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snezhana

Education in Romania


Introduction

Romania’s current education system is relatively new. Under

communism, education in Romania was politically-fueled. The

communist revolution in eastern Europe heavily influenced a

nationalistic approach to education in Romania.

Education is regulated and enforced by the Ministry of National

Education. Each step has its own form of organization and is subject

to different laws and directives. Since the downfall of the communist

regime, the Romanian educational system has been through several

reforms.


Kindergarden

Kindergardens offer

preschool education for

children (usually between

ages 3–6) and are optional.

Kindergarden typically lasts

for 3 forms – "small group"

(grupa mică) for children

aged 3–4, "middle group"

(grupa mijlocie), for children

aged 4–5, and "big group"

(grupa mare) for children

aged 5–6.


Kindergarden services differ from one

kindergarden to another, and from public (state) to

private ones, and may include initiation in foreign

languages (typically English, French or German),

introduction in computer studies, dancing,

swimming, etc.

All kindergardens provide at least one meal or one

snack, some having their own kitchen and their

own cooks. Many kindergardens (especially the

private ones) provide children with transportation

to and from the kindergarten. Groups typically

have 1–2 teachers and 10–15 children (typically

more in state kindergartens).


Primary school

Primary school starts with grade 0, or

the preparatory year, which develops the

children's reading and writing skills. The

school calendar is the same in all the

country, and it runs for 35 weeks, roughly

from September 15 to June 15.

For grades 0-4 there is a single teacher

(either a man or a woman), who teaches all

subjects. The primary school curriculum is

focused on Romanian language, math,

sciences and foreign languages.


For instance, a 4th grade student ( 10–

11 years of age) may have on a weekly

basis:

• 4 classes of Math;

• 4–5 classes of Romanian Language

and Literature;

• 1 class of History;

• 1 class of Geography;

• 1–2 classes of Science;

• 2 classes of Art (Painting and

Handcrafting);

• 1–3 classes of a foreign language

(usually French, English or German);


• 1–2 classes of Introduction to

Computers;

• 1 class of Civic Education (a

subject teaching everything from

personal hygiene to the

Constitution and manners in

society);

• 1 class of Religion;

• 1 class of Music Education;

• 2 classes of Physical Education.

• 1 class of an optional subject


Secondary school

There is no entrance exam

to secondary school, and it is

usually continued at the same

institution that provides the

primary education.

Subjects are taught by different

teachers.

A regular school week has

between 26-32 hours of

schooling, in groups of about 25

students. Furthermore, each

class has a teacher designated to

be class principal teacher,

besides teaching his or hers

usual subject.


The curriculum is focused on

mathematics and Romanian language and

literature, and also includes science, social

studies, foreign languages, technology and

art.

The 8th grade marks the last year of

secondary school, and at the end the pupils

need to pass an Assessment Exam

(Evaluarea Națională), on two subjects:

Romanian language and Literature, and

Mathematics. The final grade at the

assessment exam and the average grades

during the secondary school are used for the

acceptance into high-school.


High Schools


Admission


The passing mark is 5 for each. The

admission grade is calculated by taking

into account 20% of all the Yearly

General Averages starting with year 5,

the rest of 80% being the National Test

grade. If the admission grade is lower

than 5 than students choose from a

variety of vocational schools with it`s

main studies being Crafts and Trades.

MA=a student`s admission average

ABS=a student`s final average from V-VIII

classes

EN=a student`s National Testing average

Agricultural

High School

Oravita

(Arts and

Crafts

School)

====>


High School types

There are five types of high schools in Romania

allowing access to university, based on the type of

education offered and their academic

performance. All of these allow for a high school

diploma, access to the BAC exam and therefore

access to university studies.

The choice of high school profile and

specialization does not limit the choices for

university. So, for example, one can apply for the

Language Department of a University without any

problem despite having studied Mathemathics-

Computer Programming in high school.


The Romanian high school education

system includes:

1^

4^

5^

3^

2^

1. National College: the most prestigious

high school

2. Millitary College: administered by the

National Defense Ministry, strict and

usually act like army units

3. Economic/Technological College:

high school based mostly on the study

of technological education and

services

4. Standard High school: standard high

school with specific academic

programs

5. Scholar Group:a group of an average

high school offering and a Crafts and

Trade School;


High School duration and graduation

High school studies are four years in

length, two compulsory (9th and 10th

year), two non-compulsory (11th and

12th year). There are no exams between

the 10th and the 11 years.

High school students graduating from

High School must take the National

Baccalaureate Exam (Examenul National

de Bacalaureat — also known as the

BAC).The Bacalaureat consists of 2 or 3

oral examinations and 4 or 5 written

examinations, usually spanning on the

course of one and a half weeks in late

June and September.

BAC- oral evaluation^

BAC- written evaluation^


High School programs

Every type of high school can offer one of the profiles

or academic programs:

• theoretical programs:

o Science (Profil Real):mathematics and

o

computer programming or natural sciences

Humanities(Profil Uman) philology (literature

and latin) and social studies (history, sociology

and psychology

• technical programs:offers qualifications in a field

such as electrician, industrial machine operator,

train driver and mechanic etc.

• vocational programs:offers qualifications in a field

such as kindergarten educator, assistant architect, or

pedagogue

• services and economics programs:offers

qualifications in a field such as waiter, chef or

tourism operator


Higher Education

Higher education is

provided by universities,

institutes, study academies,

schools of higher education,

and other similar

establishments, collectively

referred to as higher

education institutions

(HEIs) or universities. HEIs

can be state-owned or

private; they are non-profit,

apolitical in nature and

focused on the public

interest.


Classification

Universities are divided

into three tiers:

• Universities focusing

on education and

scientific research;

• Universities focusing

on education and art;

• Universities with an

advanced research

and education focus;


Some of the most

prominent Romanian

universities are also the

oldest modern Romanian

universities:

• University of Iasi

(Alexandru Ioan Cuza

University) (1860)

• University of

Bucharest (1864)

• University of Cluj

(Babes-Bolyai

University) (1919)


Duration and educational stages

Most of its tertiary level programmes consists of three

cycles: a three-year bachelor's degree, followed by a twoyear

master's degree, and a three-year doctoral's degree.

Some programmes take longer to complete, for example

those in engineering fields (four-year programmes), or

some bachelor's and master's degree are combined into a

unique six-year programme (medicine, and architecture).

Master’s programs are a prerequisite for admission to

PhD programs. Vocational education is handled by postsecondary

schools with programmes lasting two years.

Universities have full autonomy, in stark contrast from the

pre-university segment. Each university is free to decide

everything from their management to the organization of

classes.

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