strong>and</strong> creates the animals of the l<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong><br />

sky to see if any of them are suitable partners for the man. God brings each animal to Adam, who<br />

names it before ultimately deciding that it is not a “suitable helper.” God then causes a deep sleep<br />

to fall upon Adam <strong>and</strong> while the man is sleeping God fashions Eve from his side. When Adam<br />

awakes he recognizes Eve as part of himself <strong>and</strong> accepts her as his companion.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

In Gen. 2:7, The Lord God (YHVH of Elohim one of the group from Elohim called YHVH <strong>and</strong> not<br />

the ‘Elohiym (the plurality of Gods under the Supreme Godhead); formed this particular man.<br />

The Lord God YHVH of Elohim (<strong>and</strong> not the Elohim) blew the breath of life into this particular man;<br />

In the 6th day creation, the animals were created before man<br />

whereas in Gen 2:7, the animals were created after man;<br />

in the 6th day creation, man was created both male <strong>and</strong> female<br />

whereas in Gen 2:7 Adam was created, then the animals <strong>and</strong> then Eve.<br />

All of these factors seem to indicate that the Gen. 1:26 & 27 creation account was a separate <strong>and</strong><br />

distinct event from that of Gen. 2:7.<br />

http://www.aish.com/sp/ph/48956911.html<br />

The word אָדָם (pronounced: au-dom)<br />

is connected with the Hebrew words<br />

(dam) “blood” <strong>and</strong> דַּם<br />

“earth/ground”. (adamah) אֲדָמָה<br />

Adam literally means "the red earth" or "earth with blood"<br />

++++++++++++++++><br />

Analysis of the Hebrew word Adam<br />

Alef is the first letter of the Hebrew alphabets <strong>and</strong> is normally has no sound - representing God who<br />

cannot be seen or represented but out flowing breath. Adam would then is a combination of Alef<br />

<strong>and</strong> the word Dam which would mean God in the blood. This is what happened when Adam was<br />

created. God breathed into the life less red earth <strong>and</strong> Adam came out to be a living soul.<br />

Adam carried the life force from God directly <strong>and</strong> not evolved from the earth. If we translate that<br />

word "Adam" it would read "Dam" which is blood, <strong>and</strong> then "Au", which is the Hebrew abbreviation<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

of "God," or in other words, "Blood of God." This is what made man unique in the midst of all other<br />

life forms.<br />

Notice that<br />

is embeded within the masculine Adam. This is what God separated into Eve which is translated as<br />

"mother of all living" God took out the middle rib <strong>and</strong> formed it into Eve - the mother of all living.<br />

Adam is White, Blck, Red <strong>and</strong> Green<br />

According to Targ. Yer. to Gen. ii. 7, God took dust from the holy place (as "the center of the earth";<br />

<strong>and</strong> the four parts of the world, mingling it with the water of all the seas, <strong>and</strong> made him red, black,<br />

<strong>and</strong> white (probably more correctly Pirḳe R. El. xi. <strong>and</strong> Chronicle of Jerahmeel, vi. 7:<br />

"White,………………………………black,………..red,…………………<strong>and</strong> green— to spell it out<br />

bones <strong>and</strong> sinews white; intestines black; blood red; skin of body or liver green"<br />

Adam is Earth, Speech <strong>and</strong> Action<br />

Adam: (57397/Adam Rishon). Adam is the first human being <strong>and</strong> an archetype for all humanity.<br />

One Kabbalistic teaching reveals that the word ADaM is a mystical abbreviation for the essence of<br />

human nature:<br />

Adamah (earth),<br />

Dibur (speech), <strong>and</strong><br />

Ma’aseh (action).<br />


The Sibylline Oracles (iii. 24-26) <strong>and</strong>, following the same, the Slavonian Book of Enoch find the<br />

cosmopolitan nature of Adam, his origin from the four regions of the earth, expressed in the four<br />

letters of his name in Greek:<br />

Four Regions of the Earth<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

A……………D…………A………………M<br />

Anatole (East), Dysis (West), Arktos (North), <strong>and</strong> Mesembria (South).<br />

The whole earth is occupied by the three children of Noah:Ham, Cham <strong>and</strong> Japheth in Asia, Africa<br />

<strong>and</strong> Europe the three continents of the earth.<br />

The medieval T <strong>and</strong> O maps originate with the description of the world in the Etymologiae of Isidore<br />

of Sevilla (died 636). The T is the Mediterranean, dividing the three continents, Asia, Europe <strong>and</strong><br />

Africa, <strong>and</strong> the O is the surrounding Ocean. Jerusalem was generally represented in the center of<br />

the map. Asia was typically the size of the other two continents combined. Because the sun rose in<br />

the east, Paradise (the Garden of <strong>Eden</strong>) was generally depicted as being in Asia, <strong>and</strong> Asia was<br />

situated at the top portion of the map.<br />

Saint Augustine in his book "Homilies on the Gospel according to St. John," says:<br />

"And what man knoweth not that from Adam are sprung all nations, <strong>and</strong> that in the four letters of his<br />

name, the four quarters of the world, as they are expressed in Greek, are indicated? For if the<br />

words East, West, North, South, as Holy Scripture mentions them in very many places, are<br />

expressed in Greek, the first letters, thou wilt find, make Adam. For the Greek names of the four<br />

aforementioned parts of the world are Anatole, Dysis, Arktos, Mesembria. If these four names are<br />

written, like four verses, one under the other, the capital letters form the word ADAM."<br />

Anatole (East),<br />

Dysis (West),<br />

Arktos (North), <strong>and</strong><br />

Mesembria (South).<br />

Further, Saint Augustine in his book "Expositions on the book of Psalms," says:<br />

"He gathereth all His elect from the four winds therefore from the whole world. For Adam himself<br />

(this I had said before) signifieth in Greek the whole world; for there are four letters, A, D, A, <strong>and</strong> M.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

But as the Greeks speak, the four quarters of the world have these initial letters, Anatola, they call<br />

the East; Dysis, the West; Arctos, the North; Mesembria, the South: thou hast the word Adam."<br />

Interesting. Why did God speak Greek then?<br />

R. Meir (second century) mentions the tradition that God made Adam of the dust gathered from the<br />

whole world; <strong>and</strong> Rab (third century) says: "His head was made of earth from the Holy L<strong>and</strong>; his<br />

main body, from Babylonia; <strong>and</strong> the various members from different l<strong>and</strong>s" (Sanh. 38a et seq.;<br />

compare Gen. R. viii.; Midr. Teh. cxxxix. 5; <strong>and</strong> Tan., Peḳude, 3, end).<br />

These are interesting memory <strong>and</strong> explanation tools to assert then Man is the ultimate creation of<br />

the earth - the material dimension in this part of the universe..<br />

Hebrew alphabet initially was pictograph which underwent changes in time to the present form.<br />

Each letter in itself is loaded with basic explanation of a concept. We will try to get what Adam<br />

actually mean using the method/<br />

The first lettter is Alef.<br />

http://www.ancient-hebrew.org/<br />

The alef is the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet <strong>and</strong> has no sound <strong>and</strong> its sound is produced by<br />

the exhalation of breath.. It represents the power <strong>and</strong> hence God. That is the first letter of<br />

El/Elohim which means God.<br />

The original pictograph for this letter is a picture of an ox head representing strength <strong>and</strong> power<br />

from the work performed by the animal. This pictograph also represents a chief or other leader.<br />

When two oxen are yoked together for pulling a wagon or plow, one is the older <strong>and</strong> more<br />

experienced one who leads the other. Within the clan, tribe or family the chief or father is seen as<br />

the elder who is yoked to the others as the leader <strong>and</strong> teacher. (It is clear that this concept is<br />

essentially developed within a nomadic cattle rearing tribal culture. The corresponding concept in the King<br />

culture would represent this as a crown <strong>and</strong> in a modern democratic culture to the President. The idea is to<br />

convey the highest power who controls everything by sheer words.)<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

The Modern name for this letter is aleph <strong>and</strong> corresponds to the Greek name alpha <strong>and</strong> the Arabic<br />

name aleph אלף.‏ The various meanings of this root are oxen, yoke <strong>and</strong> learn. Each of these<br />

meanings is related to the meanings of the pictograph . The root (is an adopted root from the<br />

parent root אל (el), written as in the original script, meaning, strength, power <strong>and</strong> chief <strong>and</strong> is the<br />

probable original name of the pictograph. El is the generic form of God in Hebrew <strong>and</strong> almost all<br />

Semitic languages.<br />

Many Near Eastern cultures worshiped the god El. Israel chose the form of a calf (young bull) as<br />

an image of God at Mount Sinai showing their association between the word <strong>and</strong> the ox or bull <strong>and</strong><br />

is also commonly used in the Hebrew Bible for "God" or "god." This will explain why when the<br />

Israel kingdom was split into two, the Northern Kingdom put up a Bull as a place of worship so as to<br />

avoid the northerners going to Jerualem temple to worship. Bull indeed was the legitimate sign of<br />

Elohim. Thus El represent a generic name for God <strong>and</strong> should not be considered as a the Name<br />

nor the sign of Ox as an idol.<br />

In Modern Hebrew this letter is silent but was originally used as the vowels "a" <strong>and</strong> "e." The Greek<br />

letter alpha, derived from the aleph, is also used for the "a" sound.<br />

The second letter is Dalet<br />

The dalet is the fourth letter of the Hebrew alphabet <strong>and</strong> is the sound of “D.” The word picture for<br />

dalet is “door”, (<strong>and</strong> sometimes the leaf of a gate or a page) it is something that opens.<br />

I am the door. If anyone enters by Me, he will be saved, <strong>and</strong> will go in <strong>and</strong> out <strong>and</strong> find pasture.<br />

— John 10:9<br />

Jesus said to him, “I am the way, the truth, <strong>and</strong> the life. No one comes to the Father except through<br />

Me. — John 14:6<br />

Therefore, brethren, be even more diligent to make your call <strong>and</strong> election sure, for if you do these<br />

things you will never stumble; for so an entrance will be supplied to you abundantly into the<br />

everlasting kingdom of our Lord <strong>and</strong> Savior Jesus Christ.— II Peter 1:10-11<br />

The last letter is Mem<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

The Early Semitic pictograph for this letter is a picture of waves of water. This pictograph has the<br />

meanings of liquid, water <strong>and</strong> sea, mighty <strong>and</strong> massive from the size of the sea <strong>and</strong> chaos from the<br />

storms of the sea. The Modern Hebrew name for this letter is mem probably from the word mayim<br />

meaning "water." The word mayim is the plural form of mah, probably the original name for this<br />

letter, meaning "what." To the Hebrews the sea was a feared <strong>and</strong> unknown place, for this reason<br />

this letter is used as a question word, "who, what, when, where, why <strong>and</strong> how", in the sense of<br />

searching for an unknown. The Greek name for this letter is mu, which is a Hebrew word closely<br />

related in roots <strong>and</strong> meaning to the Hebrew word mah. The sound for this letter is "m," as it is in all<br />

other languages.<br />

It also represents a womb from which life emerge. Hence we have Ma to mean mother.<br />

Look at the pictogram of the ancient Hebrew word Adam it gives you the meaning "Powerful God<br />

enters into the waters"<br />

Thus we sea in the second verse of Genesis 1:2 "<strong>and</strong> the Spirit of God was moving over the<br />

surface of the waters."<br />

"It is the spirit that give life."<br />

It is this that generated life on earth <strong>and</strong> heaven. Evidently the waters was associated with mother<br />

<strong>and</strong> the it always referred to the waters of the womb.<br />

Rabbis associated the letter mem with the womb<br />

(Sefer Yetzira 3:4, Bahir 85, Etz Chaim, Shaar Hayereach 3, p. 176).<br />

A closed mem is a closed womb; an open mem is the womb opening to give birth (Bahir 84).<br />

Thus in the modern hebrew the sign for m developed into the sign of the womb. Again the letter ma<br />

has two forms - one corresponding to the open womb <strong>and</strong> the other to closed womb. Open womb<br />

sign occurs at the beginning <strong>and</strong> middle of a word <strong>and</strong> a closed womb sign at the end of a word.<br />

This is clearly seen in the name of Mirium (Mary) as shown below.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

In order to represent this ultimate purpose of the creation of man we see the door in middle of the<br />

womb <strong>and</strong> Elohim the Father. The result will be the birth of the sons of God. The whole mankind<br />

was supposed to be part of Elohim as sons <strong>and</strong> daughters of God.<br />

It can be read as "Adam; Son of God." Notice that Luke ends his genealogy of Jesus leading to<br />

Adam <strong>and</strong> ending "Adam, Son of God" Luke 3:38.<br />

As the Son <strong>and</strong> Daughter of God, Adam <strong>and</strong> Eve were with God inside the door in the Garden of<br />

<strong>Eden</strong>, their home. As they declared their independence they were sent out of the Garden <strong>and</strong><br />

they closed their door. Today if they have to re-enter into the <strong>Eden</strong> with Father God they have to<br />

open the door.<br />

Mariam let the door open to the Holy Spirit of God. She remained faithful to her relation with God<br />

eternally. From this came the concept that Mariam remained a virgin all her life. We still refer to<br />

her as Virgin Mary.<br />

Luke 1:38“I am the Lord’s servant, Mary answered. “May it happen to me according to your word.”<br />

Dom: The Blood<br />

ADAM = The Blood of God<br />

ADAM = Son of God<br />

If we translate that word "Audom" it would read "Dom" which is blood, <strong>and</strong> then "Au", which is the<br />

Hebrew abbreviation of "God," or in other words, Adam would mean "Blood of God." Was the<br />

serpent suggesting that mankind could be like God without this growing up? John 3: 3 Jesus<br />

answered him, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born again he cannot see the kingdom of<br />

God…..6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh, <strong>and</strong> that which is born of the Spirit is spirit."<br />

Hebrew Gematria also gives the same interpretation<br />

What is Gematria?<br />

Hebrew does not have separate number symbols <strong>and</strong> uses the alphabet as numbers. This enable<br />

us to read the words in Hebrew as numbers. People have elaborated this into a system of<br />

ascribing meaning to the words in terms of numerology - the symbolism of numbers. Everyone<br />

knows that numbers have special meaning symbolically in the bible. Commonly known symbolism<br />

are:<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

1 = Oneness of God 3 = Trinity 6 = Man 7 = Perfection 8 = Regeneration<br />

This is the numerology or Gematria. Just as we elaborate the words in connection with their<br />

associated meaning ( which is what we are doing in using the language to communicate) we can<br />

explain the hebrew words in terms of their numbers as well. I have given these numbers for Adam<br />

below.<br />

Mem has two forms - one open giving 40 <strong>and</strong> other closed giving 600. The first gives choices <strong>and</strong><br />

the second gives a fixation or anchor. One is an open womb <strong>and</strong> the other a closed womb.<br />

Both Earth <strong>and</strong> Humans are symbolically considered as the Bride. As long as they do not receive<br />

God they remain an open womb <strong>and</strong> the number of Adam remains as 45 in potential with womb as<br />

40 The open mem represents open revelations- revealed truths <strong>and</strong> the closed men represents<br />

truth not revealed to everyone- "the secret things that belong to God"<br />

However they are supposed to grow into the fullness <strong>and</strong> go from 40 to 600 the full potential of<br />

Sonship of God by receiving God <strong>and</strong> be fixed in their groom as Jesus. Then the earthian Adam of<br />

45 will bloom into Spiritual Adam encamping the entire Physical <strong>and</strong> Spiritual Realm of existence as<br />

Sons of God. This is the purpose of God in his creation. YHVH created ADAM as his bride.<br />

++++++><br />

The Mystery Of The Closed Mem By Daniel Botkin<br />

http://jewishroots.net/library/prophecy/isaiah/isaiah-9-6/the_mystery_of_the_closed_mem_2.pdf<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

"According to the rules of Hebrew grammar <strong>and</strong> spelling, a closed mem can appear only at the end<br />

of a word. A closed mem is a final mem, <strong>and</strong> can be used only as the final letter of a word. There is<br />

one place in the Hebrew Bible, however, where a closed mem occurs inside a word. This entry,<br />

which defies the rules of Hebrew grammar <strong>and</strong> spelling, is found in Isaiah’s famous prophecy of the<br />

coming Messiah:<br />

"For a child will be born to us, a son will be given to us; <strong>and</strong> the government will rest on his<br />

shoulders; <strong>and</strong> his name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of<br />

Peace. There will be no end to the increase of his government or of peace, on the throne of David<br />

<strong>and</strong> over his kingdom, to establish it <strong>and</strong> to uphold it with justice <strong>and</strong> righteousness from then on<br />

<strong>and</strong> forever more (Isa. 9:6).<br />

The closed mem appears within the word (l’marbeh), which is translated by<br />

the phrase “to the increase.” The reader can see that the second letter of this word (reading<br />

from right to left) is a closed mem. According to the Hebrew gramatical rule, it should be<br />

an open mem (marbeh= “increase”), is spelled with a closed mem.<br />

"Rabbis associated the letter mem with the womb (Sefer Yetzira 3:4, Bahir 85, Etz Chaim, Shaar<br />

Hayereach 3, p. 176). A closed mem is a closed womb; an open mem is the womb opening to give<br />

birth (Bahir 84). What does this tell us about the child in Isaiah's prophecy? It tells us that this child<br />

will be concealed inside a closed womb, i.e., the womb of the Virgin spoken of in Isaiah 7:14:"<br />


PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />




Design of God vs. Realisation<br />

Some midrash distinguish between two <strong>Adams</strong>:<br />

The first creation on the sixth day (Gen.1) was not expressly stated as made from dust but clearly<br />

stated as stamped in the image of Elohim. Elohim forms the first Adam. It was a collective design of<br />

the ultimate model of humans by all the collective beings which included El the ultimate Father God<br />

<strong>and</strong> YHVH the creative word of God, the mother who alone give life <strong>and</strong> all other beings they have<br />

created who cooperates with the Holy Trinity as co-creators with them. They wrote the program<br />

for the creation of Adam a part of the code is discovered by <strong>and</strong> is still visible to us in our DNA.<br />

We also know that almost all living has similar DNA codes.<br />

The Adam of Gen 2 was made from the dust of the earth was formed by YHVH of Elohim (the<br />

creator of everythings visible <strong>and</strong> invisible) who then giving a direct emanation of his breath added<br />

a special soul to this man of the earth. 'Adam became a living soul".<br />

The first was a proto-type coded <strong>and</strong> programmed in heavenly computer. The second creation was<br />

based on the heavenly image encoded by Elohim the entire technologists of the Council of God but<br />

formed or built not by all of the Elohim but YHVH of Elohim one of the members of Elohim. The<br />

code {image) is now realized in the four dimensional space-time in added dimensions by his<br />

breath to be a living soul. The encoding can be seen <strong>and</strong> deciphered in the DNA even today. We<br />

marvel at the code.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

The marvel of the DNA code<br />

The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine<br />

(G), cytosine (C), <strong>and</strong> thymine (T). Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, <strong>and</strong> more than 99<br />

percent of those bases are the same in all people. The order, or sequence, of these bases<br />

determines the information available for building <strong>and</strong> maintaining an organism, similar to the way in<br />

which letters of the alphabet appear in a certain order to form words <strong>and</strong> sentences<br />

DNA bases pair up with each other, A with T <strong>and</strong> C with G, to form units called base pairs. Each<br />

base is also attached to a sugar molecule <strong>and</strong> a phosphate molecule. Together, a base, sugar, <strong>and</strong><br />

phosphate are called a nucleotide. Nucleotides are arranged in two long str<strong>and</strong>s that form a spiral<br />

called a double helix. The structure of the double helix is somewhat like a ladder, with the base<br />

pairs forming the ladder’s rungs <strong>and</strong> the sugar <strong>and</strong> phosphate molecules forming the vertical<br />

sidepieces of the ladder.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

An important property of DNA is that it can replicate, or make copies of itself. Each str<strong>and</strong> of DNA in<br />

the double helix can serve as a pattern for duplicating the sequence of bases. This is critical when<br />

cells divide because each new cell needs to have an exact copy of the DNA present in the old cell.<br />

https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/basics/dna<br />

DNA is a double helix formed by base pairs attached to a sugar-phosphate backbone.<br />

"Human DNA has millions of on-off switches <strong>and</strong> complex networks that control the genes'<br />

activities.<br />

"DNA contains genes, which hold the instructions for life. The human genome is made up of about<br />

3 billion “letters” along str<strong>and</strong>s that make up the familiar double helix structure of DNA. Particular<br />

sequences of these letters form genes, which tell cells how to make proteins. People have about<br />

20,000 genes, but the vast majority of DNA lies outside of genes. ... At least three-quarters of the<br />

genome is involved in making RNA ... it appears to help regulate gene activity There are "more than<br />

4 million sites where proteins bind to DNA to regulate genetic function, sort of like a switch."<br />

The whole creation with life has DNA which are similar basically but differs in details. They<br />

diverge when the species changes. This is sometimes used by evolutionalists as a proof of<br />

evolution from basic life form to human. However these changes can be used to identify the new<br />

species <strong>and</strong> even the period when they are created by elohim in the process of creation. This<br />

seems to indicate that Elohim used similar coding system but with less coding <strong>and</strong> lesser<br />

dimensions in life. "The amount of difference in DNA is a test of the difference between one<br />

species <strong>and</strong> another – <strong>and</strong> thus how closely or distantly related they are."<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

"While the genetic difference between individual humans today is minuscule – about 0.1%, on<br />

average – study of the same aspects of the chimpanzee genome indicates a difference of about<br />

1.2%. The bonobo (Pan paniscus), which is the close cousin of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes),<br />

differs from humans to the same degree. The DNA difference with gorillas, another of the African<br />

apes, is about 1.6%. .. A difference of 3.1% distinguishes us <strong>and</strong> the African apes from the Asian<br />

great ape, the orangutan. How do the monkeys stack up? All of<br />

the great apes <strong>and</strong> humans differ from rhesus monkeys, for<br />

example, by about 7% in their DNA." Though basic coding<br />

system is same in almost all life forms, they differ considerably<br />

within species as expected.<br />


PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

This Adam being the image of the Primordial Adam he was placed in the garden of <strong>Eden</strong> on earth.<br />

He was created not by Elohim but by YHVH of Elohim in the image of the Heavenly Man.<br />

Philo identifies the transcendent figure as the Heavenly Man, a realization of God’s invisible<br />

image, which indeed is God’s Logos, identifying the Logos as the “eldest-born Image of God” (De<br />

Confusione Linguarum 62-63). Thus, for Philo, the earthly man was made after the image of the<br />

Heavenly Man - the only begotten Son of God<br />

Since Genesis 1 describes the creation of Cosmos in all dimensions, the encoded Adam Kadmon is<br />

indeed the coding for all dimension of existence. This is how Kaballah presents this coding from<br />

the divine realm to physical realm. Adam when he was created extended from one end to the other<br />

- from Physical to the Divine. He is supposed to have had seven souls, a soul for each dimension of<br />

existence. In his Physical realm we know now that Adam was encoded as DNA encoding.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

(See https://biblebrisket.com/2014/03/17/twoadams/<br />

which mentions Primary sources: B. Hagigah 12a; B. Bava Batra 58a; Pesikta Rabbati 48:2; Philo,<br />

De Opificio Mundi 134-142; Philo, Legum Allegoriarum 1:31, 1:53, 1:88, 2:13, 2:4; Philo, De<br />

Confusione Linguarum 62-63; Midrash Tanhuma, Tazri’a 2.)<br />

The concept Adam Kadmon is common in many cultures.<br />

Kaballah presents this idea in more detail.<br />

Adam Kadmon in Kaballah (Primordial Man; also Adam Ila'a, "supreme man") is the first spiritual<br />

World with all its ten worlds. He came into being after the contraction of God's infinite light<br />

creating a space for physical reality to come into existence. Adam Kadmon is not the same as the<br />

physical, Adam Ha-Rishon (Adam, the first man), who God created from the dust. The spiritual<br />

realm of Adam Kadmon corresponds to the 10 sefirah (divine attributes or emanations generated<br />

from God as He appears first as Trinity from Ein sof Aur . It is the divine will <strong>and</strong> program for<br />

subsequent creation.. Adam Kadmon is divine light without vessels, i.e., pure potential with no<br />

physical reality..<br />

If we want to identify the Gen 1 Adam as the Adam Kadmon, we will have to identify the whole<br />

creation of all the six days also as just a concept <strong>and</strong> not a reality <strong>and</strong> provide only a design - a<br />

picture of the world to come in the mind of God. The six days of creation were just God's details on<br />

the drawing board of His mind or the computer code of creation which included all dimensions of<br />

existence from material to divine. Thus those existed only in the mind of God or on the cosmic<br />

computer memory. The prayer of all co-creators is therefore is :"Thy Kingdom come, On Earth; As it<br />

is in Heaven." This is exactly what YHVH of Elohim, the Son of God did in the execution of creation<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

code as described in Gen 2 where he copied the Gen 1 plan as drawn in Heaven into Adam as the<br />

Son of God with all potentialities open to Adam with freedom that sons of God has.<br />

As Above; So below<br />

While the design <strong>and</strong> details were made by Elohim, it was YHVH of Elohim , the Logos, the Son of<br />

God who created the earthly real material Adam on the principle "As above, so below"<br />

William Blake's "Ancient of Days" has been interpreted by some as a depiction of the transference<br />

of the design into real material construction.<br />

Though not put in modern computer programming terms all these directly points to Adam Kadamon<br />

as a cosmic program of the image of the universe, the execution of which resulted into the universe<br />

as we see today.In terms of the architecture, Adam Kadamon is the plan on paper from which the<br />

YHVH of Elohim built the cosmic structure.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

From the Plan to Execution<br />

Purusha Suktham - the Sacrifice of the Person Adam Kadamon in creation of Cosmos<br />

The same idea of creation of the universe out of the image of a first cosmic man program (called<br />

Purusha or Person) is also explained in the Purusha Suktham of Rig Veda written after 300 AD. It<br />

explains how the cosmic man extended all universe <strong>and</strong> from his parts all parts of the universe are<br />

made- an almost parallel concept as the Adam Kadamon.<br />

Here is the starting point.<br />

1. Then was not non-existent nor existent: there was no realm of air, no sky beyond it.<br />

What covered in, <strong>and</strong> where? <strong>and</strong> what gave shelter?<br />

Was water there, unfathomed depth of water?<br />

2 Death was not then, nor was there aught immortal: no sign was there, the day's <strong>and</strong> night's<br />

divider.<br />

That One Thing, breathless, breathed by its own nature: apart from it was nothing whatsoever.<br />

3 Darkness there was: at first concealed in darkness this All was indiscriminated chaos.<br />

All that existed then was void <strong>and</strong> form less: by the great power of Warmth was born that Unit.<br />

4 Thereafter rose Desire in the beginning, Desire, the primal seed <strong>and</strong> germ of Spirit.<br />

You can see the identity of the concepts <strong>and</strong> descriptions.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

Thus in this description we have two generations of gods already in existence after the cosmos<br />

came in existence. It was after these the first Adam Kadmnon is sacrificed. The sacrifice or the<br />

conversion of the encoded image into reality is done by all the gods together - the Elohim?<br />

It is held that Purusha through a sacrifice of himself, brings forth, the animals, the three Vedas,<strong>and</strong><br />

the word.. Then follows a verse which states that from his mouth, arms, thighs, feet are all humans<br />

born..The moon takes birth from the Purusha's mind <strong>and</strong> the sun from his eyes. Indra <strong>and</strong> Agni<br />

descend from his mouth <strong>and</strong> from his vital breath, air is born. The firmament comes from his navel,<br />

<strong>and</strong> so on.<br />

The Purusha sukta holds that the world is created by <strong>and</strong> out of a sacrifice of the Purusha. The<br />

LAMB slain from the beginning of creation. All forms of existence are held to be grounded in this<br />

primordial sacrifice. The Purusha of Purusha Suktham evidently corresponds to the Adam<br />

Kadamon of Jewish mysticism. The Dravids of India who produced the Upanishads belong to the<br />

tribes of Heber <strong>and</strong> the children of Abraham. The very name which is used as generic form of God<br />

after the arrival of Apostle Thomas is the world Ishwara derived from Isha Paran which literally <strong>and</strong><br />

exactly mean "Jesus is Lord".<br />

The concept of Demiurge <strong>and</strong> creation by Demiurge <strong>and</strong> not Elohim causes imperfection.<br />

Philo of Alex<strong>and</strong>ria (20 BC to AD 50) understood Genesis 1 <strong>and</strong> 2 to be contradictory. For Philo<br />

the direct agent of creation is not God himself but the Logos, the Word. Philo believes that the<br />

Logos is "the man of God" "Demiurge" or " the shadow of God" that was used as an instrument<br />

<strong>and</strong> a pattern of all creation, "Adam Kadamon".. The Logos converted unqualified, unshaped<br />

pre-existent matter, "destitute of arrangement, of quality, of animation, of distinctive character <strong>and</strong><br />

full of disorder <strong>and</strong> confusion," into four primordial elements (Legum Allegoriarum;1.329).<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

+++++++++++++++++++++++><br />

To underst<strong>and</strong> this we need to get the concept of Demiurge.<br />

In Platonic philosophy Demiurge is the Maker or Creator of the world. The idea is that God the Spirit<br />

being holy beyond our underst<strong>and</strong>ing cannot create a lowly world, the world of matter. He cannot<br />

dirty himself with the dirt. Hence He deputed all these menial work to one of his lower Spirits who is<br />

called Demiurge. Demiurge being itself imperfect can create only an imperfect world.<br />

In Gnosticism <strong>and</strong> other theological systems Demiurge is a heavenly being, subordinate to the<br />

Supreme Being, that is considered to be the controller of the material world <strong>and</strong> antagonistic to all<br />

that is purely spiritual.<br />

In the Platonic, Neopythagorean, Middle Platonic, <strong>and</strong> Neoplatonic schools of philosophy, the<br />

Demiurge is an artisan-like figure responsible for the fashioning <strong>and</strong> maintenance of the physical<br />

universe. Demiurge in the Greek δημιουργός dēmiourgós, means "artisan" or "craftsman"<br />

Alternative Gnostic names for the Demiurge include Yaldabaoth, Yao or Iao, Ialdabaoth <strong>and</strong><br />

several other variants. The Gnostics often identified the Demiurge with YHVH Elohim since YHVH<br />

of Elohim is the first person who asserted Himself as I AM <strong>and</strong> YHVH Elohim is the creator as seen<br />

in Gen 2.<br />

Thus early Gnostic heresy presented the creator of the earth <strong>and</strong> Adam as someone who created<br />

an imperfect world either because he himself was not able to create anything perfect or was evil<br />

enough that he wanted to spoil the world for God. All these in all finer variation mixed up with<br />

Greek philosophy <strong>and</strong> myth were in place early in the growth of Christianity.<br />

See for details<br />

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Demiurge<br />

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/adam-kadmon<br />

http://www.sophian.org/forum/viewtopic.php?t=3557<br />

http://www.digital-brilliance.com/themes/adam.php<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

Now as we know the souls of all creatures in heaven <strong>and</strong> earth have their root in Adam Kadmon,<br />

whether the souls of humans or souls of angels, <strong>and</strong> even in the mineral <strong>and</strong> vegetable kingdoms<br />

there is some manifestation of “soul,” life of God. After all everything has their origin whether<br />

organic or inorganic in God.<br />

The souls of all creatures in heaven <strong>and</strong> earth<br />

drawn from the body of Adam Kadmon<br />

correspond with Adam Kadmon as the image <strong>and</strong><br />

likeness of Yahweh Elohim Tzavaot.<br />

“In the beginning was the Word, <strong>and</strong> the Word was<br />

with God, <strong>and</strong> the Word was God. He was in the<br />

beginning with God. All things came into being<br />

through him, <strong>and</strong> without him not one thing came into<br />

being. What has come into being in him was life, <strong>and</strong><br />

the life was the light of all people. The light shines in<br />

the darkness, <strong>and</strong> the darkness did not overcome it.”<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

Coding <strong>and</strong> creation<br />

++++++++++++++++><br />


AND<br />


(From Logos to Trinity: The Evolution of Religious Beliefs from Pythagoras to Tertullian .By Marian<br />

Hillar 2012)<br />

Proclus Diadochus (410-485 C.E.) the mathematician philosopher states that even in the theistic<br />

system the world though generated must be eternal, because the "world is always fabricated ... is<br />

always becoming to be."<br />

The corporeal world is always coming into existence but never possesses real being. Thus God,<br />

according to Philo, did not begin to create the world at a certain moment, but he is "eternally<br />

applying himself to its creation" ( De Aeternitate Mundi; 83-84).<br />

Thus the creation itself is in the process of generation based on the evolution with involvement of<br />

God at the times when a transition is necessary. The creation goes on with the help of the<br />

co-creators of God with the entrance of God only when it is needed due to mistakes of the<br />

co-creator or when a total direction <strong>and</strong> transition is necessary or when new dimensions are<br />

warranted. This concept thus gives space for uncertainty in evolution <strong>and</strong> hence freedom to the<br />

beings to co-create with Logos himself <strong>and</strong> ultimately with God.<br />

( Quod Deus Sit Immutabilis; 31-32).<br />

Eternal Creation<br />

Proclus demonstrated that even in the theistic system, the world, though generated, must be<br />

eternal, because the "world is always fabricated, is always becoming ." (In Defense of the<br />

Timaeus of Plafo against Objections Made to by Aristolte. in Fragments of the Lost Writings of<br />

Proclus, translated from the Greek by Thomas Taylor ).<br />

Proclus believed, as did Philo, that the corporeal world is always coming into existence but never<br />

possesses real being. According to Philo, (Arguments in Proof of the Eternity of the World, in Taylor,<br />

Fragments, pp. 35—107) Proclus's main argument was that if God did not always make the<br />

world, he would be an imperfect Demiurge indigent of time. God did not begin to create the world<br />

at a certain moment, but he is "eternally applying himself to its creation" (Prov. 1.7; Op. 7; net.<br />

8344). For God is indirectly the creator or time. Philo contends that God thinks simultaneously with<br />

his acting or creating; while he speaks (Logos), he creates (deed), <strong>and</strong> thus his Logos is his deed<br />

Any description of creation in temporal terms, for example, by Moses, is not to be taken literally. It is,<br />

rather, an accommodation to the biblical language<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

Adam - Co-creator with God<br />

Man remains a partner of God in the ongoing creative process. There are two distinct words in<br />

Hebrew for creation: beri’ah <strong>and</strong> yetzirah. Beirah refers to creatio ex nihilo (creation from nothing)<br />

<strong>and</strong> hence can only be used of God. However Yetzirah describes creation out of preexistent<br />

substance, <strong>and</strong> hence may be used both of God (after the initial act of genesis) <strong>and</strong> man. God has<br />

no “partners” in the one-time act of beri’ah Gen 1:1 where the Heavens <strong>and</strong> Earth were "bara".<br />

God created Adam, as His co-creator, in the ongoing process of yetzirah. Hence, man receives the<br />

dominion over all that God created to continue the yetzirah evolution. When Man makes an error<br />

in this yetzira process, God intervenes <strong>and</strong> rectification <strong>and</strong> redemption take place. This is the story<br />

that continues in Genesis as fall <strong>and</strong> consequent intervention of God.<br />

Thus the creation will be repeated as one fails to fulfill the purpose of God.<br />

creation story, but the old story continued.<br />

It is then not a new<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />




Mankind vs man<br />

Another model for the two <strong>Adams</strong> is presented in this chapter. Here we assume that both the<br />

creations describe real time creations on earth.<br />

1:26 And God (‘elohiym) said, Let us make mankind in our image, after our likeness: <strong>and</strong> let them<br />

have dominion over the fish of the sea, <strong>and</strong> over the fowl of the air, <strong>and</strong> over the cattle, <strong>and</strong> over all<br />

the earth, <strong>and</strong> over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.<br />

The correction here is in the translation :<br />

It is not: "Let us make man in our image"<br />

It should be; "let us make mankind in our image"<br />

"In our image" <strong>and</strong> the mention of "let us make" is mentioned only in the creation of Adam by<br />

Elohim only confirms that this image lies in the plurality. Elohim created man in many numbers in<br />

male <strong>and</strong> female forms - a whole mankind just as Elohim is a plurality. As we have explained earlier,<br />

Elohim consists of the Father, Mother <strong>and</strong> the Son within Trinity along with a host of other creations<br />

in all dimensions of existence who are all part of the only reality - God.<br />

Brown-Driver-Briggs 560<br />

A d a m אָ‏ דָ‏ ם<br />

"Adam can mean both One man or Mankind"<br />

In fact two of the modern versions just translate it as mankind.<br />

New International Version: Then God said, "Let us make mankind ( ‏(אָדָם in our image, in our<br />

likeness, so that they may rule over the fish in the sea <strong>and</strong> the birds in the sky, over the livestock<br />

<strong>and</strong> all the wild animals, <strong>and</strong> over all the creatures that move along the ground."<br />

New Living Translation: Then God said, "Let us make human beings ‏(אָדָם)‏ in our image, to be<br />

like us. They will reign over the fish in the sea, the birds in the sky, the livestock, all the wild<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

animals on the earth, <strong>and</strong> the small animals that scurry along the ground." This is then referring to<br />

creation of all the kindred of peoples <strong>and</strong> races in the world. This will make sense to Elohim's<br />

usage "in our image" <strong>and</strong> "in our likeness"<br />

He is talking to the council of Elohim before He started the creation of mankind. There were a host<br />

of sons of God already in existence <strong>and</strong> they all formed part of God. God is the only reality <strong>and</strong><br />

since there can be nothing called outside of God, every creation is within God <strong>and</strong> part of God. In<br />

every dimension there are creations that are sentient beings (in the image of God) that form part of<br />

the creator as co-creators. God had given that authority to create to his Sons of God also in every<br />

dimension of existence. It is the presence of these Sons of God that produces the order out of the<br />

disorder in an otherwise chaotic devolution of the created world. This is the advantage <strong>and</strong><br />

disadvantage of the free will of the Sons of God. They can create or<br />

destroy their world by choice.<br />

If we are taking Elohim as the ultimate unknowable God who has no<br />

form or shape, "the image of God" "likeness of God " would mean<br />

nothing.<br />

Now that we know Elohim includes all sentient creation within God by<br />

that time when God began to create the heavens <strong>and</strong> the earth, the<br />

only likeness <strong>and</strong> image is the plurality <strong>and</strong> male <strong>and</strong> female.<br />

This is what is meant by it is evidently made clear in the verse by<br />

definining the likeness as male <strong>and</strong> female <strong>and</strong> the use of "us" <strong>and</strong><br />

"our"<br />

et - haAdam אֶת-הָאָדָם<br />

The et ‘(aleph tav’) is a Hebrew grammatical sign of the definite direct object, not translated in<br />

English but generally preceding <strong>and</strong> indicating the accusative. A direct object is a noun or pronoun<br />

that receives the action of a verb or shows the result of the action. It answers the question “What?”<br />

or “Whom?” after an action verb.<br />

Et in fact is "alpha <strong>and</strong> omega" of the signature of YHVH the covenant symbol of the Son of God (I<br />

am the alpha <strong>and</strong> the Omega - the first <strong>and</strong> the last)<br />

Et indicates that what follows needs wider explanation <strong>and</strong> is important. This is always connected<br />

with Jesus.<br />

Then in Gen. 1:27 So God created this particular man ( ‏(אֶת-הָאָדָם again in his [own] image, in the<br />

image of God (‘elohim) created he him; male <strong>and</strong> female created he them. This is referring to the<br />

creation of “this particular man” (or these particular men or types of people, prototypes)<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

Gen 2:7 And the LORD GOD (YHVH ‘elohiym אxֱ‎הִים ‏(יְהוָה formed this particular man<br />

of the dust of the ground, <strong>and</strong> breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; <strong>and</strong> man ‏(אֶת-הָאָדָם (<br />

became a living soul.<br />

This is referring to the forming of one particular type of man, i.e. those with the breath of life in them<br />

or God’s spirit indwelling in them at birth. The fact that God made Adam from dust simply tells us<br />

that Adam was made from the ground (adamah). The word dust is "'aphar", <strong>and</strong> means loose earth<br />

or ground.<br />

The definition of "‘elohim" is in itself is:<br />

a) rulers, judges, b) divine ones, c) angels, d) gods; 2 a) god, goddesses, b) godlike one, c) works<br />

or special possessions of god, d) the (true) god, e) god.<br />

Implying many persons.<br />

In 1:27, the ‘elohiym create this particular man (or these particular men or prototypes) in the image<br />

of ‘elohiym. This particular man - a proto-type - unequivocally refers to a portion of creation as if to<br />

suggest that there is or will be more to come, probably even made more better since each can<br />

evolve within its species within its order <strong>and</strong> dimensions of existence<br />

protos<br />

1) first in time or place in any succession of things or persons<br />

2) first in rank<br />

a) influence, honor<br />

b) chief<br />

c) principal<br />

3)first, at the first<br />

anthropos<br />

1) a human being, whether male or female<br />

a) generically, to include all human individuals<br />

b) to distinguish man from beings of a different order<br />

1) of animals <strong>and</strong> plants<br />

2) of from God <strong>and</strong> Christ<br />

3) of the angels<br />

c) with the added notion of weakness, by which man is led into a mistake or prompted to sin<br />

d) with the adjunct notion of contempt or disdainful pity<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

e) with reference to two fold nature of man, body <strong>and</strong> soul<br />

f) with reference to the two fold nature of man, the corrupt <strong>and</strong> the truly Christian man, conformed to<br />

the nature of God<br />

g) with reference to sex, a male<br />

2) indefinitely, someone, a man, one<br />

3) in the plural, people<br />

4) joined with other words, merchantman<br />

Gen 1 Adam represents a host of people - Nations - the image of Elohim - many<br />

The making of mankind <strong>and</strong> the creating of this particular man (or these particular men or<br />

prototypes) are both done by the ‘elohiym <strong>and</strong> in the image of ‘elohiym. ALL of mankind resembles<br />

the ‘elohiym because they are many. They included male <strong>and</strong> female.<br />

"Let us make man to our image <strong>and</strong> likeness: <strong>and</strong> let him have dominion over the fishes of the sea,<br />

<strong>and</strong> the fowls of the air, <strong>and</strong> the beasts, <strong>and</strong> the whole earth, <strong>and</strong> every creeping creature that<br />

moveth upon the earth. And God created man to his own image: to the image of God he created<br />

him: male <strong>and</strong> female he created them."<br />

Then follows the blessing accompanied by the comm<strong>and</strong> to increase <strong>and</strong> fill the earth, <strong>and</strong> finally<br />

the vegetable kingdom is assigned to them for food. A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants <strong>and</strong> pursuing wild<br />

animals), In the 1970s, Lewis Binford suggested that early humans were obtaining food via<br />

scavenging, not hunting. Early humans in the Lower Paleolithic lived in forests <strong>and</strong> woodl<strong>and</strong>s,<br />

which allowed them to collect seafood, eggs, nuts, <strong>and</strong> fruits besides scavenging. Rather than<br />

killing large animals for meat, according to this view, they used carcasses of such animals that had<br />

either been killed by predators or that had died of natural causes (Binford, Louis (1986). "Human<br />

ancestors: Changing views of their behavior". Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. 3: 235–57.)<br />

Have dominion over all creatures, subdue the earth<br />

These were the first humanoids that roamed the earth.<br />

Gen 2:1 tells us, “Thus the heavens <strong>and</strong> the earth were finished, <strong>and</strong> all the host of them.”<br />

The word “host” means a mass of persons <strong>and</strong> creatures.<br />

Gen. 5:1-2<br />

also repeats this creation:<br />


‘Elohiym ended their work <strong>and</strong> then rested on the 7th day. After the 7th day, we find that “The<br />

Lord God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, <strong>and</strong> there was not a man to till the ground.”<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

Knap of Howar farmstead on a site occupied from 3,700 BC to 2,800 BC<br />

This was because the first humanoids were not farmers. YHVH of Elohim (not Elohim) then goes on<br />

to "form" the second species of humans who were not to be hunters <strong>and</strong> gatherers <strong>and</strong> fishermen<br />

but farmers with settled life. Gen 2: 15 The Lord God took the man <strong>and</strong> put him in the Garden of<br />

<strong>Eden</strong> to work it <strong>and</strong> take care of it.<br />

A new civilization begins with this Adam. Man is not commissioned to dominate the whole earth<br />

roaming all over the world, as in the first narrative, but is settle <strong>and</strong> to take care of the Garden of<br />

<strong>Eden</strong> with permission to eat of its fruit, <strong>and</strong> the formation of woman as a help meet for man. Women<br />

were more useful in the agricultural settlements than in the previous societies.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

Unlike the Gen 1 Adam, this particular Adam was created from the earth <strong>and</strong> in addition was given<br />

the breath of life directly by giving YHVH's breath itself to give a special form of life. This Adam<br />

was the pinnacle of creation with a new additional soul which no other creation previously had.<br />

Thus this man was bound to the earth <strong>and</strong> he lived out of what he made to grow out of the earth.<br />

Thus began a new civilization where cooperation with communities <strong>and</strong> eventually civilization<br />

began to appear.<br />

+++++++++++++++++++><br />

I am aware that the white supremacists use this story to establish that this particular Adam was<br />

white. (http://www.hope-of-israel.org/twocreationsaccts.html) But the argument cannot really<br />

st<strong>and</strong> since:<br />

Adam has the color of earth which is brown <strong>and</strong> never white.<br />

What color was Adam?<br />

(http://www.creationmoments.com/content/what-color-was-adam)<br />

The true explanation began to be resolved in 1913 when it was shown that human beings carry two<br />

genes for color <strong>and</strong> that each gene consists of "black" or "white" alleles. One allele was received<br />

from the mother <strong>and</strong> the other from the father. The allele is part of the gene, <strong>and</strong> the gene is part of<br />

the DNA – while the DNA resides in the nucleus of every cell in our body. Our skin color is caused<br />

by the pigment melanin, <strong>and</strong> this is controlled by two pairs of genes that geneticists refer to using<br />

the letter designations Aa <strong>and</strong> Bb, where the capital letter represents dominant genes <strong>and</strong> the small<br />

letters represent recessive genes. A <strong>and</strong> B, being dominant, produce melanin in good quantity<br />

while recessive a <strong>and</strong> b produce only a minor amount of melanin. Hence, our coloration depends<br />

upon the number of black <strong>and</strong> white alleles we received from our parents. The color genes express<br />

themselves in only one place – specialized skin cells called the melanocytes – that produce<br />

granules of melanin that are delivered to neighboring cells.<br />

Eve was made from Adam's rib <strong>and</strong> was thus a clone of Adam [Genesis 2:21-22]. They would<br />

therefore have had identical genes for melanin production. If they were both AABB, they would<br />

have been Negroid <strong>and</strong> produced children of only the darkest of Negroid coloration. If this were the<br />

case, the world's population today would be entirely Negro. In fact, only about 10% of the world's<br />

population is Negro, so we can be certain that our first parents were not of the AABB combination.<br />

By the same argument, if Adam <strong>and</strong> Eve had both been aabb, all their children would have been<br />

aabb meaning that all their descendants would be the lightest Caucasoid possible – there would be<br />

no other colors. Clearly, this is not the case, so by a process of deduction we can conclude that<br />

Adam <strong>and</strong> Eve were heterozygous, each having two dominant <strong>and</strong> two recessive genes, AaBb.<br />

They would thus have been middle-brown in color <strong>and</strong> from them, in one generation, the various<br />

shades of brown would have been produced.<br />

These color differences were likely amplified following the business at the Tower of Babel [Genesis<br />

11:1-9] when the human gene pool was divided. Loss of genetic information in an isolated<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

population is well known <strong>and</strong> a problem to breeders of pure-bred dogs, horses <strong>and</strong> other animals. It<br />

seems that one population group that migrated from the Tower of Babel suffered a greater loss of<br />

the genetic information required to produce the melanin <strong>and</strong> became the Caucasians. The bottom<br />

line is that Adam was not white or black but a good middle brown.<br />

https://auticulture.wordpress.com/2014/02/28/what-we-know-dont-know-arent-supposed-to-ask-about-race/<br />

<br />

Providing a final solution to the problem of the Tasmanian aborigines…<br />

…all were reaching the conclusion that life in Tasmania would be much happier if there were no<br />

Tasmanians. The Reverend Thomas Atkins, after a visit to Van Diemen’s L<strong>and</strong> in 1836,<br />

conveniently rationalized the attitude in Christian terms. It was a universal law in the divine<br />

government, he wrote, that when savage tribes came into collision with civilized races of men, the<br />

savages disappeared. This was because they had not complied with the divine conditions for<br />

survival- “For God blessed them, <strong>and</strong> God said unto them, be fruitful <strong>and</strong> multiply, <strong>and</strong> replenish<br />

the earth <strong>and</strong> subdue it…”<br />

http://madamepickwickartblog.com/2013/01/tasmania-talking-about-the-word-extinct/<br />

==================================================<<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />


If we examine the two creations describing Adam we have in Genesis 1:<br />

New International Version: Then God said, "Let us make mankind ( ‏(אָדָם in our image, in our<br />

likeness, so that they may rule over the fish in the sea <strong>and</strong> the birds in the sky, over the livestock<br />

<strong>and</strong> all the wild animals, <strong>and</strong> over all the creatures that move along the ground."<br />

In the Gen 1:27 <strong>and</strong> Gen 2:7 gives<br />

Then in Gen. 1:27 So God created this particular man ( ‏(אֶת-הָאָדָם again in his [own] image, in the<br />

image of God (‘elohim) created he him; male <strong>and</strong> female created he them.<br />

This is referring to the creation of “this particular man” (or these particular men or types of people,<br />

prototypes) They were given vegetables as food.<br />

"Several million years ago, when a great many hominid species lived side-by-side, they mainly ate<br />

plants. "There is no evidence they were systematically preying on large animals," (John Shea of<br />

Stony Brook University in New York, US.)<br />

‏(אֶת-הָאָדָם ( man formed this particular ‏(יְהוָה אxֱ‎הִים Gen 2:7 And the LORD GOD (YHVH ‘elohiym<br />

of the dust of the ground, <strong>and</strong> breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; <strong>and</strong> man became a living<br />

soul.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

It was this Adam who was chased out when he failed to keep it free of satanic presence in it instead<br />

connived with Satan.<br />

This is referring to the forming of one particular type of man, i.e. one with the breath of life in him<br />

<strong>and</strong> formed out of the dust of the earth by YHVH of Elohim unlike the first creation of many men <strong>and</strong><br />

women in the image of Elohim the God of many persons (or the family of God) Since this second<br />

creation from the dust of the earth followed immediately after the first creation of many men <strong>and</strong><br />

women (who were in the image of God but not said to be made out of the dust) may indicate this is<br />

another second creation <strong>and</strong> not one of the members from the first.<br />

The second creation was another ha-Adam - a particular "the Adam" who is again connected<br />

with et the sign of the covenant indicating God's choice <strong>and</strong> special item which needs expansion<br />

<strong>and</strong> explanation. Here we have one person. He was created by YHVH of Elohim - the Son of God<br />

- directly from the dust of the earth by forming <strong>and</strong> then directly breathing his spirit into it giving a<br />

new type of man with divine soul <strong>and</strong> spirit.<br />

Gen 3: 23 therefore the Lord God sent him out from the garden of <strong>Eden</strong> to work the ground<br />

from which he was taken. 24 He drove out the man, <strong>and</strong> at the east of the garden of <strong>Eden</strong> he<br />

placed the cherubim <strong>and</strong> a flaming sword that turned every way to guard the way to the tree of life.<br />

This verse seem to indicate that the earth from which Adam was molded was taken not from the<br />

Garden of <strong>Eden</strong> but from outside of it which was the area where the rest of mankind of the first<br />

creation lived their life.<br />

The choice:<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

Either this is another special creation out of the earth (evolved as theistic evolution probably is<br />

implied?)<br />

Or one particular Adam was taken out of the already created mankind as special Priest to God<br />

to take care of his sanctuary on earth - the Garden of <strong>Eden</strong>. When this second Adam<br />

desecrated the Garden he was sent out from <strong>Eden</strong> to outer world from which he was taken.<br />

Was the second Adam taken from the old hominids - a chosen one?<br />

Or the new particular Adam was created as new single male person <strong>and</strong> placed in <strong>Eden</strong>.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

The first creation was a creation of host of humans in both male <strong>and</strong> female form. This was done by<br />

Elohim - the plurality of God along with the host of his Sons <strong>and</strong> daughters. Evidently they will be<br />

many in number all over the world.<br />

The earlier mankind was distributed all over the earth in large numbers with the comm<strong>and</strong> to<br />

subdue the earth <strong>and</strong> all creatures of the water, air <strong>and</strong> the earth. But this new Adam was created<br />

<strong>and</strong> placed in the Garden of <strong>Eden</strong> which God planted to till <strong>and</strong> to keep. They evidently were two<br />

distinct creations. We don’t know how much of a time lapsed between them.<br />

Scripture seems to indicate that these new creation man, though identical in look <strong>and</strong> structure to<br />

the older humankind were given a new dimension by the breath of God.<br />

This is substantiated by the archaeological sciences<br />

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/fossil<br />

Thous<strong>and</strong>s of fossils have been discovered in the past decades alone.<br />

While people used to think that there was a single line of human species, with one evolving after<br />

the other in an inevitable march towards modern humans, we now know this is not the case. Like<br />

most other mammals, mankind were part of a large <strong>and</strong> diverse family tree. Fossil discoveries<br />

show that the human kind family tree has many more branches <strong>and</strong> deeper roots than we knew<br />

about even a couple of decades ago. In fact, the number of branches our evolutionary tree, <strong>and</strong><br />

also the length of time, has nearly doubled since the famed ‘Lucy’ fossil skeleton was discovered in<br />

1974! As we have seen this is amply supported by the scripture using the word mankind <strong>and</strong> many<br />

of them in the image of Elohim.<br />

"Why did our close relatives—from Ne<strong>and</strong>erthals to their recently discovered cousins, the<br />

Denisovans, to the hobbit people of Indonesia—die out while we became a global success?" Yet<br />

in spite of the great variety in earlier human species, we are the only one that remains of a diverse<br />

family tree. That might seem to indicate something special about us."<br />

(http://discovermagazine.com/2011/evolution/23-how-we-won-the-hominid-wars)<br />

There were periods in the past when three or four early human species lived at the same time, even<br />

in the same place. These humans certainly took over the earth <strong>and</strong> indeed subdued them as<br />

hunter gatherers. For some unexplained reason all those humanoids died out. It was followed by<br />

the new Adam Androgynous who were then separated as Adam <strong>and</strong> Eve so that they can<br />

regenerate..<br />

An estimation of the creation of the first Adam on the basis of the pure scientific time line given<br />

below will be around 1.8 million years ago <strong>and</strong> "the Adam" who survived comes around 10,000<br />

years. Of course this is based on several assumptions.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

In the scripture we are not against evolution. Evolution is clearly the law within its own kind. Only<br />

when the kind changes, that is when additional dimensions <strong>and</strong> hence new type of soul <strong>and</strong> spirit<br />

are needed, they are created by the direct intervention of the creator. Material dimensions<br />

themselves are 11 according to modern physics. We may not be aware of others in the physical<br />

realm leave alone the spiritual <strong>and</strong> divine realms.<br />

While mankind was created <strong>and</strong> evolved in their own dimensions, the Adam was created with much<br />

more dimensions. These are clearly dem<strong>and</strong>ed by the scripture.<br />

Again while 'The Adam' species has been on earth only around 6000 years or so, humankind had<br />

been on the earth long before that. The Bible does not tell the history of that period.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/genetics/one-species-living-worldwide<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

Results of scientific research on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)<br />

https://biblescienceguy.wordpress.com/2016/03/09/adams-prolific-princess/<br />

https://www.icr.org/article/8017/<br />

https://creation.com/a-shrinking-date-for-eve<br />

http://www.asa3.org/ASA/education/origins/humans.htm<br />

"Results of scientific research on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) now support this Biblical truth that<br />

there is a single mother of the human race now living. Inherited only from the mother, mtDNA is<br />

found outside the cell nucleus in the mitochondria organelles, the power plants of cells.<br />

Mitochondrial genes (mtDNA) <strong>and</strong> nuclear genes (DNA) are inherited differently. When a sperm<br />

fertilizes an egg, the sperm nucleus <strong>and</strong> the egg nucleus both contribute genetic material (DNA)<br />

equally to the nucleus of the zygote. But the zygote’s mitochondrial DNA comes from the egg,<br />

because the sperm’s mitochondria are destroyed after entering the egg, leaving only the egg’s<br />

mitochondria. Mitochondria are inherited solely through the mother, not the father.<br />

All mtDNA today comes from a single female which scientists have nicknamed Eve. This does not<br />

constitute proof of a single female ancestor, but only that no female lines now exist except Eve’s.<br />

This is consistent with the Biblical record, <strong>and</strong> evolutionary theory does not predict it.<br />

Today mitochondrial genes are very similar with little diversity. This means little time has elapsed<br />

for mtDNA mutations to occur. This suggests that mitochondrial Eve lived not long ago; how long<br />

ago is under dispute.<br />

The mtDNA mutation rate is the rate at which copying mistakes occur. Estimating the mtDNA<br />

mutation rate (using evolutionary assumptions), scientists once conjectured this ancestral Eve lived<br />

200,000 years ago. Later studies showed much higher mutation rates (as much as 20-fold faster<br />

than expected) with correspondingly younger ages for Eve.<br />

Was there was a first woman (Eve) about 6,000 years ago? Some scientific research supports this<br />

Biblical truth.<br />

A review of the data in the prestigious journal Science said Eve would be only 6,000 years old<br />

based on these re-calibrated mtDNA mutation rates:<br />

“Evolutionists are most concerned about the effect of a faster mutation rate. For example,<br />

researchers have calculated that “mitochondrial Eve”–the woman whose mtDNA was ancestral to<br />

that in all living people–lived 100,000 to 200,000 years ago in Africa. Using the new clock, she<br />

would be a mere 6000 years old.”<br />

(Gibbons, Ann. “Calibrating the Mitochondrial Clock.” Science 279.5347, January 2, 1998. p<br />

28–29.)"<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />



Since we meet the creation of mankind Adam on the sixth day <strong>and</strong> then again the story continues<br />

after the Sabbath with another creation of man Adam we invariably ask the question "Are they<br />

two <strong>Adams</strong>?"<br />

First Adam was created male <strong>and</strong> female in Day 6 of creation<br />

Second Adam was created as Androgyen sometime later after the seventh day.<br />

Correspondingly the context <strong>and</strong> nature of the creation is different.<br />

Gen 1 started with a "bohu <strong>and</strong> tohu' chaos .The Septuagint renders it as ἀόρατος καὶ<br />

ἀκατα-σκεύαστος, "shapeless <strong>and</strong> formless". "Now the earth was formless <strong>and</strong> empty, darkness<br />

was over the surface of the deep,"<br />

In Gen 2 after the 7 th day rest when God woke up here is the situation:<br />

"Now no shrub had yet appeared on the earth <strong>and</strong> no plant had yet sprung up, for the Lord God had<br />

not sent rain on the earth <strong>and</strong> there was no one to work the ground,"<br />

Another desolation <strong>and</strong> consequent chaos?<br />

Isaiah 45:18 For thus says the LORD, who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the<br />

earth <strong>and</strong> made it, He established it <strong>and</strong> did not create it a waste place, but formed it to be<br />

inhabited), "I am the LORD, <strong>and</strong> there is none else.<br />

Evidently then something happened <strong>and</strong> the earth became uninhabitable. This we know is<br />

caused by some form of sin of the one who were entrusted with the creation. In the gap theory it<br />

was first caused by the sin of the Lucifer Angel. Was the cause of destruction <strong>and</strong> start over<br />

because of the sin of Governor Adam <strong>and</strong> his wide family or from someone in the heavenly realm<br />

outside of earth? . But we don’t see Mr. & Mrs. Adam anywhere on the eighth day. What<br />

happened to them that God has to start all over again with a new Adam.<br />

This is the serial reading of history. Where did the First Adam (refering to the entire mankind) go?<br />

There must be a story similar to the new Adam <strong>and</strong> Eve who were driven out of their earth domain<br />

<strong>and</strong> were subjected to death. If so we are not told. If there was a fall <strong>and</strong> reconstruction that also<br />

is not revealed to us.<br />

The best I can think of is that they began to fight over their domains <strong>and</strong> totally desecrated the earth.<br />

Tribal warfare are still the greatest enemy of people in every country. Evidently these two groups<br />

one created by Elohim <strong>and</strong> one created by YHVH of Elohim certainly overlapped. This will allow for<br />

the cain's fear of being killed by them <strong>and</strong> later Cain married wives <strong>and</strong> even built a city indicating a<br />

large population of them existing at his time.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />


R. Johanan interprets as being an acrostic of (ashes), (blood), <strong>and</strong> (gall; see Soṭah, 5a).<br />

Isidor of Seville ("De Natura Rerum," ix.) declare that Adam was made of blood (sanguis), gall<br />

(cholē), black gall (melancholia), <strong>and</strong> phlegm: the four parts constituting the temperaments, which<br />

correspond to the four elements of nature, as does the microcosm to the macrocosm (see Piper,<br />

"Symbolik der Christlichen Kirche," 90, 469).<br />

Both Aristophanes <strong>and</strong> the Midrash share the opinion that the human form is but a fragment of its<br />

original self. Aristophanes explains that this fragmentation was due to the fact that the original<br />

human’s strength presented a threat to the gods. How do the Rabbis explain why humanity was<br />

shrunk down to current size Although Leviticus Rabbah offers no explanation for this, Yalkut<br />

Shim’oni does clarify the reason for the fragmentation of the original human form.<br />

At the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He created man, he created him as Androgynos, as it<br />

says, “Male <strong>and</strong> Female [He created them.]” Rabbi Samuel b. Nahmani said, “Double-faced He<br />

created them.”….Originally [Adam] was created reaching the heavens, but when the Angels of<br />

Service saw him, they trembled <strong>and</strong> were frightened before him. What did they do They all went<br />

before God [<strong>and</strong> requested that man be shortened.].<br />

The Greek writers explained the shrinking of mankind’s size from giant to current size as being due<br />

to the jealousy of the gods. However, unlike the Greeks, who were comfortable attributing human<br />

qualities such as jealousy <strong>and</strong> lust to the gods, Midrash Yalkut Shim’oni transfers these qualities to<br />

angels, thereby explaining the reason for God’s diminishing the human form without implying divine<br />

imperfection. In this account, the Angels, divine beings subordinate to the Supreme God, were<br />

threatened by man’s height <strong>and</strong> requested that he be shortened.<br />

http://www.preearth.net/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?f=23&t=1173<br />

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++<br />


The most detailed account of the making of the first man is found in Hawaiian mythology:<br />

"The head of the first kanaka (Hawaiian) was created from a whitish clay (pololo), which was<br />

brought by Lono from the four ends of the world—from "Kai Koolau, Kai Kona, Kahiki-ku,<br />

Kahiki-moe"—north, south, east, west. The clay from the north <strong>and</strong> east forming the right side, <strong>and</strong><br />

the clay from the south <strong>and</strong> west forming the left.... At the creation of man, Kane was the model<br />

after which he was made; Ku was the workman who made him, <strong>and</strong> Lono assisted generally. When<br />

the clay-image of Kane was made, they three breathed into its nose, <strong>and</strong> that breath was called "he<br />

maule o Lono." The gods then called on him to rise <strong>and</strong> become a living being,... The image then<br />

rose <strong>and</strong> knealt before the gods <strong>and</strong> they called his name Honua-ula (Red Earth)—his body was<br />

made of red earth (lepo ula) <strong>and</strong> spittle (wai-nao), <strong>and</strong> his head was made of the clay (palalo)<br />

brought from the four ends of the earth. Another name for him was Ke Lii-Ku-Honua. After creation<br />

this man Honuaula, was given a place to live in, called in olden time Kalana i Hauola, in later times<br />

it was called Pali-uli."<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />



According to Genesis 1 creation Adam was created both male <strong>and</strong> female in the image of God.<br />

First if man was created in the image of Elohim (Plural El) <strong>and</strong> Adam was both male <strong>and</strong> female, we<br />

stop to ask, was God male <strong>and</strong> female? The first reaction of Jews <strong>and</strong> Christians is a total rejection<br />

of any gender association with God.<br />

Here is the evasive teaching.<br />

<br />

Man <strong>and</strong> woman have been created in perfect equality, yet in their particular beings as male<br />

<strong>and</strong> female.<br />

Man <strong>and</strong> woman are created in the image of God. They were created together <strong>and</strong> for each<br />

other.<br />

<br />

God is neither male nor female - God is a pure Spirit.<br />

Yet God is always referred to as "he".<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

However there is a consistent effort to accept this statement at face value in plain text interpretation.<br />

Here is a typical answer to the question. The conclusion:<br />

The absurdity if clear.<br />

God the Father is obviously Male.<br />

God the father is always represented as an old man with beard.<br />

God the Spirit - referred in Hebrew feminine gender Ruach is feminine because by definition,<br />

John 6:63 The Spirit gives life; the flesh profits nothing. Again in the context of Genesis creation we<br />

see the spirit of God hovering over the waters providing the creation of life. The same picture is<br />

seen in proverbs where we meet Wisdom which is again clearly defined as female.<br />

Genesis 1:2 The earth was formless <strong>and</strong> void, <strong>and</strong> darkness was over the surface of the deep,<br />

<strong>and</strong> the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the waters.<br />

It is God’s motherly love conveying the promise of life, order, <strong>and</strong> beauty to what was of itself a<br />

mess.<br />

Does it sound like:<br />

In Proverbs 8:22-31, a figure known as "Woman Wisdom" is described as being present when God<br />

was creating the world.<br />

Proverbs 8:22-31): 22 The LORD created me at the beginning of his work, the first of his acts of<br />

long ago. 23 Ages ago I was set up, at the first, before the beginning of the earth. 24 When there<br />

were no depths I was brought forth, when there were no springs abounding with water. 25 Before<br />

the mountains had been shaped, before the hills, I was brought forth— 26 when he had not yet<br />

made earth <strong>and</strong> fields, or the world’s first bits of soil. 27 When he established the heavens, I was<br />

there, when he drew a circle on the face of the deep, 28 when he made firm the skies above, when<br />

he established the fountains of the deep, 29 when he assigned to the sea its limit, so that the<br />

waters might not transgress his comm<strong>and</strong>, when he marked out the foundations of the earth, 30<br />

then I was beside him, like a master worker; <strong>and</strong> I was daily his delight, rejoicing before him always,<br />

31 rejoicing in his inhabited world <strong>and</strong> delighting in the human race.<br />

Obviously, " During Hellenistic times, there was a Jewish-Christian concept of "Sophia" (Greek for<br />

Wisdom) being God's wife.<br />

Pushing in this as an affirmation of the Document hypothesis Mark S. Smith says in The Early<br />

History of God, page 133, that scholars such as G. Bostrom, H . Ringgren, W. F. Albright <strong>and</strong><br />

others have compared the figure of Wisdom to the Canaanite goddess Asherah. On page 201,<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

Smith says that Wisdom perhaps included some features of Asherah, <strong>and</strong> that she is a dramatic<br />

example of an originally polytheistic motif that changed into a form deemed compatible with<br />

monotheistic Yahwism. He points out that Ecclesiasticus continues <strong>and</strong> amplifies the female<br />

personification of Wisdom.<br />

If Wisdom was not the post-Exilic underst<strong>and</strong>ing of Asherah, she was certainly a female spirit or<br />

goddess who was revered in Judaism, <strong>and</strong> apparently in early Christianity, up until the end of the<br />

first century CE. Judith M. Hadley ('Wisdom <strong>and</strong> the goddess' page 236, published in Wisdom in<br />

Ancient Israel, edited by Day, Gordon <strong>and</strong> Williamson) says in her view, the apparent apotheosis of<br />

Lady Wisdom in the biblical literature is a literary compensation for the eradication of Israel's former<br />

goddesses. Hadley concludes (page 242) that in several places in Israelite wisdom literature, Lady<br />

Wisdom is described as a person <strong>and</strong> even seems to have divine attributes, although scholars have<br />

been reluctant to give her full divinity.<br />

++++++++++++><br />

(http://www.ministrysamples.org/excerpts/…)<br />


"In Genesis 1:2 we read about the Spirit. What is the significance of the Spirit here? In the Bible the<br />

Spirit always signifies life. What is the significance of the waste, void, darkness, <strong>and</strong> deep water?<br />

All these signify a disaster, <strong>and</strong> even death. These are all negative things. Then all of a sudden<br />

something good came, that is, the Spirit. The Spirit came not to rebuke, not to condemn, but to<br />

brood, as a mother bird broods over the eggs. The "eggs" are just the waste, void, darkness, <strong>and</strong><br />

deep water. These are all terrible things, yet these terrible things came under the brooding of the<br />

"mother hen"; hence, they all became "eggs."<br />

We also were under this brooding. We are out of Adam, <strong>and</strong> Adam was out of the dust, which was<br />

there under the brooding. The dust, which is the earth, was the first thing that came out of the<br />

brooding of the Spirit. First, there was the Spirit; then, after the Spirit there was light (vv. 3-5); <strong>and</strong><br />

after the light the firmament was made (vv. 6-8), which is the air. Then the resurrection of the buried<br />

earth came up on the third day, the day of resurrection (vv. 9-10). Hence, the first thing that came<br />

up because of the Spirit’s brooding is the resurrected earth. Adam was made out of this earth, <strong>and</strong><br />

we are a part of Adam. Hence, we came out of the brooding of the Spirit. Our existence came out of<br />

the Spirit’s brooding in God’s history. God firstly came out of eternity <strong>and</strong> entered into time by<br />

creating the heavens <strong>and</strong> the earth. Then God’s creature rebelled, <strong>and</strong> God judged him. This<br />

rebellious one became God’s enemy, <strong>and</strong> the entire universe became waste, void, <strong>and</strong> darkness.<br />

Then God moved. He moved by the brooding of His Spirit, <strong>and</strong> we are included there under that<br />

brooding.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

The brooding brought forth the earth. But for the earth to produce life, there is the need of light <strong>and</strong><br />

air. Therefore, on the first day the light was recovered, <strong>and</strong> on the second day the air, the firmament,<br />

was created. Then on the third day, the day of resurrection, the buried earth came up (typifying the<br />

buried Christ resurrected), ready to produce life. The producing of life started from the lowest life.<br />

There is a sequence of life in Genesis, beginning with the lowest life, the life without any<br />

consciousness. First, we find the grasses, the herbs, <strong>and</strong> the trees (vv. 11-13). These are living<br />

things, but their life is very low <strong>and</strong> without any consciousness. These were created on the third day,<br />

immediately after the earth resurrected from the death water.<br />

(The History of God in His Union With Man, Chapter 3, by Witness Lee)<br />


PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

Spirit)" We baptise to show this relationship. But apparently no body seems to explain this.<br />

The only explanation is given to baptism is that of burial <strong>and</strong> resurrection.<br />

The Son is the word<br />

Those who are familiar with Nicene Creed (which seems to be left behind) says: "I believe in the<br />

Holy Spirit, the Lord <strong>and</strong> giver of life which procedes from the Father….." where it is implied that the<br />

Father <strong>and</strong> the Ruah are one person which separates out for creation of new life as necessary.<br />

This is the process that is represented in the creation of Adam. Eve was in Adam <strong>and</strong> was later<br />

seperated out <strong>and</strong> given a new body or form.<br />

I was surprised when one of our bishop said that God is a family. He had it right.<br />

anyone else explain it.<br />

But never heard<br />

When Paul says that "There is neither male or female is Christ" he was simply referring to the fact<br />

that both male <strong>and</strong> female should be born again <strong>and</strong> is a statement of Adam getting back into his<br />

original creation form with both male <strong>and</strong> female in oneness of body <strong>and</strong> mind. This again is the<br />

picture of marriage as presented in the scripture. The whole creation is one body - the body of<br />

God, within which is male <strong>and</strong> female united together to form one unity.<br />

Yet consistently the creation story says: " In the image of God created he them; male <strong>and</strong> female<br />

created he them"<br />

Genesis 1:27 So God created mankind in his own image, in the image of God he created them;<br />

male <strong>and</strong> female he created them<br />

Genesis 5:1-2 1This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day when God created man, He<br />

made him in the likeness of God. He created them male <strong>and</strong> female,<br />

There is really an evasion of the question <strong>and</strong> total negation of the above two verses which is<br />

consistently asserted through the Bible.<br />

However they would not mind saying that God is both male <strong>and</strong> female.<br />

in action in the first creation story by induction.<br />

In fact we see the trinity<br />

Father God who is the brain behind - the law of the creation - the law giver.<br />

The Spirit of God Ruach hovered over the waters. Ruach is female gender. "It is the Spirit that<br />

gives life" It is from these waters that life emerge. Flesh is of no avail, it gives only shape or form.<br />

Life can exist in a world of mercy where choices are there. They are the result of the uncertainity<br />

principle <strong>and</strong> virtual particles.<br />

The spoken word is later associated with the Logos, the Word, the Son.<br />

This is coding.<br />

The similarity may not be physical. Is it spiritual? Is man a Spirit like father God? Certainly God<br />

is both male <strong>and</strong> female in the dimension of their existence. Where does the male <strong>and</strong> female<br />

God come in otherwise?<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

The only clear direct teaching of God as a family as in the clear statement of Trinity family is found<br />

in Kaballah. When the unknowable god enters into the existence <strong>and</strong> knowable dimension it gives<br />

the first triad as follows<br />

The fear:<br />

(https://www.therefinersfire.org/ruach_hakodesh.htm)<br />

"The thing is, if you look back in history there were cult followings of a She component of YHWH<br />

that was joined with Asherah <strong>and</strong> so I think this is a slippery slope to start calling the Ruach<br />

haKodesh "She" because it divides YHWH into He <strong>and</strong> She elements <strong>and</strong> I believe this is a step<br />

right into paganism." If the Trinity does not violate monotheism, I don’t see how feminine form of<br />

one of the Trinity will change anything except add additional healthy interpretation. Whole universe<br />

in a composite of both male <strong>and</strong> female <strong>and</strong> form one universe within God.<br />

The fact remains that:<br />

"In Hebrew the word for Spirit רוה)‏ ) (ruach) is feminine, which is used in the Hebrew Bible as is<br />

the feminine word "shekhinah" used in rabbinical writings, to indicate the presence of God, In the<br />

Syriac language too, the grammatically feminine word rucha means "spirit",,<br />

Writers in those language , both orthodox <strong>and</strong> Gnostic, used maternal images when speaking of<br />

the Holy Spirit. This imagery is found in the fourth-century theologians Aphrahat <strong>and</strong> Ephraim. It is<br />

found in earlier writings of Syriac Christianity such as the Odes of Solomon <strong>and</strong> in the<br />

early-third-century Gnostic Acts of Thomas.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

The Holy Spirit was depicted as a woman 900<br />

years ago on a chapel ceiling in Bavaria,<br />

Germany. And we know the Holy Spirit in<br />

Hebrew is feminine. But when the Bible got<br />

translated into Greek, the word for holy spirit<br />

became pneuma, a neuter word. Pneuma means spirit, <strong>and</strong> breath Ruach also means spirit <strong>and</strong><br />

breath. (http://northernway.org/presentations/godwife/47.html)<br />

Mother Heart Conference 2013. With Baxter Kruger, Paul Young, Deidre Havrelock, Jack Levison,<br />

<strong>and</strong> Priscilla Pope-Levison. This ground-breaking conference was held in May of 2013. God is<br />

Family ... the book of Genesis tells us that both men <strong>and</strong> women are made in the image <strong>and</strong><br />

likeness of God. Just think about it...Man + Woman = the image of God. Because of this, our<br />

families become beautiful representations of God with father, mother <strong>and</strong> child working together in<br />

the bond of love <strong>and</strong> unity. But if God is the first family, in whose image we have been created,<br />

have you ever wondered...Where is the feminine aspect of God within the trinity?<br />

(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eqvyjtBAGos)<br />

Here are some explanation of Adam as both male <strong>and</strong> female.<br />

’You have formed me before <strong>and</strong> behind’ (Psalms 139:5)…<br />

R. Jeremiah b. Leazar said:<br />

"When the Holy One, blessed be He, created the first ‘adam, He created it with both male <strong>and</strong><br />

female sexual organs, as it is written, ‘Male <strong>and</strong> female He created them, <strong>and</strong> He called their name<br />

‘adam,’ (Genesis 5:2).<br />

R. Samuel b. Nahmani said,<br />

“When the Holy One, blessed be He, created the first ‘adam, He created him with two faces, then<br />

split him <strong>and</strong> made him two backs – a back for each side.” (Genesis Rabbah 8:1)<br />

Some rabbis objected to this interpretation, noting that Genesis 2 says God took one of the man’s<br />

ribs to create the woman. To this, the following explanation is given:<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

“’He took one of his ribs (mi-tzalotav)’… [‘One of his ribs’ means] one of his sides, as you read [in<br />

an analogy from the similar use of the same word elsewhere], ‘And for the other side wall (tzel’a) of<br />

the Tabernacle’ (Exodus 26:20).”<br />

Conjoined Twins<br />

Pin <strong>and</strong> Pan from Thail<strong>and</strong> (female <strong>and</strong> male) <strong>and</strong> Abby <strong>and</strong> Brittany Hensel from America<br />

<strong>and</strong><br />

Adam <strong>and</strong> Eve<br />

God said: "Let US make man [or "Adam,"--it is the same word] in our likeness" <strong>and</strong> the story<br />

proceeds "In the image of God made HE HIM, male <strong>and</strong> female made HE THEM." Note that in the<br />

second clause, man is spoken of as both singular <strong>and</strong> plural. Adam was of both sexes- a<br />

hermaphrodite<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

What the rabbis mean here is that the phrase used to describe woman's creation from man's rib –<br />

mi-tzalotav – actually means an entire side of his body because the word “tzel’a” is used in the book<br />

of Exodus to refer to one side of the holy Tabernacle.<br />

A similar discussion can be found in Leviticus Rabbah 14:1 (Composed in Talmudic Israel/Babylon<br />

(500 CE). Vayikrah Rabbah (The Great Leviticus) is a homiletic midrash to Leviticus.) where R. Levi<br />

states:<br />

“When man was created, he was created with two body-fronts, <strong>and</strong> He [God] sawed him in two, so<br />

that two backs resulted, one back for the male <strong>and</strong> another for the female.”<br />

Primeval man was held by the Babylonians to have been <strong>and</strong>rogynous. Thus the Gilgamesh Epic<br />

gives Enkidu <strong>and</strong>rogynous features: `the hair of his head like a woman's, with locks that sprout like<br />

those of Nisaba, the Grain-goddess.'<br />

The Hebrew tradition evidently derived from Greek sources, because both terms used in a<br />

Tannaitic midrash to describe the bisexual Adam are Greek: <strong>and</strong>rogynos, 'man-woman', <strong>and</strong><br />

diprosopon, 'twofaced'.<br />

Philo of Alex<strong>and</strong>ria, the Hellenistic philosopher <strong>and</strong> commentator on the Bible, contemporary with<br />

Jesus, held that man was at first bisexual; so did the Gnostics.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

Since the word adam is not used previously in the Bible, there is no evidence that this word must<br />

denote a male. Indeed, the explanatory phrase, “male <strong>and</strong> female He created them,” could be read<br />

as clarifying what the nature of this adam actually was.<br />

To this end, a number of rabbinic passages preserve what may have been a popular interpretation<br />

of this passage, which indicates that the first human actually comprised of both genders. Leviticus<br />

Rabbah to Leviticus 12:2, for instance, we read the following<br />

Rabbi Samuel b. Nahman said: "At the time that the Holy One, Blessed Be He created Man, He<br />

created him as an Androgynos."<br />

Resh Lakish said that "at the time that [Adam] was created, he was made with two faces, <strong>and</strong> [God]<br />

sliced him <strong>and</strong> gave him two backs, a female one <strong>and</strong> a male one, as it says And He took from his<br />

sides,[2] as it says, And to the side of the Tabernacle."<br />

R. Berachya <strong>and</strong> R. Chalbo <strong>and</strong> R. Samuel b. Nahman said: At the time that the Holy One, Blessed<br />

be He created man, He created him from one end of the earth until the other, filling the whole world.<br />

He created [Man] from the east to the west. From where do we learn [that man was created from<br />

the east to the west] As it says, You have fashioned me behind <strong>and</strong> of the earth to the other] As it<br />

says And from one edge of the heavens until the other edge of the heavens.[4] And from where do<br />

we learn that before.[5] And from where [do we learn that man was created from one end Adam<br />

filled the space of the whole earth As it says, And lay your h<strong>and</strong> upon me.[6]<br />

R. Samuel b. Nahman’s suggestion has an exegetical basis: The passage in Genesis begins by<br />

referring to adam in the singular, but then says that God created “them” male <strong>and</strong> female. Was it<br />

one being or two? R. Samuel answers by saying that it was one being that had both genders.<br />

Resh Lakish’s suggestion also has exegetical basis. If Genesis 1 records the creation of males <strong>and</strong><br />

females, how is it that Adam in Genesis 2, which immediately follows, has no partner Resh Lakish<br />

answers that Adam did have a partner on his back, but that this was not the ideal way of creating a<br />

male-female couple, <strong>and</strong> so God divided them into two people.<br />

In this way the concept of the <strong>and</strong>rogyne allowed the rabbis to reconcile the two accounts of<br />

Creation.<br />

Another way of reconciliation is that when God created Adam, there indeed was a male <strong>and</strong> female<br />

Adam. The original Adam of Gen. 1 had a wife.<br />

Her name came to be associated with one Lilith. Somehow something happened that Adam was<br />

found alone as we come to the second phase of creation.<br />

What happened is explained off in terms of a divorce.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />



Scholars are not certain where the character of Lilith comes from, though many believe she was<br />

inspired by Sumerian myths about female vampires called “Lillu” or Mesopotamian myths about<br />

succubae (female night demons) called “lilin.” Lilith is mentioned four times in the Babylonian<br />

Talmud, but it is not until the Alphabet of Ben Sira (c. 800s to 900s) that the character of Lilith is<br />

associated with the first version of Creation. In this medieval text, Ben Sira names Lilith as Adam’s<br />

first wife <strong>and</strong> presents a full account of her story.<br />

"When God created the first man Adam alone, God said, “It is not good for man to be alone.” [So]<br />

God created a woman for him, from the earth like him, <strong>and</strong> called her Lilith. They [Adam <strong>and</strong> Lilith]<br />

promptly began to argue with each other: She said, “I will not lie below,” <strong>and</strong> he said, “I will not lie<br />

below, but above, since you are fit for being below <strong>and</strong> I for being above.” She said to him, “The two<br />

of us are equal, since we are both from the earth.” And they would not listen to each other. Since<br />

Lilith saw [how it was], she uttered God's ineffable name <strong>and</strong> flew away into the air. Adam stood in<br />

prayer before his Maker <strong>and</strong> said, “Master of the Universe, the woman you gave me fled from me!”<br />

"The Holy Blessed one immediately dispatched the three angels Sanoy, Sansenoy, <strong>and</strong><br />

Samangelof after her, to bring her back. God said, “If she wants to return, well <strong>and</strong> good. And if not,<br />

she must accept that a hundred of her children will die every day.” The angels pursued her <strong>and</strong><br />

overtook her in the sea, in raging waters, (the same waters in which the Egyptians would one day<br />

drown), <strong>and</strong> told her God's orders. And yet she did not want to return. They told her they would<br />

drown her in the sea, <strong>and</strong> she replied. “Leave me alone! I was only created in order to sicken<br />

babies: if they are boys, from birth to day eight I will have power over them; if they are girls, from<br />

birth to day twenty.” When they heard her reply, they pleaded with her to come back. She swore to<br />

them in the name of the living God that whenever she would see them or their names or their<br />

images on an amulet, she would not overpower that baby, <strong>and</strong> she accepted that a hundred of her<br />

children would die every day. Therefore, a hundred of the demons die every day, <strong>and</strong> therefore, we<br />

write the names [of the three angels] on amulets of young children. When Lilith sees them, she<br />

remembers her oath <strong>and</strong> the child is [protected <strong>and</strong>] healed." Toldot Ben Sira," Nusach 2<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

The evil Lilith is depicted on this ceramic bowl from Mesopotamia. The Aramaic incantation<br />

inscribed on the bowl was intended to protect a man named Quqai <strong>and</strong> his family from assorted<br />

demons. The spell begins: “Removed <strong>and</strong> chased are the curses <strong>and</strong> incantations from Quqai son<br />

of Gushnai, <strong>and</strong> Abi daughter of Nanai <strong>and</strong> from their children.<br />

“Bind Lilith in chains!” reads a warning in Hebrew on this 18th- or 19th-century C.E. amulet from the<br />

Israel Museum intended to protect an infant from the demoness. The image of Lilith appears at<br />

center. The small circles that outline her body represent a chain. The divine name is written in code<br />

(called atbash) down her chest. (The letters yhwh appear instead as mzpz.) Beneath this is a<br />

prayer: “Protect this boy who is a newborn from all harm <strong>and</strong> evil. Amen.” Surrounding the central<br />

image are abbreviated quotations from Numbers 6:22–27 (“The Lord bless you <strong>and</strong> keep you. . .”)<br />

<strong>and</strong> Psalm 121 (“I lift up my eyes to the hills. . .”). According to the apocryphal Alphabet of Ben Sira,<br />

Lilith herself promised she would harm no child who wore an amulet bearing her name. Image:<br />

Israel Museum, Jerusalem.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

Adam clutches a child in the presence of the child-snatcher Lilith<br />

Later legends also characterize her as a beautiful woman who seduces men or copulates with them<br />

in their sleep (a succubus), then spawns demon children. According to some accounts, Lilith is the<br />

Queen of Demons. (References: Kvam, Krisen E. etal. "Eve & Adam: Jewish, Christian, <strong>and</strong> Muslim<br />

Readings on Genesis <strong>and</strong> Gender." Indiana University Press: Bloomington, 1999.)<br />

For 4,000 years Lilith has w<strong>and</strong>ered the earth, figuring in the mythic imaginations of writers, artists<br />

<strong>and</strong> poets. Her dark origins lie in Babylonian demonology, where amulets <strong>and</strong> incantations were<br />

used to counter the sinister powers of this winged spirit who preyed on pregnant women <strong>and</strong> infants.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

Lilith next migrated to the world of the ancient Hittites, Egyptians, Israelites <strong>and</strong> Greeks. She makes<br />

a solitary appearance in the Bible, as a wilderness demon shunned by the prophet Isaiah. In the<br />

Middle Ages she reappears in Jewish sources as the dreadful first wife of Adam.<br />

After leaving Adam her new mate was the archangel Samael<br />

(angel of death <strong>and</strong> seventh heaven) who is sometimes<br />

described as good <strong>and</strong> as evil <strong>and</strong> is very often connected to<br />

Satan <strong>and</strong> the snake.Samael <strong>and</strong> Lilith were born as one, similar<br />

to the form of Adam <strong>and</strong> Eve who were also born as one,<br />

reflecting what is above. This is the account of Lilith which was<br />

received by the Sages in the Secret Knowledge of the Palaces.<br />

The Matron Lilith is the mate of Samael. Both of them were born<br />

at the same hour in the image of Adam <strong>and</strong> Eve, intertwined in<br />

each other. Evil Samael <strong>and</strong> wicked Lilith are like a sexual pair<br />

who, by means of an intermediary, receive an evil <strong>and</strong> wicked<br />

emanation from one <strong>and</strong> emanate to the other …<br />

Adam, Lilith, <strong>and</strong> Eve, c. 1210 C.E., Base oftrumeau, left portal, West Façade,<br />

Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris<br />

Lilith is sometimes also said to be the snake that convinced Eve to eat from the Tree of Knowledge<br />

of Good <strong>and</strong> Evil.<br />

In the Renaissance, Michelangelo portrayed Lilith as a half-woman, half-serpent, coiled around the<br />

Tree of Knowledge. Later, her beauty would captivate the English poet Dante Gabriel Rossetti. “Her<br />

enchanted hair,” he wrote, “was the first gold.” Irish novelist<br />

James Joyce cast her as the “patron of abortions.” Modern<br />

feminists celebrate her bold struggle for independence from Adam.<br />

Her name appears as the title of a Jewish women’s magazine <strong>and</strong><br />

a national literacy program. An annual music festival that donates<br />

its profits to battered women’s shelters <strong>and</strong> breast cancer<br />

research institutes is called the Lilith Fair.<br />

The Encyclopedia of Jewish Myth, Magic <strong>and</strong> Mysticism:<br />

http://www.bitterwaters.com/<br />

"The Case for Lilith: 23 Biblical Evidences Identifying the Serpent<br />

as Adam’s First Failed Wife in Genesis" Mark Wayne Biggs<br />

presents a detailed analysis of the issue from which Rabbinical<br />

tradition base their conclusions on the first wife of Adam.<br />

A Summary of Evidences in the Bible that Support the Existence of Lilith of a woman created before<br />

Eve whom was in rivalry with Adam.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

<br />

There are creation accounts of two women in Genesis.<br />

The first woman is made at the same time as Adam.<br />

The second is created later from Adam’s side.<br />

The creation account of the second woman, Eve, comes in Ge 2:21-25.<br />

Those passages clearly indicate Eve was created from Adam’s side.<br />

The first woman’s creation is told three times, once in Ge 1:26-29, again in Ge 2:4-8, <strong>and</strong> briefly<br />

recapped in Ge 5:1-2.<br />

Ge 1:26-29 (First telling of Adam’s <strong>and</strong> Lilith’s creation)<br />

26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: <strong>and</strong> let them have dominion over the fish of the sea,<br />

<strong>and</strong> over the fowl of the air, <strong>and</strong> over the cattle, <strong>and</strong> over all the earth, <strong>and</strong> over every creeping thing that creepeth upon<br />

the earth.<br />

27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male <strong>and</strong> female created he them.<br />

28 And God blessed them, <strong>and</strong> God said unto them, Be fruitful, <strong>and</strong> multiply, <strong>and</strong> replenish the earth, <strong>and</strong> subdue it:<br />

<strong>and</strong> have dominion over the fish of the sea, <strong>and</strong> over the fowl of the air, <strong>and</strong> over every living thing that moveth upon<br />

the earth.<br />

29 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, <strong>and</strong> every<br />

tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat<br />

Ge 2:4-8 (Second re-telling of Adam’s <strong>and</strong> Lilith’s creation)<br />

4 These are the generations of the heavens <strong>and</strong> of the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God<br />

made the earth <strong>and</strong> the heavens,<br />

5 And every plant of the field before it was in the earth, <strong>and</strong> every herb of the field before it grew: for the LORD God had<br />

not caused it to rain upon the earth, <strong>and</strong> there was not a man to till the ground.<br />

6 But there went up a mist from the earth, <strong>and</strong> watered the whole face of the ground.<br />

7 And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, <strong>and</strong> breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; <strong>and</strong> man<br />

became a living soul.<br />

8 And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in <strong>Eden</strong>; <strong>and</strong> there he put the man whom he had formed<br />

Genesis 5:1-2(A third recap of Adam’s <strong>and</strong> Lilith’s creation)<br />

1 This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made he<br />

him; 2 Male <strong>and</strong> female created he them; <strong>and</strong> blessed them, <strong>and</strong> called their name Adam, in the day when they were<br />

created.<br />

The fourth <strong>and</strong> final creation account comes in Ge 2:16-24. It clearly speaks of Eve’s creation from Adam’s rib some<br />

time after God’s warning to Adam not to eat of the tree of knowledge.<br />

All three accounts imply both Adam <strong>and</strong> this woman were created at the same time using dust<br />

from the ground.<br />

But in the second account we see Adam alone making it clear that the female counterpart is<br />

missing. The tradition confirms that a woman named Adamah (the female form of Adam) was<br />

created along with Adam <strong>and</strong> that her body was watered by a mist.<br />

<br />

The passage start with “the generations of the heavens <strong>and</strong> of the earth” indicating that they<br />

are from different dimensions "heaven" <strong>and</strong> "earth". Adam was made from of the earth, in the<br />

likeness of God <strong>and</strong> was given life by the breath of God. Lilith’s generations would be that of<br />

the heavens, taking after the likeness of the fallen Watchers <strong>and</strong> Lucifer’s animating waters.<br />

After leaving Adam she is said to have joined with Lucifer.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

<br />

<br />

In the first <strong>and</strong> third creation accounts of a man <strong>and</strong> woman in Ge 1:26-29 <strong>and</strong> Ge 5:1-2, the<br />

passages clearly states that when the male <strong>and</strong> female were created, apparently only the male<br />

was created in God’s image. Lilith was created by God, but not in His image, for a demonic<br />

mist arouse from the ground <strong>and</strong> animated her in it’s image instead (Ge 2:6). But Eve bear<br />

God’s image, for she was taken out of Adam’s side.<br />

Conflicting comm<strong>and</strong>s of God to the two women of the creation accounts above further indicate<br />

they must be different individuals.<br />

Gen 1:26-29 God gave freedom to them to eat the fruit of every tree."I give you every<br />

seed-bearing plant on the face of the whole earth <strong>and</strong> every tree that has fruit with seed in it.<br />

They will be yours for food." <strong>Eden</strong> was a walled garden guarded by angels.<br />

Gen 2:15-17 speaks in the aftermath of Lilith leaving Adam. Adam was now moved to the<br />

Garden of <strong>Eden</strong> <strong>and</strong> was given the advise never to eat the fruit of the Tree of the Knowledge of<br />

Good <strong>and</strong> Evil. Eve was taken out of Adam after this. As such Eve was also bound by this<br />

rule.<br />

In Ge 5:2 God gave a single name “Adam” to denote both the female <strong>and</strong> male. This single<br />

name supports a dual simultaneous creation from dust for Adam <strong>and</strong> his first mate. It also<br />

implies that the name of Adam’s first female would be Adamah, as the feminine form of Adam<br />

which means “from the soil”. This supports the word-play in Ge 2:6 which states that the face of<br />

the Adamah (i.e. Lilith) was watered by the mist. This is consistent with the legend of Lilith’s<br />

creation from muck <strong>and</strong> mud.<br />

<br />

Lilith explains why God rescinded permission to eat of every tree; why the tree of knowledge<br />

came to exist; <strong>and</strong> why Adam had to guard the garden.<br />

Lilith explains Adam’s lonely state in Ge 2:18. Adam “became alone” . Lilith explains how<br />

Adam became alone. She also explains the timing of Eve’s creation after Adam’s<br />

unsuccessful search among the beasts of the field (which includes Lilith) for a mate.<br />

Ge 2:16-24 (Telling of Eve’s creation as a replacement)<br />

16 And the LORD God comm<strong>and</strong>ed the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat:<br />

17 But of the tree of the knowledge of good <strong>and</strong> evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou<br />

shalt surely die.<br />

18 And the LORD God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him.<br />

19 And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, <strong>and</strong> every fowl of the air; <strong>and</strong> brought them<br />

unto Adam to see what he would call them: <strong>and</strong> whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name<br />

thereof.<br />

20 And Adam gave names to all cattle, <strong>and</strong> to the fowl of the air, <strong>and</strong> to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was<br />

not found an help meet for him.<br />

21 And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, <strong>and</strong> he slept: <strong>and</strong> he took one of his ribs, <strong>and</strong> closed up<br />

the flesh instead thereof;<br />

22 And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, <strong>and</strong> brought her unto the man.<br />

23 And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, <strong>and</strong> flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was<br />

taken out of Man. 24 Therefore shall a man leave his father <strong>and</strong> his mother, <strong>and</strong> shall cleave unto his wife: <strong>and</strong> they<br />

shall be one flesh<br />

<br />

In Ge 2:18 the literal Hebrew states that Eve was made as a helpmate for Adam “like one<br />

shown before him”. This odd phraseology implies a woman companion was physically shown<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

to Adam before Eve existed. It even implies that Eve was made as a replacement for this first<br />

woman. This is all consistent with Lilith.<br />

After Eve’s creation in Ge 2:23, Adam awakes <strong>and</strong> exclaims upon seeing her, "hapa’am" the<br />

Hebrew term for “this time”,, The point of his comparison is that “this time” the result was<br />

“bone from my bone <strong>and</strong> flesh from my flesh”, as opposed to Lilith’s creation separate from his<br />

body.<br />

The Serpent was not a snake, but rather the most cunning mammal. This is consistent with<br />

the serpent being Lilith.<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

Lilith best explains Leviathan, which is the most famous nachash Serpent of the Bible.<br />

Leviathan is commonly recognized as Lucifer in the form of the Serpent of the garden.<br />

Leviathan is described In Job 26:13 <strong>and</strong> Isa 27:1 as a winged Serpent fleeing from before God<br />

<strong>and</strong> dwelling in the seas. This matches Lilith’s legend of fleeing on wing from the garden <strong>and</strong><br />

her subsequent oceanic abode. 1 Enoch confirms that Leviathan dwells in the seas, <strong>and</strong> adds<br />

that Leviathan is female. This again matches Lilith. Psalm 74:14 speaks of God crushing the<br />

heads of Leviathan. This matches God’s curse on the Serpent in Genesis that Eve’s seed in<br />

the form of Messiah would crush the head of the Serpent.<br />

Job 26:13 implies the Serpent Leviathan’s creation was analogous to that of Adam – that it was<br />

fashioned by God through twisting <strong>and</strong> manipulating of earth into a golem. This similar<br />

creation supports the notion that the Serpent was created at the same time as Adam <strong>and</strong> in a<br />

similar fashion. This is consistent with the Serpent being the first woman, Lilith, created from<br />

dust of the earth.<br />

The curses h<strong>and</strong>ed out to the Serpent <strong>and</strong> to Eve in Ge 3:14-16 are the same as those of the<br />

bitter water trial for the wayward adulterous wife in Nu 5:10-31. The Serpent’s curses match<br />

those of the adulterous wife, <strong>and</strong> Eve’s curse in childbirth matches that experienced by the<br />

innocent woman of the trial. The Serpent, in the role of the defiled Sotah, eats dust <strong>and</strong> is<br />

cursed in her belly, <strong>and</strong> she shall be slain by the promised seed of the innocent woman. Eve,<br />

as the innocent woman in the trial, shall temporarily endure the curse of pain in childbirth, but<br />

she shall be saved by her seed. This strong parallelism further solidifies the identification of<br />

the Serpent as an adulterous female whom has gone astray from under her husb<strong>and</strong>, Adam.<br />

Isa 34 describes a demon named “Lilith” as a deadly birdlike creature with wings <strong>and</strong> as the<br />

slayer of stray younglings. A snake makes a nest with Lilith <strong>and</strong> is innately fused with her,<br />

such that the two are considered one being. She dwells in the midst of the sea <strong>and</strong> shares her<br />

abode with certain angels cast out of heaven. In a day of cursing <strong>and</strong> judgment, the waters of<br />

her abode whither such that streams of water become molten tar, <strong>and</strong> the dust of the earth<br />

becomes burning brimstone. Isaiah’s entire description of Lilith matches her legend. The<br />

withering waters <strong>and</strong> fiery curses mirror a bitter water curse, with which the spirit of Lilith is<br />

associated.<br />

Lilith in the Zohar<br />

Outside of the Bible, the most important source of information on Lilith is found the Zohar. The<br />

Zohar is essentially a Kabalistic Midrash (collection of Kabalistic commentaries) on the Torah. As<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

such, the Zohar is the most important work of Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism), largely defining<br />

Kabalistic beliefs. The Zohar consists of twenty-two volumes penned around 1200 CE in Spain by<br />

rabbi Moses de Leon. However, long before he codified the Zohar on that date, many of its<br />

Midrashes doubtlessly had a long oral tradition. It has been surmised that the roots of its oral<br />

tradition may expend all the way back to rabbi Simeon bar Yohai in the early Talmudic period (70<br />

CE).<br />

Lilith plays a surprisingly large role in the Zohar, <strong>and</strong> thus in Kabbalah. The Zohar mentions her<br />

by name in 27 separate passages <strong>and</strong> by direct reference in a further 29, for a total of 56 direct<br />

references. She is referenced indirectly several times more. The Zohar supports all the<br />

fundamental elements of Lilith’s legend.<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

It holds she was created at the same time as Adam from the dust of the earth.<br />

She was animated by spirits that rose up out of the ground.<br />

She was an unsuitable helpmeet for Adam <strong>and</strong> fled from him.<br />

She was the serpent who tempted Eve.<br />

The Zohar holds that Lilith <strong>and</strong> Samael ( i.e. Satan) were one being much the same how Adam<br />

<strong>and</strong> Eve were one being.<br />

The Zohar even elevates Lilith as a counterpart to the mystical Matronit, or the female aspect of<br />

Jehovah’s Shekhina (i.e. Holy Spirit). In this respect, Lilith is the ultimate demon or<br />

manifestation of Satan.<br />

Lilith’s Origins According to the Zohar<br />

Perhaps the most important passage on Lilith’s origins in the Zohar comes in Zohar 1:19b (Bereshit:<br />

Passages 98-102). The passages explain that Lilith’s body was created just like Adam’s from the<br />

dust of earth. However, her body came to host the defective animating spark of life that was of<br />

Samael, whereas Adam’s body came to host the animating spark of Jehovah’s perfect light.<br />

In this image, the human being exists in this world with an inner part <strong>and</strong> an outer kilpah, which<br />

corresponds to a spirit <strong>and</strong> a body.<br />

The closing passage of Zohar 1:19b also established this link between Lilith <strong>and</strong> the defective light.<br />

It states her power to slay children increases when the moon’s light wanes <strong>and</strong> is defective.<br />

Lilith’s separating shell hosting the defective light of Samael is in apparent reference to the Genesis<br />

event where the mist broke through the ground <strong>and</strong> watered the face of Adamah.<br />

Zohar 1:19b notes that when the defective light entered creation, the curse of diphtheria for children<br />

was created. The Zohar closely links diphtheria to Lilith. Zohar 2:264b states the Lilith strikes<br />

children with this disease, <strong>and</strong> Zohar 2:267b relate that Lilith <strong>and</strong> Diphtheria are two distinct but<br />

kindred spirits. The Zohar may have selected the disease of Diphtheria as emblematic of Lilith<br />

because of its unusual traits. Diphtheria is an upper respiratory illness caused by a bacteria. It<br />

symptoms include a swollen throat <strong>and</strong> “bull neck”, <strong>and</strong> an adherent membrane that grows on the<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

tonsils, pharynx, <strong>and</strong>/or nasal cavity. This membrane is a leathery, sheath-like skin. Victims died<br />

of suffocation when the leathery membrane growths closed their air passages.<br />

317. At that time, a cloud descended <strong>and</strong> pushed aside all the spirits (which surrounded<br />

Adam). … We learn of Lilith’s intrinsically fused nature with Samael in Zohar 1:148a-148b<br />

(Vayetze: Passage 23). There she is called the “female of Samael,” whom is Lucifer. She <strong>and</strong><br />

Samael, female <strong>and</strong> male are one, just like Adam <strong>and</strong> Eve were one before she was taken from him.<br />

A footnote to the passages further explains, “Samael is like the soul <strong>and</strong> Lilith like the body.<br />

Lilith in the Talmud<br />

There are five painfully brief references to Lilith in the Talmud (Circa 400 CE). All are incidental<br />

references that pop up during the discussion of other topics. This imply that she was a well known<br />

figure that needed no explanation. The original Talmudic passages describe Lilith as existing at<br />

the time of Adam’s fall; as siring demon seed from Adam by stealing his semen at night while he<br />

slept; as having long hair; as having wings, <strong>and</strong> as bringing defilement upon women in childbirth.<br />

Later rabbis added explanatory footnotes to the original passages. Apparently, with the loss of the<br />

Temple <strong>and</strong> the scattering of the Jews, knowledge of Lilith decreased over time. Ironically, it was<br />

the purpose of the Talmud to preserve ancient knowledge, yet some of the Talmud’s presumed<br />

knowledge on Lilith was apparently also being lost. Later rabbis added footnotes that identified<br />

Lilith as a female night demon “reputed” to have wings <strong>and</strong> a human face. It is clear from the<br />

footnotes that the later rabbis did not know precisely who Lilith was.<br />

Lilith in The Testament of Solomon (Circa 200-600 CE)<br />

There is an interesting reference to Lilith in The Testament of Solomon. This book is doubtlessly<br />

apocryphal, <strong>and</strong> it’s the estimates for its date of writing varies anywhere between 200 to 600 CE.<br />

However, it serves to illustrate the common Lilith legends of the time. In the book Lilith (who goes<br />

by the alias Obizuth) is portrayed as a demon who strangles unprotected children in childbirth.<br />

More importantly, Solomon strips away her power, at least in part, by forcibly binding her hair.<br />

She was then hung in front of the Temple for all to see <strong>and</strong> to be an abject lesson to the children of<br />

Israel. This tale shares interesting facets with the Sotah trial. It seems apparent that the writer of<br />

the Testament was using elements of the bitter water trial for his story. In the Sotah trial the hair of<br />

the woman was unloosed, the writer of Testament apparently saw this as unloosing of the<br />

adulterous spirit within her, so that if she were guilty the demonic Lilith spirit might take hold <strong>and</strong><br />

work its curses. In Solomon, Lilith was made a spectacle at the Temple in plain view of all the<br />

public, much like the defiled Sotah was made a spectacle at the Temple in view of all.<br />

Lilith in The Alphabet of Ben Sira<br />

Unfortunately, a discussion on Lilith is not complete with addressing the Alphabet of Ben Sira.<br />

This farcical book has done much to corrupt the modern underst<strong>and</strong>ing of the ancient Lilith myth.<br />

The problem apparently began when modern readers began to consider the irreverent Alphabet as<br />

a serious work. The Alphabet is an irreverent book, anonymously written sometime around the<br />

ninth century CE.<br />

Timeline of Events in the Garden According to Biblical Evidences<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

When Adam was created as a golem from dust, both a male <strong>and</strong> female were created at that time<br />

(Ge 1:27, 2:6-7, 5:2, Job 26:13). This female (whom is Lilith) was nominally named Adamah at<br />

her creation (Ge 5:2).<br />

Adamah was created from the soil at the same time as Adam, but whereas Adam was created from<br />

dry dust <strong>and</strong> animated by the breath of Jehovah, Adamah was created from wet soil <strong>and</strong> animated<br />

by a Satanic mist that broke through the ground <strong>and</strong> watered Adamah’s prepared body. This<br />

preemptive mist animated her in the image of Lucifer’s spirit instead of God’s (Ge 2:6). This<br />

ruined Adamah for God’s purpose of having her be a suitable helpmeet for Adam, being created<br />

from undefiled dust <strong>and</strong> the breath of God.<br />

Adamah was not fully human, but was rather considered the supreme beast of the field, that is an<br />

animal (Ge 3:1). This was because she was not created in the image of God like Adam (Ge 1:27).<br />

Rather, she was animated of Lucifer <strong>and</strong> bore his image. The Genesis text insinuates that the<br />

female Adamah had come to curse the earth, whereas the male Adam had come to bring<br />

remembrance of Jehovah’s inheritance to the earth (Ge 1:27).<br />

It flatly states that with the creation of this male <strong>and</strong> female two rival generations were being<br />

established – one the generations of the heavens <strong>and</strong> the other the generations of the earth (Ge<br />

2:4-7). The generations of the heavens would be those of Adam (<strong>and</strong> Eve) animated by the<br />

breath of Jehovah <strong>and</strong> imbued with his image. The generations of the earth would be those of<br />

Adamah <strong>and</strong> the Satanic spirits of the mist which animated her. These spirits of the mist, the<br />

source of complaining voices of the field, came to exist in the earth after God’s initial creation of<br />

Earth, but before Adam’s creation. They came to exist after God rained these spirits down upon<br />

the earth as a curse. This refers to God’s casting down of Lucifer <strong>and</strong> his host to the earth after<br />

Lucifer’s failed rebellion.<br />

Despite Adamah’s flawed creation, God blessed both her <strong>and</strong> Adam <strong>and</strong> comm<strong>and</strong>ed them to fill<br />

the earth (Ge 1:28).* God also granted them permission at this time to eat of every tree (Ge<br />

1:29).<br />

God then planted the garden of <strong>Eden</strong> <strong>and</strong> placed Adam there (Ge 2:8).<br />

After Adam was placed in the garden, the tree of knowledge of good <strong>and</strong> evil <strong>and</strong> the tree of life<br />

came to exist (Ge 2:9).<br />

Also a river of water began to flow from <strong>Eden</strong> to water the garden (Ge 2:10-14).<br />

At this point, if not already before, something must have happened. God then caused Adam to<br />

rest (to be free of troubles) in the garden <strong>and</strong> comm<strong>and</strong>ed him to tend it <strong>and</strong> “guard” it (Ge 2: 15).<br />

God also warned Adam that he may no longer eat of every tree. Upon pain of death he was<br />

forbidden to eat of the tree of knowledge (Ge 2:16-17). It is apparent that something had<br />

transpired to cause this new comm<strong>and</strong>. Also, the comm<strong>and</strong> to guard the garden implied there<br />

was a threat against it. These new comm<strong>and</strong>s may reflect new circumstances following Adamah’s<br />

rebellion. This notion is supported in the very next verse which relates that at some point Adamah<br />

had separated from Adam, for Adam “had become alone”<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

At this point God declared that was not good that Adam had become alone, <strong>and</strong> that he would<br />

create another helpmeet for Adam like one previously shown unto him (Ge 2:18). This previous<br />

one refers to Adamah.<br />

However, Adam may not have entirely given up on Adamah yet, because God then brought to<br />

Adam all the beasts of the field, including Adamah, so that Adam might name them, thereby<br />

providing his judgement of their character (their names reflected their characteristics <strong>and</strong> traits) <strong>and</strong><br />

demonstrating his authority over them. Adamah came <strong>and</strong> was judged <strong>and</strong> named by Adam.<br />

This is known because all the beasts of field did thusly (Ge 2:19-20), <strong>and</strong> Adamah is deemed a<br />

beast of the field (Ge 3:1). Adam may have given Adamah the name<br />

No suitable mate was found for him (Ge 2:20).<br />

Adam.<br />

Thus Adamah was judged <strong>and</strong> found unsuitable for<br />

After Eve’s creation Adamah re- emerges in the story under the title of the Serpent (Ge 3:1). At<br />

some point she must have sprouted wings <strong>and</strong> transformed into the Serpent fleeing before God.<br />

This again confirms another aspect of the Lilith legend – that she sprouted wings <strong>and</strong> fled from<br />

before God <strong>and</strong> Adam.<br />

The Serpent deceived Eve into sinning by eating of the forbidden tree (Ge 3:1-6).<br />

When Adam saw the fallen state of Eve, he was not deceived (1 Timothy 2:14), but rather<br />

voluntarily joined her, apparently out of love, lest he be alone again. Adam himself prophesized<br />

this in Ge 2:24 when he stated that he would forsake God his father in order to cling unto Eve. By<br />

eating of the tree Adam forsake God <strong>and</strong> joined Eve, fulfilling the prophesy. Also, some Sages<br />

have noted that when Adam explains to Jehovah that Eve gave him of the fruit <strong>and</strong> v’akal (I ate –<br />

lka:w), the verb is in the present future tense. It was as if Adam was saying, “I have eaten <strong>and</strong> will<br />

eat again”, given the same circumstances. Another interesting line of thought is that Adam had<br />

little choice in joining Eve. He had made a vow in Ge 2:24 that their flesh was one. Thus, when<br />

Eve ate <strong>and</strong> suffered the curse of the fruit, it was almost as if Adam ate <strong>and</strong> suffered the curse in<br />

the same instant. They were one flesh.<br />

Eve <strong>and</strong> the Serpent were judged <strong>and</strong> cursed according to the bitter water rituals of the Sotah trial<br />

laid out in Nu 5:10-31. Like the defiled adulteress, the Serpent is forced to eat dust, is cursed in<br />

her belly, <strong>and</strong> is told that her seed shall wound the innocent woman’s promised seed, but that the<br />

revived promised seed shall slay the Serpent’s seed <strong>and</strong> the Serpent herself. Likewise, Eve is<br />

cursed according to the innocent woman of the trial. She shall bear seed in sorrow <strong>and</strong> pain, but<br />

shall be saved in her child bearing (1 Timothy 2:15), just as the innocent woman of the trial initially<br />

suffered the curses before having them removed by her promised seed.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

(http://www.bitterwaters.com)<br />

(https://www.thoughtco.com/lilith-traditions-<strong>and</strong>-history)<br />


PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

were made of gold; on the day you were created they were prepared. You were anointed as a<br />

guardian cherub, for so I ordained you. You were on the holy mount of God; you walked among the<br />

fiery stones. You were blameless in your ways from the day you were created till wickedness was<br />

found in you.<br />

What happened to this Adam who was create by God on the sixth day?<br />


This statement seems to indicate that the one who was in <strong>Eden</strong> the garden of God was became<br />

wicked <strong>and</strong> was turned out. The possibility that the first Adam joined his wife Lilith <strong>and</strong> produced<br />

countless demons seems to indicate that God decided to create the specific second Adam<br />

(ha-Adam) within <strong>Eden</strong>. If the first Adam was created by word of God <strong>and</strong> not from earth, this is<br />

justified. We are not specifically told how the first Adam was created. Here is the verse:<br />

Gen 1: 26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: <strong>and</strong> let them have<br />

dominion over the fish of the sea, <strong>and</strong> over the fowl of the air, <strong>and</strong> over the cattle, <strong>and</strong> over all the<br />

earth, <strong>and</strong> over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.27 So God created man in his<br />

own image, in the image of God created he him; male <strong>and</strong> female created he them.<br />

28 And God blessed them, <strong>and</strong> God said unto them, Be fruitful, <strong>and</strong> multiply, <strong>and</strong> replenish the<br />

earth, <strong>and</strong> subdue it: <strong>and</strong> have dominion over the fish of the sea, <strong>and</strong> over the fowl of the air, <strong>and</strong><br />

over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.<br />

This Adam was created in the image of God, both male <strong>and</strong> femalewith the total freedom of choice<br />

as one of the sons of God. In that case, he already had immortality - he must have eaten the fruit of<br />

the Tree of life while in the Garden. Or did he die since the wages of sin is death?<br />

The Mishna tells us that he was also seduced by succubae, generating demonic offspring (Eruv.<br />

18b; Gen. R. 20:11; PdRE 20).<br />

In the second Adam we are specifically told how he was produced. Only Adam was made not as<br />

Male <strong>and</strong> Female but as an <strong>and</strong>rogynous. God took care that he had his female part wihin Adam<br />

himself to make any conflict between them <strong>and</strong> to produce unity within them.<br />

Gen 2: 7 And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, <strong>and</strong> breathed into his nostrils the<br />

breath of life; <strong>and</strong> man became a living soul.<br />

This is certainly one of the ways of solving the problem.<br />

has thought about this possibility of two <strong>Adams</strong>.<br />

I have not come across any other who<br />

It was then that God separated the Garden in <strong>Eden</strong> by a wall to protect Adam.<br />

Gen 2:8 And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in <strong>Eden</strong>; <strong>and</strong> there he put the man whom he<br />

had formed.<br />

This was indeed an earthly garden <strong>and</strong> was accessible to spiritual beings through the spiritual<br />

realms.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

There are other, simpler ways to solve the contradiction. For example, Rashi, Rashbam <strong>and</strong> Radak<br />

all assume that Gen. 1:26-27 was meant as a general statement <strong>and</strong> that Gen. 2 fills the reader in<br />

with the details—a case of klal ufrat—a generality followed by specific detail.<br />

Actually Jesus citation (Matthew 19:3–6 <strong>and</strong> Mark 10:6–9) which evidently can only refer to the<br />

physical ha-Adam whose progeny alone continued on earth. At the time after the creation Adam<br />

<strong>and</strong> Eve they were made male <strong>and</strong> female. Jesus does not mention the "made in the image of<br />

God" part in either quotes that uniquely identify the first creation of mankind.<br />

Mat. 19:3 And Pharisees came up to him <strong>and</strong> tested him by asking, s“Is it lawful to divorce one’s wife for any<br />

cause?” 4 He answered, “Have you not read that he who created them from the beginning made them male<br />

<strong>and</strong> female, 5 <strong>and</strong> said, ‘Therefore a man shall leave his father <strong>and</strong> his mother <strong>and</strong> hold fast to his wife, <strong>and</strong><br />

the two shall become one flesh’? 6 So they are no longer two but one flesh. What therefore God has joined<br />

together, let not man separate.”<br />

Mark 10:6 But from the beginning of creation, ‘God made them male <strong>and</strong> female.’ 7 ‘Therefore a man shall<br />

leave his father <strong>and</strong> mother <strong>and</strong> hold fast to his wife,1 8 <strong>and</strong> the two shall become one flesh.’ So they are no<br />

longer two but one flesh. 9 What therefore God has joined together, let not man separate.”<br />

According to Aristophanes, there were three original genders, each globular in shape <strong>and</strong><br />

four-footed: an all-male form, an all-female form, <strong>and</strong> a form that included both sexes. These<br />

humans were so large <strong>and</strong> powerful that they considered ascending into the sky to attack the gods.<br />

Because the strength <strong>and</strong> intelligence of these forms threatened the gods’ authority, Zeus <strong>and</strong> his<br />

divine cohorts split each of these forms into two halves.<br />

Third gender or third sex is a concept in which individuals are categorized, either by themselves or<br />

by society, as neither man nor woman. It is also a social category present in societies that<br />

recognize three or more genders. The term third is usually understood to mean "other"; some<br />

anthropologists <strong>and</strong> sociologists have described fourth,] fifth, <strong>and</strong> "some" genders. Biology<br />

determines whether a human's chromosomal <strong>and</strong> anatomical sex is male, female, or one of the<br />

uncommon variations on this sexual dimorphism that can create a degree of ambiguity known as<br />

intersex. However, the state of personally identifying as, or being identified by society as, a man, a<br />

woman, or other, is usually also defined by the individual's gender identity <strong>and</strong> gender role in the<br />

particular culture in which they live. Not all cultures have strictly defined gender roles.<br />

In different cultures, a third or fourth gender may represent very different things. To the Indigenous<br />

Māhū of Hawaii, it is an intermediate state between man <strong>and</strong> woman, or to be a "person of<br />

indeterminate gender". The traditional Dineh of the Southwestern US acknowledge four genders:<br />

feminine woman, masculine woman, feminine man, masculine man. The term "third gender" has<br />

also been used to describe hijras of India, Bangladesh <strong>and</strong> Pakistan ] who have gained legal<br />

identity, fa'afafine of Polynesia, <strong>and</strong> sworn virgins of the Balkans<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

Hijras of India.<br />

Was Adam a Hijra?<br />

In addition, the other strange midrashic tradition regarding the original man, that he was a giant<br />

stretching from one side of the world to another, makes sense when read in light of Plato. The end<br />

of the passage in Leviticus Rabbah cited above, which states that the image of the original man<br />

stretched from one world to the other, strikingly parallels Aristophanes’ description of the original<br />

humans who planned to attack the gods.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />



The Garden of <strong>Eden</strong> (Hebrew גַּן עֵדֶ‏ Gan <strong>Eden</strong>) or (often) Paradise, is the biblical "garden of God",<br />

described most notably in the Book of Genesis chapters 2 <strong>and</strong> 3, <strong>and</strong> also in the Book of Ezekiel.<br />

Genesis 13:10 refers to the "garden of God" (not called <strong>Eden</strong> by name) <strong>and</strong> the "trees of the<br />

garden" are mentioned in Ezekiel 31. The Book of Zechariah <strong>and</strong> the Book of Psalms also refer to<br />

trees <strong>and</strong> water in relation to the temple without explicitly mentioning <strong>Eden</strong>.<br />

The word ‘<strong>Eden</strong>’ is defined by Strong’s dictionary as:<br />

5731 ‘<strong>Eden</strong>, ay’-den; (masc.); <strong>Eden</strong>, the region of Adam’s home<br />

5730 ‘eden, ay’-den; (fem.) `ednah, ed-naw’; delicate, delight, pleasure.<br />

Genesis 2:8-10 Now YHVH Elohim had planted a garden in the east, in <strong>Eden</strong>; <strong>and</strong> there he put the<br />

man he had formed. And YHVH Elohim made all kinds of trees grow out of the ground--trees that<br />

were pleasing to the eye <strong>and</strong> good for food. In the middle of the garden were the tree of life <strong>and</strong> the<br />

tree of the knowledge of good <strong>and</strong> evil. A river watering the garden flowed from <strong>Eden</strong>; from there it<br />

was separated into four headwaters.<br />

The second part of the Genesis creation narrative in Genesis, opens with YHWH Elohim creating<br />

the first man (Adam), whom he placed in a garden that he planted "eastward in <strong>Eden</strong>". And<br />

out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, <strong>and</strong> good for<br />

food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, <strong>and</strong> the tree of knowledge of good <strong>and</strong> evil.<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

Traditionally, scholars favored deriving the name "<strong>Eden</strong>" from the Akkadian edinnu, derived<br />

from a Sumerian word edin meaning "plain" or "steppe".<br />

<strong>Eden</strong> is now believed to be more closely related to an Aramaic root word meaning "fruitful,<br />

well-watered."<br />

Another interpretation associates the name "<strong>Eden</strong>" with a Hebrew word for "pleasure"; thus the<br />

Douay-Rheims Bible in Genesis 2:8 has the wording "And the Lord God had planted a<br />

paradise of pleasure" (rather than "a garden in <strong>Eden</strong>"). The Hebrew term is translated<br />

"pleasure" as in Sarah's secret saying in Genesis 18:12.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

<br />

<br />

Mesopotamian myth of a king, as a primordial man, who is placed in a divine garden to guard<br />

the Tree of life.<br />

<strong>Eden</strong> <strong>and</strong> its rivers may signify the real Jerusalem, the Temple of Solomon, or the Promised<br />

L<strong>and</strong>.<br />

<br />

It may also represent the divine garden on Zion, <strong>and</strong> the mountain of God, which was also<br />

Jerusalem. The imagery of the Garden, with its serpent <strong>and</strong> cherubim, has been compared<br />

the images of the Solomonic Temple with its copper serpent (the nehushtan) <strong>and</strong><br />

guardian cherubs.<br />

to<br />

From this passage we learn that the garden was planted by YHVH of Elohim in the l<strong>and</strong> of <strong>Eden</strong>.<br />

<strong>Eden</strong> itself describe the area inside of which YHVH built a walled garden with gates for Adam <strong>and</strong><br />

Eve. The garden was watered by a river which flowed from <strong>Eden</strong>. The Talmud indicates that all<br />

of the water in the world originated in <strong>Eden</strong>.<br />

The old Iranian language Avestan had a noun pairidaēza-, "a wall enclosing a garden or orchard,"<br />

which is composed of pairi-, "around," <strong>and</strong> daēza- "wall." The adverb <strong>and</strong> preposition pairi is related<br />

to the equivalent Greek form peri, as in perimeter. Daēza- comes from the Indo-European root<br />

*dheigh-, "to mold, form, shape." Zoroastrian religion encouraged maintaining arbors, orchards,<br />

<strong>and</strong> gardens, <strong>and</strong> even the kings of austere Sparta were edified by seeing the Great King of Persia<br />

planting <strong>and</strong> maintaining his own trees in his own garden. Xenophon, a Greek mercenary soldier<br />

who spent some time in the Persian army <strong>and</strong> later wrote histories, recorded the pairidaēzasurrounding<br />

the orchard as paradeisos, using it not to refer to the wall itself but to the huge parks<br />

that Persian nobles loved to build <strong>and</strong> hunt in. This Greek word was used in the Septuagint<br />

translation of Genesis to refer to the Garden of <strong>Eden</strong>, whence Old English eventually borrowed it<br />

around 1200.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

There are several suggestions as to the original l<strong>and</strong> called <strong>Eden</strong> <strong>and</strong> the location of the garden.<br />

=======================><br />

http://www.ancient-origins.net/human-origins-religions/do-four-rivers-lead-us-garden-eden-008971<br />

Robert McRoberts gives a detailed account of one of the possible place following the clues based<br />

on the description of the Bible leading to a place in the lost city of Akad.<br />

Here are his reasons:<br />

10 And a river went out of <strong>Eden</strong> to water the garden; <strong>and</strong> from thence it was parted, <strong>and</strong> became four heads.<br />

This simply gives the picture of one river from <strong>Eden</strong> flowing out <strong>and</strong> joining four separate rivers. The<br />

description is supposed to help us locate the garden.<br />

In verse 10, the ancient Hebrew word used is nahar which generally refers to a large river like the<br />

Nile or Euphrates, but it can also mean the sea.<br />

11 The name of the first is Pishon; that is it which compasseth the whole l<strong>and</strong> of Havilah, where there is gold;<br />

The name Pishon comes from the root puwsh, which means to grow fat, spread out, or be scattered.<br />

If a traveler went south on the Tigris this is exactly the condition they would find as the river gives<br />

way to marshl<strong>and</strong>.<br />

12 <strong>and</strong> the gold of that l<strong>and</strong> is good; there is bdellium <strong>and</strong> the onyx stone.<br />

Following the river into the sea <strong>and</strong> continuing along its eastern bank will take a traveler around the<br />

harsh deserts of southern Iran <strong>and</strong> Pakistan. Indeed the word Havilah can be traced to the root<br />

chuwl which means circular, to twist or whirl, or writhe in pain <strong>and</strong> the root chowl which means<br />

s<strong>and</strong>.<br />

The identification of Havilah as a source for bdellium, a resin for incense making, <strong>and</strong> onyx further<br />

points to Iran <strong>and</strong> Pakistan. The Greek writer Theophrastus, <strong>and</strong> Pliny the Elder both identified<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

areas in Afghanistan as the source of bdellium <strong>and</strong> even today Pakistan is one of the few suppliers<br />

of Onyx.<br />

13 And the name of the second river is Gihon; the same is it that compasseth the whole l<strong>and</strong> of Cush.<br />

Gihon comes from the root giyach, which means to gush forth. This may well have described how<br />

an ancient traveler would experience the mighty Euphrates as it finally emptied into the Persian<br />

Gulf. By following the western bank of this course the traveler would eventually find themselves<br />

rounding the Arabian peninsula <strong>and</strong> encountering Africa wherein lies the expected l<strong>and</strong> of Cush,<br />

ancient Ethiopia.<br />

14 And the name of the third river is Tigris; that is it which goeth toward the east of Asshur. And the fourth river is the<br />

Euphrates.<br />

Modern maps still show how the Tigris River follows the eastern flank of the l<strong>and</strong> known as Assyria<br />

by the Greeks <strong>and</strong> Ashur by its inhabitants. The Euphrates was presumably so well known that it<br />

needed no appellation. This leaves us with four rivers that are joined by canals forming a large<br />

x-shaped river network.<br />

So where does this place the garden? If we look for a river that flows out of the steppe <strong>and</strong> enters<br />

near the joint course of the Tigris <strong>and</strong> Euphrates rivers the eye cannot help but be drawn to the<br />

Diyala River in eastern Iraq. Even today Iraq’s Diyala Province is known for its oranges <strong>and</strong> boasts<br />

one of the largest olive groves in the region.<br />

15 And the LORD God took the man, <strong>and</strong> put him into the garden of <strong>Eden</strong> to dress it <strong>and</strong> to keep it.<br />

The introduction of man into the garden to “dress <strong>and</strong> keep” further reveals the language of<br />

commerce. The term “dress” is abad in Hebrew. Abad means to serve as a laborer or in this case<br />

perhaps as a husb<strong>and</strong>man. This meaning is reinforced by the word “keep” which in the ancient text<br />

is shamar, a word that means to st<strong>and</strong> guard over.<br />

The records from ancient Iraq are replete with contractual arrangements between l<strong>and</strong>lords who<br />

owned large herds <strong>and</strong> groves <strong>and</strong> the shepherds <strong>and</strong> guardsmen who tended their flocks <strong>and</strong><br />

foodstuffs as specialized laborers. The advent of large scale animal husb<strong>and</strong>ry <strong>and</strong> irrigated<br />

agriculture together with the connection to the world by vast trade networks is part of the legacy of<br />

Mesopotamia. Fenced in groves <strong>and</strong> secure animal pens would have been commonplace <strong>and</strong> well<br />

known in Babylonia at the time of the Hebrew Captivity when it is possible the Genesis accounts<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

were written. During this time Akkad <strong>and</strong> the Akkadian Empire would have been remembered in<br />

legends of a golden age that ended due to the sins of its rulers."<br />


PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

Research.<br />

Juris Zarins (born 1945, in Germany) is an<br />

American-Latvian archaeologist <strong>and</strong><br />

professor at Missouri State University, who<br />

specializes in the Middle East. In 1983, Juris<br />

Zarins proposed the head of the Persian Gulf<br />

as the location for <strong>Eden</strong>. where the Tigris <strong>and</strong><br />

Euphrates Rivers run into the sea, from his<br />

research on this area using information from<br />

many different sources, including LANDSAT<br />

images from space. In this theory, the Bible’s<br />

Gihon River would correspond with the Karun<br />

River in Iran, <strong>and</strong> the Pishon River would<br />

correspond to the Wadi Batin river system<br />

that once drained the now dry, but once quite<br />

fertile central part of the Arabian Peninsula.<br />

His suggestion about the Pishon River is<br />

supported by James A. Sauer (1945–1999)<br />

formerly of the American Center of Oriental<br />

Places associated with <strong>Eden</strong> by various<br />

scholars in Middle East.<br />

Here is a map which locates the possible<br />

positions of the Garden of <strong>Eden</strong> as the scholars<br />

tried to locate this long lost paradise.<br />

Here are some maps which I have collected<br />

from the internet just to show how people have<br />

been searching for the lost<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

<strong>Eden</strong> in America.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

<strong>Eden</strong> in China<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

There are many other placed suggested by biblical scholars.<br />

Here is a map that locates a few.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

For details see: http://www.biblemysteries.com/library/edens.htm " In Search of <strong>Eden</strong>" - D Laing<br />

also http://www.ldolphin.org/eden/<br />

http://bigthink.com/strange-maps/583-east-is-eden-adam-<strong>and</strong>-eves-chinese-garden<br />

http://www.toptenz.net/10-possible-locations-for-the-garden-of-eden.php<br />

Genesis describes both the Tigris <strong>and</strong> Euphrates as originating in the Garden of <strong>Eden</strong>. One<br />

argument against placing <strong>Eden</strong> in that area is that the flood, in Noah’s day might have removed all<br />

traces of the rivers associated with <strong>Eden</strong>, in Genesis. There is no reason to believe that the Tigris<br />

<strong>and</strong> Euphrates rivers are the same as the post diluvian rivers by those same names.<br />

If the Garden of <strong>Eden</strong> had really been near the sources of the Tigris <strong>and</strong> the Euphrates, then the<br />

geographic location would be generally in the region of the Taurus Mountains of Anatolia (in today's<br />

Turkey).<br />

As seen above most people assume that the garden of <strong>Eden</strong> was located somewhere near the<br />

Persian Gulf. It could be the isl<strong>and</strong> Dilmun (now Bahrain). One recent claim by archaeologist<br />

David Rohl puts the Garden of <strong>Eden</strong> in northwestern Iran, in a river valley east of Sah<strong>and</strong> Mountain,<br />

near Tabriz.<br />

Others points out places in Africa. Many speculations as to an African location stem from the<br />

scientific evidence that human life is believed to have originated there. A passage in the Talmud<br />

points to the interior of Africa as a possible location of <strong>Eden</strong> (Tamid 32b). Alex<strong>and</strong>er the Great is<br />

supposed to have found the entrance of the Garden in Africa which are governed exclusively by<br />

women.<br />

The Garden of <strong>Eden</strong><br />

from the fifteenth century illustrated manuscript<br />

the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry<br />

A walled Garden<br />

Others point to Java isl<strong>and</strong>s, Mohen Jodero-Harappa of Indus Valley (now in Pakistan on Indus<br />

River), the isl<strong>and</strong> of Sri Lanka, the Seychelles, <strong>and</strong> Sundal<strong>and</strong> in the South China Sea There<br />

have been attempts to tie the location of <strong>Eden</strong> with the mystical sunken l<strong>and</strong> of Atlantis. Some<br />

even suggest that the place of <strong>Eden</strong> covered the whole of Africa<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

We should remember that before continental drift happened the whole l<strong>and</strong> of all continents were<br />

together as one unit.<br />

Jerusalem was probably the umbilical cord that connected the fetus to the mother. We can see<br />

why the four rivers flow from the naval into India, Ethiopia <strong>and</strong> the fertile crescent. Which are the<br />

nearest neighbors.<br />

In Latter-day Saint (Mormon) theology, the Garden of <strong>Eden</strong> is believed to have been located at<br />

what is now inside the city limits of Independence, Missouri. The Urantia Book (1955), considered<br />

by some as a channeled revelation assumed to come from angelic beings, places the Garden of<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

<strong>Eden</strong> in a long narrow peninsula projecting westward from the eastern shores of the Mediterranean<br />

Sea which was long ago submerged in connection with volcanic activity.<br />


How was the world created?<br />

When God created the world, He didn’t create it as a vast expanse of existence all at once. Rather,<br />

He created a single point, <strong>and</strong> from there, He drew out the entire universe.<br />

This is similar to the big bang theory. When the unknowable Ein Sof Aur came to be a knowable<br />

existent being he started the universe with a single point. How could a point which does not have<br />

any dimension become a reality remaining secret, the point being of immensly dense evidently<br />

exploded into vast universe as we know it today.<br />

This is the Hebrew tradition of creation. In Jerusalem on a hill where now sits a Mosque, there is a<br />

stone. That stone is called the Even Shetia, literally the Foundation Stone. From that stone the<br />

entire Universe was drawn out. In other words, when God created the world, there was a single<br />

point of contact between this physical world <strong>and</strong> the world beyond in other dimensions which we<br />

call Heavens.<br />

It is on this stone was Abraham was asked bring his son Isaac as a sacrifice to God so that he his<br />

<strong>and</strong> progeny may be eternally bound to holy God as priests to the world. It was on this stone that<br />

Jacob dreamed where he saw the ladder connecting Heaven <strong>and</strong><br />

Earth <strong>and</strong> angels going up <strong>and</strong> down on it.<br />

Around that stone stood the two Holy Temples. In the first<br />

Temple, the Holy Ark – with the Torah tablets - sat on top of that<br />

Foundation Stone, <strong>and</strong> around it was the Holy of Holies;<br />

around the Holy of Holies was the Sanctuary; around the<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

Sanctuary was the Courtyard of the<br />

Temple;<br />

around that was Jerusalem;<br />

<strong>and</strong> around Jerusalem -- the universe.<br />

Thus the the tablets represent the Tee of Life, <strong>and</strong> the Garden of <strong>Eden</strong> was recreated in the Temple.<br />

And it is around that stone that we will see the Third <strong>and</strong> final Temple inaugurated in the month of<br />

Cheshvan.<br />

Michael A. Fishbane describes the Garden of <strong>Eden</strong> as “an axis mundi. From it radiate primal<br />

streams to the four quarters. . . . It is the navel or omphalos,” <strong>and</strong> the tree of life st<strong>and</strong>s at “the<br />

center of this center.”<br />

Explaining the choice of a tree to represent the concepts of life, earth, <strong>and</strong> heaven in ancient<br />

cultures. Ezekiel 28:13 places <strong>Eden</strong> on the mountain of God. “<strong>Eden</strong>, as a luxuriant cosmic<br />

mountain becomes an archetype or symbol for the earthly temple.” Described by Isaiah as “the<br />

mountain of the Lord’s house” (Isaiah 2:2), the Jerusalem temple can be identified—like <strong>Eden</strong>—as<br />

a symbol of the center. Israelite traditions asserted that the foundation stone in front of the ark<br />

within the Holy of Holies of the temple at Jerusalem “was the first solid material to emerge from the<br />

waters of creation [see Psalm 104:7–9], <strong>and</strong> it was upon this stone that the Deity effected creation.”<br />

As a famous passage in the Midrash Tanhuma states:<br />

"Just as a navel is set in the middle of a person, so the l<strong>and</strong> of Israel is the navel of the world [cf.<br />

Ezekiel 38:12; see also Ezekiel 5:5]. . . .<br />

The l<strong>and</strong> of Israel sits at the center of the world;<br />

Jerusalem is in the center of the l<strong>and</strong> of Israel;<br />

the sanctuary is in the center of Jerusalem;<br />

the Temple building is in the center of the sanctuary;<br />

the ark is in the center of the Temple building; <strong>and</strong> the foundation stone,<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

out of which the world was founded, is before the Temple building. [John T. Townsend, ed.,<br />

Midrash Tanhuma, 3 vols. (Hoboken, NJ: Ktav, 1989–2003), Qedoshim 7:10, Leviticus 19:23ff.,<br />

part 1, 2:309–10.]<br />

So much for the efforts to identify the location of <strong>Eden</strong>.<br />

In the rabbinic writings, <strong>Eden</strong>, like Jerusalem, is simultaneously located on earth <strong>and</strong> within the<br />

precincts of heaven (M. Ber. 5:3). The Sages describe an earthly garden, Gan <strong>Eden</strong> shel ha-Aretz,<br />

which mirrors (imperfectly) the heavenly Garden, Gan <strong>Eden</strong> shel Malah or shel Elyon. Eventually<br />

there evolves an idiomatic <strong>and</strong> symbolic distinction between Gan <strong>and</strong> <strong>Eden</strong>. Gan is the earthly<br />

portion, while <strong>Eden</strong> is the locality where the righteous dead reside (Shab. 119a; Ber. 18a; Ket. 103a;<br />

Zohar III:182b).<br />

The Cave of Machpelah is the entryway to the higher <strong>Eden</strong> (Mid. Teh. 92:6). Its entrance is guarded<br />

by myriads of Angels, who welcome the righteous dead, garbing them in glory. Each dead Soul<br />

rests beneath their individual canopy <strong>and</strong> partakes in delicacies. Each heavenly day, the person<br />

undergoes a complete life cycle, being a child in the morning, a youth in the afternoon, <strong>and</strong> a<br />

mature adult in the evening. Every variety of fruit <strong>and</strong> spice tree grows there, each of unsurpassed<br />

beauty <strong>and</strong> fragrance (Yalkut Bereshit 20; Ber. 34b).<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />



In my study on Genesis 1:1 I have shown that the very first letter of the Bible is beit the second<br />

letter of the Hebrew alphabet, the first being Alef. The first represents the God who can be known<br />

when He transformed from beyond existence to existence. His first concern was to make a home<br />

- a beit - for His family. My interpretation is that God created the universe so that He could live with<br />

his Sons <strong>and</strong> Daughters in constant communion. . The whole creation is thus considered as<br />

God's home, where he lives with his children communing <strong>and</strong> enjoying with them. In this sense<br />

the whole creation is a temple. If we look at the Biblical picture of the Universe we will see the<br />

three dimensional aspect of Universe is comparison with the Tripartriate structure of the temple.<br />

Tripartiate Structure of Universe compared to the<br />

Templehttps://gospelofchristcrucified.com/project/chapter-2-biblical-worldview/<br />

Just as there was a tripartite sacred structure to the Temple, there is a tripartite structure to creation<br />

with Garden of <strong>Eden</strong> st<strong>and</strong>ing as a Holy of Holies, <strong>Eden</strong> <strong>and</strong> earth as Holies <strong>and</strong> Universe as the<br />

Sanctuary. This will usher in the concept that earth was initially created to act as the Garden of<br />

the Universe with man as the high priests to bring salvation to the whole universe. God sits on the<br />

throne in the Holy of Holies in Heaven.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

Universe as a temple simply implies that the universe was built as a home for God to live with his<br />

children.<br />

As far as we know, this failed in at least some dimensions, as we see in the fall of Lucifer.<br />

But as we have seen, the very first attempt in the physical world, the creation of Adamites on the<br />

earth as male <strong>and</strong> female also somehow did not work.<br />

Hence we see that God created one man called as Adam (if we assume two Adam theory is correct)<br />

or God chose one man called Adam from this mankind <strong>and</strong> separated him from the wide open earth<br />

as a sojourner <strong>and</strong> moved him into a walled Garden inside <strong>Eden</strong> towards the East. This was the<br />

renewed attempt to make a place where God could commune <strong>and</strong> walk with his human children.<br />

Knowing the Fathers heart he was finding a way to redeem them without violating their freedom<br />

<strong>and</strong> the freedom of choice.<br />

When even this experiment failed, <strong>and</strong> Adam <strong>and</strong> Eve were forced to be sent out, lest the selfish<br />

community of children of Adam, eat of the fruit of the tree of life <strong>and</strong> be immortal <strong>and</strong> life will end up<br />

for them as eternal hell. To avoid this Adam <strong>and</strong> Eve were sent out of the Garden of <strong>Eden</strong> <strong>and</strong> the<br />

doors of <strong>Eden</strong> were closed <strong>and</strong> locked.<br />

Again God selected a small group of his sons to start off the new experiment with a 'movable<br />

sanctuary' as the starting point in place of <strong>Eden</strong>. When they again moved from the w<strong>and</strong>erers to<br />

settled agriculturalist it was converted into a Temple a permanent place of contact.. Hence it is<br />

natural to see a comparison between the Sanctuary of the w<strong>and</strong>ering period of Israel, theTemple in<br />

Jerusalem <strong>and</strong> the Garden of <strong>Eden</strong>. They are all the point of contact of God with his children<br />

which He longed for <strong>and</strong> for which he created the earth <strong>and</strong> all its life <strong>and</strong> structures.<br />

In this chapter we will look at the Garden of <strong>Eden</strong> as a Temple <strong>and</strong> thus the first Sanctuary.<br />

(Lifsa Schachter: http://jbqnew.jewishbible.org/assets/Uploads/412/jbq_41_2_gardenofeden.pdf;<br />

9 Reasons The Garden of <strong>Eden</strong> Was a Temple:Derek Rishmawy:<br />

https://derekzrishmawy.com/2012/12/07/9-reasons-the-garden-of-eden-was-a-temple/<br />

G.K. Beale (Gregory K. Beale: <strong>Eden</strong>, the Temple, <strong>and</strong> the Church's Mission in the New Creation:JETS48/1 (March<br />

2005) 5–31 http://www.etsjets.org/files/JETS-PDFs/48/48-1/48-1-pp005-031_JETS.pdf) gives 9 arguments/lines of<br />

reasoning for that point (pp. 617-621):<br />

The Garden of <strong>Eden</strong>, the Ancient Temple, <strong>and</strong> Receiving a New Name<br />

By Alex Douglas<br />

https://rsc.byu.edu/archived/ascending-mountain-lord-temple-praise-<strong>and</strong>-worship-old-testament/garden-eden-ancient-t<br />

emple<br />

1. Temple as presence of God-<br />

In the later OT the Temple was the place of God’s special presence where he made himself known<br />

<strong>and</strong> felt to Israel. That is exactly how his walking with Adam <strong>and</strong> Eve in the Garden is depicted.<br />

(Gen. 3:8) 1.<br />

God walks in both the Garden of <strong>Eden</strong> <strong>and</strong> the Tabernacle.<br />

Exodus 25:8, God simply states, “And let them make me a sanctuary [literally, “a holiness”]; that I<br />

may dwell among them.” Though the English translation suggests that the edifice was meant to be<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

the actual dwelling place of God, the Hebrew term shakan, translated as “dwell,” implies a<br />

nonpermanent residence. In other words, while the verb can signify a long stay, it does not<br />

necessarily suggest an indefinite stay. In light of this, it may be more accurate to view the<br />

tabernacle as more of a meeting place rather than as a permanent dwelling place of God.<br />

Genesis 3:8 And they heard the voice of the Lord God walking in the garden...<br />

Leviticus 26:11-12 And I will set my tabernacle among you...And I will walk among you...<br />

2. Adam as High Priest.<br />

Adam is placed in the garden to “cultivate (abad)” <strong>and</strong> “keep (samar)” it (Gen 2:15). The same two<br />

words are translated elsewhere “serve” <strong>and</strong> “guard”, <strong>and</strong> when they appear together, they are<br />

either referring to Israelites serving or obeying God’s word, or more usually, to the job of the priest<br />

in guarding <strong>and</strong> keeping the Temple.<br />

Num, 3:7-8 They shall keep guard over him <strong>and</strong> over the whole congregation before the tent of<br />

meeting, as they minister at the tabernacle. 8 They shall guard all the furnishings of the tent of<br />

meeting, <strong>and</strong> keep guard over the people of Israel as they minister at the tabernacle. (Num. 3:7-8;<br />

8:25-26; 1 Chron. 23:32) Elsewhere Adam is portrayed dressed in the clothes of the high priest,<br />

functioning as a high priest. (Ezek 28:11-19; see Beale, pg. 618 on this for more argumentation.)<br />

The tabernacle used gold <strong>and</strong> onyx stones as decorating material for the tent, the objects inside,<br />

<strong>and</strong> even the priest’s outfits. These materials were known to come from the pre-flood region of<br />

Havilah (India), likely were <strong>Eden</strong> was located (Genesis 2:12<br />

Special garments are required in both places<br />

Genesis 3:21 For Adam <strong>and</strong> for his wife the Lord God made leather coats [ketonet]...<br />

Exodus 28:4 And these are the garments which they shall make...an embroidered coat<br />

3. The tree of life as the Lampst<strong>and</strong>.<br />

The tree of life served as a model for the lampst<strong>and</strong>, which was clearly shaped as a tree, in the<br />

Temple.<br />

The menorah itself was formed mikshah, that is, beaten from a single piece of pure gold that<br />

weighed 3,000 shekels of silver (nearly 100 pounds). It was a highly decorative work that had<br />

seven branches (with seven lamps), nine flower blooms, eleven fruits, <strong>and</strong> twenty two cups, all that<br />

were "one" with its substance (Exod. 25:31). The central shaft held the light of the shamash<br />

(servant lamp), <strong>and</strong> served as the base for the other branches. According to the Talmud, the<br />

menorah measured eighteen tefachim (i.e., "palms") in height (from the base to the start of the<br />

lamps), or roughly 5.25 feet. It is called the "lamp of God" in the Scriptures (1 Sam. 3:3).<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

4, Temple Carvings Represent Garden.<br />

Israel’s later Temple was made with wood carvings of flowers, palm trees, etc. meant to recall<br />

<strong>Eden</strong>’s garden brilliance (1 Kings 6:18, 29, 32, 35); pomegranates were also placed at the bottom<br />

of the two stone pillars in the Temple. (7:18-20)<br />

1 Kings 6:18 The inside of the temple was cedar, carved with ornamental buds <strong>and</strong> open flowers.<br />

All was cedar; there was no stone to be seen. ….<br />

29 he carved all the walls of the house round about with carved figures of cherubims <strong>and</strong> palm<br />

trees <strong>and</strong> open flowers, within <strong>and</strong> without .<br />

The items within the temple were also decorated to represent a garden. The two great pillars<br />

leading to the inner court were adorned with lilies, <strong>and</strong> they were decorated as two large trees,<br />

being covered with two-hundred pomegranates each (see 1 Kings 7:19–20). Just as the pillars, the<br />

golden menorah in the sanctuary was envisioned as a tree, <strong>and</strong> in its description we hear that it had<br />

“branches,” “flowers,” <strong>and</strong> “bowls made like unto almonds” (Exodus 25:31–33).<br />

Ten similar lampst<strong>and</strong>s lined the sides of the inner sanctuary (see 1 Kings 7:49), <strong>and</strong> with each<br />

modeled as a tree, the effect must have been similar to walking into a forest. Further reinforcing<br />

the impression of a garden scene were the animals depicted throughout the sanctuary.<br />

Washbasins covered with “lions, oxen, <strong>and</strong> cherubims” (1 Kings 7:29) could be found within the<br />

temple, <strong>and</strong> the great bronze laver stood on twelve oxen <strong>and</strong> was decorated “with flowers of lilies”<br />

(1 Kings 7:25–26).<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

5. Facing East.<br />

The Tabernacle <strong>and</strong> the Temples (both the first <strong>and</strong> the second temple) were constructed so<br />

that, the entrances faced east, while the Holy of Holies is in the west side.<br />

Eastern churches on the other h<strong>and</strong> places their Holy of Holies facing East so that the windows of<br />

the sanctuary will glow with the rising sun. This is in opposition to the Garden of <strong>Eden</strong>. The<br />

reason for this facing towards the East is the scriptural statemen the "As the sun rises in the east<br />

<strong>and</strong> goes towards the west;so shall be the coming of the Son of Man' Thus the second coming of<br />

Jesus is from the East <strong>and</strong> Christians await the coming of the redeemer from that direction.<br />

The entrance to the Temple however was to the east facing towards the west. (Ex. 15:17), just as<br />

the end-time temple prophesied in Ezekiel is 40:2, 6; 43:12 (see also Ezek. 28:14, 16)<br />

6. Tree of Knowledge of the Good <strong>and</strong> Evil as the Ark.<br />

The tree of the knowledge of good <strong>and</strong> evil <strong>and</strong> the ark of the covenant both were accessed or<br />

touched only on pain of death. Also, both were sources of wisdom.<br />

The knowledge of the Good <strong>and</strong> Evil is evidently the laws. Just as the physical laws controls the<br />

physical world, the moral laws controls the moral world. Any violation of the law will lead to<br />

consequent punishment. Thus in the sanctuary <strong>and</strong> the temple it is represented by the Ark of the<br />

covenant inside of which is the two plates that were written by the h<strong>and</strong> of God - the ten<br />

comm<strong>and</strong>ments. Ten comm<strong>and</strong>ments are only the basics. God will instrunct his children other<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

principles <strong>and</strong> laws to be careful <strong>and</strong> this is giver at the Ark where God will meet with the High<br />

Priest. Thus it is the ark which is the place of meeting of God with the High Priest.<br />

Exodus 25:17 “Make an atonement cover of pure gold—two <strong>and</strong> a half cubits long <strong>and</strong> a cubit<br />

<strong>and</strong> a half wide. 18 And make two cherubim out of hammered gold at the ends of the cover. 19<br />

Make one cherub on one end <strong>and</strong> the second cherub on the other; make the cherubim of one piece<br />

with the cover, at the two ends. 20 The cherubim are to have their wings spread upward,<br />

overshadowing the cover with them. The cherubim are to face each other, looking toward the cover.<br />

21 Place the cover on top of the ark <strong>and</strong> put in the ark the tablets of the covenant law that I will give<br />

you. 22 There, above the cover between the two cherubim that are over the ark of the covenant law,<br />

I will meet with you <strong>and</strong> give you all my comm<strong>and</strong>s for the Israelites.<br />

Inside the ark is the two tablets of the law which represents the fruit of the knowledge of what is<br />

right <strong>and</strong> what is wrong. It is the law that brings the death sentence. Since no one can live exactly<br />

by law alone as it is not interpreted in the Spirit. Violation of the slightest from the law brings its<br />

sentence of death. It is also the tree of life.<br />

The rollers that hold a Torah scroll are known by Jews, as the “Tree of Life”.<br />

Proverbs 3:13-20 Blessed is the man who finds wisdom (Torah), the man who gains<br />

underst<strong>and</strong>ing, … She is a tree of life to those who embrace her; those who lay hold of her will be<br />

blessed.<br />

The prayer when the Torah is returned to the ark was :<br />

“Return O God, to the myriads of Israel’s families. Arise God to Your resting place, You <strong>and</strong><br />

Your mighty ark. Clothe Your priests with righteousness. May those who have experienced Your<br />

faithful love shout for joy. For the sake of Your servant David, don’t delay the return of Your<br />

Messiah.”<br />

“I give you good instruction; do not forsake My Torah. A tree of life it is for those who take hold of it,<br />

<strong>and</strong> blessed are the ones who support it. It’s ways are ways of pleasantness, <strong>and</strong> all it’s paths are<br />

peace. Long life is in it’s right h<strong>and</strong>, in it’s left are riches <strong>and</strong> honor. God was pleased for the<br />

sake of His righteousness, to render the Torah great <strong>and</strong> glorious.”<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />

The narrative describing the construction of the tabernacle is in seven segments<br />

(Exodus 25:1; Exodus 30:11, 17 , 34 ; Exodus 31:1 , Exods 31: 12 ).<br />

The sixth segment—Exodus 31:1 describes the Spirit of God fills men to create <strong>and</strong> craft the<br />

objects for the tabernacle.<br />

The seventh segment—Exodus 31:12 reminds the nation of keeping the sabbath.<br />

These two segments both correspond nicely with the sixth <strong>and</strong> seventh days of Creation in Genesis<br />

The Synagogue also in some form reflect the Garden of <strong>Eden</strong><br />

http://www.betemunah.org/eden.html<br />

The following diagram depicts the synagogue AND it also depicts the Garden of <strong>Eden</strong>. The<br />

synagogue walls around Gan <strong>Eden</strong>. The Tebah, or Bimah for the Ashkenazi, is an elevated<br />

platform in the center of the synagogue, just as the Tree of Life was in the center of the garden, so<br />

also is the grasping <strong>and</strong> the reading of the Torah done in the center of the synagogue. The wooden<br />

rollers for a Tolrah scroll are called “the Tree of Life”. The book of Mishle (Proverbs) calls the Torah<br />

the Tree of Life.<br />

Here is the layout of the synagogue:<br />

http://www.betemunah.org/eden.html<br />

A = Hechal (the Ark) – storage for the Torah scroll.<br />

B = Small Teba (Lectern) from where the Chazzan leads the services.<br />

C = Seats for the Officers of the Congregation (most synagogues have the seating either<br />

horizontally with some inclination or vertically).<br />

D = Seats for men who sit on the first floor <strong>and</strong> women in the second floor or atrium.<br />

E = The greater Tebah, or Bimah, (raised platform) on which the Torah is read <strong>and</strong> the Hakham<br />

delivers his Sermon. Here is where we grasp the Tree of Life <strong>and</strong> read the Torah!<br />

Behind the greater Tebah usually there are seats reserved for the Hakhamim <strong>and</strong> this seating is<br />

also known as the seat of Moshe.<br />



PROF. M. M. NINAN<br />


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