NAPENews Magazine August 2021 Edition

NAPE News Magazine August 2021 Edition of the NAPE News is here for your reading pleasure. Happy reading.

NAPE News Magazine August 2021 Edition of the NAPE News is here for your reading pleasure. Happy reading.


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Energy Transition

2020 Pre-conference


NAPE Petroleum Industry Act


The Role of Females

in the Oil and Gas Industry

15 Questions



Values of Surveillance,

Production Data

and Subsurface Modeling

Corporate Ad


Our world is changed. Our career and industry are changing. There

is a need for your change.

It was in the heat of the pandemic that I vied for the position of Publicity

Secretary of our prestigious Association. I felt it was an auspicious time to

tell members' stories more, strengthen our internal communication while

pursuing strategic collaborations within the industry. I also felt there was a

need to mold our position in the Energy Transition conversation as we play

a critical role in where the world is headed. After submitting my forms to

contest for the position of Publicity Secretary, two events followed and

validated that I had made a good decision in volunteering for this role., Let

us not forget – your vote made all the difference. Thank you!

The first event was the NAPE 45th anniversary celebration. In a series of

interviews, our founding members and Past Presidents were asked to

evaluate how NAPE has fared since its founding. Dr. Akomeno Oteri

FNAPE, (NAPE 001) founding member and first President scored NAPE a

10/10 while other founding members interviewed, scored NAPE an

average of 7.5/10.

It occurred to me from the outcome of their evaluation that the visioner, Dr.

Akomeno Oteri FNAPE gave that higher score, ostensibly because he

planted a small seed, which had germinated and grown, and a win is a big

win. For the others, they had seen the potential and felt this association

could do more.

So, I ask you: how would you score NAPE on a score card today?

I don't want you to stop at that. NAPE has a vision and I recognize that we

all have great ideas on how to bring the elements of this vision to reality.

Here I would like to invite you again, to join the teeming pool of NAPE

volunteers who effortlessly give so much of their resources to ensure the

growth of our great Association. For me, I am simply contributing my quota

and stay happy to serve.

The second event was the 2020 NAPE Media Workshop for Media

Professionals organized by my predecessor (Lateef Amodu). The event is

designed to provide media personnel enhanced skills on reporting the oil

and gas industry. I listened as the media personnel and other participants

asked questions on the industry, and I realized that our industry's activities,

challenges, and position on various issues have opportunities to be better

reported. Beyond simply announcing our activities and wins on

communication platforms, we have a unique responsibility to further

educate our ever-growing number of stakeholders on the intricacies of the

Energy Industry, its capital investments, socio-economic impact, safety

procedures, member organization's contribution to GDP and much more.

As NAPE members, we are to collectively invest time and play this

strategic advocacy role for the energy industry.

This edition focusses on how our industry is “Embracing Energy

Transition”. Why do we need to embrace this Energy Transition, if the

concept of Energy Transition isn't exactly new?

Well, this is the first time that the world is asking for a net-zero emission

target. Fossil fuels, including coal, oil and natural gas, are currently the

world's primary energy source, and have fueled global economic

development over the past century.

This current ET is like a whirlwind, and has in its' course, climate change,

global warming, carbon index, alarming population growth, urbanization,

energy demand, industrialization, and astronomical technology


As geoscientists, our career is at the center of these pivotal happenings

and regardless of the form of energy, so long it is derived from the earth, we

are the custodian, and therefore we should embrace this transition.

This edition features a report from our 2021 Fellows' Retreat. The report

highlights a collective fellow's position on the Energy Transition and ways

to position NAPE for a sustainable future. The report also states the need

to make the discourse of high risk and uncertainty as a non-constant

lexicon, but that efforts should be made to clearly communicate this

present imminent transition. In particular, what we may target to achieve is

growing public preparedness, increasing participation at governance,

community interactions, enabling eco-system, demonstrated and tested

user acceptance for the various output of energy. Prior to the enactment of

the Petroleum Industry Act, we had presented a communique from our

February 2021 webinar on The Nigeria Oil and Gas Regulations: X-raying

the Petroleum Industry Bill (PIB). This document is included in this edition.

There is a collective love affair with Energy transition and we are in the

middle of it. I welcome you to waltz to the beat and lead this energy

transition cause. Teach. Share. Educate and communicate real facts!

In this edition we offer you a 2 in 1 piece on the NAPE president, Mrs.

Patricia Ochogbu FNAPE, one where you get to know her more and

another where she talks about her half year achievements. We also

presented the executives' achievements in the past half year with

highlights on various activities. These were to support and equip members

in their career and build newer futuristic skillset across Artificial

Intelligence, data science and more. Our core professional expertise and

knowledge sharing events were offered at no cost to all members while

summer school courses were offered at a huge discount of 75%.

These are few of the various ways we aim to communicate the value of

your membership to NAPE and say thank you for your active participation.

This edition of NAPE news is my first and I confess it was a struggle to put

together. I was eager to share news of what we have done differently at our

workspaces, how different our careers have turned, what our

organizations are doing differently and more. It was a struggle because

everyone was busy. Organizations are going through Reshape,

Restructure, the Petroleum Industry Bill's passage more. These events

tend to leave us quite impersonable; whilst not forgetting the growing

fatigue of working from home for over a year. So here is my free pass, if you

have a great piece to share and would like to showcase your thought

leadership, subject matter expertise and knowledge to a wider audience. I

implore you to kindly find time to share your articles and contribute to the

next edition.

Finally, a quick reminder that while each locality is putting different

measures at combating and restoring life back to normal, we are now

having to deal with the delta-variant of the virus. This implies in simple

terms - we are not yet out of this curve, hence my gentle plea that you

kindly continue to stay safe.

Based on your response to our survey, this edition is available in e-format.

To your health

Tunbosun Afolayan

NAPENews is the magazine of

the Nigerian Association of

Petroleum Explorationists




Tunbosun Afolayan

(Editor in Chief)

David Anomneze

(Deputy Editor)

Victoria Okorie


Frank Phido

(Media Consultant)

Lucky Iwu


Promise Ekeh


Adewale Sadiq


Timipire Potoki

(YP Contributor)

Tope Adebodun


John Akudike


Lawrence Osuagwu

(Secretariat Support)

Tunde Adedeji

(Secretariat Support)

Graphics Consultant

Karoreva Resources Limited

The Nigerian Association of

Petroleum Explorationists (NAPE)


47A Femi Okunnu Housing Estate,

Lekki Expressway, Lekki Peninsula,

Lagos, Nigeria.

P.M.B. 12598, Marina, Lagos.

Tel: +234 (0) 1 342 9082

+234 (0) 909 214 3198



Trustees of the Nigerian

Association of Petroleum

Explorationists (NAPE)

Chief Chamberlain Oyibo, FNAPE

Dr. Austin Avuru, FNAPE

Dr. D. Lambert Aikhionbare, FNAPE

Dr. ‘Layi Fatona, FNAPE

Mr. Mavuaye James Orife, FNAPE

Advisory Council of the

Nigerian Association of Petroleum

Explorationists (NAPE)

Dr. Ebi Omatsola, FNAPE (Chairman)

Mrs. Adedoja Ojelabi, FNAPE (Secretary)

Mr. Alex Tarka, FNAPE

Dr. D. Lambert-Aikhiobare, FNAPE

Dr. Austin Avuru, FNAPE

Dr. Layi Fatona, FNAPE

Mr. George Osahon, FNAPE

Mr. Abiodun Adesanya, FNAPE

Mrs. Patience Maseli, FNAPE

Mr. Nedo Osayande, FNAPE

Dr. Gbolade Olalere

Mr. Abraham Udoh

Mr. Aliyu Adamu

Mrs. Rosina Basorun

Mr. Reginald Mbah

Dr Victor Ogwujiofor


The Nigerian Association of

P e t r o l e u m E x p l o r a t i o n i s t s

(NAPE) accepts no responsibility

for the views expressed in any

article in this publication. All

views expressed, except where

e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d o t h e r w i s e ,

represent those of the author,

and not The Nigerian Association

of Petroleum Explorationists

(NAPE). All rights reserved. No

paragraph in this publication

may be reproduced, copied or

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been provided as a public

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warranties, representations,

e x p r e s s e d o r i m p l i e d ,

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reliability or completeness of

the information contained in

t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n . T h e

information in this bulletin is

provided on an “as is” basis

without warranty or condition.

President’s Desk

It is with gladness that I welcome you to the first edition of

your favorite geoscience and upstream news magazine for

this year. What a year last year was. It was a year that tested

our resolve and imposed upon us novel ways of living and

conducting business. As an Association, we had to contend

with the effects of the twin headwinds of the COVID 19

pandemic as well as sustained low oil prices and find ways of

navigating the new energy landscape.

For the first time in the 45-year history of our great

Association our flagship AICE was hosted on a hybrid

platform – Virtually and Onsite. The event was successful,

surpassing our wildest imagination. Thanks to the resilience

and resourcefulness of our people. One thing I learnt from

that experience is that you, highly distinguished NAPE

members, are resourceful and that every problem has a

solution if we keep an open mind and look hard enough.

I have been on the saddle for a little over 8 months now, the

twin headwinds we faced last year are beginning to show

signs of abating, but we are not out of the woods yet. While

the crisis still persists, we have won a few battles in the war.

According to Albert Einstein '' in the midst of every crisis lies

great opportunities''. That quote resonates with me. I am

persuaded that we have a window of opportunity that is open

in at least three critical areas. (1) Increase in membership

as well as overall membership experience (2) Innovation for

excellence (3) Financial Independence of NAPE.

I am focused on service delivery as well as enhancing the

membership experience and benefits of every NAPE

member. In that regard we have been implementing career

enhancing opportunities. We have organized several

Technical and Business events, two short courses on topical

issues, and webinars to provide a platform to unlearn, learn

and re-learn from the exigencies of our 'new world.’

...the twin headwinds we faced last year

are beginning to show signs of abating,

but we are not out of the woods yet.

The crisis still persists, we have only

won a few battles in the war. According

to Albert Einstein '' in the midst of

every crisis lies great opportunities''.

There is no equivocation that we are in the midst of an energy

crises. We must innovate to survive and remain relevant. As

the world transits from a largely oil and gas economy to a

mixed energy economy, I see a bright future for NAPE and

her members in the areas of gas exploration /production and

monetization, carbon capture, digitalization, Artificial

Intelligence and more. It is in this regard that the theme of our

39th AICE '' Petroleum Exploration in a New World: What

Next after the Global Crises?” is critical, timely and germane.

I look forward to seeing you at the conference.

In innovating for excellence, I and the executive team are

working to see that a good number of our members emerge

as Thought leaders in the oil & gas industry. Not only that, I

have put in place initiatives that would support NAPE and our

members to be recognized for the role you play in wealth

creation for your companies and the nation at large.

NAPE at 46 years cannot afford to continue to depend solely

on the benevolence of her sponsors. The time is long

overdue for NAPE to be financially independent. We have

done a realistic assessment of our current financial situation

and the obstacles in our path to achieving financial

independence. We have marshalled out detailed and

innovative cost-effective plans without sacrificing quality and

experience. We commenced the execution of the plans

already committed to and we are ready to make the

necessary adjustments to get there.

There are a number of other programs and activities lined up

for the rest of the year. Quite a number of them are going

through committee planning stages.

In closing, let me again reiterate our commitment to continue

in our efforts to serve our great Association to the best of our

capacities. With your support we can reach loftier heights.

I guess it is not too late to wish you a happy third quarter of

year 2021!

Thank you

Patricia I. Ochogbu, FNAPE

NAPE President 2020/2021

APE an acronym for “Nigerian Association of

NPetroleum Explorationists” is the largest

professional association of petroleum

geologists and related disciplines in Nigeria and

Africa. Members include geologists, geophysicists,

CEOs, managers, consultants, other professionals,

and students academicians. It was founded in

August 1975 by Akomeno Oteri.The society which

started with only 10 people attending the inaugural

meeting at Federal Palace Hotel in August 1975

now has 12,535 individual members and 178

supporting corporate members.

This Association is undeniably the largest Upstream

Oil & Gas professional body for Geoscientists.

There are currently six (6) regional NAPE Chapters

in addition to the Lagos Headquarters (Foundation

Chapter). The NAPE Chapters are located both in

and outside Africa and the Chapters are Abuja,

Benin, Port-Harcourt, UK/Europe, Uyo/Calabar and

Warri Chapters. Each Chapter is headed by a

Chapter Chairman who is a member of the NAPE

Executive Committee.

Its vision and mission statements are “To be the

preferred professional petroleum geosciences

association with a global reach” and “To promote the

study and practice of petroleum geosciences for the

benefit of members and other stakeholders”


Membership provides a platform to network,

promote and learn about the geological sciences

with emphasis on the exploration of petroleum.

NAPE's mandate is to continuously to promote the

propagation and exchange of technical knowledge

in Petroleum Exploration and Production for the

overall benefit of the oil and gas industry. All these

culminates to inspire high professional conduct

among its membership.

In its efforts to fulfil its mandate, NAPE works

diligently to become vital to the careers of its

members and the industry it serves by providing

access to best practices, operational experience,

lessons learned, technological innovations and a

peep into the future through our diverse platforms

and forums such as our Annual International

Conference & Exhibition (AICE), Monthly

Technical/Business Meetings, subsidized Short

Courses, Workshops, University Assistance

Program, Summer school program, Chapters

Program, Young Professional Presentation series,

Student/Post Graduate Scholarships, etc.

Our Individual and Corporate Members receive a

unique suite of valuable NAPE membership

benefits. Which include but not limited to:

Ÿ Invites to Monthly Technical/Business Meetings

Ÿ Discount on in-house continuing education


Ÿ Discount on NAPE Annual International

Conference & Exhibition



Right to publish affiliation with NAPE

Free subscription to NAPE bulletins and

newsletters, etc.


Membership of this Association consists of the

following classifications:


Ÿ Active Member: A graduate in the practice or

teaching of the geosciences or petroleum

related science with at least 3 years work


Ÿ Junior Member: A fresh graduate in the

practice or teaching of the geosciences or

petroleum related science with NYSC


Ÿ Student Member: An undergraduate with a

major in any of the geosciences or petroleum

related science

Ÿ Associate Member: An interested graduate

` not qualified for any class of membership

Student can upgrade to Junior after NYSC

Junior can upgrade to Active after 3-4 years work



Any Company or institution registered in Nigeria

and engaged in the practice or teaching of Oil &

Gas, Energy, Mineral Exploration and Production


Other special membership status includes

Emeritus: An Active member in good standing in

the association with all dues fully paid and 30 years

in the association and 70 years of age. Total number

is 49

Young Professionals: A Graduate with a major in

any of the geosciences or petroleum related

sciences with 0-10 years post university experience

and less than 35 years of age


The Annual Membership fees for 2021are as follows:






Fee ( N)


Fee ( N)

Student 2,000





Associate 1,000









Fellows: The NAPE Fellowship Award honor NAPE

members who have distinguished themselves by

their long-term service and commitment to

advancing the science, practice and profession of

petroleum geology and to the Nigerian Association

of Petroleum Explorationists (NAPE). Total number

is 158.

Aret Adams, FNAPE: This Award is named in

honour of the Late Chief Aretanekhai (Aret) Godwin

Adams and his commitment to excellence, is the

highest award bestowed by NAPE. It is given to

deserving Earth Scientists of any nationality, in

recognition of distinguished and outstanding

contributions to, or achievements in the sciences

and practice of petroleum exploration and

exploitation in Nigeria for a continuous period of 15

years or more.

Honorary Members: This Award honors nonmembers

who by their profession, position/office,

career or business have had a significant and

positive, impact on the affairs of NAPE and the

Nigerian Oil & Gas industry at large. He or she does

not have to be a professional in the Oil & Gas

industry. Total is 28

Ben Osuno: The NAPE Ben Osuno Pioneering

Excellence Award recognizes and celebrates

excellence and outstanding contributions by

individuals or groups in pioneering activities in the

field of the earth sciences in general and the

Nigerian Oil and Gas industry.

Young Professionals: The NAPE Outstanding YP

Service Award honor NAPE members who are

under the age of 35 and have distinguished

themselves by their long-term service and

commitment to advancing the science, practice and

profession of petroleum geoscience and NAPE.


Further enquiries can be directed to the NAPE Membership Officer, see contact details;

Abieyuwa Ogbebor;

Technical - Membership Officer

Nigerian Association of Petroleum Explorationists

47A Femi Okunnu Housing Estate, Lekki/Epe Expressway, Lekki Peninsula, Lagos Nigeria.

Tel: +234 (0)8030432784, +234 (0)9092143198

Email: abieyuwa.o@nape.org.ng

Annual Dues ( N)




JANUARY 2021 - JULY 2021









































































































20 circles, 20 mentors, 79 mentees, 3

relationship managers and excellent

feedback received so far…

The mentoring program is a NAPE

initiative from the Vice President’s

office to aid in bridging the gap

b e t w e e n y o u n g p r a c t i c i n g

Geoscientists and Senior industry

leaders. The aim is to develop

emerging leaders in their early-mid

career and guide them on how to

remain relevant in the society. The

programme is tailored towards

leadership skills transfer, capture and

retention, as well as creating

awareness around the Energy

Transition. The program was formally

kicked off on 5th May 2021. 155

applications from different parts of

Nigeria and overseas were received

and reviewed while 79 NAPE

members were selected and assigned

to 20 mentors.

3 to 5 mentees were assigned to each

mentor to form a circle. In total, we

have 20 circles and as at 20th May, 14

circles have already had their 1st

monthly session. Feedback from

mentors and mentees have been


One of the mentors, Dr Layi Fatona,

FNAPE: Cirlcles-1 Mentor said “It’s

my honour to mentor ‘the gang of

4”. They were a very determined

bunch. I was thrilled by their

composure and self driven esteem.

They had a consensus of times and

how they accommodated each

other was quite admirable. There is

so much stuff in people yet to

manifest in this country. In our little

ways, we will make the individuals

better , and that means better

organization. I see so much bright

hope for NAPE. But, more for

themselves as individuals and their

respective organizations will be the

1st line winners. Thank you for

putting this together”. A mentee

from Circle-5 Ayobami Abegunrin,

shared his experience as follows “Its

really a nice initiative, as we all

could see, most of what was

discussed are not things you can

get in books/published articles”.

Similarly Folorunso Yusuf said

“This came at the right time. I would

channel my energy proper here in

Malaysia. I am more than glad” .

This 1st pilot mentoring circles will be

for 6 months. With success recorded

so far, plan is to institutionalise this

initiative and run it on annual basis as

we develop our emerging leaders in

the industry and academia.

bim Diri, NAPE Mentoring Circles

Programme Lead said: “We are

excited to launch NAPE ‘s first

formal mentoring Programme.

“As someone who has benefitted

from mentorship, I understand the

long-term impact of an initiative

like this”

Johnbosco Uche, NAPE Vice

President and NAPE Mentoring

Circles Initiator said: we are

delighted to kick-off the mentoring

programme promised to our


“This is an opportunity for valuable

support and leadership skills to be

transferred to NAPE members

looking to grow their career and

develop effective leadership”.




An excerpt from NAPE fellow’s retreat

As the energy transition

narrative continues

globally, changes will

continue to unfold in varying

degrees, creating opportunities

and new challenges.

However, it is important to have

a good understanding of what

energy transition is really about

especially as it relates to

evolving technology disruptions

in today`s unidirectional energy


The need for optimal use of

resources remains key as

inherent limitations are the

shapers of this debatable energy

transition, and with the buzz

around electrification, it is

important to know that the

ultimate solution for future

e n e r g y m o b i l i t y a k a

'decarbonized transportation'

remains a mix of energy carriers.

In discussing the subject of

Energy Transition, it is critical to

interrogate a number of

perspectives, some of them are:

I. Understanding energy

transition: the changing energy


ii. Developing strategies for

the energy transition: assisting

final consumers lower the


iii. The power grid of the future:

energy scenarios, market

scenarios, accrediting our lower

carbon activities

iv. Decarbonization of the

industry: our commitment to

advance a low carbon future.

v. O w n i n g t h e e n e r g y

transition: embracing the

expected challenges while

advocating for better policy

and clearer incentives.

vi. Succeeding in our new



progress and

The idea for a 2021 NAPE

Fellows' retreat evolved from the

dire need of acclimatising with

the current realities of our

industry. various topics came to

fore but all with the echo of

Energy Transition in their intents.

The theme for the Fellow's

Retreat was: Impact of Energy

Transition on the Oil and Gas

Industry and Repositioning

NAPE to Sustainably Adapt to

Energy Transition.

Our Fellows' position clearly

articulated the urgency and

importance of the theme and

NAPE's initiative to lead the drive

in embracing the energy


What is energy transition?

Energy Transition is simply about

Energy Mix, with higher

alternate/more sustainable forms

of energy sources contributing

more that “fossil fuel” or “black”

energy, if we are to go by the

street terms.

F o r u s a s F o s s i l f u e l

practitioners, this isn't a simple

charade of ideas. It is a

fundamental change for how we

do business, more importantly

how the world sustains itself.

However, for a developing nation

like Nigeria with zero to nonexistent

energy supply despite

large fossil fuel reserves and

production, it implies a tetraheaded

dimension to the

sustenance of the livelihood of

the populace.

This Energy Transition isn't like

the others, where we simply

evolved from one form of fossil

fuel to another. In this era, the

w o r l d i s c a l l i n g f o r a

decentralization of the fossil fuel

dependency and seeking more

dynamic energy mix which should

include solar, water, wind, waste

conversion and more.

In his submission, Dr Andrew

Ejayeriese FNAPE, FNMGS, a

former President of NAPE stated

that: The recent trends impacting

the industry include the oil price

wars, climate change the COVID-

19 pandemic and the Paris

Agreement-Net Zero Carbon




Global fundamentals that

haven't changed significantly:

Despite the growth of low carbon

renewable energy sources, a

2040 IEA world energy outlook

estimates that while low carbon

renewable energy sources

increased from 19% to 52%, the

natural oil and gas demand will

drop from 55% (2019) to 48%

(2040) contribution to the current

Energy Mix, with billions of

people still lacking access to

cheap and affordable energy.

P r o j e c t e d g l o b a l G D P

expansion is expected to drive

the growing energy demand.

Renewable sources of energy

are yet to make significant

development, demography

changes (growing population of

active working age) in Africa,

India and Asia pacific will also

shape the energy markets in the


The climate change challenges

also bring some opportunities for

the demand for gas, which

comes with a new supply

requirement to fill the future gap,

and Nigeria still has a chance to

make an impact.

In terms of Nigeria's unique

position, there are issues to be

dealt with, issues such as the

newly enacted Petroleum

Industry Bill, the ongoing IOC

divestment and Marginal Fields

bid rounds, the worsening

security concerns and the laws

against Gas flaring.

The climate change

challenges also bring

some opportunities

for the demand for

gas, which comes

with a new supply

requirement to fill

the future gap, and

Nigeria still has a

chance to make an


While a lot of gas is out there

waiting to be harnessed,

Science Tech and Geoscience

education is dropping in

standard with a dearth of our

curriculum and research


W i t h t h e o n g o i n g g a s

monetisation effort, Natural gas

will play a key role in Nigeria's

industrialisation agenda. With

t h e i m p r o v e d d o m e s t i c

utilisation of gas and the

continuous reduction in routine

flaring, in line with global

reduction in carbon emissions,

hopefully there will be a

corresponding improvement in

energy efficiency.

For NAPE, there are key roles to

play in embracing Energy

Transitions and these include:

• NAPE should continue

to take up the challenge and

seek opportunities for advocacy,

influencing, and being part of

n a t i o n a l p o l i c y m a k i n g


• Play a key role in

helping shape and support

Nigeria's transition from a crude

oil to gas economy; drive the

nation's industrial aspirations

and reduce emissions through

reduced flaring and improved

gas monetization.

• Advocate for better

regulatory framework that

makes oil and gas investments

attractive; ensure we play our

unique role as explorationists in

sustainably closing the supply

gap of the future.

• P r e p a r e y o u n g

geoscientists for the required

skillsets of the future (AI and

Machine Learning, CCS,

R e n e w a b l e s , D a t a a n d

Environmental Sciences etc.),

k e e p i n g u p w i t h g l o b a l

technological trends.

• Keep up the NAPE “A

F u t u r e - F o r w a r d S k i l l s e t ”

Program and Short Courses.

• N A P E U n i v e r s i t y

Assistance Program (UAP)

should take a lead role in

s u p p o r t i n g g e o s c i e n c e

d e p a r t m e n t s w i t h t h e s e


• Prepare for an active

role in transitioning the

hydrocarbon industry operations

from major IOC to small


Mr K-Kay Kanu, FNAPE

Over the past 200years, there

have been energy disruptions

every 50 to 60 years on the

average, with each transition

marked by a discernible driver,

hence Energy Transition is

basically moving from nonrenewable

(fossil fuel) to energy

mix dominated renewable


These transition phases are

Biomass - Coal - Oil and Gas and

currently, Renewables. Coal

displaced wood as it unlocked a

new demand source from steam

power to effectively enable the

world to industrialise, transition

to Oil and natural gas was driven

by transportation in the transition

from horse to cars, while the

most recent transition has been

driven largely by climate change

and pollution.

With human development

closely linked to energy

consumption, there is also a

The growing impact of

the Energy transition

o n O i l a n d G a s

Industry takes its

steam from climate

challenges, declining

i n v e s t m e n t a n d

development costs of

renewables, investor,

a n d c u s t o m e r

( s t a k e h o l d e r s )

pressure, as well as

prevailing government


growing ability to master different

forms of energy and transfer

them to improve the quality of life.

The growing impact of the

Energy transition on Oil and Gas

Industry takes its steam from

climate challenges, declining

investment and development

costs of renewables, investor,

and customer (stakeholders)

pressure, as well as prevailing

government regulations.

Embracing Energy Transition will

involve a big overhaul of our

current STEM curriculum,

strategically positioned for

advocacy influence and advice,

and our ability to be able to adapt

to the growing transition

requirements around our

technical know-how, industry/

business alignment as well as

advisory support to policy


A more focussed investment in

Research and Development.

Advancement for the growing

mix dominated renewable

sources is advocated for

alongside enterprise focussed

universities to adequately train

the growing youth population.

Organisations are encouraged to

develop a workforce strategy that

leverages the opportunities in the

renewal energy sector.

The over-arching triple Helix

strategic interactions of the



Energy Industry, university and

Government should be linked.

• G e o s c i e n t i s t s a n d

energy explorers are charged to

engage and adapt to the

changing policy and investment

landscape, contribute and lead

efforts to decarbonise the

current available energy system

and be nation “Nigeria”


Mrs. Patience Maseli, FNAPE

Should today's oil and gas

companies be viewed only as

part of the problem, or will we be

crucial in solving it? Considering

the degree of carbon emission,

we contribute to the atmosphere

and stratosphere. The following

f o c u s p r o v i d e s s o m e

perspectives on how we should

respond to the energy transition


• Rising demand for the

services provided by the energy

sector due to an increasing

global population.

Should today's oil

and gas companies

be viewed only as

part of the problem,

or will we be crucial

in solving it?

• Recognition of the critical role

oil and natural gas play in today's

energy and economic systems.

• The imperative to reduce

energy related emissions in line

with international climate targets

amidst Political urgency at the

international level.

• Our industry entry points in

the transition should include the


• Cost vs Reward potential:

consider the value of developing

low carbon technologies with

current industry operators.

• Collaboration Advocacy and

global industry engagement.

• Experience and Expertise

Knowledge sharing to support

climate solutions and achieve

net zero goals.

Prof K. Mosto Onuoha FAS,

FNAPE, FNMGS contributed on

the aspect of curriculum review &

Jobs creation as below:

The oil and gas industry is

currently facing opposition from a

public greatly concerned with the

environmental impact of fossil

fuels, ever more sceptical

shareholders and challenges

from policy makers seeking to

simultaneously meet energy

transition or decarbonisation

goals vis a vis expected oil and

gas demand.

The increasingly negative image

of the oil and gas industry

worldwide is a source of concern

for university educators. This is

also affecting the attraction of

potential students, with students

currently facing perceived or real

diminishing career prospects.

Despite these, the oil and gas

energy sources remain an

important part of the global

energy mix especially in

developing countries. Natural

gas has the potential to remain

an integral component of the low

carbon energy transition for

decades to come, however this is

dependent on the policy

mechanisms and technologies in


In the years ahead, our

geoscience programmes will

continue to thrive only if

Some future graduates

may find themselves

in occupations that

did not exist a decade

ago, while others will

find themselves in

occupations that are

yet to be invented.

graduates can demonstrate

well-grounded knowledge and

skill sets in innovative thinking.

In the light of the energy

transitions, the following

questions are important:

• What concepts, skills and

c o m p e t e n c i e s d o

u n d e r g r a d u a t e s n e e d t o

s u c c e e d i n t h e i r f u t u r e


• What are the best teaching

practices and most effective use

of technology available to

enhance student learning?

Courses and activities to be

adapted include Quantitative

reasoning and computational

skills. They need to be

incorporated into the existing

c u r r i c u l u m , a l o n g s i d e

p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s

(communication, teamwork,

project management and

employability skills).

Authentic field experiences

gathered through physical or

virtual field trips, research

projects, exercises with real data

acquisition and analysis, system

thinking, and problem-solving

skills will also need to be more

strategically and well designed

as part of the learning scheme.

Furthermore, geoscientists

need to combine critical thinking

skills. Lecturers need to become

adept at active teaching

strategies that pedagogical

research has shown to motivate

students and improve learning.

There is a need to introduce

experiential learning courses

and inquiry-based activities

a m o n g t h e a c a d e m i c


Learning should adopt current

and emerging technology and

computational models and

simulations with large data sets

in overall teaching.

Student needs to be helped to

b u i l d a m o r e d e t a i l e d

foundational understanding of

how the Earth system works, so

they can apply this knowledge to

c o m p l e x a n d p r e v a i l i n g

geoscience and industry issues.

In view of the emerging

transition, employers are already

responding to this new reality

that includes the use of

multidisciplinary teams drawn

f r o m a b r o a d r a n g e o f

background, experiences, and

capabilities to form integrated

teams. Opportunities for job

prospects keeps growing and

may include:

• A w i d e n i n g r a n g e o f

employment opportunities for


• Broader array of career

advancement opportunities for

staff with training in economics,

risk management, ethics & policy

and accompanied with soft

employability skills.

• Some future graduates may

find themselves in occupations

that did not exist a decade ago,

while others will find themselves

in occupations that are yet to be


As you prepare yourselves and

industry for the emerging

transition, I leave you to ponder

on these questions, as we

implore you to embrace and

prepare ahead for the emerging

scopes of the Energy Transition.

• Do you think Nigeria as a

country is ready for the Energy


• Do you think it is time for

NAPE to consider a name

change to reflect this current

propagation towards renewable

energies, as we look forward to

the emerging scopes of the

Energy Transition?

Compiled by - Tunbosun Afolayan


Corporate Ad

Our Ref: CoE/GPSE

Your Ref:





PMB 1154


Date: 07/06/2021

(A University of Benin and Industry Joint Initiative)


The Centre of Excellence in Geosciences & Petroleum Engineering (CoE), University of Benin is a collaborative

effort between the University and Industry partners and Stakeholders.


Applications are invited from suitably qualified candidates for admission into the following postgraduate

programmes by the Centre of Excellence in Geosciences and Petroleum Engineering:

Integrated Petroleum Exploration and Evaluation Studies (Geology or Geophysics Option)

and Integrated Petroleum Engineering and Production Studies

These programmes are aimed at developing skilled professional graduates in key areas of Geosciences and

Petroleum Engineering including exploration, appraisal, development, production and value creation required

in the Oil and Gas sector.

At the point of graduation, they would have acquired the requisite skills to make them function effectively in

the oil and gas industry as young professionals. The training programmes offered at the Centre ensure that the

graduates are well equipped with knowledge of up-to-date concepts and skills, current technologies and

methods, and have the ability to adapt to new demands in a dynamic and technologically driven world of the oil

and gas industry.

In addition, the programmes offer leadership training to make the graduates functional and productive in the

multidisciplinary approach necessary for solving subsurface problems in Geosciences and Petroleum

Engineering. The programmes will be executed with strong links to industry in the content and delivery modes.


The programmes are intended for highly motivated graduates wishing to pursue professional careers in

Geosciences and Petroleum Engineering, including practising professionals currently employed in the

Exploration and Production industry as well as Geosciences Agencies and Consulting firms or organizations.


The programmes will be offered on full-time basis for a full period of 18 calendar months which includes a

mandatory six months internship in an Exploration &Production Company or other Geosciences Organizations

and Agencies geared towards executing a practical research project.


Applications are invited from interested candidates as well as staff of corporate organizations and relevant


Chargeable fees for the programmes are competitive and comparable with the quality of learning delivered.


Applicants are advised to apply for external sponsorships.

Intended Applicants must possess either of the following:

• First degree from recognized Universities in Geology, Geophysics or Petroleum Engineering, with a


CGPA of 4.0.

• First degree in any other relevant fields in Physical Sciences or Engineering with a minimum CGPA of 4.0.

• Experienced Young professionals of Exploration & Production Companies, Geosciences Agencies &


and Consulting Companies with a minimum CGPA of 3.80 and a recommendation from their

sponsoring companies and agencies.


• Candidates should visit the www.myuniben.org website and click on the WAEUP PORTAL LINK.


• Click on REGISTER FOR APPLICATION after reading instructions on the page.

Follow the relevant steps outlined.

Payment is via the Interswitch platform which uses any valid ATM or CASHCARD for any commercial bank in


Photocopies of the degrees (academic transcripts to be requested from awarding institutions and sent to the

Postgraduate School).

Letter of recommendation from at least three (3) referees, one of who must be an academic staff of the

department from the graduating institution.

Corporate bodies and agencies that wish to nominate their staff can do so by endorsing completed application

forms as sponsors and requesters.

All candidates must provide a brief description in not more than one page of their work experience and current

task(s) and how the training will add value to them.

Application forms should be submitted online by 15th October, 2021 to:

The Secretary,

Postgraduate School,

University of Benin,

Benin City.

Shortlisted candidates will be notified and invited for interview towards final selection into the programme.



University of Benin,

Benin City.



of the WEBINAR of the Nigerian Association of Petroleum Explorationists (NAPE)on

“The Nigerian Oil and Gas Regulations: X-raying the Petroleum Industry Bill (PIB)”


held virtually onZOOM platformon Wednesday February 10 , 2021


The Nigerian Association of Petroleum Explorationists (NAPE) on Wednesday the 10


of February 2021 held its 2 Webinar Session titled:“The Nigerian Oil and Gas

Regulations: X-raying the Petroleum Industry Bill (PIB)”.

The objective of the Webinarwas to providea synthesized view from the perspectives of

Local independents, International Oil and gas companies and the Legal dimension on

the developing Petroleum Industry Bill with a view to articulating NAPE's position for

the improvement of the bill.

Two industry segments were represented on the panel of discussants, namely, The

Independent Petroleum Producers Group (IPPG) and The Oil Producers Trade Section

(OPTS) of the Lagos Chamber of Commerce and Industry. Additionally, a legal

perspective on the current draft of the PIB was presented on the panel by Advisory

Legal Services (an independent legal consultant).The OPTS perspectivewas built

around “The PIB and the ease of doing business” and was presented by Mr Sanjay

Nararimhalu, Director Downstream Gas, Chevron Mid-Africa.Mr Ademola Adeyemi-

Bero, MD/CEO of First E&P presented IPPG's “The Nigerian Oil & Gas Regulations: X-

Raying the Petroleum Industry Bill (PIB)”. And the legal perspective by Advisory Legal

Consultants' Adegbite Adeniji was built around “Petroleum Sector Governance – PIB


Arising from the various presentations and discussions that followed, NAPE concludes

that although the current draft of the PIB presents several strengths for which the

government should be commended, overall, the bill neither improves Nigeria's Global

competitiveness nor improves investor confidence. Therefore, NAPE,in recognition of

the need to align the bill with Nigeria's aspirations to create a globally competitive

energy sector capable of balancing government returns and investor confidenceas well

as promote the growth and development of indigenous players, suggests the

improvements below.

1. To achieve an investor-friendly industry with local and global

competitiveness for capital to:

a) Grow crude oil and gas reserves to 40 billion barrels and 110 TCF

of(appraised and developed gas), respectively.

b) Grow crude oil and gas production to 3 million barrels per day and 10 B C F/ d ay

gas production daily, and eliminate routine gas flaring,

c) Develop infrastructure for gas-based industrialisation and electrical power

generation, and

d) Increase LNG capacity to 40 MPTA in order to hold market share in global


Governmenttake at 55-65% does not support capital attraction. Government would

need to increase the allowable operating cost (T1) and Capital cost (T2) recovery to be

greater than 70% as is typical in several new PSCs in Africa.Government should also

increase the annual deductible capital allowance from 10% to 20% in order to give

lenders more comfort to support E&P companies through Reserve-Based-Lending and

project financing.

New Deep Water(DW) oil projects should be granted an escalating royalty regime

based on cumulative production from first production or a 5-yr royalty holiday with

Hydrocarbon Tax removed.New DW non-associated gas projects require lower royalty

rates to unlock.

Government should allow for the preservation of existing projects and earned rights by

retaining rights to contractual dispute resolution – including not forfeiting claims on

existing disputes, stabilisation of historical legislative and regulatory changes which

impacted past investment returns, sustain PSC/PSA tax benefits earned but not utilised

by conversion date (such as ITCs and ITAs) on conversion, retention of earned

allowances in upstream for AGFA based investments and the right to subsurface


2. The legal drafting aspects need to:

a) Clarify and remove uncertainties on the industry structural and legal

framework. The governing board of the Petroleum Regulatory Commission

should accommodate all6 executive commissioners (rather than only 4) in

support of the concept of collective responsibility and equality of

commissioners for the works of the commission as well as provide for

staggered appointments.

b) Synergise thecontributions of and interfaces between the ministries of

petroleum, power and environment.

c) Simplify the tax system and administration to ensure clarity,

includingdispute resolution mechanisms.

d) Preserve base businesses and rights by providingclear assurances to

investors with regards to the sanctity of existing contracts at conversion

often hinged on long term investments requiring contract sanctity to boost

investor confidence.

e) Clear delineation of roles amongst industry players and the removal of

multiple regulations with underlying bureaucratic challenges and resultant

approval delays.

3. Reduce the high cost of doing business by:

a) Entrenching best practice in lease renewal and bid rounds. Provide for the

commission to create the framework, benchmarks and boundaries and

exceptions for all FDPs for automatic award of a PML when FDPs have been

approved. Provide clarity on maintenance of Marginal Field Fiscal and nonrequirement

to pay gas or price-based royalties.

b) Holistically addressing the above ground risksusingpolicy and legislation

toimprove security and reduce community agitation, bureaucracy and

ineffective governance.Provide for host community payments to be 1.5% of

profits from preceding year.

c) Introducing legislation to drive down high cost premium. Reduce the

plethora of taxes, fees, and levies which currently amounts to about 10%

increase in costs given that Nigerian costs at are higher than the global

average by over 69% for projectsand 42% for operations.

d) Amend the clauses abandonment and environmental remediation to

introduce flexibility to accommodate different funding options apart from

only escrow account to meet objective.

4. Improve the midstream and downstream regulatory environment by:

a) Full deregulation of the downstream sector and radical increase of

domestic refining capacity to reduce dependence on petroleum products


b) Enabling profit-reflective tariff on a willing seller/willing buyer basis.

c) The sustainable injection of liquidity through the prompt payment for gas

consumed and the payment of arrears.

d) Enabling investments in gas with focus on the multiplier effects on the

economy rather than on gas sales proceeds.

e) Given that the products sector has been or needs to be deregulated, gas

needs to move towards commercially driven pricing. Amend to allow willing

buyer willing seller basis.The PIB should include a clear path towards

transitioning to a free market-based pricing.

5. Post PIB implementation of the new framework to address:

a) The reduction of contracting cycles and the high structural cost in upstream

projects execution.

b) Inclusion ofprovisions which require the commission (and the authority) to

consult with the public prior to drafting regulations.

Mrs. Patricia Ochogbu, FNAPE

President (2020 - 2021)

Dr. James Edet, FNAPE

President - Elect (2020 - 2021)

This Commique was submitted to the National Assembly as NAPE’s Position ahead of the Passage of the PIB.

Values of Surveillance, Production Data and Subsurface

Modeling in Horizontal Well Planning and Execution in

an Offshore Niger Delta Reservoir

Mohammed Bilyaminu, Enekhai Oshobugie, OyieEkeng, Emeka Anyanwu,

Eric Tuitjer, Ibeh Chijioke, Nnaemeka Nwamara, Okoro Innocent.

Chevron Nigeria Limited

Peer Reviewed Technical Article


D01 is a mature reservoir offshore Niger Delta with approximately 45% recovery from seven producers (three are still active,

one of which is Loc-04, a horizontal well drilled to accelerate production/reserve growth). Reservoir pressure has only

declined by 8% partly due to water injection which commenced at inception. The stratigraphy consists of an upper highly

heterogenous transgressive and two lower multi-Darcy regressive layers.Successful placement of a horizontal well in a high

permeability, re-saturated and heterogeneous, water flood reservoir like the D01 can be challenging and requires careful

integration of all subsurface data. This paper discusses the values derived from such an exercise. Initial assessment grossly

underestimated the impact of stratigraphic heterogeneities as later seen in saturation logs, earth and simulation models. The

assessment overestimated the oil column by assuming uniform fluid contacts from production data with no gas cap

expansion. Saturation logs showed a smaller oil column and placed the column partly into the original gas zone contrary to

prior assessment. However, active completions in other parts of the reservoir are deeper than the Current Oil-Water-Contact

(COWC) seen in the saturation logs. These suggested non-uniform fluid contacts and a receding gas cap. Contacts tracking

in two post-production wells using a simulation model confirmed these findings. The saturation logs also show ~20ft of 'bypassed'

oil zones below the interpreted COWCs. These zones were marked by stratigraphic changes seen in static and

dynamic models, which possibly influenced the observed fluid movements. Thus, the proposed Loc-04 well trajectory was

relocated, and its lateral section further optimized. Loc-04 well pressure test results confirmed a receding Gas-Oil-Contact

(GOC) with re-saturation of the gas zone. The results also indicated that a small shale layer acts as a localized barrier to flow.

Loc-04 well was successfully drilled and is on course to meet its expected recovery.In reservoirs with similar oil properties and

re-saturation history, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) survey should not be expected to resolve GOC uncertainty - rely

on pressure measurements instead. Subtle stratigraphic contrasts in water flooded reservoirs can influence fluid

movements.Utilized wells near proposed new drills for acquisition of saturation logs. Used near bit multi-azimuthal resistivity

tool to geo-steer the lateral well section through the heterogenous reservoir portion.

Keywords: Surveillance, subsurface, modelling, reservoir pressure, heterogenous, simulation, contacts, reservoir


D01is a matured reservoir located in Field 'A' offshore Niger Delta with approximately 38 Million Stock Tank Barrels of Oil

(MMSTBO) recovery over its 23years production history from seven producers, three of which are still active. It consists of

over 300feet (ft) hydrocarbon column in a three-way fault assisted trap downthrown of a listric fault. The reservoir

stratigraphyis made up of a well-developed massive sand sub-divided into a highly heterogenous transgressive upper layer

and two lower multi-Darcy regressive layers.Most of the producers were completed in the more homogeneous layer which

contains the highest volumes.The reservoir has recovered nearly45% with only about 8% pressure decline. Pressure support

comes from a combination of basal and edge water drive, and water injection which commenced shortly after inception of

production in 1997. A total of 80.2 MillionBarrels of Water (MMBW) have been injected till date with a cumulative Voidage

Replacement Ratio (VRR) of 0.77.Recent reservoir studies and well results revealed stratigraphic controls on fluid flow

resulting in non-uniform fluid contacts; oil re-saturation of gas zone; and economically viable development opportunities

within the reservoir.

Placing a horizontal well in such a high permeability, re-saturated and heterogeneous, waterflood reservoir with high recovery

was quitedelicate and required careful integration of all subsurface data (such as production, wireline and saturation logs as

well as earth and simulation models); values derived from this exercise are discussed below.

Regional Geologic Setting:

The field is located offshore western Niger Delta within the Miocene extensional tectonic setting which is characterized by the


typical Niger Delta-style

major listric growth faults.

Sediments are majorly

deposited in a mixedinfluenced

setting in a wave

dominated delta (Figure 1 ).

Figure 1:Location of D01reservoir in Niger Delta Depobelts (Left) and within field structural setting (right) .

Figure 2: Seismic Dip Line showing Main, East and North Blocks within

Field Geology

Field Structural Setting

The field is a simple

e x t e n s i o n a l s t r u c t u r e

comprising the main block

characterized by rollover

anticlines set up by a large

structure building listric

growth fault (Fault 1) and two

smaller fault blocks defined

b y t w o o t h e r m a j o r

extensional faults converging

behind Fault 1 (Figure 2 ).

The main and the east blocks

have proven hydrocarbons;

the main block contains 90%

of the hydrocarbon in the field

and can be described as a

roll-over structure within the

hanging wall of the main

structure building fault.

The shallower reservoirs in the main block are mainly 4-way dip hydrocarbon accumulations whereas the deeper sandsare 3-

way fault dependent structures. Oil and gas discovered in the east block were trapped within a structural wedge on the

footwall of Fault 1 but there was no hydrocarbon discovery in the north block.

Field Depositional Setting and Stratigraphy

The field comprised thirteen (13) reservoirs distributed across five sand series. The shallowest sands(C-series) are within an

approximate depth of 4,500 ft to 8,000 ft. True Vertical Depth Sub-Sea (TVDSS) and are mostly gas-bearing reservoirs. The

D-sand series in which the subject reservoir is found, contains 78% of proven oil in place volumein the field and was

encountered between 5,000 ft. to 8,000 ft. TVDSS approximate depth. The deepest hydrocarbon bearing sands are the E-

sand series which are encountered at an approximal depth of 8,000 ft. to 9,500 ft. TVDSS and are mostly condensate

bearing( ).

A Biostratigraphic analysis of Well-02 (1992) described the hydrocarbon bearing stratigraphic intervals in Field 'A' to be of

Late Miocene to Middle Pliocene age as held by Martini (1971), Blow (1969) and Bolli& Saunders (1988), see and .

From lithologic description of ditch-cuttings and wireline log motifs, A Biostratigraphic, Paleoenvironmental and Sequence

Stratigraphic Analysis of Well-01 well (1997) indicated that Field 'A' stratigraphic intervals belong to the paralic Agbada

Formation. Interpretation of paleoenvironments and other offset data during the analysisseparated the stratigraphy into two

(2) main lithofacies sequences which span three (3) lithofacies units within the Niger Delta Agbada formation consistent with

classification ofEvamyet al. (1978), see . Lithofacies sequence 2 has been subdivided into two lithofacies units based on the

recognition of repetitive progradational up-ward-shoaling patterns within the sequence.

Hydrocarbon resources are concentrated in Lithofacies Unit 1 (D, E and F sand series) and Unit 2A (C01, C05, C09 and C10



Routine core analysis and geologic

interpretation indicate an overall wave

dominated setting with mostly Lower –

Upper Shoreface sediments deposited

in wave and storm-dominated

shorelines (Junaid, 2017). Clear

majority of the sediments are relatively

clean sandstones (100 to >10,000md)

that were deposited as part of a series

of stacked, prograding deltaic

shoreface successions. The core

sampled three (3) thick successions

(Lower regression, middle regression

and an upper transgression) exhibiting

coarsening upwards (regression) and

fining upward (transgression) stacking

patterns that are clearly seen in all the

wells that penetrate the subject D01

reservoir; these patterns can also be

clearly seen in shallow sands like the


Figure 3:Field ‘A’ Composite Logs showing sand series within the field and descriptions.

Reservoir Geology


D01 is a saturated reservoir discovered

in 1976 by Well-01. It has a total of

twelve (12) well penetrations; seven of

which have been completed and

produced while two were completed as

water injectors. This is the only

developed and producing reservoir in

the field.

D01reservoir has a Stock Tank Oil

Originally in Place (STOOIP) of 85.41

MMSTBO and Estimated Ultimate

Recovery (EUR) of 51.65 MMSTBO. It

also has an Original Solution Gas in

Place (OSGIP) of 107.70Billion Cubic

Feet (BCF) and EUR of 70.82

BCF.Production started in October

1997 and has continued till date with

c u m u l a t i v e p r o d u c t i o n o f

38.18MillionBarrels of Oil (MMBO)and

61.19BCF of gas by year end 2019. The

current reserves estimate is 13.47

MMSTBO and 10.64 BCF of gas.

Figure 4: Foraminiferal Biozonation of Field ‘A” from Well - 02

(Blow, 1969/1979; and Bolli& Saunders,1988)

Table 1: Field ‘A’ Lithostratigraphic Sub-divisionsfrom analysis of Well-01 (Evamyet al.. (1978).

Depth Interval


5046 – 2950

6879 - 5046

10240 - 6879


Progradational unit

Sand-shale alternations

Sand-shale ratio: - 25:75

Progradational unit

Sand-shale alternations

Sand-shale ratio:- 24:76

Agradational unit

Sand-shale alternations

Sand-shale ratio:- 35:65







1 1


2 Agbada

Reservoir Structure

The D01structure is a rollover anticline formed by the main growth fault (Fault 1). The structure strikes NW-SE and

hydrocarbons are trapped within a 3-way dip closure on the downthrown side of Fault 1 ( Figure 5). In addition to flat spots and

clear Original Oil-Water-Contacts (OOWCs) in several wells, borehole velocities provided very good seismic-to-well tie and

control points for depth stretching velocities.


Figure 5:D01Reservoir Structural Map (left), Seismic Section (middle) and Typelog with key stratigraphic layers (right)

The twelve (12) well penetrations in theD01top structure generally provide enough well control for the structural crest.

However, there is significant depth uncertainty in the southern portion of the reservoir where there is no well penetration. A

review of the seismic data shows a velocity push down effect in the southern area directly below the shallower gas-filled

C01to C05 sands – this resulted in a structural nose and a depression in that region ( ). The D01 time structure map

compares reasonably well with the depth-converted equivalent ( , Maps A & B), indicating that the structural nose is inherent

in the seismic data and not caused by the velocity volume used in depth conversion. Therefore, the push down noted on the

seismic which created the structural nose in that region of the reservoir can only be caused by slower velocities within the

thick gas columns above the reservoir.

The hydrocarbon column is defined by an Original Gas-Oil-Contact (OGOC) from pressure data at -7235ft. subsea and an

OOWC from well logs at -7364ft.TVDSS (Figure 10 and Figure 11)

Figure 6:D01 top reservoir maps and 3D Seismic Section showing the impact of shallower gas reservoirs on top structure

maps (‘A’ is two-way-time (TWT) structure map; ‘B’ is a depth structure map not constrained to well; ‘C’ is a depth

structure map constrained to wells; ‘D’ is a depth structure map without gas effect.

Reservoir Stratigraphy

D01 reservoir log motif shows

three distinct stacking

patterns across the entire

reservoir; a lower Regression

1, a middle Regression 2 and

an upper Transgression. The

interpretation of core, log

signatures and seismic data

for the reservoir show that

c l e a r m a j o r i t y o f t h e

sediments were deposited in

wave and storm-dominated

shoreface environments as

part of a series of stacked,

p r o g r a d i n g d e l t a i c

successions (Figure 5, Figure

8 and Figure 9)..

The sand units are dominantly coarsening upwards, clean and well developed with very good permeabilities averaging

between 800 to 3000 millidarcies (mD). A super high permeable layer of about 15000 mDruns across the entire reservoir

(Figure 7 and Figure 8).


Figure 7:Lithofacies and Depofaciesinterpretation from Well-03

Core Data for the D01Reservoir (Junaid, 2017).

Figure 8:Core Data from Well-03 in the D01reservoir range of Permeabilities.

Reservoir thickness and quality

increase to the north-northwest and

degrade off-structure. The average

reservoir properties are; gross

thickness of 320 ft., porosity of 0.26,

Net-to-Gross (NTG) of 0.96, and water

saturation (Sw) of 0.22 (Figure 9).

Initial Reservoir Evaluation

During thepreliminary development

opportunity evaluation of the D01

reservoir, an assessmentof thecurrent

fluid contacts andremaining oil

volumewas carried outmainlybased on

Material Balance (MBal) analysis and

well logs.

This assessment resulted in 30.70

MMSTBO of estimated Current Oil in

Place (COIP) volume within a sixty-four

feet (64ft.) remaining oil column which

was defined by aCurrent Gas-Oil-

Contact (CGOC) at -7225 ft.TVDSS and

a Current Oil-Water-Contact (COWC)

at -7289 ft.TVDSS;predicting a

regression of the OGOC by 3ft. and

COWC by 76ft. (Figure 10 and Figure

11). The assessment presumed a

stabilized system with uniform fluid

contacts due to stoppage of water

injection five years prior and a minimal

withdrawal of about 1,000 barrels of oil

per day (bopd).

Figure 9:Stratigraphic section describing the stratigraphic layers and trends within the D01reservoir.

Figure 10:D01reservoir fluid distribution maps at original state (left) and current state based on initial assessment (right).


As a result, a horizontal sidetrack (Loc-

01), was proposed to be drilled in the

northwestern flank of the reservoir

where there is no active producer ( ).

The well was proposed to be landed

attic of all active producers within the

homogenous upper regressive

stratigraphic unit.

Further Assessment and Reservoir


A more detailed reservoir study

integrating all available data was

carried out to include; re-interpretation

of core data acquired in the reservoir,

re-processing of wireline log data, recharacterization,

building of new earth

and simulation models. The earth

model highlighted stratigraphic

heterogeneities that could impact fluid

flow. The simulation model (completed

in February 2018) indicated some

influence of water injection on fluid

movement from the dominant water

injector (Well-07iinjected 80% of

cumulative volumes); this resulted into

tilted fluid contacts in the north western

area, a receding gas cap and a resaturation

of part of the gas zone with oil

(Figure 12 ).

Figure 11:Structural log section showing original and current (initial assessment) fluid distributions within D01reservoir

and proposed well location.

Figure 12:Cross section through D01reservoir simulation model at end of history showing impact of water injection on fluid

flow (left), inset map showing sloping contacts and location of proposed wells (middle), and Well-06 Saturation log (right).

A Saturation log acquired in proximity

tothe proposedLoc-01 well showed a

smaller than expected COIP of 27.78

MMSTBO and a 54ft. of oil column, 42ft.

of which was distributed in the zone

originally occupied by gas. However,

active completions in other parts of the

reservoir are deeper than the COWC

seen in the saturation log. These

Figure 13:D01Simulation model Cross Section along well paths showing fluid contact tracking over time in post-production


suggested non-uniform fluid contacts and a receding gas cap. A validation exercise was carried out on the simulation model to

test how well it predicted fluid contacts logged through the production life of the reservoir. The model closely matched the

GOC logged by Well-11hst2 drilled in 2004 (-7229ft. TVDSS) and Well-03st1 drilled in 2006 (-7243 ft. TVDSS), see Figure 13


Tectonic tilting and hydrodynamic sloping contacts are not uncommon (Dickey, 1988 and Estrada, 2000). Consequently, a

sloping contact approach was adapted with thickening of the oil column away from the north (where Loc-01 is located) to the

south east – this led to the re-location of the proposed well to the southern flank (see Loc-02 in Figure 12 ) with no change in

the landing depth.


A second saturation log was acquired in

the southern area from Well-04hst1

(September 2018) close to the

proposed Loc-02 in order to ensure

spatial understanding of the current

hydrocarbon column thickness. The

results are largely comparable with

those from the first saturation log but

with a smaller (43ft.) oil column, 37ft.of

which was distributed into the zone

originally occupied by gas (Figure 14,

see log on the left). The contact logged

by this saturation log puts the lateral of

Loc-02about 5ft. above the logged

COWC (Figure 14, see cross section on

the right).

Figure 14:Well-04st1 Saturation log (left) and Cross Section through earth model facies showing reservoir heterogenities

and locations/placements of all proposed wells within the D01 reservoir (right).

Both saturation logs show about 20ft. of 'by-passed' oil zones below the interpreted COWCs. These zones were marked by

stratigraphic changes seen in static and dynamic models, which possibly influenced the observed fluid movements.

Based on this,Loc-02 was further revised shallower (Loc-03, see cross section on Figure 14), but this resulted in lower oil

recovery predicted by simulation model. In addition, there is high structural uncertainty in this area (which could impact the

toe)due to the effect of slower velocities on the seismic data caused by shallow gas reservoirs discussed earlier (see Figure

6 ). Therefore, it became necessary to move the well towards existing well control and raise the lateral section into an area

with better reservoir quality (Loc-04).

Consequently, Loc-04 was chosen as

the final proposed well location in

consideration of all the data.The lateral

section was also planned to cut across

the stratigraphic layers. Loc-04 is ~530

meters away from and ~48 feet above

the shallowestactive completion.


The actual well results indicated great

consistency of the stratigraphy with the

earth model. A3ft. shale layer was found

acting as a localized barrier to flow

(Figure 15). The 3ft. shale buffer

separates a gas zone above it from the

oil zone below; revealing the gas limit to

be 16ft. deeper than the expected GOC

defined by the saturation logs, this

confirmed the impact of stratigraphy

seen in the earth and simulation


Figure 15:Permeability property (left) and Loc-04 actual log showing logged . contacts, shale buffer and actual well path.

Formation Pressure Gradients from

Loc-04 confirmed the receding GOC

with re-saturation of the gas zone as

assessed; the entire current proven oil

column is within the original gas zone. It

is defined by an HKO at -7217ft. TVDSS

and LKO at -7226 ft. TVDSS (Figure 15

and Figure 16).

Figure 16:Identification of GOC using Pressure data and Correlation to Loc -04 well log (note the 3ft. shale barrier).


Another challenge encountered was the difficulty in identifying

the GOC in real-timeduring drilling, which was an anchor point

for landing the well. Logging While Drilling (LWD) Nuclear

Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is known to be very sensitive to

gas and successfully used to characterize oil and gas

reservoirs as described by Bittner et al. (2006), Thorsen et

al.(2008) and Stanley et al. (2017), therefore was relied upon

to identify the GOC.A pre-job modeling performed using the oil

API gravity (41 ) and 1000 Gas-Oil-Ratio (GOR) showed

limited transverse magnetization time (T2) shift expected

between oil and gas, but confirmed a significant porosity (pu)

contrast at the GOC (4-5 pu deficit in 100% oil rim and up to 12

pu deficit in gas with 30/70% oil/gas mix). However, the tool

could not define the gas-oil boundary due to the light API

gravity of the oilworsened by the re-saturation effect. A backup

formation pressure tool was deployed to definitively identify

the GOC and land the well Figure 17.

Figure 17: Fluid boundaries in Loc-04 well defined from LWD NMR and Pressure Data/Correlation of shale buffer to Fluid

and Lithology.

Loc-04well was successfully completed, brought on production at an Initial Production(IP) rate of 2000 bopd and is on course

to meet the expected EUR.


The initial assessment of the development opportunity in the D01reservoir overestimated the remaining oil column and

volume, predicted negligible movement in the GOC over time and assumed flat fluid contacts since there was no water

injection in the last few years with very minimal withdrawal. The assessment didn't envisage that GOC has significantly

receded into the gas zone and substantial oil volume has re-saturated that zone. Reservoir heterogeneities were not seen to

be a significant influence on the current distribution of fluid within the reservoir. Depth uncertainty was not considered a major

concern except for the shallow gas effect. However, with the meticulous integration of all static and dynamic data, the true

status of the current conditions within the reservoir was established. Consequently, the horizontal well was properly placed,

successfully executed and put on production as seen in the actual well results.

Lessons Learned

Integration of saturation logs with production data enabled correct assessment of the development opportunity, placement of

the horizontal well within the oil column and design of the lateral section for optimal performance.

When evaluating for further development opportunities, it is expedient to ascertain the actual current fluid conditions within

matured water flooded reservoirs early in the assessment stage.

In such reservoirs with very little contrast between the oil and gas properties and re-saturation history, NMR alone might not

be enoughto resolve GOC uncertainty - incorporate formation pressure measurements also.

Subtle stratigraphic contrasts can influence fluid movements and create by-passed zones in water flooded reservoirs.

Best Practices

Wells near proposed new drills were utilized for acquisition of saturation logs.

Re-evaluated data using new methodologies/knowledge.

Near bit multi-azimuthal resistivity tool was used to geo-steer the lateral well section through the heterogenous reservoir



Inability to identify CGOC using NMR tool to land the well – this was resolved with formation pressure surveys (Figure 16 and

Figure 17). Radioactive sands encountered in Loc-04 Well appearing as low gamma ray on LWD logs was addressed in realtime

using volume of shale calculation while drilling (Figure 15).


We thank Chevron Nigeria Limited (CNL) management and our partner National Petroleum Investment Management

Services (NAPIMS) for permission to publish this work. We also thank our colleagues whose technical inputs were

extensively used in the assessment of the opportunity as well as planning, drilling and completing the well.



Junaid S. (2017): Sedimentological Analysis and Core Description of A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I Fields. Study Report number


Biostratigraphic, Paleoenvironmental and Sequence Stratigraphic Analysis of Well-01. Global Energy Company Limited

(1997), 4 – 30.

Biostratigraphic Analysis Report of Well-02. Report Number CH 9104. Goetrex Systems Ltd (1992), 21– 37.

Martini, E. (1971): Standard Tertiary and Quaternary Calcareous Cannoplankton zonation. In: Farinacci (Editor),

Proceedings II Planktonic Conference, Roma(1970), 2:739-785.

Bolli, H. M. and Saunders, S. B. (1988): Oligocene to Holocene low latitude planktic foraminifera. In Bolli, H.M.: Saunders,

J.B. and Perch-nielsen, K (Eds.), Plankton Stratigraphy. Cambridge University Press:155 – 262.

Blow, W. H. (1969): Late Middle Eocene to Recent Planktic foraminiferal biostratigraphy. Proceeding first International

Conference Planktonic Microfossils, Geneva (1967), 199-422.

Evamy, D. D.; Haremboure, J; Kamerling, P; Knaap W.A.; Molloy, F.A. and Rowlands, P.H. (1978): Hydrocarbon Habitat of

Tertiary Niger Delta. American Association of Petroleum Explorationists Bulletin 62(1), 1-39.

Dickey, P. A.: ¨Discussion of Hydrodynamic Trapping in the Cretaceous NahrUmr Lower Sand of the North Area, Offshore

Qatar¨ Journal of Petroleum Technology (1988), 1075-1076.

Estrada, C. and Mantilla, C. Tilted oil water contact in the Cretaceous Caballos Formation, Puerto Colon Field, Putumayo

Basin, Colombia. Paper SPE 59429. Presented at the Society of Petroleum Engineers Asia Pacific Conference,

Yokohama, Japan, April 25–26, 2000.

Thorsen, A.K., Eiane T., Thern, H., Kroken, A., Iversen, M., Antonsen, F. Enhanced Net-to-Gross Understanding for

Horizontal-Development Drilling in Complex Mature Reservoirs, Paper SPE 109274. Presented at the SPE Western

Regional and Pacific Section AAPG Joint Meeting, Bakersfield, California, March 31–April 2, 2008.

Stanley, O., Ono, D., Victor, O., Charlie, T. Gas Identification in Thin Beds using LWD Measurements – West Africa Offshore

Example. Paper SPE 189055-MS. Presented at the SPE Nigeria Annual International Conference and Exhibition, Lagos,

Nigeria, July 31 –August 2, 2017.

Bittner, R., Komarek, F., Thern, H. F., Kruspe, Th., Kirkwood, A., Chemali, R. Magnetic Resonance While Drilling – A

Quantum Leap in Everyday Petrophysics. Paper SPE 100336. Presented at the SPE Europec/EAGE Annual

Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, June 12–15, 2006.




The Oil and Gas industry is gender-less,

well to correct the impression, it isn't

masculine. It is simply a business, an

industry that creates one of the most

important human needs after the basic

human needs of air, water, shelter and

security. It is a vibrant industry that creates

energy. Energy, in itself powers life.

When I got your invite to speak on this

topic, these were my first thoughts.

The Oil and Gas industry isn't about

females and/or males. It is about innovation.

It is a place for restless, inquisitive yet

solution-oriented individuals such as you

and I to come, roll up our sleeves and get to

work. Essentially, it shouldn't matter

whether I am female, and you are male or

female - the important thing is this: I have a

sleeve, I am opportune to showcase my

skills and I am willing to roll it up and deliver.

With this, I hope I have helped to shape your

mindset about this unconscious misnomer

or bias that has permeated the Oil and Gas

industry and the world through the entirety

of its existence and has allowed it to lose the

outstanding intellectual capacity of humans,

simply because their genitals are different.

(Pardon my French)

However, I am not here to play the ostrich

and deny that there are many issues to

discuss about the roles of females in the

industry, so let me begin with facts.

A 2018 study by the Petroleum Equipment

and Services Association, PESA, in

partnership with Accenture, showed that

only 16% of the more than 250,000 people

employed across the oil and gas industry

are women, only 3.6% are in the offshore


workforce. Women hold less than 17% of

executive jobs in oil and gas and just 1% are


The situation is starker in technical

operating functions, such as manufacturing,

engineering, or research. PESA data shows

women make up 9% of the global workforce

and 8% of the U.S. workforce but they make

up less than 7% of the highest-ranking


Oil and Gas Industry stakeholders are

kinder than those of manufacturing,

engineering, and research companies.

But as shareholders exert pressure on oil

and gas companies to embrace women

across all levels of employment, leadership

numbers are improving.

As a contrast, The PESA study found

companies with at least 30% female leaders

end up raking in 6% higher net margins, and

companies with a higher percentage of

women in executive positions have a 34%

higher total return to shareholders than

those that do not. Let's not assume the

shareholders are about profit (there must be

something more than that, but even if they

were, isn't that good returns for their


So why the clamour for females' inclusion

and what are the challenges? Is there

sexism in the Oil and Gas Industry? These

are questions we all seek answers to.

Let me take you on a memory lane, while I

was in school in the very early 2000, in my

class, it was a ratio of one female to ten

males, we were twelve girls in the class of

about a hundred in total, now five of the girls

are in the oil and gas, academia and


So, what truly is the role of females in the oil

and gas industry. What value do we bring to

this workforce?

Ÿ Diversity of Thoughts, not gender:

At present, with the abysmally low ratio of

women to men and correspondingly proven

contribution, now you can only imagine the

industry success if we can have equal

proportions in the workplace.

A more diverse and inclusive workforce

should be a strategic agenda for

organisations in the oil and gas industry.

Women bring feminine (result driven)

leadership skillset and behaviours. It isn't

about diversity of gender. A more balanced

team makes better decisions.

It is no longer the case that the Oil and Gas

or Energy industry is a man's world. In fact,

the world and I mean the people in it, while

they enjoy the finished product of our

industry, most of them cannot comprehend

what our industry is about.

With the lingering miscommunication with

other stakeholders and misconception

about the pollution our industry generates, I

think we are better off educating the

populace regardless of their gender and

opening our minds for better “womanly”

ideas. Remember, the woman speaks the

language of both genders.

And if I may ask you to look around you, and

look at the faces of your smart and

intelligent colleagues and friends, are you

looking at them through the gender or

intelligence prism?

The Oil and Gas Industry must make hay to

not miss out on the innovative contributions

a more diverse team brings to solving

industry challenges.

Ÿ The creative integration of Work, Life

and Family Expressions:

These three elements are not mutually

exclusive, and there is no better gender who

expresses these more than the female.

While it is still considered from a stereotypic

perspective, the current decline in mental

health and stability has shown us that these

things must be present in a person to live a

fulfilling life.

Imagine the burden of working so hard and

losing self or enjoying family to lose out on

work. Having female in the workplace, while

not a guarantee for 100% result, assures us

that there is a place for improvement, and

being a female gives that leverage and

that's what the workplace needs.

With more female choosing to study STEM

(Science, Technology, Engineering, and

Mathematics) subjects, we are gradually

seeing a natural pathway into the industry

with (let me be optimistic here, a better

health,stability, and growth potential).

Looking to the future, the industry needs

more women to help it achieve greater

parity and the progress begins with the

simple things, of allowing females to thrive.

Ÿ To diffuse the ideology of STEM as

an anomaly:

STEM subjects are not an anomaly, neither

are they difficult, even though we have been


taught to believe so. Like most other

disciplines, it requires a lot of innate

ingenuity, that everyone possesses, works

on certain basic principles, and best

expressed with a curious mindset. Practice

rather than this innate ability improves

performance and delivers results.

There are many females, pioneering

women who have brought solutions to the

industry, and if you ask them their stories -

you hear different narratives. Some will say

they were treated like the odd one, while

others will say they were not treated any


This reveals a certain mindset, one

influenced mostly by our cultural ideologies

and practices. So yes, culturally, we have

come to accept that women in STEM is an

anomaly, or worse still that STEM is for

exceptionally brilliant minds. I am still

confused as to why and how we assess

brilliance or intelligence using a singular

yardstick when nature and nurture suggests

that we are all different, with different skills

and strengths.

STEM isn't an anomaly, neither are stem


These three points, I haveshared, are to

highlight the fact that the roles of a female in

oil and gas while not different from the roles

of men in oil and gas; better female inclusion

will provide a better gain for humanity and

the industry will benefit more by intentionally

encouraging and embracing the dynamic

sets of skills that females bring on board.

Or don't you agree?

Before I conclude, let me highlight the roles

and needed contribution that everyone,

men and women alike must play in helping

our endangered species “female” to fully

d e l i v e r g r o w t h , p r o f i t a b i l i t y a n d

sustainability to our industry. I would leave it

at practical actions that you as students can

engage in to contribute and actively play a


1. Advocate and Promote Brilliance. Your

brilliant colleague is your brilliant colleague,

it is irrelevant whether she is female or not.

Encourage her, support her and where

possible promote her. E.g.,You have a very

smart colleague who you know her diverse

skills and what she can do, talk positively

about her, remember - we rise by lifting


2. Practice Equity not Equality. Equality is

sameness and equity is fairness, females

need to have access to the same

opportunities as the male have had access


3. Change the Stereotype. Including

images of female geologists or scientists in

presentations, classroom materials and

assigning individual or group work that

summarizes or contextualizes women's

achievements in these subjects can also

shift perceptions. Foster an environment for

collaboration, reflection, and healthy

competition to make for inclusiveness and

sustained female students' interest.

In conclusion: I would like to say that there

has been a lot of positives since this woman

emancipation discourse started or gained

public attention over a century ago.

While we can all agree that these changes

can be much faster, I would like to

acknowledge and thank the many Oil and

Gas Companies, professional associations

who support various female leadership and

STEM initiatives.

I would like to wrap this up by highlighting

that the future of the Oil and Gas industry is

knee deep in a critical period, where we

have more challenges than solutions,

where we are being asked tougher

questions about our operations, where the

world at large loves our energy but hate the

price, reduced to minimum or not, where we

are being summoned to disclose more and

demonstrate that our operations are and

can continue to be safe, where improving

the state of the world climate is our burden

of proof.

The earlier we take more responsibility, the

better, because despite progress made in

the renewable energy sector, oil and gas will

still be responsible for providing more or

about half of the worlds' primary and fastgrowing

energy needs. “Put simply, our

industry will be around for a long time to


For this reason alone, Oil and Gas

companies cannot afford to be closeminded.

Only a diverse workforce will be equipped to

deal with the enormous task at hand for the

Industry in the Energy Transition and future


Thank you.

Tunbosun Afolayan

Presented as Guest speaker speech at

the 18th edition of Petroleum Training

Institute Geoscience week, 8th

September 2021.


It's the dawn of another era in the Nigeria Oil and gas industry as another batch of new marginal field operators/Investors get

awarded a marginal field acreage. DPR had mentioned that 57 marginal fields were awarded to 80 indigenous companies and as

such expect that Barrel of oil production per day will increase as the operators ramp up to get their first oil.

Despite calls about the ambiguity of the process and the forced marriages of companies for the fields, DPR needs to be commended

for having taken the bull by the horn in executing this long-awaited process, as there hasn't been any such fully executed process in

the past 20 years.

Marginal fields refer to discoveries which have not been exploited for long, due to one or more of the following factors: Very small

sizes of reserves/pool to the extent of not being economically viable, lack of infrastructure in the vicinity, poor production profile,

capital operating and expenditure requirements and brevity of profitable consumers.

There are notable companies who have succeeded in fully executing and turning around the fortune of marginal fields to become a

veritable Exploration and Producing (E&P) companies in Nigeria. The story of NDPR and Energia would remain a reference point for

new marginal field operators.

These companies having started with marginal field operations have now translated to become Nigeria's foremost Vertically

Integrated Energy Companies. As the New marginal field owners go home to commence work, it's imperative that the critical path to

first-oil will take preeminence. However, I'd like to mention that sequel to the New marginal fields bid-round, over 11 marginal fields

asset were revoked by DPR, which claims non-performance of their field development program. Some of the first marginal field

round winners were still battling with issues around governance structure and financing even after 15 years of bid award. It's

peremptory that these new marginal field operators learn from the purported failures and seek to better their lots.

One critical area to getting to first oil, especially with the issue of forced marriages of companies is to ensure a well-defined corporate

governance structure of the New-Co (New Company) to be created by these unions. A governance structure that effectively

maximizes the strength of parties within and in respect of the New-Co and takes cognizance of the improvement opportunities

required to effectively starting-up and building a world class E&P Company. The idea of a New-Co rather than a JV or IJV structure


would ensure that companies look beyond their individual strengths to harnessing a bigger corporate structure that can transcend


Whilst many new marginal field operators would look up to IOC's and existing independent structures to foster their chance of

getting to first oil, I would recommend that these companies look in-ward as to how they can build capacity for the now and the

future. The critical path to first oil in terms of operation is to understand the potential production capacity of the field and analyze

supply chain gaps around the asset. It's very important that new operators optimize supply chains by creating models that give them

the least cost to achieve oil production. Cost centers around Drilling and Completions, Procurement, Catering, Logistics & Facility

Management, Transportation and Third-Party Access for crude transportation should be critically mapped and reviewed. Operators

must look at the best supply chain sustainability approaches that address needs pertaining to the Economic, Social and

Environmental impact of their activities and be able to execute them within the ambit of optimized cost structure.

Government Agencies like the Department of Petroleum Resources, the Nigerian Content Development Monitoring Board

(NCDMB), the Petroleum Technology Development Fund (PTDF), must create avenues and platforms that allow for information

sharing and technology adaptation for these new operators. Issues around local technology that can be used in place of foreign

technologies for FEED development, usage of in-country built software for Procurement such as SOURCERYTE and Finance

software should be encouraged. The engagement of a qualified consultant would assist new entrants to effectively manage the

process of getting to first oil.

One innovative potential that I would recommend to all marginal field operators is to access or create an Agglomeration Centre

around a 100-200km radius of their asset. An agglomeration Centre or Co-location center is a management company that projectmanages

assets from different asset owners. It takes ownership of day-day operations of these assets with minimum cost and a

people-centric structure. Such a Company would manage assets from Drilling campaigns, Procurement, Logistics to

Decommissioning while asset owners oversee performance metrics and indices set for production.

There are obvious reasons why companies want to be at the center of their asset operations, however, to optimize the required

value expected by stakeholders, one needs to look beyond the egocentric or Nigerian nature of “I own my business and call the

shots.” It's now time to look at alternative models that give real value to shareholders and Bankers alike. Whilst this idea has just

been briefly described, there are huge opportunities marginal field operators can get with an effective design and execution of an

agglomeration center. It's important that whilst engaging a consultant to develop such models, an integrative approach that aligns

all stakeholders expectation should be paramount.

Another area of thought is how do we manage spend structure for the set of activities that triggers first oil production? Do we spend

on services that gives immediate value or build structures and systems albeit in modules that make us very competitive in the

nearest future?

Lastly, which is more like a reinforcement – the best companies are companies with the best governance structure. Our new

marginal field operators must spend ample time in developing the best governance structure for this business. A lot of the awardees

do not have the experience of managing oil and gas assets, nevertheless these companies have shown tenacity and capacity in

times past in their respective businesses in-country. I have recommended a New-Co Structure rather than JV structure to reduce

the friction regarding who operates what asset and who has the capacity to fund projects. A New-co will have various partners on

the Governance Board, appoint Management Executives and create a solid structure for the future of the business. It brings every

partner to the table and allows for independent Directorship to balance views of varying parties.

It's my view that these new marginal operators will provide the much needed value for the oil and the gas industry and provide the

prosperity required to make Nigeria a better place.

Emeka Eboagwu

Managing Director, Pentland Energy Limited


15 Questions

with NAPE


Patricia Ochogbu, FNAPE

1. You graduated in 1984 with a

Bachelor's degree in geology

from the Obafemi Awolowo

University (OAU), Ile-Ife. Why

did you choose to study


I had a very strong interest in

Geography and other sciences in

my high school days, and this led to

my choice of Geology as a course

of study.

2. If you were not a geologist,

what other career choice would

you have made?

A Spy or a Realtor.

3. Your career began in NNPC

and you worked there for 13+

years before joining ExxonMobil

in 1999. How would you describe

your experience working in a

national oil corporation and an


When I was looking to change jobs,

I wanted an opportunity to 'get my

hands oily', by carrying out

analyses, proposing drill well

locations and seeing the resultant

h y d r o c a r b o n s p r o d u c e d .

Thankfully, ExxonMobil afforded

me that opportunity and the rest is


4. As a Production Geologist,

what is your average day at

work like?

Interpret seismic, integrate

production and other data, and look

for opportunities to increase

production, through collaboration

with others.

5. You would go down in the

history of NAPE as the first PE

and Chairman of the Conference

Planning Committee of NAPE's

AICE to host a hybrid

Conference. What are the

lessons you learnt from that


Life happens! I learnt that our

people are very resourceful and that

every problem has a solution, if we


look hard enough and keep an

open mind.

6. The COVID 19 pandemic has

imposed upon us the need to

alter how we live and conduct

our businesses. How has this

r e a l i t y a f f e c t e d y o u r

stewardship as President of


I'm focused on service delivery to

all NAPE members. Sourcing for

career enhancement opportunities

like Virtual Field schools, topical

courses, webinars, etc. at reduced

costs so as to provide opportunities

to unlearn-learn-relearn from the

new world we are in.

7. The theme of NAPE's 39th

AICE is '' Petroleum

Exploration in a New World:

What Next after the Global

Crises?” What are your

thoughts about the emerging

energy landscape?

The uncertainties and unknowns

can be unsettling, however there

are opportunities everywhere! We

need to have the right mindset and

training to recognize them.

8. What role do you see NAPE

playing as the world transits

from an oil & gas economy to an

alternative energy economy?

I see a bright future for NAPE and

her members, in the area of Gas

Exploration & Production, Carbon

capture, etc.

9. NAPE turns 46 this year, what

are some of the challenges you

would like to see resolved

before NAPE turns 50?

I will love to see NAPE and her

members recognized for the role

they play in wealth creation for

Nigeria. As well as passage of the


10. You are the second female

President in NAPE's 46-year

history. Would you say women

in NAPE have broken the

proverbial glass ceiling?

Yes. The sky is the limit!

11. How do you spend your

spare time and your work- life


I make time for what is important to

me. My relationship with God and

my family. I also find time to destress

by reading books.

12. Where do you go when you

need inspiration?

Books & nature.

13. Do you have any role

model(s)? If yes who?

Yes. My mother.

14. What is the most inspiring

book you have ever read?

The Bible.

15. If you were stranded in a

desert Island, what one item

would you need to keep you


A solar powered Kindle. It can

contain hundreds of books!.










TOTALEnergies averaged a net

output of 273,220Barrels of Oil

E q u i v a l e n t P e r D a y

(273220BOEPD) in Nigeria in 2020.

The figure was over 50,000BOEPD

higher than the output reported by

Shell, which came a distant second,

at 223,000BOEPD.

Chevron was the country's third

highest hydrocarbon producer, with


The figures are all from the

companies' respective 2020 annual


Whereas the top three producers

reported sizeable natural gas

production, the fourth on the list,

ExxonMobil, reported only liquid

hydrocarbon output, which it put at


ENI was the fifth net hydrocarbon

producer in Nigeria in the year under

review, with 131,000BOEPD.

It is certain that TOTALEnergies will

be in the lead for a while for two clear

reasons. Its Egina Field, currently

producing 150,000BOPD, could do

much more if the OPEC+ imposed

curtailment was lifted. The field was

producing 201,000BOPD, slightly

higher than its prognosed peak

output, when the curtailment was

effected. The company had to shut

in some reservoir compartments for

the cut.

TOTALEnergies also, unlike its

peers, has some new uptake on the

horizon: in 2019, it took Final

Investment Decision (FID) on the

Ikike field, and expects first oil before

the end of 2021. The Preowei field

development plan was approved in

2019 and activity is ongoing to take

the field to first oil, with 70,000BOPD

expected at peak, latest by mid-




Platform Petroleum has become a

gas supplier of some reckoning in

the Nigerian domestic gas market.

The marginal field operator currently

supplies 22Million standard cubic

feet of gas per day (22MMscf/d) to

apipeline operated by the Nigerian

Gas Company (NGC).

“All of this is essentially lean gas that

comes from the stripping process

that is achieved by the PNG gas

plant, located on the Egbeoma

(marginal) field in the north-western

Niger Delta”, according to Osa

Owieadolor, the company'srecently

departed Chief Executive Officer.

Platform Petroleum is the operator

of that field.

Mr. Owieadolor was granting a

valedictory interview to the journal.

That makes Platform the marginal

field operator with the second

highest volume of lean gas supplied

to the local market.Savannah

Petroleum, another marginal field

o p e r a t o r , s u p p l i e s a b o u t

100MMscf/d, processed from the

Uquo marginal field to the domestic

market, mainly to power plants in

Calabar and Ikot Abasi, in the east of

the country.

The Nigerian domestic gas market is

relatively small, with the total volume

(supplied to power plants, fertiliser

plants and industries) coming to less

than 1,500MMscf/d, so two marginal

fields supplying 122MMscf/d is big


“Prior to this process, we were

flaring significant volumes”,

Owieadolor told Africa Oil+Gas

Report. “Nowwe're delivering about

1.2MMcf/d of gas to PowerGas for

their CNG plant”, he explained. “We

have significantly reduced our

flaring by over 80%, and we should

achieve a total flare-down in our field

before the end of the year, because

we have also commissioned a







compression system that will enable

us to do that”.

P l a t f o r m a c h i e v e d i t s f i r s t

commercial lean gas delivery to the

Nigerian Gas Marketing Company

(NGMC)a subsidiary of the NGC, in

November 2020, following the

commissioning of a section of the

OB3 gas pipeline.

“Prior to this time, we had executed

a Gas Sales and Purchase

Agreement with NGMC, that

h a p p e n e d o v e r t w o y e a r s

ago”,Owieadolor told Africa Oil+Gas

Report. “We did same with

PowerGas and one or two other

Third Party companies. The model

has been willing buyer-willing


Oweiadolor clarified that Platform is

not thecurrent operator of the PNG

Gas Processing Plant, “but we are

an investor there and our

involvement is more like an

oversight function at the board level.

But outside of that, because of the

relationship on the board level, we

also provide some bit of support

based on our experience. That's

how it relates to the operatorship of

the plant”.



AND . . .

First E&P reached 40,000 Barrels of

Oil Per Day, six months after first oil,

from the Anyala West segment of the

Anyala/Madu fields that it is

developing in Oil Mining Leases

(OMLs) 83 &85, in shallow water

offshore Nigeria.

Now the field is pumping between

33,000 and 38,000BOPD.

The entire output is from five of the

seven wells drilled as producers.

Two other wells are struggling with

completion issues.

The Nigerian owned Independent,

working in Joint Venture with state

hydrocarbon company NNPC,

commissioned the field (reached

first oil) in October 2020 and

exported its first cargo in January


But First E&P is developing the field

under extenuating circumstances,

with difficult access to finance, Africa

Oil+Gas Report sources say.

“It has debts to pay, so there will be a

ramp up even with this number of

wells”, sources familiar with the data


The Anyala West wells are all

horizontal probes, landed in high

flow part of the reservoirs, sources

tell Africa Oil+Gas Report.

The Anyala and Madu fields are

estimated to contain combined

reserves of 193Million barrels

(MMbbls) of oil and 0.637Trillion

cubic feet (Tcf) of gas. They are

being developed through four

conductor-supported platforms

(CSP) with planned a total of 20

wells. The first phase involves the

installation of two CSPs, namely the

Anyala West CSP in 50.7metres of

water and Madu CSP, in 28.7metres

of water.

Phase 1 involves a total of seven

development wells for a joint

production through the Abigail-

Joseph FPSO.

The peak production is expected to

be 60,000BOPD with at least 10

wells contributing to that volume.




Nigerian Explorationists call for better

Infrastructure in Oil and Gas Sector:-

The president, NAPE, Mrs. Patricia

Ochogbu, said petroleum exploration

is not all about oil, but also about gas

even as the Minister of State for Petroleum

Resources, Timipre Sylva declared the next

1 0 y e a r s a s a d e c a d e o f g a s .


Marginal Fields: NAPE Tasks FG on Energy Funding,

Data Availability to Support Independent Operators:-

where the government may have challenges with funding, it

should create an enabling environment for indigenous companies

by streamlining taxes and also strengthen its data repository while

making this data accessible to stakeholders.


‘Future of oil

exploration still bright

amid energy transition’:-

There is the need for an

Energy Bank set up by the

government to make funds

available for both local and

foreign investors t friendly

interest rates.


Nigeria Oil & Gas: Industry leaders

seek capacities to drive gas transition:-

There is need for the PIA implementation

committee to institutionalize a rapid

response, to implementation process.

They also need to ensure that their

work is not stifled by political



Explorationists Advocate Creation

of Energy Bank for Oil Sector:-

most oil and gas assets’ development

take close to 10 years and beyond to

execute, and the IOCs whose funding

capacity is stronger than the local

independents and marginal field

operators take advantage of the

situation. www.thisdaylive.com

NAPE advocates Nigerian Bank

of Energy creation, rallies 1,800

for Confab:-

Change is constant and it is normal

to progress from one system to

another. Therefore, there is need to

plan for change as other countries

are considering renewables.


NAPE Holds Annual Conference

and Exhibition in November:-

NAPE slogan remains” Our ideas

find oil and gas.” Fuel is part of the

energy transition and it contribute

more than can be imagined in the

energy transition and NAPE

is ready to make the space works.




• NAPE Technical/ Webinar Series created for Industry Execu ves, Leaders and members to share insights and posi on

on topical/relevant industry issues.

• Allows NAPE members and other Industry stakeholders to have direct access to specific strategic conversa ons and

direct Q&A sessions

• Nine NAPE Webinars covering relevant industry categories have been done this year.

• Held two events in collabora on with Women in Geosciences and Engineering associa on (WiGE) and an honorary

round table webinar in honour of Chief Chambers Oyibo, chairman NAPE Board of Trustees at his 80th birthday

celebra on while the first physical session was sponsored by First E&P Limited in celebra on of Dr Emmanuel Enu’s

70th birthday celebra on/special technical session.



NAPE Short Course-1:

Machine Learning to

Lithology Predic on from


This 4-Day course on “Lithology

Predic on using Machine Learning” held

in the month of April 2021. Par cipants

had their technical skill-set notched up

with Machine learning and Data

Analy cs. This course was well a ended

by professionals from the energy industry

and the academia across the globe. In a

bid to ensure prac cability, a WhatsApp

chatroom was created for a month to

help willing members address all of their

concerns on the use of Ar ficial

Intelligence to proffer Geo-solu ons.


Integrated Forma on Evalua on of Clas c Reservoirs

In the month of July, NAPE

Summer School-01 on

“Integrated Forma on

Evalua on on Clas c

Reservoirs” was organized in

collabora on with Baker

Hughes. This intensive and

well-received training course

brought in great value to

NAPE members.

NAPE SUMMER SCHOOL 2: Resource Economics



vLaunched in 1999 under the Presidency

of Mr. Babajide Agbabiaka, FNAPE.

vThe current Board of Trustees members

made substan al efforts in the past 15

months to reac vate the NAPE

Founda on.

vIns tu onalized the appropriate

framework for the founda on

independent funding.

vOpened founda on bank account to

manage funds rela ng to ac vi es of the

Founda on as defined in the Cons tu on

of NAPE.

vMinimum takeoff grants:

NAPE Board of Trustees:


NAPE Past Presidents: N100,000

NAPE Fellows: N100,000

vAnnual NAPE Founda on levy:

NAPE Members N2,000;

NAPE Fellows N10,000

vNAPE annual founda on levy will be

applicable to only Ac ve Members.


vNAPE Educa on Fund:

vNAPE Research/University

Assistance Fund

vNAPE Travel Fund

vNAPE Publica on Fund

vNAPE Awards Fund

vNAPE Special Project Fund


• The Virtual Extraordinary General Mee ng took place on Saturday, 14th of August 2021 by 5:00PM to sensi ze members

and collate feedbacks for further amendments in prepara on for endorsement at the Annual General Mee ng.



The Chapter Execu ves had a round table

discussion on the 19th January 2021 to plan

year’s ac vi es taking into cognisance the

peculiari es and challenges brought by the

Covid-19 pandemic.

On the 19 th February 2021, Engr. Johnson

Awoyomi (GGM/ETD, NNPC) presented a paper

on “Cost Control in Nigerian Oil and Gas

sector – The Issues (Why) and the How”. The

virtual Business/Technical Mee ng recorded

about of 54 online par cipants.

The second Technical virtual mee ng was held

on the 17 th of June 2021. Dr. Dave Quinn of

Badley Geoscience Ltd gave a talk on “Simple

concepts for be er seismic interpreta on, map

crea on and fault seal analysis”. The recorded

online par cipants were about 84.


The Benin hosted its first technical session on the

26 th of May, 2021. The presenta on was given by

Dr Thomas Akpan Harry of Akwa Ibom State


The delivered on the topic: High Resolu on

Prospect Evalua on: Concept, Methodology and

Case Studies.

Series of other sessions are lined up for the rest of

the year.

• Registered 30 new members between January and

March 2021.

• Distributed the NAPE Business Journal to new and

exis ng members in Benin Chapter.

• Par cipated in the NMGS Annual Conference in


• Commenced process for Annual Dues Payment for

Benin Chapter for new and exis ng members.



The Port Harcourt hosted its

first technical session on the

24 th of June, 2021. The talk was

delivered by Stanley Oifoghe of

Baker Hughes.

The tle of his talk was: “The

Role of Forma on Evalua on in

the Energy Transi on Journey”.

The talk described forma on

evalua on competencies as a

cri cal skillset for both fossil

fuel and renewable energies

and emerging technological

advancement to energy

genera on. A series of talks are

lined up for the rest of the year.


The UK/Europe hosted its first

technical session on the 14 th of

July, 2021. The talk was

delivered by Dr. Niels Portzgen

of Applus and Harvex

Geosolu ons.

The tle of his talk was: “The

next level of non-destruc ve

tes ng – IWEX 3D Ultrasonic

imaging. The talk described a

novel exci ng technology for

the inspec on of welds in Steel

structures and pipelines. A

series of talks are lined up for

the rest of the year.



Mid-Year Strategic Planning mee ng by some

members of the EXCO ably led by Dr.

Ekere Akpan (Savannah Energy). Others in

A endance were, Dr. Thomas Harry- General

Secretary and Dr. Abraham Udoh, Advisory

Council member/Logis cs Officer.

For Uyo/Calabar Chapter, the year was capacity

building and membership drive. The first virtual

Technical mee ng tagged “Modified Forma on

Evalua on of Reservoirs in Eocene, Niger Delta

Nigeria, using Picke Plot” held on month of April 8,

2021. The session was well a ended by professionals

and students, chaired by Mr. Tony Ofuma and graced

by the president of NAPE, Mrs. Patricia Ochogbu

FNAPE; President-Elect, Dr. James Edet FNAPE and

other exco members.

The second Technical mee ng on August 6,

2021. The program is currently being

adver sed and is currently receiving a lot of

a en on


Held a Technical session with guest speaker Mr.

Goodluck Edemirurayen Oboh, MSc. who is the

Lead/Senior Geophysicist with Orion Energy

Limited. He delivered a paper tled “Analy cal

Approach to Produc on Op miza on” on

Wednesday 12 th May 2021. This mee ng was

chaired by Mr. Ekpei Ukam, Deputy Manager,

Explora on Geology, NPDC, Benin, Edo State.

The May Technical/Business mee ng was

sponsored by NAPE Warri Chapter Execu ves.

NAPE PTI Students’ chapter organized her

awareness week which took place from 17th –

21st May 2021. The ac vi es for the week

included a panel discussion with the Head,

Department of Petroleum Engineering &

Geosciences, Mr. Aliyu Adamu, Use of Fire

Ex nguisher and Basic Safety Prac ce by the

Head of Safety, Matrix Energy Limited, Mr. Fred

Olumuro, Microso Excel Training, Excursion,

Sports ac vi es and General mee ng.

NAPE FUPRE Students’ chapter organized her

2019/2020 NAPE Week program held on the 21st of

June 2021 with the theme: The role of Geoscience in

contemporary mes.

It was well a ended by professionals from both the

industry and academia. Including the Head,

Department of Earth Sciences - Dr. M. Chaanda;

Treasurer – Dr (Mrs.) Juliet Emudianughe; Mr. Victor

Orugbo – Heritage Oil, Mr. Wilson Osung – Warri

Chapter Coordinator and other lecturers from the


Use of Fire Ex nguisher and Basic

Safety Prac ce

Panel discussion with the Head,

Department of Petroleum Engineering &


Excursion to Matrix Energy


Sport Ac vity

Mr. Fred. Olumuro,

Head of Safety, Matrix Energy Limited

Panel Discussion with Mr. Aliyu Adamu,

Head, Department of Petroleum

Engineering & Geosciences, PTI

Par cipants on Excursion at

Matrix Energy Limited.

Football Match to commemorate the

NAPE Awareness Week, PTI.




The newly elected YP leaders were

inaugurated by NAPE President,

Mrs. Patricia Ochogbu FNAPE on

February 10th, 2021. They are

Ifeanyi Ikueze as YP Lead, Oge Flora

Anusiobi deputy lead, Chioma

Okenwa – General Secretary; Anna

Ariba se – Financial Secretary;

Timipere Potoki –Publicity

Secretary; Saheed Faniran –

Welfare/ Event Manager and

Tobechukwu Ude-Akpeh as


The team has held a total of

seventeen events under the

following categories:

• Technical session

• Community Outreach

• Leadership series

• Health talk

• Exci ng World of Geology


• Finance webinar

• Mentorship program

• Graduate Study webinar

• Coding Bootcamp

Technical Series - Jan

Technical Series - Feb

Technical Series - Mar

Technical Series - Apr

Technical Series - May

Technical Series - June

Upcoming TS - July

Technical Series - Aug

YP Valen ne Outreach at Li le Saints

Orphanage Home.

Leadership Series - Mar

Leadership Series - June

Leadership Series - Aug

Health Talk - Mar

Technical Series - Apr

Finance Webinar - May

Mentorship Program - June

Grad. Webinar - July

Coding Bootcamp - July





Members’ Achievements & Milestones


Congratulations to our Members, who recently got promoted Into these roles.

Oghogho Efom

Society of Petroleum Engineers

Africa Regional Director

Alex Tarka FNAPE

NNPC GM, Chad Basin

Operations (FES)

Kareem Folorunsho

NNPC GM, Operations

Marcel Amu







2 0 2 1 2020









Of the Pre-conference Workshop of the Nigerian Association of Petroleum Explorationists (NAPE) on

“Levers for Optimal Cost Reduction in Nigeria's Oil & Gas Production: Positioning for the New Normal”

held virtually via Zoom Link with the coordinating centre at the Eko Hotel and Suites, Lagos on MondayNovember16th, 2020


The Nigerian Association of Petroleum Explorationists (NAPE) on the 16 of November 2020,

with the coordinating centre at the Eko Hotel and Suites, Lagos, and being held virtually via

Zoom Link as a result of the Covid-19 Pandemic, held a Pre-conferenceWorkshop with the

theme“Levers for Optimal Cost Reduction in Nigeria's Oil & Gas Production: Positioning for

the New Normal”.In attendance were senior technical professionals and captains of industry

in the upstream oil and gas sector.

The major objective of the workshop was:

1. To package industry expertise and informed perspectives for influencing oil and

gas-related policy making and execution.

The keynote paper was delivered by Mr. Roger Thompson Brown, The Chief Executive Officer

of Seplat Plc, whose topic highlighted Resilience and Strength within the context of the

workshop theme. Other presented papers were as follows:

1. Structuring the Petroleum Industry Bills(s) for Long Term Oil and Gas Industry

Competitiveness in Nigeria, by Mr Pedro Omontuemhen, - Country Operations

Partner, Price Water House Coopers.

2. Inland Basins Exploration: Opportunities for Cost Management by Engr Abdullahi

Bomai – GGM Frontier Exploration (MMPC).

3. Feasibility of $10 per barrel Unit Crude Oil Production Cost in Brownfields by Engr

Bala Wunti – GGM NAPIMS (NNPC).

4. Improving Cost Efficiency through Joint Industry Operations and Shared Services

by Mr Chikezie Nwosu –MD/CEO Waltersmith Petroman Oil Limited.

5. Local Content Participation in the Nigerian Upstream: Lowering Barrier to Entry

by Mrs Olajumoke Ajayi, MD Asharami Energy, subsidiary of Sahara Energy.

The panel discussion was moderated by Mr. Lateef Amodu of Chevron Nigeria. The other

panelists were Mrs Ifeoma Okeke – Gas Commercialization Economist, NAPIMS; Mr Prince

Abangwu – Division Manager, Digital and Integration Schlumberger; Mr Seye Fadahunsi

(fNAPE) – ex Non-Executive Director, Pillar Oil and Mr Oge Peter–Head of Commercial,

Savannah Energy.

The speakers stressed the importance of the hydrocarbon extractive industry to the Nigerian

economy, generating over 60% of internal revenue, 90% of the foreign exchange receipts and

about 10% of the overall GDP. The current realities of the industry are the drop in oil price,

lowered demand and its depressing effect on production levels and quotas, and a resultant

fall in CAPEX. There has also been an increased debt burden for oil-dependent economies

such as Nigeria's. The long-term outlook for oil price hovers around $50-55 dollars per barrel

in 2028-29, a far cry from the over $100 level seen in 2009-14.It was also noted that the

position that oil companies occupied on the global stage is rapidly being overtaken by more

high-technology companies such as Tesla and Apple, which have overtaken the oil companies

on various stock exchanges around the world. This in turn has made the risk associated with

investing in these companies higher, and the returns conversely lower. The effect on the

investment climate in Nigeria is also a part of this macro-environmental issues. The

government has therefore made it a priority to reduce costs in order to make Nigeria a more

attractive investment destination, with a mandate for $10/barrel for operating cost. NAPE

has chosen the pre-conference conference workshop theme this year in accordance with this


The following is the communiqué arising from all the presentations and discussions at the


Key challenges identified:

1. The average production cost in Nigeria is among the highest in the world, with various


estimates placing the country in at least the 70 percentile for high overall production

costs. There is also a significant tax burden associated with operating in Nigeria.

2. The many years since the PIB was first mooted in 2000 and the various iterations it has

undergone without being passed have impacted negatively on investor confidence in

Nigeria. It should be noted that even at the height of the oil price boom from 2008-2014,

CAPEX investment in the sector actually fell due to the uncertainty of the passage of the

bill. The current slide since the price crash of 2015 has seen investment drop almost 18%

year on year to date. As a result, over $30 billion of projects are still awaiting FID.

3. The break-even price and payback time for projects in Nigeria for new projects is one of

the highest in the world. There is a capital cost premium ranging from 35-100% for

project costs in Nigeria.

4. The time to realize projects is very long partly due to the long contracting cycles and

approval processes most companies have to undergo.These are further elongated by

increased travelling costs that comes with inspection of facilities and operations of

contractor companies outside of Nigeria.

5. A significant portion of the operating costsin Nigeria are composed of human, crude

handling and logistics, which are a direct response to the various challenges thrown up

by operating in the physical environment of Nigeria. Examples of these challenges are

the need for increased security due to kidnapping and the vandalization of crude

pipelines, ageing infrastructure due to low level of investment, and the low level of

standardization across the industry since most of the companies started with a go-italone

approach in the earlier days of their production history.

6. There is also significant cost increase of costs due to oversight overlapping and

duplication of regulatory functions and tariffs.

7. The reduced pace of exploration will also have a long-term effect on cost, as the effect of

resource depletion and its impact on the reserve replacement ratio will eventually

outweigh the effects of technological advancements during the production stage.

8. The impact of Local Content participation, as envisioned in the Local Content

Development Act, is yet to be realized to its full extent, due to a dearth of an

infrastructural base to support it, e.g. the lack of a local iron and steel industry, which is

vital to indigenous participation in projects development.

9. Furthermore, indigenous companies are highly leveraged, being responsible for about

90% of the $8 billion debts owed by oil companies in the country. These companies also

pay a higher cost for their debt due to the risk premium associated with them. This effect

is very visible in the marginal field sphere, where only 9 out of 30 fields awarded in 2001

had been brought on production by 2016.


1. Various companies along with the NNPC, who is a partner to a lot of them have embarked

on contract renegotiation as part of cost cutting and project delivery measures.

2. Strategic partnerships, seeking collaborations and sharing facilities where possible, are

on the increase and should be encouraged further. These can be in the form of increased

utilization of equipment and infrastructure - vessel, helicopter or rig sharing, supply base


3. Reduce overhead through coordination and consolidation of resources and equipment.

4. Standardization of specifications and routines for low complexity solutions, which are

about 40% of the overall challenges

5. A shortening of the contract approval cycle which is a major factor in the high cost of

production. Lead time for purchase of equipment can be reduced through inventory

sharing and bundling of volumes to enable a better local presence for the companies

6. Harness technology to unlock cost savings, production optimization, operational

efficiency and regulatory approvals.

7. Focus a lot of investment on gas, which is not necessarily following the same cycle as oil

prices and can act as a hedge. To that effect, the government will also need to incentivise

investment in the sector through the new measures in the PIB.

8. Optimize of General and Administration costs.

9. Continually add to known reserves through a deliberate exploration program in the

inland basins, as a lot of the easy oil in the Niger Delta region are already discovered. An

example is recent discoveries in the Benue Trough which included relatively shallow HC

bearing units.

10. Use relatively less expensive, high impact technology and analogues to target and

develop these resources.

11. Setting up of an energy bank which can provide low cost loans to companies in this space.

12. Revive basal companies such as Ajaokuta Steel, which will provide the necessary impetus

for the building of the necessary utility infrastructure. Also encourage local companies to

train their staff to efficiently deliver projects with reduced foreign component.





NAPE 2020































NAPENews Interviews One of NAPE’S

Most Recent Fellowship Awardees


Group Managing Director, Dharmattan Group of Companies Limited

1. Can we meet you?

My name is Bashir Koledoye. I am a Geologist and a

Geophysicist. I have a bachelor's degree in Geology

(Geophysics Option) from the University of Ibadan and master's

degree in Mineral Exploration (Structural Geology and

Geomechanics) from Stanford University. I worked as an Earth

Scientist in Exploration and Development functions in Chevron

for 12 years. After I left Chevron I worked as a consultant,

consulting principally in G&G roles for different companies in the

global E&P industry in the last16 years. I am currently the

Managing Director of a group of companies including

Dharmattan Nigeria Limited, Dharmattan Gas Facilities Limited

and Dharmattan Gas and Power Products Limited, involved in

the upstream, midstream and downstream sectors of the

petroleum industry.

5. Any advice for incoming students and young


My advice to them is to seek to be more rounded geoscientists,

participate in professional activities, seek networking

opportunities and be curious about what's happening in the


6. What should we look forward to from you as a Fellow

and what's next after the NAPE fellowship?

Now that I'm a Fellow of NAPE, I will continue to seek ways to

contribute to the growth of the industry as well as make myself

available to mentor younger professionals.

2. Please can you kindly share your NAPE and Industry


As an active NAPE member, I have served in NAPE's Executive

Committee as Publicity Secretary and Treasurer. I also served in

several Conference Planning Committees (CPC). I have

presented several technical papers in meetings and

conferences, and taken part in numerous other NAPE events. I

have had the privilege of sponsoring a number of NAPE

programs and activities. In addition to my years of working at

Chevron, I have consulted for most of the International Oil

companies and indigenous companies variously through their

exploration, field development and production phases for a total

of 28 years.

3. You recently received the NAPE Fellowship award.

What does this award mean to you?

Receiving the NAPE Fellowship award means a lot to me. It

means recognition by our respected professional organization

of my contribution to the practice of petroleum exploration in

Nigeria. It means my contribution to the professional body has

been noticed and acknowledged. It makes me feel encouraged

to continue to actively participate in helping NAPE reach its


4. Would you like to share any aspect of your career

that you wished you had done or perhaps

approached differently? Do share as learning to

other professional geoscientists.

Maybe I should have paid more attention to the commercial

aspects of the industry while a young geoscientist


Technical Article




Over the years, exploration activities for

commercial quantity of oil and gas

deposits which covers; acquisition of

the necessary subsurface data,

interpretation, and evaluation of these

data have benefited largely from

increasing technological advancement.

T h i s h a s r e s u l t e d i n b e t t e r

understanding of the subsurface

(improved imaging of the subsurface for

better interpretation and further

decision making), which has then led to

the discovery of more commercial

deposits of oil and gas resources for

exploration and production companies,

since the 1980's when the industry

embraced digital technologies to drive

greater efficiencies.

Artificial intelligence (AI) – a term

invented by John McCarthy in 1950,

which entails the simulation of human

intelligence in machines that are

programmed to think like humans and

mimic their actions. Just as human

intelligence isn't in a single dimension,

AI is equally varied and structured in a

similar manner; as it is simply many

advanced technologies (deep learning

(DL) - a subfield of machine learning

and machine learning (ML) - a subfield

of artificial intelligence, Figure 1)

brought together to enable a machine to

act with human-like levels of

intelligence. Hence, providing context

and meaning to the information it learns,

Fig. 1. Venn diagram showing the relationship

between diversified fields of Artificial Intelligence

(AI) and Machine Learning (ML), Deep

Learning (DL) (Sircar et al., 2021).

The subsurface evaluation arm of the oil and gas industry, not left behind has also

been greatly impacted by technological advancements, particularly AI which is of

concern here. Some of the merits (Figure 2) AI has brought to the task of evaluating

the subsurface are highlighted below;

Fig. 2.Geoteric's AI assisted fault interpretation enables the delineation of faults at multiple

scales in a region of interest; from regional faulting to smaller scale faults that could

have an impact on prospectivity and production (Brownless, 2020).

Merits of AI in Subsurface Evaluation

l AI has brought about the

identification of events quicker and

with a greater level of accuracy. It

can see beyond false signals which

give unclear or disappointing

results in traditional fault detection

attribute analysis.

l AI and ML have been used to

identify facies and bedding

structures and upscale plug

measurements to the entire core


l It has also been applied in

generating high-resolution estimate

of rock properties in a fraction of the

time of conventional methods.

l It has contributed to increasing

the efficiency in optimising

subsurface data analysis for

exploration and production.

l Better interpretations of

subsurface images from seismic

studies using computer vision

technology have been obtained.

l Technical documents are also

being analysed using natural

language processing (NLP), hence,

m a k i n g e x p l o r a t i o n a n d

assessment of oil and gas fields

faster and more effective.

Limitations of AI in Subsurface


l Although, the oil and gas

industry is readily saturated with a

lot of data, however, the application

of AI is limited by the quality and

accuracy of data with which the

technology is trained with; to

prevent amplifying existing human

mistakes. Hence, quality data must

be provided in implementing AI in

subsurface evaluation, which can

be challenging.

l It is limited by its inability to

think out of the box, as is expected

of an interpreter at the workstation.

l It largely depends on the domain

expert's workflow, with which it is

trained for the task it is to carry out.

By Adewale Sadiq,

Cypher Cresent



The voting exercise for the 2021/2022 Executive Committee

positions commenced on Wednesday September 1st and

closes Friday October 15th, 2021 by 11:59:59pm.


eligible to vote. You are hereby requested to log on to the

“MEMBERS’ ONLY” section of the NAPE website using your

Membership ID and Password combination to cast your vote


Please open this link to access detailed election candidates’

p r o f i l e s o n t h e N A P E w e b s i t e .

Voting Period and Deadline

As earlier stated, voting commences 1st September and closes

15th October, 2021.

All voters are encouraged to adhere strictly to the voting

instructions across the e-voting or paper ballot platform.

Ballot casted after 11:59:59pm October 15, 2021 will not be


For further assistance with the voting process, kindly contact

Abieyuwa Ogbebor at the NAPE Secretariat via

abieyuwa.o@nape.org.ng. Support the growth of our Association

by having a say in the election of those who will run her affairs for

the next two years.

Candidates contesting for the advertised NAPE 2020/2021

Executive positions are as below:


Geoscience Graduate Degree Scholarship Opportunities


Dr. Emmanuel Maduawia, FIMC

NAPE-UAP Chairman

Prof. Benard Odoh

Chairman, Local Organizing


Mrs. Patricia Ochogbu, FNAPE

NAPE President

Alabo C.D. Charles, FNMGS

NMGS President




Theme: The next decade of

Oil & Gas business in Nigeria:

Impact of Energy Transition.

Date: Monday, 16 Nov, 2021

Time: 9:00am



Theme: Petroleum Exploration and

Production in a New World: What

Next After the Global Crisis?

Date: Tuesday, 17 Nov, 2021

Time: 9:00am



Theme: The Pandemic, Digital

Economy and The Naira

Date: Tuesday, 17 Nov, 2021

Time: 1:00pm

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