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sfo{;Dkfbg d'Nof+sg kmfO{n k|x/L k|wfg sfof{no, u[x

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sfg'g cg';f/ sf;d' kmfO{n kmf]6f]skL ug{ kfO{Fb}g .

t/, l;njfnn] lgodljk/Lt sf;d'sf] kmf]6f]skL u/fP .

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k]z u/]sf] ;fj{hlgs eP;Fu} tTsflng dlGqkl/ifb\sf]

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b'O{cf]6f kmG6 k|of]u ePsf] kfO{Psf] lyof] . k|x/L k|wfg

sfof{no dfgj ;|f]t ljsf; ljefusf tTsflng PcfO{hL

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…pT;fxÚ kmG6 k|of]u ePsf] lyof] eg] kmf/dsf] dflyNnf]

efudf …sflndf6LÚ kmG6 k|of]u ul/Psf] lyof] . h'g

kmG6 l;njfnn] lst]{ u/]sf] km/]lG;s l/kf]6{n] ;d]t k'li6

ul/;s]sf] 5 .

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a9fpg cfkm"x? Ps x'g nfu]sf] :ki6 u/] .

cfkm"x?n] nufPsf] kf]zfsdf g]kfndf pTkfbg

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pgn] ;dfhsf ;b:onfO{ cfu|x u/] .

pgn] eg], æcGgk"0f{ ufpFkflnsfsf ;a}

j8fdf hfg] kSsL af6f] aGg ;s] To;n]

ko{6gsf] ljsf;df klg / ToxfFsf hgtfsf]

;d[l4sf] ofqfdf 7"nf] of]ubfg ug{ ;S5 .Æ

cWoIf bfxfnsf] hGd:yn;d]t /x]sf]

sf:sLsf] ;fljs l9s'/kf]v/L xfn cGgk"0f{

ufpFkflnsfdf /x]sf] 5 .

pgn] ufpFkflnsfleq /x]sf

;fd'bflos ljBfnosf] cj:yf ;'wf/ ug{,

Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ug{ / k|fljlws lzIfftkm{

hf]8 lbg;d]t cfu|x u/] .

;dfhsf cWoIf emns/fd

clwsf/Ln] sf:sLsf] cGgk"0f{ ufpFkflnsfsf]

ljsf; / ;d[l4sf] nIonfO{ k"/f ug{

cfkm"x¿n] ;dfh :yfkgf u/]/ cufl8

a9]sf] hfgsf/L u/fP . sfo{qmddf sf:sL

lhNnfaf6 k|ltlglw;efdf k|ltlglwTj

ug'{x'g] ;f+;båo b'uf{ ljs / hut ljssf]

;d]t pkl:ylt lyof] .

hlta]nf x]/]klg bfu gePsf] ?kdf b]Vg ;sf];\ .Æ

k|wfgdGqL cf]nLn] cf}lrTo / cfjZostfsf cfwf/df

;+ljwfg ;+Zff]wg ug{ ;lsg] ePsfn] To;df cgfjZos

emd]nf gug{ klg cfu|x u/] . pgn] l5d]sL ef/t, rLg

/ cGo d'n's;Fusf] g]kfnsf] ;DaGw /fd|f] /x]sf] / tL

b]zn] gofF ;/sf/;Fu ;xsfo{ ug{ OR5f JoQm u/]sf]

pNn]v u/] . g]skf -dfcf]jfbL s]Gb|_sf cWoIf k'iksdn

bfxfn …k|r08Ún] kf6L{ Pstfsf] k[i7e"lddf cfkm"x?sf]

;+o'Qm ;+;bLo bnsf] a}7s eO/x]sf] / s]xL lbgdf Pp6}

;+;bLo bn x'g] hgfpFb} ljsf; gx'g] e"d/Ldf kl//xg]

/fhgLltnfO{ To;af6 aflx/ lgsfNg cfkm"x? ;Ifd x'g]

ljZjf; JoQm u/] .

;femf r'gfjL 3f]if0ffkq / pDd]bjf/sf ;fy

hfFbf 8]9dlxgfd} hgtfnfO{ Pstf kfg{ ;lsg' cfkm}+df

ljZjljBfno x'gk'u]sf] atfpb} cWoIf bfxfnn] eg], æca

xfdL /fli6«o kF'hLsf] ljsf; ub{} j}1flgs ;dfhjfbsf]

ofqfdf cl3 a9\g]5f}F, Pstfsf] lg0f{on] g]kfnnfO{ !))

jif{kl5 hfgaf6 cl3 NofPsf] 5, To;sf/0f xfd|f]

PstfnfO{ hgo'4eGbf 7"nf] kl/36gfsf ?kdf lnOPsf]

5 .Æ ljutdf Pdfn] / s]Gb|n] c3f]lift ?kdf Psn]

csf{]sf] /Iff ub{} cfPsf] :d/0f ub{} pgn] dbg e08f/Lsf]

hgtfsf] ax'bnLo hgjfbsf sf/0f klg cfkm"x? oxfF;Dd

cfOk'u]sf] atfP . a}7sdf Pdfn] g]tf Pj+ k"j{ ;efd'v

;'jf; g]Djfªn] ;+;bLo lgod / cEof;sf] x]Ssf /fv]/

k|efjsf/L e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{ ;f+;b\x?nfO{ cfu|x u/] .

;+3Lo ;+;b\df b'O{ bnsf s"n @!$ ;b:o 5g\ .

uf}td===

/ pT;fxsf ;fy ;f]r]eGbf klg eJo ?kdf ;kmn

ePsf] atfP .

;+3Lo===

u/fPsf 5g\ . ef]hk'/L, d}lynL, cjlw, tfdfª,

yf?, du/ / lxGbL efiffdf zky lng rfx]sf] eGb}

k|ltlglw;efdf lgjf{lrt ;f+;bn] ;lrjfnonfO{ hfgsf/L

u/fPsf 5g\ . o:t} /fli6«o;efsf 5 ;b:on] dft[efiffdf

zky lng rfx]sf] ;"rgf k|fKt ePsf] 5 . ;lrjfnon]

Ps ;"rgfdfkm{t dft[efiffdf zky lng rfx] To;sf]

hfgsf/L u/fpg cfu|x u/]sf] 5 . s'g} ;b:on] cfk\mgf]

dft[efiffdf zky lng rfx]df To:tf] ;b:on] zkysf]

Joxf]/f cfk\mgf] dft[efiffdf cg'jfb u/L ;f]sf] cg'jfbsf]

k|lt;lxt tLg lbgcufj} ;+3Lo ;+;b\sf] dxf;lrjnfO{

pknAw u/fpg'kg]{ sfg"gL k|fjwfg 5 .

sfo{;"rLsf nflu !) ah] 5nkmn

k|jQmf 8f uf}tdsf cg';f/ cfOtaf/ laxfg !)M))

ah] cfufdL sfo{;"rL tof/Lsf nflu ;bgdf k|ltlglwTj

ug]{ kfFr bnsf g]tf;Fu k/fdz{ x'g]5 . sfo{ ;~rfng

lgodfjnL gag'~h]nsf nflu cGtl/d sfo{ljlw kfl/t

ug{'kg]{ ePsfn] ;lrjfnon] To;sf] d:of}bf tof/ u/]sf]

5 . d:of}bfnufot cGo sfo{;"rLaf/] bn;Fu 5nkmnkl5

sfo{;"rL aGg]5 . Ps} lbg Ps} ;dodf b'j} ;bgsf] a}7s

cfXjfg eP klg tL ;bgsf] a}7s cnucnu ¿kdf

;DalGwt ;bgsf] sIfdf a:g]5 . ;f] 5nkmndf ;efd'v, /

fli6«o;efsf] cWoIf rogsf] k|lqmofsf af/]df ;d]t 5nkmn

x'g]5 . ;+3Lo ;+;b\sf] klxnf] a}7s a;]sf] !% lbgleq

k|ltlglw;efsf ;efd'v / pk;efd'v tyf /fli6«o;efsf

cWoIf / pkfWoIfsf] lgjf{rg ul/;Sg'kg] { ;+j}wflgs k|fjwfg

/x]sf] 5 . ;efd'v / pk;efd'v tyf cWoIf / pkfWoIf

km/s bn / km/s lnËsf] JolQm x'g'kg] { k|fjwfg 5 . b'O{

bnsf] ;dy{gdf k|wfgdGqLsf] lgo'lQm ePsfn] lgo'lQmsf]

#) lbgleq cyf{t\ cfufdL r}t # ut]leq k|wfgdGqLn]

k|ltlglw;efdf ljZjf;sf] dt lnO;Sg'kg] { ;+j}wflgs

Joj:yf 5 . To;sf nflu ;lrjfnon] cfjZos tof/L u/]

sf] k|jQmf 8f uf}tdn] atfP .

u'6aGbLsf sf/0f dlxnfnfO{ g]t[Tjdf

:yflkt ug{ ;lsPg M g]tf vgfn

sf7df8f}+-h;_– df]tLb]jL :d[lt k|lti7fgn]

;dfhsf] ljljw ljwfsf] ljsf;df of]ubfg ug]{ cf7

dlxnfnfO{ zlgaf/ ;Ddfg u/]sf] 5 . ;Ddflgt

x'g]df /fhgLltsdL{ pt/f sf]O/fnf, snfsf/

lgzf zdf{, kqsf/ ;+uLtf nfdf, ;dfh;]jL

;'j0f{ s]z/L, v]nf8L lg/f sfo:y, ckf+utf ePsL

;+uLtf kGt, blnt clwsf/sdL{ /fd/lt /fd /

cf/f]xL r'g' >]i7 /x]sf 5g\ . g]skf -Pdfn]_sf

jl/i7 g]tf emngfy vgfnn] pgLx?nfO{ ;Ddfg ub}

kf6Ll{ \eq JofKt u'6aGbLsf sf/0f dlxnf clwsf/sf

nflu hLjge/ ;+3if{ ug] { dlxnfnfO{ g]t[Tjdf :yflkt

ug{ g;lsPsfdf lrGtf JoQm u/] . pxfFn] d'n'sdf

^* jif{ cufl8b]lv z'? ePsf] hgqmflGt ;DkGg

ePsf] atfpFb} ;+ljwfg;efaf6 hf/L ePsf] ;+ljwfgn]

;a}sf clwsf/nfO{ ;'/lIft u/]sf] eP klg dlxnf

clwsf/ k|flKtdf cem} klg kl5 k/]sf] / pgLx?nfO{

zf]if0f eO/x]sf] atfP . k|b]z ;f+;b s]zj vgfn,

k"j{ ;f+;b ul/df zfxnufotn] dlxnf ;zQmLs/0fsf

nflu nfdf] ;+3if{ u/]sf] cg'ejL g]tf dlxnf ePsf

sf/0f, cfk\mgf] u'6df gk/]sf sf/0f lhDd]jf/Laf6

jl~rt u/fpFbf gofF k':tf /fhgLltk|lt cfslif{t x'g

g;Sg] ljrf/ JoQm u/] . g]skf -Pdfn]_sf pkfWoIf

tyf k|lti7fgsf cWoIf ci6nIdL zfSon] df]tLb]jLn]

sf7df8f} Faf6 snsQf;Dd lxF8]/ uP/ sDo'lgi6 kf6L{

u7gsf ;dodf ;+:yfks ;b:osf ?kdf lhDd]jf/L

lnP/ lgi7fsf] /fhgLlt ug{ 'ePsf] :d/0f ul/g\ .

nlntk'/df hGdg'ePsL df]tLb]jLsf] lj;+ @)%$ df

*^ jif{sf] pd]/df lgwg ePsf] lyof] .

k|wfgGofofwLz k/fh'nL !) lbgleq

kbd'Qm geP 8f= s];L km]/L cgzg a:g]

sf7df8f}+-h;_–jl/i7 8fS6/ uf]ljGb s];Ln]

k|wfgGofofwLz uf]kfn k/fh'nL !) lbgleq kbd'Qm

geP cfkm" km]/L cg;g a:g] atfPsf 5g\ . zlgaf/

Ps lj1lKt hf/L ub}{ 8fS6/ s];Ln] k|wfgGofofwLz

k/fh'nLsf] e|i6frf/ / b'isd{sf sf/0f b]zsf]

Gofofno g} aGws alg/x]sf] / k/fh'nLn] kbdf

a;]/ lg/Gt/ Gofosf] ;+xf/ ul//x]sfn] Tof] cj:yf

cGt ug{sf ;Tofu|x;lxt lj/f]wsf sfo{qmd

Nofpg afWo ePsf] atfPsf 5g\ . pgn] lrlsT;f

lzIff;DaGwL Goflos hfFra'em cfof]usf] k|ltj]bg

;fj{hlgs ub}{ bf]ifL 7xof{OPsf kbflwsf/Lx?nfO{

tTsfn cfof]usf] l;kmfl/zadf]lhd sf/afxL ug{

klg kmfu'g @( ut];Ddsf] ;do;Ldf lbPsf 5g\ .

8f= s];Ln] zlgaf/ hf/L u/]sf] lj1KtLdf cfk\mgf

b'O{ dfu /fv]sf 5g\ . h;df Gofofnodf e|i6frf/

;+:yfut ug]{, Gofofnosf] dof{bf lu/fpg], l;+uf]

GofofnonfO{ cfk\mgf] :jfy{sf] aGws agfpg] tyf

nf]stflGqs ;+ljwfgsf] dd{df k|xf/ ub}{ ldl8ofdf

;]G;/l;k nufpg k|of; ug]{ k|wfg GofowLz

uf]kfn k/fh'nLaf6 tTsfn /fhLgfdf lbOof]; tyf

glbPsf] cj:yfdf tTsfn dxfleof]usf] k|lqmofaf6

pgnfO{ kbaf6 x6fP/ pgLdfly sfg'gL 5fgljg

/ sf/jfxL ul/of];\ pNn]v 5 . o;}u/L lrlsT;f

lzIff;DaGwL Goflos hfFra'em cfof]usf] k|ltj]bg

;fj{hlgs ub}{ bf]ifL 7xof{OPsf kbflwsf/Lx?nfO{

tTsfn cfof]usf] l;kmfl/zadf]lhd sf/afxL

ul/of];\ eGg] dfu s];ln] /fv]sf 5g\ .

ah]6 s[lif / o'jfd'vL x'G5 MdGqL cfªaf]

kfFry/-h;_–k|b]z–! sf cfly{s dfldnf

tyf of]hgfdGqL OGb|axfb'/ cfª\af]n] cfufdL ah]6

s[lif / o'jf ju{nfO{ s]Gb|df /fv]/ NofOg] atfPsf

5g\ . u[xlhNnf kfFry/ ;b/d'sfd lkmlbddf zlgaf/

kqsf/;Fu s'/f ub} { dGqL cfªaf]n] o'jfnfO{ :j/f]huf/

agfpg] / s[lifnfO{ cfw'lgsLs/0f u/]/ lgDg:t/sf

hgtfsf] cfly{s cj:yfnfO{ p7fpg] lsl;dsf] ah]6

cfpg] :ki6 kf/] . dGqL cfªaf]n] k|b]z–! sf] d]?b08sf]

?kdf /x]sf] /fgL–lsdfyfªf ;8s / s]rgf–

cf]nfªr'ª dfu{nfO{ k"0f{tf lbg'k5{ eg] . Ps}k6s

w]/}hgf tTsfnLg hgd'lQm ;]gfn] ;xfbt k|fKt u/]sf]

kfFry/sf] d]x]naf]6]nfO{ gd"gf j:tLsf] ?kdf ljsf;

ug] { lg0f{o eO;s]sf] pgn] atfP . dGqL cfªaf]n]

hgo'4sf] ;dodf alnbfg ug]{sf] kl/jf/nfO{ ;+ul7t

ug] { p2]Zon] cfk\mgf] klxnf] dlxgfsf] tna kfFry/df

zxLb kl/jf/ ;dfh :yfkgfy{ vr{ ug]{ atfP .

kf6L{ ;efklt / ;+;bLo bnsf] g]tf

Pp6} JolQm x'g'x'Gg M g]tf yfkf

lrtjg-h;_–g]kfnL sfFu|];sf g]tf uug

yfkfn] clxn]sf] kl/j]zdf kf6L{ ;efklt / ;+;bLo

bnsf] g]tf Pp6} JolQm x'g' pko'Qm gePsf]

atfPsf 5g\ . yfkfn] zlgaf/ oxfF ;~rf/sdL{;Fu

s'/fsfgL ub{} kf6L{nfO{ k"j{jt\ cj:yfdf kmsf{pg'kg{]

dxTjk"0f{ lhDd]jf/L /x]sf] eGb} pgn] b'O{ ltxfO{

ax'dt k'¥ofpg nfu]sf] sDo'lgi6 ;/sf/;Fu

;+;b\df le8\g'kg{] ePsfn] Ps} JolQmn] b'O{ df]rf{df

/x]/ sfd ug{ g;Sg] ljrf/ JoQm u/] .km/s

k|z+udf pgn] ljkIfL bnsf] e"ldsf clxn] u'0f

/ bf]ifsf cfwf/df ;/sf/nfO{ ;xof]u / lj/f]w

dfq} geP/ ;+ljwfgsf] dd{cg';f/ ;/sf/ rNof]

ls rn]g eg]/ To;sf] /vjfnL ug{] sfd klg

ePsf] :ki6 kf/] . o;}u/L g]kfn t?0f bn ef/t

dxf/fi6«sf ;lrj k"0f{sfGt kf}8]nn] g]tf yfkfnfO{

k|jf;L g]kfnLsf ;d:ofsf af/]df cjut u/fpg'

ePsf] 5 . zlgaf/ oxfF kf}8]nn] yfkf;Fu e]6

u/L g]kfnaf6 ef/tdf /f]huf/L, cWoog, Joj;fo

u/L a;]sf g]kfnLsf cgluGtL ;d:of ePsf] /

To;sf] ;/sf/n] ;Daf]wg ug{ g;s]sf] hfgsf/L

u/fPsf lyP . ef/tdf /x]sf g]kfnL ef/tLo

;/sf/af6 ljleGg vfnsf lje]b\df k/]sf] eGb} pgn]

;/sf/L:t/af6 To:tf lje]b\ x6fpg kxn

ul/g'kg{] atfP .

s0ff{nL k|b]zdf æ;8s ;'/

Iff sfo{qmdÆ sf] z'ef/De

;'v]{t-h;_–s0ff{nL k|b]zn] ;d[l4sf nflu

;'/Iff cleofg cGtu{t æ;8s ;'/Iff sfo{qmdÆ

zlgaf/ ljlwjt\ z'ef/De u/]sf] 5 .\ cfGtl/s

dfldnf tyf sfg"g dGqfnosf] cfof]hgfdf

k|b]zsf] /fhwfgL ;'v]{tsf] jL/]Gb|gu/;lxt !)

j6} lhNnfdf Ps};fy æ;8s ;'/Iff sfo{qmdÆ sf]

z'ef/De ul/Psf] xf] . ;f] sfo{qmdsf] pb\3f6g

k|b]zsf d'VodGqL dx]Gb|axfb'/ zfxLn] u/] .

;f] cj;/df d'VodGqL zfxLn] dfG5]sf]

hLjg ;'/lIft geP;Dd s'g} klg sfdsf] ljsf;

/ k|ult gx'g] atfP . pgn] of] k|b]zn] cfk\mgf]

;d[l4sf nflu ;'/Iff cleofg cl3 a9fPsf] 5,

gful/ssf] hLpwgsf] ;'/Iffsf] k|Tofe"lt u/fpg]5

eg] . pgn] x/]snfO{ cfkm}leqaf6 ;f+]r, afgL /

;+:sf/ abNg cfu|x u/] .

cfGtl/s dfldnf tyf sfg"gdGqL g/]z

e08f/Ln] ;d[l4sf] nflu zflGt ;'/Iff sfod u/]/

s0ff{nL k|b]znfO{ b]zsf] gd"gf k|b]z agfpg]

atfP . s0ff{nL k|b]zsf u|fdL0f e]sdf /x]sf Ho]i7

gful/s, c;Qm, c;fxo / kx'Fr eGbf aflx/ /x]sf

gful/ssf nflu 3/d} k'u]/ zflGt ;'/Iffsf] ;]jf

lbg] k|b]z ;/sf/sf] of]hgf /x]sf] pgsf] egfO

lyof] . pgsfcg';f/ l8lh6n k|b]z lgdf{0fsf nflu

k|ljlw;Fu ;'/IffnfO{ hf]8]/ zlgaf/af6 of] k|b]zsf

@!% j6} k|x/L OsfOdf Ps}k6s æ;8s ;'/Iff

sfo{qmdÆ z'ef/De ul/Psf] 5 .

@% nfvsf] n6«L k/]sf] eGb} 7uL ug]{ kqmfp

c3f{vfFrL-h;_–e"ldsf:yfg gu/kflnsf j8f

g+ & :yfoL a;f]af; ug]{ ;'lgn kl/of/ ;fdflhs

;~hfn Odf]dfkm{t 7lug k'u]sf 5g\ . oxL kmfu'g

!) ut] /f]huf/Lsf] l;nl;nfdf o'gfO6]8 c/a

b'aO{df /x]sf k|tfk /fgfn] kl/of/nfO{ tkfOFnfO{

n6«L k/]sf] 5 egL Odf]dfkm{t hfgsf/L u/fPsf

lyP . /fgfn] kl/of/nfO{ æ? @% nfv n6«L k/]sf]

5, gful/stfsf] kmf]6f]skL k7fpg';\Æ, eGb} a}+ssf]

vftf g+ dfu]sf lyP . ;a} s'/fsfgL eO;s]kl5 ;f]

k};f k|fKt ug{ s]xL s/ k7fOlbg eg]kl5 kl/of/n]

ljZjf; u/L cfOPdOdfkm{t ? #^ xhf/ ?kGb]xLsf

z}n]Gb|s'df/ ax/fO{nfO{ k7fOlbP .

ut laxLaf/ ck/fXg # ah]lt/ ;fyL art

tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfdfkm{t cfOPdO u/]sf] Ps

306fkl5 ? @% nfv k|fKt ug{sf nflu ? &%

xhf/ k7fpg eg]kl5 kl/of/ bf]wf/df k/] . pgn]

bfh' /d]znfO{ ;f] s'/f atfPkl5 cfkm" 7luPsf]

yfxf kfP . pgsf bfh'n] k};f gk7fpg cfu|x

u/] . klxnf cfkm" 7luPsf] yfxf kfPkl5 csf]{ lbg

cfkm"n] k7fPsf] ? #^ xhf/ s;/L kfpg ;lsG5

eGb} b'O{ efO ?kGb]xL uP .

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