PCC January/February 2018

jcsmarketinginc10

January/February 2018

Managing Navel Orangeworm on

Two Million Acres

California Combats the Asian

Citrus Psyllid and Huanglongbing Disease

New Changes for the Use of

Chlorpyrifos

Nitrogen Fertility Management of Cool Season

Vegetables: A Year-Round Perspective

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PUBLICATION

Volume 3 : Issue 1


PUBLISHER: Jason Scott

Email: jason@jcsmarketinginc.com

EDITOR: Kathy Coatney

Email: article@jcsmarketinginc.com

PRODUCTION: design@jcsmarketinginc.com

Phone: 559.352.4456

Fax: 559.472.3113

Web: www.progressivecrop.com

CONTRIBUTING WRITERS & INDUSTRY SUPPORT

Lisa Blecker

Pesticide Safety Education

Program Coordinator with the

UC Statewide Integrated Pest

Management Program

Greg W. Douhan

Area Citrus Advisor for Tulare,

Fresno, and Madera Counties,

UCCE, Tulare

Ben Faber

Subtropical Crop Advisor for

Ventura and Santa Barbara

Counties, UCCE, Ventura

Matthew Fidelibus

Department of Viticulture and

Enology at UC Davis

Peter Goodell

UCCE Advisor Emeritus, IPM

Beth Grafton-Cardwell

IPM Specialist and Research

Entomologist, UC and Director

of Lindcove Research and

Extension Center, Exeter

UC Cooperative Extension Advisory Board

Kevin Day

County Director and

UCCE Pomology Farm

Advisor, Tulare/Kings County

David Doll

UCCE Farm Advisor, Merced

County

Dr. Brent Holtz

County Director and UCCE

Pomology Farm Advisor, San

Joaquin County

Craig E. Kallsen

Fruit and Nut Crop Advisor

for Kern County, UCCE,

Bakersfield

Sonia Rios

Subtropical Crop Advisor

for Riverside and San Diego

Counties, UCCE, Moreno

Valley

Samuel Sandoval Solis

Assistant Professor at UC Davis,

and UCCE Specialist in Water

Resources

Richard Smith

Vegetable Crops Farm

Advisor, Monterey County

Emily J. Symmes

Sacramento Valley Area IPM

Advisor, UC Statewide IPM

Program and UCCE

Amy Wolfe

MPPA, CFRE

President and CEO, AgSafe

George Zhuang

UCCE at Fresno County

Steven Koike

UCCE Plant Pathology

Farm Advisor, Monterey &

Santa Cruz Counties

Emily J. Symmes

UCCE IPM Advisor,

Sacramento Valley

Kris Tollerup

UCCE Integrated Pest

Management Advisor,

Parlier, CA

The articles, research, industry updates, company profiles, and

advertisements in this publication are the professional opinions

of writers and advertisers. Progressive Crop Consultant does

not assume any responsibility for the opinions given in the

publication.

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IN THIS ISSUE

Managing Navel Orangeworm on

Two Million Acres

Keeping Pesticides out of Water –

An Extension Program

New Changes for the Use of

Chlorpyrifos

California Combats the Asian

Citrus Psyllid and Huanglongbing

Disease

Crop Load Management on Newly

Planted Pinot Gris in the San

Joaquin Valley

The IPM Tool Box – Maintaining

Diversity and Investment

Nitrogen Fertility Management of

Cool Season Vegetables:

A Year-Round Perspective

2 Progressive Crop Consultant January/February 2018


4

UPCOMING EVENTS:

North Valley Nut Conference

January 31, 2018 | 7:00AM - 3:00PM - wcngg.com

Silver Dollar Fairgrounds

2357 Fair St, Chico, CA 95928

Join us as we bring together Almond and Walnut growers

in the Northern California region. This conference will offer

education, networking, and free industry lunch.

12

24

14

28

20

January/February 2018

www.progressivecrop.com

3


Managing Navel

Orangeworm on Two

Million Acres

By Emily J. Symmes | Sacramento Valley Area IPM Advisor, UC Statewide IPM

Program and Cooperative Extension

Navel orangeworm (NOW) populations

exploded in 2017, costing

growers tens of millions of dollars in

reduced quality and lost yields. In a year

where double-digit damage estimates

from nut processors were not uncommon,

the question heading into the coming

growing season (and future seasons

beyond 2018)—how do we limit damage

from this pest? Is our current arsenal

of integrated pest management (IPM)

tactics enough to keep damage in the

desired one to two percent range given

the two million (plus) acres of commercial

nut crop habitat in California (not to

mention the myriad other crop and noncrop

plants that play host to NOW)?

This article covers the “tried-and-true”

strategies, as well as where we need to

head in the future of NOW management

to ensure clean, safe, and profitable nut

crops for years to come.

A four-pronged approach to NOW

management in nut crops has been

suggested for years based on University

research and field success stories. These

include: sanitation, minimizing damage

by other sources, timely (early) harvest

to avoid late generation flights, and

insecticide treatments as deemed necessary

by monitoring pest activity and

crop phenology.

Sanitation

By now you have certainly received

the message—SANITIZE! This single activity

is the absolute backbone of all pest

management targeting NOW, no matter

the nut crop. This practice results in direct

destruction of overwintering worms,

as well as destruction of spring habitat

for any part of the population that

survived the winter (those remaining

in the orchard or those migrating into

the orchard from external

sources outside of your

control). In many

cases, it’s simply

not enough to

get nuts on the

ground, but

additional

destruction

of the nuts

is required

in order to

achieve maximum

reduction

in emergence,

population build-up,

and damage (NOW will lay eggs on and

develop in ground mummies if that is all

that is available).

Plenty of research summarizes the

effectiveness of sanitation practices (e.g.,

Higbee and Siegel 2009, California Agriculture,

Volume 63). Research has also

suggested that females prefer to oviposit

(lay eggs) on nuts previously damaged

by NOW, and that development rate and

survival success are both also positively

correlated with previous kernel damage

(Hamby and Zalom 2013, Journal of

Economic Entomology, Volume 106).

Therefore, all mummies are not created

equal. Clearly, a mummy with live

overwintering worm(s) is a

bigger threat in the coming

season than one without

live worm(s). Live moth-

(s) will emerge from

these mummies and

give rise to subsequent

generations, which will

ultimately target the

Adult navel orangeworm.

Credit: University of California

Statewide IPM Program.

4 Progressive Crop Consultant January/February 2018


Navel orangeworm eggs on an almond mummy.

Credit: Jhalendra Rijal.

in-season crop at/after hull split. But, even a mummy that no longer

contains a live worm come late winter-early spring, but had

previous NOW damage, may be a more desirable and hospitable

“home” for oviposition and early generation development (leading

to greater population development as the season progresses).

Encourage your growers not to underestimate the value of

sanitation, particularly in a year with very high potential carry

over based on elevated damage in the 2017 harvest. Sanitation to

the University-standard guidelines (average 0.2 mummies/tree

southern San Joaquin Valley; average 2 mummies/tree northern

San Joaquin Valley and Sacramento Valley) may not possible

due to prohibitive costs, labor shortages, or inclement weather

limiting orchard access (as was the case this past season). In these

cases, it may become necessary to target sanitation efforts to get

the most bang-for-the-buck (i.e., emphasize mummy reduction in

blocks with the biggest NOW threat).

Send us a sample of your mummies

and we will help you find the answer!

For more information

visit our website at integralaginc.com

or give us a call at 1.530.809.4249

Crack-Out

How to determine which areas these are? This can be

determined based on block-specific estimates of a combi-

Continued on Page 6

January/February 2018

www.progressivecrop.com

5


Continued from Page 5

nation of total mummy load, mummy

infestation, and kernel damage. Mummy

samples can be collected and crackedout

after harvest and before sanitation

efforts (ideally, post-sanitation there

will be too few mummies left to collect a

meaningful sample in a timely manner).

Note the percent infestation and kernel

damage as well as total number of viable

worms (multiple NOW can emerge from

a single mummy). Extrapolations can

then be made based on these data combined

with estimates of total mummy

load in the block, indicating where the

highest potential NOW pressure may be

in the coming season. There are newly

available mummy “crack-out” services

Navel orangeworm larva and damage in

walnut. Credit: University of California

Statewide IPM Program.

to assist in evaluating these parameters

and how to best use the information for

site-specific orchard management strategies

targeting NOW.

What information can be used to

facilitate “decision-support”? In other

words, is treatment necessary? If so,

when are the ideal timing(s)? These are

million-dollar questions, and no single

piece of information (to date) can

provide fail-safe treatment guidelines. In

fact, correlating in-season arthropod (insect

and mite) population estimates with

ultimate harvest damage is the IPM holy

grail—and one that largely continues to

elude researchers. A recent retrospective

analysis of six years of data (Rosenheim

et al. 2017, Journal of Economic Entomology,

Volume 110) suggested that

population NOW estimates taken just

prior to harvest were the best predictors

of almond damage. However, as practitioners

are aware, treatment decisions

are needed earlier than this for NOW in

California’s nut crop systems.

Monitoring and

Risk-Assessment

Let not your heart be troubled, however.

We do have a number of different

monitoring and risk-assessment methods,

that when taken as a whole, may

provide a basis for decision-support

and treatment recommendations. These

include using egg traps for establishing

population biofixes that mark the onset

of activity of each generation, pheromone

traps for tracking adult male flight

activity and relative population abundance,

kairomone (ground almond-pistachio

bait bag) traps for tracking adult

female flight activity

and relative population

abundance, degree-day

models for predicting

population cycles, crop

phenology landmarks

(e.g., hull split) and

Navel orangeworm damage in almond. Credit: University of California

Statewide IPM Program.

their coincidence with pest activity,

estimates of population pressure based

on mummy evaluation (as described

above), previous season harvest damage,

proximity to external sources of infestation,

environmental conditions, and the

list goes on.

Refining these puzzle pieces into a

useable risk-assessment model that can

be validated across cropping systems,

geographic regions, and a multitude of

other variables, will require an ecoinformatics

(“big data”) approach. Luckily, we

are entering (in fact, already in) an era of

crop management where technology is

increasingly affording researchers, crop

advisors, growers, and land managers

improved methods of record-keeping,

data analysis, and anonymized sharing

of information in order to work toward

solving these difficult crop production

issues.

Future of IPM

Management

What about the future of integrated

pest management for NOW? Mating disruption

is becoming more widely adopted

among nut crop producers in California

(particularly almond and pistachio).

With the increased nut crop footprint in

California and the ubiquitous and unrelenting

nature of a pest like NOW, this

may well become the 5th pillar in our

basic NOW management strategy in the

near future (in addition to the four noted

early in this article). Multiple products

are now available from a number of

companies, which provides options for

use and adoption, and may drive costs

down due to increased market competi-

tion. Population

reduction using

mass trapping,

or attract-andkill,

approaches

are possible. The

pistachio industry

has invested in

sterile insect technology,

in which

moths are irradiated,

rendering

them sterile, and

then released into

the “wild-type”

population in

order to reduce

the number of

successful matings.

This technique has been successfully

used for other serious crop pests in the

United States, including pink bollworm

and screwworm, and releases for medfly

in areas of detection are ongoing in

California. Widespread adoption of the

“tried-and-true” management methods,

as well as these novel approaches (and

others, as they become available and are

validated), will be needed for long term

and effective management of NOW.

Comments about this article? We want

to hear from you. Feel free to email us at

article@jcsmarketinginc.com

6 Progressive Crop Consultant January/February 2018


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7


KEEPING PESTICIDES OUT OF WATER

– An Extension

Program

By Lisa Blecker | Pesticide Safety Education Program Coordinator with the UC Statewide

Integrated Pest Management Program

Dr. Samuel Sandoval Solis | Assistant Professor at UC Davis, and Cooperative Extension

Specialist in Water Resources

Climatic conditions in California are

unique, as is the agriculture. California

faces wet winters and dry summers,

with agricultural water demands greatest

when precipitation is least available.

Groundwater storage is critically important,

but many water users do not

completely understand how interconnected

the water system is. Groundwater

is affected by the surface water and the

reverse is also true. There are 400+ commodities

produced annually in California,

all of which require water and many

of which require pesticide applications.

Some of these pesticides end up in our

water system, causing profound impacts.

By knowing more about the water system,

and by implementing good application

and irrigation practices, we can

ensure our water supply remains clean

and secure.

The extension branch of the University

of California (UC), the Division of

Agriculture and Natural Resources, has

Continued on Page 10

8 Progressive Crop Consultant January/February 2018


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9


Continued from Page 8

put together an educational and extension

program for pest control advisers

(advisers) and pesticide applicators

(applicators) to teach them how to keep

pesticides out of water. This project has

been led by Lisa Blecker (Lisa), Pesticide

Safety Education Program Coordinator

with the UC Statewide Integrated Pest

Management Program and Dr. Samuel

Sandoval Solis (Sam), Assistant Professor

at UC Davis, and Cooperative Extension

Specialist in Water Resources. Both Lisa

and Sam deliver the content in English

and Spanish. The project consists of

three modules: the climate of California,

the water cycle, and pesticide characteristics

and applicator practices.

Climate and Topographic

Features of California

First, the climate and topographic

features of California are described, so

advisers and applicators have a clear

understanding of what the main climatic

and landscape processes that can affect

their professional practice are. They are

introduced to concept of atmospheric

rivers, which are high intensity and low

duration (two or three days) rainfall

events that account for 65 percent of

the annual precipitation in the state of

California.

Headwaters

aquifers, which are large, underground

deposits of water. This explanation of

the water cycle is done using a physical

aquifer model where advisers and

applicators can see with their own eyes

the different pathways and processes

that water can take. This is a hands-on

experience where all these concepts are

not only explained but experienced. By

the end of this section, they have a clear

understanding of water movement in the

landscape, so they can apply this knowledge

to preventing pesticides (or any

other contaminant) from reaching and

contaminating any water body (creeks,

rivers, aquifers, or soil moisture). A

series of videos that show this approach

can be seen in the following webpage.

Runoff

Third, the specific characteristics that

increase the likelihood that a pesticide

will contaminate water through leaching

Both leaching and runoff are more likely

to happen with persistent pesticides—

those with a long half life. Persistent

pesticides are not easily degraded and remain

in the soil for long periods of time.

The longer a pesticide is in the environment,

the more likely it is to become

a pollutant. A practice recommended

to advisers and applicators is to look at

the weather forecast and to schedule

pesticide applications so they do not

occur before rainfall or irrigation events.

In addition, they are recommended to

not make any pesticide management

within 100 feet of a well, because if a spill

occurs, it can contaminate directly the

aquifer.

This outreach and education program

shows the main principles of the water

cycle, how water moves into the natural

and agricultural environment, and how

to prevent pesticides from reaching any

water bodies. The overall goal is not to

Second, they are introduced to

water cycle and how water moves in the

headwaters and the river valleys. In the

headwaters, because there is a shallow

soil layer on top of rock, precipitation

can fall onto the land, infiltrate into the

soil and be stored as soil moisture. Later

it can be taken up by the plants through

evapotranspiration or end up in rivers

by traveling through the soil and into

the creeks as subsurface flow. If the soil

is already saturated, then water may flow

directly into the creeks as surface runoff

because water was not able to infiltrate

into the soil layer. Alternatively, precipitation

can be stored on the soil surface if

it falls as snow, which later will be melted

and may follow either of the previous

two paths. In contrast, in river valleys,

the soil layer is usually on top of deeper

alluvial soil layer (sands, gravels and fine

material), thus water can move the same

way as previous pathways described.

It can also infiltrate further down into

underlying soil layers and be stored in

Photo courtesy of Sarah Risorto and the Integrate Pest Management Program of the University of

California, Agriculture and Natural Resources.

or runoff are explained. These pesticide

characteristics are water solubility

(measured in mg/L), soil adsorption

(measured in Koc), and persistence

(measured in half-life). If a pesticide

is soluble, then it will move as water

moves. For instance, if a water soluble

pesticide is soil-applied ahead of a heavy

rainfall event, the pesticide will move

with soil water and end up in aquifers

or rivers. A similar effect can happen

with over-irrigation. Some pesticides can

be less soluble, or not soluble at all, but

adsorb, or bind, easily to the soil. In this

case, when a rainfall (or over-irrigation)

event occur, precipitation (or over-irrigation)

can cause surface runoff. Surface

runoff not only carries water but also

sediment with pesticides bound to it,

thus, contaminating rivers and creeks.

teach them a recipe for every pesticide

and agricultural landscape, but to teach

them the main principles, so they can

apply them according to the specific

conditions that they are dealing with day

to day. Because this program is taught in

English and Spanish languages, it has a

deep impact in the agricultural community

because it has reached different

audiences. For further information related

with this program feel free to contact

Lisa Blecker (lblecker@ucanr.edu ) and/

or Dr. Samuel Sandoval Solis (samsandoval@ucdavis.edu).

Comments about this article? We want

to hear from you. Feel free to email us at

article@jcsmarketinginc.com

10 Progressive Crop Consultant January/February 2018


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January/February 2018

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11


New Changes for the

Use of Chlorpyrifos

By Amy Wolfe | MPPA, CFRE

President and CEO, AgSafe

This past April, the California Department

of Pesticide Regulations

(DPR) and California Environmental

Protection Agency (CalEPA) conducted

a risk assessment on the commonly used

pesticide chlorpyrifos. The assessment

revealed several potential unacceptable

exposures that have led DPR to draft

recommended permits conditions to

accompany county pesticide permits.

Lorsban is a product that contains the

active ingredient chlorpyrifos that most

growers would recognize. Photo courtesy

of Scientific America.com

Chlorpyrifos is commonly used on

nut orchards and alfalfa and has been

an insect mitigation tool for growers for

the last fifty years. Now, DPR scientists

believe chlorpyrifos may pose a public

health risk as a toxic air contaminant

based on its assessment of the latest

studies in the scientific community. As

chlorpyrifos continues to go through the

review process, DPR has issued recommended

permit conditions for its use.

In addition to complying with the

pesticide label, which is the law, county

agricultural commissioners’ (CAC)

offices have the authority to issue permit

conditions with a pesticide permit.

CACs are given this authority to mitigate

hazards that may be specific to the farming

in their county. In some instances,

DPR issues recommended permit conditions

while they finalize regulatory language.

In the case of chlorpyrifos, DPR

has now issued recommended permit

conditions and is conducting training

sessions for CAC pesticide inspectors on

the conditions. According to DPR, most

counties, especially in the Central Valley

where chlorpyrifos use is prevalent,

are adopting the recommended permit

conditions.

All of this begs the question, what

does the recommended permit conditions

outline? For ease of explanation

let’s break the conditions into sections,

starting with definitions.

Definitions:

Application Block—A field or portion

of a field treated in a 24-hour period

that typically is identified by visible indicators,

maps or other tangible means.

The perimeter of the application block

is the border connecting the outermost

edges of the total area treated. Essentially,

it is the field in which you intend to

apply chlorpyrifos.

Sensitive Site—As described by

labels, sensitive sites are areas frequented

by non-occupational bystanders

(especially children). These include

residential lawns, pedestrian sidewalks,

outdoor recreational areas such as school

grounds, athletic fields, parks, and all

property associated with buildings

occupied by humans for residential or

commercial purposes. Sensitive sites

include homes, farmworker housing,

or other residential buildings, schools,

daycare centers, nursing homes, and

hospitals. Non-residential agricultural

buildings, including barns, livestock

facilities, and sheds are not included in

the prohibition.

Setback Distance—Distance in feet

that must separate sensitive sites from

the application block. The distance must

extend outward from the perimeter of

the sensitive site to the perimeter of the

application block. Setback distances

must be established for chlorpyrifos

applications near sensitive sites.

Application Method

Restrictions:

1. All applications must take place with

a minimum wind speed of three

miles per hour (mph) and not more

than 10 mph as measured at a height

of four feet above the ground.

2. Airblast applications:

a. Spray the two outside crop rows

from the outside in, directing the

spray into the treatment area and

shutting off nozzles on the side

of the sprayer away from the

treatment area.

b. Shut off top nozzles when

treating smaller trees, vines or

12 Progressive Crop Consultant January/February 2018


ushes to minimize spray

movement above the canopy.

3. Chemigation applications:

a. The permittee or permittee’s

authorized representative, who is

knowledgeable of the irrigation

system, must be present at the

treatment site during the

application and must be trained

as a pesticide handler.

4. Granular applications:

a. Incorporate or clean-up granules

that are spilled during loading

or are visible on the soil surface

in turn areas.

Determining application rate—

Converting liquid volume to lbs

AI/ac:

The active ingredient (AI) application

rate determines the setback distance and

is expressed as pounds of

active ingredient per acre (lbs

AI/ac). Liquid product labels

usually have the application

rate as pints or quarts of

product per acre. To determine

lbs AI/ac, the volume

of product applied needs to

be converted to pounds of active

ingredient based on the

amount of chlorpyrifos active

ingredient in the product.

Determining application rate—

Converting row feet rate to lbs

AI/ac:

Setback distances are for a broadcast

application. When labels specify the

application rate as fluid

ounces per 1000 feet of

row or 100 feet of row,

the “broadcast equivalent

application rate”

is the rate of active

ingredient (lbs AI/

ac) within the entire

application block. The

“broadcast equivalent

application rate”

must be calculated to

determine the setback

distance.

For more information

on how to do

the math to calculate

setback, visit: http://

www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/

enforce/compend/

vol_3/append_o.pdf

Setback distances:

1. A setback distance must be established

for every chlorpyrifos application

near a sensitive site. The setback

distance must extend outward from

the perimeter of the sensitive site

to the perimeter of the application

block.

a. DPR has tables that delineate the

distance of setback required per

application—distance ranges

from 150 feet to 500 feet.

2. The CAC may use the setback

distances in the table below if

non-occupational bystanders will

not occupy the sensitive site anytime

during the application and for one

(1) hour after the end of the

application.

Application Method

Unoccupied Sensitive Site

Setback Distance (feet)

Ground Boom 25

Sprinkler Chemigation 50

Airblast 50

Aerial 150 150

3. To ensure sensitive sites are not

occupied anytime during the

application and for one (1) hour

after the application, the CAC must

include additional permit

conditions, such as written vacating

The map illustrates the areas in California where chlorpyrifos

is used the most–the Central Valley and the Coast. The

map is courtesy of California Environmental Health Tracking

Program.” Map is courtesy of California Environmental Health

Tracking Program.

agreements for sites that could

trigger the occupied sensitive site

setbacks, posting the occupied

sensitive site setback distance, or

observation and/or monitoring

at the setback perimeter during the

application and for one (1) hour

after the application.

With all of the new application

requirements it is important to mention

that chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate

that already has additional requirements

under Title 3, Section 6728. The regulation

requires medical supervision

for employees who regularly handle

chlorpyrifos to ensure that their cholinesterase

values are not being compromised

by handling pesticides containing

chlorpyrifos. For more information regarding

this particular requirement, visit

http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/legbills/

calcode/030302.htm.

As with any change

in pesticide requirements,

ensure that

employees who will be

handling this pesticide

are adequately trained

on its hazards prior to

application. While DPR

has recommended these

permit conditions, CACs

have the ability to amend them per their

county’s specific needs. Be sure to read

all of the permit conditions that accompany

your pesticide permit and consult

with your local pesticide enforcement

inspector if you have questions.

For more information about pesticide

safety or any worker safety, health, human

resources, labor relations, or food

safety issues, please visit www.agsafe.org,

call us at (209) 526-4400 or via email at

safeinfo@agsafe.org.

AgSafe is a 501c3 nonprofit providing

training, education, outreach and tools

in the areas of safety, labor relations,

food safety and human resources for the

food and farming industries. Since 1991,

AgSafe has educated nearly 75,000 employers,

supervisors, and workers about

these critical issues.

Comments about this article? We want

to hear from you. Feel free to email us at

article@jcsmarketinginc.com

January/February 2018

www.progressivecrop.com

13


California Combats

the Asian Citrus Psyllid

and Huanglongbing

Disease

By Greg W. Douhan | Area Citrus Advisor for Tulare, Fresno, and Madera Counties, UCCE, Tulare, CA

Beth-Grafton-Cardwell | IPM specialist and Research Entomologist, UC and Director of Lindcove Research

and Extension Center, Exeter, CA

Ben Faber | Subtropical Crop Advisor for Ventura and Santa Barbara Counties, UCCE, Ventura, CA

Sonia Rios | Subtropical Crop Advisor for Riverside and San Diego Counties, UCCE, Moreno Valley, CA

Craig E. Kallsen | Fruit and Nut Crop Advisor for Kern County, UCCE, Bakersfield, CA

Photo Figures 1-5 Courtesy of University of Florida Cooperative

Extension, University of California, and anonymous sources

Commercially grown citrus contributes

$3.3 billion in economic activity

and employs more than 22,000 individuals

in California. Although many pests

and pathogens can affect the value of

citrus production, only a few are able

to inflict severe damage, reduce yield,

and/or kill citrus trees. For California

and some other citrus producing areas,

Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most severe

disease issue currently that has the

potential to impact all aspects of ‘citrus

economics’ if it invades the commercial

citrus production areas. The disease is

vectored by the insect Diaphorina citri,

referred to as the Asian citrus psyllid

(ACP), and in North America the bacteria

that causes the disease is Candidatus

Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). Once an

infection occurs via grafting from infected

plant material or by HLB positive

psyllids, the bacteria will reproduce

within the sugar conducting tissues

(phloem) of the infected citrus plant. Initially,

only segments of the tree will show

symptoms, but eventually the infection

will spread and lead to the decline and

death of the tree. This incurable and fatal

plant disease threatens all citrus plants

and close relatives of citrus in the family

Rutaceae, some of which are occasionally

grown as ornamentals in California.

Currently, there is no effective way to

directly control the disease but only to

provide various inputs that will prolong

production.

The first report of ACP in California

was in 2008 and the first HLB infected

tree was reported in 2012 from a homeowner’s

tree found in Hacienda Heights,

Los Angeles County. The infected tree

was quickly destroyed via action taken

by the California Department of Food

and Agriculture (CDFA). Since this first

detection, another tree in Hacienda

Heights was identified in 2016 from a

different property and to date there have

been over 240 identified infected trees

within the greater Los Angeles region

(Orange, Los Angeles, and Riverside

Counties). However, no HLB positive

trees have been found in commercial

citrus production areas in California

thus far. Therefore, our awareness of

this devastating disease must be in the

forethought of everyone, including the

general-public, who value citrus trees

as an essential part of the fabric of the

California landscape.

HLB is one of the most complex

diseases of citrus, with interactions

among the pathogen, vector, host and

environment. This, coupled with a long

latent period before symptoms appear

and the difficulty of sampling for the

disease that has an uneven spread in the

tree, makes identifying HLB positive

trees challenging. There are significant

amounts of research dollars from various

agencies, including the Citrus Research

Board and United States Department of

Agriculture (USDA), to develop tools

to identify HLB positive trees before

the bacteria have spread throughout the

Continued on Page 16

14 Progressive Crop Consultant January/February 2018


ADVERTORIAL

HUANGLONGBING

The Growing Threat of Huanglongbing

and How You Can Protect California Citrus

The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), a vector of

the bacterium that causes Huanglongbing

(HLB) disease, has been identified in

southern California. Vigilant pest control is

necessary to protect California citrus from

the severe effects of HLB.

HLB is the most devastating citrus disease

worldwide and threatens all commercial

citrus production. Florida has lost 72% of

its citrus production since 2005/2006 as

well as 119,000 acres of citrus trees and

$674 million since the rise of ACP. In the

U.S., 3.2 million metric tons of citrus were

lost due to ACP. 1

What’s at Stake for

California Growers?

California represents 41% of U.S. citrus

production with 270,000 acres of citrus

valued at $2 billion. According to California

Citrus Mutual, 32 infected trees have been

found in Southern California. 2

ACP and Insect Management

Options from Bayer

Bayer has a proven portfolio of insecticides that provides

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other important California citrus pests. Bayer’s portfolio

encompasses multiple modes of action to limit insecticide

resistance and is flexible relative to application timing and

method to optimize crop quality and to help growers stay

ahead of Huanglongbing.

PEST

ASIAN

CITRUS

PSYLLIDS

ü ü ü ü ü

CITRUS

THRIPS

RED

SCALE

KATYDIDS

CITRICOLA

SCALE

IRAC

GROUP**

BLOOM

ü

ü

GROUP 4 (d)

PETAL

FALL

ü

ü

POST-

BLOOM

ü

ü

FRUIT

GROWTH

ü

WINTER

MONTHS

GROUP 3 GROUP 4 (a) GROUP 23 GROUPS

3 and 4 (a)

How ACP Affects Citrus Plants

*Suppression only.

**Insecticide Resistance Action Committee's mode of action groups.

The psyllid damages citrus

directly by feeding on new leaf

growth (fl ush).

More importantly, the psyllid

is a vector of the bacterium,

Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

(CLas), that causes HLB and

transmits the bacteria into the

phloem when it feeds on fl ush.

HLB disease spreads from tree

to tree when a bacteria-carrying

psyllid fl ies to a healthy plant and

transmits the bacteria as it feeds

on the leaves and stems.

The bacteria multiply in the tree’s

phloem tissue, blocking the fl ow

of nutrients through the plant.

If not well managed, trees will

eventually die within 3 to 5 years.

Effective control of Asian citrus

psyllid reduces the chance that a

citrus tree will become infected

by the bacteria and helps ensure

a healthy, productive tree.

Make Bayer’s proven portfolio a cornerstone of your insecticide program to help ensure tree

protection and productivity with season-long control of ACP, as well as other key citrus pests.

1

USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service Florida Citrus Statistics (2015–2016).

2

https://www.cacitrusmutual.com/build-wall-strategies-stopping-acp-hlb/

© 2018 Bayer CropScience LP, 2 TW Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Always read and follow label instructions. Bayer (reg’d), the Bayer Cross (reg’d), Admire, ® Baythroid, ®

Leverage, ® Movento, ® and Sivanto are trademarks of Bayer. Baythroid XL is a Restricted Use Pesticide. Not all products are registered for use in all states. For product information, call toll-free

1-866-99-BAYER (1-866-992-2937) or visit our website at www.CropScience.Bayer.us. CR1017MULTIPB022S00R0

January/February 2018

www.progressivecrop.com

15


are usually not the same on either side of

the leaves as delimitated by the main leaf

vein. Mottling is also most frequently

found on newly mature leaves (hardened-off),

but often fades with leaf age.

However, these symptoms can also be

sometimes confused with some nutrient

deficiencies, but most nutrient deficiencies

will usually produce more uniform

mottling or chlorotic symptoms (Figure

2). Some HLB-infected leaves may also

produce yellow veins, vein corking,

Figure 1 Blotchy mottle symptoms on citrus leaves.

Continued from Page 14

tree and before any visual symptoms

are present. However, until these tools

are developed, every individual within

the citrus community should be aware

of what symptoms to look for. The first

visible symptoms observed for HLB are

asymmetrical yellowing of

leaves which is often referred

to as a ‘blotchy mottle’ symptom

of the leaves (Figure 1).

This blotchy mottle pattern is

a random pattern of yellowing

or chlorosis on the leaves that

Figure 2 Uniform and even mottling symptoms due

to nutrient deficiencies within citrus.

16 Progressive Crop Consultant January/February 2018


or green island symptoms (Figure 3).

Infected trees also produce fruit that unevenly

colors and is often lopsided and is

sour (Figure 4). Eventually the trees will

weaken, begin to dieback and decline

overtime. Be forewarned, that if you

see visible symptoms, the tree has been

infected for months if not years, and it is

likely that nearby trees are also infected.

So Where Did This Disease

Originate and Why is it

Now a Threat?

CLas likely infected citrus through

psyllid species transferring the bacteria

from indigenous rutaceous plants to

cultivated citrus in Asia. Descriptions

of die-back of citrus in India in the 18th

century and the observations of farmers

in southern China in the late 1800s

suggest that this disease has impacted

citrus for over 100 years. Just over a

decade ago, HLB was confirmed in the

Americas, originally in São Paulo State,

Brazil in 2004 and the State of Florida,

USA in 2005. The disease spread rapidly

in both São Paulo and Florida, causing

significant economic losses as it has in

Asia for many years and has since spread

to other States in the USA. Therefore,

Figure 3 Corking veins and green island symptoms of HLB infected citrus.

The first line of defense against HLB

is to keep ACP under control in Southern

California and coastal citrus growing

regions and continue eradication

efforts in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV).

However, this is a difficult scenario in

Southern California, since the insect

is common throughout this region. Its

presence in residential areas hampers

control measures because there is always

to appear in the SJV, so growers must

be diligent to scout their fields. For

monitoring, two strategies are to walk

orchards when there are new flushes of

growth to look for the nymphal stage

or do tap sampling for adults. When

looking for psyllids, signs of adults, eggs,

Figure 4 Lopsided and unevenly coloring citrus fruit.

it is important to be on the lookout for

the disease, which has the potential to

spread from residential areas of Southern

California to the commercial production

areas throughout California.

So, What Can Be Done to

Curtail the Spread of This

Disease and Vector?

a ‘source’ of more insects to move back

into commercial production areas. It is

important for growers in these regions

to treat their orchards in a coordinated

fashion in the spring and fall with

ACP-effective insecticides as directed by

their Task Force or Pest Control District.

Within the SJV, the counties of Kern and

to a lesser extent Tulare had frequent

finds of ACP in 2016, but a lot of effort

went into decreasing population levels of

the insect through pesticide applications

and finds thus far have decreased in

2017. However, the insect is continuing

or nymphs producing waxy tubules can

be identified, as well as possible damage

on developing leaves (Figure 5, page

18). Detailed information regarding tap

sampling, including a video demonstration,

can be found at the University of

California ANR website (http://ucanr.

edu/sites/acp/).

Biological control tactics were also

initiated in 2010 to help control ACP

Continued on Page 18

January/February 2018

www.progressivecrop.com

17


Continued from Page 17

populations within residential areas,

since spraying of pesticides was not

easily accomplished. The parasitic wasp,

Tamaraxia radiata, was collected by

University of California Riverside Entomologist

Mark Hoddle from Punjab,

Pakistan, because it was endemic to the

native range of ACP and was thought

that a similar environment to California

would make it a potential candidate to

fight this insect. In addition to the Tamarixia

radiata, an additional parasitoid,

Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis, was also

reared and released. Both species kill the

ACP insects through a combination of

parasitism and host feeding. However,

post-release monitoring in California

has indicated that ACP parasitism by

T. radiata is low to moderate and varies

greatly across locations, seasons, and

years. Moreover, success of the parasitoids

is also reduced when ants protect

the psyllids from natural enemies.

Both monitoring and management of

ACP are extremely important concepts

to slow the threat of HLB. Eradication

approaches should be used in areas

where the insect is relatively rare (SJV)

whereas growers need to continue to

conduct periodic coordinated treatments

Figure 5 ACP eggs on new citrus growth, adult insect, and nymphs

producing waxy tubules.

in areas where ACP is well-established

(Southern and coastal California). In

the latter case, growers need to focus

on reducing overwintering adults and

protecting new flushes from egg laying

by the insect. The fall months are

especially important as that is when the

populations can build to high numbers.

It should also be noted that not all

insecticides are equally effective against

ACP. More information can be found at

the University of California Cooperative

Extension (UCCE) extension website

(http://ucanr.edu/sites/acp/) but some of

the key points are:

• Focus on overwintering adults and

protecting new flush

• Broad spectrum, long residual insecticides

are especially important in

the fall when ACP populations grow

fast

• Rotate between chemistries to avoid

selecting for resistance

• Use selective insecticides for the

spring-summer treatments to allow

natural enemies to survive and assist

with control

• Be aware of Maximum Residue Limits

to ensure export

Weather conditions may also influence

the spread of ACP in California,

especially in the SJV where more than

65 percent of the California citrus is

produced. The SJV often has cold winters

followed by hot dry summers that

are not as conducive to support large

populations

of the vector.

Similarly, the

heat of the

Coachella

and Imperial

valleys

suppresses

psyllids. Hot,

dry summers

also suppress

the bacteria.

In the SJV,

growers use

ACP-effective

insecticides

to

control citrus

thrips, katydids,

citricola

scale and

Fuller rose

beetle and

these treatments

help to keep ACP populations

low. However, in-spite of this, ACP is expected

to continue to spread in the SJV

and the disease will appear eventually. In

Southern inland and coastal California,

ACP populations flourish. Environmental

conditions and flushing host plants

easily support nymphal development,

thus the climate in these areas promote

ACP.

What Does the Future

Hold for California

Regarding ACP/HLB?

On a positive note, there are some

factors that may help limit the spread of

HLB in California compared to Florida.

The vector (ACP) thrives on young

vegetative shoots. In Florida, there are

constant flushes of newly developing

tissues for the vector to continually

develop year-round. In contrast, in California

there are normally only two flush

periods for most mature citrus, one in

the spring that is always prominent and

another in the fall that is not as prominent

depending on the weather. The

exception is coastal lemons that have

continuous flushes that pose a significant

challenge to deal with ACP/HLB,

especially since residential and growing

areas are more adjacent compared to

other growing regions. Florida growers

did not control ACP populations

because they did not realize how severe

HLB would be. In contrast, the California

Department of Agriculture (CDFA)

has been monitoring ACP in California

since 2008, sampling citrus and ACP

for HLB around the state, setting up

quarantine areas based on the findings,

and have been working with Californians

to inform them of the spread of

the pest and disease. This program is

funded by California citrus growers via

the Citrus Pest and Disease Prevention

Program (CPDPP). The grower/packer/

nursery community as represented by

the CPDPP in collaboration with various

organizations including CDFA, USDA,

University of California, the Citrus Research

Board, California Citrus Mutual,

Pest Control Districts, Task Forces and

Pest Control Advisors have been at work

to recommend coordinated spray programs

to control ACP populations, assist

with tree removal, conduct outreach

programs, support research and develop

recommendations for HLB management

for the industry going forward.

Comments about this article? We want

to hear from you. Feel free to email us at

article@jcsmarketinginc.com

18 Progressive Crop Consultant January/February 2018


January/February 2018

www.progressivecrop.com

19


Crop load management on

newly planted Pinot gris in the

San Joaquin Valley

By George Zhuang | University of California Cooperative Extension at Fresno County

Matthew Fidelibus | Department of Viticulture and Enology at UC Davis

Most (65 percent) of the total land

area in California planted to Pinot

gris is in the San Joaquin Valley (including

crush district 11, 12, 13, and 14), and

those vineyards produce > 80 percent

of total amount of Pinot gris crushed in

the state. In Fresno County, plantings of

Pinot gris increased by 20 percent (from

1803 acres to 2180 acres) from 2015 to

2016. Growers in the southern SJV receive

an average gross return of $448.98

per ton for Pinot gris (California Grape

Acreage Report and California Grape

Crush Report 2016). The high demand

has prompted wine growers and winery

personnel to focus on maximizing the

production of good quality Pinot gris

under the SJV’s warm climate.

In Fresno County, many current

Pinot gris plantings have been trained to

Figure 1 Left: control in 2016; Right: 0 cluster per shoot in 2016

20 Progressive Crop Consultant January/February 2018


quadrilateral cordons and spur pruned

in an attempt to maximize vine yield

potential. Moreover, many growers are

striving to achieve the earliest possible

financial returns by completing trunk,

and even cordon, training in the first

year after planting. However, this is

difficult with Pinot gris, a variety having

relatively low vigor, and an excessively

aggressive approach could lead to

overcropping, which may have long term

negative consequences for the vines and

ultimately limit their productivity over

time.

PISTACHIOS

ALMONDS

WALNUTS

Figure 2 Top: control in 2016; Bottom: 0 cluster per

shoot in 2016

In order to provide a guideline for

crop load of newly planted Pinot gris in

the SJV, a field study in a commercial

vineyard in western Fresno county was

initiated in April, 2016. The vineyard

was planted in February, 2015 with

dormant bench grafted vines of Pinot

gris (FPS clone 04) grafted on Freedom

rootstocks. Vines were trained to quadrilateral

cordons that were supported by

trellises with 18-inch wide cross arms, 54

inches above the ground. The vineyard

was planted with row spacing of 11 feet

and vine spacing of 5 feet with trunk and

cordon training completed in 2015. Four

levels of cluster thinning were applied in

April, 2016, before bloom when shoots

were approximately 12 inches long. Clusters

were clipped off of shoots, or not,

to achieve four different levels of crop

load; 0 cluster per shoot (0),

1 cluster per 2 shoots (1/2), 1

cluster per shoot (1), and nonthinned

as control (Figure

1, page 20). No further crop

load adjustments were made

thereafter, but vine growth,

yield, and berry compositions

data were collected annually to

determine the initial and subsequent

effects that cropload

adjustment in the first fruiting

year may have over the course

of the first three seasons. All

vines were subjected to the

same irrigation, fertilization,

and pest control practices as

deemed fit by the grower.

Differences in canopy

size were observed by veraison

2016, with non-thinned

vines having the smallest

canopies, whereas defruited

vines (0 clusters per shoot)

Continued on Page 22

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21

5/11/17 4:17 PM


Table 1 Impact of cluster thinning of 2016 on yield components in 2016 and 2017.

Year

2016

2017

Treatment of

2016

Cluster

number/vine

Yield/acre

(ton)

Cluster wt (g)

Pruning wt

(kg/vine)

0 cluster/shoot NA NA NA 1.18 c NA

1 cluster/2 shoots 55.9 a a 5.0 a 124 a 0.75 a 8.3 a

1 cluster/shoot 84. 6 b 6.6 ab 98 b 0.52 b 16.1 b

Control 113. 2 c 7.0 b 78 c 0.46 b 19.9 c

0 cluster/shoot 224 a 16.6 ab 84.6 NA NA

1 cluster/2 shoots 186 b 19.0 a 116.2 NA NA

1 cluster/shoot 162 b 13.9 b 98.3 NA NA

Control 169 b 13.3 b 90 NA NA

Yield/pruning

wt (kg/kg)

a

values with different letter designation represent significant mean separation according to Tukey-Kramer significant

different test at p ≤ 0.05.

Continued from Page 21

had amassed a much larger canopy by

then (Figure 2, page 21). In 2016, nonthinned

vines had greater yields than

vines that were thinned to one cluster

per two shoots, and vines that were

thinned to one cluster per shoot yielded

similarly to non-thinned vines or vines

thinned to one cluster per two shoots;

defruited vines, of course, had no yield

in 2016 (Table 1). Cluster thinning stimulated

greater fruit set and bigger berry

size as evidenced by thinned vines having

more berries per cluster and bigger

berry size than non-thinned vines (Table

2). Cluster thinning also affected berry

compositions, with berries from vines

thinned to one cluster per two shoots

having higher Total Soluble Solids (TSS)

(approximately 2 Brix) at harvest than

fruit from non-thinned vines (Table 2).

Thinning did not affect pH or titratable

acidity (TA) though thinned vines had

slightly higher volatile acidity, indicating

slightly greater bunch rot incidence,

probably due to tighter clusters resulting

from increased berry set and berry size.

The delayed ripening and poor canopy

growth suggest that non-thinned Pinot

gris vines were overcropped in 2016

(Figure 2 (page 21) and 3). Non-thinned

Table 2 Impact of cluster thinning of 2016 on berry compositions in 2016 and 2017.

Year

2016

2017

Treatment of

2016

Berry number/

cluster

Berry wt

(g)

TSS (Brix) a pH TA (g/L) VA (g/L) b

0 cluster/shoot NA NA NA NA NA NA

1 cluster/2 shoots 99 a c 1.06 a 23.6 a 3.5 7.5 0.02 a

1 cluster/shoot 98 a 0.93 b 22.8 ab 3.5 7.1 0.02 ab

Control 75 b 0.86 c 21.6 b 3.4 7.2 0.01 b

0 cluster/shoot 75 1.06 21.9 3.5 5.9 0.01

1 cluster/2 shoots 102 1.06 22.8 3.5 5.8 0.01

1 cluster/shoot 84 1.08 22 3.5 5.8 0.01

Control 75 1.12 23.3 3.5 5.8 0.01

a

the commercial target of TSS for Pinot gris is 22 Brix

b

volatile acidity requirement from the wineries < 0.16 g/L

c

values with different letter designation represent significant mean separation according to Tukey-Kramer significant

different test at p ≤ 0.05.

22 Progressive Crop Consultant January/February 2018


Table 3 Summary of yield and Ravaz Index of 2016 and 2017.

Year 2016 2017 Sum

Treatment Yield (t/acre) Ravaz Index Yield (t/acre) Ravaz Index Yield (t/acre)

(kg/kg)

(kg/kg)

0 cluster/shoot 0 NA 16.6 NA 16.6

1 cluster/2 shoots 5 8.3 19 NA 24.0

1 cluster/shoot 6.6 16.1 13.9 NA 20.5

Control 7 19.9 13.3 NA 20.3

Figure 3 Weekly TSS (Brix) accumulation starting at

the onset of veraison in 2016 with the means represented

from one cluster per two shoots (1/2), one cluster

per shoot (1) and non-thinned (control).

Figure 4 Total soluble solids (Brix) decreased as Ravaz index

increased beyond 10, and the vines became increasingly overcropped

in 2016. Ravaz Index 10

may indicated overcropping,

whereas Ravaz index 10 may also be a reasonable

threshold for these young vines.

Vines with a Ravaz Index >10

in 2016 had the least amount

of berry TSS at the harvest of

2016 and the lowest yields in

2017 (Table 1 and Table 2, page

22). Specifically, a higher Ravaz

Index (>10) in 2016 resulted

in less amount of berry TSS in

2016 and less yield in 2017 (Figure 4

and Figure 5). Thus, overcropping the

first year, Ravaz Index >10, may inhibit

TSS accumulation in the current

growing season, and also limit yield

the following season.

Thus, newly planted Pinot gris on

quadrilateral cordons might benefit

from cluster thinning, e.g., one cluster

per two shoots at the second leaf, in

order to achieve a Ravaz Index ≤10

which may help to achieve long-term

yield and economic sustainability for

the newly planted vines in the SJV.

Comments about this article? We want

to hear from you. Feel free to email us

at article@jcsmarketinginc.com

Figure 5 Vines with a Ravaz Index >10 in 2016

had lower yields in 2017, with yield decreasing

as Ravaz index increased. Ravaz Index


The IPM Tool Box –

MAINTAINING DIVERSITY

AND INVESTMENT

By Peter Goodell | UCCE Advisor Emeritus, IPM

Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

is a well-used term that describes

many things to many people. Since IPM

addresses the complexity of the system,

its parts are usually described rather

than its whole. Making this complex

paradigm understood among its practitioners,

the academic and regulatory

communities and the public is important

in communicating the value, strengths,

and progress in managing pests.

Certainly, one aspect of IPM discussion

is the utilization of multiple

management (and control) approaches.

While integrating both across practices

and pests, the conversation usually

settles on a single pest and management

issue.

For example, when a new pest

threatens a cropping system or an

indigenous pest becomes out of balance

with its environment, affected industries

often request emergency exemptions

for pesticide use outside the established

registered label. Section 18 requests are a

common example.

When making arguments in these situations

for additional “tools” to control

pests are often cited as the critical need

to avoid extraordinary economic losses.

The analogy of IPM practices as “tools”

and that there is a collection in a “tool

box” is useful in describing elements of

the IPM story.

Measure twice,

cut once….

This is the prime directive of any

DIY’er. In IPM, field scouting, accurate

pest identification, and threat assessment

is essential before any decision is made

to treat a site. UC Statewide IPM provides

these guidelines for over 40 crops

in California, which provides the basis

for decision making. When a pest population

exceeds the recognized threshold

for damage and action is required to prevent

economic loss, it is critical to have

access to the right tool (http://ipm.ucanr.

edu/PMG/crops-agriculture.html).

Diversity of Tools

The odds are that there are several

tool boxes around your house, in the

garage and in your truck. Some boxes

may hold tools specific to some problem

while others are more general in their

application. However, when something

needs to be repaired around the house,

the right tool is essential. For example, if

a light fixture needs repair, having only

a pipe wrench in a tool box is not much

use.

In the same vein, IPM works best

when a diversity of tools are available to

respond to specific problems. In most

cases, the problem being addressed

24 Progressive Crop Consultant January/February 2018


presents imminent threat to the crop.

When the situation requires an immediate

response (or fix), it is important to

have a wide selection of chemical tools

with a diversity of active ingredients.

Having access to active ingredients with

multiple modes of action and selectivity,

is important in keeping the tools “sharp”.

Similar to your tool box, overuse of a

tool results in it becoming dull.

If you see all problems

as nails…..

Just having a diverse choice of tools is

not enough. Seeing all problems as nails,

your only tool becomes a hammer. In

IPM, a hammer is a big tool, designed to

take care of the problem immediately. As

any handyman knows, it is important to

avoid collateral damage to your thumb

when using a big hammer.

Big jobs need blueprints…..

Besides small home maintenance

jobs, tools are used for large construction

jobs. For these, having complete

blueprints is critical to manage the construction

process. For IPM, it is important

to take the long view of managing

pests. Developing a plan for managing

pests in the context of the agro-ecosystem

is essential for sustainable agriculture.

Creating an IPM plan provides a

reflective opportunity to review current

practices and access all the tools available

in the IPM tool box.

UC IPM has worked with United

States Department of Agriculture

(USDA)-Natural Resource Conservation

Service (NRCS) to develop a planning

process which incorporated IPM into the

NRCS resource conversation farm planning

process (http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PDF/

PMG/NRCS_Step-By-Step_Instructions.

pdf). Using the UC IPM Guidelines, one

Continued on Page 26

The same is true for IPM. Many of

our large hammers are broad spectrum

insecticides with potential collateral

damage to the ecosystem being managed.

Such broad spectrum tools can

destroy the balance in the field or orchard

by removing natural enemies and

result in resurgence of the primary and

secondary pests, placing your field onto

the pesticide thread mill.

Using many little

hammers….

One of the concepts IPM practitioners

espouse is the use of “many small

hammers”. By this we mean increasing

the mortality of the pests through multiple

approaches. For example, recent,

innovative biorational insecticides may

not provide the expected level of control

of previously used chemical classes, but

have less impact on the natural enemy

complex which provides additional mortality

sources. Not only do the natural

enemies act as many small hammers,

using selective, suppressive insecticides,

adds additional smaller hammers to

increase the overall population management.

These non-chemical practices are essential

but underutilized tools in the tool

box. While chemical tools are critical

for immediate intervention, the cultural,

biological and crop production practices

are essential for managing pests in the

long term.

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Continued from Page 25

can review current practices, identify

potential environmental issues, suggest

alternative approaches (chemical, biological

and cultural), and provide documentation

of progress.

In addition, UC IPM has developed

a decision support tool (DST) for alfalfa,

almond, citrus and cotton (http://www2.

ipm.ucanr.edu/decisionsupport/). This

tool provides an easy approach to the

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines

(PMG), allowing for an easy comparison

of chemical and non-chemical

approaches across multiple arthropod

pests. DST provides a convenient report

including pest identification, population

assessment, evaluation of the threat, and

review of all management and control

options.

Within the report, links provide

specific guidance from PMGs to review

options with grower clients. Chemical

options provide resistance management

information, impact on

beneficial predators, parasites,

pollinators, and surface water

quality concerns. The report

provides an IPM annual plan

and meets the requirement on

written recommendation that

PCAs have “considered alternatives

and mitigation measures

that would substantially lessen

any significant adverse impact

on the environment have been

considered and, if feasible,

adopted”.

How do we get new

tools?

The IPM Tool Box depends

on both private and public

sectors to fund new and innovative

tools and practices. The

insecticide tools are developed

with private investment requiring many

years of research and registration process

with hope of successful payoffs. As mentioned,

these tools are the first to be used

as intervention.

The other tools in the tool box are

developed with public sector funds or

commodity based assessment fees. The

latter tends to address immediate and

intermediate issues such as invasive

species or resurgence of endemic pests.

These funds tend to be directed toward

the “problem du jour” and seeking immediate

results.

Public sector funds have been directed

toward research seeking solutions to

intermediate and long term issues. These

have supported independent projects

which can be directed to problems not

covered by other resources. As part of

the original UC IPM Program “charter”,

a competitive research program was conducted

for over 20 years. This program

provided the basis for many of the Pest

Management Guidelines including sampling,

threat assessments, management

options, phenology models, cultural

and biological practices, and pest/crop

interactions.

Unfortunately the research component

of UC IPM was lost during the UC

budget reductions in the early 2000’s.

The loss of these public funds has impacted

our ability to consider and pursue

longer term questions. It has especially

affected those crops which cannot support

a research assessment program such

as many row and field crops.

The IPM Tool Box is filled with

tools which can wear out and need

replacement. While private investment

is available for chemical tools, public

investment is less available for cultural

and biological control tools. Without

public commitment to IPM, the tool box

will continue to become less diverse and

robust, creating a dependence on fewer

alternatives and increasing our reliance

on insecticide options.

Comments about this article? We want

to hear from you. Feel free to email us at

article@jcsmarketinginc.com

26 Progressive Crop Consultant January/February 2018


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www.progressivecrop.com

27


NITROGEN FERTILITY

MANAGEMENT

OF COOL SEASON

VEGETABLES:

A yearround

perspective

By Richard Smith | Vegetable Crops Farm Advisor,

Monterey County, CA

Effective nutrient management is

critical to successful and economical

production of cool-season vegetables

on the Central Coast of California. The

coastal valleys produce 90 percent of

the lettuce for the US market during the

summer production season. Since the

1920’s when lettuce was first shipped

by rail across the country, nitrogen (N)

fertility practices were developed to be

successful over a wide range of soil types

and irrigation practices. The cost of N

28 Progressive Crop Consultant January/February 2018


Lettuce.

All photos courtesy of Richard Smith.

fertilizer is a small percent of growing

costs (5-6 percent) and, N fertilizer rates

that guarantee successful crop production,

may exceed crop uptake and

not result in environmental efficiency.

However, regulatory pressure from the

Regional Water Quality Control Boards

are compelling growers to implement

fertilization practices that improve N use

efficiency. Many growers have embraced

this challenge and are making progress

to bring the rates of applied N much

closer to the levels of uptake by the crop.

To do so, growers are embracing new

knowledge regarding fate and availability

of N during the growth cycle.

Ammonium and nitrate are the

forms of mineral N primarily taken

up by plants. In warm soils during the

summer, ammonium nitrifies rapidly to

nitrate which is the main pool of residual

soil N available for crop growth. However,

the nitrate molecule has a negative

charge, is not adsorbed by soil colloids,

and is highly mobile with water passing

through the soil. As a result, at the

beginning of the crop cycle in years with

normal to above normal winter rainfall,

soils typically have low levels of residual

soil nitrate (e.g. < 10 ppm NO 3

-N) because

of leaching. Knowing the levels of

residual soil nitrate helps guide fertilizer

Continued on Page 30

January/February 2018

www.progressivecrop.com

29


Table 1 Typical macronutrient uptake and harvest removal of annual vegetable crops at

normal yield levels. Continued from Page 29

Crop Seasonal crop uptake (lb/acre) % nutrient

removal

N P K with harvest

Broccoli 250-350 40-50 280-380 25-35

Brussels Sprouts 350-500 40-60 300-500 30-50

Cabbage 280-380 40-50 300-400 50-60

Cantaloupe 150-200 15-25 170-250 50-65

Carrot 150-220 25-40 200-300 60-70

Cauliflower 250-300 40-45 250-300 25-35

Celery 200-300 40-60 300-500 50-65

Head or Romaine Lettuce 120-160 12-16 150-200 50-60

Baby Lettuce 60-70 5-7 80-100 60-75

Onion 150-180 25-35 200-260 65-75

Pepper (Bell) 240-350 25-50 300-450 65-75

Potato 170-250 30-40 250-300 65-75

Processing Tomato 220-320 35-45 300-400 60-70

Spinach 90-130 12-18 150-200 65-75

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decisions because, if levels are

low, fertilization is necessary,

but if levels are high, fertilizer

applications can be reduced or

skipped.

Table 1 shows typical levels

of N taken up by several crops

grown in Monterey County.

The uptake of N can vary to

some degree from these values

depending on yield potential

of the crop and residual N in

the soil. During the crop cycle,

N uptake by crops follows a

typical sigmoidal curve. For instance,

in direct seeded lettuce,

small amounts of N (about 10

lbs N/A) are taken up by the

crop during the first 24–28

days of the crop cycle. This

amount of N can be supplied

by a modest application of

starter fertilizer or by N in an

anticrustant. However, during

the next 35-40 days to harvest,

N uptake is 3-4 lbs N/A/day

following a linear uptake pattern. This

is the key part of the crop cycle that we

evaluate levels of residual soil nitrate to

make effective fertilizer decisions.

Adjusting fertilizer N

applications based on

soil nitrate-N

Soil nitrate levels are measured prior

to post-thinning N applications in the

top foot of soil for most cool-season

vegetables. Samples can be analyzed for

nitrate by a commercial lab. However,

the nitrate quick test (http://ucanr.edu/

blogs/blogcore/postdetail.cfm?postnum=4406

) is used to analyze soil on

the same day to facilitate making fertilizer

decisions based on the current levels

in the soil. If residual soil nitrate levels

are low (20 ppm NO3-N) indicate that

the fertilizer application can be greatly

reduced or skipped. Residual soil

nitrate-N levels of 20 ppm NO 3

-N in the

top foot of soil is equivalent to 70 to 80

lbs of N (depending on soil bulk density)

and this quantity is sufficient to supply

30 Progressive Crop Consultant January/February 2018


the crop for 10-14 days. Soil nitrate levels decline later in the

crop cycle due to crop uptake and losses from leaching, and

residual soil nitrate can be measured again prior to the next

fertilization event to determine further fertilizer N needs. Residual

soil nitrate levels of 20 ppm during the critical growth

period following thinning indicates sufficient N is available

for optimal crop growth. However, in the week prior to harvest

soil nitrate levels can decline to below this level without

jeopardizing crop yield.

Nitrate in

Irrigation Water

Nitrate in irrigation water can also supply N for crop

growth. The quantity of nitrate-N in irrigation water can be

calculated from the following formula:

ppm NO 3

-N in irrigation water x 0.227 = lb N/acre inch of

water

Table 2 N in irrigation water and typical crop water usage

ppm NO 3

-N

in irrigation

lbs N/acre

inch

10 2.3 16 – 23

20 4.5 32 – 45

40 9.1 64 – 91

60 13.6 95 – 136

lbs N for a crop using

7 – 10 acre inches water

Nitrate in irrigation wells along the coast vary from less

than 10 ppm NO 3

-N to wells that have greater than 50 ppm

NO 3

-N. Calculating the quantity of N supplied by the irrigation

water is made by multiplying the seasonal water uptake

of the crop by the nitrate concentration of the water. Broccoli

and cauliflower take up from 7-11 inches of water and lettuce

5-9 inches of water. As can be seen in Table 2 waters supplying

> 40 ppm NO 3

-N can supply significant quantities of N

for crop growth. In trials conducted in 2016-17, we observed

that fertilization practices can be modified by a small amount

(10 – 20 lbs N/A) with irrigation waters with < 20 ppm NO 3

-N,

however for wells with > 40 ppm NO 3

-N, fertilization rates can

be reduced more substantially (40 lbs to much more).

Sources of Residual

Soil Nitrate-N

Levels of residual soil nitrate build up during production of

the first crop which can result in substantial quantities of residual

soil N at the beginning of the second crop. Residual soil

nitrate-N comes from the following sources: mineralization of

crop residues, unused fertilizer, NO 3

-N in irrigation water and

mineralization of soil organic matter. The quantity of N that

remains in the field following harvest can be substantial (Table

1, page 30) and can vary from 35 to >200 lbs N/A in spinach

and broccoli, respectively. The concentration of N in crop residues

varies from 2.5 to 5.0. Incubation studies of cool-season

vegetable residues indicate more rapid mineralization of N with

higher concentrations of N in the tissue; most mineralization

Continued on Page 32

January/February 2018

www.progressivecrop.com

31


Continued from Page 31

occurs in the first 2-4 weeks after incorporation

into moist soil, and the rate of

mineralization of crop residues declines

significantly after the first month. Tillage

operations to prepare the soil for the

second crop generally take 3-4 weeks

during which time, crop residues from

the first crop have sufficient time and

generally sufficient soil moisture to complete

decomposition, leaving a pool of

available nitrate at the beginning of the

second crop.

For example, in a trial conducted

in 2017 on second crop of head lettuce

following rapini (generally containing

140-150 lbs N/A in the crop residue @

5 percent N in the tissue), the levels of

soil nitrate-N were 30 ppm at planting.

This field also had 56 ppm NO 3

-N in the

water and provided an excellent opportunity

to see how far we could reduce N

applications under conditions of high

ing). There were no differences in yield

among the treatments. These data underscore

the importance of residual soil

nitrate, as well as nitrate in the irrigation

water can have on crop nutrition.

Nitrate Scavenging

Scavenging of nitrate from the soil

profile occurs when a crop takes up

more N than has been applied as fertilizer.

Several crops routinely take up more

nitrogen than is applied. For instance,

summer-grown broccoli is routinely fertilized

with 160 to 200 lbs N/A, but takes

up over 300 lbs N/A. It has roots that

extend down to three feet or more in the

soil which facilitates its ability to retrieve

N from deeper in the soil profile to supply

its N needs beyond what is supplied

by fertilizer. In this sense, broccoli acts

like an in-season cover crop by bringing

nitrate that is at-risk of leaching, back to

the surface where we get another chance

at utilizing it. All crops have the potential

of scavenging nitrate-N from the

soil if we account for residual soil N and

adjust fertilizer programs accordingly.

The end of the production cycle,

prior to the winter fallow, is the Achilles

heel in our efforts to reduce nitrate

leaching. Soil nitrate levels tend to rise

during the fall and early winter because

soil temperatures are still warm enough

to allow for mineralization of crop

residues and soil organic matter. Winter-grown

cover crops such as cereals

can capture this pool of residual soil

nitrate and keep it in the crop biomass

thereby reducing the leaching. Cereal

cover crops have been shown to take up

150 to 200 lbs N/A over the winter. This

is an excellent practice for reducing the

risk of nitrate leaching during the winter.

Unfortunately, the economics of vegetable

production in the Salinas Valley do

not favor the use of cover crops and they

are used on only 5-7 percent of the crop

Table 3 2017 fertilizer & irrigation trial. Second crop of lettuce

Treatment

Applied water

inches/A

N in irrigation

water lbs/A

Fertilizer N

applied lbs/

acre

Total

Cartons/

acre

yield

Percent

24 count

boxes

Grower 7.9 100 63 1033 88.6 2.7

BMP 9.1 116 7 1058 94.6 2.6

Intermediate 9.1 116 32 1084 97.4 2.7

Untrimmed

head wt.

lbs/head

residual soil nitrate and irrigation waters

with high nitrate content. Treatments

included the grower standard practice,

a best management practice (BMP) and

an intermediate fertilizer treatment. The

yield evaluations shown in Table 3 are

of a commercial harvest (12 beds wide

by the length of the field, 900 feet). The

trial was conducted on a sandy loam soil

that was sprinkler irrigated until thinning,

at which time drip irrigation was

installed and used to irrigate the crop

until harvest. The irrigation water in the

grower and BMP treatments applied 100

and 116 lbs N/A in the irrigation water,

respectively. Soil nitrate levels over the

course of the season were high and no

post thinning N applications were made

to the BMP treatment (only 7 lbs N/A

were added in the anticrustant at plant-

Spinach is grown in high-density plantings on 80-inch wide beds with sprinkler irrigation.

32 Progressive Crop Consultant January/February 2018


acreage.

Other Techniques for

Improving Nitrogen

Use Efficiency

Nitrogen technologies such as

nitrification inhibitors and controlled

release fertilizers have been evaluated for

use on lettuce and spinach. In general,

these technologies are most useful in

situations with high leaching potential,

such as sandy soils with high rates of

irrigation. In the Salinas Valley crops

grown on high density beds are the most

difficult to effectively manage efficiently

because the crops are shallow rooted and

there is no opportunity to use drip irrigation.

In studies on spinach grown on

high density beds, nitrogen technologies

such as controlled release fertilizers and

nitrification inhibitors provided measureable

but modest improvements in N

use efficiency. The effectiveness of these

materials will vary significantly from

field to field based on soil type, temperatures

and irrigation practices making

benefits specific to a crop difficult to

predict. However, over the long-term,

these technologies can help to reduce

N application rates while safeguarding

yield.

As mentioned above a weak link in

reducing leaching of nitrate to ground

water is the winter fallow period. We

are evaluating the use of high carbon

amendments, such as ground almond

shells, to tie up (immobilize) nitrate in

the soil. In studies conducted in Europe,

this technique was shown to reduce

15-25 percent percent of leaching of N

from cauliflower residues. Initial trials of

this practice are underway to determine

benefits that this practice can provide in

our cropping systems.

In summary, a key practice to improve

nitrogen use efficiency in intensively-managed

cool season vegetable

production systems include effectively

utilizing residual soil nitrates and adjusting

fertilizer application rates accordingly.

Many growers are including more

testing in their fertilizer programs and

are making progress towards improving

nitrogen use efficiency.

Comments about this article? We want

to hear from you. Feel free to email us at

article@jcsmarketinginc.com

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Pre-Register today and support this local

effort to bring a first class venue to your

doorstep, so we can plan the best show

for you!

Kern County Fairgrounds

1142 S P St,

Bakersfield, CA 93307

November 28, 2018

34 Progressive Crop Consultant January/February 2018


40 Years of Farming Experience

The Foundation of your Fertilizer Program

High Phos is a unique source of phosphorus with

potassium and chelated iron designed for use in the soil.

Phosphorus is required in high levels to supply the many

energy requiring reactions in the metabolism of the plant. The

polyphosphate is readily converted into usable forms and is

soluble in the soil solution for uptake into the plant.

The balanced formulation of essential nutrients contains

organic and amino acids to stabilize the nutrients and

facilitate their chelation, uptake, translocation and use.

• #1 choice for supplemental phosphorus

• Enhance the phosphorous levels in your soil

• Greater root growth and increased uptake

of phosphorous

• Growers use less and save valuable time

and money due to the effectiveness of

High Phos

WRT Inc is a licenced distributor of

Bio Si and Baicor products.

Contact Joseph Witzke: 209.720.8040 or Visit us online at www.wrtag.com

January/February 2018 www.progressivecrop.com 35


JOIN THE FIGHT

AGAINST DISEASE.

The Champs family of fungicides has you covered with the protection

you demand from copper with an easy handling, high performance

line-up. ChampION ++ Fungicide/Bactericide provides you

with micro particles for increased coverage, while Champ ® WG

Agricultural Fungicide delivers a high metallic load for

optimal strength. Both formulations are OMRI listed

for use in organic crop production, and field-proven

for peace-of-mind.

Get a copper fungicide that won’t back down.

For more information on Champ WG or ChampION ++ ,

contact your Nufarm rep today.

© 2017 Nufarm. Always read and follow label instructions.

ChampION ++ and Champ ® are trademarks or registered

trademarks of Nufarm Americas.

57398 10/17

36 Progressive Crop Consultant January/February 2018

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