Women's Suffrage and rights in the constitutions of the world​

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There are signs that indicate the degree of evolution and emancipation achieved by society. This publication photographs the situation on 1 January 2020, highlighting two fundamental aspects:

1) the establishment of universal female suffrage and the percentage of women in parliaments around the world;

2) the recognition or denial of the fundamental rights of women in the Constitutions of all the countries of the world.

Luca Marchiò Zanotta

WOMEN'S

SUFFRAGE AND RIGHTS

IN THE CONSTITUTIONS OF THE WORLD

24.9%

2020

English edition supervision: Margaret Nicol



February 14, 2020. Lake Como

To people all over the world who fight for the emancipation of women



Luca Marchiò Zanotta

WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE AND RIGHTS

IN THE CONSTITUTIONS OF THE WORLD

English edition supervision: Margaret Nicol



PRESENTATION

In the recognition of women's rights, different levels of constitutional forecasting can be identified. The analysis of the

Constitutions of the world of this publication takes place by highlighting the specific rights expressed in the charts with

direct reference to women, sex or gender. This does not mean that the rights granted to women are only those specified and

explained in this publication: a general rule of recognition of rights to all persons or to all citizens can lead to a generic

recognition either by a judge also of rights, such as access to the labor market and the recognition of a wage equal to that of

a man, or equal access to public offices or public health care, even if there is no explicit constitutional provision that

mentions women or both sexes. In other cases, we have rules outside the Constitution that recognize women fundamental

rights, especially in the common law legal systems.

The purpose of this publication, however, is to highlight the intervention of the Constituent Fathers in various countries of

the world in favor of women, recognizing their biological specificity and their socio-economic conditions, in many cases

unfavorable compared to those of a man. The recognition of their biological specificity ranges, for example, from the rights

related to motherhood, which cannot be denied to a woman who wants to legitimately live freely the conception, the birth

of a child and the growth of the child without the whole negatively affecting work and family, depriving her of her right to

self-determination and full personal fulfillment. The recognition of specific socio-economic conditions, for example, extends

from the removal of those legislative, financial and cultural obstacles (with a male-dominated social imprint) that prevent

them from accessing the highest levels of education, to managerial work roles, to the highest positions in the State, to full

emancipation. However, the impact and direction towards which certain rules referring to women tend to be well evaluated:

there is in fact a concrete risk that some statements that formally protect motherhood and the possibility of contracting

marriage, are more correctly to be understood as women’s role of procreator of children or wife of man, without identifying

a path of valorization, emancipation and independence women, reduced by the male-dominated subculture to a secondary

and non-autonomous role in society.

So far the formal right is, however ,very important, because it directs society and in a courtroom can allow women the

recognition of their often denied rights. The publication accomplishes a small step in substantive law by offering a statistical

overview of the historical evolution and the increase in women elected to Parliament. Universal suffrage and the right to

assume parliamentary, governmental and presidential positions represent the abc of the condition of recognition of

women's rights: and we will see how, as of 1 January 2020, only 4 parliaments in the world out of 197 have a female

representation in the Lower Chamber equal to or greater than 50% of their components. In all other cases, the affirmation of

the male dominates, which in the past could be identified in the rich white male. But that is not enough. The election of

women in Parliament, however important in itself, may not produce an automatic improvement in the material conditions of

the lives of women themselves.

The method followed in identifying women's rights in the Constitutions deliberately excluded the chapters intended for

citizenship rights, which are not the subject of this study, and in the indication of universal suffrage privileged and

extrapolated the general rule, omitting the details on the restrictions of the right to the active and passive electorate, which

are studies pertaining to parliamentary law. The studies and essays in this publication do not presume to be exhaustive, but

tenaciously pursue the objective of highlighting aspects of formal and substantive law that photograph the path taken so far

in affirming the self-determination of women and the long steps still to be taken for their full independence, affirmation and

emancipation in the year 2020, on the hundredth anniversary of the approval of the XIX amendment to the Constitution of

the United States of America, which acknowledged active and passive electoral rights for white women, yet still excluding

native Americans, blacks and others belonging to ethnic minorities from the effective exercise of their rights. In the United

States of America it was necessary to wait until 1966 for active and passive electoral law to become universal and substantial

in all States.

The road to take in the year 2020 towards the full emancipation of women is still long, full of obstacles, male-dominated,

paternalistic subcultural resistance and socio-economic conditions of serious disadvantage.

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ANALYSIS

Always, in all historical periods, in all societies and even today, women suffer the compression of their rights, are subject to

discrimination and do not see their biological diversity recognized: patriarchal communities suffocate, with different

intensities from one State to another, the full self-determination of women, the full exercise of affirmation in politics, in

managerial roles, in culture and in society.

The possibility of female self-determination grows proportionally in each state based on access to income: the more a

woman will have access to a well-paid job position, the more she will be able to exercise her individual rights. The world,

more than in states, is divided by wealth: access to wealth determines access to collective and personal freedoms.

But the world is also divided by States, in many different microcosms: their intense separation is more imposed by economic

powers than by the will of the individual communities. People and governments around the world are forced by economic

powers to suffer wars and violations of rights, including the compression of women's rights. The government of the United

States of America works incessantly in every corner of the world to guarantee and expand women's rights, coming into

conflict with economic powers that work in the opposite direction for the sole purpose of illegitimately preserving economic

and financial power in the hands of a few to the detriment of the vast multitude of the world, starting with those women who

see themselves relegated to strength in the unique roles of mother and domestic management.

There are signs that indicate the degree of evolution and emancipation achieved by society. This publication photographs

the situation on 1 January 2020, highlighting two fundamental aspects:

1) the establishment of universal female suffrage and the percentage of women in parliaments around the world;

2) the recognition or denial of the fundamental rights of women in the Constitutions of all the countries of the world.

A) STATE SECULARITY

The cornerstone of any State and of any democracy is the secular State. The State cannot be confessional, but must

necessarily be secular. The recognized freedom of exercising religious faiths can in no case be transformed into the

affirmation of a fundamentalist State. Unfortunately, in the year 2020, it is necessary to point out that many States still have

a confessional approach, where they make the bold will of a God prevail over the full exercise of the very personal rights of

men and women. To pay the price of this approach , contrary to the rule of law, are, above all, women, who see themselves

crushed into a marginal social role, without being able to access the highest offices of State: this happens for example in the

Vatican, where no woman has ever had access to the college of cardinals, but also in Syria, where a woman, deduced from

the literal wording of the norm (1), cannot be elected head of state, but can only be the wife (of exclusively Syrian origin) of

the President. In addition to access to public offices, the compression of rights also takes place through the affirmation of the

Shari'a, the Islamic law, which finds direct references in the following Constitutions: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Brunei, Iran,

Kuwait, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Syria, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.

In the Tunisian Constitution, however, the preamble states that "the State guarantees the supremacy of the law", but in article

74 the norm is contradicted by the requirements for the election as President of the Republic, among which is the profession

of the Islamic religion. The state organization of Vatican City is always of a confessional nature, in this case of

Christian-Catholic matrix. The separation between State and religion, the affirmation of the secular State and its laws,

remains an indispensable cornerstone of democracy in every corner of the earth. In this sense the advanced Constitution of

Nepal that even affirms (2) that “There shall not be any physical, mental, sexual or psychological or any other kind of violence

against women, or any kind of oppression based on religious, social and cultural tradition, and other practices” should be

noted.

There are also evident cases (3) of patriarchal, masculinist and classist approaches: Armenia (special protection of

motherhood “for the preservation and reproduction of the population”); Cyprus (“a married woman shall belong to the

Community [Greek or Turkish] to which her husband belongs”); India (“seats shall be reserved for the Scheduled Castes”); Iran

(“precious function of motherhood, rearing of ideologically committed human beings, … - woman – becomes the fellow

struggler of man in all vital areas of life”); Yemen (“Women are the sisters of man. They have rights and duties, which are

guaranteed and assigned by Shari’ah and stipulated by law”).

1 Syria, art. 84, par. 4: “The candidate for the office of President of the Republic should…not be married to a non-Syrian wife”)

2 Nepal, art. 38, par. 3.

3 Armenia, art. 16; Cyprus, art. 2, par. 7 ; India, art. 243T; Iran, preamble; Yemen, art. 31.

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B) UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE AND PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATION

Decades of battles, even bloody struggles, have led women almost all over the world to conquer the most elementary of

rights, tooth and nail, in a vision of equality with man: the right to vote, to choose their own legislators and be candidates to

become legislators. Since New Zealand, the first sovereign State, granted women the right to vote in 1893, up to now 127

years have passed, yet universal suffrage has not yet found affirmation everywhere: in 2002 Bahrain, in 2003 Qatar, in 2005

the Kuwait, in 2006 the United Arab Emirates, in 2008 Bhutan, in 2011-2012 Saudi Arabia (4), were among the last States to

recognize the right of active and passive electorate to women. Unfortunately the Vatican insists on not allowing access to

women in any high hierarchy. Suffrage cannot be considered universal even in Kuwait, because the vote is guaranteed on the

condition that "women stay in line with Islamic traditions".

To confirm that there is a gender inequality, that societies have a male-dominated and patriarchal stance as of 1 January

2020, are the figures of the parliamentary representation which say: out of a total of 46,540 parliamentarians, men hold

34,953 seats (75.1%) , women only 11,587 (24.9%): in the Lower Chamber out of a total of 39,345 members, only 9,813 are

women, equal to 24.94%; in the Upper House out of a total of 7,195, only 1,774 are women, equal to 24.66%. The overall

picture of the single States shows how in the 197 sovereign States (5) examined, only in 3 cases can the Lower Chamber of

the Parliament boast a higher representation of women than men (Rwanda, Cuba and Bolivia). In the case of the United Arab

Emirates (with a presidential decree of 2018, which represents an avant-garde light in the Arab world) there is equal

representation. In only 20 other cases is the percentage equal or greater than 40 (Mexico, Nicaragua, Sweden, Grenada,

Andorra, South Africa, Finland, Costa Rica, Spain, Senegal, Namibia, Switzerland, Norway, Mozambique, Argentina, New

Zealand, Belgium, Belarus, North Macedonia and Portugal). In all the other 173 States the percentage is less than 40 and

confirms gender inequality and the social discrimination that women have to suffer in society which are also transferred into

Parliament. The borderline cases are given by three states that register an absolute zero in the presence of women within the

Lower Chamber (Micronesia, Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu), with Micronesia boasting the sad record, shared with the

Vatican, of not having ever had a parliamentary woman. It should be noted that Cuba has achieved gender equality without

any specific laws, as happened instead in Bolivia, which imposed gender alternation on the electoral lists and placed the

female candidate at the top of the lists in the event of an odd number of candidates. The laws that guarantee an electoral

quota or a reserve of seats for women are adopted with the aim of rebalancing what is a serious imbalance that originates

from social, economic and cultural conditions that damage women's fundamental right to access management roles both in

public institutions, and in private companies: refusing to approve laws for rebalancing in parliamentary and governmental

representations means slowing down the process of empowering women in society. It is not surprising that some women

are against such laws in their favor: they are those with less self-awareness of their rights, which derives from an oppressive

society which would like the marginal role of women to continue to be the norm.

The factsheets of the individual States show in which cases there are electoral quotas reserved for women, which do not

necessarily derive from legislation included in the Constitution: the source can also be the electoral law or an ad hoc act.

Sometimes the forecast is very weak: the calculation of female parliamentary representation is determined by the statutes of

the individual parties, with results almost never sufficient to overcome the social gap that women have to bear. To prove it

there are the percentages of women actually elected, far from that 50% that reflects the composition of the population.

Moreover, if in some cases (6) the reserving of seats or the electoral quotas established in the Constitutions has led to having

in at least one of the two Chambers an appreciable female representation of more than 40%, in other cases (7) a rebalancing

shock has taken place but has settled on a percentage between 30% and 40%, while in many cases (8) where the percentage

is less than 30 it can be said that the constitutional provision is only a facade but does not act effectively in the

representational rebalancing : the extreme case is represented by Papua New Guinea which, despite the statement (9),

boasts the sad record of zero women among the 111 parliamentarians.

Next to the name of the State in the factsheet is the year in which women, all women without any ethnic or other

discrimination, have won the rights to vote and stand for national elections. A problem is created for those States that before

becoming independent were colonies: the year indicated is that in which the suffrage became universal, even if this

happened before independence, under occupation and foreign domination, and it was then confirmed after independence.

No one should miss the opportune evaluations on the effective exercise of women's rights in a state occupied and

dominated by foreign powers, which in some cases, as in that of Algeria and other African states and the rest of the world,

have given birth to intense struggles for freedom, democracy and the end of colonial occupation. However the cases of

States born of the dissolution of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia are different in that women there had already won,

decades before, the right to active and passive electorate, albeit in different years in the case of the Soviet Republics.

4 In September 2011, King Abdullah announced that women would be granted the right to both vote and stand for election from 2012. In 2015 women

participated for the first time in municipal elections.

5 The independent country is not only a self-governed nation with its own authorities, but this status needs the international diplomatic recognition of

sovereignty. Thereby, we can say that the total number of independent states in the world today is 197, including 193 fully recognized members of the

United Nations and 2 countries, Vatican City and Palestine, have the status of permanent observers in the UN. The other 2 states we include in the list are

Kosovo (recognized by 115 States, of which 15 have since been withdrawn) and Taiwan (recognized by 15 countries).

6 Argentina (40.86% and 40.28%); Belgium (40.67% and 45%); Bolivia (53.08% and 47.22%); Burundi (36.36% and 46.15%); Nicaragua (47.25%); Portugal

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6 Argentina (40.86% and 40.28%); Belgium (40.67% and 45%); Bolivia (53.08% and 47.22%); Burundi (36.36% and 46.15%); Nicaragua (47.25%); Portugal

(40%); Rwanda (61.25% and 38.46%); Senegal (43.03%); Zimbabwe (31.85% and 43.75%)

7 Ecuador (39.42%); France (39.51% and 33.33%); Italy (35.71% e 34.38%); Kosovo (31,67%); Nepal (32.73% and 37.29%); Serbia (37.65%); Taiwan (38.05%);

Tanzania (36.9%); Timor-Leste (38.46%); Uganda (34.86%).

8 Afghanistan (27.02% and 27.94%); Congo (Brazzavile) (11.26% and 18.84%); Egypt (15.1%); Eswatini (9.59% and 33.33%); Kenya (21.78% and 30.88%);

Mauritania (20.26%); Morocco (20.51% and 11.67%); Pakistan (20.18% and 19.23%); Papua New Guinea (0%); Samoa (10%); Saudi Arabia (19.87%); Slovenia

(27.78% and 10%); Somalia (24.36 and 24.07%); South Sudan (28.46% and 12%); Thailand (16.2% and 10%); Zambia (16.77%).

9 Papua New Guinea, art. 101, par. 1: “the Parliament is a single-chamber legislature, consisting of:(…)a number of women elected from a single-member

women’s electorates ad defined under an Organic Law”.

C) REPRESENTATION IN GOVERNMENT, IN CONSTITUTIONAL AND JUDICIAL

ORGANS AND IN THE DECISION-MAKING RANKS

There are only three Constitutions (Bolivia, South Sudan and Zimbabwe) that indicate the necessary presence of women and

gender balance within the national government. More numerous are those that establish a reserve of posts or announce the

principle of gender balance in the elections and in the appointment of the members of the organs provided for by the

Constitution (10) (including some ad hoc Commissions created to promote the full integration of women in society) and

members of the judiciary (11). Of great interest is also recognizing the importance and favoring of women's access to top

positions in public and private decision-making bodies (12), where decisions are actually taken and made to fall on others:

they cannot be a restricted club for men only, mostly white and wealthy.

10 Central African Republic; Ecuador; Eswatini; Ghana; Guyana; Kenya; Kosovo; Nepal; Niger; Rwanda; South Africa; South Sudan; Thailand; Zambia;

Zimbabwe.

11 Burundi; Ecuador; Kosovo; Morocco; South Africa; South Sudan; Zimbabwe.

12 Burundi; Chad; China; Colombia; Côte d’Ivoire; Dominican Republic; Egypt; Equatorial Guinea; Ethiopia; France; Ghana; Guyana; Haiti; Rwanda; Uganda;

Zambia; Zimbabwe.

D) ACCESS TO THE LABOR MARKET, EQUAL PAY FOR WORK, MATERNITY LEAVE

The emancipation and self-determination of women in any society ranges from their access to the labor market, to their

access to decent wages that allow them to lead an independent life, without having to depend economically on the

husband's livelihood. However, women tend to be paid less in the labor markets for equal professional services rendered by

men, tend to be exploited more frequently, tend to be discriminated against in accessing professions because of the

biological specificity that allows them to procreate human life. In many Constitutions specific articles have been included

that guarantee equal pay (13), the right to access to the labor market in conditions of equity (14), non-dismissability before

and after childbirth (15), which intersects and in some cases coincides with the right to maternity leave (16) (with salary and

job retention): four nodes that any State must face in regulating the relationship between work and women. In particular, the

biological specificity of women to procreate human life must necessarily be recognized and find the right place in labor law,

so that the free choice of having a child does not have negative repercussions in the life of the woman. Many countries have

taken measures, even outside the Constitutions, to recognize women's rights in accessing the labor market. Among the

States that wanted to recognize and include them in their Constitutions, due to the abundance of details and regulations

even in the length of maternity leave, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay and Timor-Leste

certainly deserve a mention.

In some cases (17) the right of women not to be employed in jobs that could jeopardize their health is also recognized, in

other cases (18) the right to reconcile work times with those to be dedicated to the family (to be investigated in the social

reality of each country, because this right could still be distorted and backfire against women closed in the role of housework

and child rearing, from which the husband can escape). The Constitution of North Korea deserves praise, because it explicitly

recognizes the right to be supported by a network of kindergartens, which are fundamental for mothers who want to work

and, in child care in preschool age, for those who cannot rely on babysitters for economic reasons or on grandparents and

relatives for other reasons. The Ghana Constitution also speaks of “facilities for the care of children below school-going age

to enable women realise their full potential”. Other generic nursery services are mentioned in other Constitutions (Cambodia

and others).

The Constitutions of Guyana and Venezuela recognize the social and economic value of unpaid work performed at home.

The Sierra Leone Constitution provides specific welfare for working women. That of Bangladesh undertakes to reserve for

women places of work normally reserved for men. Those in Ecuador, Nepal and Somalia guarantee access to the armed

forces and police on equal terms.

13 Belarus; Brazil; Burkina Faso; Cabo Verde; Cambodia; China; Ecuador; Ethiopia; Finland; Greece; Guyana; India; Italy; Korea (South); Lesotho; Liberia; Malta;

Mexico; Myanmar (Burma); Namibia; Nepal; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Panama; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Senegal; Sierra Leone; South Sudan; Suriname; Tunisia;

Ukraine; Zimbabwe.

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14 Algeria; Bangladesh; Belarus; Burkina Faso; Costa Rica; Côte d’Ivoire; Croatia; Czech Republic; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Finland; Gabon; Gambia;

Ghana; Guatemala; Guinea; Guyana; Haiti; Italy; Jordan; Korea (South); Lesotho; Malta; Moldova; Montenegro; Paraguay; Poland; Romania; Senegal; Serbia;

Somalia; Spain; Suriname; Timor-Leste; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey; Ukraine; Venezuela; Zimbabwe.

15 Bolivia; Cambodia; Czech Republic; Ecuador; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Lesotho; Mexico; Myanmar; Nicaragua; Panama; Paraguay; Portugal;

Seychelles; Slovakia; Suriname; Timor-Leste; Uganda.

16 Bolivia; Brazil; Cambodia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; El Salvador; Ethiopia; Ghana; Guatemala; Honduras; Korea (North); Nicaragua; Portugal; Romania; Serbia;

Seychelles; Suriname; Ukraine; Zimbabwe.

17 El Salvador; Georgia; Mexico; Myanmar (Burma); Nepal; Pakistan; Philippines; Slovakia; Suriname; Taiwan; Tajikistan; Turkey; Ukraine; Uruguay.

18 Cabo Verde; Egypt; Italy; Korea (North); Ukraine; Zimbabwe.

E) EDUCATION AND SCHOLARIZATION

A trained woman, a woman with analytical tools, the ability to rework and to intervene in reality is a freer woman, a woman

who can aspire to better working conditions, who will become aware of her rights within the family and association contexts

and will legitimately claim her right to exercise them. Most of the Constitutions recognize under formulas that include both

men and women, the right to education, even if there are some who are careful to specify that the right must be recognized

to both sexes (19) or specifically to women (20), resulting in something more than the generic formula of guaranteeing

access to education. In harsh and difficult situations, such as Afghanistan, the rules seek to bridge the huge gap that

separates women from access to higher education. A female graduate is a woman more likely to redeem her economic and

social status and to determine her own life choices without having to depend on others.

19 Austria; Congo (Kinshasa); Côte d’Ivoire; Togo; Turkey.

20 Afghanistan; Belarus; Bolivia; Cambodia; Guyana; Laos.

F) MATERNITY, HEALTH CARE AND WELFARE

The national public health service, accessible to all citizens and of excellent quality, is an inalienable right of the human

being, man and woman. It cannot be the census, the degree of wealth possessed, that determines who can or cannot access

health care, as if one were to participate in a macabre lottery in which life is played out. Women in poverty, agricultural and

rural situations are those with the greatest difficulty in accessing health care. A large number of Constitutions recognize the

right to motherhood: in some cases (21) it is a simple proclamation of maternity protection, but in many other cases (22) the

State implements specific and advanced welfare programs to care for women before, during and after childbirth. Only a

more in-depth analysis of the reality of each State can reveal in which cases we are faced with the effective recognition of a

right proper to the biological diversity of the woman and of a conscious choice of the woman to become a mother, and in

which cases instead, especially in States with a confessional and non-secular matrix, the role of women is relegated to that of

procreator of the human race.

Almost all of the Constitutions refer without distinction to the rules for access to health care within a public welfare system

for all citizens (as it should be): few are those (23) that explicitly provide a reference to women concerning access to welfare

or who envisage (24) a specific reference to welfare for widows, the elderly and pensioners.

21 Albania; Belarus; Benin; Burkina Faso; Cabo Verde; China; Congo (Brazzaville); Croatia; Georgia; Greece; Haiti; India; Iran; Iraq; Ireland; Italy; Kazahstan;

Korea (South); Kyrgyzstan; Libya; Lithuania; Monaco; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar (Burma); Niger; Pakistan; Peru; Philippines; Portugal;

Qatar; Rwanda; San Marino; Slovenia; Somalia; Spain; Suriname; Syria; Taiwan; Tajikistan; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates;

United Kingdom; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Yemen; Zimbabwe.

22 Angola; Argentina; Armenia; Austria; Bolivia; Brazil; Cambodia; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cuba; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Eswatini;

Ethiopia; Gabon; Germany; Ghana; Guatemala; Honduras; Hungary; Korea (North); Malawi; Mexico; Moldova; Namibia; Nepal; Panama; Paraguay; Poland;

Sao Tome and Principe; Serbia; South Sudan; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Venezuela; Viet Nam.

23 Cambodia; Ecuador; Iraq; Laos; Nicaragua.

24 Hungary; Iran; Lesotho; Uganda.

G) PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION

Almost all the Constitutions contain a provision that establishes the prohibition of discrimination. The norm highlighted in

the study is that which explicitly refers to the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sex or gender or establishes formal

equality between men and women. It is a basic principle that cannot be lacking in any democratic legal order, even if to

become substantial, so that a woman really enjoys real and full access opportunities in the political, working, social and

cultural fields, a rule that serves as a statement is not enough, but needs further legislative interventions that regulate the

labor market, recognize maternity leave, equate women's rights with those of men within families and guarantee access to

the highest levels of education. It should be noted that in the process of emancipation from British colonialism, many States

(25) report a formula that is practically identical in all the Constitutions (texts that are in many cases lacking, however, in

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forecasts and recognitions of specific rights of women).

The prohibition of discrimination, which is transformed into access to the highest offices within indigenous communities,

provided for by the Constitutions of Ecuador, Guyana and Mexico deserves to be highlighted.

To underline the still open wound of the wars conducted against the populations of Yugoslavia and Sudan and which have

produced their disintegration: 5 States (26) have foreseen that the prohibition of discrimination cannot be derogated, even

during the state of war.

25 Antigua e Barbuda; Bahamas; Barbados; Botswana; Dominica; Fiji; Gambia; Ghana; Grenada; Guyana; Malta; Mauritius; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia;

Saint Vincent and The Grenadines; Sierra Leone; Solomon Islands; Sri Lanka; Uganda.

26 Croatia; Montenegro; North Macedonia; Slovenia; South Sudan.

H) MATRIMONIAL EQUALITY AND EQUALITY IN RELATIONS WITH A PARTNER

The male-dominated and patriarchal imprint in the conception of relationships within marriage is still very strong: its

intensity varies from State to State. Many Constitutions contain a law that recognizes that marriage can be contracted only

with the free and full consent of both spouses. Some Constitutions (27) go further, going so far as to establish equality

between spouses in the exercise of rights within marriage and after its eventual dissolution: it is a very important law, which

frees women from a state of submission formal and substantial towards men, which contributes in a decisive way to the

emancipation of the role of women in society and in the family and which rejects (in part) the attempt to confine the woman

to the role of procreator and breeder of children and almost exclusively in charge of household chores. Unfortunately the

Constitutions (28) which refer explicitly to equal rights for women are too few, not only limiting them to the juridical

institution of marriage, but extending them to any de facto relationship with a partner: the clearest is that of Venezuela (29)

which states that “a stable de facto union between a man and a woman which meets the requirements established by law

shall have the same effect as marriage”. Still today, unfortunately, unmarried women are discriminated against in society:

according to this approach, which is forbidden by some Constitutions, women have to have a male figure of reference for

most affairs to assert themselves in society and exercise their rights.

27 Andorra; Angola; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Bolivia; Brazil; Bulgaria; Cabo Verde; Cambodia; China; Colombia; Cuba; El Salvador; Eritrea; Ethiopia;

Georgia; Ghana; Guatemala; Guinea Bissau; Honduras; Italy; Japan; Kenya; Korea (South); Kyrgyzstan; Laos; Lithuania; Malawi; Mexico; Moldova; Mongolia;

Montenegro; Mozambique; Namibia; Nepal; Nicaragua; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Portugal; Romania; Rwanda; Serbia; Slovenia; Spain; Tajikistan;

Timor-Leste; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Venezuela; Viet Nam; Zimbabwe. In other Constitutions the norm of matrimonial equality,

even if not explicit, can be inferred from the recognition of equal rights in family relationships.

28 Dominican Republic; Equatorial Guinea; Venezuela.

29 Venezuela, art. 77.

I) SEXUAL FREEDOM

A woman must never have to justify how she dresses, stiletto heels and miniskirts that she wants to wear, the desire to

expose her naked breasts on the beach, neither to her father, nor to her brothers, nor even to her husband or partner. Just as

she need not give an account to her father, mother, brother or sister about the romantic relationships she wants to entertain.

A woman must be left free to fully determine herself: she has the right to enjoy her sexual and sentimental life. Also in this

case, there are Constitutions (Bolivia, Cuba and Ecuador) that stand out in recognizing the right to sexual relations. On the

other hand, no State can determine which person another person can or cannot marry or see: we are faced with a violation

of a very personal and inalienable right of each human being and the fundamentalist approach of some Constitutions

(Burundi, Honduras, Rwanda, Seychelles and Uganda) which prohibit homosexual marriages, should be opposed and

denounced without tacit acquiescence on the part of society. Only one Constitution (Ireland) explicitly recognizes marriages

even between persons of the same sex.

No State can replace the woman in her full self-determination if she decides to terminate the pregnancy: the Constitutions

that prohibit abortion (Eswatini, Kenya, Seychelles, Somalia and Zimbabwe) seriously damage the right and the principle of

woman's self-determination. Abortion is not a contraceptive method and every instance creates an injury, but no state can

take away from any woman the right to decide about her body and her life.

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J) PROPRIETARY LAW

In some Constitutions, especially in the realities of Central and South America (Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay) and of Africa

(Eswatini, Ethiopia, Malawi and Zimbabwe), where economies are based on agricultural livelihoods in the countryside and

urban suburbs, it becomes essential to reaffirm the right of women to become owners of the land to be cultivated, which in

many cases represents the only source of livelihood and that cannot be a male prerogative as it was in the past and still

happens today in the most backward areas of the world.

K) DEATH PENALTY AND CARCERARY REGIME

There are Constitutions (Guatemala and Zimbabwe) that exempt women from the application of the death penalty and

others (South Sudan) (30), which exempt them only if they are pregnant or in the first two years of maternity leave. The

application of the death penalty, to women and men, is a great defeat for humanity, a legacy of a culturally undeveloped

society, which should not take place in any State in the world. Even the differentiation of the prison regime, distinct between

men and women (Mexico and Nicaragua), although based on the prevention of sexual crimes within prisons, is not

functional to the rehabilitation of the condemned who, in the right and obligatory path of reintegration into society, cannot

be deprived of any connection with people of the opposite sex.

30 South Sudan, art. 21, par. 3: “No death penalty shall be executed upon a pregnant or lactating woman, save after two years of lactation”

L) MASS-MEDIA SEXIST PROPAGANDA

The object woman, relegated to the role of sexual toy, is an image that the televisions of many States of the world convey,

not contributing to women's emancipation. Starting from this observation, from too many companies accepted with

acquiescence, ad hoc norms were formulated in a few Constitutions (Ecuador, Mexico and Paraguay) that forbid a sexist

propaganda of the role of women in society.

M) FECONDATIVE AND GENETIC THERAPIES

There is only one Constitution (Switzerland) which deals in depth with contemporary topics such as human cloning,

fertilization and other genetic therapies. If the uniqueness of the human being is a principle that the whole international

community agrees with and that involves the prohibition of cloning humans, the same cannot be said for fertilization,

especially the heterologous one, which sees very different disciplines among the various States of the world and that has

produced a "tourism" of men and women in search of the most favorable legislation to become parents. Women still have to

determine unambiguously at the legislative level how to reconcile the rejection of their body seen as a commodity with the

natural human aspiration to become parents.

13


AFGHANISTAN 1963

Right to vote and to stand for election: 1963

First woman in parliament: 1965

Population: 38,500,318

Parliament name: Jirga (National Assembly)

Chamber name: Wolesi Jirga (House of the People)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 250

Electoral quota for women: Yes. According to Article 83 of

the 2004 Constitution, 68 of the 249 total seats in the Lower

House (Wolesi Jirga) are reserved for women, comprising at

least 2 women for each of the 34 provinces of the country;

10 seats are reserved for Kuchi Nomads If there are not

enough female candidates on the list to occupy the

allocated seat, the Commission shall adopt measures to

make sure the seats do not remain vacant.’ (Electoral Law

2010, Article 23)

Legal source: Electoral Law 2010, art. 20-23; Constitution,

art. 83

Chamber name: Meshrano Jirga (House of Elders)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 102

Indirectly elected members (68): these include one

representative from each of the 34 Provincial Councils,

serving a four-year term; and one representative from each of

the 34 local District Councils, serving a three-year term.

Appointed members (34) : appointed by the President for a

five-year term.

The appointed members include two persons with

disabilities, and two nomads.

Electoral quota for women: Yes. The statutory number of

members of the House of Elders is three times the number of

existing provinces (currently 34). The President shall appoint

50 per cent of 34 presidential appointees from amongst

women in accordance with Article 84 of the Constitution.

Legal source: Constitution, art. 84

DATE WOMEN %

2019-05

2019-01

2018-12

2010-09

2008-01

2007-01

2005-09

1988-01

1969-09

1965-07

68

59

68

69

68

67

68

7

0

4

27.87%

27.83%

27.31%

27.71%

27.31%

27.69%

27.31%

2.98%

0%

1.9%

DATE WOMEN %

2019-04

2018-12

2017-02

2016-12

2015-01

2010-02

2008-01

2007-01

2005-09

1965-07

17

16

18

21

18

28

23

22

23

0

25%

23.53%

26.47%

30.88%

17.65%

27.45%

22.55%

21.57%

22.55%

0%

The right to vote was granted in the 1963 Constitution which entered into force in 1964. The restriction about literacy no

longer exists. In July 1965 the first legislature of Afghanistan after the abolition of the monarchy in 1964. In 1965, Khadija

Ahrari, Masuma Esmati Wardak, Roqia Abubakr and Anahita Ratebzad became the first female parliamentarians of

Afghanistan (Canadian Women for Women in Afghanistan, factsheet 2014). The right to vote and to stand for election was

revoked during Taliban rule from 1996 to 2001.

CONSTITUTION OF 2004

14

Article 22

Any kind of discrimination and distinction between citizens of Afghanistan shall be forbidden. The citizens of Afghanistan,

man and woman, have equal rights and duties before the law. DISCRIMINATION BANNED EQUAL RIGHTS


AFGHANISTAN 1963

Article 44

The state shall devise and implement effective programs to create and foster balanced education for women, improve

education of nomads as well as eliminate illiteracy in the country. EDUCATION

Article 53

The state shall adopt necessary measures to regulate medical services as well as financial aid to survivors of martyrs and

missing persons, and for reintegration of the disabled and handicapped and their active participation in society, in

accordance with provisions of the law. The state shall guarantee the rights of retirees, and shall render necessary aid to the

elderly, women without caretaker, disabled and handicapped as well as poor orphans, in accordance with provisions of the

law. HELP THE POOR

Article 54

Family is the fundamental pillar of the society, and shall be protected by the state.

The state shall adopt necessary measures to attain the physical and spiritual health of the family, especially of the child and

mother, upbringing of children, as well as the elimination of related traditions contrary to the principles of the sacred

religion of Islam. SUBJECT TO RELIGION

Article 83

Members of the House of People shall be elected by the people through free, general, secret and direct balloting. The work

period of the House of People shall terminate, after the disclosure of the results of the elections, on the 1st of Saratan of the

fifth year and the new parliament shall commence work. The elections for members of the House of People shall be held

30-60 days prior to the expiration of the term of the House of People.

The number of the members of the House of People shall be proportionate to the population of each constituency, not

exceeding the maximum of 250 individuals. Electoral constituencies as well as other related issues shall be determined by

the elections law. The elections law shall adopt measures to attain, through the electorate system, general and fair

representation for all the people of the country, and proportionate to the population of every province, on average, at least

two females shall be the elected members of the House of People from each province. RESERVED SEATS IN LOWER CHAMBER

Article 84

Members of the House of Elders shall be elected and appointed as follows:

1. From amongst each provincial council members, one individual shall be elected by the respective council for a four year

term;

2. From amongst district councils of each province, one individual, elected by the respective councils, for a three year term;

3. The remaining one-third of the members shall be appointed by the President, for a five year term, from amongst experts

and experienced personalities, including two members from amongst the impaired and handicapped, as well as two from

nomads.

The President shall appoint fifty percent of these individuals from amongst women.

RESERVED SEATS IN UPPER CHAMBER

The individual selected as a member of the House of Elders shall lose membership to the related Council, and, another

individual shall be appointed in accordance with the provisions of the law.

15


ALBANIA 1920

Right to vote and to stand for election: January 21, 1920

First woman in parliament: 1945

Population: 2,879,254

Parliament name: Albanian Parliament

Chamber name: Kuvendi (Parliament)

Statutory number of members: 140

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes, 29 seats. For each electoral zone, at least thirty per cent of the multi-name list and one of the

first three names on the multi-name list shall belong to each gender.

Legal source: Electoral Code, art. 67

DATE WOMEN %

2019-09

2018-12

2017-08

2017-06

2016-06

2014-12

2014-01

1974-10

1945-12

36

41

39

33

32

29

28

83

3

29.51%

29.29%

27.86%

23.57%

22.86%

20.71%

20%

33.2%

3.7%

Looking back at the political history of Albania, it is noticed that the right to vote given to women for the first time in 1920

and attained full suffrage in 1945. Women were elected for the first time in Parliament in 1945, with the representation of 6

women out of 82 members (Albanian Women Participation in Politics and Decision-Making, Gender Alliance for Development,

Tirana, November 2015).

CONSTITUTION OF 1998, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2016

Article 18

1. All are equal before the law.

2. No one may be unjustly discriminated against for reasons such as gender, race, religion, ethnicity, language, political,

religious or philosophical beliefs, economic condition, education, social status, or parentage. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

3. No one may be discriminated against for reasons mentioned in paragraph 2 without reasonable and objective legal

grounds.

Article 45

1. Every citizen who has attained the age of 18, even on the date of the elections, has the right to elect and be elected.

… UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

4. The vote is personal, equal, free and secret.

Article 54

1. Children, the young, pregnant women and new mothers have the right to special protection by the state.

PREGNANCY AND MATERNITY SPECIAL PROTECTION

16


ALGERIA 1962

Right to vote and to stand for election: July 5, 1962

First woman in parliament: 1962

Independence: 1962

Population: 43,458,572

Parliament name: Barlaman (Parliament)

Chamber name: Al-Majlis Al-Chaabi Al-Watani (National

People's Assembly)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 462

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Legislated candidate

quotas. The law prescribes the following quotas in relation

to the magnitude of the electoral constituencies: 20% for

the constituencies with 4 seats; 30% for those with 5 or

more seats; 35% for those with 14 or more seats; 40% for

those with 32 or more seats; and 50% for the constituencies

abroad.

Legal source: Article 2 of the 2012 Law for the

Representation of Women.

DATE WOMEN %

2017-05

2012-05

2011-01

2010-01

2008-01

2007-09

2007-06

2007-05

2002-05

1998-06

1998-03

1995-01

1987-02

1982-03

1977-02

1964-09

1962-09

119

146

24

30

24

30

28

30

24

12

13

12

7

4

10

2

10

25.76%

31.6%

6.17%

7.71%

6.17%

7.71%

7.2%

7.71%

6.17%

3.16%

4.22%

6.74%

2.37%

1.42%

3.83%

1.45%

5.1%

Chamber name: Majlis al-Oumma (Council of the Nation)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 144

Indirectly elected members (96): elected by the People's

Communal Assemblies and the People's Wilaya Assembly.

Appointed members (48): appointed by the President.

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Organization Act n. 12-03 of

12 January 2012 on modalities for facilitating women’s access

to membership in elected bodies requires that women make

up a certain percentage of the candidates for election to the

Wilaya Assembly and the Commune Assembly, from which

they may be elected to membership in the Council of the

Nation.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-12

2016-02

2015-12

2012-01

2009-12

2006-12

2005-01

2004-12

2003-12

1998-05

9

10

8

10

7

4

28

4

28

8

6.82%

6.99%

5.84%

7.04%

5.15%

3.1%

19.44%

2.78%

19.44%

5.56%

Prior to independence, under French administration, women who were christian and french citizens living in Algeria were

granted the right to vote and stand for election in 1944. The French framework law (Loi-Cadre Deferre) of 1956 extended the

right to vote to Muslim women; it was imposed by de Gaulle through ordonnance in July 1958. These rights were confirmed

at independence.

17


ALGERIA 1962

CONSTITUTION OF 1989, REINSTATED IN 1996, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2016

Article 32

The citizens shall be equal before the law without any discrimination on the basis of birth, race, gender, opinion or any

other personal or social condition or circumstances. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

Article 35

The State shall work for the promotion of political rights of women by increasing their chances of access to representation

in elected assemblies. REPRESENTATION IN ELECTED ASSEMBLIES

The modalities of application of this Article shall be determined by an Institutional Act.

Article 36

The State shall work to promote gender equity in the labor market. EQUITY IN THE LABOR MARKET

The State shall encourage the promotion of women in senior posts in public agencies and departments and at the level of

institutions. SENIOR POSTS IN PUBLIC WORKS AND INSTITUTIONS

Article 118

The members of the People's National Assembly shall be elected by universal, direct and secret suffrage.

UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

18


ANDORRA 1973

Right to vote: April 14, 1970

Right to stand for election: September 5, 1973

First woman in parliament: 1984

Independence: 1993

Population: 77,142

Parliament name: Consell general (General Council)

Chamber name: Consell general (General Council)

Statutory number of members: 28

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No.

CONSTITUTION OF 1993

DATE WOMEN %

2019-11

2019-05

2019-04

2016-10

2015-04

2015-03

2011-12

2011-04

2009-06

2005-04

1997-02

1993-12

13

14

12

9

11

10

14

15

10

9

2

1

46.43%

50%

42.86%

32.14%

39.29%

35.71%

50%

53.57%

35.71%

32.14%

7.14%

3.57%

Prior to independence, in 1984, in a by- election, Merce Borell Bertran won her seat and became the first female member of

the Andorran General Council (New Tork Times, October 28, 1984).

Article 6

1. All persons are equal before the law. No one may be discriminated against on grounds of birth, race, sex, origin, religion,

opinions or any other personal or social condition. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

2. Public authorities shall create the conditions such that the equality and the liberty of the individuals may be real and

effective.

Article 13

… MATRIMONIAL EQUALITY

3. Both spouses have the same rights and duties. All children are equal before the law, regardless of their parentage.

Article 24

All Andorrans of age, in full use of their rights, enjoy the right of suffrage.

UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 51

1. The Councillors are elected by universal, free, equal and direct suffrage for a four-year term. Their mandate shall cease

four years after their election or on the day that the General Council is dissolved. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

3. All Andorran nationals fully enjoying their political rights are entitled to vote and to be eligible for election.

RIGHT TO VOTE AND TO STAND FOR ELECTION

19


ANGOLA 1975

Right to vote and to stand for election: November 11, 1975

First woman in parliament: 1980

Population: 32,342,265

Parliament name: Assembleia nacional (National

Assembly)

Chamber name: Assembleia nacional (National Assembly)

Statutory number of members: 220

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Law 20/10 of 3 December provides rules to promote equal opportunities between men and

women, whereby there is at least 30% gender representation in directive bodies at all levels

Legal source: Law Political Parties, Law 20/10 of 3 December, art. 20

DATE WOMEN %

2018-12

2017-11

2017-09

2016-12

2014-01

2012-08

2011-01

2009-01

2008-09

1999-01

1998-01

1992-09

1986-12

1980-11

66

67

68

84

81

75

82

85

82

21

34

21

42

19

30%

30.45%

30.91%

38.18%

36.82%

34.09%

37.27%

38.64%

37.27%

9.55%

15.45%

9.55%

14.53%

8.3%

CONSTITUTION OF 2010

Article 3: (Sovereignty)

1. Single and indivisible sovereignty shall lie with the people, who shall exercise it through universal, free, equal, direct,

secret and periodic suffrage in the various forms established in the Constitution, namely in order to choose their

representatives. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

20

Article 21: (Fundamental tasks of the state)

The fundamental tasks of the Angolan state shall be:

h. To promote equal rights and opportunities between Angolans, regardless of origins, race, party affiliations, sex, colour,

age or any other form of discrimination; DISCRIMINATION BANNED

k. To promote equality between men and women; PROMOTION OF EQUAL RIGHTS


ANGOLA 1975

Article 23: (Principle of equality)

1. Everyone shall be equal under the Constitution and by law.

2. No-one may be discriminated against, privileged, deprived of any right or exempted from any duty on the basis of

ancestry, sex, race, ethnicity, colour, disability, language, place of birth, religion, political, ideological or philosophical beliefs,

level of education or economic, social or professional status. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

Article 35: (Family, marriage and filiation)

...

3. Men and women shall be equal within the family, in society and before the state, enjoying the same rights and being

responsible for the same duties. MATRIMONIAL EQUALITY

...

Article 54: (Right to vote)

1. Every citizen who has attained the age of eighteen years shall have the right to vote and stand for election for any state

or local authority body and to serve their terms of office or mandates, under the terms of the Constitution and the law.

... RIGHT TO VOTE AND TO STAND FOR ELECTION

Article 77: (Health and social protection)

1. The state shall promote and guarantee the measures needed to ensure the universal right to medical and health care, as

well as the right to child care and maternity care, care in illness, disability, old age and in situations in which they are unable

to work, in accordance with the law. MATERNITY

21


ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA 1951

Right to vote and to stand for election: December 1, 1951

Independence: 1981

First woman in parliament: 1984

Population: 97,488

Parliament name: Parliament

Chamber name: House of Representatives

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 18

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No.

Chamber name: Senate

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 17

Appointed members: Appointed by the Governor General on

the advice of the Prime Minister and the leader of the

opposition.

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2014-06

2004-03

1994-03

1984-04

2

2

1

0

11.11%

10.53%

5.26%

0%

DATE WOMEN %

2018-03

2016-12

2014-12

2009-04

2008-01

2007-01

2004-03

1999-01

1994-03

1992-03

1989-03

1984-04

9

5

7

5

3

4

3

2

3

2

1

2

52.94%

29.41%

41.18%

29.41%

17.65%

23.53%

17.65%

11.76%

17.65%

11.76%

5.88%

11.76%

Prior to independence, under British administration women were granted the right to vote and to stand for election on 1

December 1951. This right was confirmed at independence.

CONSTITUTION OF 1981

3. Fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual

Whereas every person in Antigua and Barbuda is entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is

to say, the right, regardless of race, place of origin, political opinions or affiliations, colour, creed or sex, but subject to

respect for the rights and freedoms of others and for the public interest, to each and all of the following, namely:

a. life, liberty, security of the person, the enjoyment of property and the protection of the law;

b. freedom of conscience, of expression (including freedom of the press) and of peaceful assembly and association; and

c. protection for his family life, his personal privacy, the privacy of his home and other property and from deprivation of

property without fair compensation, FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS DISCRIMINATION BANNED

22

Article 14. Protection from discrimination on the grounds of race, sex etc

3. In this section, the expression "discriminatory" means affording different treatment to different persons attributable

wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, place of origin, political opinions or affiliations, colour, creed, or sex

whereby persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such

description are not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages that are not accorded to persons of another such

description. DISCRIMINATION BANNED


ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA 1951

5. Nothing contained in any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of subsection (1) of this section to

the extent that it makes provision with respect to qualifications (not being qualifications specifically relating to race, place

of origin, political opinions or affiliations, colour, creed or sex) for service as a public officer or as a member of a disciplined

force or for the service of a local government authority or a body corporate established by any law for public purposes.

DISCRIMINATION BANNED

23


ARGENTINA 1947

Right to vote and to stand for election: September 29, 1947

First woman in parliament: 1951

Population: 44,992,862

Parliament name: Congreso de la Nación (National

Congress)

Chamber name: Cámara de Diputados (Chamber of

Deputies)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 257

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Legislated candidate

quotas. For all national elections party electoral lists are

required to have a minimum of 30% women candidates

with real chances of being elected.

Legal source: Article 60 of the Electoral Code; Decree

1246/2000, art. 3-5; Law 24012 on the Quota for Women.

DATE WOMEN %

2019-10

2019-07

2016-12

2015-12

2011-10

2009-12

2009-08

2009-06

2007-10

2005-10

2001-10

1999-10

1996-01

1995-05

1992-12

1991-08

1989-05

1987-09

1983-10

1973-04

1965-03

1963-07

1960-03

1958-02

1955-06

1951-11

1946-02

102

100

100

92

96

99

107

99

102

91

79

68

71

65

37

15

16

12

10

19

4

1

2

4

34

24

0

40.16%

38.91%

38.91%

35.8%

37.35%

38.52%

41.63%

38.52%

40%

35.41%

30.74%

26.46%

27.63%

25.29%

14.4%

5.84%

6.3%

4.72%

3.94%

7.82%

2.08%

0.52%

1.05%

2.17%

21.66%

15.48%

0%

Chamber name: Senado (Senate)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 72

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Legislated candidate quotas.

For all national elections party electoral lists are required to

have a minimum of 30% women candidates with real

chances of being elected.

Legal source: Article 60 of the Electoral Code; Decree

1246/2000, art. 3-5; Law 24012 on the Quota for Women.

DATE WOMEN %

2019-10

2015-12

2011-10

2009-12

2009-06

2007-10

2006-01

2005-10

2001-10

1998-01

1997-11

1994-01

1993-10

1992-01

1989-12

1973-04

1958-02

1951-11

1946-02

28

30

28

25

27

28

31

30

24

2

4

2

4

2

4

3

0

6

0

38.89%

41.67%

38.89%

35.21%

37.5%

38.89%

43.06%

41.67%

33.33%

2.78%

5.56%

4.17%

8.7%

4.17%

8.7%

4.35%

0%

20%

0%

24

In some provinces, women were given the right to vote and stand for election at an earlier date. in 1951, Juanita Larrauri

(1910-1992) from the Entre Ríos Province became one of the first woman senator and Seferina del Carmen Rodriguez de

Copa from the Salta Province became one of the first female national representative (Graciela Rodriguez-Ferrand).


ARGENTINA 1947

CONSTITUTION OF 1853, REINSTATED IN 1983, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 1994

Article 37

This Constitution guarantees full enjoyment of political rights, in accordance with the principle of popular sovereignty and

with the laws dictated pursuant thereto. Suffrage is universal, equal, secret and mandatory. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

True equality of opportunity between men and women in running for elected and party offices shall be guaranteed

through affirmative actions in the regulation of political parties and in the electoral system.

TRUE EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY IN RUNNING FOR ELECTED AND PARTY OFFICES

Article 75

The Congress shall have power:

22. To approve or reject treaties entered with other nations and with international organizations, and concordats with the

Holy See. Treaties and concordats have higher standing than laws.

The following [international instruments], under the conditions under which they are in force, stand on the same level as the

Constitution, [but] do not repeal any article in the First Part of this Constitution, and must be understood as complementary

of the rights and guarantees recognized therein: The American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man; the Universal

Declaration of Human Rights; the American Convention on Human Rights; the International Covenant on Economic, Social

and Cultural Rights; the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and its Optional Protocol; the [International]

Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide; the International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of

Racial Discrimination; the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women; the

Convention Against Torture and other Cruel, Inhumane or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; and the Convention on the

Rights of the Child. They may only be denounced, if such is to be the case, by the National Executive Power, after prior

approval by two thirds of the totality of the members of each Chamber. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

TRUE EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY AND TREATMENT

23. To legislate and promote proactive measures that guarantee true equality of opportunity and treatment, and the full

enjoyment and exercise of the rights recognized by this Constitution and by current international treaties on human rights,

in particular with respect to children, women, the elderly and people with disabilities.

To enact a special and integral social security system that protects needy children, from gestation through the end of

elementary schooling, and that protects the mother during pregnancy and nursing.

SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM DURING PREGNANCY AND NURSING

25


ARMENIA 1918

Right to vote and to stand for election: 1918

First woman in parliament: 1919

Date of independence: 1991

Population: 2,960,873

Parliament name: Azgayin Zhoghov (National Assembly)

Chamber name: Azgayin Zhoghov (National Assembly)

Statutory number of members: 132

Directly elected: 128. Minority representatives 4: up to four minority representatives may be elected.

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Legislated candidate quotas. One in every six seats on party lists is reserved for women. The

number of persons of each sex shall not exceed 80% of any integer group of five candidates starting from the second

number of the electoral list of a political party or alliance of political parties and of each party included in an alliance for the

National Assembly election under the proportional electoral system.

Legal source: Article 108 (2), Electoral Code of Armenia, 2011.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-12

2017-05

2017-04

2016-12

2012-05

2009-01

2008-01

2007-05

2007-01

2003-05

1999-05

1995-07

1990-05

32

19

18

13

14

12

11

12

11

6

4

12

9

24.24%

18.1%

17.14%

9.92%

10.69%

9.16%

8.4%

9.16%

8.4%

4.58%

3.05%

6.32%

3.69%

The First Armenian Republic of 1918-1920 was one of the first to give women the right to vote and to be elected. The first

elections under the new constitution occurred between 21 and 23 June 1919 and of the 80 members elected to Parliament,

3 were women: Perchuhi Partizpanyan-Barseghyan, Varvara Sahakyan and Katarine Zalyan-Manukyan. Under Soviet

administration women also had the right to vote and stand for election; these rights were again confirmed at independence.

In May 1990 the Soviet Supreme of the SSR of Armenia became, under the name of Supreme Council (Khordrdaran) the first

legislature of Armenia after the country became independent on 21 September 1991. Armenian women were previously

elected to the Soviet Supreme of the SSR of Armenia and to the Parliament of the USSR.

CONSTITUTION OF 1995, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2015

Article 7: The Suffrage Principles

Elections of the National Assembly and community councils, as well as referenda shall be carried out on the basis of

universal, equal, free, and direct suffrage, by secret vote. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 16: Protection of the Family MATERNITY SPECIAL PROTECTION

Family, being the natural and fundamental cell of society and the basis for the preservation and reproduction of the

population, as well as motherhood and childhood shall be under special protection and aegis of the state.

26


ARMENIA 1918

Article 29: The Prohibition of Discrimination

Any discrimination based on sex, race, skin color, ethnic or social origin, genetic features, language, religion, worldview,

political or any other views, belonging to a national minority, property status, birth, disability, age, or other personal or social

circumstances shall be prohibited.

DISCRIMINATION BANNED

Article 30: Equality of Rights between Women and Men

Women and men shall have equal rights.

EQUAL RIGHTS

Article 35: Freedom to Marry

MARRIAGE BASED ON FREE WILL

1. A man and a woman of marriageable age shall have the right to marry each other and form a family by free expression

of their will. The age of marriage and the procedure of marrying and divorcing shall be stipulated by law.

2. In marrying, during marriage, and in divorce, a man and a woman shall have equal rights. MATRIMONIAL EQUALITY

Article 48: Right to Vote and Right to Participate in a Referendum

1. Citizens of the Republic of Armenia, which have attained the age of 18 on the day of an election to the National Assembly

or on the day of a referendum, shall have the right to vote in such election and to take part in such referendum.

2. Anyone who has attained the age of 25, for the preceding four years has been a citizen of only the Republic of Armenia,

has permanently resided in the Republic of Armenia for the preceding four years, has voting right, and has a command of the

Armenian language may be elected as a member of the National Assembly. RIGHT TO VOTE AND TO STAND FOR ELECTION

UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 57: The Freedom to Choose Employment and the Labor Rights

3. It shall be prohibited to dismiss from employment due to reasons related to maternity. Every employed woman shall

have the right to paid leave in case of pregnancy and child delivery. Every employed parent shall have the right to leave in

case of child birth or child adoption. Details shall be stipulated by law.

PROHIBITED TO DISMISS PREGNANT WOMEN AND RIGHT TO PAID LEAVE

Article 83: Social Security

Everyone shall, in accordance with law, have the right to social security in cases of maternity, having many children, illness,

disability, workplace accidents, need of care, loss of breadwinner, old age, unemployment, loss of employment, and in other

cases.

SOCIAL SECURITY IN CASE OF MATERNITY

Article 86: The Main Objectives of State Policy

The main objectives of state policy in the economic, social, and cultural spheres shall be:

4. To promote factual equality between women and men; PROMOTE FACTUAL EQUALITY

27


AUSTRALIA 1962

Right to vote and to stand for election: June 18, 1962

First woman in parliament: 1943

Population: 25,358,086

Parliament name: Parliament of the Commonwealth of

Australia

Chamber name: House of Representatives

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 151

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Voluntary political party

quotas.

Legal source: Cf. individual party statutes.

Chamber name: Senate

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 76

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Voluntary political party

quotas.

Legal source: Cf. individual party statutes.

DATE WOMEN %

2019-05

2018-12

2016-07

2014-12

2013-09

2010-08

2009-01

2007-11

2004-10

2001-11

1998-10

1996-03

1993-03

1990-03

1987-07

1984-12

1983-03

1980-10

1975-12

1974-05

1969-10

1966-11

1951-04

1949-12

1946-09

1943-08

46

45

43

40

39

37

41

40

37

38

32

23

13

10

9

8

6

3

0

1

0

1

0

1

2

1

30.46%

30%

28.67%

26.67%

26%

24.67%

27.33%

26.67%

24.67%

25.33%

21.62%

15.54%

8.84%

6.76%

6.08%

5.41%

4.8%

2.4%

0%

0.79%

0%

0.81%

0%

0.81%

2.67%

1.33%

DATE WOMEN %

2019-05

2018-12

2016-12

2016-07

2014-06

2014-01

2013-10

2013-09

2010-08

2004-10

2001-11

1998-10

1996-03

1993-03

1990-03

1987-07

1984-12

1983-03

1980-10

1975-12

1974-05

1970-11

1967-11

1964-05

1955-12

1949-12

1946-09

1943-08

37

30

31

28

29

31

29

16

29

27

23

22

23

16

18

17

14

13

9

6

4

2

3

4

5

4

2

1

48.68%

39.47%

40.79%

36.84%

38.16%

41.33%

38.16%

21.05%

38.16%

35.53%

30.26%

28.95%

30.26%

21.05%

23.68%

22.37%

18.42%

20.31%

14.06%

9.38%

6.67%

3.33%

5%

6.67%

8.33%

6.67%

5.56%

2.78%

FIRST WOMEN MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT

House of Representatives: 21 August 1943, Enid Muriel Burnell Lyons (1897-1981)

Senate: 21 August 1943, Dorothy Margaret Tangney (1907-1985)

28


AUSTRALIA 1962

On a national basis, women, with the exception of Aboriginal women, obtained the right to vote and stand for federal

election when the Commonwealth Electoral Act 1902 came into effect. However, women from the States of South Australia

and Western Australia voted at the first federal election in 1901 because the elections were held under the electoral laws of

the States. Aboriginal women received full franchise in 1962, along with Aboriginal men. However, from 1949 Aboriginals in

the States of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania were given the right to enrol and vote at federal

elections because the respective State electoral laws enabled them to do so. Aboriginals in Queensland and Western

Australia were entitled to vote only if they were serving or had served as members of the Australian Defence Force. The

Commonwealth Franchise Act 1902 granted the franchise to all persons of the age of 21 years, and thus women voted at the

first federal elections held under the Federal Law on 16 September 1903.

COMMONWEALTH FRANCHISE ACT 1902

The Act declared that all British subjects over the age of 21 years who had been living in Australia for at least 6 months were

entitled to a vote, whether male or female, and whether married or single.

COMMONWEALTH ELECTORAL ACT 1962

In 1960 reflecting the strong civil rights movements in the United States and South Africa, many changes in Aborigines’ rights

and treatment followed, including removal of restrictions on voting rights. The Menzies Government Commonwealth

Electoral Act of 1962 confirmed the Commonwealth vote for all Aborigines. Western Australia gave them State votes in the

same year, and Queensland followed in 1965.

CONSTITUTION OF 1901, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 1985

51. Legislative powers of the Parliament

The Parliament shall, subject to this Constitution, have power to make laws for the peace, order, and good government of the

Commonwealth with respect to:

xxiiiA. the provision of maternity allowances, widows' pensions, child endowment, unemployment, pharmaceutical,

sickness and hospital benefits, medical and dental services (but not so as to authorize any form of civil conscription), benefits

to students and family allowances; MATERNITY ALLOWANCES

29


AUSTRIA 1918

Right to vote and to stand for election: December 19, 1918

First woman in parliament: 1919

Population: 8,983,566

Parliament name: Parlament (Parliament)

Chamber name: Nationalrat (National Council)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 183

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Voluntary political party

quotas.

Legal source: Cf. individual party statutes.

Chamber name: Bundesrat (Federal Council)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 61

Indirectly elected: the President of the Republic determines

the total number of members in the Federal Council as well

as the allocation of seats to each of the nine federal

provinces. The allocation of seats is based on the ratio

between each federal province and the one with the largest

population.

DATE WOMEN %

2019-09

2018-12

2017-10

2014-12

2014-01

2013-09

2010-01

2009-03

2009-02

2008-09

2008-01

2007-01

2006-10

2002-11

2000-01

1999-11

1995

1994-11

1990-11

1986-12

1983-05

1979-06

1975-11

1971-11

1970-03

1959-06

1956-06

1953-03

1949-11

1945-12

72

68

63

56

59

61

51

52

50

51

50

60

59

62

49

48

49

40

36

21

17

18

14

11

8

9

8

9

8

9

39.34%

37.16%

34.43%

30.6%

32.24%

33.33%

27.87%

28.42%

27.32%

27.87%

27.32%

32.79%

32.24%

33.88%

26.78%

26.23%

26.78%

21.86%

19.67%

11.48%

9.29%

9.84%

7.65%

6.01%

4.85%

5.45%

4.85%

5.45%

4.85%

5.45%

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Voluntary political party

quotas.

Legal source: Cf. individual party statutes.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-11

2016-12

2008-01

2007-01

2006-10

2005-01

2004-01

2002-12

1999-10

1996

1994-11

1986-12

1983-05

1979-06

1975-11

1970-03

1966-03

1962-12

1956-06

1949-11

1945-12

22

19

18

15

18

16

17

16

9

13

14

13

10

9

11

9

6

7

6

1

0

36.07%

31.15%

29.03%

24.59%

29.51%

25.81%

27.42%

25.81%

14.29%

20.97%

22.22%

20.97%

16.39%

16.36%

20%

16.67%

11.76%

13.73%

12.5%

2.08%

0%

On 16 February 1919 the first 8 women (4,7%) elected to the Constituent Assembly: Anna

Boschek, Hildegard Burjan, Emmy Freundlich, Adelheid Popp, Gabriele Proft, Therese

Schlesinger, Amalie Seidel, Marie Tusch.

30


AUSTRIA 1918

CONSTITUTION OF 1920, REINSTATED IN 1945, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2013

Article 7

DISCRIMINATION BANNED

1. All nationals are equal before the law. Privileges based upon birth, sex, estate, class or religion are excluded. No one shall

be discriminated against because of his disability. The Republic (Federation, Laender and municipalities) commits itself to

ensuring the equal treatment of disabled and non-disabled persons in all spheres of everyday life.

2. The Federation, Laender and municipalities subscribe to the de-facto equality of men and women. Measures to promote

factual equality of women and men, particularly by eliminating actually existing inequalities, are admissible.

ELIMINATING ACTUALLY EXISTING INEQUALITIES

Article 9a

3. Every male national is liable to military service. Female nationals may render voluntary service in the Federal Army as

soldiers and have the right to terminate such service. VOLUNTARY SERVICE IN THE FEDERAL ARMY

Article 12

1. In the following matters legislation as regards principles is the business of the Federation, the issue of implementing laws

and execution the business of the Laender:

1. social welfare; population policy in so far as it does not fall under Art 10; public social and welfare establishments;

maternity, infant and adolescent welfare; hospitals and nursing homes; requirements to be imposed for health reasons on

health resorts, sanatoria, and health establishments; natural curative resources; MATERNITY WELFARE

...

Article 13

3. Federation, Laender and municipalities have to aim at the equal status of women and men in the budgeting.

EQUAL STATUS IN THE BUDGETING

Article 14

6. … Admission to public school is open to all without distinction of birth, sex, race, estate, class, language and religion,

and in other respects within the limits of the statutory requirements… ADMISSION TO PUBLIC SCHOOL: BANNED DISCRIMINATION

Article 26

1. The National Council is elected by the Federal people in accordance with the principles of proportional representation on

the basis of equal, direct, personal, free and secret suffrage by men and women who have completed their sixteenth year of

life on the day of election. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 51

8. In the management of the Federal budgets the principles of striving for efficiency, mainly under respect of the goal of

equal treatment of women and men, transparency, efficiency and a true picture of the financial situation of the Federation

as much as possible are to be respected. EQUAL TREATMENT IN FEDERAL BUDGETS

9.1 …the measures for an administration striving for efficiency, especially also under respect of the goal of equal

treatment of women and men; ADMINISTRATION PURSUES THE GOAL OF EQUAL TREATMENT

31


AZERBAIJAN 1918

Chamber name: Milli Mejlis (National Assembly)

Statutory number of members: 125

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-12

2015-11

2014-01

2010-11

2010-01

2006-01

2005-01

2000-11

1996-02

1995-11

1990-09

20

21

19

20

14

13

15

13

1

15

1

16.81%

16.94%

15.57%

16%

11.38%

10.48%

12%

10.48%

2%

12.1%

2%

Right to vote and to stand for election: 1918

First woman in parliament: 1990

Independence: 1991

Population: 10,096,883

Parliament name: Milli Mejlis (National Assembly)

In 1918-1920, when Azerbaijan was first independent, women were granted the right to vote and stand for election:

Azerbaijan became one of the first countries in the world, and the very first majority-Muslim nation, to grant women equal

political rights with men. Under Soviet administration women also had these rights; they were again confirmed at

independence in 1991. In September 1990 the Soviet Supreme of the SSR of Azerbaijan became the first legislature of

Azerbaijan after the country became independent on 18 October 1991. Women from Azerbaijan were previously elected to

the Supreme Soviet of the SSR of Azerbaijan and to the Parliament of the USSR.

CONSTITUTION OF 1995, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2016

Article 2: The Sovereignty of the People

II. The Azerbaijan people implement their sovereign right by universal elections-referendum and by their representatives

elected on the basis of universal, direct and equal elections by secret and individual ballot. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 25: Right to Equality

I. Everyone is equal before the law and the court.

II. Men and women have equal rights and freedoms. EQUAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

III. Everyone has equal rights and freedoms irrespective of race, ethnicity, religion, sex, origin, property status, social position,

convictions, political party, trade union organization and social unity affiliation. Limitations or recognition of rights and

freedoms because of race, ethnicity, social status, language, origin, convictions and religion are prohibited.

DISCRIMINATION BANNED

32

Article 34: Right to Marriage

IV. The rights of husband and wife are equal. The care and raising of children is the right and obligation of both parents.

… MATRIMONIAL EQUALITY


BAHAMAS 1961

Right to vote: February 18, 1961

Right to stand for election: 1962

First woman in parliament: 1977

Independence: 1973

Population: 391,515

Parliament name: Parliament

Chamber name: House of Assembly

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 39

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No

DATE WOMEN %

2017-05

2012-05

2007-05

2002-05

1997-03

1992-08

1987-06

1982-06

1973-07

5

5

5

8

6

4

2

1

0

12.82%

13.16%

12.2%

20%

15%

8.16%

4.08%

2.33%

0%

Chamber name: Senate

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 16

Appointed by the Governor General

Electoral quota for women: No

DATE WOMEN %

2017-05

2012-05

2010-01

2009-01

2007-12

2007-06

2007-05

1998-01

1997-11

1987-06

1982-06

1977-07

1973-07

7

4

9

5

9

8

9

7

5

3

4

3

0

43.75%

25%

60%

33.33%

60%

53.33%

60%

43.75%

31.25%

18.75%

25%

18.75%

0%

Prior to independence, under British administration, adult male suffrage was introduced in 1959, although members of the

electorate satisfying certain property qualifications also received a second vote. Women were granted the vote in 1961 and

by 1964 all property qualifications had been abolished. The right to vote was confirmed at independence. Janet Gwennett

Bostwick (born Musgrove) in 1977 was appointed to the Senate and in 1982 became the first woman elected to the House of

Assembly.

CONSTITUTION OF 1973

Article 15. Fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual

Whereas every person in The Bahamas is entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say,

has the right, whatever his race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed or sex, but subject to respect for the rights

and freedoms of others and for the public interest, to each and all of the following, namely:

a. life, liberty, security of the person and the protection of the law;

b. freedom of conscience, of expression and of assembly and association; and

DISCRIMINATION BANNED

c. protection for the privacy of his home and other property and from deprivation of property without compensation, the

subsequent provisions of this Chapter shall have effect for the purpose of affording protection to the aforesaid rights and

freedoms subject to such limitations of that protection as are contained in those provisions, being limitations designed to

ensure that the enjoyment of the said rights and freedoms by any individual does not prejudice the rights and freedoms of

others or the public interest.

33


BAHRAIN 2002

Right to vote and to stand for election: October 24, 2002

First woman in parliament: 2002

Independence: 1971

Population: 1,671,115

Parliament name: Al-Majlis Al-Watani (National

Assembly)

Chamber name: Majlis Al-Nuwab (Council of

Representatives)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 40

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No

Chamber name: Majlis Al-Shura (Shura Council)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 40

Appointed by the King

Electoral quota for women: No

DATE WOMEN %

2018-11

2014-11

2014-01

2013-01

2010-10

2006-12

1973-12

6

3

4

1

4

1

0

15%

7.5%

10%

2.5%

10%

2.5%

0%

DATE WOMEN %

2014-12

2010-11

2006-01

2002-10

9

11

10

6

22.5%

27.5%

25%

15%

According to the Constitution (6 December 1973), all citizens are equal before the law; however the Electoral Law that was

adopted as a follow up, did not recognize women's suffrage. Women were consequently not able to exercise electoral rights

in the only legislative elections held in Bahrain in December 1973. In 1999, women were allowed to stand for election for

municipal councils, which they had been able to vote for since 1951. Women voted in 2001 for the referendum on the New

Constitution, which came into being in 2002 and confirmed women's suffrage. In 2006, Lateefa Al Gaood (1956- )became the

first female candidate to be elected to the Council of Representatives.

CONSTITUTION OF 2002, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2017

Article 1

e. Citizens, both men and women, are entitled to participate in public affairs and may enjoy political rights, including the

right to vote and to stand for elections, in accordance with this Constitution and the conditions and principles laid down

by law. No citizen can be deprived of the right to vote or to nominate oneself for elections except by law.

… RIGHT TO VOTE AND TO STAND FOR ELECTIONS

34

Article 5

FAMILY SUBJECT TO RELIGION

a. The family is the basis of society, deriving its strength from religion, morality and love of the homeland. The law preserves

its lawful entity, strengthens its bonds and values, under its aegis extends protection to mothers and children, tends the

young and protects them from exploitation and safeguards them against moral, bodily and spiritual neglect. The State cares

in particular for the physical, moral and intellectual development of the young.

b. The State guarantees reconciling the duties of women towards the family with their work in society, and their equality

with men in political, social, cultural, and economic spheres without breaching the provisions of Islamic canon law

(Shari’a). DUTIES OF WOMEN EQUALITY SUBJECT TO RELIGION


BAHRAIN 2002

Article 18

People are equal in human dignity, and citizens are equal before the law in public rights and duties. There shall be no

discrimination among them on the basis of sex, origin, language, religion or creed. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

35


BANGLADESH 1972

Right to vote and to stand for election: November 4, 1972

First woman in parliament: 1973

Independence: 1972

Population: 163,885,106

Parliament name: Jatiya Sangsad (Parliament)

Chamber name: Jatiya Sangsad (Parliament)

Statutory number of members: 350

Directly elected: 300

Electoral quota for women: Yes, 50 seats indirectly elected. Fifty seats shall be reserved exclusively for women members, who

will be elected by the aforesaid members in accordance with the law on the basis of proportional representation in

Parliament by single transferable vote. These seats, reserved for women, are distributed to political parties in proportion to

their overall share of the votes received in the election. The candidates are approved by a vote of parliament. In accordance

with the constitutional amendment (Fifteenth Amendment Act) passed by parliament on 30 June 2011, the number of seats

reserved for women in parliament has increased from 45 to 50, bringing the total number of seats to 350.

Legal source: Constitution, art. 65(3)

DATE WOMEN %

2018-12

2016-12

2014-12

2014-04

2014-03

2014-01

2013-01

2011-01

2009-01

2008-12

2007-01

2006-01

2005-01

2001-10

1996-06

1988-03

1979-02

1973-03

72

71

70

69

67

19

64

69

64

69

6

52

51

6

30

34

30

15

20.57%

20.29%

20%

19.83%

19.31%

6.4%

18.29%

19.71%

18.55%

19.71%

2%

15.07%

14.78%

2%

9.09%

10.3%

9.09%

4.76%

At the independence of Bangladesh, women's suffrage became actual. Prior to independence, the Government of India Act,

which was adopted in 1935 granted conditional suffrage to women. According to information provided by Pakistan, women

had to be literate, have an income and pay taxes. When Pakistan became an independent dominion in 1947 this right was

confirmed and also applied to Bangladesh, then being East Pakistan. Universal suffrage was granted to women in Pakistan in

1956, when Bangladesh was still a part of it. In 1973, no woman was directly elected: 15 seats were added to the 300 of the

elected men.

CONSTITUTION OF 1972, REINSTATED IN 1986, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2014

36

Article 19. Equality of opportunity

EQUAL OPPORTUNITY AND PARTICIPATION IN ALL SPHERES

3. The State shall endeavour to ensure equality of opportunity and participation of women in all spheres of national life.


BANGLADESH 1972

Article 28. Discrimination on grounds of religion, etc.

DISCRIMINATION BANNED

1. The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on ground only of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.

2. Women shall have equal rights with men in all spheres of the State and of public life. EQUAL RIGHTS

3. No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth be subjected to any disability, liability,

restriction or condition with regard to access to any place of public entertainment or resort, or admission to any

educational institution. ACCESS TO PUBLIC PLACES

4. Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making special provision in favour of women or children or for the

advancement of any backward section of citizens. ADVANCEMENT OF ANY BACKWARD SECTION

Article 29. Equality of opportunity in public employment

2. No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth, be ineligible for, or discriminated against in

respect of, any employment or office in the service of the Republic. GENDER EQUALITY IN EMPLOYMENT OR STATE OFFICE

3. Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from:

c. reserving for members of one sex any class of employment or office on the ground that it is considered by its nature to

be unsuited to members of the opposite sex. SEATS RESERVED IN MALE JOBS

Article 65. Establishment of Parliament

2. Parliament shall consist of three hundred members to be elected in accordance with law from single territorial

constituencies by direct election and, for so long as clause (3) is effective, the members provided for in that clause; the

member shall be designated as Members of Parliament.

3. Until the dissolution of Parliament occurring next after the expiration of the period of ten years beginning from the date

of the first meeting of the Parliament next after the Parliament in existence at the time of the

commencement of the Constitution (Fourteenth Amendment) Act, 2004, there shall be reserved fifty seats exclusively for

women members and they will be elected by the aforesaid members in accordance with law on the basis of procedure of

proportional representation in the Parliament through single transferable vote: Provided that nothing in this clause shall be

deemed to prevent a woman from being elected to any of the seats provided for in clause (2) of this article.

3A. For the remaining period of the Parliament in existence at the time of the commencement of the Constitution (Fifteenth

Amendment) Act, 2011, Parliament shall consist of three hundred members elected by direct election provided for in clause

(2) and fifty women members provided for in clause (3). RESERVED SEATS IN PARLIAMENT

37


BARBADOS 1950

Right to vote and to stand for election: October 23, 1950

First woman in parliament: 1951

Independence: 1966

Population: 287,210

Parliament name: Parliament of Barbados (Parlement de

Barbade)

Chamber name: House of Assembly

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 30

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No

DATE WOMEN %

2018-06

2013-02

2008-01

2003-05

1994-09

1991-01

1981-06

1976-09

1971-09

1966-11

6

5

3

4

3

1

1

1

2

0

20%

16.67%

10%

13.33%

10.71%

3.57%

3.7%

4.17%

8.33%

0%

Chamber name: Senate

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 21

Appointed by the Governor General

Electoral quota for women: No

DATE WOMEN %

2019-04

2018-06

2014-12

2013-03

2010-01

2009-01

2008-02

2003-05

1999-01

1991-01

1981-06

1971-09

1966-11

9

8

5

6

4

7

4

5

7

6

4

3

2

42.86%

38.1%

23.81%

28.57%

19.05%

33.33%

19.05%

23.81%

33.33%

28.57%

19.05%

14.29%

9.52%

Prior to independence, under British administration, women were granted the right to vote and stand for election on 23

October 1950 and a woman, Edna Ermyntrude Bourne, was elected on 18 December 1951. These rights were confirmed at

independence.

CONSTITUTION OF 1966, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2007

Article 11

Whereas every person in Barbados is entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, the

right, whatever his race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed or sex, but subject to respect for the rights and

freedoms of others and for the public interest, to each and all of the following, namely: DISCRIMINATION BANNED

a. life, liberty and security of the person;

b. protection for the privacy of his home and other property and from

deprivation of property without compensation;

c. the protection of the law; and

d. freedom of conscience, of expression and of assembly and association

38


BELARUS 1919

Right to vote and to stand for election: February 4, 1919

First woman in parliament: 1990

Independence: 1991

Population: 9,451,857

Parliament name: Natsionalnoye Sobranie (National

Assembly)

Chamber name: Palata Predstaviteley (House of

Representatives)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 110

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No

DATE WOMEN %

2019-11

2016-09

2014-12

2012-09

2008-09

2004-10

2000-10

1996

1990-03

44

38

30

29

35

32

10

5

12

40%

34.55%

27.27%

26.36%

31.82%

29.09%

10.31%

4.55%

3.8%

Chamber name: Soviet Respubliki (Council of the

Republic)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 64

Indirectly elected: 56. Eight members may be appointed by

the Head of State.

Electoral quota for women: No

DATE WOMEN %

2019-11

2016-12

2015-01

2012-08

2008-01

2004-11

2000-12

2000-10

1997

14

17

19

20

19

18

19

18

19

25%

30.36%

32.76%

35.71%

33.93%

31.58%

30.65%

29.51%

31.15%

Prior to independence, under Soviet administration women in Belarus were granted universal suffrage on 4 February 1919,

when Belarus was a part of the USSR. In the RSFSR which, at the time claimed sovereignty over Belarus, women were granted

the right to vote in 1918. This right was confirmed at independence. In March 1990 the Soviet Supreme of the SSR of Belarus

became the first legislature of Belarus after the country became independent on 25 August 1991.

CONSTITUTION OF 1994, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2004

Article 32

MOTHERHOOD UNDER PROTECTION

Marriage, the family, motherhood, fatherhood, and childhood shall be under the protection of the State.

On reaching the age of consent women and men shall have the right to enter into marriage on a voluntary basis and start a

family. A husband and wife shall be equal in family relationships. MATRIMONIAL EQUALITY

Women shall be guaranteed equal rights with men in their opportunities to receive education and vocational training,

promotion in labour, socio-political, cultural and other spheres of activity, as well as in creating conditions safeguarding

their labour and health.

… EQUAL RIGHTS TO RECEIVE EDUCATION, PROMOTION IN LABOUR, SOCIO-POLITICAL, CULTURAL AND SAFEGUARDING LABOUR AND HEALTH

Article 38

Citizens of the Republic of Belarus shall have the right to vote freely and to be elected to state bodies on the basis of

universal, equal, direct or indirect suffrage by secret ballot. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 42

EQUAL PAY FOR WORK

Women and men and adults and minors shall be entitled to equal remuneration for work of equal value.

39


BELGIUM 1948

Right to vote and to stand for election: March 27, 1948

First woman in parliament: 1921

Population: 11,567,053

Parliament name: Parlement fédéral - Federaal Parlement

- Föderales Parlament (Federal Parliament)

40

Chamber name: Chambre des Représentants (House of

Representatives)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 150

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Legislated candidate

quotas. On electoral lists, the number of candidates of

either gender cannot be greater than the other. This also

applies to the list of alternates. The two top candidates on

candidate lists and on the lists of alternates cannot be of

the same gender.

Legal source: Cf. Article 117bis of Electoral Code.

DATE WOMEN %

2019-12

2019-06

2019-05

2016-12

2014-05

2014-01

2010-06

2009-01

2008-01

2003-05

1999-06

1998

1997

1995-05

1991-11

1987-12

1985-10

1981-11

1978-12

1977-04

1974-03

1971-11

1968-03

1965-05

1961-03

1954-04

1950-06

1949-06

1946-02

61

63

64

57

59

62

59

57

55

53

35

18

19

18

20

18

16

12

16

15

14

6

8

7

11

9

7

5

3

40.67%

42%

42.67%

38%

39.33%

41.33%

39.33%

38%

36.67%

35.33%

23.33%

12%

12.67%

12%

9.43%

8.49%

7.55%

5.66%

7.55%

7.08%

6.6%

2.83%

3.77%

3.3%

5.19%

4.25%

3.3%

2.36%

1.49%

Chamber name: Sénat - Senaat - Senat (Senate)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 60

Indirectly elected members: 50 senators of the federal

entities designated by Community and Regional Parliaments

Other: 10 senators - six Dutch-speaking and four

French-speaking - co-opted by the senators of the federal

entities based on the election results for the House of

Representatives.

Electoral quota for women: Yes. The Senate shall not have

more than two thirds of its members of the same sex. It shall

therefore be composed of at least 20 men and at least 20

women Senators.

Legal source: Cf. Article 67 (3) of Constitution.

DATE WOMEN %

2019-12

2019-07

2018-12

2014-07

2010-06

2009-01

2008-01

2007-07

2005-01

2004-01

2003-05

1999-06

1995-05

1991-11

1987-12

1985-10

1981-11

1978-12

1977-04

1974-03

1971-11

1968-03

1965-05

1961-03

1954-04

1949-06

1946-02

27

28

26

30

27

29

23

27

22

26

23

20

16

20

15

22

21

19

16

12

5

0

2

3

6

7

5

45%

46.67%

43.33%

50%

38.03%

40.85%

32.39%

38.03%

30.99%

36.62%

32.39%

28.17%

22.54%

10.87%

8.15%

11.96%

11.6%

10.5%

8.84%

6.63%

2.81%

0%

1.12%

1.71%

3.43%

4%

2.99%


BELGIUM 1948

The Law of 9 May 1919 gave the right to vote in national election to the widows or mothers of servicemen killed during the

war, citizens shot or killed by the enemy and women political prisoners. Universal suffrage was introduced for men in 1919

and was exercised for the first time in 1921. In 1921, women were given the right to stand for election in communal,

provincial and parliamentary elections and on 27 December 1921 Marie Janson (1873–1960) was co-opted in Senate. The

Law of 27 March 1948 then gave all women the right to vote in the same conditions as for men. Women voted for the first

time in 1949.

CONSTITUTION OF 1831, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2014

Article 10

Equality between women and men is guaranteed.

EQUAL RIGHTS

Article 11bis

EQUALLY EXERCISE RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS EQUAL ACCESS ELECTIVE AND PUBLIC MANDATES

The law, federate law or rule referred to in Article 134 guarantees that women and men may equally exercise their rights

and freedoms, and in particular promotes their equal access to elective and public mandates.

INCLUSION IN THE GOVERNMENTS

The Council of Ministers and the Governments of the Communities and the Regions include both women and men.

The law, federate law or rule referred to in Article 134 provides for women and men to sit on the permanent deputations of

the provincial councils, the colleges of the burgomasters and aldermen, the councils and permanent committees of the

public centres for social welfare and on the executives of any other inter-provincial, supra-municipal, inter-municipal or

intra-municipal territorial body. INCLUSION IN THE COUNCILS, COLLEGES, COMMITTEES AND MUNICIPALITIES

Article 67

§ 3. The Senate is composed of no more than two-thirds of senators of the same gender.

RESERVED SEATS FOR GENDER IN SENATE

41


BELIZE 1954

Right to vote and to stand for election: March 25, 1954

First woman in parliament: 1961

Independence: 1981

Population: 394,050

Parliament name: National Assembly

Chamber name: House of Representatives

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 32

Directly elected: 31. The Speaker may be designated from

outside parliament and becomes a member of parliament

by virtue of holding the office of Speaker.

Electoral quota for women: No

DATE WOMEN %

2017-01

2014-01

2012-03

2009-01

2008-04

2008-02

2007-01

2003-03

1998-08

1993-06

1989-09

1984-12

3

1

1

0

4

3

5

1

2

1

0

1

9.38%

3.13%

3.13%

0%

33.33%

25%

15.63%

3.33%

6.9%

3.45%

0%

3.57%

Chamber name: Senate

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 13

Appointed members: 6 members are appointed on the

advice of the Prime Minister; 3 on the advice of the Leader of

the Opposition; 1 on the advice of the Belize Council of

Churches and the Evangelical Association of Churches; 1 on

the advice of the Belize Chamber of Commerce and Industry

and the Belize Business Bureau; and 1 on the advice of the

National Trade Union Congress of Belize and the Civil Society

Steering Committee. The Speaker may be designated from

outside the Senate and becomes a member of the Senate by

virtue of holding the office of Speaker.

Electoral quota for women: No

DATE WOMEN %

2017-01

2016-12

2008-04

2008-03

1984-12

2

4

5

4

3

15.38%

30.77%

33.33%

28.57%

30%

Prior to independence, under British administration women were granted the right to vote on 25 March 1954. This right was

confirmed at independence. In April 1961, Gwendolyn Lizarraga (1901-1975) became the first woman elected to the National

Assembly of British Honduras.

CONSTITUTION OF 1981, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2011

Preamble

WHEREAS the people of Belize

ELIMINATION ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PRIVILEGE AND DISPARITY

e. …which eliminate economic and social privilege and disparity among the citizens of Belize whether by race, ethnicity,

colour, creed, disability or sex; which ensures gender equality;… GENDER EQUALITY

42

3. Fundamental rights and freedoms

Whereas every person in Belize is entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, the right,

whatever his race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed or sex, but subject to respect for the rights and freedoms

of others and for the public interest, to each and all of the following, namely:

a. life, liberty, security of the person, and the protection of the law;

b. freedom of conscience, of expression and of assembly and association;

DISCRIMINATION BANNED

c. protection for his family life, his personal privacy, the privacy of his home and other property and recognition of his human

dignity; and


BELIZE 1954

d. protection from arbitrary deprivation of property,

16. Protection from discrimination on the grounds of race, etc

DISCRIMINATION BANNED

3. In this section, the expression "discriminatory" means affording different treatment to different persons attributable

wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by sex, race, place of origin, political opinions, colour or creed whereby

persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such description are

not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages which are not accorded to persons of another such description.

5. Nothing contained in any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of subsection (1) of this section to

the extent that it makes provision with respect to standards or qualifications (not being standards or qualifications

specifically relating to sex, race, place of origin, political opinions, colour or creed) to be required of any person who is

appointed to or to act in any office or employment. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

92. Conduct of voting

At any general election UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

a. every citizen of Belize or a citizen of any Commonwealth Country who has attained the age of eighteen years and who

satisfies the requirements of the Representation of the People Act shall have the right to vote;

b. no person shall be entitled to more than one vote; and

c. votes shall be cast in a secret ballot.

43


BENIN 1956

Right to vote and to stand for election: 1956

First woman in parliament: 1979

Independence: 1960

Population: 11,960,844

Parliament name: Assemblée nationale (National

Assembly)

DATE WOMEN %

2019-04

2015-04

2014-01

2011-04

2010-01

2007-03

2003-03

1998

1997

1995-04

1991-02

1989-06

1984-06

1979-11

6

6

7

8

9

7

6

5

6

5

4

6

8

28

7.23%

7.23%

8.43%

9.64%

10.84%

8.43%

7.23%

7.81%

7.23%

7.81%

6.25%

2.93%

4.08%

8.33%

Chamber name: Assemblée nationale (National Assembly)

Statutory number of members: 83

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No.

Prior to independence, under French administration, article 10 of the 1956 framework law gave the right to vote for the

territorial assemblies to both sexes over 21. Universal suffrage was first exercised in the 1957 elections. Universal suffrage

was confirmed at independence.

CONSTITUTION OF 1990

Article 6

Suffrage shall be universal, equal and secret. The electors shall be, under the conditions determined by law, all Béninese

nationals of both sexes over the age of eighteen and in full possession of their civil and political rights. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 26

The State shall assure to everyone equality before the law without distinction of origin, of race, of sex, of religion, of

political opinion or of social position. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

Men and women are equal under the law. The State shall protect the family and particularly the mother and child. It shall

take care of handicapped and aged persons. EQUALITY UNDER THE LAW PROTECTION OF THE MOTHER

44


BHUTAN 2008

Right to vote and to stand for election: July 21, 2008

First woman in parliament: 1975

Population: 767,528

Parliament name: Chi Tshog (Parliament)

Chamber name: Tshogdu (National Assembly)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 47

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No.

Chamber name: Gyelyong Tshogde (National Council)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 25

Directly elected members: 20

Appointed members by the King: 5

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-10

2014-01

2013-07

2008-03

2006

1991

1975

1953

7

4

3

4

4

0

3

0

14.89%

8.51%

6.38%

8.51%

2.67%

0%

2%

0%

DATE WOMEN %

2018-06

2018-05

2018-04

2013-04

2008-03

2007

4

2

4

2

6

3

16%

8%

16%

8%

24%

20%

In 1953, women were granted the right to vote and to stand for election, but suffrage was limited to one vote per household.

The new constitution, adopted by Parliament on 21 July 2008 provides for universal suffrage.

CONSTITUTION OF 2008

Article 7: Fundamental Rights

...

15. All persons are equal before the law and are entitled to equal and effective protection of the law and shall not be

discriminated against on the grounds of race, sex, language, religion, politics or other status.

...

22. Notwithstanding the rights conferred by this Constitution, nothing in this Article shall prevent the State from subjecting

reasonable restriction by law, when it concerns:

… RESTRICTION BY LAW AGAINST INCITEMENT TO OFFEND

d. Incitement to an offence on the grounds of race, sex, language, religion or region;

DISCRIMINATION BANNED

Article 9: Principles of State Policy

...

ELIMINATING ALL FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION AND EXPLOITATION

17. The State shall endeavour to take appropriate measures to eliminate all forms of discrimination and exploitation

against women including trafficking, prostitution, abuse, violence, harassment and intimidation at work in both public and

private spheres.

Article 23: Elections

1. Under this Constitution, the general will of the people shall be the basis of government and it shall be expressed through

45


BHUTAN 2008

periodic elections.

2. A person shall have the right to vote by direct adult suffrage through secret ballot at an election if the person is:

a. A Bhutanese citizen as evidenced by a Citizenship Card;

b. Not less than eighteen years of age;

UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

c. Registered in the civil registry of that constituency for not less than one year, prior to the date of the election; and

d. Not otherwise disqualified from voting under any law in force in Bhutan.

3. A candidate for an elective office under this Constitution shall:

a. Be a Bhutanese citizen;

b. Be registered voter of that constituency;

c. Be a minimum of twenty-five years and maximum of sixty-five years of age at the time of filing the nomination;

d. Not receive money or any assistance from foreign sources, be it governmental, nongovernmental, private organizations or

from private parties or individuals; and

e. Fulfil the necessary educational and other qualifications prescribed in the Electoral Laws.

...

46


BOLIVIA 1952

Right to vote and to stand for election: July 21, 1952

First woman in parliament: 1956

Population: 11,594,425

Parliament name: Asamblea Legislativa Plurinacional

(Plurinational Legislative Assembly)

Chamber name: Cámara de Diputados (Chamber of

Deputies)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 130

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Legislated candidate

quotas (50% men, 50% women). Both principal and

alternate candidate lists in multi-member constituencies

for elections to the Lower House (Cámara de Diputados)

must include equal numbers of men and women, in

alternation. In the case of a list composed of an odd

number of candidates, preference will be given to women.

In single-member constituencies, at least 50% of the

candidates (principal and alternate) nominated in all of the

constituencies must be women. This new legislation has

been applied to the Chamber of Deputies elected in 2014.

Legal source: Constitution, articles 26 and 147; articles 11

and 58 (2) of the 2010 Electoral Law.

DATE WOMEN %

2019-10

2014-10

2014-01

2011-01

2010-01

2009-12

2005-12

2002-06

1998

1997-06

1993-06

1989-05

1985-07

1980-06

1979-07

1966-07

1962

1958-07

1956-06

1951-04

69

69

33

29

33

29

22

24

15

9

14

12

4

1

3

1

2

0

1

0

53.08%

53.08%

25.38%

22.31%

25.38%

22.31%

16.92%

18.46%

11.54%

6.92%

10.77%

9.23%

3.08%

0.77%

2.56%

0.97%

1.94%

0%

1.79%

0%

Chamber name: Cámara de Senadores (Chamber of

Senators)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 36

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Articles 11 and 54 (2) of the

Electoral Law (2010) require that both principal and alternate

candidate lists in multi-member constituencies for elections

to the Upper House (Senado) must include equal number of

men and women, in alternation. In single-member

constituencies, at least 50% of the candidates (principal and

alternate) nominated in the total number of constituencies

must be women. This new legislation has been applied to the

Chamber of Senators elected in 2014.

Legal source: Constitution, articles 26 and 147; articles 11 and

54 (2) of the 2010 Electoral Law.

DATE WOMEN %

2019-10

2014-10

2013

2010

2009-12

2005-12

2004

2002-06

1989-05

1980-06

1979-07

1951-04

17

17

15

17

15

1

3

4

1

2

1

0

47.22%

47.22%

41.67%

47.22%

41.67%

3.7%

11.11%

14.81%

3.7%

7.41%

3.7%

0%

Literate women and those with a certain level of income were given the right to vote and to stand for election in 1938. These

rights were extended to all women in 1952. Lidia Gueiler Tejada (1921-2011) was the first woman elected in 1956.

47


BOLIVIA 1952

CONSTITUTION OF 2009

Article 8

II. The State is based on the values of unity, equality, inclusion, dignity, liberty, solidarity, reciprocity, respect,

interdependence, harmony, transparency, equilibrium, equality of opportunity, social and gender equality in participation,

common welfare, responsibility, social justice, distribution and redistribution of the social wealth and assets for well being.

GENDER EQUALITY

Article 11

I. The Republic of Bolivia adopts a participatory democratic, representative and communal form of government, with equal

conditions for men and women. EQUAL CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION IN THE GOVERNMENT

II. Democracy is exercised in the following forms, which shall be developed by law:

2. Representative, by means of the election of representatives by universal, direct and secret vote, in accordance with the law.

… UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 14

II. The State prohibits and punishes all forms of discrimination based on sex, color, age, sexual orientation, gender identity,

origin, culture, nationality, citizenship, language, religious belief, ideology, political affiliation or philosophy, civil status,

economic or social condition, type of occupation, level of education, disability, pregnancy, and any other discrimination that

attempts to or results in the annulment of or harm to the equal recognition, enjoyment or exercise of the rights of all people.

… DISCRIMINATION BANNED

Article 15

II. Everyone, in particular women, have the right not to suffer physical, sexual or psychological violence, in the family as

well as in the society. VIOLENCE BANNED

Article 26

I. All citizens have the right to participate freely in the formation, exercise and control of political power, directly or through

their representatives, individually or collectively. Participation shall be equitable and under equal conditions for men and

women. EQUAL CONDITIONS IN THE EXERCISE OF POLITICAL POWER

II. The right to participate includes:

2. The right to suffrage, by equal, universal, direct, individual, secret, free and obligatory vote, which is publicly counted.

UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 45

SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM FOR MATERNITY

III. The social security system covers assistance for the following reasons:…maternity or paternity;

SAFE MATERNITY

V. Women have the right to a safe maternity, with an inter-cultural practice and vision; they shall enjoy the special

assistance and protection of the State during pregnancy and birth and in the prenatal and postnatal periods.

… SPECIAL ASSISTANCE AND PROTECTION DURING PREGNANCY, BIRTH AND POSTNATAL PERIODS

Article 48

INCORPORATION IN THE WORKFORCE EQUAL PAY FOR WORK

V. The State shall promote the incorporation of women into the workforce and shall guarantee them the same

remuneration as men for work of equal value, both in the public and private arena.

VI. Women shall not be discriminated against or fired because of their civil status, because of pregnancy, because of their

age or physical features, or because of the number of children they have. It is guaranteed that pregnant women and

parents cannot be dismissed from employment until the child completes one year of age.

… NOT DISCRIMINATED OR FIRED BECAUSE OF CIVIL STATUS, PREGNANCY, AGE, PHYSICAL FEATURES OR NUMBER OF CHILDREN

NOT DISMISSED FROM EMPLOYMENT UNTIL THE CHILD IS ONE YEAR OF AGE

Article 49

I. The right of collective bargaining is recognized.

II. The following shall be regulated by law:…maternity leave;… MATERNITY LEAVE

Article 58

Every person of minor age is considered a child or adolescent. Children and adolescents have rights recognized in the

Constitution, with the limits established by it, and they have the specific rights inherent to their development; to their

48


BOLIVIA 1952

ethnic, socio-cultural, gender and generational identity; and to the satisfaction of their needs, interests and aspirations.

GENDER SPECIFIC RIGHTS FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

Article 63

I. The marriage between a man and a woman is formed by legal bond and is based on equality of the rights and duties of

the spouses. MATRIMONIAL EQUALITY

Article 66

SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE RIGHTS

Women and men are guaranteed the exercise of sexual rights and their reproductive rights.

Article 79 GENDER EQUALITY IN EDUCATION

Education shall promote civic-mindedness, intercultural dialogue and ethical moral values. The values shall incorporate

gender equality, non differentiation of roles, non-violence, and the full enforcement of human rights.

Article 104 GENDER EQUALITY IN SPORT

Everyone has the right to sports, physical culture and recreation. The State guarantees access to sports without distinction as

to gender, language, religion, political orientation, territorial location, social, cultural membership or any other characteristic.

Article 147 EQUAL PARTICIPATION IN ELECTION OF LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY

I. The equal participation of men and women shall be guaranteed in the election of the members of the assembly.

Article 172

The attributes of the President of the State, in addition to those established by this Constitution and the law, are the

following:

22. To designate the Ministers of State, respecting the Pluri-National character of the country and gender equity in the

composition of the ministerial cabinet. GENDER EQUITY IN COMPOSITION OF GOVERNMENT

Article 210

II. The internal election of the leaders and the candidates of the citizen associations, and of the political parties, shall be

regulated and supervised by the Pluri-National Electoral Organ, which shall guarantee the equal participation of men and

women. EQUALITY OF PARTICIPATION IN THE ELECTIONS OF LEADERS AND CANDIDATES OF ASSOCIATIONS AND POLITICAL PARTIES

Article 270

The principles that govern territorial organization and the decentralized and autonomous territorial entities are: unity,

voluntariness, solidarity, equity, the common good, self government, equality, complementariness, reciprocity, gender

equity, subsidiarity, gradualness, coordination and institutional faithfulness, transparency, public participation and control,

provision of economic resources and the pre-existence of the nations and rural native indigenous peoples, under the terms

established in this Constitution. GENDER EQUITY IN TERRITORIAL ORGANIZATION AND AUTONOMOUS TERRITORIAL ENTITIES

Article 278

II. The law shall determine the general criteria for the election of members of the departmental assemblies, taking into

account population, territorial, cultural identity and linguistic representation when there are rural native indigenous

minorities, and parity and alternation of gender. ...

ALTERNATION OF GENDER IN THE ELECTION OF MEMBERS OF THE DEPARTMENTAL ASSEMBLIES

Article 300

I. The autonomous departmental governments have exclusive authority over the following in their jurisdictions:

30. Promotion and development of projects and policies for children and adolescents, women, the elderly and persons

with disabilities. PROMOTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIFIC PROJECTS AND POLICIES

Article 395

I. The lands that are taken over shall be given to rural native indigenous peoples, intercultural indigenous communities,

Afro-Bolivian and rural communities, which do not possess them or have insufficient lands, in accordance with state policy

concerned with the ecological and geographic realities, as well as the population, social, cultural and economic necessities.

The endowment shall be carried out according to the policies of sustainable rural development and the right of women to

access, distribution and redistribution of land, without discrimination based on civil status or marital union.…

RIGHT OF WOMEN TO ACCESS, DISTRIBUTION AND REDISTRIBUTION OF LAND, WITHOUT DISCRIMINATION BASED ON

CIVIL STATUS OR MARITAL UNION

49


BOLIVIA 1952

Article 402

The State has the obligation to:…

2. To promote policies aimed at eliminating all forms of discrimination against women in the access to, ownership and

inheritance of land. PROMOTION OF POLICIES TO ELIMINATE ALL FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION

50


BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA 1949

Right to vote and to stand for election: January 31, 1949

First woman in parliament: 1990

Independence: 1992

Population: 3,287,323

Parliament name: Skupstina (Parliamentary Assembly)

Chamber name: Predstavnicki dom (House of

Representatives)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 42

Directly elected: 28 from the Federation of Bosnia and

Herzegovina, 14 from the Republika Srpska

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Legislated candidate

quotas.

Legal source: Cf. Article 4.19 of Electoral Law.

Chamber name: Dom Naroda (House of Peoples)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 15

Appointed: 10 from the Federation of Bosnia and

Herzegovina and 5 from the Republika Srpska.

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-10

2014

2013

2010-10

2010-01

2009

2008

2007

2006-10

2002-10

2000-11

1998-09

1990-11

9

9

7

9

7

8

6

5

6

7

3

12

7

21.43%

21.43%

16.67%

21.43%

16.67%

19.05%

14.29%

11.9%

14.29%

16.67%

7.14%

28.57%

4.49%

DATE WOMEN %

2019-02

2007-03

2006-01

1998-09

3

2

1

0

20%

13.33%

6.67%

0%

Equal rights were given to men and women in 1943 by the law voted by the Antifascist National Council for Liberation of

Yugoslavia (the supreme representative organ with Executive and Legislative power to which a woman was first elected on

29 November 1943). This law was upheld by the Constitution of 1946. In November 1990 the Assembly of the Federated

Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina became the first legislature of Bosnia and Herzegovina after the country became

independent in March 1992. Women of Bosnia and Herzegovina were previously elected to the Parliament of the SFR of

Yugoslavia.

CONSTITUTION OF 1995, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2009

Article I: Bosnia and Herzegovina

7. Citizenship

b. No person shall be deprived of Bosnia and Herzegovina or Entity citizenship arbitrarily or so as to leave him or her stateless.

No person shall be deprived of Bosnia and Herzegovina or Entity citizenship on any ground such as sex, race, color,

language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, association with a national minority, property, birth or

other status. NO PERSON DEPRIVED OF CITIZENSHIP DUE TO SEX

51


BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA 1949

Article II: Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms

4. Non-Discrimination

The enjoyment of the rights and freedoms provided for in this Article or in the international agreements listed in Annex I to

this Constitution shall be secured to all persons in Bosnia and Herzegovina without discrimination on any ground such as

sex, race, color, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, association with a national minority,

property, birth or other status. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

Annex I: Additional Human Rights Agreements To Be Applied In Bosnia And Herzegovina

9. 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

… CONVENTION: ELIMINATION ALL FORMS DISCRIMINATION

52


BOTSWANA 1965

Right to vote and to stand for election: March 1, 1965

First woman in parliament: 1974

Independence: 1966

Population: 2,326,801

Parliament name: Parliament

Chamber name: National Assembly

Statutory number of members: 65

Directly elected: 57

Indirectly elected: 6 members elected by the National Assembly.

Other: 2 ex officio members, the President of the Republic and the Speaker,

who may be appointed from outside the National Assembly.

DATE WOMEN %

2019-10

2014-11

2014-10

2014-01

2009-10

2004-10

1999-10

1994-10

1989-10

1984-09

1979-10

1974-10

1965-03

7

6

5

6

5

7

8

4

2

2

2

2

0

10.77%

9.52%

8.06%

9.52%

7.94%

11.11%

17.02%

10%

5%

5.13%

5.41%

5.4%

0%

Formally a British Colony, the 1965 Constitution only came into force upon independence in 1966. In 1974, Gaositwe

Keagakwa Tibe Chiepe (1922- ) and Kebatshabile Disele were specially elected as Members of Parliament.

CONSTITUTION OF 1966, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2005

3. Fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual

Whereas every person in Botswana is entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, the

right, whatever his or her race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed or sex, but subject to respect for the rights

and freedoms of others and for the public interest to each and all of the following, namely:

a. life, liberty, security of the person and the protection of the law;

b. freedom of conscience, of expression and of assembly and association; and

DISCRIMINATION BANNED

c. protection for the privacy of his or her home and other property and from deprivation of property without compensation.

the provisions of this Chapter shall have effect for the purpose of affording protection to those rights and freedoms subject

to such limitations of that protection as are contained in those provisions, being limitations designed to ensure that the

enjoyment of the said rights and freedoms by any individual does not prejudice the rights and freedoms of others or the

public interest.

15. Protection from discrimination on the grounds of race, etc

DISCRIMINATION BANNED

3. In this section, the expression "discriminatory" means affording different treatment to different persons, attributable

wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, tribe, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed or sex whereby

persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such description are

not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages which are not accorded to persons of another such description.

53


BRAZIL 1932

Right to vote and to stand for election: July 5, 1932

First woman in parliament: 1933

Population: 211,835,240

Parliament name: Congresso nacional (National

Congress)

Chamber name: Cámara dos Deputados (Chamber of

Deputies)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 513

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Legislated candidate

quotas. Electoral law guarantees that lists contain a

minimum of 30% of candidates of each sex.

Legal source: Cf. Law 9.504/1997 amended by law

12.034/2009.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-10

2016-12

2015-02

2014-12

2014-10

2010-10

2008-01

2007-01

2006-01

2002-10

1998-10

1994-10

1990-10

1986-11

1982-11

1978-09

1974-11

1970-11

1966-11

1962-11

1958-10

1954-10

1950-10

1945-12

77

55

51

46

51

44

45

46

45

44

29

36

28

26

7

4

1

1

5

2

3

1

1

0

15.01%

10.72%

9.94%

8.97%

9.94%

8.58%

8.77%

8.97%

8.77%

8.58%

5.65%

7.02%

5.57%

5.34%

1.46%

0.95%

0.27%

0.32%

1.22%

0.49%

0.92%

0.31%

0.33%

0%

Chamber name: Senado Federal (Federal Senate)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 81

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Legislated candidate quotas.

Electoral law guarantees that lists contain a minimum of 30%

of candidates of each sex.

Legal source: Cf. Law 9.504/1997 amended by law

12.034/2009.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-10

2016-12

2015-02

2014-10

2010-01

2006-12

2006-10

2002-10

1994-10

1990-10

1982-11

1978-09

1945-12

12

12

13

11

13

10

12

10

6

2

0

1

0

14.81%

14.81%

16.05%

13.58%

16.05%

12.35%

14.81%

12.35%

7.41%

2.47%

0%

1.49%

0%

The right to vote and to stand for election was conquered in 1932 and incorporated into the 1934 Constitution as optional.

In 1933, Carlota Pereira de Queirós (1892-1982), a physician from the state of São Paulo, became the first woman elected to

the Chamber of Deputies (Eduardo Soares). Only the 1965 Electoral Code will equate the female vote with that of men.

54


BRAZIL 1932

CONSTITUTION OF 1988, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2017

Art 3

The fundamental objectives of the Federative Republic of Brazil are:

IV. to promote the well-being of all, without prejudice as to origin, race, sex, color, age and any other forms of

discrimination. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

Art 5

Everyone is equal before the law, with no distinction whatsoever, guaranteeing to Brazilians and foreigners residing in the

Country the inviolability of the rights to life, liberty, equality, security and property, on the following terms:

I. men and women have equal rights and duties under the terms of this Constitution; EQUAL RIGHTS AND DUTIES

Art 6

Education, health, nutrition, labor, housing, transport, leisure, security, social security, protection of motherhood and

childhood and assistance to the destitute, are social rights, as set forth in this Constitution. PROTECTION OF MOTHERHOOD

Art 7

The following are rights of urban and rural workers, in addition to any others designed to improve their social condition:

XVIII. maternity leave without loss of job or wages for a period of one hundred-twenty days; MATERNITY LEAVE

XX. protection of the job market for women through specific incentives, as provided by law; PROTECTION OF THE JOB MARKET

XXX. prohibition of any difference in pay in performance of duties and in hiring criteria by reason of sex, age, color or

marital status; EQUAL PAY FOR WORK

Art 14

Popular sovereignty shall be exercised by universal suffrage, and by direct and secret vote, with equal value for all, and, as

provided by law… UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Art 143

Military service is compulsory as provided by law.

§2°. Women and the clergy are exempt from compulsory military service in peacetime but are subject to other duties that

may be assigned to them by law.

Art 183

An individual who possesses as his own an urban area of up to two hundred and fifty square meters, for five years without

interruption or opposition, using it as his or as his family's residence, shall acquire title to such property, provided that he

does not own any other urban or rural property.

§1°. The deed of title and concession of use shall be granted to the man or woman, or both, regardless of their marital status.

… USE OF URBAN AREA

Art 189

Beneficiaries of distribution of rural land under the agrarian reform shall receive deeds of title or concessions of use that are

nonnegotiable for a period of ten years.

Sole Paragraph

Deeds of title and concessions of use shall be granted to the man or woman, or to both, irrespective of their marital status,

pursuant to the terms and conditions provided for by law. DISTRIBUTION OF RURAL LAND

Art 201

Social security shall be organized in the form of a general regime, characterized by contributions and mandatory affiliation,

observing the criteria that preserve the financial and actuarial equilibrium, and shall provide for, as defined by law:

II. maternity protection, especially for pregnant women; MATERNITY PROTECTION FOR PREGNANT WOMEN

V. a pension for the death of an insured man or woman, for the spouse or companion, and dependents, obeying the

provision of § 2°. SOCIAL PENSION FOR THE DEATH

55


BRAZIL 1932

Art 203

Social assistance shall be provided to those who need it, regardless of contributions to social security, and shall have the

following objectives:

I. protection of the family, maternity, childhood, adolescence and old age; SOCIAL ASSISTANCE FOR MATERNITY PROTECTION

Art 226

The family, which is the foundation of society, shall enjoy special protection from the State.

§5°. The rights and duties of the conjugal society shall be exercised equally by men and women.

MATRIMONIAL EQUALITY

56


BRUNEI 1959

Right to vote and to stand for election: 1959. Women (and

men) not allowed to vote and to stand for election since

1962.

Independence: 1984

Population: 435,503

Parliament name: Majlis Mesyuarat Negara (Legislative

Council)

Chamber name: Majlis Mesyuarat Negara (Legislative Council)

Statutory number of members: 45 (current members 33)

Appointed members (20): the Speaker, two titled persons, seven prominent citizens in public service and various fields of

endeavour, and eight representatives from four districts.

Other (13): The Sultan, the Crown Prince and Cabinet ministers (currently 11) who are ex officio members.

Brunei has not held direct legislative elections since 1962. Both men and women have voting rights only for local

elections.

The Constitution provides that the Legislative Council should consist of not more than 45 members as follows:

- Up to 30 people appointed by the Sultan from ex officio members (Cabinet Ministers), titled people, and prominent citizens

in public service and various fields of endeavour.

- Up to 15 representatives from the country's four districts: Brunei and Muara (up to seven members), Belait (up to three),

Tutong (up to three) and Temburong (up to two).

In addition, the Sultan and the Crown Prince are ex officio members.

DATE WOMEN %

2016-12

2016-03

2015-02

3

2

3

9.09%

6.45%

9.09%

CONSTITUTION OF 1959, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2006

4. Executive authority and principal officers

5. The appointment of Ministers and Deputy Ministers shall be made from among the Malay race professing the Islamic

Religion, save where His Majesty the Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan otherwise decides.

… ELIGIBILITY FOR CABINET: RACE, RELIGION AND MAJESTY

84A. Appointment to specified offices

1. No person shall be appointed to any office specified in the Third Schedule* unless he is a citizen of Brunei Darussalam of

the Malay race professing the Islamic Religion. APPOINTMENT TO SPECIFIED OFFICES: RACE AND RELIGION

*(Auditor General; Clerk to the Privy Council; Clerk to the Legislative Council; Chief Syar’ie Judge; Mufti Kerajaan; Attorney General;

Chairman of the Public Service Commission; Yang Di-Pertua Adat Istiadat; Speaker of the Legislative Council; Secretary to the

Council of Ministers)

57


BULGARIA 1944

Right to vote and to stand for election: October 16, 1944

First woman in parliament: 1945

Population: 6,974,428

Parliament name: Narodno sabranie (National Assembly)

Chamber name: Narodno sabranie (National Assembly)

Statutory number of members: 240

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. The different political parties promote the rising number of women candidates in the

election.

Legal source: Gender Equality Act, Prom. SG. 33/26 Apr 2016

DATE WOMEN %

2018-12

2017-11

2016-12

2014-12

2014-10

2013-05

2008-01

2007-01

2005-06

2001-06

1997-04

1994-12

1991-10

1990-06

1986-06

1981-06

1976-05

1971-06

1966-02

1962-02

1957-12

1953-12

1949-12

1946-10

1945-11

62

57

46

49

48

59

50

52

50

63

26

32

31

34

84

87

78

75

71

65

41

39

36

38

16

25.83%

23.75%

19.17%

20.42%

20%

24.58%

20.83%

21.67%

20.83%

26.25%

10.83%

13.33%

12.92%

8.5%

21%

21.75%

19.5%

18.75%

17.07%

20.25%

16.14%

15.66%

15.06%

8.17%

5.8%

CONSTITUTION OF 1991, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2015

58

Article 6

1. All persons are born free and equal in dignity and rights.

2. All citizens* shall be equal before the law. There shall be no privileges or restriction of rights on the grounds of race,

national or social origin, ethnic self-identity, sex, religion, education, opinion, political affiliation, personal or social status or

property status. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

* The term "citizens" refers to all individuals to whom this Constitution applies.


BULGARIA 1944

Article 10

All elections, and national and local referendums shall be held on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret

ballot. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 46

2. Spouses shall have equal rights and obligations in matrimony and the family.

MATRIMONIAL EQUALITY

59


BURKINA FASO 1958

Right to vote and to stand for election: September 28, 1958

First woman in parliament: 1978

Indipendence: 1960

Population: 20,610,083

Parliament name: Parlement (Parliament)

Chamber name: Assemblée nationale (National Assembly)

Statutory number of members: 127

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Legislated candidate quotas. Lists of candidates must include at least 30% of either sex.

Legal source: Law on Quotas, Article 3.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-12

2016-12

2014-12

2014-01

2012-01

2011-01

2010-01

2007-05

2007-01

2002-05

1992-05

1978-04

1970-12

17

14

12

24

20

13

17

13

17

13

6

1

0

13.39%

11.02%

13.33%

18.9%

15.75%

11.71%

15.32%

11.71%

15.32%

11.71%

5.61%

1.75%

0%

Prior to independence, under French administration, women were granted the right to vote on 23 June 1956, by a framework

law (Loi-cadre Deferre). This right was confirmed at independence, in the 1958 constitution. In 1978, Rose Marie Nignan

became the first woman elected to the National Assembly (Women’s Empowerment for Sustainability in Africa, edited by Robert

Dibie).

CONSTITUTION OF 1991, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2012

Preamble

We, the Sovereign People of Burkina Faso:

RECOGNIZING that the promotion of gender is a factor for realization of the equality of law between men and women of

Burkina Faso; PROMOTION OF GENDER EQUALITY

Article 1

All the Burkinabe are born free and equal in rights.

All have an equal vocation to enjoy all the rights and all the freedoms guaranteed by this Constitution.

Discrimination of all sorts, notably those founded on race, ethnicity, region, color, sex, language, religion, caste, political

opinions, wealth and birth, are prohibited. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

60

Article 18

PROTECTION OF MATERNITY

Education, instruction, [professional] training, work, social security, housing, sport, leisure, health, protection of Maternity


BURKINA FASO 1958

and of Infancy, assistance to the aged or handicapped persons and [those] in social cases, [and] artistic and scientific

creation, constitute the social and cultural rights recognized by this Constitution which sees to their promotion.

Article 19

The right to work is recognized and is equal for all.

It is prohibited to discriminate in matters of employment and of remuneration founded notably on sex, color, social

origin, ethnicity or political opinion. EQUAL PAY FOR WORK DISCRIMINATION BANNED AT WORK

Article 23

Marriage is founded on the free consent of the man and of the woman. All discrimination based on race, color, religion,

ethnicity, caste, social origin, [and] fortune, is forbidden in matters of marriage. MARRIAGE BASED ON FREE WILL

Article 33

Suffrage is direct or indirect and exercised under the conditions specified by the law.

Direct suffrage is always universal, equal and secret. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 101

The law establishes the rules concerning:

the promotion of gender; PROMOTION OF GENDER

61


BURUNDI 1961

Right to vote and to stand for election: August 17, 1961

First woman in parliament: 1982

Independence: 1962

Population: 11,708,572

Parliament name: Parlement (Parliament)

Chamber name: Inama Nshingamateka (National

Assembly)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 121

Directly elected: 100

Others: additional members, including three Twas, can be

co-opted to respect 60:40 Hutu-Tutsi split and 30 percent

quota for women. Currently there are 21 co-opted

members.

Electoral quota for women: Yes. 30% women. One in four

candidates on electoral lists must be a woman. If the quotas

for reserved seats are not met following an election, the

Electoral Administration co-opts (adds) the additional seats

needed to do so.

Legal source: Article 164 of the 2004 Constitution and

articles 108 and 147 of the Electoral Law.

DATE WOMEN %

2015-06

2014-01

2013-01

2010-07

2009-01

2005-07

1993-06

1982-10

1961-09

44

32

34

32

37

36

10

6

0

36.36%

30.48%

32.08%

30.19%

31.36%

30.51%

12.35%

9.23%

0%

Chamber name: Inama Nkenguzamateka (Senate)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 39

Indirectly elected members (36): elected by an electoral

college composed of members of the communal councils in

the province concerned. One Hutu and one Tutsi Senator are

elected for each province. Senators may be co-opted to meet

gender and ethnic quotas.

Other (3): Twas. Additional members may be co-opted to

ensure respect for an equal distribution of seats among

Hutus and Tutsis and for the 30 per cent quota of women.

Electoral quota for women: Yes. 30% women. One in four

candidates on electoral lists must be a woman. If the quotas

for reserved seats are not met following an election, the

Electoral Administration co-opts (adds) the additional seats

needed to do so.

Legal source: Article 164 of the 2004 Constitution and

Articles 108 and 147 of the Electoral Law.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-06

2015-07

2010-07

2009-01

2005-07

1965-05

18

18

19

16

17

0

46.15%

41.86%

46.34%

32.65%

34.69%

0%

Prior to independence, the Legislative Decree of Rwanda - Urundi (L.D.R.U.) N° 02/269, issued by the Belgian administration

of the UN Trust territory on 17 August 1961 granted universal suffrage to women. This right was confirmed at independence.

CONSTITUTION OF 2005

62

Article 8

Suffrage is universal, equal, secret, free and transparent. It may be direct or indirect within the conditions provisioned by

the law. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

All Burundians at least 18 years of age and with all their civil and political rights have the right to vote within the conditions

determined by the electoral code.


BURUNDI 1961

Article 13

All Burundi people are equal in merit and dignity. All the citizens enjoy the same rights and have the right to the same

legal protection. No Burundi citizen may be excluded from the social, economic, or political life of the nation due to his or

her race, language, religion, gender or ethnic origin. BANNED DISCRIMINATION

Article 19

The rights and duties proclaimed and guaranteed, between others, by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the

International Pacts related to human rights, the African Charter of human and community rights, the Convention on the

elimination of all forms of discrimination at towards women and the Convention related to children’s rights are an

integral part of the Constitution of the Republic of Burundi.

… CONVENTION ON THE ELIMINATION OF ALL FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION

Article 22

All citizens are equal before the law, which assures them equal protection.

None may be the object of discrimination, particularly discrimination against their origin, race, ethnicity, sex, color,

language, social situation, religious, philosophical or political convictions, physical or mental handicap, HIV/AIDs infection or

any other incurable malady. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

Article 24

All women and men have the right to life.

RIGHT TO LIFE

Article 25

All women and men have the right liberty, notably to physical and psychic integrit and the freedom of movement. No

one may be submitted to torture, cruel, inhumane, or degrading torture or punishment.

RIGHT TO PHYSICAL AND PSYCHIC INTEGRIT FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT TORTURE BANNED

Article 28

All women and men have the right to the respect of their private and family life, their domicile and their personal

communications. RESPECT OF THEIR PRIVATE AND FAMILY LIFE, DOMICILE AND COMMUNICATIONS

Article 29

The liberty to marry is guaranteed, as is the right to choose one’s partner. Marriage may not occur without the freedom and

full consent of the future spouses. MARRIAGE BASED ON FREE WILL

Marriage between two people of the same sex is prohibited. MARRIAGE: SEXUAL DISCRIMINATION

Article 135

The members of the Government make or propose the nominations of the public administration and the diplomatic

posts, keeping in mind the necessity to maintain an ethnic, regional, political, and gender equilibrium.

GENDER EQUILIBRIUM IN THE NOMINATIONS OF THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND THE DIPLOMATIC POSTS

Article 164

The National Assembly is composed of at least one hundred deputies at the rate of 60% Hutu and 40% Tutsi, with a

minimum of 30% of women, elected by direct universal suffrage for a mandate of five years and three deputies from the

Twa co-opted ethnicity conforming to the electoral code. RESERVED SEATS IN NATIONAL ASSEMBLY

Article 168

The elections of deputies occur following the ballot of lists by proportional representation. These lists must have a

multiethnic character and maintain the equilibrium between women and men. For three candidates listed in a row, only two

may belong to the same ethnic group, and at least a quarter of the candidates must be women. ELECTORAL QUOTA

Article 180

The Senate is composed of:

1. Two delegates of each province, elected by an electoral college composed of members of the communal Councils of the

province considered, from different ethnic communities and elected by distinct ballots;

2. Three persons from the Twa ethnicity,

3. The former Heads of State.

There must be a minimum of thirty percent of women. The electoral law determines the practical modalities, with

co-optation in the necessary cases. RESERVED SEATS IN SENATE

Article 208

The procedures of recruitment and nomination in the judicial body obeys the concern of promoting regional, ethnic, and

gender equilibrium. GENDER EQUILIBRIUM IN THE RECRUITMENT AND NOMINATION OF JUDICIAL BODY

63


BURUNDI 1961

Article 217

The Superior Council of the Magistracy is balanced ethnically, regionally, and by gender…

SUPERIOR COUNCIL OF THE MAGISTRACY BALANCED BY GENDER

Article 247

The Corps of Defense and of Security develop within them a society that is not discriminatory, either by gender or

ethnicity. CORPS OF DEFENCE AND OF SECURITY DEVELOP WITHIN THEM A SOCIETY NOT DISCRIMINATORY BY GENDER

Article 255

The State has the duty to put in place a pertinent policy of reforms in the matter of defense and of security that reinforces

the unity and the cohesion of the Burundian People, notably by assuring the necessary ethnic, regional and gender

equilibriums. REFORMS IN THE MATTER OF DEFENSE AND OF SECURITY ENSURE GENDER EQUILIBRIUM

64


CABO VERDE 1975

Right to vote and to stand for election: April 15, 1975

First woman in parliament: 1975

Independence: 1975

Population: 553,077

Parliament name: Assembleia Nacional (National

Assembly)

Chamber name: Assembleia Nacional (National Assembly)

Statutory number of members: 72

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2016-03

2011-02

2010

2008

2007

2006-01

1995-12

1991-01

1985-12

1980-12

1975-07

17

15

13

11

13

11

8

6

10

8

1

23.61%

20.83%

18.06%

15.28%

18.06%

15.28%

11.11%

7.59%

12.05%

12.7%

1.79%

Prior to independence, under Portuguese administration, women voted for the first time on 15 April 1975. This right was

confirmed at independence. Universal suffrage was extended to the local level in July 1989. Isaura Gomes (1944- ) was the

first and only female deputy from 1975 to 1981.

CONSTITUTION OF 1980, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 1992

Article 1: Republic of Cape Verde

2. The Republic of Cape Verde recognizes the equality of all citizens before the law, without distinction as to social origin

or economic situation, race, sex, religion, political or ideological convictions, and social conditions, and assures the full

exercise by all citizens of fundamental liberties. DISCRIMINATION BANNED EQUAL RIGHTS

Article 22: The Principle of Equality

All citizens shall have equal social status and shall be equal before the law, without privilege, benefit, or prejudice, and may

not be deprived of any rights or exempt from any duty by reason of race, sex, ancestry, language, origin, religion, social

and economic condition, or political or ideological conviction. EQUAL RIGHTS

Article 44: Marriage and Children

3. Spouses shall have equal rights, civil duties, and responsibilities.

MATRIMONIAL EQUALITY

65


CABO VERDE 1975

Article 59: The Right to Compensation and to Security of Employment

5. Men and women shall receive equal pay for equal work. EQUAL PAY FOR WORK

6. The law shall establish special protection for minors, for the handicapped, and for women during pregnancy and after

childbirth, and shall guarantee to women working conditions which permit them to carry out their family and maternal

duties. SPECIAL PROTECTION DURING PREGNANCY AND AFTER CHILDBIRTH

WORKING CONDITIONS MUST CONSIDER FAMILY AND MATERNAL DUTIES

Article 85: Obligations of the State

2. The State shall also have the duty to assure the elimination of conditions which tend to discriminate against women

and to assure the protection of women's rights, as well as the rights of children.

ELIMINATION OF DISCRIMINATIONS AND ASSURANCE OF PROTECTION

Article 86: Paternity and Maternity

3. Fatherhood and motherhood constitute the highest social values. MOTHERHOOD HIGHEST SOCIAL VALUE

Article 111: Exercise of Political Power Through Suffrage

UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

In the exercise of political power, the people shall designate office holders by universal, direct, secret, periodic suffrage.

Article 313: Material Limits to Revision

1. The following may not be subject to revision:

c. Universal, direct, secret, periodic suffrage for the election of national and local officeholders.

… NON-REVISIONABLE UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

66


CAMBODIA 1955

Right to vote and to stand for election: September 25, 1955

First woman in parliament: 1958

Independence: 1953

Population: 16,605,388

Parliament name: Parliament (Parliament)

Chamber name: Radhsphea Ney Preah Recheanachakr

Kampuchea (National Assembly)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 125

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-09

2018-07

2013-07

2011-01

2009-01

2008-07

2003-07

1998-07

1993-05

1987-06

1986-12

1981-05

1976-03

1972-09

1962-06

1958-03

1955-09

25

19

25

20

26

20

12

10

7

25

23

22

46

4

0

2

0

20%

15.2%

20.33%

16.26%

21.14%

16.26%

9.76%

8.2%

5.83%

21.37%

19.66%

18.8%

18.4%

3.17%

0%

2.73%

0%

Chamber name: Senate

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 62

Indirectly elected members (60): 58 members are elected by

Commune/Sangkat councillors while two others are elected

by the National Assembly.

Appointed members (2): appointed by the King.

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-06

2018-05

2018-04

2018-02

2016-12

2014-12

2012-10

2012-03

2008-01

2007-01

2006-03

2006-02

2006-01

1999-03

1955-09

11

10

11

10

9

10

9

8

9

24

9

8

9

8

0

17.74%

16.67%

17.74%

16.67%

14.75%

16.39%

14.75%

13.56%

14.75%

39.34%

14.75%

13.56%

14.75%

13.11%

0%

In the 1958 elections, two women were elected to the National Assembly: Pung Peng Cheng and Diep Dinar, representing

2% of the total of 73 elected (Kate Frieson, “In the Shadows: Women, Power and Politics in Cambodia”).

CONSTITUTION OF 1993, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2008

Article 31

The Kingdom of Cambodia recognizes and respects human rights as stipulated in the United Nations Charter, the Universal

Declaration of Human Rights and the covenants and conventions related to human rights, women's rights and children's

rights. CONVENTIONS RELATED TO RIGHTS

Khmer citizens shall be equal before the law, enjoying the same rights and freedom and obligations regardless of race,

color, sex, language, religious belief, political tendency, national origin, social status, wealth or other status. The exercise of

personal rights and freedom by any individual shall not adversely affect the rights and freedom of others. The exercise of

such rights and freedom shall be in accordance with the law. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

Article 34

RIGHT TO VOTE AND TO STAND FOR ELECTION

Khmer citizens of either sex shall enjoy the rights to vote and to stand as candidates for an election.

67


CAMBODIA 1955

Khmer citizens of either sex who are at least eighteen years old shall have the rights to vote.

Khmer citizens of either sex who are at least twenty-five years old shall have the rights to stand as candidates for the

National Assembly elections.

RIGHT TO VOTE AND TO STAND FOR ELECTION

Khmer citizens of either sex who are at least forty years old shall have the rights to stand as candidates for the Senate

elections.

Article 35

Khmer citizens of either sex shall have the rights to participate actively in the political, economic, social and cultural life

of the nation. RIGHT TO PARTICIPATE IN POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL LIFE

Article 36

Khmer citizens of either sex shall enjoy the rights to choose any employment according their ability and to the needs of

the society. RIGHT TO CHOOSE ANY EMPLOYMENT

Khmer citizens of either sex shall receive equal pay for the same work. EQUAL PAY FOR WORK

Housework shall have the same value as work outside the home. RIGHT TO OBTAIN SOCIAL SECURITY AND SOCIAL BENEFITS

Khmer citizens of either sex shall have the rights to obtain social security and other social benefits as determined by law.

Khmer citizens of either sex shall have the rights to form and to be members of trade unions.

RIGHT TO FORM AND TO BE MEMBERS OF TRADE UNIONS

Article 43

Khmer citizens of either sex shall have the rights to freedom of belief.

RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF BELIEF

Article 45

All forms of discrimination against women shall be abolished. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

The exploitation of women in employment is prohibited. EXPLOITATION IN EMPLOYMENT BANNED

Men and women are equal in all fields especially with respect to marriage and family matters. MATRIMONIAL EQUALITY

Marriage shall be conducted according to law, based on the principle of mutual consent between one husband and one

wife. MARRIAGE BASED ON FREE WILL

Article 46

Trading human beings, the exploitation of prostitution and obscenity, which affect the reputation of women, shall be

prohibited. EXPLOITATION OF PROSTITUTION BANNED NOT FIRED BECAUSE OF PREGNANCY

The termination of a woman's employment because of her pregnancy is prohibited.

MATERNITY LEAVE

Women shall have the rights to take maternity leave with full pay and with no loss of seniority or other social benefits.

The State and society shall provide opportunities to women, especially for those living in rural areas without adequate

social support, so that they can obtain employment and medical care, send their children to school and have decent

living conditions. OPPORTUNITIES (ESPECIALLY IN RURAL AREAS): EMPLOYMENT AND MEDICAL CARE, SCHOOL FOR CHILDREN,

DECENT LIVING CONDITIONS

Article 72

The health of the people shall be guaranteed. The State shall pay attention to disease prevention and medical treatment.

Poor people shall receive free medical consultations in public hospitals, infirmaries and maternity clinics.

The State shall establish infirmaries and maternity clinics in rural areas. FREE MEDICAL CONSULTATIONS FOR POOR PEOPLE

MATERNITY CLINICS IN RURAL AREAS

Article 73

The State shall pay attention to children and mothers. The State shall establish nurseries and help support women who

have numerous children and have inadequate support. NURSERIES AND HELP SUPPORT WOMEN WHO HAVE NUMEROUS

CHILDREN AND INDADEQUATE SUPPORT

68


CAMEROON 1946

Right to vote and to stand for election: October 27, 1946

First woman in parliament: 1960

Independence: 1961

Population: 26,209,999

Parliament name: Parlement - Parliament

Chamber name: Assemblée nationale - National

Assembly

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 180

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Article 151 of the Electoral

Code states that each list of candidates must take into

account different sociological components of the

constituency. It must also take account of gender.

Legal source: Cf. Law 2012/001 of 19 April 2012 on the

electoral code.

DATE WOMEN %

2013-09

2007-09

2002-06

1997-10

1992-03

1988-04

1983-05

1978-05

1973-05

1970-06

1960-04

56

25

16

10

22

26

17

12

7

2

1

31.11%

13.89%

8.89%

5.56%

12.22%

14.44%

14.17%

10%

5.83%

4%

1%

Chamber name: Sénat - Senate

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 100

Indirectly elected members (70)

Appointed members (30)

Each region is represented in the Senate by 10 Senators,

seven of whom are indirectly elected at the regional level

and the remaining three are appointed by decree of the

President of the Republic. The Senators are elected in each

region by an electoral college composed of regional and

municipal councillors.

Electoral quota for women: Yes. At least one woman should

be represented on each list

Legal source: Cf. Law 2012/001 of 19 April 2012 on the

electoral code.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-04 26 26%

2013-04 20 20%

Prior to independence, women in the French administered part of Cameroon were granted the right to vote on 27 October

1946 with foundation of the French Union and the 4th Republic. Following the "Loi Lamine Guèye" all citizens of the Union

territories had the right to vote for the French Parliament. This right was extended to local legislative assemblies on 23 June

1956 by the Loi-cadre Deferre and confirmed at independence. Julienne Keutcha, a kindergarten teacher, became the first

woman elected to the National Assembly in 1960 (Jacqueline-Bethel Tchouta Mougoué, “Gender, separatist, politics and

embodied nationalism in Cameroon”).

CONSTITUTION OF 1972, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2008

Preamble

...

We, the people of Cameroon,

Declare that the human person, without distinction as to race, religion, sex or belief, possesses inalienable and sacred

rights; DISCRIMINATION BANNED

69


CAMEROON 1946

Affirm our attachment to the fundamental freedoms enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Charter of

United Nations and the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, and all duly ratified international conventions relating

thereto, in particular, to the following principles:

...

17. the Nation shall protect and promote the family which is the natural foundation of human society. It shall protect

women, the young, the elderly and the disabled; PROTECTION

...

25. the State shall guarantee all citizens of either sex the rights and freedoms set forth in the Preamble of the

Constitution. RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

Article 2

1. National sovereignty shall be vested in the people of Cameroon who shall exercise same either through the President of

the Republic and Members of Parliament or by way of referendum. No section of the people or any individual shall arrogate

to itself or to himself the exercise thereof.

2. The authorities responsible for the management of the state shall derive their powers from the people through election by

direct or indirect universal suffrage, unless otherwise provided for in this Constitution. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

3. The vote shall be equal and secret, and every citizen aged twenty years and above shall be entitled to vote.

70


CANADA 1969

Right to vote and to stand for election: 1969

First woman in parliament: 1921

Population: 37,582,015

Parliament name: Parliament of Canada - Parlement du

Canada

Chamber name: House of Commons

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 338

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Voluntary political party

quotas.

Legal source: cf. Individual party policies.

DATE WOMEN %

2019-10

2018-11

2017-12

2015-11

2015-10

2014

2011-05

2008-10

2007

2006-01

2004-06

2001-01

2000-02

1998

1993-10

1988-11

1984-09

1980-02

1979-05

1974-07

1972-10

1968-06

1965-11

1963-04

1958-03

1957-06

1953-08

1945-06

98

90

91

88

86

77

76

68

65

64

65

62

60

62

53

39

27

14

10

9

5

1

4

6

5

2

4

1

28.99%

26.95%

27%

26.04%

25.83%

25.08%

24.68%

22.08%

18.6%

20.78%

21.1%

20.6%

19.93%

20.6%

17.97%

13.22%

9.57%

4.96%

3.55%

3.41%

1.89%

0.38%

1.51%

2.26%

1.89%

0.75%

1.51%

0.41%

Chamber name: Senate

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 105

Appointed members: appointed by the Governor General on

the recommendation of the Prime Minister.

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-11

2016-11

2016-01

2015-08

2014

2011-06

2008

2007

2001

1999

1998

1997

1993

1991

1990

1989

1986

1984

1981

1980

1979

1978

1975

1973

1970

1967

1966

1965

1963

1960

1957

1955

1953

1945

49

43

34

31

38

37

35

32

33

32

29

24

16

15

17

11

15

13

9

10

11

8

6

7

6

5

4

5

6

7

5

6

5

2

46.67%

42.16%

38.64%

37.35%

39.58%

35.92%

35%

34.41%

35.48%

30.77%

29%

23.08%

15.38%

14.02%

15.32%

10.58%

14.71%

12.87%

9.78%

10.31%

10.68%

8.33%

6.59%

7.37%

6.59%

5.32%

4.21%

5.15%

6%

6.86%

5.32%

6.59%

5.68%

2.5%

71


CANADA 1969

TIMELINE RIGHT TO VOTE: 1917, women who served in the military or who had a close male relative serving in the military

(i.e. a father, husband or son) were granted the right to vote; 1918, all women except for Indians; 1950, federal franchise

extended to Indians (regardless of gender) under the condition that they waive the tax exemptions given to them by the

Indian Act; 1960, universal adult male suffrage was not achieved federally until August 1960, with the unqualified extension

of voting rights to all Indians under the Act to Amend the Canada Elections Act; 1969, Quebec became the last province to

extend franchise rights to Indians, that provincial voting was secured.

TIMELINE RIGHT TO STAND FOR ELECTION: 1919, same conditions as men (age 21), only the House of Common; 1929, the

right to stand for elections is extended to the Senate; 1950, Indians granted right with same restriction (men and women);

1960, right to stand for election without any restriction.

“Universal suffrage at the federal and provincial levels of government is enshrined in Section 3 of the 1982 Charter of Rights

and Freedoms, which states, “Every citizen of Canada has the right to vote in an election of members of the House of

Commons or of a legislative assembly and to be qualified for membership therein.” This clause applies to First Nations

peoples, Métis and Inuit.” (source: The Canadian Encyclopedia)

FIRST WOMEN MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT

House of Commons: 6 December 1921, Agnes Campbell Macphail (1890–1954)

Senate: 15 February 1930, Cairine Reay Wilson (née Mackay) (1885-1962)

CONSTITUTION OF 1867, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2011

CONSTITUTION ACT 1982

PART I: CANADIAN CHARTER OF RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

C. DEMOCRATIC RIGHTS

3. Democratic rights of citizens

Every citizen of Canada has the right to vote in an election of members of the House of Commons or of a legislative

assembly and to be qualified for membership therein. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

F. EQUALITY RIGHTS

15.

1. Equality before and under law and equal protection and benefit of law

Every individual is equal before and under the law and has the right to the equal protection and equal benefit of the law

without discrimination and, in particular, without discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion,

sex, age or mental or physical disability.

2. Affirmative action programs

DISCRIMINATION BANNED

Subsection (1) does not preclude any law, program or activity that has as its object the amelioration of conditions of

disadvantaged individuals or groups including those that are disadvantaged because of race, national or ethnic origin,

colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability. AMELIORATION OF CONDITIONS OF DISADVANTAGED

J. GENERAL

28. Rights guaranteed equally to both sexes

Notwithstanding anything in this Charter, the rights and freedoms referred to in it are guaranteed equally to male and

female persons. EQUAL RIGHTS

PART II: RIGHTS OF THE ABORIGINAL PEOPLES OF CANADA

35.

4. Aboriginal and treaty rights are guaranteed equally to both sexes

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, the aboriginal and treaty rights referred to in subsection (1) are

guaranteed equally to male and female persons. ABORIGINAL AND TREATY RIGHTS GUARANTEED EQUALLY

72


CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC 1986

Right to vote and to stand for election: 1986

First woman in parliament: 1987

Independence: 1960

Population: 4,782,890

Parliament name: Assemblée nationale (National

Assembly)

Chamber name: Assemblée nationale (National Assembly)

Statutory number of members: 140

Directly elected

DATE WOMEN %

2016-12

2016-07

2016-01

2011-01

2009-01

2005-03

1998-12

1993-09

1987-07

1960-08

12

10

11

13

10

11

7

3

2

0

8.57%

7.19%

8.4%

11.4%

9.52%

10.48%

6.42%

3.53%

3.85%

0%

CONSTITUTION OF 2016

Preamble

Convinced that universal suffrage is the sole source of the legitimacy of public power;

Reaffirms its adherence to all International Conventions duly ratified, notably those concerning the prohibition of all

forms of discrimination with regard to women, to the protection of the rights of the child and those relative to the

autochthonous and tribal peoples;

DISCRIMINATION BANNED

UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 6

All human beings are equal before the law without distinction of race, of ethnic origin, of region, of sex, of religion, of

political affiliation and of social position. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

The State assures the reinforced protection of the rights of the minorities, of the autochthonous peoples, and of

handicapped persons.

The law guarantees to the man and to the woman equal rights in all the domains. In the Central African Republic one is

neither subject [to] nor [has] a privilege of place of birth, of person or of family. EQUAL RIGHTS IN ALL THE DOMAINS

Article 7

Marriage is the union between a man and a woman. It is organized by the law.

… PROTECTION AGAINST VIOLENCE, INSECURITY, EXPLOITATION AND MORAL, INTELLECTUAL AND PHYSICAL NEGLECT

The protection of the woman and of the child against violence and insecurity, exploitation and moral, intellectual and

physical neglect[,] is an obligation of the State and the other public collectivities. This protection is assured by the

appropriate measures and institutions of the State and of the other public collectivities.

73


CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC 1986

Article 11

All citizens are equal concerning employment. No one may be discriminated against in their work or their employment

because of their origin, of their sex, of their opinions or of their beliefs. DISCRIMINATION BANNED AT WORK

Article 26

The eligible institutions, responsible for [chargées de] directing the State, have their power from the people by way of [par

voie d'] elections, by direct or indirect universal suffrage. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 30

Central Africans of the two (2) sexes, aged eighteen (18) years of age and enjoying their civil rights, are electors within the

conditions determined by the law.

The vote is a civic duty.

Suffrage may be direct or indirect within the conditions specified by the Constitution. It is always universal, equal and

secret. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 31

The political parties must respect the principles of representation of gender and of regions specified by the law.

… RESPECT OF REPRESENTATION IN POLITICAL PARTIES

Article 36

Only men and women fulfilling the following conditions can be candidates to presidential election…

RIGHT TO STAND FOR PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION

Article 80

[The following] are of the domain of the law:

• The rules concerning the following matters:

• parity [concerning] man and woman in the decision-making bodies [instance de prise de décisions];

… PARITY IN THE DECISION-MAKING BODIES

Article 99

The Constitutional Court consists of nine (9) members including at least four (4) women, who hold the title of

Constitutional Judge. RESERVED SEATS IN CONSTITUTIONAL COURT

The duration of the mandate of the Constitutional Judges is of seven (7) years, non-renewable.

The members of the Constitutional Court are designated as follows:

• two (2) Magistrates including one woman, elected by their peers;

• two (2) Attorney including one woman, elected by their peers;

• two (2) [members] of a Faculty of Law [enseignants-chercheurs de Droit] including one woman, elected by their peers;

• one (1) member appointed by the President of the Republic;

• one (1) member appointed by the President of the National Assembly;

• one (1) member appointed by the President of the Senate.

Article 139

The High Council of Communication consists of nine (9) members including at least four (4) women.

… RESERVED SEATS IN HIGH COUNCIL OF COMMUNICATION

Article 148

[A High Authority responsible for Good Governance [Haute Autorité chargée de la Bonne Gouvernance] is instituted]

It sees equally to the protection of the rights of minorities, of the autochthonous peoples, of handicapped persons as well as

of the principle of equality between men and women. HIGH AUTHORITY FOR EQUAL RIGHTS

74


CHAD 1958

Right to vote and to stand for election: 1958

First woman in parliament: 1962

Independence: 1960

Population: 16,185,492

Parliament name: Assemblée nationale (National

Assembly)

DATE WOMEN %

2018-12

2018-06

2016-12

2014-01

2013-01

2011-02

2010-01

2008-01

2007-01

2002-04

1997-11

1993-04

1990-07

1963-12

1962-03

25

27

24

28

24

28

8

9

8

9

3

9

3

2

1

14.88%

15.25%

12.77%

14.89%

12.77%

14.89%

5.16%

5.81%

5.16%

5.81%

2.4%

16.36%

2.44%

2.67%

1.33%

Chamber name: Assemblée nationale (National Assembly)

Statutory number of members: 188

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No.

Prior to independence, under French administration,women were granted the right to vote under the Loi-cadre Deferre,

adopted on 23 June 1956. In March 1962 Bourkou Louise Kabo (1934–2019) became the first woman elected to the National

Assembly.

CONSTITUTION OF 1996, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2005

Preamble

...

Let us recognize the promotion of gender and youth as a factor in achieving equality between men and women in our

country and the imperative of taking it into account for sustainable human development.

... PROMOTION OF GENDER EQUALITY

Article 6

Suffrage is universal, direct or indirect, equal and secret. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Voters under the conditions determined by law are all Chadians of both sexes, aged eighteen and enjoying their civil and

political rights.

Article 14

The State ensures legality before the law without distinction of origin, race, sex, religion, political opinion or social

position. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

75


CHAD 1958

It has a duty to ensure the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women and to ensure the protection of their

rights in all areas of private and public life. ELIMINATION OF ALL FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION AND PROTECTION OF RIGHTS

Article 34

The State works to promote the political rights of women through better representation in elected assemblies, public

and private institutions and administrations.

The modalities of application of this article are fixed by the law.

BETTER REPRESENTATION IN ELECTED ASSEMBLIES, PUBLIC AND PRIVATE INSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATIONS

Article 35

... DISCRIMINATION BANNED AT WORK

No one can be harmed in his work because of his origins, his opinions, his beliefs, his sex or his marital status.

Article 171

The National Commission of Human Rights has for mission to:

• advise the Government on human rights issues, including the status of women, the rights of the child and the disabled;

• ... NATIONAL COMMISSION OF HUMAN RIGHTS ADVISOR OF GOVERNMENT

Article 213

An organic law fixes in particular:

...

• the conditions of democratic management of their affairs by the Provinces and the Communes, the number of Councilors,

the rules relating to eligibility, incompatibilities and cases of prohibition of the plurality of mandates, as well as the electoral

system and the provisions to ensure better participation of women and young people in these Councils;

BETTER PARTICIPATION IN COUNCILS

76


CHILE 1949

Right to vote and to stand for election: January 8, 1949

First woman in parliament: 1951

Population: 19,047,410

Parliament name: Congreso Nacional (National Congress)

Chamber name: Cámara de Diputados (Chamber of

Deputies)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 155

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Voluntary political party

quotas

Legal source: Individual party statutes.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-03

2013-01

2009-12

2005-12

2001-12

1998

1993-12

1990-12

1973-03

1969-03

1965-03

1961-03

1957-03

1951-04

1945-03

35

19

17

18

15

13

9

7

14

10

11

5

3

1

0

22.58%

15.83%

14.17%

15%

12.5%

10.83%

7.5%

5.83%

9.33%

6.67%

7.48%

3.4%

2.04%

0.68%

0%

Chamber name: Senado (Senate)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 50

Directly elected

The Statutory number of Senate has increased from 38 to 50

in accordance with Act No. 20.840. However, the Senate will

comprise 43 members until 2022: 23 of the incumbent

senators were elected in 2017, while 20 others were elected

in 2013. The next elections, due in 2021, will be held for 27

seats to make the Senate a 50-member body.

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Voluntary political party

quotas

Legal source: Individual party statutes.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-03

2014-12

2013-01

2009-12

1998

1990-12

1965-03

1957-03

1953-03

1945-03

10

6

7

5

2

3

2

0

1

0

23.26%

15.79%

18.42%

13.16%

4.08%

6.38%

4.44%

0%

2.22%

0%

Women were given the right to vote in local elections on 30 May 1931. On January 8, 1949, the President of the Republic

signed Law No. 9,292, which gave women in Chile the universal possibility of using their citizenship and voting on equal

rights. On 24 April 1951, Inés Enríquez Frödden (1913–1998) became the first Chilean woman elected to the Lower House. In

2018 the first two women of the indigenous Mapuche group, Emilia Nuyado and Aracely Leuquén, became members of

Chile's Congress.

CONSTITUTION OF 1980, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2015

Article 19

The Constitution guarantees all persons:

2. Equality before the law. In Chile there are no privilege persons or groups. In Chile there are no slaves, and any that sets foot

on its territory will become free. Men and women are equal before the law. EQUAL RIGHTS

Neither the law nor any authority whatsoever may establish arbitrary differences;

...

77


CHINA 1949

Right to vote and to stand for election: October 1, 1949

First woman in parliament: 1954

Population: 1,444,901,298

Parliament name: Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui

(National People's Congress)

Chamber name: Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (National People's Congress)

Statutory number of members: 3000

Indirectly elected by the provincial people's congresses.

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Each party must ensure that the number of women candidates is at least one-third of the

total number of candidates to be fielded by a political party in the proportional elections and in the first-past-the-post

electoral system

Legal source: Constituent Assembly Ordinance 2013

DATE WOMEN %

2018-03

2017-02

2013-03

2008-03

2007-10

2002-10

1998-03

1993-03

1988-03

1983-06

1978-02

1975-01

1964-12

1959-04

1954-09

742

709

699

637

611

604

650

626

634

632

742

653

542

150

147

24.94%

24.25%

23.4%

21.33%

20.62%

20.23%

21.82%

21.02%

21.29%

21%

21.22%

22.63%

17.83%

12.23%

11.99%

78

1949 corresponds to the proclamation of the Common Program of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.

The Electoral Law of 1953 then confirmed the equal political rights of both men and women.

CONSTITUTION OF 1982, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2004

Article 34

All citizens of the People's Republic of China who have reached the age of 18 have the right to vote and stand for election,

regardless of nationality, race, sex, occupation, family background, religious belief, education, property status, or length of

residence, except persons deprived of political rights according to law. RIGHT TO VOTE AND TO STAND FOR ELECTION

Article 48

Women in the People's Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, political, economic, cultural

and social, and family life. EQUAL RIGHTS IN POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, SOCIAL AND FAMILY LIFE

The state protects the rights and interests of women, applies the principle of equal pay for equal work for men and

women alike and trains and selects cadres from among women. PROTECTION OF RIGHTS AND INTERESTS EQUAL PAY FOR WORK

SELECTION OF THE EXECUTIVE CLASS


CHINA 1949

Article 49

Marriage, the family, and mother and child are protected by the state. PROTECTION OF THE MOTHER

Both husband and wife have the duty to practice family planning.

Parents have the duty to rear and educate their minor children, and children who have come of age have the duty to

support and assist their parents. DUTY TO PRACTICE FAMILY PLANNING AND EDUCATE CHILDREN

Violation of the freedom of marriage is prohibited. Maltreatment of old people, women and children is prohibited.

MALTREATMENT PROHIBITED

79


COLOMBIA 1954

Right to vote and to stand for election: August 25, 1954

First woman in parliament: 1958

Population: 50,634,617

Parliament name: Congreso (Congress)

Chamber name: Cámara de Representantes (House

of Representatives)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 172

Directly elected (166)

Others (6): 5 members of the FARC; the runner-up running

mate in the presidential elections.

Electoral quota for women: Yes. For lists submitted for

election of 5 or more seats, at least 30% of candidates of

each gender must be included. Political parties decide

themselves whether their lists shall be open or closed.

Candidate lists that do not comply with the legal

requirements, including the gender quota requirement,

shall be rejected.

Legal source: Constitution, art. 176; Electoral Law 1475 of

2011, Article 28 (1), Article 32.

Chamber name: Senado de la República (Senate)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 108

Directly elected members (102)

Others (6): the 2016 Peace Agreement guarantees the FARC

five seats in each Chamber of Congress for the next two

legislatures (2018-2022 and 2022-2026). Moreover, a new

rule guarantees the presidential runner-up a seat in the

Senate, while his or her running mate is guaranteed a seat in

the House of Representatives for the 2018-2022 legislature.

With these new measures, the number of senators has

increased from 102 to 108, while that of representatives has

increased from 166 to 172.

Electoral quota for women: Yes. For lists submitted for

election of 5 or more seats, at least 30% of candidates of each

gender must be included.

Legal source: Constitution, art. 176; Electoral Law 1475 of

2011, Article 28 (1), Article 32.

80

DATE WOMEN %

2019-01

2018-06

2018-03

2016-12

2014-06

2014-01

2010-03

2006-03

2002-03

1997

1994-03

1990-03

1986-03

1982-03

1978-02

1974-04

1970-04

1968-03

1966-03

1964-03

1962-03

1960-03

1958-03

1947-03

32

31

25

31

33

20

21

14

20

19

18

17

9

7

10

12

9

8

7

9

8

4

8

0

18.71%

18.13%

15.06%

18.67%

19.88%

12.12%

12.65%

8.43%

12.05%

11.66%

10.84%

8.54%

4.52%

3.52%

5.03%

6.03%

4.29%

3.92%

3.68%

4.89%

4.35%

2.74%

5.41%

0%

In 1958, Esmeralda Arboleda

Cadavid (1921–1997) became the

first woman elected to the Senate.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-08

2018-03

2016-12

2014-06

2014-01

2011-01

2010-03

2006-03

2002-03

1998-03

1994-03

1991-10

1990-11

1986-03

1982-03

1974-04

1970-04

1968-03

1966-03

1964-03

1962-03

1960-03

1958-03

1947-03

22

31

22

23

16

17

16

12

9

13

7

8

1

4

3

1

3

0

4

0

1

0

1

0

20.37%

30.39%

21.57%

22.55%

16%

16.67%

15.69%

11.76%

8.82%

12.75%

6.86%

8%

0.88%

3.51%

2.63%

0.89%

2.54%

0%

3.77%

0%

1.02%

0%

1.25%

0%


COLOMBIA 1954

CONSTITUTION OF 1991, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2015

Article 13

All individuals are born free and equal before the law, shall receive equal protection and treatment from the authorities,

and shall enjoy the same rights, freedoms, and opportunities without any discrimination on account of gender, race,

national or family origin, language, religion, political opinion, or philosophy. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

The State shall promote the conditions so that equality may be real and effective and shall adopt measures in favor of groups

that are discriminated against or marginalized.

Article 40

The authorities shall guarantee the adequate and effective participation of women in the decision-making ranks of the

public administration. PARTICIPATION IN DECISION-MAKING RANKS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

Article 42

The family is the basic nucleus of society. It is formed on the basis of natural or legal ties, through the free decision of a man

and woman to contract matrimony or through the responsible resolve to comply with it.

… MARRIAGE BASED ON FREE WILL

Family relations are based on the equality of rights and duties of the couple and on the reciprocal respect of all its

members… MATRIMONIAL EQUALITY

Article 43

Women and men have equal rights and opportunities. Women cannot be subjected to any type of discrimination.

During their periods of pregnancy and following delivery, women shall benefit from the special assistance and protection

of the State and shall receive from the latter food subsidies if they should thereafter find themselves unemployed or

abandoned. EQUAL RIGHTS AND OPPORTUNITIES DISCRIMINATION BANNED SPECIAL ASSISTANCE DURING PREGNANCY AND AFTER BIRTH

The State shall support the female head of household in a special way.

SUPPORT HEAD OF HOUSEHOLD

Article 53

The Congress shall issue a labor statute. The appropriate law shall take into account at least the following minimal

fundamental principles:

… special protection of women, mothers, and minor-age workers. SPECIAL PROTECTION

Article 107

The political parties and movements shall organize themselves democratically and shall have as their guiding principles

transparency, objectivity, morality, the equality of sexes, and the duty to present and disseminate their political programs.

… EQUALITY IN POLITICAL PARTIES

Article 126

With the exception of the entrance exams regulated by law, the election of public servants attributed to public

corporations should be presided by a public convocation regulated by the law with requirements and procedures that

guarantee the principles of publicity, transparency, citizen participation, gender equality, and merit criteria for its election.

… GENDER EQUALITY IN ELECTION OF PUBLIC SERVANTS

Article 272

The Controllers of departments, districts, and municipalities will be elected by the Departmental Assemblies, Municipal

and District Councils, through public call made according to the law, following the principles of transparency, publicity,

objectivity, citizen participation, and equality of gender, for a period equal to that of the Governor or Mayor, according to

each case. GENDER EQUALITY IN ELECTION OF CONTROLLERS OF DEPARTMENTS, DISTRICTS AND MUNICIPALITIES

81


COMOROS 1956

Right to vote and to stand for election: June 23, 1956

First woman in parliament: 1993

Independence: 1975

Population: 860,312

Parliament name: Assemblée de l'Union (Assembly of the

Union)

Chamber name: Assemblée de l'Union (Assembly of the Union)

Statutory number of members: 33

Directly elected (24). Indirectly elected (9): elected by the assemblies of the three islands of the Union (3 members each).

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2016-12

2011-01

2010-01

2009-12

2008-01

2003-01

1996-12

1993-12

1978-12

2

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

6.06%

3.03%

0%

3.03%

0%

3.03%

0%

2.38%

0%

Prior to independence, under French administration, women were granted the right to vote under the Loi-cadre Deferre,

adopted on 23 June 1956.

CONSTITUTION OF 2001, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2009

Preamble

The Comorian people solemnly affirm their will

• to emphasize their commitment to the principles and fundamental rights defined by the Charter of the United Nations,

by the Charter of the Organization of African Unity, by the Pact of the League of Arab States, by the Universal Declaration of

Human Rights and by the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, as well as by the international conventions,

particularly those relating to childrens’ and womens’ rights.

PRINCIPLES AND FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS DEFINED BY THE INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS

They proclaim:

• the equality of all concerning rights and duties without distinctions based on sex, origin, race, religion or belief;

… DISCRIMINATION BANNED

Article 4

In the conditions determined by statute suffrage shall be universal, equal and secret.

It may be direct or indirect. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

All Comorians of either sex who are in possession of their civil and political rights may vote as provided for by statute.

82


CONGO (DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE) (KINSHASA) 1970

Right to vote: May 3, 1967

Right to stand for election: April 17, 1970

First woman in parliament: 1970

Independence: 1960

Population: 88,163,856

Parliament name: Parliament (Parlement)

Chamber name: Assemblée nationale (National

Assembly)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 500

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2019-03

2018-12

2014-12

2014-01

2011-11

2006-07

2003-08

1994-04

1992-12

1987-09

1982-09

1977-10

1975-11

1970-11

1960-06

50

50

44

53

44

42

60

37

7

12

11

5

27

12

0

10%

10.31%

8.94%

10.64%

8.94%

8.4%

12%

5.01%

1.55%

5.41%

3.55%

1.84%

11.07%

2.86%

0%

Chamber name: Sénat (Senate)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 109

Indirectly elected members (108): by the Provincial

Assemblies.

Other (1): former elected Presidents of the Republic are

senators for life.

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2019-05

2019-03

2014-12

2014-01

2007

2003-08

1997

1960-06

23

19

5

6

5

3

2

0

21.1%

19%

4.63%

5.56%

3.7%

2.5%

3.33%

0%

The ordonnance-loi (Decree-law) regarding Referendum Act N°67-223 of 3 May 1967 recognized the right of all Congolese,

irrespective of sex, to participate in the Constitutional referendum. The law on legislative and presidential elections of 17

April 1970 supported suffrage as granted in the Constitution and formally gave both men and women the right to vote and

to stand for elections.

CONSTITUTION OF 2005, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2011

Preamble

Reaffirming our adherence and our attachment to the Conventions of the United Nations on the Rights of the Child and

on the Rights of Women, particularly to the objective of the parity of man-woman representation within the

institutions of the country as well as to the international instruments concerning the protection and promotion of human

rights; CONVENTION OF THE UNITED NATIONS ON THE RIGHTS OBJECTIVE OF THE PARITY REPRESENTATION WITHIN THE INSTITUTIONS

Article 5

National sovereignty belongs to the people. All power emanates from the people who exercise it directly by way of

83


CONGO (DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE) (KINSHASA) 1970

referendum or [by] elections and indirectly by their representatives.

No fraction of the people or any individual may arrogate its exercise.

The law establishes the conditions of organization of the elections and of the referendum. Suffrage is universal, equal and

secret. It is direct or indirect. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 72, 102 and 106 of this Constitution, all Congolese of both sexes, of eighteen

years of age [at least], and enjoying their civil and political rights are electors and eligible, under the conditions determined

by the law. RIGHT TO VOTE AND TO STAND FOR ELECTIONS

Article 14

The public powers see to the elimination of any form of discrimination concerning women and assure the protection and

the promotion of their rights. ELIMINATION OF ALL FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION

They take, in all the domains, notably in the civil, political, economic, social and cultural domains, all the measures

appropriate to assure the total realization and full participation of women in the development of the Nation.

They take measures to struggle against all forms of violence made against women in public and in private life.

Women have the right to an equitable representation within the national, provincial and local institutions. The State

guarantees the implementation of man-woman parity in these said institutions.

The law establishes the modalities of application of these rights. FULL PARTICIPATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATION

STRUGGLE AGAINST VIOLENCE IN PUBLIC AND IN PRIVATE LIFE

EQUITABLE REPRESENTATION WITHIN THE NATIONAL, PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL INSTITUTIONS

Article 36

No one may discriminated against [leser] in their work because of their origin, their sex, their opinions, their beliefs or their

socio-economic condition. DISCRIMINATION BANNED AT WORK

Article 45

All persons have access to establishments of national education, without discrimination of place of origin, of race, of

religion, of sex, of political or philosophical opinions, of their physical, mental or sensorial state in accordance with their

capacities. DISCRIMINATION BANNED TO ACCESS TO NATIONAL EDUCATION

84


CONGO (REPUBLIC OF THE) (BRAZZAVILLE) 1963

Right to vote for legislative election: March 2, 1961

Right to stand for election: December 8, 1963

First woman in parliament: 1963

Independence: 1960

Population: 5,448,526

Parliament name: Parlement (Parliament)

Chamber name: Assemblée nationale (National

Assembly)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 151

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2017-07

2012-07

2007-08

2002-05

1993-08

1992-06

1989-09

1984-09

1979-07

1973-06

1963-12

1959-06

17

10

10

12

2

3

19

15

13

8

3

0

11.26%

7.35%

7.3%

9.3%

1.6%

2.4%

14.29%

9.8%

8.5%

6.4%

5.45%

0%

Chamber name: Sénat (Senate)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 72

Indirectly elected by the Councils and Districts, régions,

arrondisements and communes (administrative divisions

varying in size and importance)

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-12

2014-10

2013-01

2012-01

2011-10

2008-08

2005-10

2002-05

1993-08

1992-06

13

14

10

8

10

9

8

9

1

2

18.84%

19.44%

13.89%

13.33%

13.89%

12.86%

13.33%

15%

1.67%

3.33%

Prior to independence, universal suffrage was granted for Europeans and literate Africans only. In 1951 the right to vote was

extended to all those with a credible titre d'identité. Under French administration, Congolese women acquired the right to

vote under the 29 August 1947 law (N° 47-1629) on territorial assemblies. This electoral system was renewed in 1952 and

eventually replaced in 1957 when the framework law (Loi-cadre Deferre) of 1956 was entered into force. According to the

CEDAW (the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women) report, article 4 of the 2 March 1961

Constitution recognized the aforementioned rights. The right for women to stand for election was recognized by the

Constitution adopted on 8 December 1963.

CONSTITUTION OF 2015

Article 5

The national sovereignty belongs to the people who exercise it by means of universal suffrage, by their elected

representatives or by way of referendum. No fraction of the people one fraction of the people, no body of the State or no

individual may arrogate its exercise. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 6

Suffrage is universal, direct or indirect, free, equal and secret. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

All Congolese being already eighteen (18) years of age and enjoying their civil and political rights are electors within the

conditions established by the law. RIGHT TO VOTE FOR ELECTIONS

85


CONGO (REPUBLIC OF THE) (BRAZZAVILLE) 1963

Article 17

The woman has the same rights as the man. EQUAL RIGHTS

The law guarantees parity and assures the promotion as well as the representativeness of women in all political, elective

and administrative functions. REPRESENTATIVENESS IN POLITICAL, ELECTIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS

Article 37

The State has the obligation to assist the family in its mission as guardian of the morality and of the values compatible with

the republican order.

The rights of the mother and of the child are guaranteed. RIGHTS OF THE MOTHER GUARANTEED

TITLE XIX: OF THE NATIONAL CONSULTATIVE COUNCILS

SUB-TITLE III: OF THE CONSULTATIVE COUNCIL OF WOMEN

Article 232

A Consultative Council of Women is instituted[,] responsible for emitting opinions on the condition of women and of

making suggestions to the Government aiming to promote the integration of women into the development.

CONSULTATIVE COUNCIL: OPINIONS ON THE CONDITION AND SUGGESTIONS TO PROMOTE THE INTEGRATION

Article 233

An organic law determines the organization, the composition and the functioning of the Consultative Council of Women.

86


COSTA RICA 1949

DATE WOMEN %

2018-02

2016-12

2014-02

2010-02

2010-01

2006-02

2002-02

1998-02

1997

1994-02

1990-02

1986-02

1978-02

1974-02

1970-02

1966-02

1962-02

1958-04

1953-11

1949-11

26

20

19

22

21

22

18

11

9

8

7

6

4

3

4

3

1

2

3

0

45.61%

35.09%

33.33%

38.6%

36.84%

38.6%

31.58%

19.3%

15.79%

14.04%

12.28%

10.53%

7.02%

5.26%

7.02%

5.26%

1.75%

4.44%

6.67%

0%

Right to vote and to stand for election: November 17, 1949

First woman in parliament: 1953

Population: 5,071,774

Parliament name: Asamblea Legislativa (Legislative

Assembly)

Chamber name: Asamblea Legislativa (Legislative Assembly)

Statutory number of members: 57

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Both legislated and voluntary political party quotas are in place.

Legal source: cf. Article 2 of Electoral Law 8765 of 2009 (Código Electoral 8765).

In 1953, in the first election in which women were allowed to vote, Ana Rosa Chacón (1889-1985), María Teresa Obregón

(1888-1956) and Estela Quesada (1924–2011) became the first three women elected to the Legislative Assembly.

CONSTITUTION OF 1949, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2015

Article 51

The family, as [a] natural element and foundation of society, has the right to the special protection of the State. The mother,

the child, the elder and the helplessly sick will equally have right to that protection. SPECIAL PROTECTION OF THE MOTHER

Article 52

Marriage is the essential basis of the family and rests on the equality of rights of the spouses.

MATRIMONIAL EQUALITY

Article 55

The special protection of the mother and of the minor will be the responsibility of an autonomous institution denominated

[the] Patronato Nacional de la Infancia [National Patronage of Infancy], with the collaboration of the other institutions of

the State. NATIONAL PATRONAGE OF INFANCY RESPONSIBLE FOR SPECIAL PROTECTION OF THE MOTHER


COSTA RICA 1949

Article 71

The laws will give special protection to the women and the minors in their work.

SPECIAL PROTECTION AT WORK

Article 73

Social securities for the benefit of the manual and intellectual workers are established, regulated by the system of

compulsory [forzosa] contribution of the State, employers and workers, in order to protect them against the risks of sickness,

disability, maternity, old age, death and other contingencies that the law determines.

… SOCIAL SECURITIES TO PROTECT WORKERS DURING MATERNITY

Article 93

Suffrage is [a] primordial and obligatory civic function and is exercised before the Electoral Boards [Juntas] in a direct and

secret vote, by the citizens registered in the Civil Registry. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 95

The law will regulate the exercise of suffrage in accordance with the following principles:

8. Guarantees for the designation of authorities and candidates of the political parties, according to democratic

principles and without discrimination based on gender.

DISCRIMINATION BANNED IN DESIGNATION OF AUTHORITIES AND CANDIDATES OF THE POLITICAL PARTIES

88


CÔTE D'IVOIRE 1952

Right to vote and to stand for election: 1952

First woman in parliament: 1965

Independence: 1960

Population: 26,042,769

Parliament name: Parlement (Parliament)

Chamber name: Assemblée nationale (National

Assembly)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 255

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-12

2017-02

2016-12

2014-12

2014-01

2013

2011-12

2010-10

2008

2007

2000-12

1995-11

1990-11

1985-11

1980-11

1975-11

1970-11

1965-11

1960-11

28

27

29

23

24

28

26

18

19

18

19

14

8

10

8

11

3

3

0

10.98%

10.59%

11.46%

9.16%

9.45%

11.02%

10.24%

8.87%

8.52%

8.87%

8.52%

8%

4.57%

5.71%

5.44%

9.17%

3%

3.53%

0%

Chamber name: Sénat (Senate)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 99

Indirectly elected members (66): Senators are elected in each

of the country’s 31 regions and 2 districts (2 senators per

region/district) by an electoral college composed of

members of the National Assembly, mayors, regional and

municipal councillors.

Appointed members (33): appointed by the President of the

Republic.

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2019-04 19 19.19%

2018-04 8 12.12%

Prior to independence, under French administration, women were granted universal suffrage in 1952. This right was

confirmed by the Framework law (Loi-cadre Deferre) of 23 June 1956 and confirmed again at independence. On 7 November

1965, Jeanne Gervais, Hortense Aka-Anghui and Gladys Rose Anoma became the first three women elected to the

parliament (Emmanuel K. Akyeampong and Henry Louis Gates, “Dictionary of African Biography”)

CONSTITUTION OF 2016

Preamble

We, the People of Côte d'Ivoire;

Express our commitment to:

• promoting equality between men and women;

PROMOTION OF EQUALITY

89


CÔTE D'IVOIRE 1952

Article 4

All Ivoirians are born and remain free and equal in rights.

No one may be privileged or discriminated against by reason of their race, their ethnicity, their clan, their tribe, their skin

color, their sex, their region, their social origin, their religion or belief, their opinion, their fortune, their difference in culture

or language, their social status or their physical or mental state. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

Article 10

School attendance is compulsory for children of both sexes, under the conditions determined by law.

... COMPULSORY SCHOOL

Article 14

Everyone has the right to choose their profession or employment freely.

Everyone has equal access to public or private employment, according to qualities and skills. It is prohibited to

discriminate in respect of access to employment or in the exercise thereof, on the basis of sex, ethnicity or political, religious

or philosophical opinions. DISCRIMINATION BANNED TO ACCESS TO PUBLIC OR PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT

Article 31

The family is the basic unit of the society. The State guarantees its protection.

Parental authority is exercised by the father and mother or, failing that, by any other person in accordance with the law.

PARENTAL AUTHORITY

Article 32

The State is committed to guaranteeing the specific needs of vulnerable persons.

It takes the necessary measures to prevent the vulnerability of children, women, mothers, the elderly and persons with

disabilities. NECESSARY MEASURES TO PREVENT THE VULNERABILITY

It is committed to guaranteeing the access of vulnerable persons to healthcare services, education, employment, culture,

sports and leisure.

Article 35

The State and public communities ensure the promotion, development and protection of women. They take the

necessary measures to eliminate all forms of violence against women and girls.

PROMOTION, DEVELOPMENT AND PROTECTION NECESSARY MEASURES TO ELIMINATE ALL FORMS OF VIOLENCE

Article 36

The State works to promote the political rights of women by increasing their chances of access to representation in

elected assemblies. INCREASING CHANCES OF REPRESENTATION IN ELECTIVE ASSEMBLIES

Detailed rules for the application of this Article are set forth in the law.

Article 37

PROMOTION OF THE EQUALITY IN THE LABOR MARKET

The State works to promote equality between men and women in the labor market.

The State encourages the promotion of women to decision-making positions in public institutions and

administrations as well as at the enterprise level.

PROMOTION TO DECISION-MAKING POSITIONS IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS AND ADMINISTRATIONS

Article 52

The right to vote is universal, free, equal and secret.

Voters are, under the conditions determined by law, all Ivoirian nationals of both sexes of at least eighteen years of age and

enjoying their civil and political rights. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE


CROATIA 1945

Right to vote and to stand for election: August 11, 1945

First woman in parliament: 1992

Independence: 1991

Population: 4,117,736

Parliament name: Hrvatski Sabor (Croatian Parliament)

Chamber name: Hrvatski Sabor (Croatian Parliament)

Statutory number of members: 151

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-12

2017-02

2016-12

2016-09

2015-11

2014-12

2013-01

2012-01

2009-01

2007-11

2003-11

2000-01

1995-10

1992-08

31

28

30

19

23

39

36

32

36

32

27

31

10

8

20.53%

18.54%

19.87%

12.58%

15.23%

25.83%

23.84%

21.19%

23.53%

20.92%

17.76%

20.53%

7.87%

5.8%

Equal rights were given to men and

women in 1943 by the law voted by the

Antifascist National Council for

Liberation of Yugoslavia (the supreme

representative organ with Executive

and Legislative power to which a

woman was first elected on 29

November 1943. This law was upheld

by the Constitution of 1946. Croatian

women were previously elected to the

Parliament of the SFR of Yugoslavia.

CONSTITUTION OF 1991, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2013

Article 3

Freedom, equal rights, national equality and equality of genders, love of peace, social justice, respect for human rights,

inviolability of ownership, conservation of nature and the environment, the rule of law, and a democratic multiparty system

are the highest values of the constitutional order of the Republic of Croatia and the ground for interpretation of the

Constitution.

EQUALITY OF GENDERS HIGHEST VALUE OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL ORDER AND GROUNDS FOR INTERPRETATION OF THE CONSTITUTION

Article 14

Everyone in the Republic of Croatia shall enjoy rights and freedoms, regardless of race, color, gender, language, religion,

political or other belief, national or social origin, property, birth, education, social status or other characteristics.

All shall be equal before the law. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

Article 17

During a state of war or an immediate threat to the independence and unity of the State, or in the event of severe natural

disasters, individual freedoms and rights guaranteed by the Constitution may be restricted. This shall be decided by the

Croatian Parliament by a two-thirds majority of all members or, if the Croatian Parliament is unable to meet, at the proposal

of the Government and upon the counter-signature of the Prime Minister, by the President of the Republic.

The extend of such restrictions shall be adequate to the nature of the danger, and may not result in the inequality of persons

in respect of race, color, gender, language, religion, national or social origin.

… RESTRICTION OF RIGHTS DURING A STATE OF WAR MUST NOT BE DISCRIMINATORY BY GENDER


CROATIA 1945

Article 45

All Croatian citizens who have reached the age of eighteen years (voters) shall be entitled to universal and equal suffrage

in elections for the Croatian Parliament, the President of the Republic of Croatia and the European Parliament and in

decision-making procedures by national referendum, in compliance with law. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 56

The right of employees and of members of their families to social security and social insurance shall be regulated by law and

collective agreements. RIGHTS IN CONNECTION WITH MATERNITY

Rights in connection with child-birth, maternity and child care shall be regulated by law.

Article 62

The State shall protect maternity, children and young people, and shall create social, cultural, educational, material and

other conditions promoting the right to a decent life. PROTECTION OF MATERNITY

Article 64

Young people, mothers and persons with disabilities shall be entitled to special protection at work.

SPECIAL PROTECTION OF MOTHERS AT WORK

92


CUBA 1934

Right to vote and to stand for election: January 2, 1934

First woman in parliament: 1936

Population: 11,332,189

Parliament name: Asamblea nacional del Poder popular

(National Assembly of the People's Power)

Chamber name: Asamblea nacional del Poder popular (National Assembly of the People's Power)

Statutory number of members: 605

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No.

María Gómez Carbonell was the first

woman elected to the House of

Representatives in 1936 (Dolores Rovirosa,

“María Gómez Carbonell y una familia

excepcional”).

DATE WOMEN %

2018-03

2013-02

2008-01

2003-01

1998-01

1993-02

1986-11

1981-12

1976-11

1958-11

1948-06

322

299

265

219

166

134

173

113

107

3

4

53.22%

48.86%

43.16%

35.96%

27.62%

22.75%

33.92%

22.65%

22.25%

2.34%

5.56%

CONSTITUTION OF 2019

Article 42

All people are equal before the law, receive the same protection and treatment from the authorities, and enjoy the same

rights, liberties, and opportunities, without any discrimination for reasons of sex, gender, sexual orientation, gender

identity, age, ethnic origin, skin color, religious belief, disability, national or territorial origin, or any other personal condition

or circumstance that implies a distinction injurious to human dignity. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

Article 43 EQUAL RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES IN ECONOMIC, POLITICAL, CULTURAL, OCCUPATIONAL, SOCIAL AND FAMILIAL DOMAINS

Women and men have equal rights and responsibilities in the economic, political, cultural, occupational, social, and

familial domains, as well as in any other domain. SAME OPPORTUNITIES AND POSSIBILITIES

The State guarantees that both will be offered the same opportunities and possibilities.

The State encourages the holistic development of women and their full social participation. It ensures the exercise of their

sexual and reproductive rights, protects them from gender-based violence in all of its forms and in all spaces, and

creates the institutional and legal mechanisms to do so. ENCOURAGMENT OF HOLISTIC DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIAL PARTICIPATION

ASSURANCE OF EXERCISE OF SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE RIGHTS

PROTECTION FROM GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE

Article 68

People who work have a right to social security. The State, through the social security system, guarantees adequate

protection when a person finds themselves unable to work due to age, maternity, paternity, disability, or illness.

PROTECTION THROUGH THE SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM DURING THE MATERNITY THOSE UNABLE TO WORK

93


CUBA 1934

Article 82

MARRIAGE BASED ON FREE WILL

Marriage is a social and legal institution. It is one of the organizational structures of families. It is based on free consent and

on the equality of rights, obligations, and legal capacity of spouses. MATRIMONIAL EQUALITY

Article 84

Maternity and paternity are protected by the State. PROTECTION OF MATERNITY

Mothers and fathers have essential responsibilities and roles in the holistic education and upbringing them as citizens with

moral, ethical, and civic values in correspondence with life within our socialist society.

Mothers and fathers or other relatives by blood or marriage who perform the roles of guardianship and caretakers have the

duty to feed children and adolescents, respect and guarantee the full exercise of their rights, protect them from all types of

violence, and contribute actively to the holistic development of their personality.

Children, in turn, are obligated to respect, care for, and protect their mothers, fathers, and other relatives, in accordance

with that which is established by law. RESPECT, CARE AND PROTECTION OF CHILDREN

Article 204

All citizens with the legal capacity to do so have the right to contribute to the management of the State, either directly or

through their elected representatives within the organs of People's Power and to participate, for this purpose, in the form

prescribed by the law, through periodic elections, plebiscites, and popular referendums that will be free, equal, direct, and

secret. Every elector has the right to a single vote. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 205

Voting is a citizen's right. The vote is exercised voluntarily by Cuban citizens, both men and women, that have reached the

age of sixteen… RIGHT TO VOTE FOR ELECTIONS

Article 207

Cuban citizens, both women and men, that are in full enjoyment of their political rights and meet the other requirements

established by law have the right to be elected. RIGHT TO STAND FOR ELECTIONS

If the election is for representatives on the National Assembly of People's Power, they must be over the age of 18.

94


CYPRUS 1960

Right to vote and to stand for election: August 16, 1960

First woman in parliament: 1963

Population: 1,203,196

Parliament name: Vouli Antiprosopon (House of

Representatives)

Chamber name: Vouli Antiprosopon (House of Representatives)

Statutory number of members: 80

Directly elected: the Constitution of the Republic of Cyprus stipulates that, of the 80 seats in Parliament, 56 members are

elected by the Greek-Cypriot community while 24 are elected by the Turkish-Cypriot community (seats currently vacant). Of

the 56 Greek-Cypriot seats, 3 are reserved for each of the religious groups (Latins, Maronites, and Armenians).

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Voluntary political party quotas.

Legal source: cf. individual party statutes.

DATE WOMEN %

2016-06

2016-05

2014-01

2011-05

2010-01

2006-05

2001-05

1991-05

1985-12

1981-05

1970-07

1963-10

1960-07

10

11

7

6

7

8

6

3

1

1

0

1

0

17.86%

19.64%

12.5%

10.71%

12.5%

14.29%

10.71%

5.36%

1.79%

2.86%

0%

2.86%

0%

CONSTITUTION OF 1960, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2013

Article 2

For the purposes of this Constitution:

7.

MARRIED WOMAN SHALL BELONG TO THE COMMUNITY OF HER HUSBAND

a. a married woman shall belong to the Community [Greek or Turkish] to which her husband belongs;

b. a male or female child under the age of twenty-one who is not married shall belong to the Community to which his or

her father belongs, or, if the father is unknown and he or she has not been adopted, to the Community to which his or her

mother belongs FEMALE CHILD BELONGS TO THE COMMUNITY OF HER FATHER

Article 28

1. All persons are equal before the law, the administration and justice and are entitled to equal protection thereof and

treatment thereby.

2. Every person shall enjoy all the rights and liberties provided for in this Constitution without any direct or indirect

discrimination against any person on the ground of his community, race, religion, language, sex, political or other

convictions, national or social descent, birth, colour, wealth, social class, or on any ground whatsoever, unless there is express

provision to the contrary in this Constitution. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

95


CYPRUS 1960

Article 39

1. The election of the President and the Vice-President of the Republic shall be direct, by universal suffrage and secret ballot,

and shall, except in the case of a by-election, take place on the same day but separately: UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 62

2. Out of the number of Representatives provided in paragraph I of this Article seventy per centum shall be elected by the

Greek Community and thirty per centum by the Turkish Community separately from amongst their members respectively,

and in the case of a contested election, by universal suffrage and by direct and secret ballot held on the same day.

… UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 186

1. In this Constitution, unless it is otherwise expressly provided or required by the context:

b. words importing the masculine gender include females and words in the singular include the plural and vice-versa.

MASCULINE WORDS IN THE CONSTITUTION ALSO REFERRED TO FEMALE GENDER

96


CZECH REPUBLIC 1920

Right to vote and to stand for election: February 29, 1920

First woman in parliament: 1912

Independence: 1993

Population: 10,698,820

Parliament name: Parlament (Parliament)

Chamber name: Poslanecka Snemovna (Chamber of

Deputies)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 200

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Voluntary political party

quotas.

Legal source: Individual party statutes.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-12

2017-10

2015-03

2014-12

2013-10

2010-05

2009-01

2008-10

2007-04

2006-06

2002-06

1996-06

1992-06

45

44

40

38

39

44

31

14

11

31

34

30

20

22.5%

22%

20%

19%

19.5%

22%

15.5%

7%

5.5%

15.5%

17%

15%

10%

Chamber name: Senat (Senate)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 81

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Voluntary political party

quotas.

Legal source: Individual party statutes.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-10

2016-11

2016-10

2014-12

2014-10

2012-01

2010-10

2006-11

2000-11

1996-11

13

15

16

15

13

14

15

12

10

9

16.05%

18.75%

19.75%

18.52%

16.05%

17.28%

18.52%

14.81%

12.35%

11.11%

Prior to the separation of the Czech Republic and Slovakia, women were granted full universal suffrage in Czechoslovakia on

29 February 1920. In June 1992 the first legislature of the Czech Republic after the country became independent on 1

January 1993. Czech women had previously been elected to the Federal Parliament of Czechoslovakia. In 1912, Božena

Viková-Kunětická (1862-1934) became the first woman elected to the zemský snĕm (National Assembly or Bohemian Diet)

(Francisca de Haan, “Biographical Dictionary of Women's Movements and Feminisms in Central, Eastern, and South Eastern

Europe, 19th and 20th Centuries”)

CONSTITUTION OF 1993, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2013

Article 3

1. Everyone is guaranteed the enjoyment of her fundamental rights and basic freedoms without regard to gender, race,

color of skin, language, faith and religion, political or other conviction, national or social origin, membership in a national or

ethnic minority, property, birth, or other status. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

Article 21

3. The right to vote is universal and equal, and shall be exercised by secret ballot. The conditions for exercising the right to

vote shall be provided for by law. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

97


CZECH REPUBLIC 1920

Article 29

1. Women, adolescents, and persons with health problems have the right to increased protection of their health at work

and to special work conditions. INCREASED PROTECTION OF HEALTH AT WORK AND SPECIAL WORK CONDITIONS

Article 32

2. Pregnant women are guaranteed special care, protection in labor relations, and suitable work conditions.

… SPECIAL CARE, PROTECTION IN LABOR RELATIONS AND SUITABLE WORK CONDITIONS FOR PREGNANT WOMEN

98


DENMARK 1915

Right to vote and to stand for election: June 5, 1915

First woman in parliament: 1918

Population: 5,887,946

Parliament name: Folketinget (Parliament)

Chamber name: Folketinget (The Danish Parliament)

Statutory number of members: 179

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2019-06

2015-06

2014-12

2011-09

2010-01

2007-11

2005-02

2001-11

1998-03

1997

1994-09

1990-12

1988-05

1987-09

1984-01

1979-10

1977-02

1975-01

1973-12

1971-09

1966-11

1960-11

1957-05

1954

1953-09

1953-04

1950-09

1947-10

1945-10

70

67

68

70

68

67

66

68

67

59

60

59

55

52

47

42

30

28

27

31

19

17

15

17

14

17

12

13

8

39.11%

37.43%

37.99%

39.11%

37.99%

37.43%

36.87%

37.99%

37.43%

32.96%

33.52%

32.96%

30.73%

29.05%

26.26%

23.46%

16.76%

15.64%

15.08%

17.32%

10.61%

9.5%

8.38%

9.5%

9.27%

9.5%

7.95%

8.67%

5.37%

Universal suffrage was granted on a local level in 1908, restricted to tax paying women and at least 25 years old. The right

to vote and to stand for national election was established in the Constitution of 1915 but only entered into force after World

War One in 1918. On 22 April 1918, Danish women went to the polling booths to cast their vote for the first time at a

parliamentary election: 41 women ran for election. In total 402 political candidates fought to get one of the seats at the

Parliament. Only 9 women were elected: Karen Ankersted, Mathilde Malling Hauschultz, Helga Larsen, Elna Munch, Nina

Bang, Marie Christensen, Marie Hjelmer, Olga Knudsen and Inger Gautier Schmit.

99


DENMARK 1915

CONSTITUTION OF 1953

Article 2

The form of government shall be that of a constitutional monarchy. The Royal Power shall be inherited by men and women

in accordance with the provisions of the Succession to the Throne Act, 27th March, 1953.

… ROYAL POWER

Article 29

1. Any Danish subject whose permanent residence is in the Realm, and who has the age qualification for suffrage provided

for in subsection (2) of this section shall have the right to vote at Folketing elections, provided that he has not been declared

incapable of conducting his own affairs. It shall be laid down by Statute to what extent conviction and public assistance

amounting to poor relief within the meaning of the law shall entail disfranchisement. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

2. The age qualification for suffrage shall be such as has resulted from the Referendum held under the Act dated the 26th

March, 1953. Such age qualification for suffrage may be altered at any time by Statute. A Bill passed by the Folketing for the

purpose of such enactment shall receive the Royal Assent only when the provision on the alteration in the age qualification

for suffrage has been put to a Referendum in accordance with subsection (5) of section 42, which has not resulted in the

rejection of the provision.

100


DJIBOUTI 1986

Right to vote: October 27, 1946

Right to stand for election: 1986

First woman in parliament: 2003

Independence: 1977

Population: 980,768

Parliament name: Assemblée nationale (National

Assembly)

Chamber name: Assemblée nationale (National Assembly)

Statutory number of members: 65

Directly elected

The constitutional amendments adopted in April 2010 provide for a bicameral parliament comprising the existing National

Assembly and a new Senate, yet to be established.

Electoral quota for women: Yes. The proportion of either male or female candidates on the lists of candidates submitted by

political parties and/or political party groupings must be 25 per cent of the number of seats to be filled. If not the list will be

inadmissible. The quota of elected members of either sex to the National Assembly is fixed at not less than 25 per cent.

Legal source: Article 3, Law no. 219/AN/18/7ème L

DATE WOMEN %

2018-06

2018-05

2018-04

2018-02

2016-12

2013-02

2007

2003-01

1977-05

17

15

17

15

7

7

9

7

0

26.15%

23.08%

26.15%

23.08%

10.77%

10.77%

13.85%

10.77%

0%

Prior to independence, under French administration, women were granted the right to vote on 27 October 1946 with

foundation of the French Union, the 4th Republic and the attribution of the status of territoire d'outre-mer to Djibouti the

same year. Following the "Loi Lamine Guèye" all citizens of the Union territories had the right to vote for the French

Parliament. This right was confirmed at independence.

CONSTITUTION OF 1992, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2010

Article 1

Islam is the Religion of the State

The State of Djibouti is a democratic, sovereign, one and indivisible Republic.

It assures to all equality before the law without distinction of language, of origin, of race, of sex or of religion. It respects

all beliefs. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

Article 3

The Republic of Djibouti as composed of the entirety of the persons that it recognizes as members and who have accepted

the duties, without distinction of language, of race, of sex or of religion. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

101


DJIBOUTI 1986

Article 4

The popular legitimacy is the foundation and the source of all power. It is expressed by universal, equal and secret suffrage.

The executive power and legislative power shall proceed from universal suffrage or from the instances elected through it.

UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 5

All the Djiboutian nationals of majority, of both sexes, enjoying their civil and political rights are electors within the

conditions determined by the law. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

102


DOMINICA 1951

DATE WOMEN %

2019-12

2016-12

2014-12

2009-12

2008

2007

2005-05

2000-01

1995-06

1990-05

1985-07

1980-07

8

8

7

4

6

5

4

6

3

5

3

4

38.1%

25%

21.88%

12.5%

18.75%

13.89%

12.9%

18.75%

9.38%

16.67%

10%

13.33%

Right to vote and to stand for election: July, 1951

First woman in parliament: 1970

Independence: 1978

Population: 71,808

Parliament name: House of Assembly

Chamber name: House of Assembly

Statutory number of members: 32

Directly elected (21). Appointed (9): appointed by the Head of State. Others (2): the Speaker and the Attorney General.

Electoral quota for women: No.

Prior to independence, under British administration women were granted the right to vote in July 1951. This right was

confirmed at independence. Mary Eugenia Charles (1919-2005) was elected to the House of Assembly in 1970 and she was

Prime Minister of Dominica from 21 July 1980 until 14 June 1995.

CONSTITUTION OF 1978 WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2014

1. Fundamental rights and freedoms

Whereas every person in Dominica is entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms, that is to say, the right, whatever

his race, place of origins, political opinions, colour, creed or sex, but subject to respect for the rights and freedoms of others

and for the public interest, to each and all of the following, namely:

a. life, liberty, security of the person and the protection of the law;

b. freedom of conscience, of expression and of assembly and association; and

DISCRIMINATION BANNED

c. protection for the privacy of his home and other property and from deprivation of property without compensation,

13. Protection from discrimination on the grounds of race, etc

3. In this section, the expression “discriminatory” means affording different treatment to different persons attributable

wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by sex, race, place of origin, political opinions, colour or creed whereby

persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such description are

not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages which are not accorded to persons of another such description.

5. Nothing contained in any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of subsection (1) of this section to

the extent that it makes provision with respect to standards or qualifications (not being standards or qualifications

specifically relating to sex, race, place of origin, political opinions, color or creed) to be required of any person who is

appointed to or to act in any office or employment. DISCRIMINATION BANNED AT WORK

103


DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 1942

Right to vote and to stand for election: 1942

First woman in parliament: 1942

Population: 10,794,777

Parliament name: Congreso Nacional de la República

(National Congress of the Republic)

Chamber name: Cámara de Diputados (Chamber of

Deputies)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 190

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes, 40 seats. 25% are reserved

for women to be nominated to congressional or municipal

posts.

Legal source: Electoral Law No. 275-97

Chamber name: Senado (Senate)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 32

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2016-06

2010-05

2006-05

2002-05

1998-05

1990-05

1986-05

1982-05

1978-05

1974-05

1966-06

1962-12

1957-05

1952-05

1947-05

51

38

35

26

24

14

9

7

11

13

3

2

1

3

1

26.84%

20.77%

19.66%

17.33%

16.11%

11.67%

7.5%

5.83%

12.09%

14.29%

4.05%

2.67%

1.72%

5.77%

2.63%

DATE WOMEN %

2010-05

2009-01

2002-05

1998-05

1994-05

1990-05

1986-05

1982-05

1978-05

1974-05

1970-05

1962-12

1958

1954

1946-12

3

4

1

2

1

0

1

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

0

9.38%

14.29%

3.13%

6.67%

3.33%

0%

3.33%

3.7%

7.41%

11.11%

14.81%

3.7%

8.33%

13.04%

0%

CONSTITUTION OF 2015

Article 5: Basis of the Constitution

The Constitution is based on the respect for human dignity and the indivisible unity of the Nation, common fatherland of

all Dominican men and women. COMMON FATHERLAND

104

Article 39: Right to equality

All people are born free and equal before the law, receive the same protection and treatment from institutions,

authorities, and other people and enjoy the same rights liberties and opportunities, without any discrimination for

reasons of gender, color, age, disability, nationality, family ties, language, religions, political or philosophical opinion, social

or personal condition. Consequently: DISCRIMINATION BANNED

4. Women and men are equal before the law. Any act that has the objective or result of diminishing or annulling the


DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 1942

DISCRIMINATION BANNED

recognition, enjoyment or exercise of fundamental rights of woman and men in conditions of equality is prohibited.

5. The State should promote and guarantee the equal participation of women and men in candidate lists to the offices of

popular election for the instances of guidance and decision in the public sphere, in the administration of justice, and in

the State-controlled bodies. EQUAL PARTICIPATION IN CANDIDATE LISTS TO THE OFFICES OF POPULAR ELECTION FOR THE INSTANCES

OF GUIDANCE AND DECISION IN THE PUBLIC SPHERE, ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE

AND STATE-CONTROLLED BODIES

Article 42: Right to personal integrity

All people have the right to have their physical, psychic, moral integrity and the right to live without violence respected. They

shall have the protection of the state in cases of threat, risk, or violation of the same. Consequently:

2. Familial and gender based violence in any of its forms is condemned. The State shall guarantee through the law the

adoption of necessary methods to prevent, sanction, and eradicate violence against women;

… VIOLENCE BANNED ADOPTION OF METHODS TO PREVENT, SANCTION AND ERADICATE VIOLENCE

Article 55: Rights of the family

The family is the basis of society and the fundamental space for the integral development of people. It is formed by natural

or legal ties, by the free decision of a man and a woman to enter into marriage or by the responsible willingness to conform

to it. MARRIAGE BASED ON FREE WILL

1. All persons have the right to form a family, in whose formation and development the woman and man enjoy equal rights

and duties and owe one another mutual understanding and reciprocal respect. FAMILY EQUALITY

6. Maternity, whether the social condition or the civil state of the woman, shall enjoy the protection of the public powers

and causes the right to official assistance in the case of need.

… MATERNITY PROTECTION AND ASSISTANCE CONSIDERING THE SOCIAL CONDITIONS AND THE CIVIL STATE

10. The State promotes responsible paternity and maternity. The father and the mother, even after separation and divorce,

have the shared and non-renounceable duty to feed, raise, train, educate, support, and provide safety and assistance to their

sons and daughters. The law shall establish the necessary and appropriate methods to guarantee the effect of these

obligations.

PROMOTION OF RESPONSIBLE MATERNITY

Article 56: Protection of minors

The family, society, and State shall give preference to the superior interests of male and female children and adolescents,

and shall have the obligation to assist and protect them in order to guarantee their harmonious and integral development

and the full exercise of their fundamental rights, in accordance with this Constitution and the laws. Consequently:

1. The eradication of child labor and all types of mistreatment or violence against minors is declared of the highest national

interest. Male and female children and adolescents shall be protected by the State against all forms of abandonment,

kidnapping, states of vulnerability, abuse or physical, psychological, moral or sexual abuse, commercial, labor, economic

exploitation or risky jobs. CHILD LABOR BANNED

2. The active and progressive participation of male and female children and adolescents in family, community, and social

life shall be promoted. PARTICIPATION OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN FAMILY, COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL LIFE

Article 62: Right to work

Work is a right, a duty, and a social function that is exercised with the protection and assistance of the State. It is an essential

purpose of the State to foment dignified and paid employment. The public powers shall promote the dialogue and

agreement between workers, employers, and the State. Consequently:

EQUAL RIGHTS AT WORK

1. The State guarantees the equality and equity of women and men in the exercise of the right to work.

3. Union freedom, social security, collective negotiation, professional training, respect for one’s physical and intellectual

abilities, privacy, and personal dignity are, among others, the basic rights of male and female workers.

Article 77: Election of male and female legislators

UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

The election of senators and deputies shall be made by universal direct suffrage by the terms established by law.

Article 273: Grammatical genders

The grammatical genders that are adopted in the wording of the text of this Constitution do not signify, in any way,

restriction to the principle of equality of rights of women and men.

GRAMMATICAL GENDERS RESPECT THE PRINCIPLE OF EQUALITY OF RIGHTS IN THE CONSTITUTION

In the Constitution of the Dominican Republic the adjective “female” can be counted 90 times

105


ECUADOR 1967

Right to vote and to stand for election: 1967

First woman in parliament: 1960

Population: 17,511,730

Parliament name: Asamblea Nacional (National

Assembly)

Chamber name: Asamblea Nacional (National Assembly)

Statutory number of members: 137

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Legislated candidate quotas. For the elections through the system of proportional

representation, the names of men and women candidates shall alternate. Candidate lists for elections to the National

Assembly, the Andean and Latin American Parliament, the regional councils, as well as the district, municipal and rural

councils, shall be formed with an equal number sequence (woman–man or man–woman) to complete the total number of

principal and alternative candidates.

Legal socurce: Constitution, art. 116; Electoral Law 2009, art. 99 (1) and 160.

DATE WOMEN %

2019-12

2017-02

2014-01

2013-02

2009-04

2006-01

2002-10

2001

2000

1998-05

1994-05

1992-05

1990-06

1988-01

1986-06

1984-01

1968-06

1960-09

1948-06

54

52

57

53

40

25

16

21

18

21

3

4

5

3

1

3

0

2

0

39.42%

37.96%

41.61%

38.69%

32.26%

25%

16%

17.36%

14.88%

17.36%

4.48%

5.97%

7.46%

4.48%

1.39%

4.17%

0%

2.74%

0%

Between 1929 and 1967, voting was compulsory for men and optional for women, and literacy was required for both sexes;

in 1967 it became compulsory for both sexes. In 1956 a woman was elected as substitute member of National Assembly: this

parliamentarian sat occasionally.

CONSTITUTION OF 2008, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2015

106

Article 11

The exercise of rights shall be governed by the following principles:

2. All persons are equal and shall enjoy the same rights, duties and opportunities. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

No one shall be discriminated against for reasons of ethnic belonging, place of birth, age, sex, gender identity, cultural


ECUADOR 1967

identity, civil status, language, religion, ideology, political affiliation, legal record, socio-economic condition, migratory

status, sexual orientation, health status, HIV carrier, disability, physical difference or any other distinguishing feature,

whether personal or collective, temporary or permanent, which might be aimed at or result in the diminishment or

annulment of recognition, enjoyment or exercise of rights. All forms of discrimination are punishable by law.

Article 19

The law shall regulate the prevalence of contents for informative, educational and cultural purposes in the programming of

the media, and shall foster the creation of spaces for the dissemination of independent national production.

It is forbidden to broadcast advertisements that foment violence, discrimination, racism, drug addiction, sexism, religious

or political intolerance and all that undermines rights is forbidden.

FORBIDDEN TO BROADCAST ADVERTISEMENTS THAT FOMENT SEXISM

Article 27

Education will focus on the human being and shall guarantee holistic human development, in the framework of respect for

human rights, a sustainable environment, and democracy; education shall be participatory, compulsory, intercultural,

democratic, inclusive and diverse, of high quality and humane; it shall promote gender equity, justice, solidarity and peace;

it shall encourage critical faculties, art and sports, individual and community initiatives, and the development of

competencies and capabilities to create and work. EDUCATION TO PROMOTE GENDER EQUITY

Article 35

Elderly persons, girls, children and adolescents, pregnant women, persons with disabilities, persons in prison and those who

suffer from disastrous or highly complex diseases shall receive priority and specialized care in the public and private

sectors. The same priority care shall be received by persons in situations of risk, victims of domestic and sexual violence,

child mistreatment, natural or manmade disasters. The State shall provide special protection to persons who are doubly

vulnerable. PRIORITY AND SPECIALIZED CARE IN THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS FOR PREGNANT WOMEN AND VICTIMS OF DOMESTIC

AND SEXUAL VIOLENCE

Article 38

The State shall draw up public policies and programs aimed at providing care for elderly persons that bear in mind specific

differences between the urban and rural sectors, gender concerns, ethnic group, culture, and the differences pertaining to

persons, communities, peoples and nations; it will also foster, to the greatest extent possible, personal autonomy and

participation in the drafting and implementation of these policies.

PROVIDE CARE FOR ELDERLY PERSONS CONSIDERING GENDER CONCERNS

Article 42

All arbitrary displacement is forbidden. Persons who have been displaced shall have the right to receive protection and

emergency humanitarian aid from the authorities, ensuring access to food, shelter, housing, and medical and health services.

Children, adolescents, pregnant women, mothers with underage daughters and sons, elderly persons and persons with

disabilities shall receive preferential and specialized humanitarian assistance.

All displaced persons and groups shall have the right to return to their place of origin voluntarily, with safety and dignity.

HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE FOR PREGNANT WOMEN AND MOTHERS WITH UNDERAGE DAUGHTERS AND SONS

Article 43

The State shall guarantee the rights of pregnant and breast-feeding women to:

1. Not be discriminated for their pregnancy in education, social, and labor sectors.

2. Free maternal healthcare services.

3. Priority protection and care of their integral health and life during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum.

4. The facilities needed for their recovery after pregnancy and during breast-feeding.

PREGNANT AND BREAST-FEEDING WOMEN’S RIGHTS:

1 BANNED DISCRIMINATION IN EDUCATION, SOCIAL AND LABOR SECTORS

2 FREE MATERNAL HEALTHCARE SERVICES

3 PRIORITY PROTECTION AND CARE OF THEIR INTEGRAL HEALTH AND LIFE DURING PREGNANCY, CHILDBIRTH AND POSTPARTUM

4 FACILITIES DURING RECOVERY AFTER PREGNANCY AND DURING BREAST-FEEEDING

Article 46

The State shall adopt, among others, the following measures that safeguard children and adolescents:

7. Protection from the influence of programs or messages disseminated by means of any media and which promote

violence or racial or gender discrimination. Public policies for communication shall give priority to their education and

respect for their rights to an image, integrity and others pertaining to their age. Limitations and penalties shall be

established to enforce these rights.

… PROTECTION OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS BY MESSAGES OF GENDER DISCRIMINATION DISSEMINATED BY MEDIA

107


ECUADOR 1967

Article 51

Imprisoned persons are recognized the following rights:

6. Receiving preferential and specialized treatment in the case of pregnant women and breast-feeding women,

adolescents, elderly persons, the sick or persons with disabilities.

… PREFERENTIAL AND SPECIALIZED TREATMENT FOR PREGNANT AND BREAST-FEEDING WOMEN IN PRISON

Article 57

Indigenous communes, communities, peoples and nations are recognized and guaranteed, in conformity with the

Constitution and human rights agreements, conventions, declarations and other international instruments, the following

collective rights:

LEGAL SYSTEM OR COMMON LAW OF INDIGENOUS COMMUNES AND COMMUNITIES MUST RESPECT

CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS

10. To create, develop, apply and practice their own legal system or common law, which cannot infringe constitutional

rights, especially those of women, children and adolescents.

The State shall guarantee the enforcement of these collective rights without any discrimination, in conditions of equality

and equity between men and women.

EQUAL RIGHTS

Article 61

Ecuadorians benefit from the following rights:

7. To hold and discharge public office and duties on the basis of merits and capacities and in a transparent, inclusive,

equitable, pluralistic and democratic selection and designation system that guarantees their participation, on the basis of

criteria of gender equity and parity, equal opportunities for persons with disabilities, and intergenerational participation.

… GENDER EQUITY AND PARITY IN PUBLIC OFFICE

Article 62

The persons in possession of political rights have the right to equal, direct, secret and publicly scrutinized universal

suffrage,… UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 65

The State shall promote equality with respect to the representation of women and men in publicly appointed or elected

office, in its executive and decision-making institutions, and political parties and movements.

REPRESENTATION IN APPOINTED OR ELECTED OFFICE AND DECISION-MAKING INSTITUTIONS AND POLITICAL PARTIES AND MOVEMENTS

Article 66

The following rights of persons are recognized and guaranteed:

3. The right to personal well-being, which includes:

b. A life without violence in the public and private sectors. The State shall adopt the measures needed to prevent, eliminate,

and punish all forms of violence, especially violence against women, children and adolescents, elderly persons, persons

with disabilities and against all persons at a disadvantage or in a vulnerable situation; identical measures shall be taken

against violence, slavery, and sexual exploitation.

… MEASURES TO PREVENT, ELIMINATE AND PUNISH VIOLENCE AND SEXUAL EXPLOITATION

Article 67

Marriage is the union of man and woman and shall be based on the free consent of the persons entering into this bond and

on the equality of rights, obligations and legal capacity. MATRIMONIAL EQUALITY

Article 69

To protect the rights of persons who are members of a family:

3. The State shall guarantee the equality of rights in decision making for the administration of the marital partnership

and the joint ownership of assets. FAMILY EQUALITY

108

Article 70 PROMOTION OF GENDER EQUALITY BY LAW, PLANS AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE IN PUBLIC SECTOR

The State shall draw up and implement policies to achieve equality between women and men, through the specialized

mechanism set up by law, and shall mainstream the gender approach in plans and programs and shall provide technical

assistance for its mandatory enforcement in the public sector.


ECUADOR 1967

Article 83

Ecuadorians have the following duties and obligations, without detriment to others provided for by the Constitution or by

law:

14. To respect and recognize ethnic, national, social, generational, and gender differences and sexual orientation and

identity.

Article 108

Political parties and movements are non-State public organizations, which constitute the expressions of political plurality of

the people and are sustained by philosophical, political, ideological, inclusive and nondiscriminatory concepts. Their

organization, structure and functioning shall be democratic and shall guarantee rotation of power, accountability, and

parity membership between women and men on their governing boards. They shall choose their board members and

candidates by means of internal electoral processes or primaries.

PARITY MEMBERSHIP ON GOVERNING BOARDS OF POLITICAL PARTIES

Article 116

For multi-person elections, the law shall establish an electoral system in line with the principles of proportionality, equality

of vote, equity, parity and rotation of power between women and men and shall determine the voting precincts inside and

outside the country. ELECTORAL SYSTEM PROVIDES EQUITY AND ROTATION OF POWER

Article 156

The National Equality Councils are bodies responsible for ensuring the full observance and exercise of the rights enshrined

in the Constitution and in international human rights instruments. The Councils shall exercise their attributions for the

drafting, cross-cutting application, observance, follow-up and evaluation of public policies involving the issues of gender,

ethnic groups, generations, interculturalism, and disabilities and human mobility, in accordance with the law. To achieve

their objectives, they shall coordinate with leading and executive entities and with specialized organizations for the

protection of rights at all levels of government.

NATIONAL EQUALITY COUNCILS INVOLVE THE ISSUES OF GENDER AND PROTECT THE RIGHTS AT ALL LEVELS OF GOVERNMENT

Article 160

Members of the Armed Forces and the National Police Force shall be subject to specific laws governing their rights and

obligations and subject to their system of advancement and promotions based on merit and gender equity criteria. Their

job security and professional development shall be guaranteed.

GENDER EQUITY IN ARMED FORCES AND IN NATIONAL POLICE FORCE

Article 171

The authorities of the indigenous communities, peoples, and nations shall perform jurisdictional duties, on the basis of

their ancestral traditions and their own system of law, within their own territories, with a guarantee for the participation of,

and decision-making by, women. The authorities shall apply their own standards and procedures for the settlement of

internal disputes, as long as they are not contrary to the Constitution and human rights enshrined in international

instruments. PARTICIPATION AND DECISION-MAKING POSITIONS GUARANTEE IN INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES

Article 176

The requirements and procedures for designating public servants of the judiciary must involve a competitive merit-based

examination, subject to challenge and social monitoring; parity between men and women shall be fostered.

… FOSTERED PARITY IN DESIGNATION OF PUBLIC SERVANTS OF THE JUDICIARY

Article 183

The judges of the National Court of Justice shall be elected by the Judiciary Council in conformity with a procedure

entailing a competitive merit-based examination, subject to challenge and social monitoring. Parity between men and

women shall be fostered. FOSTERED PARITY IN ELECTION OF JUDGES OF THE NATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE

Article 210

In those cases of selection of an authority by competitive and merit-based examination, the Council for Public Participation

and Social Control shall choose the one who obtains the highest score in the respective examination and shall report this to

the National Assembly for the respective swearing in office.

CONDITIONS OF EQUITY AND PARITY IN SELECTION OF AN AUTHORITY

Those who are holding office shall not be able to submit their candidacies for public competitive and merit-based

examinations called to designate their substitutes. Conditions of equity and parity between women and men, as well

equality of conditions, shall be guaranteed for the participation of Ecuadorians living abroad.

109


ECUADOR 1967

Article 217

The Electoral Branch of Government shall guarantee the exercise of political rights as expressed by voting, as well as those

referring to the political organization of the citizenry.

The Electoral Branch shall be comprised of the National Electoral Council and the Electoral Dispute Settlement Court.

Both bodies shall have their seat in Quito and shall have national jurisdiction, administrative, financial, and organizational

autonomy, and their own legal status. They shall be governed by the principles of autonomy, independence, publicity,

transparency, equity, interculturalism, gender equality, swiftness and rectitude.

GENDER EQUALITY IN NATIONAL ELECTORAL COUNCIL AND ELECTORAL DISPUTE SETTLEMENT COURT

Article 224

The members of the National Electoral Council and the Electoral Dispute Settlement Court shall be designated by the

Council for Public Participation and Social Control, after selection by a competitive and merit-based examination, with

candidacies submitted by the citizenry and citizen right to challenge, as well as the guarantee of equity and parity between

men and women, in accordance with the law.

GUARANTEE OF EQUITY AND PARITY IN SELECTION OF MEMBERS OF NATIONAL ELECTORAL COUNCIL AND ELECTORAL DISPUTE SETTLEMENT COURT

Article 324

The State shall guarantee equal rights and equal opportunity to men and women in access to property and

decision-making in the management of their common marital estate.

EQUAL RIGHTS AND OPPORTUNITY IN ACCESS TO PROPERTY AND DECISION-MAKING IN THE MANAGEMENT OF COMMON MARITAL ESTATE

Article 325

The State shall guarantee the right to work. AH modes of work are recognized, whether as employee or self-employed,

including the work of self-sustenance and care-giving for people, along with all workers, male and female, as productive

social players. RIGHT TO WORK

Article 331

The State shall guarantee to women equal access to employment, vocational and professional training and

advancement, equitable pay, and the option to self-employment. All necessary measures shall be taken to eliminate

inequality. EQUAL ACCESS TO EMPLOYMENT, VOCATIONAL AND PROFESSIONAL TRAINING AND ADVANCEMENT, EQUITABLE PAY, AND THE

OPTION TO SELF-EMPLOYMENT. ELIMINATION OF INEQUALITY

Any form of discrimination, harassment or violent action, of any nature, whether direct or indirect, affecting women at

work is forbidden. DISCRIMINATION, HARASSMENT AND VIOLENT ACTION BANNED AT WORK

Article 332

The State shall guarantee respect for the reproductive rights of all workers, including the elimination of labor risks

affecting reproductive health, access to employment and job security, without limitations due to pregnancy or number of

children, maternity and breast-feeding rights, and the right to paternity leave. The dismissal of a working woman

because of pregnancy and maternity, along with discrimination in connection with reproductive roles, is forbidden.

REPRODUCTIVE RIGHTS OF ALL WORKERS WITHOUT LIMITATION DUE TO PREGNANCY, NUMBER OF CHILDREN, MATERNITY AND BREAST-FEDDING

FORBIDDEN DISMISSAL BECAUSE OF PREGNANCY AND MATERNITY

Article 333

Unpaid work of self-sustenance and care-giving, carried out in the home, is recognized as productive work.

The State shall strive towards a labor system that works in harmony with the needs for human care-giving, and that facilitates

suitable services, infrastructure and work schedules; it shall, in particular, provide services for child care, care for persons with

disabilities, and other services as needed for workers to be able to perform their labor activities; it shall furthermore foster

the joint responsibility and reciprocity of men and women in domestic work and family obligations.

DOMESTIC WORK RECOGNIZED AS PRODUCTIVE WORK RECIPROVCITY IN DOMESTIC WORK AND FAMILY OBLIGATIONS

Article 334

The State shall promote equitable access to inputs, to which end its duties shall be:

2. To draft specific policies to eradicate inequality and discrimination towards women producers, in the access to

production inputs. ERADICATION OF INEQUALITY AND DISCRIMINATION IN THE ACCESS TO PRODUCTION INPUTS

110

Article 363

The State shall be responsible for:

6. Ensuring sexual and reproductive health actions and services and guaranteeing the integral healthcare and the life

of women, especially during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum.

… ENSURING SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH ACTIONS AND SERVICES AND GUARANTEEING INTEGRAL HEALTHCARE AND LIFE,

ESPECIALLY DURING PREGNANCY, CHILDBIRTH AND POSTPARTUM


ECUADOR 1967

Article 369

Mandatory universal insurance shall cover the contingencies of illness, maternity, paternity, labor hazards, termination of

employment, unemployment, old age, invalidity, disability, death and those provide for by the law. Health services for the

contingencies of illness and maternity shall be provided through the public integral health network.

… PUBLIC INTEGRAL HEALTH NETWORK MATERNITY COVER

Article 375

The State, at all levels of government, shall guarantee the right to habitat and decent housing, for which purpose it shall:

5. Develop plans and programs to fund housing of social interest, through government banks and grassroots credit

institutions, with emphasis on persons with limited financial resources and women heads of household.

… RIGHT TO DECENT HOUSING FOR HEADS OF HOUSEHOLD

Article 434

The members of the Constitutional Court shall be designated by a qualification commission comprised of two persons

appointed by each one of the following branches of government: the legislative, the executive, and transparency and social

monitoring. Members shall be elected from among the candidates submitted by the above-mentioned branches of

government, through a public examination process, with citizen oversight and option for challenging the process. In the

membership of the Court, efforts shall be made to ensure parity between men and women.

… PARITY IN THE MEMBERSHIP OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT

111


EGYPT 1979

Right to vote and to stand for election: 1979

First woman in parliament: 1957

Population: 101,379,318

Parliament name: Majlis Al-Nuwab (House of

Representatives)

Chamber name: Majlis Al-Nuwab (House of Representatives)

Statutory number of members: 596

Directly elected (568). Appointed members (28): appointed by the President.

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Constitution, Art. 11 says that the State shall take the necessary measures to ensure the

appropriate representation of women in the House of Representatives, as specified by Law, but does not provide a specific

number. This can change at each election. Only pertaining to the 2015 elections, each list for which 15 seats were allocated

should have included at least 7 women and each list in which 45 seats were allocated should have included at least 21

women. It is unclear if this will be the case in future elections.

Legal source: Resolution No. 46 of 2014 on the enactment of the Law on the House of Representatives.

DATE WOMEN %

2015

2011-11

2010-11

2009-01

2005-11

2001

2000-10

1995-12

1990-12

1987-04

1984-05

1979-06

1976-11

1971-11

1969-01

1964-03

1960-07

1957-07

1950-01

89

10

65

8

9

13

11

9

10

18

36

35

6

8

3

8

7

2

0

14.93%

1.97%

12.7%

1.76%

1.98%

2.86%

2.42%

1.98%

2.2%

3.93%

7.86%

8.93%

1.67%

2.22%

0.83%

2.22%

1.17%

0.57%

0%

From 1956 to 1979, men were automatically put on the electoral list, while women were only included on demand. Rawya

Ateya (1926–1997) and Amina Shukri became the first female parliamentarian in the Arab world in 1957.

112

CONSTITUTION OF 2014

EQUALITY IN CIVIL, POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS

Article 11: The place of women, motherhood and childhood

The state commits to achieving equality between women and men in all civil, political, economic, social, and cultural

rights in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.

The state commits to taking the necessary measures to ensure appropriate representation of women in the houses of

parliament, in the manner specified by law. MEASURES TO ENSURE APPROPRIATE REPRESENTATION IN THE HOUSE OF PARLIAMENT

It grants women the right to hold public posts and high management posts in the state, and to appointment in judicial


EGYPT 1979

bodies and entities without discrimination. HOLD PUBLIC POSTS AND HIGH MANAGEMENT POSTS IN THE STATE

APPOINTMENT IN JUDICIAL BODIES

The state commits to the protection of women against all forms of violence, and ensures women empowerment to

reconcile the duties of a woman toward her family and her work requirements. PROTECTION AGAINST VIOLENCE

ENSURING EMPOWERMENT TO RECONCILE THE DUTIES OF A WOMAN TOWARD HER FAMILY AND HER WORK REQUIREMENTS

The state ensures care and protection and care for motherhood and childhood, and for breadwinning, and elderly

women, and women most in need. CARE AND PROTECTION FOR MOTHERHOOD, BREADWINNING, ELDERLY AND MOST IN NEED

Article 53: Equality in public rights and duties

Citizens are equal before the law, possess equal rights and public duties, and may not be discriminated against on the

basis of religion, belief, sex, origin, race, color, language, disability, social class, political or geographical affiliation, or for any

other reason. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

Discrimination and incitement to hate are crimes punishable by law.

The state shall take all necessary measures to eliminate all forms of discrimination, and the law shall regulate the

establishment of an independent commission for this purpose.

Article 74: Freedom to form political parties

Citizens have the right to form political parties by notification as regulated by the law. No political activity may be exercised

or political parties formed on the basis of religion, or discrimination based on sex, origin, sect or geographic location, nor

may any activity be practiced that is hostile to democracy, secretive, or which possesses a military or quasi-military nature.

… DISCRIMINATION BANNED IN POLITICAL PARTIES

Article 87: Citizen participation in public life

The participation of citizens in public life is a national duty. Every citizen has the right to vote, run in elections, and express

their opinion in referendums. The law shall regulate the exercise of these rights. Performance of these duties may be

exempted in cases specified by the law. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 180: Election of local councils

Every local unit elects a local council by direct, secret ballot for a term of four years.

A candidate must be no younger than 21 years old. The law regulates other conditions for candidacy and procedures of

election, provided that one quarter of the seats are allocated to youth under 35 years old, one quarter is allocated for

women, workers and farmers are represented by no less than 50 percent of the total number of seats, and these percentages

include a proper representation of Christians and people with disability. RESERVED SEATS IN LOCAL COUNCIL

Article 214: National Councils

The law specifies independent national councils including the National Council for Human Rights, the National Council for

Women, the National Council for Childhood and Motherhood, and the National Council for Persons with Disability. The law

sets out their structures, mandates, and guarantees for the independence and neutrality of their members. They have the

right to report to the public authorities any violations pertaining to their fields of work.

HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION: “NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR WOMEN” AND “NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR CHILDHOOD AND MOTHERHOOD”

113


EL SALVADOR 1961

Right to vote for election: 1939

Right to stand for election: 1961

First woman in parliament: 1961

Population: 6,470,003

Parliament name: Asamblea legislativa (Legislative

Assembly)

Chamber name: Asamblea legislativa (Legislative Assembly)

Statutory number of members: 84

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Legislated candidate quotas. Political parties must include in their candidate lists for

elections to the Legislative Assembly at least 30% women candidates.

Legal source: Article 37 of the 2013 Law on Political Parties (No. 307)

DATE WOMEN %

2018-06

2018-04

2015-03

2014-03

2014-01

2013

2012-03

2009-01

2006-03

2003-03

2000-03

1999

1998

1997-03

1994-04

1988-05

1985-05

1983-12

1978-04

1974-06

1968-06

1966-06

1964-06

1961-12

26

26

27

23

22

23

22

16

14

9

8

13

14

13

9

7

4

7

4

3

2

6

1

2

30.95%

30.95%

32.14%

27.38%

26.19%

27.38%

26.19%

19.05%

16.67%

10.71%

9.52%

15.48%

16.67%

15.48%

10.71%

11.67%

6.67%

11.67%

7.41%

5.77%

3.85%

11.54%

1.92%

3.7%

CONSTITUTION OF 1983, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2014

114

Article 3

All persons are equal before the law. For the enjoyment of civil rights, no restrictions shall be established that are based

on differences of nationality, race, sex or religion. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

Hereditary offices and privileges are not recognized.


EL SALVADOR 1961

Article 32

The legal foundation of the family is marriage and rests on the juridical equality of the spouses.

… MATRIMONIAL EQUALITY

Article 34

The law shall determine the duties of the State and shall create institutions for the protection of maternity and infancy.

INSTITUTIONS FOR THE PROTECTION OF MATERNITY

Article 38

Labor shall be regulated by a Code which shall have the principal objective of harmonizing the relations between employers

and workers, establishing their rights and obligations. It shall be based on general principles that tend toward the

improvement of the living conditions of workers, and shall include especially the following rights:

1st. In the same business or establishment and under identical circumstances, to equal work shall correspond equal

remuneration for the worker, without regard for his sex, race, creed, or nationality;

10th.

Unhealthy or dangerous work is prohibited for persons under eighteen years of age and women. Night work is also

prohibited for persons under eighteen years old. The law shall define (determinar) dangerous and unhealthful work;

… UNHEALTHY OR DANGEROUS WORK PROHIBITED

Article 42

The working woman shall be entitled to paid rest before and after childbirth, and to the conservation of her

employment. MATERNITY LEAVE

The laws shall regulate the obligation of employers to install and maintain crib rooms and places of custody for the

children of workers.

OBLIGATION OF EMPLOYERS TO INSTALL AND MAINTAIN CRIB ROOMS AND PLACES OF CUSTODY FOR THE CHILDREN OF WORKERS

Article 47

Employers and private employees without distinction of nationality, sex, race, creed or political ideas, whatever their

activity or the nature of the work they complete, have the right to associate freely for the protection of their respective

interests, by forming professional associations or trade unions. Workers in official autonomous institutions, public

officials and employees and the municipal employees shall have the same right.

RIGHT OF EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES TO ASSOCIATE FREELY AND FORM PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS OR TRADE UNIONS

Article 72

The political rights of the citizen are:

1st. The exercise of suffrage; UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 78

The vote shall be free, direct, equal and secret.

UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

EQUAL PAY FOR WORK

115


EQUATORIAL GUINEA 1963

Right to vote and to stand for election: December 15, 1963

First woman in parliament: 1968

Independence: 1968

Population: 1,379,644

Parliament name: Parlamento (Parliament)

Chamber name: Cámara de los Diputados (Chamber of

Deputies)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 100

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2019-03

2017-12

2014-01

2013-05

2011

2010

2008-05

2004-04

1999-03

1993-11

1988-07

1968-09

21

20

24

22

6

10

6

14

4

6

8

2

21%

20%

24%

22%

6%

10%

6%

14%

5%

7.5%

13.33%

5.71%

Chamber name: Senado (Senate)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 70

Directly elected members (55)

Appointed members (15): appointed by the President.

Others (2): two ex officio members. The statutory number of

the Senate is 70. However, the Senate may comprise

ex-officio members, whose number varies during the

legislature. The total number of senators may thus be higher

than 70.

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2019-03

2017-12

2017-01

2016-12

2014-12

2014-01

2013-05

12

11

12

11

10

8

10

16.67%

15.28%

16.44%

15.71%

13.7%

10.67%

13.16%

Prior to independence, under Spanish administration, the Basic Law, adopted on 15 December 1963 introduced the right to

vote for women as well as limited autonomy and self-government. This right was confirmed at independence.

CONSTITUTION OF 1991, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2012

Article 2

Sovereignty belongs to the people, who exercise it by way of universal suffrage. From it emanate the public powers that are

exercised in the conditions determined by this Fundamental Law and other laws. No fraction of the people or individual shall

attribute itself the exercise of National Sovereignty. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 5

The fundamentals of the Equatoguinean society are:

c. The recognition of equality between men and women.

… EQUALITY

116

Article 13

1. Every citizen enjoys the following rights and freedoms.


EQUATORIAL GUINEA 1963

c. To equality before the law. The woman, irrespective of her civil status, shall have the same rights and opportunities as

men in all aspects of public, private and familiar life, in civil, political, economic, social and cultural life.

… SAME RIGHTS AND OPPORTUNITIES IN PUBLIC, PRIVATE AND FAMILIAR LIFE, IN CIVIL, POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL LIFE

2. On the basis of the principle of equality of the women before the law, the public powers will adopt legal initiatives and

mechanisms to favor the adequate representation and participation of the Woman in the performance of offices (cargos)

and other functions in all institutions of the State.

… ADEQUATE REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION IN PUBLIC OFFICES AND IN ALL INSTITUTIONS

Article 15

1. Any act of partiality or discrimination duly found on the basis of tribe, ethnicity, gender, religion, social, political or other

analogous motives is punishable by law. DISCRIMINATION BANNED: PUNISHABLE BY LAW

Article 56

1. The Deputies and Senators are elected for a mandate of five years through universal, direct, and secret suffrage in general

elections… UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

117


ERITREA 1955

Right to vote and to stand for election: November 4, 1955

First woman in parliament: 1994

Independence: 1993

Population: 3,520,036

Parliament name: Hagerawi Baito (National Assembly)

Chamber name: Hagerawi Baito (National Assembly)

Statutory number of members: 150

Indirectly elected

The National Assembly, established in 1994, was set up for an interim period of four years, pending the adoption of a

constitution and the holding of elections. It comprised 150 members. The National Assembly ratified the Constitution in

1997. It was supposed to enter into force after National Assembly elections, scheduled for 1997. However, the elections were

postponed indefinitely. The National Assembly has not met since February 2002.

Electoral quota for women: Yes. 30% of seats are reserved for women; and women can run for the remaining 70% of seats.

Legal source: Electoral Law, Article 12.4

DATE WOMEN %

2014-04

2011

2010

1994-02

33

22

33

22

22%

20.95%

22%

20.95%

Prior to independence while being a part of Ethiopia, women were granted the right to vote on 4 November 1955 as in the

rest of Ethiopia. This right was confirmed at independence.

CONSTITUTION OF 1997

Preamble

Noting the fact that the Eritrean women's heroic participation in the struggle for independence, human rights and solidarity,

based on equality and mutual respect, generated by such struggle will serve as an unshakable foundation for our

commitment to create a society in which women and men shall interact on the bases of mutual respect, solidarity and

equality; MUTUAL RESPECT, SOLIDARITY AND EQUALITY

Article 5: Gender Reference

Without consideration to the wording of any provision in this Constitution with reference to gender, all of its articles shall

apply equally to both genders. ARTICLES OF CONSTITUTION APPLY EQUALLY TO BOTH GENDERS

118

Article 7: Democratic Principles

2. Any act that violates the human rights of women or limits or otherwise thwarts their role and participation is

prohibited.

PROHIBITED ACT THAT VIOLATES THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF WOMEN OR LIMITS

OR OTHERWISE THWARTS THEIR ROLE AND PARTICIPATION


ERITREA 1955

Article 14: Equality under the Law

2. No person may be discriminated against on account of race, ethnic origin, language, color, gender, religion, disability,

age, political view, or social or economic status or any other improper factors. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

Article 22: Family

2. Men and women of full legal age shall have the right, upon their consent, to marry and to found a family freely, without

any discrimination and they shall have equal rights and duties as to all family affairs.

… MARRIAGE BASED ON FREE WILL MATRIMONIAL EQUALITY

119


ESTONIA 1918

Right to vote and to stand for election: November 24, 1918

First woman in parliament: 1919

Independence: 1991

Population: 1,326,202

Parliament name: Riigikogu (The Estonian Parliament)

Chamber name: Riigikogu (The Estonian Parliament)

Statutory number of members: 101

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2019-03

2018-12

2016-12

2015-03

2014-12

2011-03

2009-01

2008-01

2007-12

2007-04

2007-03

2003-03

1999-03

1998

1997-11

1995-03

1992-09

1990-03

30

29

27

24

20

19

23

24

21

22

24

19

18

13

11

13

14

6

29.7%

28.71%

26.73%

23.76%

19.8%

18.81%

22.77%

23.76%

20.79%

21.78%

23.76%

18.81%

17.82%

12.87%

10.89%

12.87%

13.73%

5.71%

When Estonia was first independent, in 1918, women were granted the right to vote (by the Election law of the Constituent

Assembly). The first seven women were elected members of Constituent Assembly on 7 April 1919. Under Soviet

administration, women equally had the right to vote and this right was confirmed at independence in 1991. In March 1990

the Soviet Supreme of the SSR of Estonia became the first legislature of Estonia after the restoration of the country's

independence on 20 August 1991.

CONSTITUTION OF 1992, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2015

Article 12

Everyone is equal before the law. No one shall be discriminated against on the basis of nationality, race, color, sex,

language, origin, religion, political or other opinion, property or social status, or on other grounds.

DISCRIMINATION BANNED

120

Article 27

Spouses have equal rights.

MATRIMONIAL EQUALITY


ESWATINI 1968

Right to vote and to stand for election: September 6, 1968

First woman in parliament: 1972

Independence: 1968

Population: 1,154,045

Parliament name: Libandla (Parliament)

Chamber name: House of Assembly

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 69

Directly elected (59). Appointed members (10): appointed

by the Head of State. The Speaker may be designated from

outside parliament and thereby becomes an ex officio

member of parliament.

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Reserved seats (4). The

Constitution requires that women should constitute 30% of

the Parliament (Constitution 2005, Art. 95, par. 1c). At least

half of the nominated members appointed by the King

must be female (Constitution 2005, Art. 95, par. 2a). ‘Where

at the first meeting of the House after any general election

it appears that female members of Parliament will not

constitute at least thirty per cent of the total membership

of Parliament, then, and only then, the provisions of this

section shall apply. […] For the purposes of this section, the

House shall form itself into an electoral college and elect

not more than four women on a regional basis to the House

in accordance with the provisions of section 95(3).’

(Constitution 2005, Art. 86, par. 1, 2)

Legal source: Constitution, art. 86 par. 1, art. 95 par. 1.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-10

2018-09

2013-09

2008-11

2008-10

2007-11

2007-10

2003-10

1987-11

1983-10

1978-10

1972-04

5

2

4

9

8

9

8

7

2

1

3

1

7.25%

2.9%

6.15%

13.85%

12.31%

13.85%

12.31%

10.77%

3.64%

1.82%

5.45%

1.82%

Chamber name: Senate (Senat)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 30

Indirectly elected members (10): elected by the House of

Assembly, at least half of whom shall be women.

Appointed members (20): appointed by the Head of State, at

least eight of whom shall be women.

The Senate shall comprise not more than 31 members.

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Reserved seats (10). At least

half of the 10 senators elected by members of the chamber

shall be female. At least eight of the twenty Senators

appointed by the King should be female.

Legal source: Constitution 2005, Art. 94 par. 2, 3.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-10

2013-10

2008-10

2003-10

1998-10

1993-09

1983-10

1972-04

7

10

12

9

4

6

3

1

23.33%

33.33%

40%

30%

13.33%

20%

15%

5%

Following the proclamation by the King on the occasion of the country’s 50th anniversary in April 2018, the country name

has been modified from Swaziland to Eswatini with effective of 30 May 2018.

121


ESWATINI 1968

CONSTITUTION OF 2005

14. Fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual

1. The fundamental human rights and freedoms of the individual enshrined in this Chapter are hereby declared and

guaranteed, namely:

f. respect for rights of the family, women, children, workers and persons with disabilities.

3. A person of whatever gender, race, place of origin, political opinion, colour, religion, creed, age or disability shall be

entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual contained in this Chapter but subject to respect for the

rights and freedoms of others and for the public interest. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

15. Protection of right to life

5. Abortion is unlawful but may be allowed: ABORTION UNLAWFUL

a. on medical or therapeutic grounds including where a doctor certifies that:

i. continued pregnancy will endanger the life or constitute a serious threat to the physical health of the woman;

ii. continued pregnancy will constitute a serious threat to the mental health of the woman;

iii. there is serious risk that the child will suffer from physical or mental defect of such a nature that the child will be

irreparably seriously handicapped;

b. where the pregnancy resulted from rape, incest or unlawful sexual intercourse with a mentally retarded female; or

c. on such other grounds as Parliament may prescribe.

20. Equality before the law

1. All persons are equal before and under the law in all spheres of political, economic, social and cultural life and in every

other respect and shall enjoy equal protection of the law.

2. For the avoidance of any doubt, a person shall not be discriminated against on the grounds of gender, race, colour,

ethnic origin, tribe, birth, creed or religion, or social or economic standing, political opinion, age or disability.

3. For the purposes of this section, “discriminate” means to give different treatment to different persons attributable only or

mainly to their respective descriptions by gender, race, colour, ethnic origin, birth, tribe, creed or religion, or social or

economic standing, political opinion, age or disability. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

27. Rights and protection of the family

MARRIAGE BASED ON FREE WILL

2. Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.

4. Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance by society and the State.

… SPECIAL CARE AND ASSISTANCE DURING MOTHERHOOD

RESPECT FOR RIGHTS OF WOMEN

28. Rights and freedoms of women EQUAL TREATMENT AND OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ACTIVITIES

1. Women have the right to equal treatment with men and that right shall include equal opportunities in political,

economic and social activities.

2. Subject to the availability of resources, the Government shall provide facilities and opportunities necessary to enhance the

welfare of women to enable them to realise their full potential and advancement.

WELFARE TO REALISE FULL POTENTIAL AND ADVANCEMENT

3. A woman shall not be compelled to undergo or uphold any custom to which she is in conscience opposed.

NOT COMPELLED TO UNDERGO OR UPHOLD ANY CUSTOM

32. Rights of workers

3. The employer of a female worker shall accord that worker protection before and after child birth in accordance with

law. PROTECTION BEFORE AND AFTER CHILD BIRTH

59. Economic objectives

5. The State shall afford equality of economic opportunity to all citizens and, in particular, the State shall take all necessary

steps so as to ensure the full integration of women into the mainstream of economic development.

… FULL INTEGRATION INTO THE MAINSTREAM OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

122


ESWATINI 1968

60. Social objectives

4. The State shall ensure gender balance and fair representation of marginalized groups in all constitutional and other

other bodies. GENDER BALANCE AND FAIR REPRESENTATION IN ALL CONSTITUTIONAL AND OTHER BODIES

84. Right to representation

2. Without derogating from the generality of the foregoing subsection, the women of Swaziland and other marginalized

groups have a right to equitable representation in Parliament and other public structures.

RIGHT TO EQUITABLE REPRESENTATION IN PARLIAMENT AND OTHER PUBLIC STRUCTURES

86. Representation of women

1. Where at the first meeting of the House after any general election it appears that female members of Parliament will not

constitute at least thirty percentum of the total membership of Parliament, then, and only then, the provisions of this

section shall apply. GENDER QUOTA IN PARLIAMENT

2. For the purposes of this section, the House shall form itself into an electoral college and elect not more than four women

on a regional basis to the House in accordance with the provisions of section 95(3). RESERVED SEATS IN THE HOUSE

94. Senate

1. The Senate shall consist of not more than thirty-one members (in this Constitution referred to as “Senators”) who shall be

elected or appointed in accordance with this section.

2. Ten Senators, at least half of whom shall be female, shall be elected by the members of the House in such manner as

may be prescribed by or under any law at their first meeting so as to represent a crosssection of the Swazi society.

3. Twenty Senators, at least eight of whom shall be female, shall be appointed by the King acting in his discretion after

consultation with such bodies as the King may deem appropriate. RESERVED SEATS IN THE SENATE

95. House of Assembly

3. The members elected on a regional basis, under subsection (1)(c), shall continue to be so elected, whenever the provisions

of section 86 (1) are true, in terms of the following paragraphs.

a. at the instance of the Chairman of the Elections and Boundaries Commission, the elected members from each Region shall

on their first meeting nominate not less than three and not more than five women from each Region qualified to be

members of Parliament; RESERVED SEATS IN THE HOUSE

b. the list of nominated candidates shall be published in at least two local newspapers and the electronic media on at least

three consecutive days; and

c. after ten days from the date of last publication the House shall meet to vote for one woman from each of the Regions,

taking into consideration any relevant in-put in terms of paragraph (b).

121. Regulation of procedure in Parliament

1. Subject to the provisions of this Constitution .

a. each chamber of Parliament may make Standing Orders with respect to:

vii. the nomination or election of women in the House under section 95;

211. Land

2. Save as may be required by the exigencies of any particular situation, a citizen of Swaziland, without regard to gender,

shall have equal access to land for normal domestic purposes.

… EQUAL ACCESS TO LAND FOR NORMAL DOMESTIC PURPOSES

123


ETHIOPIA 1955

Right to vote and to stand for election: November 4, 1955

First woman in parliament: 1957

Independence: 1941

Population: 113,522,070

Parliament name: Federal Parliamentary Assembly

Chamber name: Yehizb Tewokayoch Mekir Bete (House

of Peoples' Representatives)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 547

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes.

Legal source: Constitution, art. 54 (3).

DATE WOMEN %

2015-06

2010-05

2005-10

2000-05

1995-05

1987-06

1962-01

1957-10

212

152

116

42

11

1

4

2

38.76%

27.79%

22.05%

7.68%

2.05%

0.12%

1.9%

0.95%

Chamber name: Yefedereshein Mekir Bete (House of the

Federation)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 153

Indirectly elected members (153). The State Councils may

either indirectly elect members of the House of the

Federation or organize direct elections.

Electoral quota for women: Yes. No current measures in place.

However the Growth and Transformation Plan foresees some

initiatives. There is a plan to increase the number of women

at the end of the Growth and Transformation Plan to 50:50

women/men.

DATE WOMEN %

2015-10

2010-05

2005-05

2000-05

1995-06

1957-10

49

22

21

8

7

0

32.03%

16.3%

18.75%

7.14%

6.48%

0%

Senedu Gebru (1916–2009) was an Ethiopian educator, writer and politician. In 1957, she became one of two first Ethiopian

woman elected to the Parliament (Kathleen Sheldon, “Historical Dictionary of Women in Sub-Saharan Africa”).

CONSTITUTION OF 1994

Article 7: Gender Reference

ARTICLES OF CONSTITUTION APPLY EQUALLY TO BOTH GENDERS

Provisions of this Constitution set out in the masculine gender shall also apply to the feminine gender.

Article 34: Marital, Personal and Family Rights

1. Men and women, without any distinction as to race, nation, nationality or religion, who have attained marriageable age as

defined by law, have the right to marry and found a family. They have equal rights while entering into, during marriage

and at the time of divorce. Laws shall be enacted to ensure the protection of rights and interests of children at the time of

divorce. MATRIMONIAL EQUALITY

2. Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.

… MARRIAGE BASED ON FREE WILL

124

Article 35: Rights of Women

EQUAL RIGHTS

1. Women shall, in the enjoyment of rights and protections provided for by this Constitution, have equal right with men.

2. Women have equal rights with men in marriage as prescribed by this Constitution. MATRIMONIAL EQUALITY

3. The historical legacy of inequality and discrimination suffered by women in Ethiopia taken into account, women, in order

to remedy this legacy, are entitled to affirmative measures. The purpose of such measures shall be to provide special

attention to women so as to enable them compete and participate on the basis of equality with men in political, social


ETHIOPIA 1955

and economic life as well as in public and private institutions.

COMPETE AND PARTICIPATE ON THE BASIS OF EQUALITY IN POLITICAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC LIFE, IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS

4. The State shall enforce the right of women to eliminate the influences of harmful customs. Laws, customs and

practices that oppress or cause bodily or mental harm to women are prohibited.

BODILY OR MENTAL HARM AND OPPRESSION BANNED

5. a. Women have the right to maternity leave with full pay. The duration of maternity leave shall be determined by law

taking into account the nature of the work, the health of the mother and the well-being of the child and family.

b. Maternity leave may, in accordance with the provisions of law, include prenatal leave with full pay.

MATERNITY LEAVE

6. Women have the right to full consultation in the formulation of national development policies, the designing and

execution of projects, and particularly in the case of projects affecting the interests of women.

FULL CONSULTATION IN THE FORMULATION OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICIES

7. Women have the right to acquire, administer, control, use and transfer property. In particular, they have equal rights

with men with respect to use, transfer, administration and control of land. They shall also enjoy equal treatment in the

inheritance of property. RIGHT TO ACQUIRE, ADMINISTER, CONTROL, USE AND TRANSFER PROPERTY, IN PARTICULAR LAND

8. Women shall have a right to equality in employment, promotion, pay, and the transfer of pension entitlements.

EQUAL PAY FOR WORK

EQUAL RIGHTS TO WORK

TRANSFER OF PENSION ENTITLEMENTS

9. To prevent harm arising from pregnancy and childbirth and in order to safeguard their health, women have the right of

access to family planning education, information and capacity.

ACCESS TO FAMILY PLANNING EDUCATION, INFORMATION AND CAPACITY

Article 38: The Right to Vote and to be Elected

1. Every Ethiopian national, without any discrimination based on colour, race, nation, nationality, language, religion,

political or other opinion or other status, has the following rights:

a. To take part in the conduct of public affairs, directly and through freely chosen representatives;

b. On the attainment of 18 years of age, to vote in accordance with law;

UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

c. To vote and to be elected at periodic elections to any office at any level of government; elections shall be by universal and

equal suffrage and shall be held by secret ballot, guaranteeing the free expression of the will of the electors.

Article 42: Rights of Labour

1…

d. Women workers have the right to equal pay for equal work.

EQUAL PAY FOR WORK

Article 89: Economic Objectives

7. Government shall ensure the participation of women in equality with men in all economic and social development

endeavours. PARTICIPATION IN EQUALITY IN ALL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ENDEAVOURS

125


FIJI 1963

Right to vote and to stand for election: April 17, 1963

Right to stand for election: May 5, 1963

First woman in parliament: 1970

Independence: 1970

Population: 892,910

Parliament name: Parliament

Chamber name: Parliament

Statutory number of members: 51

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-11

2015-07

2014-10

2006-05

2001-08

1999-05

1994-02

1992-05

1987-05

1977-04

1972-05

10

8

7

8

5

8

3

1

0

1

2

19.61%

16%

14%

11.27%

7.04%

11.27%

4.29%

1.43%

0%

1.92%

3.85%

Prior to independence, under British administration, women were granted the right to vote on 17 April 1963. This right was

confirmed at independence. In 1966, Losalini Raravuya Dovi was nominated by the Great Council of Chiefs to be a member

of the Legislative Council. Alongside Loloma Livingston and Irene Jai Narayan, who had both been elected, she became one

of the first three female members, and the first ethnic Fijian women to be a member of the Council (Brij V. Lal, “Fiji Before the

Storm: Elections and the Politics of Development”).

CONSTITUTION OF 2013

Article 23. Political rights

3. Every citizen who has reached the age of 18 years has the right:

a. to be registered as a voter; UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

b. to vote by secret ballot in any election or referendum under this Constitution;

c. to be a candidate for public office, or office within a political party of which the citizen is a member, subject to satisfying

any qualifications for such an office; and

d. if elected, to hold office.

126

Article 26. Right to equality and freedom from discrimination

3. A person must not be unfairly discriminated against, directly or indirectly on the grounds of his or her:

a. actual or supposed personal characteristics or circumstances, including race, culture, ethnic or social origin, colour, place

of origin, sex, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, birth, primary language, economic or social or

health status, disability, age, religion, conscience, marital status or pregnancy; DISCRIMINATION BANNED


FINLAND 1906

Right to vote and to stand for election: July 20, 1906

First woman in parliament: 1907

Independence: 1917

Population: 5,537,516

Parliament name: Eduskunta - Riksdagen (Parliament)

DATE WOMEN %

2019-12

2019-04

2018-02

2016-12

2015-04

2011-04

2009-01

2008-01

2007-12

2007-03

2006-01

2003-03

2001

2000

1999-03

1995-03

1991-03

1987-03

1983-03

1979-03

1975-09

1972-01

1966-03

1962-02

1954-03

1945-03

1907-03

92

94

83

84

83

85

80

84

83

84

76

75

74

73

74

67

78

63

61

52

46

43

33

28

30

18

19

46%

47%

41.5%

42%

41.5%

42.5%

40%

42%

41.5%

42%

38%

37.5%

37%

36.5%

37%

33.5%

39%

31.5%

30.5%

26%

23%

21.5%

16.5%

14%

15%

9%

9.5%

Chamber name: Eduskunta - Riksdagen (Parliament)

Statutory number of members: 200

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No.

First female Parliamentarians in the world were elected in Finland in 1907: 13 of

19 MPs. Conservative parliamentarians wear black tops, while social democrats

wear white (National Board of Antiquities, Archives for Prints and Photographs).

Finland was the first country in the world to adopt both fundamental democratic rights (right to vote and right to stand for

election) in 1906. It also elected the world's first female members of parliament the following year on 15 and 16 March 1907.

CONSTITUTION OF 1999, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2011

Chapter 2: Basic rights and liberties

Section 6: Equality

Everyone is equal before the law.

No one shall, without an acceptable reason, be treated differently from other persons on the ground of sex, age, origin,

language, religion, conviction, opinion, health, disability or other reason that concerns his or her person.

… DISCRIMINATION BANNED

127


FINLAND 1906

Equality of the sexes is promoted in societal activity and working life, especially in the determination of pay and the

other terms of employment, as provided in more detail by an Act.

EQUALITY PROMOTED IN SOCIETAL ACTIVITY AND WORKING LIFE EQUAL PAY FOR WORK EQUAL RIGHTS TO WORK

Section 14: Electoral and participatory rights

Every Finnish citizen who has reached eighteen years of age has the right to vote in national elections and referendums.

Specific provisions in this Constitution shall govern the eligibility to stand for office in national elections.

UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

The first women Members of Parliament in Finland, 1907-1908

Aura Korppi-Tommola (Courtesy of Kansallisbiografia, Helsinki)

Nineteen women were elected as Members of Parliament in the first Finnish parliamentary elections in 1907. Nine of these

women were from the Social Democratic Party, while ten were from centrist and right-wing parties. The women worked

within their own parties to improve women's status and promote social welfare legislation, but they also participated in

other legislative work. They thus began a tradition that lives on today: Finnish women have not shown an interest in a

separate party for women. The first women MPs were active in many fields. Many of them were also public figures eagerly

recruited by the parties as their candidates.

The Social Democratic Party

Iida Aalle-Teljo (1885–1955)

Businesswoman Ida Aalle-Teljo was one of the founders of the Workers' Party and an important ideologue. She established

the Federation of Women Workers and was its chairwoman. Following the Finnish Civil War in 1918, Aalle-Teljo fled to Soviet

Russia. After returning to Finland the next year, she was imprisoned until 1922. Aalle-Teljo later ran a lodging house in Kotka

and was a member of the local City Council.

Anni Huotari (1874–1943)

Anni Huotari attended primary school and craft school. She went on to work as a craft teacher in Parkano and as a seamstress

in Vyborg. Huotari held elected positions in the Federation of Social Democratic Women and was the secretary of the

Seamstresses' Union. From 1918 to 1922, Huotari was a political prisoner with an influential role among those defeated in the

Civil War.

Mimmi Kanervo (1870–1922)

Mimmi Kanervo, previously a servant, went on to become the secretary of the Finnish Domestic and Restaurant Workers'

Union. After being imprisoned in 1918 in the aftermath of the Civil War, she was a lecturer for her party's women's

organisation.

Jenny Nuotio (later Upari) (1882–1948)

Jenny Nuotio, a weaver and the wife of a policeman, lived in Vyborg, the rural municipality of Vyborg and Sipoo. She was the

secretary and treasurer of the Federation of Women Workers and became the youngest member of the first Parliament. After

getting married, Nuotio abandoned politics, but following the death of her husband, she rejoined the weavers' trade union.

Maria Paaso-Laine (1868–1945)

Maria Paaso-Laine, a seamstress and a party official, had three children. She supported public funding for poor relief and the

recruitment of midwives and was a proponent of general compulsory education. Paaso-Laine attracted attention for her

fashionable, upper-class style of dress which reflected her eagerness to advance socially from the working class to the

middle class. On the other hand, she may have used the way she dressed to protest against the remnants of class society, in

which people were labelled also on the basis of their clothes.

Hilja Pärssinen (1876–1935)

Hilja Pärssinen, a primary school teacher and the daughter of a clergyman, sought to improve the living conditions of

disadvantaged people. Her work later took a radical turn: in 1918 she became a member of a revolutionary government

known as the Council of People's Representatives. In spring 1918, Pärssinen fled to Russia. She returned to Finland in 1919

and was imprisoned for several years. After her release, she worked as a secondary school teacher and served in Parliament

for one term.

Maria Raunio (1872–1911)

Maria Raunio was a seamstress, an official and active member of the workers' movement, and a member of the Social

Democratic Party. She had seven children. Raunio was a vociferous supporter of disadvantaged people. She was excluded

from the party's list of candidates in 1910 because of internal disagreements. Raunio then emigrated to the United States,

where she was an agitator for the workers' movement before her death.

128


FINLAND 1906

Sandra Lehtinen (Aleksandra) (1873–1954)

A servant, a seamstress and a political agitator, Sandra Lehtinen was a passionate supporter of the workers' movement and

a party official. She lived in Soviet Russia from 1919 to 1921 and was imprisoned from 1929 to 1931 for her political views.

Subsequently, she lived almost a decade in Moscow and did not return to Finland until 1945.

Miina Sillanpää (1866–1952)

Journalist Miina Sillanpää was an early advocate of women's trade union rights and a staunch supporter of social welfare

legislation. She was the first woman government minister, appointed in the 1920s. Thanks to this status and her exceptional

cooperation skills, Sillanpää became a symbol of equality for the whole nation. She later established a home for unmarried

mothers in Helsinki.

The Finnish Party

Eveliina Ala-Kulju (1867–1940)

Eveliina Alakulju, a farmer's wife from south-western Finland, attended primary school and completed a course for travelling

school teachers. She went on to teach at travelling schools in Kuortane and Karstula for five years, and also worked as a

shopkeeper. After marrying her second husband Aleksanteri Ala-Kulju, she ran a farm with him.

Hedvig Gebhard (1867–1961)

Hedvig Gebhard was a writer for the Swedish- and Finnish-language editions of Pellervo magazine. She was a founder of

Kotiliesi magazine and a pioneer in home economics instruction. In 1937 Gebhard was awarded the Finnish honorific title of

talousneuvos for accomplishments in the field of economics.

Aleksandra Gripenberg (1857–1913)

Writer Aleksandra Gripenberg was a prominent advocate of women's rights. She became well-known as the long-time

chairwoman of the Finnish Women's Association and as a founder and treasurer of the International Council of Women

before Finnish women's organisations began to cooperate with international partners. Gripenberg's views on equality were

rooted in the 19th century, and she therefore found it difficult to accept the idea of universal suffrage.

Liisi Kivioja (1859–1925)

Liisi Kivioja originally worked as a primary school teacher in the Ostrobothnia area along the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia.

After serving in Parliament, she became the head of a trade school for elderly blind people in Kuopio. From 1918 to 1925,

Kivioja was the manager of the Kalajoki branch of the Kansallis-Osake-Pankki bank. Such managerial positions were rarely

held by women at the time.

Hilda Käkikoski 1864–1912

Hilda Käkikoski was a history teacher at the Finnish Coeducational School in Helsinki and the vice-chair of the Finnish

Women's Association. As a Member of Parliament, Käkikoski campaigned for a woman's right to hold State posts and for

equal pay.

Hilma Räsänen (1877–1955)

Primary school teacher Hilma Räsänen was a well-known lecturer for Friends of Temperance and the Finnish Women's

Association. She opposed the establishment of a separate women's organisation within her party. Räsänen worked for

women's causes and ran a rest home for women in Askola. After briefly serving in Parliament, she worked as a primary school

teacher. She later defected to the Agrarian Party, which was established in 1908.

Iida Vemmelpuu (1868–1924)

Iida Vemmelpuu was a primary school teacher and the head of a folk high school. She supported popular enlightenment in

line with the ideology of the Fennoman movement. She was particularly influential in Huittinen, where she served on the

municipal council and held positions in the local youth association and women's association. Her ideology was based on

strong Christian ethics.

The Young Finns' party

Lucina Hagman (1853–1946)

Headteacher Lucina Hagman supported the radical wing of the women's movement in the 19th century. She was a founder

and chairwoman of the Union Women's Rights Federation in Finland. Hagman believed that coeducation would lead to

greater respect between men and women. Hagman was the head of the Finnish Coeducational School in Helsinki from 1886

to 1899. She then became the head of the New Finnish Coeducational School in Helsinki, which she herself had established,

and held that post until 1938. She was the first Finnish woman to be awarded the title of professor, in 1928.

129


FINLAND 1906

Alli Nissinen (1866–1926)

Headteacher, writer Alli Nissinen was a leading figure in the Martta Organisation and the Union Women’s Rights Federation

in Finland. She was the head of a preparatory school in Helsinki and wrote books, plays and poetry for children and young

people.

The Swedish People's Party

Dagmar Neovius (1867–1939)

Teacher, actuary Dagmar Neovius was one of the founders of the Martta Organisation and the Swedish-language Martta

Association. She was also a member of the Women's Kagal, which actively opposed the oppressive policies of the Russians.

Neovius was one of the non-socialist MPs who supported social welfare legislation.

Literature and sources

Ahtisaari, Eeva et al.

1997. Yksi kamari, kaksi sukupuolta. Suomen eduskunnan ensimmäiset naiset. Eduskunnan kirjasto, Helsinki.

Kansallisbiografia 1-6

2003-05. Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura.

www.kansallisbiografia.fi

130


FRANCE 1944

Right to vote and to stand for election: April 21, 1944

First woman in parliament: 1945

Population: 67,715,721

Parliament name: Parlement (Parliament)

Chamber name: Assemblée nationale (National

Assembly)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 577

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. The principle of equal

access is enshrined in the Constitution. Adjustment of

public financial assistance to parties according to the

electoral standing they accord to women. The law provides

for alternation between male and female candidates on the

electoral lists. No reserved seats.

Legal source: Constitution and the electoral laws.

Chamber name: Sénat (Senate)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 348

Indirectly elected: indirect election by popularly chosen

departmental electoral colleges.

Electoral quota for women: Yes. The principle of equal access

is enshrined in the Constitution. Adjustment of public

financial assistance to parties according to the electoral

standing they accord to women. The law provides for

alternation between male and female candidates on the

electoral lists. No reserved seats.

Legal source: Constitution and the electoral laws.

DATE WOMEN %

2019-12

2018-12

2018-08

2017-07

2017-06

2016-12

2014-01

2012-01

2011-01

2010-01

2007-06

2007-01

2002-06

1997-06

1993-03

1988-06

1986-03

1981-06

1978-03

1973-03

1968-06

1967-03

1958-11

1956-01

1951-06

1947

1946-11

1946-06

1945-10

228

229

228

225

224

149

151

155

107

109

107

105

71

63

37

40

38

35

21

13

10

11

9

19

23

43

30

43

33

39.51%

39.69%

39.58%

38.99%

38.82%

25.82%

26.17%

26.86%

18.54%

18.89%

18.54%

18.29%

12.37%

10.92%

6.41%

6.93%

6.59%

7.13%

4.28%

2.65%

2.05%

2.26%

1.54%

3.19%

3.67%

6.96%

5.12%

6.96%

5.63%

DATE WOMEN %

2019-12

2018-12

2017-09

2016-12

2014-09

2014-01

2013-01

2011-09

2008-09

2007-01

2004-09

2001-09

1998-09

1995-09

1992-09

1989-09

1983-09

1980-09

1977-09

1974-09

1971-09

1959-04

1958-06

1951-05

1948-11

1946-12

116

112

102

95

87

78

87

77

75

60

56

35

19

18

16

10

9

7

5

7

4

5

6

9

12

21

33.33%

32.18%

29.31%

27.3%

25%

22.48%

25%

22.13%

21.87%

18.18%

16.92%

10.94%

5.92%

5.61%

4.98%

3.12%

2.84%

2.3%

1.69%

2.47%

1.41%

1.63%

1.91%

2.82%

3.75%

6.69%

131


FRANCE 1944

In 1943, Marthe Caillaud Simard (1901-1993) and Lucie Bernard Samuel (1912-2007, known as Lucie Aubrac) were nominated

to the Assemblée consultative provisoire (Provisional Consultative Assembly), which was an assembly of representatives of

the different factions of the French Resistance during the Second World War (Nicolas Boring).

CONSTITUTION OF 1958, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2008

ARTICLE 1

France shall be an indivisible, secular, democratic and social Republic. It shall ensure the equality of all citizens before the law,

without distinction of origin, race or religion. It shall respect all beliefs. It shall be organised on a decentralized basis.

Statutes shall promote equal access by women and men to elective offices and posts as well as to position of

professional and social responsibility.

EQUAL ACCESS TO ELECTIVE OFFICES AND POSTS AS WELL AS TO POSITION OF PROFESSIONAL AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

ARTICLE 3

National sovereignty shall vest in the people, who shall exercise it through their representatives and by means of

referendum.

No section of the people nor any individual may arrogate to itself, or to himself, the exercise thereof.

Suffrage may be direct or indirect as provided for by the Constitution. It shall always be universal, equal and secret.

All French citizens of either sex who have reached their majority and are in possession of their civil and political rights may

vote as provided for by statute. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

132


GABON 1956

Right to vote and to stand for election: May 23, 1956

First woman in parliament: 1961

Independence: 1960

Population: 2,200,488

Parliament name: Parlement (Parliament)

Chamber name: Assemblée nationale (National

Assembly)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 143

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No.

Chamber name: Sénat (Senate)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 102

Indirectly elected members by municipal councils and

departmental assemblies.

Electoral quota for women: No

DATE WOMEN %

2018-10

2016-12

2014-12

2014-01

2011-12

2010-01

2008-01

2007-01

2006-12

2000-01

1996-12

1990-12

1985-02

1980-02

1973-02

1964-04

1961-02

24

20

17

18

15

17

15

20

15

11

10

7

16

13

3

0

1

17.91%

17.09%

14.17%

15%

13.27%

14.66%

12.5%

16.67%

12.5%

9.17%

8.33%

5.88%

13.33%

13.98%

4.29%

0%

1.49%

DATE WOMEN %

2019-02

2015-04

2014-12

2014-01

2012-01

2011-01

2010-01

2009-01

2004-01

2003-02

2003-01

2002-01

2000-01

1997-02

18

18

19

17

18

17

18

17

12

10

12

10

12

10

18%

18.18%

18.63%

16.67%

17.65%

14.17%

17.65%

14.66%

13.19%

10.99%

13.19%

10.99%

13.19%

10.99%

Prior to independence, under French administration, women were granted the right to vote under the Loi-cadre Deferre,

adopted on 23 June 1956. This right was confirmed at independence.

CONSTITUTION OF 1991, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2011

Article 1

The Gabonese Republic recognizes and guarantees the inalienable and imprescriptible human rights, which are necessarily

tied to the public powers:

7°. Each citizen has the duty to work and the right to obtain employment. None may be discriminated against in one’s

work because of his or her origins, sex, race or opinions; RIGHT TO OBTAIN EMPLOYMENT WITHOUT DISCRIMINATION

8°. The State, according to its means, guarantees to all, notably to children, mothers, the handicapped, aged workers and the

elderly the protection of health, social security, a preserved natural environment, rest and leisure;

… PROTECTION OF HEALTH, SOCIAL SECURITY, REST AND LEISURE NOTABLY FOR MOTHERS

133


GABON 1956

Article 2

The Gabonese Republic assures equality for all citizens before the law, making no distinction of origin, race, sex, opinion or

religion. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

The seal of the Republic is a “Mother and Child Nursing”.

Article 4

Suffrage is universal, equal, and secret. It may be direct or indirect, following the provisions of the Constitution or the law.

The polls open for one voting round for all political elections. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

All Gabonese of both sexes, of at least 18 years of age, with their full civil and political rights, are considered voters

according to the conditions provisioned by the Constitution and the law.

All Gabonese of both sexes, with their full civil and political rights, are considered eligible, according to the conditions

provisioned by the Constitution and the law.

… RIGHT TO VOTE AND TO STAND FOR ELECTION

134


GAMBIA 1960

Right to vote and to stand for election: 1960

First woman in parliament: 1968

Independence: 1965

Population: 2,381,900

Parliament name: National Assembly

Chamber name: National Assembly

Statutory number of members: 58

Directly elected (53). Appointed members (5) by the President.

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2017-04

2014-01

2012-03

2011

2009

2007-01

2002-01

1997-01

1987-03

1982-05

1966-05

6

5

4

5

4

5

7

1

4

3

0

10.34%

9.43%

7.55%

9.43%

7.55%

9.43%

13.21%

2.04%

7.84%

6.12%

0%

Prior to independence, under British administration, women were granted the right to vote in 1960. This right was confirmed

at independence. Two women were appointed as nominated members of Parliament: Lucretia St. Clair Joof (1913-1982) in

December 1968 and Louise Antoinette N’Jie (1922-2014) in 1977. In 1982, Nyimasata Sanneh-Bojang (1942-2015) was

elected to the National Assembly (David Perfect, “Historical Dictionary of Gambia”).

CONSTITUTION OF 1996, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2004

17. Fundamental Rights and Freedoms

2. Every person in the Gambia, whatever his or her race, colour, gender, Language, religion, political or other opinion,

National or social origin, property, birth or other status, shall be entitled to the fundamental human rights and freedoms

of the individual contained in this chapter, but subject to respect for the rights and freedoms of others and for the public

interest. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

26. Political rights

Every citizen of The Gambia of full age and capacity shall have the right, without unreasonable restrictions:

b. to vote and stand for elections at genuine periodic elections for public office, which election shall be by universal and

equal suffrage and be held by secret ballot; UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

27. Right to marry

1. Men and women of full age and capacity shall have the right to marry and found a family

2. Marriage shall be based on the free and full consent of the intended parties. MARRIAGE BASED ON FREE WILL

135


GAMBIA 1960

28. Rights of women

1. Women shall be accorded full and equal dignity of the person with men. EQUAL DIGNITY

2. Women shall have the right to equal treatment with men, including equal opportunities in political, economic and

social activities. EQUAL TREATMENT EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ACTIVITIES

33. Protection from Discrimination

4. In this section, the expression "discrimination" means affording different treatment to different persons attributable

wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, colour, gender, language, religion, political or other opinion,

national or social origin, property, birth or other status whereby persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities

or restrictions to which persons of another such description are not made subject, or are accorded privilege or advantages

which are not accorded to persons of another such description. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

214. Political objectives

4. In the composition of the Government, women shall be fairly represented.

REPRESENTATION IN THE GOVERNMENT

215. Economic Objectives

5. The State shall endeavour to ensure equal opportunity and full participation for women in the economic

development of the country. EQUAL OPPORTUNITY AND FULL PARTICIPATION IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE COUNTRY

136


GEORGIA 1918

Right to vote and to stand for election: November 22, 1918

First woman in parliament: 1990

Independence: 1991

Population: 3,992,884

Parliament name: Sakartvelos Parlamenti (Parliament)

Chamber name: Sakartvelos Parlamenti (Parliament)

Statutory number of members: 150

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. The Organic Law on the Political Union of Citizens provides that a political party which has at

least 30% of female members shall receive a 30% bonus over the State Budget finances designated for that party.

Legal source: The Organic Law on the Political Union of Citizens.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-12

2016-11

2014-12

2012-10

2011-01

2010-01

2008-05

2004-03

1999-11

1995-11

1992-10

1990-11

22

24

17

18

9

7

9

22

17

16

14

18

14.77%

16%

11.33%

12%

6%

5.11%

6%

9.36%

7.23%

6.93%

6.31%

7.2%

Article 1 of the Law of 22 November 1918 regarding legislative elections, granting women the right to vote, was adopted by

the National Council and Council of Ministers. The Constitution of 21 February 1921 confirmed this right in Article 46, under

Soviet administration and confirmed again at independence, in 1991. In 1990 the Supreme Soviet of the SSR of Georgia

became the first legislature of Georgia after the country became independent in April 1991. Georgian women were

previously elected to the Supreme Soviet of SSR of Georgia and to the Parliament of the USSR.

After the February 1917 Revolution, the transition from the South Caucasus began with a reform of the local governments.

On 26 May 1918, Georgia declared its independence. On 2 December 1918 Peri-Khan Sofieva (1884-1953) was elected town

councilor in the local elections in her village and shortly after became the candidate of the Georgian Socialist-Federalist

Revolutionary Party in the parliamentary elections held in 1919, after the announcement of the Democratic Republic of

Georgia representing her native region. She became an independent member of the National Assembly, defeating all the

other candidates, and the first female elected member of a parliament in the Muslim world (William Dunbar, Eurasianet).

CONSTITUTION OF 1995, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2013

Article 14

Everyone is born free and is equal before the law regardless of race, colour of skin, language, sex, religion, political or other

opinions, national, ethnic and social affiliation, origin, property or social status, place of residence. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

137


GEORGIA 1918

Article 28

1. Every citizen of Georgia, who has attained the age of 18, shall have the right to participate in referenda and elections of

state and self-government bodies. Free expression of the will of voters shall be guaranteed. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 30

4. Organic law shall define protection of labour rights, fair compensation for work and safe, healthy working conditions, as

well as working conditions for minors and women. SPECIAL WORKING CONDITIONS FOR WOMEN

Article 36

MATRIMONIAL EQUALITY

1. Marriage shall be based on the equality of rights and free will of spouses. MARRIAGE BASED ON FREE WILL

2. The State shall promote family welfare.

3. The rights of mothers and children shall be safeguarded by law. RIGHTS OF MOTHERS SAFEGUARDED BY LAW


GERMANY 1918

Right to vote and to stand for election: November 12, 1918

First woman in parliament: 1919

Population: 83,673,042

Chamber name: Deutscher Bundestag (German

Bundestag)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 598

Directly elected (598). Other members (111): there are 46

overhang seats (Überhangmandate) and 65 balance seats

(Ausgleichsmandate).

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Voluntary political party

quotas.

Legal source: cf. individual party statutes.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-12

2017-09

2016-12

2013-01

2009-09

2005-09

2002-09

1998-09

1997

1994-10

1990-12

219

218

233

230

204

195

194

207

176

177

136

30.89%

30.75%

36.98%

36.98%

32.8%

31.76%

32.17%

30.94%

26.19%

26.34%

20.54%

Chamber name: Bundesrat (Federal Council)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 69

Appointed (69) by local länder governments.

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2016-12

2014-12

2009

1994-10

1990-12

27

28

19

13

10

39.13%

40.58%

27.54%

19.12%

14.71%

First exercised right to vote in 1919. On 6 February 1919 Marie Gohlke Juchacz (1879-1956) and her sister Elisabeth Gohlke

Röhl (1888-1930) were two of the 37 women elected to the Weimar National Assembly (which in June 1920 was superseded

by the national Reichstag, to which Juchacz was also elected). On 19 February, Marie became the first woman to make a

speech before that body, or indeed any German parliament: “Gentlemen and ladies... [interrupted by laughter] This is the first

time that a woman has been allowed to address the people in the parliament on free and equal terms, and I wish to establish

here, entirely objectively, that in Germany as elsewhere, the revolution has overwhelmed the old preconceptions...". When

the Nazis came to power, women lost the right to stand for office.

CONSTITUTION OF 1949, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2014

Article 3: [Equality before the law]

1. All persons shall be equal before the law.

IMPLEMENTATION OF EQUAL RIGHTS AND ELIMINATION OF DISADVANTAGES

2. Men and women shall have equal rights. The state shall promote the actual implementation of equal rights for women

and men and take steps to eliminate disadvantages that now exist.

3. No person shall be favoured or disfavoured because of sex, parentage, race, language, homeland and origin, faith, or

religious or political opinions. No person shall be disfavoured because of disability. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

139


GERMANY 1918

Article 6: [Marriage - Family - Children]

4. Every mother shall be entitled to the protection and care of the community.

… MOTHERS’ PROTECTION AND CARE OF COMMUNITY

Article 12a: [Compulsory military and alternative civilian service]

4. If, during a state of defence, the need for civilian services in the civilian health system or in stationary military hospitals

cannot be met on a voluntary basis, women between the age of eighteen and fifty-five may be called upon to render such

services by or pursuant to a law. Under no circumstances may they be required to render service involving the use of arms.

… ALTERNATIVE CIVILIAN SERVICE DURING A STATE OF DEFENCE

Article 38: [Elections]

1. Members of the German Bundestag shall be elected in general, direct, free, equal and secret elections. They shall be

representatives of the whole people, not bound by orders or instructions, and responsible only to their conscience.

2. Any person who has attained the age of eighteen shall be entitled to vote; any person who has attained the age of

majority may be elected. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

140


GHANA 1954

Right to vote and to stand for election: 1954

First woman in parliament: 1954

Independence: 1957

Population: 30,746,484

Parliament name: Parliament

Chamber name: Parliament

Statutory number of members: 275

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No.

Mabel Ellen Dove Danquah (1905-1984)

DATE WOMEN %

2018-12

2016-12

2012-12

2011-01

2009-01

2008-12

2004-12

1996-12

1992-12

1979-06

1969-09

1960-08

36

35

30

18

19

18

25

18

16

5

2

10

13.09%

12.73%

10.91%

7.83%

8.3%

7.83%

10.87%

9%

8%

3.57%

1.43%

9.62%

Prior to independence, under British administration, women were granted the right to vote in 1954. This right was confirmed

at independence. In 1954, Mabel Ellen Dove Danquah became the first woman elected to parliament in Ghana and was

possibly the first African Woman parliamentarian on the continent (Kathleen Sheldon, “Historical Dictionary of Women in

Sub-Saharan Africa”). Lucy Anin (1939- ) was among the first 10 women to enter the Parliament of Ghana in 1960 under the

representation of the people (women members) act.

CONSTITUTION OF 1992, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 1996

Preamble

IN THE NAME OF THE ALMIGHTY GOD

We the People of Ghana,

IN SOLEMN declaration and affirmation of our commitment to:

The Principle of Universal Adult Suffrage; UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

12. PROTECTION OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

2. Every person in Ghana, whatever his race, place of origin, political opinion, colour, religion, creed or gender shall be

entitled to the fundamental human rights and freedoms of the individual contained in this Chapter but subject to respect

for the rights and freedoms of others and for the public interest. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

141


GHANA 1954

17. EQUALITY AND FREEDOM FROM DISCRIMINATION

2. A person shall not be discriminated against on grounds of gender, race, colour, ethnic origin, religion, creed or social or

economic status. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

3. For the purposes of this article, "discriminate" means to give different treatment to different persons attributable only or

mainly to their respective descriptions by raw, place of origin, political opinions, colour, gender, occupation, religion or

creed, whereby persons of one description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another

description are not made subject or are granted privileges or advantages which are not granted to persons of another

description.

22. PROPERTY RIGHTS OF SPOUSES

1. A spouse shall not be deprived of a reasonable provision out of the estate of a spouse whether or not the spouse died

having made a will.

2. Parliament shall, as soon as practicable after the coming into force of this Constitution, enact legislation regulating the

property rights of spouses.

3. With a view to achieving the full realization of the rights referred to in clause (2) of this article

a. spouses shall have equal access to property jointly acquired during marriage;

b. assets which are jointly acquired during marriage shall be distributed equitably between the spouses upon

dissolution of the marriage. EQUAL ACCESS TO PROPERTY DURING MARRIAGE AND EQUITABLE DISTRIBUTION OF ASSETS AT DISSOLUTION

27. WOMEN'S RIGHTS SPECIAL CARE BEFORE AND AFTER CHILD-BIRTH MATERNITY LEAVE

1. Special care shall be accorded to mothers during a reasonable period before and after child-birth; and during those

periods, working mothers shall be accorded paid leave.

2. Facilities shall be provided for the care of children below school-going age to enable women, who have the traditional

care for children, realise their full potential.

FACILITIES FOR THE CARE OF CHILDREN BELOW SCHOOL-GOING AGE TO ENABLE WOMEN TO REALISE THEIR FULL POTENTIAL

3. Women shall be guaranteed equal rights to training and promotion without any impediments from any person.

EQUAL RIGHTS TO TRAINING AND PROMOTION WITHOUT ANY IMPEDIMENTS

35. POLITICAL OBJECTIVES

DISCRIMINATION BANNED

5. The State shall actively promote the integration of the peoples of Ghana and prohibit discrimination and prejudice on

the grounds of place of origin, circumstances of birth, ethnic origin, gender or religion, creed or other beliefs.

6. Towards the achievement of the objectives stated in clause, (5) of this article, the State shall take appropriate measures to:

b. achieve reasonable regional and gender balance in recruitment and appointment to public offices;

GENDER BALANCE IN RECRUITMENT AND APPOINTMENT TO PUBLIC OFFICES

36. ECONOMIC OBJECTIVES

6. The State shall afford equality of economic opportunity to all citizens; and, in particular, the State shall take all necessary

steps so as to ensure the full integration of women into the mainstream of the economic development of Ghana.

… FULL INTEGRATION INTO THE MAINSTREAM OF THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

42. RIGHT TO VOTE

Every citizen of Ghana of eighteen years of age or above and of sound mind has the right to vote and is entitled to be

registered as a voter for the purposes of public elections and referenda. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

166. NATIONAL MEDIA COMMISSION

1. There shall be established by Act of Parliament within six months after Parliament first meets after the coming into force

of this Constitution, a National Media Commission which shall consist of fifteen members as follows:

a. one representative each nominated by:

ix. the National Council on Women and Development;

… RESERVED SEAT IN NATIONAL MEDIA COMMISSION

297. IMPLIED POWER, ETC

In this Constitution and in any other law:

e. words importing male persons include female persons and corporations.

… IN THE CONSTITUTION WORDS IMPORTING MALE PERSONS INCLUDE FEMALE PERSONS

142


GREECE 1952

DATE WOMEN %

2019-07

2018-08

2016-12

2015-09

2015-01

2012-06

2012-05

2012-01

2009-10

2008-01

2007-12

2007-09

2004-03

2000-04

1996-09

1993-10

1990-04

1989-11

1989-06

1981-10

1977-11

1974-11

1964-02

1963-11

1961-10

1958-05

1956-02

1952-11

1946-03

62

56

55

59

69

63

56

63

52

48

44

48

39

26

19

18

14

12

20

13

10

6

2

1

2

4

2

1

0

20.67%

18.67%

18.33%

19.67%

23%

21%

18.67%

21%

17.33%

16%

14.67%

16%

13%

8.67%

6.33%

6%

4.67%

4%

6.67%

4.33%

3.33%

2%

0.67%

0.33%

0.67%

1.33%

0.67%

0.33%

0%

Chamber name: Vouli Ton Ellinon (Hellenic Parliament)

Statutory number of members: 300

Directly elected

Right to vote and to stand for election: January 1, 1952

First woman in parliament: 1952

Population: 10,448,873

Parliament name: Vouli Ton Ellinon (Hellenic Parliament)

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Legislated candidate quotas. At least one-third (1/3) of the total number of a political party's

candidates in an electoral district must be filled with candidates of each sex.

Legal source: Cf. Electoral Law 3231/2004 and Article 34, paragraph 6, of the Presidential Decree 26/2012.

The Constitution of 1927 provides that all Greek citizens are equal in law and that "political rights can be conferred to women

by law". On 2 January 1930, the Council of State expressed the view that women could have the right to vote in municipal

and communal elections. The Law N° 959 of April 1949 accorded women with the right to stand for office in municipal and

communal elections and the right to vote. The right to vote and to stand for election at the national level was in the

Constitution of 1 January 1952 established. In the same year, Heleni Skoura (1896–1991) became the first woman elected as

a member of the Greek parliament (Theresa Papademetriou).

143


GREECE 1952

CONSTITUTION OF 1975, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2008

Article 4

1. All Greeks are equal before the law.

2. Greek men and women have equal rights and equal obligations.

EQUAL RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS

Article 21

1. The family, being the cornerstone of the preservation and the advancement of the Nation, as well as marriage,

motherhood and childhood, shall be under the protection of the State. MOTHERHOOD UNDER PROTECTION

Article 22

1. Work constitutes a right and shall enjoy the protection of the State, which shall care for the creation of conditions of

employment for all citizens and shall pursue the moral and material advancement of the rural and urban working

population.

All workers, irrespective of sex or other distinctions, shall be entitled to equal pay for work of equal value.

… EQUAL PAY FOR WORK

Article 51

… UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

3. The Members of Parliament shall be elected through direct, universal and secret ballot by the citizens who have the right

to vote, as specified by law. The law cannot abridge the right to vote except in cases where a minimum age has not been

attained or in cases of legal incapacity or as a result of irrevocable criminal conviction for certain felonies.

Article 116

2. Adoption of positive measures for promoting equality between men and women does not constitute discrimination

on grounds of sex. The State shall take measures for the elimination of inequalities actually existing, in particular to the

detriment of women. BANNED DISCRIMINATION ELIMINATION OF INEQUALITIES ACTUALLY EXISTING

144


GRENADA 1951

Right to vote and to stand for election: August 1, 1951

First woman in parliament: 1961

Independence: 1974

Population: 112,188

Parliament name: Parliament

Chamber name: House of Representatives

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 15

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: No.

Chamber name: Senate

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 13

Appointed by the Governor General.

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-03

2013-02

2008-07

2003-11

1999-01

1995-06

1990-03

1984-12

1976-12

1972-01

1962-09

1961-03

7

5

2

4

4

3

2

2

1

3

1

1

46.67%

33.33%

13.33%

26.67%

26.67%

20%

13.33%

13.33%

6.7%

20%

10%

10%

DATE WOMEN %

2018-06

2018-05

2018-04

2013-03

2003-11

1999-01

1990-03

1972-02

4

2

4

2

4

1

2

1

30.77%

15.38%

30.77%

15.38%

30.77%

7.69%

15.38%

7.69%

Prior to independence, under British administration, women were granted the right to vote on 1 August 1951, under British

administration. This right was confirmed at independence. On 27 March 1961, Cynthia Gairy (1923-2018) became the first

woman to be elected to the legislature.

CONSTITUTION OF 1973, REINSTATED IN 1991, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 1992

1. Fundamental rights and freedoms

Whereas every person in Grenada is entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms, that is to say, the right, whatever

his race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed or sex, but subject to respect for the rights and freedoms of others

and for the public interest, to each and all of the following, namely:

a. life, liberty, security of the person and the protection of the law;

b. freedom of conscience, of expression and of assembly and association;

c. protection for the privacy of his home and other property and from deprivation of property without compensation; and

d. the right to work, FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS DISCRIMINATION BANNED

13. Protection from discrimination on the grounds of race, etc

DISCRIMINATION BANNED

3. In this section, the expression “discriminatory” means affording different treatment to different persons attributable

wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed or sex whereby

persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such description are

145


GRENADA 1951

not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages which are not accorded to persons of another such description.

5. Nothing contained in any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of subsection (1) of this section to

the extent that it makes provision with respect to standards or qualifications (not being standards or qualifications

specifically relating to race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed or sex) to be required of any person who is

appointed to or to act in any office in the public service. Any office in a disciplined force, any office in the service of a local

government authority or in any office in a body corporate established by law for public purposes.

… DISCRIMINATION BANNED

146


GUATEMALA 1985

Right to vote and to stand for election: 1985

First woman in parliament: 1954

Population: 17,749,852

Parliament name: Congreso de la República (Congress of

the Republic)

Chamber name: Congreso de la República (Congress of the Republic)

Statutory number of members: 160

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Voluntary political party quotas.

Legal source: cf. individual party statutes.

DATE WOMEN %

2019-06

2018-12

2016-12

2015-11

2011-09

2007-09

2003-11

2001-01

2000-01

1999-11

1995-11

1990-11

1985-11

1974-03

1970-03

1966-03

1955-12

1954-10

31

30

20

22

21

19

13

8

10

8

10

6

7

2

1

1

0

1

19.38%

18.99%

12.66%

13.92%

13.29%

12.03%

8.23%

7.08%

8.85%

7.08%

12.5%

5.17%

7%

4%

2.04%

1.82%

0%

1.52%

According to the Electoral Law of 1946, suffrage was optional and secret for women, but obligatory for men and the right to

stand for election was restricted to literate women. The 1956 Constitution made the vote obligatory for all literate women

but maintained discrimination against illiterate women in that they could not stand for election. The 1965 Constitution

extended the right to be elected to all citizens, yet the vote was still not compulsory for illiterate women. The Constitution of

1985 extended the right to vote to all citizens and established equality between the sexes.

CONSTITUTION OF 1985, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 1993

Article 4: Freedom and Equality

EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

In Guatemala[,] all [of the] human beings are free and equal in dignity and rights. The man and the woman, whatever their

civil status may be, have equal opportunities and responsibilities. No person can be subject to servitude or to another

condition that diminishes his or her dignity. The human beings must exercise [guardar] brotherly behavior among them.

Article 18: Death Penalty DEATH PENALTY

The death penalty may not be imposed in the following cases:

147


GUATEMALA 1985

b. On women;

DEATH PENALTY MAY NOT BE IMPOSED

Article 47: Protection of the Family

The State guarantees the social, economic, and juridical protection of the family. It will promote its organization on the legal

basis of marriage, the equal rights of the spouses, [the] responsible paternity and the right of the persons to decide freely

the number and the spacing [espaciamiento] of their children. MATRIMONIAL EQUALITY

Article 52: Maternity

The [state of] maternity has the protection of the State, which in special form will see to the strict compliance of the rights

and obligations that derive from it. PROTECTION OF MATERNITY

Article 66: Protection of Ethnic Groups

Guatemala is formed by diverse ethnic groups among which are found the indigenous groups of Mayan descent. The State

recognizes, respects, and promotes their forms of life, customs, traditions, forms of social organization, the use of the

indigenous attire by men and women, [and their] languages and dialects. THE USE OF THE INDIGENOUS ATTIRE

Article 102: Minimum Social Rights of Labor Legislation

The minimum social rights that form the basis of the labor legislation and the activity of the tribunals and [the] authorities

[are]:

k. The protection of the working woman and [the] regulation of the conditions under which she must render her services.

There may not be differences established between married and single women in terms of [the] work. The law will

regulate the protection of the maternity rights of the working woman, who may not be required to [conduct any] work

that may require an effort that puts her pregnancy in jeopardy [gravidez]. The working mother will enjoy a compulsory rest

[period] [descanso forzoso] paid on the basis of one hundred percent of her salary, during the thirty days prior to giving

birth and [during] the subsequent forty-five days. During the period of lactation she will have the right to two periods

of extraordinary rest, during her workday. The prenatal and postnatal rest periods will be expanded according to her

physical conditions, by medical prescription;

MAY NOT BE DIFFERENCES ESTABLISHED BETWEEN MARRIED AND SINGLE WOMEN IN TERMS OF WORK

MAY NOT BE REQUIRED TO CONDUCT ANY WORK THAT MAY REQUIRE AN EFFORT THAT PUTS HER PREGNANCY IN JEOPARDY

MATERNITY LEAVE PAID DURING THE 30 DAYS PRIOR TO GIVING BIRTH AND DURING THE SUBSEQUENT 45 DAYS

DURING LACTATION 2 PERIODS OF EXTRAORDINARY REST DURING WORKDAY

PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL REST PERIODS WILL BE EXPANDED ACCORDING TO PHYSICAL CONDITIONS

Article 136: Political Duties and Rights

The following are the rights and duties of the citizens:

a. To register in the Registry of Citizens [Registro de Ciudadanos];

b. To elect and be elected;

c. To see to the freedom and effectiveness of the suffrage and the purity of the electoral process;

… UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 157: Legislative Power [Potestad] and the Composition [Integración] of the Congress of the Republic

The legislative power belongs to the Congress of the Republic, made up of deputies elected directly by the people by

universal and secret suffrage, through the system of electoral districts and [by] national list, for a period of four years, being

able to be reelected. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

148


GUINEA 1958

Right to vote and to stand for election: October 2, 1958

First woman in parliament: 1963

Independence: 1958

Population: 12,946,835

Parliament name: Assemblée nationale (National

Assembly)

Chamber name: Assemblée nationale (National Assembly)

Statutory number of members: 114

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes, 29 seats. At least 30% of the candidates on the proportional representation lists must be

women (Article 129 (2) of the Electoral Law). In addition, in case 2 candidates of different sex obtain an equal number of

votes, the contested seat should be won by the candidate of an under-represented sex (Article 130).

DATE WOMEN %

2018-12

2013-01

2002-06

1995-06

1974-12

1968-01

1963-09

26

25

22

8

25

16

14

22.81%

21.93%

19.3%

7.02%

16.67%

21.33%

18.67%

Prior to independence, under French administration, Guinea was a territories d'outre-mer. As such, universal suffrage was

granted in 1956 by the framework law (Loi-cadre Deferre). 1958 corresponds to the date of independence.

CONSTITUTION OF 2010

Preamble

THE PEOPLE OF GUINEA,

Proclaim:

Their adhesion to the ideals and principles, rights and duties established in the Charter of the Organization of the United

Nations, the Universal Declaration of the Rights of Man, the International Conventions and Pacts relative to the Rights of

Man, the constitutive Act of the African Union, the African Charter of the Rights of Man and of Peoples and its additional

protocols relative to the rights of women, as well as the revised Treaty of the Economic Community of West African States

(ECOWAS) [Communauté Économique des États d’Afrique de l’Ouest (CEDEAO)] and its protocols on democracy and good

governance. AFRICAN CHARTER OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN AND OF PEOPLES

Article 1

Guinea is a unitary republic, indivisible, secular, democratic and social.

It assures the equality before the law of all the citizens without distinction of origin, of race, of ethnicity, of gender [sexe],

of religion and of opinion. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

149


GUINEA 1958

Article 2

Suffrage is universal, direct, equal and secret.

All Guinean citizens of majority, of one or the other gender, enjoying their civil and political rights are electors within the

conditions determined by the law.

UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE RIGHT TO VOTE

Article 8

All human beings are equal before the law. Men and women have the same rights. EQUAL RIGHTS

No one may be privileged or disadvantaged by virtue of [en raison de] their sex, of their birth, of their race, of their

ethnicity, of their language, of their beliefs and of their political, philosophical or religious opinions. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

Article 20

The right to work is recognized to all. The State creates the conditions necessary for the exercise of this right.

No one may be prejudiced [lésé] in their work by virtue of their gender, of their race, of their ethnicity, of their opinions or

of any other cause of discrimination. DISCRIMINATION BANNED AT WORK

150


GUINEA BISSAU 1977

Right to vote: 1974

Right to stand for election: 1977

First woman in parliament: 1972

Independence: 1974

Population: 1,944,395

Parliament name: Assembleia Nacional Popular (People's

National Assembly)

Chamber name: Assembleia Nacional Popular (People's National Assembly)

Statutory number of members: 102

Directly elected

DATE WOMEN %

2014-04

2014-01

2008-11

2004-03

1999-11

1994-07

1989-06

1984-03

1976-12

1972-10

14

11

10

14

8

10

30

22

19

10

13.73%

11%

10%

13.73%

7.84%

10%

20%

14.67%

12.67%

8.33%

Electoral quota for women: No.

Prior to independence women were granted the right to vote in the areas controlled by the liberation movement PAIGC. This

right was confirmed at independence.

CONSTITUTION OF 1984, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 1996

Article 24 DISCRIMINATION BANNED

All citizens are equal before the law, enjoy the same rights and are subjected to the same duties, without distinction of

race, sex, social status, social, intellectual or cultural level, religious belief or philosophical conviction.

Article 25 EQUAL RIGHTS IN POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL LIFE

Men and women are equal before the law in all aspects of political, economic, social and cultural life.

Article 26

… MATRIMONIAL EQUALITY

3. Spouses have equal rights and duties in terms of civil and political capacities, as well as the maintenance and education

of the children.

Article 77

All members of the National Popular Assembly are elected by electoral districts defined by law, by means of a free, equal,

direct, secret and periodic universal suffrage. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Article 130

No draft revision may affect: UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE NOT REVISIONABLE

… g. The direct, equal, secret and regular universal suffrage for deciding the holders of sovereign elected positions; …

151


GUYANA 1953

Right to vote: 1953

Right to stand for election: 1945

First woman in parliament: 1953

Independence: 1966

Population: 784,614

Parliament name: Parliament of the Co-operative

Republic of Guyana

Chamber name: Parliament of the Co-operative Republic of Guyana

Statutory number of members: 69

Directly elected (65). Other: includes 3 non-elected ministers and the Speaker. A maximum of four non-elected ministers

and two non-elected Parliamentary Secretaries may sit in the National Assembly. If the Speaker is not an elected member, he

or she becomes a member of the National Assembly by virtue of holding the office of Speaker. The National Assembly may

thus have up to 72 members.

Electoral quota for women: Yes, 21 seats.

Legal source: Constitution.

DATE WOMEN %

2016-12

2015-08

2015-05

2010-01

2009-01

2008-01

2006-08

2001-03

1997-12

1992-10

1973-07

1964-12

22

21

13

21

20

21

20

13

12

13

7

5

31.88%

30.43%

35.14%

30%

28.99%

30%

28.99%

20%

18.46%

20%

13.21%

9.43%

Prior to independence, under British administration, on 16 April 1953, universal suffrage was granted to both men and

women 20 years and over. Women were already given the right in 1945 to vote under the Legislature of British Guyana. This

right was confirmed at independence. At the 1953 general elections, held on 27th April, 1953, with universal adult suffrage

for the first time, three women, Janet Jagan, Jessie Irma Sampson Burnham and Jane Phillips-Gay, became legislators for the

first time in British Guyana (Frank A. Narain, “Parliament of Guyana”)

CONSTITUTION OF 1980, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2016

29. Women's participation in public decision-making

Women's participation in the various management and decision-making processes, whether private., public or state,

shall be encouraged and facilitated by laws enacted for that purpose or otherwise.

ENCOURAGED AND FACILITATED THE PARTICIPATION IN THE VARIOUS MANAGEMENT AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES PRIVATE AND PUBLIC

59. Qualifications and disqualifications for electors UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Subject to the provisions of article 159, every person may vote at an election if he or she is of the age of eighteen years or

upwards and is either a citizen of Guyana or a Commonwealth citizen domiciled and resident in Guyana.

152

149. Protection from discrimination on the grounds of race, etc

1. Subject to the provisions of this article

a. no law shall make any provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect; and


GUYANA 1953

b. no person shall be treated in a discriminatory manner by any person acting by virtue of any written law or in the

performance of the functions of any public office or any public authority.

2. In this article the expression "discriminatory" means affording different treatment to different persons attributable wholly

or mainly to their or their parents' or guardians' respective descriptions by race, place of origin, political opinions, colour,

creed, age, disability, marital status, sex, gender, language, birth, social class, pregnancy, religion, conscience, belief or

culture whereby persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such

description are not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages which are not afforded to persons of another such

description.

DISCRIMINATION BANNED

4. Nothing contained in any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of paragraph (1)(a) to the extent that

it makes provision with respect to standards or qualifications (not being standards or qualifications specifically relating to a

person's or his or her parents' or guardians' respective description by race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed,

age, disability, marital status, sex, gender, language, birth, social class, pregnancy, religion, conscience, belief or culture) to

be required of any person who is appointed to any office in the public service, any office in a disciplined force, or any office

in the service or of a local democratic organ or of a body corporate established by any law for public purposes.

149F. Equality for Women EQUAL RIGHTS AND STATUS IN ALL SPHERES OF POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL LIFE

1. Every woman is entitled to equal rights and status with men in all spheres of political, economic and social life. All

forms of discrimination against women on the basis of gender or sex are illegal. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

2. Every woman is entitled to equal access with men to academic, vocational and professional training, equal

opportunities in employment, remuneration and promotion and in social, political and cultural activity.

EQUAL ACCESS TO ACADEMIC, VOCATIONAL AND PROFESSIONAL TRAINING, EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN EMPLOYMENT, REMUNERATION

AND PROMOTION AND IN SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND CULTURAL ACTIVITY

160. Electoral system

3. Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, Parliament may make provision

a.

v. for the extraction from the lists and declaration of names of the candidates who have been elected, and for such provision

for extraction to take into account the proportion that women form of the electorate;

b.

DISCRIMINATION BANNED

PROPORTION OF THE CANDIDATES ELECTED

CANDIDATES ON A PARTY’S LIST

iii. for the minimum number or proportion of female candidates on a party's list and in all party's lists taken together;

iv. for the minimum number or proportion of female candidates on a party's lists for geographical constituencies taken

individually or together;

v. for the maximum percentage or the number of geographical constituencies a party can contest in which its lists contain

no female candidate.

212B. Composition of Ethnic Relations Commission

1. The Ethnic Relations Commission shall consist of RESERVED MEMBERS IN “ETHNIC RELATIONS COMMISSION”

a. not less than five nor more than fifteen members nominated by entities, by a consensual mechanism determined by the

National Assembly, including entities, representative of religious bodies, the labour movement, the private business sector,

youth and women after the entities are determined by the votes not less than two-thirds of all elected members of the

National Assembly;

b. a member who shall be a nominee, without the right to vote, chosen by and from each of the following commissions to

be established under this Constitution, Indigenous Peoples' Commission, Woman and Gender Equality Commission,

Commission for the Rights of the Child and Human Rights Commission…

A MEMBER OF “ETHNIC RELATIONS COMMISSION” WITHOUT THE RIGHT TO VOTE CHOSEN BY “WOMAN AND GENDER EQUALITY COMMISSION”

212G. Rights Commissions

1. There are hereby established the following Commissions, the goals of which are to strengthen social justice and the rule

of law…

b. the Women and Gender Equality Commission; “WOMEN AND GENDER EQUALITY COMMISSION” TO STRENGTHEN SOCIAL JUSTICE

212N. Human Rights Commission

4. In addition to the Chairperson , there shall be four members of the Commission who shall be the Chairpersons of the

Ethnic Relations Commission, Women and Gender Equality Commission, Indigenous Peoples' Commission and Rights of

the Child Commission. CHAIRPERSON OF “WOMEN AND GENDER EQUALITY COMMISSION” MEMBER OF “HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION”

153


GUYANA 1953

212Q. Women and Gender Equality Commission “WOMEN AND GENDER EQUALITY COMMISSION”

1. The Women and Gender Equality Commission shall promote national recognition and acceptance that women's rights

are human rights, respect for gender equality and the protection, development and attainment of gender equality.

PROTECTION, DEVELOPMENT AND ATTAINMENT OF GENDER EQUALITY

2. The Women and Gender Equality Commission shall consist of persons from each of the categories referred to in

subparagraphs (a) ,(b) and (c), appointed by the President as follows

a. not less than five nor more than fifteen members, with expertise in women's and gender equality issues, nominated by

entities, by a consensual mechanism determined by the National Assembly, after the entities which shall include the

Women's Advisory Committee of the Trade Union Congress, are determined by the votes of not less than two-thirds of all

the elected members of the National Assembly;

b. the Administrator of the Women's Affairs Bureau, by whatever name that office is designated; and

c. a member who shall be a nominee, without the right to vote, chosen by and from each of the following commissions: the

Human Rights Commission, Ethnic Relations Commission, Indigenous Peoples' Commission, and Rights of the Child

Commission.

212R. Functions of the Women and Gender Equality Commission

In addition to the functions specified in article 212J(2), the functions of the Women and Gender Equality Commission are to

a. promote the issues related to the enhancement of the status of women, girls and gender issues;

INCREASE THE STATUS AND THE ISSUES

b. promote the integration of women's needs and interests and mainstreaming of gender issues; INTEGRATION

c. promote the empowerment of women; EMPOWERMENT

d. promote women's rights as human rights; HUMAN RIGHTS

e. raise the awareness of the contribution of women and problems faced by women including the recognition and value of

unwaged work; RECOGNITION AND VALUE OF UNWAGED WORK

f. promote women's needs, interests, and concerns in the wider spectrum of economic and social development and

address both the practical and strategic needs of women as being different from those of men;

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PRACTICAL AND STRATEGIC NEEDS AS BEING DIFFERENT FROM THOSE OF MEN

g. educate and monitor employers and the public on desirable employment practices in relation to women;

EDUCATE EMPLOYERS AND THE PUBLIC ON DESIRABLE EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES

h. monitor compliance and make recommendations for the compliance with international instruments to which the

Government accedes from time to time, including those already acceded to and which relate to the purpose of the

Commission; ENFORCING INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS

i. evaluate any system of personal and family law, customs and practices or any law likely to affect gender equality or

the status of women and make recommendations to the National Assembly with regard thereto;

EVALUATE ANY SYSTEM OF PERSONAL AND FAMILY LAW, CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES

j. recommend and promote the implementation of legislation and the formulation of policies and measures so as to

enhance and protect the status of women; MEASURES TO ENHANCE AND PROTECT THE STATUS

k. promote, initiate or cause to be carried out research and the creation of databases on women and gender related

issues including those of health, especially reproductive health, violence against women and the family, and their

socio-economic and political status, as the Commission may deem relevant or as may be referred to it by the National

Assembly; MONITORING REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH, VIOLENCE, SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL STATUS

l. promote consultation and cooperation with women's organisations in relation to decision-making that affects the lives

of women; DECISION-MAKING THAT AFFECTS THE LIVES

m. recommend training and technical assistance to support initiatives by and for women and girls; and

RECOMMEND TRAINING AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE

n. promote the participation of women in national decision-making.

PROMOTE THE PARTICIPATION OF WOMEN IN NATIONAL DECISION-MAKING

212S. Indigenous Peoples' Commission

b. three persons, at least one being a woman nominated by the Toshaos Council and two persons including one woman

nominated by Amerindian organisations determined by the votes of not less than two-thirds of all elected members of

the National Assembly; and

c. a member who shall be a nominee, without the right to vote, chosen by and from each of the following Commissions: the

Human Rights Commission, Ethnic Relations Commission, Women and Gender Equality Commission and the Rights of the

Child Commission. RESERVED MEMBERS IN “INDIGENOUS PEOPLE’S COMMISSION”

FOURTH SCHEDULE: Conventions (Article 154A, 212O(1))

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.

INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS

Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence against Women.

154


HAITI 1950

Right to vote and to stand for election: November 25, 1950

First woman in parliament: 1961

Population: 11,334,237

Parliament name: Assemblée nationale (National

Assembly)

Chamber name: Chambre des Députés (Chamber of

Deputies)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 119

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. The quota for institutions

was increased to 30%.

Legal source: Constitution, Articles 17.1 et 30.1.1.

DATE WOMEN %

2016-12

2015-12

2010-11

2007-02

2006-05

2000-05

1997

1994

1990

1988-02

1984-01

1979-04

1973-04

1967-04

1961-05

1946-07

3

0

4

4

2

3

3

3

3

1

5

3

2

5

3

0

2.56%

0%

4.21%

4.08%

2.02%

3.61%

3.61%

3.75%

3.61%

1.3%

8.47%

5.17%

3.45%

8.62%

5.17%

0%

Chamber name: Sénat (Senate)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 30

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. An amendment to the

Constitution establishes a 30% quota for women in all

elected and appointed positions at the national level,

particularly in the civil service. The amended Constitution

also provides for the development of legislation to apply this

quota to the political parties. Such legislation is under

development but has not established an electoral formula to

this effect.

Legal source: Constitution, Articles 17.1 et 30.1.1

DATE WOMEN %

2017-01

2014-01

2010-11

2009-04

2008-01

2006-04

2000-05

1990

1988

1946

1

0

1

0

2

4

7

0

1

0

5%

0%

3.33%

0%

11.11%

13.33%

25.93%

0%

3.7%

0%

Right to stand for election granted after the 6 December 1950 elections and confirmed in article 16 of the 1957 Constitution.

The Constitution of 1985 extended the right to vote to all citizens and established equality between the sexes. For the first

time in Haitian history, in the parliamentary elections held on 30 April 1961, two women were elected as deputies: Max

Adolphe and Ulrick Paul-Blanc.

CONSTITUTION OF 1987, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2012

Preamble

The Haitian people proclaim this Constitution:

To establish a governmental regime based on the fundamental liberties and the respect for human rights, the social peace,

economic equity, the equity of gender, the concerted action and the participation of all the population in the grand

decisions engaging the national life, by an effective decentralization. EQUITY OF GENDER

To assure to women a representation in the instances of power and of decision which must conform to the equality of

the sexes and to equity of gender. REPRESENTATION IN THE INSTANCES OF POWER AND OF DECISION


HAITI 1950

Article 17

All Haitians, regardless of sex or marital status, who have attained twenty-one years of age may exercise their political and

civil rights if the meet the other conditions prescribed by the Constitution and by law. POLITICAL AND CIVIL RIGHTS

Article 17-1

[Inserted by the Constitutional Law of 9 May 2011 / 19 June 2012]

The principle of the quota of at least thirty percent (30%) of women is recognized at all levels of national life, notably in

the public services. QUOTA RECOGNIZED AT ALL LEVELS OF NATIONAL LIFE, NOTABLY IN THE PUBLIC SERVICE

Article 31-1-1

[Inserted by the Constitutional Law of 9 May 2011 / 19 June 2012]

Any law concerning the Political Parties must reserve in its structures and in its mechanisms of functioning a treatment

in conformity with the principle of the quota of at least thirty percent (30%) of women as expressed in Article 17-1.

QUOTA IN STRUCTURES AND IN MECHANISMS OF FUNCTIONING OF POLITCAL PARTIES

Article 35-2

The State guarantees workers equal working conditions and wages regardless of their sex, beliefs, opinions and marital

status. EQUAL WORKING CONDITIONS

Article 52-3 COMPULSORY CIVILIAN NATIONAL SERVICE

Compulsory civic service for both sexes is established. The terms thereof shall be set by law.

Article 89 UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

The Chamber of Deputies is a body composed of members elected by direct suffrage by the citizens and is responsible for

exercising, on their behalf and in concert with the Senate, the functions of the legislative power.

Article 94 UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

The Senate is a body composed of members elected by direct suffrage of the citizens and charged with exercising on their

behalf, in concert with the Chamber of Deputies, the duties of the Legislative Power.

Article 207-2bis

[Inserted by the Constitutional Law of 9 May 2011 / 19 June 2012]

In the exercise of its functions, [Office of Citizen Protection] will pay a special attention to the complaints presented by

women, particularly in that relating to the discriminations and the aggressions of which they may be victims notably in

their work. COMPLAINTS RELATING TO THE DISCRIMINATIONS AND THE AGGRESSIONS, NOTABLY AT WORK

Article 260

[The State] must also protect all families regardless of whether they are constituted within the bonds of marriage. It must

endeavor to aid and assist mothers, children and the aged. AID AND ASSIST MOTHERS

Article 268 COMPULSORY CIVILIAN NATIONAL SERVICE

Within the framework of compulsory civilian national services for both sexes, provided for by Article 52-3 of the

Constitution, the Armed Forces participate in organizing and supervising that service.

Military service is compulsory for all Haitians who have attained eighteen (18) years of age.

The law sets the method of recruitment, and the length and regulations for the performance of these services.

156


HONDURAS 1955

Right to vote and to stand for election: January 25, 1955

First woman in parliament: 1957

Population: 9,826,149

Parliament name: Congreso Nacional (National Congress)

Chamber name: Congreso Nacional (National Congress)

Statutory number of members: 128

Directly elected

Electoral quota for women: Yes. The candidate lists of the political parties for the elections for the National Congress must

include at least 40% women candidates. Candidate lists in single-member constituencies must include a female principal

candidate and a male alternate, or vice versa. If a political party violates the gender balance, it will be charged a fine of 5% of

the total state funding for the parties.

Legal source: Electoral Law 2009 amended in 2012, Articles 104, 105 and 116.

DATE WOMEN %

2017-12

2013-11

2009-11

2005-11

2001-11

1998

1997

1993-11

1989-11

1985-11

1981-11

1971-03

1957

1949

27

33

23

30

7

12

10

9

13

10

7

6

3

0

21.09%

25.78%

17.97%

23.44%

5.47%

9.38%

7.81%

7.03%

10.16%

7.52%

8.54%

9.68%

5.17%

0%

Honduras was the last Latin American country to give women suffrage.

CONSTITUTION OF 1982, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2013

Article 37

The following are rights of citizens:

1. To vote and be elected; UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

2. To be a candidate for public office;

3. To form political parties; to join or renounce membership from them; and

4. Those others recognized by this Constitution and other laws.

Article 44

Suffrage is a right and a public duty. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

Voting shall be universal, obligatory, egalitarian, direct, free and secret.

Article 60

All men are born free and equal in rights. There are no privileged classes in Honduras. All Honduras are equal before the law.

157


HONDURAS 1955

All forms of discrimination on account of sex, race, class, or any other reason prejudicial to human dignity shall be

punishable. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

The law shall establish the crimes and penalties for violators of this provision.

Article 111 PROTECTION OF MOTHERHOOD

The family, marriage, motherhood and childhood are under the protection of the State.

Article 112 RIGHT TO MARRY

The right of a man and a woman, who have that quality naturally, to contract marriage between themselves is recognized,

as well as the legal equality of spouses. MATRIMONIAL EQUALITY

Only a civil marriage performed by competent officials and under the conditions established by law is valid.

De facto union between persons having the legal capacity to marry is recognized.

The law shall indicate the conditions under which it shall have the effect of a civil marriage.

Marriage and de facto union between persons of the same sex is prohibited.

Marriages or de facto unions between persons of the same sex that are celebrated or recognized under the laws of other

countries shall not be valid in Honduras. SEXUAL DISCRIMINATION

Article 116

The right of adoption is recognized for persons united through matrimony or de facto union.

The giving of children through adoption to persons of the same sex who form marriages or de facto unions is

prohibited. The law shall regulate this institution. SEXUAL DISCRIMINATION

Article 123

All children shall enjoy the benefits of social security and education.

Every child shall have the right to grow and develop in good health, for which special care shall be given during the prenatal

period, as much for the child as for the mother, both being entitled to food, housing, education, recreation, exercise,

sport, and adequate medical services.

MOTHER ENTITLED TO FOOD, HOUSING, EDUCATION, RECREATION, EXERCISE, SPORT, AND ADEQUATE MEDICAL SERVICES

Article 128

Laws governing the relations between employers and workers are matters of public order. All acts, stipulations or

agreements that involve the waiver, diminution or restriction or evasion of the following guarantees shall be void:

6. In the facilities of his establishments, the employer must observe and enforce the legal provisions concerning hygiene and

health and adopt adequate safety measures in work, which help to prevent occupational hazards and ensure the physical

and mental integrity of workers.

Employers in agricultural enterprises are also subject to the same security system. Special protection shall be given to

women and minors.

SPECIAL PROTECTION OF WORKERS

11. A woman is entitled to leave before and after childbirth, without loss of employment or wages. During the nursing

period she shall be entitled to a rest period each day for nursing her child. The employer may not terminate the

employment contract of a pregnant woman, nor after childbirth, except after having proved just cause before a

competent judge, in the cases and conditions indicated by law. SPECIAL PROTECTION OF WORKERS

… MATERNAL LEAVE, WITHOUT LOSS OF EMPLOYMENT OR WAGES REST PERIOD EACH DAY FOR NURSING CHILD

EMPLOYER MAY NOT TERMINATE THE EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT OF A PREGNANT WOMAN

Article 142

Every person is entitled to the security of his economic means of subsistence in the event of work disability or inability to

obtain remunerated employment.

Social Security services shall be furnished and administered by the Honduran Social Security Institute and shall cover

cases of sickness, maternity, family allowance, old-age, orphanhood, forced lockouts, work injury, involuntary

unemployment; occupational disease, and all other contingencies affecting the capacity to produce.

… HONDURAN SOCIAL SECURITY INSTITUTE COVER MATERNITY

158


HUNGARY 1958

Right to vote: May 17, 1953

Right to stand for election: November 11, 1958

First woman in parliament: 1920

Population: 9,672,111

Parliament name: Országgyülés (National Assembly)

Chamber name: Országgyülés (National Assembly)

Statutory number of members: 199

Directly elected. In addition, there are 12 National Advocates representing national minorities living in Hungary.

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Voluntary political party quotas

Legal source: Cf. individual party statutes.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-06

2018-05

2018-04

2014-06

2014-04

2014-01

2010-04

2010-01

2006-04

2002-04

1998-06

1994-05

1990-04

1985-06

1980-06

1975-06

1971-04

1967-02

1958

1953

1949-04

1947-08

1945

25

20

23

20

19

36

35

43

40

33

32

44

28

80

106

101

84

69

62

52

71

22

12

12.56%

10.05%

11.56%

10.05%

9.55%

9.38%

9.07%

11.14%

10.36%

8.55%

8.29%

11.4%

7.25%

20.73%

30.11%

28.69%

23.86%

19.77%

18.34%

17.45%

17.66%

5.35%

2.85%

Women twice gained and also quickly lost the right to vote before they finally gained universal suffrage in 1945. They were

granted suffrage first in the social-democratic revolution of 1918 and then saw it reaffirmed during the communist takeover

of 1919, but their universal voting rights were short lived. In 1920, Margit Slachta (1884-1974) became the first Hungarian

woman elected to Parliament. The successive authoritarian political regime under the leadership of Admiral Horthy

persistently moved to eradicate signs of the immediate past and, consequently, passed laws that severely restricted women's

right to stand as political candidates, vote and have access to university education. In 1945 men and women voted with

different colored ballot paper, thus making it possible to see how each sex voted.

159


HUNGARY 1958

CONSTITUTION OF 2011, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2016

FOUNDATION

Article L

1. Hungary shall protect the institution of marriage as the union of a man and a woman established by voluntary

decision, and the family as the basis of the survival of the nation. Family ties shall be based on marriage and/or the

relationship between parents and children. MARRIAGE BASED ON FREE WILL

FREEDOM AND RESPONSIBILITY

Article XV

1. Everyone shall be equal before the law. Every human being shall have legal capacity.

DISCRIMINATION BANNED

2. Hungary shall guarantee the fundamental rights to everyone without discrimination and in particular without

discrimination on grounds of race, colour, sex, disability, language, religion, political or other opinion, national orsocial

origin, property, birth or any other status.

3. Women and men shall have equal rights.

EQUAL RIGHTS

4. By means of separate measures, Hungary shall promote the achievement of equality of opportunity and social inclusion.

5. By means of separate measures, Hungary shall protect families, children, women, the elderly and persons living with

disabilities. PROTECTION

Article XIX

1. Hungary shall strive to provide social security to all of its citizens. Every Hungarian citizen shall be entitled to assistance in

the case of maternity, illness, disability, handicap, widowhood, orphanage and unemployment for reasos outside of his or

her control, as provided for by an Act.

ASSISTANCE DURING MATERNITY

4. Hungary shall contribute to ensuring the livelihood for the elderly by maintaining a general state pension system based

on social solidarity and by allowing for the operation of voluntarily established social institutions. The conditions of

entitlement to state pension may be laid down in an Act with regard to the requirement for stronger protection for

women. STRONGER PROTECTION IN STATE PENSION

Article XXIII

1. Every adult Hungarian citizen shall have the right to vote and to be voted for in elections of Members of the

National Assembly, local government representatives and mayors, and of Members of the European Parliament.

… UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

THE STATE

Article 2

1. Members of the National Assembly shall be elected by universal and equal suffrage in a direct and secret ballot, in

elections which guarantee the free expression of the will of the voters, in a manner laid down in a cardinal Act.

UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

160


ICELAND 1920

Chamber name: Althingi (Parliament)

Statutory number of members: 63

Directly elected

Right to vote and to stand for election: 1920

First woman in parliament: 1922

Population: 340,140

Parliament name: Althingi (Parliament)

Electoral quota for women: Yes. Voluntary political party quotas.

Legal source: Cf. individual party statutes.

Ingibjörg H. Bjarnason, the first woman elected to the Althingi

(Courtesy of National Museum of Iceland).

DATE WOMEN %

2017-10

2016-10

2014-12

2013-04

2009-04

2008-01

2007-12

2007-05

2003-05

1999-05

1995-04

1991-04

1987-04

1983-04

1971-06

1963-06

1959-06

1956-06

1953-06

1949-10

1946-06

24

30

26

25

27

20

21

20

19

22

16

15

13

9

3

1

2

1

0

2

1

38.1%

47.62%

41.27%

39.68%

42.86%

31.75%

33.33%

31.75%

30.16%

34.92%

25.4%

23.81%

20.63%

15%

5%

1.67%

3.33%

1.92%

0%

3.85%

1.92%

In 1882, the King approved a change in voting qualifications such that widows and other unmarried women who headed

farming households, or who in some other way were independent householders were given the right to vote and stand for

elections in local elections, provided that they fulfilled all the other legal requirements for this right (property, etc). In 1908

all women obtained the rights to vote and to run in municipal elections. In 1915 right to vote was limited to those women

who were over 40 and did not owe repayable poor relief. The age limit was to be reduced by 1 year annually. In 1920 right to

vote and to stand for election became universal at national election: minimum age 25 years. In 1922, Ingibjörg H. Bjarnason

(1867-1941) became the first woman elected to the Althingi.

CONSTITUTION OF 1944 WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2013

Article 65

DISCRIMINATION BANNED

Everyone shall be equal before the law and enjoy human rights irrespective of sex, religion, opinion, national origin, race,

colour, property, birth or other status.

Men and women shall enjoy equal rights in all respects. EQUAL RIGHTS

161


INDIA 1950

Right to vote and to stand for election: January 26, 1950

First woman in parliament: 1946

Independence: 1947

Population: 1,373,390,106

Parliament name: Sansad (Parliament)

162

Chamber name: Lok Sabha (House of the People)

Structure & Status of parliament: Lower Chamber

Statutory number of members: 545

Directly elected (543). Appointed members: 2 members of

the Anglo-Indian Community are nominated by the

President. The Constitution provides that the House shall

have a maximum of 552 members. Up to 530 members

represent the states, up to 20 members represent the union

territories and not more than two members of the

Anglo-Indian Community are nominated by the President,

if, in the President's opinion, that community is not

adequately represented in the House.

Electoral quota for women: No.

DATE WOMEN %

2019-04

2018-12

2016-12

2014-12

2014-01

2009-01

2008-01

2007-01

2004-04

2001-01

2000-05

2000-01

1999-09

1998-02

1996-04

1991-04

1989-11

1984-12

1980-01

1977-03

1971-03

1967-02

1962-04

1957-04

1951-10

78

66

64

65

62

59

45

49

45

47

48

49

46

44

39

36

26

41

27

18

21

31

34

27

19

14.39%

12.6%

11.81%

11.97%

11.38%

10.83%

8.29%

9.06%

8.29%

8.66%

8.84%

9.02%

8.44%

8.1%

7.16%

7.23%

4.99%

7.77%

5.03%

3.33%

4.05%

5.93%

6.76%

5.48%

3.82%

In 1946, Annie Mascarene (1902-1963)

became one of the 15 women who were

elected to the 299-member Constituent

Assembly of India, tasked with drafting

the Constitution of India. She served on

the Assembly's select committee that

looked into the Hindu Code Bill. When

the Indian Independence Act 1947 was

passed by the British Parliament, the

Constitutional Assembly became, on 15

August, the parliament of the Dominion

of India.

Chamber name: Rajya Sabha (Council of States)

Structure & Status of parliament: Upper Chamber

Statutory number of members: 245

Indirectly elected members (233): elected by the legislative

assemblies of the states and union territories.

Appointed members (12): nominated by the Head of State.

DATE WOMEN %

2018-12

2016-06

2014-11

2012-07

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006-07

2004-06

2002

2000

1996

1994

1992

1990

1986

1984

1982

1980

1978

1976

1974

1972

1970

1968

1966

1964

1962

1960

1958

1956

1954

1951

28

27

31

26

25

21

23

24

26

28

25

22

19

20

17

24

25

28

24

29

25

24

17

18

14

22

23

21

18

24

22

20

17

15

11.48%

11.07%

12.76%

10.61%

10.33%

9.01%

9.47%

9.88%

10.74%

11.57%

10.2%

8.98%

7.76%

8.16%

6.94%

9.8%

10.25%

11.48%

9.84%

11.89%

10.25%

9.84%

7%

7.41%

5.83%

9.17%

9.66%

8.82%

7.63%

10.17%

9.48%

8.62%

7.76%

6.94%


INDIA 1950

Prior to independence, under British administration, the Government of India Act (adopted in 1935, entered into force in

1937) accorded women with the restricted right to vote: literacy, income and tax payer were required . These rights were

maintained after 1947 when India became an "Independent Dominion". In 1950 the suffrage became universal.

CONSTITUTION OF 1949, WITH AMENDMENTS THROUGH 2016

15. Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth

1. The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of

them. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

2. No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them, be subject to any disability,

liability, restriction or condition with regard to

a. access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and places of public entertainment; or

b. the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of State funds or

dedicated to the use of general public. DISCRIMINATION BANNED

3. Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for women and children.

16. Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment

1. There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under

the State.

2. No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, residence or any of them, be ineligible

for, or discriminated against in respect of, any employment or office under the State.

… DISCRIMINATION BANNED TO ACCESS PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT

39. Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State

The State shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing RIGHT TO AN ADEQUATE MEANS OF LIVELIHOOD

a. that the citizen, men and women equally, have the right to an adequate means of livelihood;

d. that there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women;