Lodz as European Green Capital by 2020

sendzimir.org.pl

Lodz as European Green Capital by 2020

XIV Summer Academy

Challenges of Sustainable Development in Poland 2011

Lodz as European Green Capital by 2020

The Sendzimir Foundation

Baltina, O.; Burszta-Adamiak, E.; Cai, H.; Dedova, M.; Dziankowska, J.; Gust, A.; Huskowska, A.;

Imre, B.; Istrate, A.; Janiak, K.; Jarzyna, M.; Klak, J.; Kobyłecka, M.; Kovaleva, M.; Lakatos, A.;

Matkowska, A.; Nowicki, M.; Pakowska, A.; Pietras, J.; Pustelak, J.; Putkowska, R.; Qalebashvili,

M.; Stepanova, N.; Strzałkowski, A.; Szatniewski, P.; Sztobryn, A.; Ueyonahara, J.; Walków, M.

Under the supervision of: Bergier, T; Kronenberg, J.; Maliszewska, K.

Lodz, 3–23 July 2011


Summer Academy Challenges of Sustainable Development in Poland is a part of the

International educational project Ecosystem services for sustainable development of cities. The

project has a pilot character, its goal is to develop and promote the model practices of using

ecosystem services for sustainable development of cities. The project is being implemented with

financial support granted by the foundation Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU) and is co-

financed by National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management.

The project is carried out by the SENDZIMIR FOUNDATION in partnership with:

University of Leipzig, Germany

University of Lodz

European Regional Centre for Ecohydrology under the auspices of UNESCO, Lodz

The Fraunhofer Center for Central and Eastern Europe (MOEZ), Leipzig, Germany

Baltic University Programme, Uppsala, Sweden

AGH – University of Science and Technology, Krakow

The Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot

The project is held under the patronage of:

Chief Nature Conservator, Deputy Minister of Environment Janusz Zaleski

ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability

The Union of Polish Metropolises

President of Lodz

Marshal of Lodz Region


Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Authors

Challenges of Sustainable Development in

Lodz

Project Description

Chapter 3 Barriers to the Preservation of Trees in Cities

and Ways to Overcome These Barriers

Chapter 4 Good Practices of Ecosystem Services

Management

Chapter 5 Valuation of Ecosystem Services – Example

of Street Trees in the Center of Lodz

Olena Baltina, Ukraine

Ania Gust, Poland

Marta Kobyłecka, Poland

Aleksandra Sztobryn, Poland

Michał Jarzyna, Poland

Joanna Klak, Poland

Marina Kovaleva, Kyrgyzstan

Marcin Walków, Poland

Hao Cai, Denmark

Anna Huskowska, Poland

Kamila Janiak, Poland

Anna Matkowska, Poland

Natalia Stepanova, Russian Federation

Justyna Dziankowska, Poland

Renata Putkowska, Poland

Mariam Qalebashvili, Georgia

Adrian Strzałkowski, Poland

Jorge Ueyonahara, Sweden

Chapter 6 Stakeholders Analysis Beata Imre, Hungary

Chapter 7 Indicators and Trends of Sustainable

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Development in Lodz

Systems Thinking Approach and Causal Loop

Diagrams

Innovations

Aura Istrate, Romania

Anna Pakowska, Poland

Justyna Pietras, Poland

Maciej Nowicki, Poland

Ewa Burszta-Adamiak, Poland

Mariya Dedova, Sweden

Attila Lakatos, Hungary

Joanna Pustelak, Poland

Piotr Szatniewski, Poland

Collective Work


Table of Contents

List of tables and figures ......................................................................................................................6

Acknowledgements ..............................................................................................................................7

Abstract.................................................................................................................................................8

CHAPTER 1 Challenges of Sustainable Development in Lodz ........................................................10

1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................10

1.2 Challenges of Environmental Protection ................................................................................10

1.3 Challenges of Social Development ........................................................................................12

1.4 Good Practices Review...........................................................................................................12

1.5 Conclusions ............................................................................................................................18

CHAPTER 2 Project Description .......................................................................................................19

2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................19

2.2 Vision of Lodz as European Green Capital ............................................................................20

CHAPTER 3 Barriers to the Preservation of Trees in Cities and Ways to Overcome These Barriers

............................................................................................................................................................22

3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................22

3.2 Method....................................................................................................................................22

3.3 Results ....................................................................................................................................23

3.4 Conclusions ............................................................................................................................28

CHAPTER 4 Good Practices of Ecosystem Services Management ..................................................29

4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................29

4.2 Phase I ......................................................................................................................................30

4.2.1 Educational Programs......................................................................................................30

4.2.2 Tree Planting....................................................................................................................30

4.2.3 Competitions....................................................................................................................31

4.3 Phase II .....................................................................................................................................31

4.3.1 Cultural Space .................................................................................................................32


4.3.2 Transportation ..................................................................................................................32

4.4 Phase III ..................................................................................................................................32

4.4.1 Revitalization of Urban Areas .........................................................................................33

4.4.2 Stormwater Management.................................................................................................33

4.4.3 Geothermal energy ..........................................................................................................33

4.5 Conclusions ............................................................................................................................34

CHAPTER 5 Valuation of Ecosystem Services - Example of Street Trees in the Center of Lodz ....35

5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................35

5.2 Definition of Valuation of Ecosystem Services ......................................................................35

5.2.1 Ecosystem and Ecosystem Services ................................................................................35

5.2.2 Importance of the Valuation of Ecosystem Services .......................................................36

5.2.3 Methods of valuation .......................................................................................................36

5.3 Methodology of the Study ......................................................................................................37

5.4 Results of the Study ................................................................................................................38

5.5 Conclusions ............................................................................................................................40

CHAPTER 6 Stakeholders Analysis .................................................................................................41

6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................41

6.2 Stakeholder Identification ......................................................................................................41

6.3 Stakeholders Analysis Based on the Amoeba Tool ................................................................43

6.3.1 Stakeholders in Lodz and Description of Their Roles.....................................................44

6.3.2 Stakeholders and Their Areas of Interests .......................................................................49

6.4 Conclusions ............................................................................................................................50

CHAPTER 7 Indicators and Trends of Sustainable Development in Lodz........................................51

7.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................51

7.2 Indicators for Nature...............................................................................................................52

7.2.1 Green Areas in the City Center........................................................................................52

7.2.2 Local Spatial Management Plan ......................................................................................52


7.2.3 Illegal Sewage / Water Quality ........................................................................................53

7.2.4 Social Awareness .............................................................................................................53

7.2.5 Water in Landscape (Water Retention) ............................................................................53

7.3 Indicators for Economy ..........................................................................................................54

7.3.1 Existence of Local Spatial Management Plans ...............................................................54

7.3.2 Financing of Urban Green Areas (by the government) ...................................................54

7.3.3 Public-private Partnerships in Green Areas Management ...............................................55

7.3.4 Traffic Volume .................................................................................................................55

7.3.5 Use of Geothermal Energy ..............................................................................................55

7.4 Indicators for Society .............................................................................................................56

7.4.1 Ecological Education .......................................................................................................56

7.4.2 Neighborhood Relationships (private and public areas) .................................................56

7.4.3 Multifunctional Green Areas ...........................................................................................57

7.4.4 Awareness of Inhabitants .................................................................................................57

7.5 Indicators for Well-being ........................................................................................................58

7.5.1 Access to Green Areas .....................................................................................................58

7.5.2 Accessibility to Different Areas in the City for People with Mobility Limitations.........59

7.5.3 Safety of Green Recreational Areas ................................................................................59

7.5.4 Proportion of the Length of Trips Made by Pedestrians and Cyclists to the Length of

Trips Made Using Other Means of Transportation.....................................................................59

7.6 Conclusions ............................................................................................................................60

CHAPTER 8 Systems Thinking Approach and Causal Loops Diagram............................................61

8.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................61

8.2 Nature Section ........................................................................................................................61

8.3 Economy Section ....................................................................................................................64

8.4 Society Section .......................................................................................................................66

8.5 Well-being Section .................................................................................................................69


CHAPTER 9 Innovations ...................................................................................................................71

9.1 Nature Section ........................................................................................................................71

9.1.1 Participatory Management of Greenery ..........................................................................71

9.1.2 Competitive Greenery Policy ..........................................................................................73

9.2 Economy Section ....................................................................................................................74

9.2.1 Put Me on the Map Campaign .........................................................................................74

9.2.2 Comprehensive Vision and Identity of Lodz ...................................................................75

9.3 Society Section .......................................................................................................................76

9.3.1 Green It Well Project........................................................................................................76

9.3.2 Green Tram Project .........................................................................................................77

9.4 Well-being Section..................................................................................................................78

9.4.1 The Green Bus Initiative ..................................................................................................78

9.4.2 The Green Bike Corridors ...............................................................................................78

9.5 Feedback from the Seminar Participants ................................................................................79

9.6 Conclusions ............................................................................................................................80

CHAPTER 10 Final Conclusions ......................................................................................................81

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................................83

APPENDICES ....................................................................................................................................85

Appendix 1 List of stakeholders participating in the workshop “What to do for Lodz to

receive the title of European Green Capital by 2020”? (July 7 th , 2011).........................................85

Appendix 2 Main Challenges of Lodz Identified by Stakeholders ................................................86

Appendix 3 Stakeholders’ Contact Information .............................................................................89

Appendix 4 ISIS Methodology.......................................................................................................92

Appendix 5 Indicators Used for European Green Capital Award 2014 .........................................94

Appendix 6 List of Best Practices and Corresponding European Green Capital Criteria ..............96

Appendix 7 List of Selected Best Practices....................................................................................98


List of tables and figures

Table 1.1 Urban Green Areas in Lodz (as of December 31, 2011) .................................................... 11

Table 1.2 Street Green Belts in Lodz (as of December 31, 2011) .................................................... 11

Figure 2.1 Ecosystem Services for Sustainable Development of Cities – Map of the Project...........20

Table 3.1 Number of Trees in the Centers of Big Cities in Poland ....................................................24

Table 3.2 Living Conditions of Trees in the Centers of big Cities in Poland within the Last 10 years

............................................................................................................................................................24

Table 3.3 Most Important Administrative Barriers to the Preservation of Urban Trees in Poland ...25

Table 3.4 Most Important Social Barriers to the Preservation of Urban Trees in Poland ..................26

Table 3.5 Most Important Opportunities to Overcome the Above Barriers, Ensuring Better

Protection for Urban Trees and Sustainable Use of Their Services in Poland ...................................27

Figure 4.1 Time scale of the 9-year Ecosystems Management Plan in Lodz .....................................30

Figure 5.1 Socio-economic Characteristics of Respondents (n=133) ................................................39

Figure 6.1 Amoeba Tool – example from Lodz..................................................................................44

Figure 6.2 Stakeholders and Their Areas of Interests.........................................................................49

Figure 7.1 Diagram of Indicators for Nature ......................................................................................54

Figure 7.2 Diagram of Indicators for Economy .................................................................................56

Figure 7.3 Diagram of Indicators for Society.....................................................................................58

Figure 7.4 Diagram of Indicators for Well-being ...............................................................................60

Figure 8.1 Causal Loop Diagram – Condition of the Greenery in the City Center............................63

Figure 8.2 Causal Loop Diagram – Lack of Local Spatial Management Plans in Lodz ....................65

Figure 8.3 Causal Loop Diagram – Insufficient Number of Multifunctional Green Areas ...............68

Figure 8.4 Causal Loop Diagram – Accessibility of Green Areas .....................................................70

Figure 9.1 Cornerstones of Sustainable Development - Competition + Cooperation ........................73


Acknowledgements

The participants of the Summer Academy wish to thank their instructors as well as the numerous

guest lecturers for their valuable presentations and classes (in order of appearance): Dr. Jan

Sendzimir, Professor Macej Zalewski, Dr. Magdalena Urbaniak, Dr. Marek Giergiczny, Dr. Tomasz

Jelenski, Dr. Piotr Magnuszewski; NGOs: Fenomen Foundation, Zrodla, Lodz Sustainable

Transport Initiative, Miej Miejsce, Ekologie Miejskie, Obywatel, Cohabitat.

We also would like to thank Anna Kronenberg and Piotr Zgorzelski for interesting and interactive

workshops that they organized for us.

We would like to express our special gratitude and thanks to all organizers, local helpers and guides

in the city of Lodz: Marta Roskowinska, Basia Kus-Saxton, Ilona Gagala.

We would like to thank all the local stakeholders whom we had an opportunity to interact with on

July 7 th , 2011 during the meetings in the City of Lodz Spatial Planning Office (Miejska Pracownia

Urbanistyczna); Lodz City Office Study and Monitoring Division (UMŁ, Oddział Studiów

i Monitoringu); Lodz City Office Downtown Branch (UMŁ, Delegatura Łódź Śródmieście); Lodz

City Office Department of Entrepreneurship and Investor Assistance (UMŁ, Biuro Rozwoju

Przedsiębiorczości i Obsługi Inwestora), Lodz City Office Division of City Development Strategy;

Center of Promotion and Development of Civil Initiatives “OPUS”; and with the representatives of

the inhabitants of the apartment building at 235/241 Piotrkowska street, protesting against cutting

down trees in the green area in front of their building.

We would like to express our gratitude towards the stakeholders participating in the workshop

organized on July 11 th , 2011 at the Lodz City Office, Department of Environment and Agriculture.

The international seminar Synthesizing different perspectives on the value of urban ecosystem

services on 15-16 July 2011 was held at the University of Lodz, Faculty of Economics and

Sociology.

Accommodation, boarding and infrastructure for the Summer Academy were provided by the

Training and Conference Center of the University of Lodz in Lagiewniki Forest. The cover photo

was taken in the Center’s garden.


Abstract

This report was completed in July 2011 by the participants of the XIV Summer Academy

Challenges of Sustainable Development in Poland and it outlines their work on a local project.

The Summer Academy was organized by the Sendzimir Foundation. This three-week training is one

of the most important educational events connected to sustainability in Poland. More than 350

people took part in it since 1998. The main objectives of the Academy are to promote sustainable

development, to teach through practice (learning by doing) and to facilitate the use of innovations

both in governance and research.

The Summer Academy is a part of an international project Ecosystem services for sustainable

development of cities that aim at promoting good practice in urban ecosystem management in Polish

cities. This report presents the final analysis of the theoretical and practical tasks that were

undertaken in its first phase.

The local project focuses on the green areas in the center of Lodz. Chapter 1 presents background

information about Lodz, and Chapter 2 provides description of the local project. Chapter 3 contains

a description and results of a research project entitled Barriers to the preservation of trees in cities

and ways to overcome these barriers. Examples of best practices in ecosystem services

management, that can be an inspiration for similar initiatives in Lodz, are presented in Chapter 4.

The participants of the Summer Academy also conducted a survey among local citizens. The goal of

the survey was to assess the value of street trees in the center of Lodz. Chapter 5 explains the

definition of the valuation of ecosystem services, methodology and results of the survey.

Chapter 6 presents a brief description of local stakeholders and the roles they can play in the

implementation of the strategy that will help Lodz become the European Green Capital by 2020.

Finally, Chapters 7–9 mimic the structure of the ISIS Method. The ISIS Method, that is a coherent

process of planning for sustainability in diverse group of stakeholders, was used to build

a foundation for the strategy that could help Lodz obtain a title of the European Green Capital by

2020. The four-step ISIS approach is presented in the table below.

The last Chapter is a summary of the report.

8


Indicators The most important aspects in the context of sustainable development of Lodz

were identified by the local stakeholders during a participatory meeting

organized in the Lodz City Council. Selected indicators can be used to track the

progress towards meeting the criteria of the European Green Capital Award.

(Chapter 7)

Systems Based on the information obtained from the local stakeholders, the participants

of the Summer Academy performed system analysis of the current situation.

(Chapter 8)

Innovations The next step was a development of innovative projects which, if implemented,

could increase Lodz’s chances of becoming the European Green Capital by

2020. (Chapter 9)

Strategy The strategy development should be the next step to be taken in order to support

Lodz in its greening process. The strategy should define necessary actions

which implementation would make Lodz a greener city.

9


CHAPTER 1

Challenges of Sustainable Development in Lodz

The chapter gives a brief description of Lodz, highlights the sustainability

challenges of the city and focuses on the existing projects in the city,

emphasizing the importance of public participation and preservation of

environmental resources.

1.1 Introduction

Lodz, a city located in the central part of Poland, is the capital of Lodz Voivodship. With the area of

293.3 km 2 , and a population of 742.387, it is a third-largest city in the country. 1 Established in the

14 th century as a trade town between Warsaw and Silesia region, Lodz became a famous industrial

city with a massive textile production. 2 Before 1991, it played a crucial role in Poland textile export.

Till today, most of the major textile companies in Lodz closed down due to the complex political

and economical reasons, however a number of private companies keep working in this field. Lodz is

a major research and education center with highly developed infrastructure. 3 Lodz is a place of

a distinctive cultural and architectural heritage. 4 Lodz offers a variety of tourist and recreational

opportunities, with its state-of-the-art sport arena and hotels, beautiful scenery, architectural

monuments and centers of folk culture.

1.2 Challenges of Environmental Protection

Real treasures of Lodz are the city parks. Nowadays, there are 34 parks located in the city that cover

the area of 503.8 hectares. In addition, forests cover 2,378 hectares of the urban area. In Lodz, there

is also the biggest urban forest within the city in Europe – Las Lagiewnicki which is fundamental in

order to transform industrial city to environmental friendly “Green metropolis” being attractive for

citizens and tourists. Although there are no regular tree complexes along the streets within the city

center, the former industrialists' gardens (27 on the list) form green enclaves with rare types of trees

and shrubs, even if they are neglected. The larger green areas surrounding the central part of the city

form an irregular, symbolic Green Circle of Tradition and Culture. 5

1

Demographic Yearbook of Poland 2010. Central Statistical Office, Warsaw, p. 40, http://www.stat.gov.pl/cps/

rde/xbcr/gus/ PUBL_rs_rocznik_demograficzny_2010.pdf (retrieved: July 13, 2011).

2

History. The City Office of Lodz website: http://en.uml.lodz.pl/city/history/ (retrieved: July 11, 2011).

3

Lodz: Business Report. Lodz – City of Innovation website: http://www.miastoinnowacji.lodz.pl/Wydawnictwa/

(retrieved: July 13, 2011).

4

Young C., Kaczmarek S. Changing the perception of the post-socialist city: place promotion and imagery in Lodz,

Poland. CBS Interactive Business Network website: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_go2454/is_2_165/ai_n28

737617/ (retrieved: July 13, 2011).

5

Jakobczyk-Gryszkiewicz J., Dyba W., Marcinczak Sz., Tanas S., (2008). Zagospodarowanie terenow rekreacyjnych

Lodzi. Plan, perspektywy, Lodzkie Towarzystwo Naukowe, Lodz, p.50.

10


Over the years, the green areas in Lodz have not changed significantly (Table 1.1). The only

positive change that can be observed is the increase of the parks and estate green belts areas.

Together the green land accounts for 30% of the city. 6

Table 1.1 Urban Green Areas in Lodz (as of December 31, 2011)

Areas in (ha) 2005 2008 2009

Parks 609,5 702,5 626,5

Lawns 276,4 276,4 276,4

Estate green belts 925,5 972,1 1018,1

Zoological gardens 17,0 17,0 17,0

Botanical gardens 64,1 67,3 67,3

Nature reserves 79,7 79,6 79,6

Landscape parks 1605,9 1605,9 1605,9

Source: Statistic for Lodz 2010, Statistical Office in Lodz 2010.

The length of street green belts remain unchanged but total amount of planted trees is lower that

total number of trees that have been removed. Decreasing trend is probably caused by living

conditions (hardening and salinity of soils, pollution, etc.), arising conflict of interest of different

groups, lack of local spatial management plans, lack of funds and lack of awareness of the

importance of trees. The opposite trend can be observed in relation between number of shrubs

planted and removed. The quantity of units of new shrub is now almost three times higher than in

the last two years (Table 1.2).

Table 1.2 Street Green Belts in Lodz (as of December 31, 2011)

Specification 2005 2008 2009

Street green belts in ha 78 78 78

Number of trees planted 160 364 992

Number of trees removed 332 333 1021

Number of shrubs planted 2534 6409 4654

Number of shrubs removed 42 2207 1274

Source: Statistic for Lodz 2010, Statistical Office in Lodz 2010.

Although there are 18 streams within the territory of Lodz, the city area can be characterized as

an area with challenging water conditions because Lodz is situated on the main watershed and

equipped with the mixed drainage system.

The amount of municipal sewage in Lodz is gradually decreasing, and since 2004 the urban

drainage system, as well as the Combined Sewage Treatment Plant have been developed and

modernized (the length of the system in 2000 – 816 km, in 2007 – 914 km). A project involving the

thermal treatment of sewage sediments is being carried out. 7 Now Lodz has one of the most modern

sewage treatment plants in Poland.

6 Parki Miasta Lodzi. The Lodz City Council, Department of Environment and Agriculture website:

www.przyroda.uml.lodz.pl/?s=26 (retrieved: July 12, 2011).

7 Liszewski, S. (2009). Lodz a Monograph of the City, Lodz Scientific Society, p.367-368.

11


Lodz, as many other cities, struggles with a problem of traffic congestion. Lodz is one of three cities

in Poland (after Cracow and Gdansk) that decided to incorporate and take into consideration the

importance of cycling in the urban policy and signed the Charter of Brussels. This document is

meant to strengthen the cooperation between bicycle users associations, public institutions, experts

from the field and other parties that will work together to support the development of bicycle

culture and infrastructure. Lodz plans to increase to 15% utility cycling in urban traffic by 2020. As

of 2011 there were 75,939 m of bicycle paths in the city. 8 According to the PricewaterhouseCoopers

(PwC) report in 2011, the bicycle network in Lodz is underdeveloped, while the number of cars in

the city is rapidly increasing (from 291cars/1000 inhabitants in 2006 to 450 cars/1000 inhabitants in

2011) and the density of road networks is significantly above the average. 9

In 2010 Lodz took part in the European Green Capital Award Contest, unfortunately without

success. The European Green Capital Award was launched by the European Commission on May

22 nd , 2008 and is a highly prestigious award.

1.3 Challenges of Social Development

Previous industrial focus of Lodz and recent changes into a more culturally and environmentally

focused city are associated with social challenges faced by the government and inhabitants. As part

of the famous textile industry has been liquidated, problem of unemployment and social exclusion

arose. Another issue is that many Lodz inhabitants commute to the neighboring Warsaw where

the work places are located and many young people choose to move there. This phenomenon results

in the decrease of Lodz population, which is a real problem for a city that aims to develop.

Social problems are also partially managed by revitalization processes, including changing postindustrial

areas into hotels or shopping and cultural centers however the newly established work

places do not provide jobs for as many people as in previous industrial times. Thus social dialogue

becomes of a great importance. Several civil society projects have been initiated by nongovernmental

organizations in order to improve well-being of population.

1.4 Good Practices Review

Inhabitants of Lodz are highly motivated and want to implement changes in their city. Below

described initiatives represents examples of good practices in the sustainable development that are

currently implemented in Lodz. Selected good practices are connected with environmental

protection and public participation.

8

Dlugosc drog rowerowych w Lodzi. Rowerowa Lodz website: http://www.rowerowalodz.pl/aktualnosci/296-dugodrog-rowerowych-w-odzi

(retrieved: July 11, 2011).

9

Reports on Major Polish Cities Lodz. (2011) PricewaterhouseCoopers International Limited website:

http://www.pwc.com/pl/en/wielkie -miasta-polski/raport_Lodz_eng.pdf (retrieved: July 11, 2011).

12


Table 1.3 Good Practices in Lodz

Type Name Organizer Action Area

GREEN PRACTICES

Blue-Green

Network

The Green Circle

of Tradition and

Culture

- International

Institute of Polish

Academy of

Sciences -

European Regional

Centre for

Ecohydrology

- Department of

Applied Ecology

of the University

of Lodz

- The City Office

of Lodz

- The City Office

of Lodz

- environment,

- urban area,

- ecohydrology

- environment,

- urban area

- tourism,

- entertainment

13

Short Description

Source of information

The concept is created on

the basis of theory of

ecohydrology

complementary to the

traditional city planning

concept of a green belt

around the city of Lodz.

Main goal of the project is

to create network of the

city parks (places of

entertainment, where

inhabitants can relax).

Crucial elements of Blue-

Green Network are rivers

and theirs valleys, which

needed to be cleaned and

revitalized.

www.bluegreen.org.pl

The Green Circle of

Tradition and Culture are

special areas around the

center of Lodz which

cover 16 parks, gardens

and also areas with big

cultural and historical

meaning public places

like graveyards, old

factories building.

Main Goals

quality of life and health

improvement:

- better access to green areas,

- attractive walks paths,

- bike routes,

- lower risk of many diseases

impact on the environment:

- improved microclimate, air and

water quality,

- larger biodiversity

Blue-Green Network

increases city attractiveness

- increase the tourist

attractiveness of the city,

- protection of the green areas

with historical, cultural and

environmental value,

- linkage of different green areas

in Lodz thus citizens can

comfortably move from one

place to another


The Centrum of

Promotion and

Development

Civil Initiatives -

Clean City

Nongovernmenta

l initiative Glos

Lodzian sie liczy

- The City Office

of Lodz,

- Department of

Public Utilities

- Centrum

Promocji i

Rozwoju Inicjatyw

Obywatelskich

OPUS

- social

participation,

- environment,

- urban area,

- waste sorting

- participation,

- public

discussion,

- environment,

- urban area

14

Guidebook “W zielonym

kręgu tradycji i kultury”

by Piotr Prusinowski

The general goal of this

campaign is to implement

activities that will make

Lodz a cleaner and more

nature-friendly city. By

participation in many

programs the local

community is being

involved in decision

making processes. The

program strives to make

inhabitants of Lodz region

more active in local life,

build a conscious society,

promote activities such as

recycling and waste

sorting.

The program also offers

consultations, trainings

and implements projects

concerning the cleaning

of the city and waste

management.

www.czystemiasto.uml.lo

dz.pl

Main goal of this project

was to create a model of

social consultation on the

local level and also to

encourage people to

- cleaner surroundings (for

example by liquidation of illegal

dumps, removal of leaves and

composting them for organic

fertilization),

-involvement of the youth in the

cleaning up of public places,

- recycling and waste sorting

- increase inhabitants'

engagement and awareness,

- effective local participation,

- inhabitants feel responsible for

their close surroundings


PARTICIPATION

Mud Festival - Informal group

“Miej Miejsce”

- participation,

- urban area,

- education

15

participate in local

decision making process.

www.gloslodzian.pl

The main goal of the

initiative is to bring

decisions makers’

attention to the urban

areas. Several

spontaneous actions are

organized to encourage

inhabitants to take care of

their city. Mud Festival

was organized to bring up

the problem of

undeveloped area near the

Poznanski Palace. Local

media found the Festival

to be very interesting and

promoted the event and

the problem of neglected

area in the center of Lodz.

Thanks to the local media

the information reached

local decision makers.

Finally, local authorities

took care of the problem

and decided to create a

lawn near the Poznanski

Palace.

http://www.plasterlodzki.

pl/miasto/aktualnoci/1653

-festiwal-bota-w-odzifotowideo

- increase inhabitants'

awareness,

- encourage people to participate

in urban planning,

- development of new plans for

undeveloped areas,

- inhabitants integration with

decision makers which is

supposed to increase the

effectives of local actions


Let’s Help

Chestnuts in

Lodz

- The City Office

of Lodz -

Department of

Environmental

Protection and

Agriculture

- Lodz League of

Nature

Conservation

Fenomen - Fenomen

Foundation

- participation,

- environment,

- ecological

education

- public

participation,

discussion,

- environment,

- urban area

16

The main goal of this

action is to protect the

chestnuts from the

chestnut pests. One of the

methods of protection is

collection of fallen leaves

where chrysalises of pests

overwinter. The youth

from local schools is

involved in this action.

http://www.przyroda.uml.l

odz.pl/?s=31

The goal of this project is

to popularize cycling in

the city and improve

conditions for cycling.

Examples of the projects:

development of new

cycling routes; lobbying

in the City Council to

defend budget in favour

of sustainable transport

development; working on

bicycle rack audit;

promotion of urban biking

(LodzCycleChic);

engaging people (Critical

Mass); education of

cyclists; promotion of

cycling events; portal

RowerowaLodz.pl and

AutoStac.pl

www.fundacjafenomen.pl

- youth participation in

environmental protection,

- trees protection,

- improving conditions of green

areas in the city,

- improving the quality of life

- reduction of carbon emissions

which results in better air

quality,

- reduction of noise pollution,

- reduction of congestion on

roads,

- more green spaces in the city,

-prevention of sedentary

lifestyle,

-improving citizens mobility


Eco-Piotrkowska

– The Longest

Green Street in

Europe

- Creative Cities

Project,

- Lodz City

Council,

- Lodz Integrated

Restoration

Institute

- public

participation,

- environment,

- urban area,

- tourism,

- entertainment

area

17

The first event of the

project - Future City

Game - brought together

representatives of the city

authorities, academia,

local community, business

and various creative

industries to identify the

best solutions for the

sustainable improvement

of Piotrkowska Street.

The project was a part of

Lodz efforts to obtain the

European Green Capital

Award in 2010.

http://creativecities.british

council.org/urban_codesign_tools/element/119/

the_future_of_piotrkowsk

a_street

- development of new

sustainable vision of

Piotrkowska street through

active public participation,

- noise reduction,

- contribution to the reduction of

harmful gasses,

- creation of green roofs,

- transformation of concrete

courtyards into green oases, with

green walls and green roofs


1.5 Conclusions

The chapter presented background information about Lodz. Moreover, the environmental and social

challenges were emphasized in order to highlight the status quo. Currently the biggest challenges

for Lodz are the reconstruction and revitalization of the valuable city center and implementation of

initiatives that would make Lodz more sustainable. In addition, the chapter provided a brief

description of a number of good practices already implemented in the city. The examples of

activities carried out by local community prove that inhabitants are interested in the improvement of

surrounding areas and living conditions in the city.

Sustainable development takes time, preparation, commitment and patience. One can already

observe many positive innovative trends in the city which should be taken into account, supported

and further developed.

18


CHAPTER 2

Project Description

Local authorities and communities are facing many urban challenges.

The most important issues are the following: protection of the urban

environment, improvement of the quality of life and development

of spatial plans.

Sustainable way of development and proper identification and utilization

of services provided by urban ecosystems are very important.

2.1 Introduction

The main idea of the project Lodz European Green Capital by 2020 is to encourage implementation

of the sustainability principles in spatial planning and management in Lodz.

One of the objectives of the project is to demonstrate the importance of ecosystem services and their

valuation in decision making process, as well as to emphasize the importance of public participation

in the management of green areas in the city. Moreover, the project promotes the implementation of

innovations in local governance.

An important part of the project is an assessment of the value of services “offered” by street trees in

the center of Lodz and identification of the reasons that caused a decrease in the number of trees. In

words of Dwayer: “Past planning and management efforts have not been as effective as they might

have been because planners and managers have underestimated the potential benefits that urban

trees and forests can provide, and have not understood the planning and management efforts needed

to provide those benefits”. 10

Interviews with local authorities and experts provided valuable information that was used to prepare

this report. A survey conducted among inhabitants revealed their opinions on how valuable the

ecosystem services provided by trees are for them.

An indirect result of the project may be an increase in people and authorities’ awareness about the

importance of proper planning and management of green areas in the city center. Moreover, the

project sparks public interest and discussion about green spaces in the city.

Information obtained from various stakeholders was used to design innovations that, if

implemented, would lead to sustainable development of the city.

All activities carried out within this project (Figure 2.1) resulted in a report for the City Office of

Lodz and a guide Nature in the City – Why Is It Important and How to Ensure Its Preservation?

10 Dwyer, J. F., Assessing the benefits and costs of the urban forest, Journal of Arboriculture 18(5): September 1992.

19


Figure 2.1 Ecosystem Services for Sustainable Development of Cities – Map of the Project

2.2 Vision of Lodz as European Green Capital

The European Green Capital Award (EGCA) is about sharing experiences, best practices, and

a vision of sustainable future. Cities differ enormously but also have a lot in common, and sharing

real best-practice examples of what a sustainable city can look like is essential, if further progress is

to be made. Europe is an urban society, with many environmental challenges to face.

The EGCA has been conceived as an initiative to promote and reward local efforts to improve the

environment, the economy and the quality of life of urban populations. In other words, the cities

become role models for each other. “The finalists and winners of the European Green Capital

Award provide us with valuable real-life examples of how respect for the environment, excellent

quality of life and economic growth can all be successfully combined”. 11 Starting in 2010, one

European city will be selected each year as the EGC of the year.

11

European Green Capital - About the Award. The European Commission website: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/

europeangreencapital/about-the-award/index.html (retrieved: July 13, 2011).

20


The main objectives of the European Green Capital Award are to:

- reward cities that have a consistent record of achieving high environmental standards;

- encourage cities to commit to ongoing and ambitious goals for further environmental

improvement and sustainable development;

- provide a role model to inspire other cities and promote best practices and experience in all

other European cities.

Stockholm was selected as the 2010 European Green Capital, while Hamburg took over the title in

2011, Vitoria-Gasteiz will become the EGCin 2012 and Nantes in 2013.

Detailed information about the European Green Capital Award indicator areas for 2014 can be

found in Appendix 5.

Right now many sustainable initiatives are being implemented in the city of Lodz which could

support the effort of Lodz to become the European Green Capital in future.

21


CHAPTER 3

Barriers to the Preservation of Trees in Cities and Ways to

Overcome These Barriers

The number of trees in centers of big cities in Poland is decreasing.

Moreover, the living conditions of trees in Poland within the last 10 years

became worse.

The administrative and social barriers have negative influence on situation

of trees in Polish cities.

To overcome those barriers several solutions were identified.

3.1 Introduction

The quantity of trees in central areas of large cities in Poland is decreasing, and most probably the

same happens in other countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Loosing trees, society is also losing

a source of important ecosystem services. As a result, an increase in social and economic costs of

environmental degradation and public health related to higher traffic and industry is observed. The

quality of life in central urban areas is deteriorating, often leading to the social degradation of those

areas. Apart from the phenomena traditionally discussed with reference to the problems of urban

trees, such as salinity and hardening of soils or air pollution (related to increased pressures from

transportation and the development of infrastructure), we should also consider institutional failures

that lead to the former more often discussed problems. The institutional failures include government

(or administrative) failures and social failures.

The research project entitled Barriers to the preservation of trees in cities and ways to overcome

these barriers, which is a part of a larger project Ecosystem services for sustainable development of

cities, conducted by the Sendzimir Foundation, refers to these kinds of failures. Better knowledge

about and understanding of the administrative and social barriers would allow improving the

situation of trees in cities, and hence increase the use of their services in a sustainable manner.

3.2 Method

The objectives of this research project fell into the following categories:

1. Identification of the institutional barriers to the preservation of trees in central areas of cities

in Poland (with some comparison to the situation of other countries in Central and Eastern

Europe).

2. Identification of opportunities to overcome those barriers.

22


The goal of this research project was to test the following two hypotheses:

1. Quantity of trees in central areas of cities in Poland decreases because of institutional

failures.

2. Institutional failures can be prevented so that the trees were used with better awareness of

their importance and in line with the concept of sustainable development.

A non-experimental design was used to survey the experts. The questionnaire composed of 53

questions: 3 multiple choice with one possible answer, 3 multiple choice with three possible

answers, 38 based on the level of measurement with five-point Likert scale, 3 open-ended based on

the level of measurement with five-point Likert scale and 6 open-ended.

The questionnaire was distributed (by phone, e-mail or in person) to numerous experts in Poland

and abroad (Armenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Belarus, Chile, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia,

Georgia, Greece, Hungary, Kyrgyz Republic, Latvia, Lithuania, Peru, Romania, Slovakia, Sweden,

Ukraine). The experts, people actively involved in issues related to urban trees, represented:

municipal servants (Poland: 6; foreign: 12), researchers (34 and 25), private sector employees

(4 and 3), others (1 and 6).

The experts in Poland were selected from participants of the annual conference on Urban Greenery

– Natural Wealth of the City (purposive sampling). The conference is one of the most important

events in this field being hold in Poland since 2005. The foreign experts were identified based on

their recognition as the specialists in this field in their home countries.

The research was conducted between 7 th and 29 th May, 2011. In total, 45 surveys from Poland and

46 from abroad were classified as complete.

3.3 Results

According to the majority of experts, the number of trees in the centers of big cities in Poland is

decreasing (Table 3.1). Moreover, the living conditions of trees in Poland within the last 10 years

became worse (Table 3.2). In contrast, majority of foreign experts stated that number of trees in

their respective cities increased or stayed the same. The foreign experts also said that the living

conditions of trees in their cities in the same time improved or did not change at all.

23


Table 3.1 Number of Trees in the Centers of Big Cities in Poland

In your opinion, in the centres of big cities in

Poland, the number of trees is

decreasing;

34

increasing; 3

Table 3.2 Living Conditions of Trees in the Centers of big Cities in Poland within the Last 10

years

24

constant; 8

How do you assess changes in the living

conditions of trees in the centres of big cities in

Poland within the last 10 years?

They are

becoming

worse; 37

They are

improving; 3

They are the

same; 5


A list of potential barriers to the preservation of urban trees was presented to the respondents, with

additional space provided for their own suggestions. The respondents were also asked to indicate

the three most important barriers from the list. The insufficient funds for the maintenance of green

areas were identified as the main obstacles, both in Poland and abroad. The Polish experts also

pointed out that the lack of local spatial management plans as well as the ignorance of the basic

rules of the cultivation of trees among the administrators of urban green areas is a serious problem

(Table 3.3).

The foreign experts also stressed out that the poor execution of rules concerning the preservation of

urban trees and the low awareness of the importance of trees among decision-makers constitute one

of the most important barriers.

Table 3.3 Most Important Administrative Barriers to the Preservation of Urban Trees

in Poland

Lack of local spatial management plans,

leading to discretionary decisions regarding

building and infrastructure

Laws and other rules neglecting the

significance of trees and urban green areas or

limiting the possibilities of protecting trees

and other greenery against other interests

Lack of control and of execution of laws by the

administrators and officials – vaguely

formulated rules, lack of the effective

possibility of punishment

Ignorance of the basic rules of the cultivation

of trees among the administrators of urban

green areas

Insufficient funds for the maintenance and the

cultivating of green areas

Both Polish and foreign experts claimed that the society does not perceive the issues related to

urban trees as important and urgent ones, thus is not actively involved in their preservation. Very

important is the fact that the society is not aware of the importance of trees. In addition, Polish

25

11

12

0 5 10 15 20 25

13

16

21


experts stated that the trees are often perceived by city inhabitants as a problem causing shadow,

allergies etc. (Table 3.4). Foreign experts highlighted lack of knowledge on how to protect trees in

the city against different forms of pressure.

Table 3.4 Most Important Social Barriers to the Preservation of Urban Trees in Poland

Lack of knowledge on how to protect trees

in the city against different forms of

pressure

Bad habits of individuals (e.g. destroying

and hurting trees)

Trees are perceived as a problem (e.g.

causing shadow, allergies, loosing leaves

that need to be removed)

Other issues are perceived by citizens as

more important (e.g. parking lots,

buildings)

Low awareness of the importance of trees

among citizens

According to the respondents, the ways to overcome above mentioned barriers are connected with

effective execution of laws and rules, information and education, putting legal regulations referring

to urban trees in order (Table 3.5). In addition, the foreign experts pointed out creating new

standards indicating the required percentage of green areas in all new road and building projects.

Both Polish and foreign experts suggested many possible solutions to overcome administrative and

social barriers.

The educational programs raising awareness of the benefits of trees among citizens, investors and

decision makers were recognized by the experts as an important tool. These educational programs

should focus on the importance of trees in the cities from the environmental, social and economic

perspectives. This can be achieved through informational and awareness raising campaigns

presented in mass media. Moreover, there is a need to increase the citizens’ understanding of legal

regulations that pertains to green areas and encourage them to act when the law is not executed.

The experts stressed out the need for raising awareness of the rules of the rational trees

management, including planting right trees in the right places. It is also crucial to consider trees

related issues during the development of city spatial plans. Some experts suggested that there

26

13

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

17

23

28

29


should be some legal regulations that would protect not only new trees but also the old ones because

of their greater value.

There is also a need for making existing legal regulations more precise, and to ensure that the

decision making processes related to the urban greenery are more transparent. To support these

efforts, the experts suggested an implementation of radical rules against corruption in the

management of funds for green public spaces. They also pointed out a need for creation of

integrated system of urban greenery management. Exchange of opinions, experience, and

cooperation between all local stakeholders is necessary to implement the mentioned above

solutions.

According to the experts, the funding for implementation of discussed actions could come from

municipal budgets, special environmental protection funds, fees and penalties for cutting trees,

taxes, the European Union funds or public donations.

It is essential that all of actions and funds connected to urban greenery management should be

carefully planned, consequently implemented, monitored and evaluated. To achieve success

the process of urban greenery development has to be perceived in a long-term frame thus

continuous participation and engagement of all stakeholders is crucial.

Table 3.5 Most Important Opportunities to Overcome the Above Barriers, Ensuring Better

Protection for Urban Trees and Sustainable Use of Their Services in Poland

Introduction to the Property Management

National Act the "public green areas" as a

public priority.

Higher financial means for the

preservation of trees in cities

Creating new standards indicating the

required percentage of green areas in all

new road building projects

Information/education

Effective execution of laws and rules

Putting legal regulations referring to

urban trees in order

27

10

0 5 10 15 20 25

12

13

14

14

20


3.4 Conclusions

The barriers to the preservation of trees in cities can be divided into two categories: administrative

and social. The following administrative barriers were identified as the most important: the

insufficient funds for the maintenance of green areas, lack of local spatial management plans,

ignorance of the basic rules of the cultivation of trees, poor execution of rules concerning the

preservation of urban trees and the low awareness of the importance of trees among decision

makers. The most significant social barriers are connected to the citizens’ limited awareness of the

importance of trees and lack of knowledge on how to protect trees in the city against different forms

of pressure.

To overcome those barriers increasing awareness of importance of urban trees among citizens and

decision makers, better execution of existing law and improvement in management of urban

greenery and development of spatial plans are needed.

It is crucial, that all above mentioned solutions should be carefully planned, implemented,

monitored and evaluated permanently with engagement of all stakeholders.

28


CHAPTER 4

Good Practices of Ecosystem Services Management

The chapter presents recommendations for Lodz in the area of developing

an effective ecosystem services management strategy.

The proposed management plan is divided into three phases – starting with

a phase where relatively simple and cheap projects can be implemented

and ending with initiatives that are more complex and implementation

requires more time and funding.

4.1 Introduction

Sustainable development requires preservation of the environment and improvement of social and

economic situation on a global and local level. Ecosystem services management is one of the ways

to improve sustainability and rational use of nature services. Thus a key challenge is to identify

integrated management policies to maximize the utility of multiple ecosystem services.

The chapter presents information regarding the most important good practices which were already

implemented and brought positive results in different parts of the world.

The selected good practices can work as an inspiration for developing an efficient and adaptive

management framework in Lodz, and thus help to receive the title of the European Green Capital by

2020. Moreover, the chosen practices could help to solve current problems in Lodz that were

described in previous chapters. In addition, they correspond to the European Green Capital Award’s

criteria therefore implementation of recommended practices could ease the selection process.

A full list of selected good practices can be found in Appendix 7.

The good practices have been divided into three groups representing three phases of implementation

(Figure 4.1). In the first phase, the projects which are less complex and produce the quickest results

could be implemented. Phases II and III include more complex projects that might need more time

for their implementation and for the results to be visible.

29


4.2 Phase I

Figure 4.1 Time scale of the 9-year Ecosystems Management Plan in Lodz

The Phase I covers the least expensive practices which could generate the results in a short period

of time. These practices include educational programs, public-private participation in trees planting

activities and contests. These good practices aim to increase the number of green urban areas and to

enrich the urban biodiversity.

4.2.1 Educational Programs

Educational programs include events, door-to-door outreach, community meetings or volunteer

service projects that will raise public awareness about the urban ecosystems. By organizing such

meetings for the neighborhoods and enhancing knowledge it is possible to increase the amount of

green spaces, and to improve the appearance and cleanliness of existing green areas. Such actions

could be implemented in Lodz following good example from Boston, Peterborough and Seattle.

The goal of the EarthWorks' Urban Wilds Program (Boston, MA; USA) was to connect urban

residents to the wilds (Appendix 7, Best Practice 47). The Forest for Peterborough Project in the

United Kingdom involved young people so that they could learn about the importance of

biodiversity, its development and protection (Appendix 7, Best Practice 33). Another educational

program was implemented in Seattle (Washington, USA) (Appendix 7, Best Practice 22).

The Master Composter Program was operated by Seattle Tilth as a part of the Natural Soil Building

Program. The Master Composter Program trained individuals to become experts in composting.

This program trained individuals who could later educate the general public on how to reduce their

waste and improve soil quality at the same time.

4.2.2 Tree Planting

Another way to increase green zones in urban areas is to encourage individuals, families, schools,

etc. to make a donation or to plant a tree personally. Tree planting actions have already shown

30


positive outcomes in such cities as Singapore, Chicago, Gdansk, New York, Peterborough, Poznan,

Santiago and Austin (for further information please see Appendix 7).

Plant-A-Tree Program in Singapore encouraged local people to protect ecosystem services and to

create a green, healthy, livable and salubrious environment (Appendix 7, Best Practice 40). Plant-A-

Tree Program contributed to the improvement of the environment by individual’s actions. Chicago

Trees Initiative involved Municipality of Chicago and local community (Appendix 7, Best Practice

43). The citizens were encouraged to plant a tree in private gardens or to volunteer in the city tree

planting actions.

4.2.3 Competitions

A contest or a competition among gardens or parks could play a positive role in the improving of

urban biodiversity. Such practices could be organized by nonprofit organizations or local

government as a part of the broader actions with the aim to raise people’s awareness about the

environment and to make streets cleaner and greener.

Since 1995, the Croatian National Tourist Board organizes a contest with a task to arrange a garden

around family houses in towns which participate in the contest (Appendix 7, Best Practice 23). The

concept of the contest is simple: households have to arrange their gardens and area around the

house, people in the strict city center have to arrange their balconies. The main objective is to create

a little green zone around the house. At the end of the application period, the representatives from

the Tourist Board/City government evaluate the gardens and give awards.

Similar initiative was organized in Krakow (Appendix 7, Best Practice 7). The initiators were trying

to encourage Cracow inhabitants to joint responsibility for greenery in the city. The competition

encourages citizens to invite nature into places from which it was removed for instance because of

urbanization.

By expanding knowledge of local people and through their work and cooperation it is possible to

implement effective solutions for small areas (housing estates or districts) that will increase green

areas and biodiversity in a short term.

4.3 Phase II

Phase II focuses on good practices that require more time for implementation. These practices

include projects improving existing recreational open spaces as well as projects creating new urban

green spaces such as parks, blue-green corridors etc. Emphasis is placed on availability and

accessibility of green areas and improvement of environmentally-friendly transport to improve the

quality of life.

31


4.3.1 Cultural Space

Green spaces contribute to the air quality, noise prevention and reduction of the heat island effect,

improve local climate conditions and contribute to the reduction of the climate change. While

planning the green areas sustainable land use, restoration of natural vegetation types and water

retention in urban environment should be taken into account.

An inspiration for Lodz could be a restoration of brownfields in North Rhine Westphalia (Germany)

(Appendix 7, Best Practice 18). Apart from restoring post industrial abandoned area, the goal of the

project was to improve existing urban spaces and create regional park system with green corridors

and water canals.

Green spaces provide cultural and recreational services, improve aesthetics and are very important

for the development of social relationships. The example of Slepotka River (Katowice, Poland)

shows how a former source of problems can be transformed into a source of various benefits

(Appendix 7, Best Practice 27). The water in the river had been contaminated and surrounding

riverside was abandoned. The partnership between representatives from different countries

(REURIS Project) has led to the restoration of the urbanized part of the river valley which now

provides recreational open space for local communities as well as habitats for vegetation and

animals.

4.3.2 Transportation

Development of environmentally-friendly transportation (public transport, bicycle paths) and

reduction of traffic in the city can be other areas of intervention and preparation for the European

Green Capital Award contest.

Preparation process to become European Green Capital should also focus on environmentally

friendly transportation (public transport, bicycle paths) and reducing traffic in the city in order to

reduce air pollution.

Systematic planning in Münster (Germany) has changed the city from heavy traffic area into the

eco-mobile city (Appendix 7, Best Practice 48). The City of Münster decided to invest in bicycle

paths and public transportation. The city also implemented a program that promotes eco-transport.

In addition, a service centre for clever transport choices (Mobilé) was established in collaboration

with communal transportation company, where citizens and tourists are provided with the

information on the best travel options and alternatives. The bicycle paths connect central districts

with city suburbs and allow users to easily access green areas.

4.4 Phase III

The third phase includes projects that need more time for implementation and for the results to be

visible. These projects are usually more capital intensive that the ones described in Phases I and II,

and focus on revitalization and infrastructure development for water and energy management.

32


4.4.1 Revitalization of Urban Areas

One of the requirements to become the European Green Capital is sustainable use of land. Lodz has

a possibility to use the abandoned factories, stations, historic buildings and other areas which are

located in the city center. A good example of such a practice is High line – Innovative Park in New

York (Appendix 7, Best Practice 19). As a result of this project the old railway station with long

railroad tracks was transformed into a popular place with bike and run paths, as well as an area for

planting vegetables. Additionally, cultural events like concerts and exhibitions are hosted in the

park. The main function of this park is recreation, but it also helps to clean urban air.

A similar project was run in China where the old unused steel factory and shipyard were

transformed into Shanghai Houtan Park with restorative design strategy for treating polluted river

water and recovery of the degraded waterfront (Appendix 7, Best Practice 30). The project included

construction of wetlands, planting traditional plants as well as development of a network of

educational paths. Nowadays, Houtan Park is an example of an ecosystem where ecological

infrastructure provides multiple services for society and nature.

4.4.2 Stormwater Management

One of Lodz’s problems is stormwater runoff by canalized rivers and other underground

installations. This way stormwater is mixed with wastewater and treated as if it was polluted to the

same extend, however there are many examples in the world where stormwater is naturally purified

and reused.

The Sustainable Stormwater Management in Portland (Oregon, USA) can serve as a good example.

(Appendix 7, Best Practice 34). The project endorses onsite collection and transportation of

stormwater from roofs, parking lots, streets, and other surfaces to infiltrate into the ground or collect

for reuse, often reducing the need for costly underground structures. The method relies on the

natural retention and infiltration capabilities of plants and soil. There are different types of

infiltration facilities e.g. swales, curb extensions, rain barrels, cisterns, planters and infiltration

basin. Initially the program was implemented only on the public property. However, later the City

started to offer incentives (discounts, credits, grants) to homeowners to reduce stormwater runoff

coming from private properties. The City also conducts information and education activities to raise

awareness and promote stormwater management.

4.4.3 Geothermal energy

The energy performance also has to be taken into account while applying for the European Green

Capital Award. Lodz has a potential to use the best practice of Reykjavik where about 66% of

primary energy is obtained from geothermal sources (Appendix 7, Best Practice 49).

In 1930 in Reykjavik, the geothermal sources were used to heat two schools, 60 homes, and the

main hospital. Today the entire city uses geothermal energy sources. The use of this natural

33


esource has significantly reduced the City's dependence on fossil fuels – making it one of the

cleanest cities in the world delivering annual savings of CO2 emissions up to 4 million tons.

A geothermal research project has already started in Lodz. It is led by the Technical University in

Lodz.

4.5 Conclusions

The chapter presented selected good practices which were already implemented and brought

positive results in different parts of the world (a full list of selected good practices can be found in

Appendix 7). Described projects are feasible to be implemented in Lodz and should help in meeting

the goal of Lodz becoming the European Green Capital by 2020.

34


CHAPTER 5

Valuation of Ecosystem Services - Example of Street Trees in

the Center of Lodz

The valuation of ecosystem services helps to estimate an economic value of

services and goods provide by nature. Estimation of value of such goods or

services is not easy but is needed for decision making.

This chapter explains the process of valuation of street trees in Lodz.

The preliminary results show that the inhabitants of Lodz prefer planting

trees where currently there are no trees.

5.1 Introduction

The chapter explains the definition, methodology and results of the valuation of street trees in the

center of Lodz. The first part of the chapter explains what the valuation of ecosystem services is and

why it is important. The second part focuses on the method used to estimate the value of street trees

in Lodz, and the third part presents the preliminary results of the study conducted in Lodz.

5.2 Definition of Valuation of Ecosystem Services

In order to provide a better understanding of the term “valuation of ecosystem services” it is

necessary to briefly describe the basic concepts and terms used.

5.2.1 Ecosystem and Ecosystem Services

Ecosystem is a dynamic, complex and functional unit that group animals, micro-organism

communities and plants. Humans are part of the ecosystem. 12

Ecosystem services are the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems, such as water, food,

cultural and recreational services. 13 Trees provide many services especially in the urban areas

(e.g. air purification, trees reduction of noise pollution, local climate regulation, recreational and

aesthetic experiences).

For the purpose of this report, the street trees in Lodz are referred to as an ecosystem. Trees provide

many services for inhabitants of Lodz and valuation of these services was the main goal of this

research project.

12 Hassan, R., Scholes, R., Ash, N. (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being: current state and trends, Volume I,

Washington, D.C., Island Press.

13 Ibidem.

35


5.2.2 Importance of the Valuation of Ecosystem Services

The services and goods that ecosystems provide are critical to the functioning of the life support

system if the Earth. These services contribute to the human welfare, directly and indirectly, and thus

represent a significant part of the total economic value of the planet. As they are not quantified in

terms of comparable economic value or not represented in markets, they are rarely included in the

policy decisions. 14

The economic value (price) of a good is basically driven by the willingness to pay for it. However,

when there is no market for a good that we want to value (environmental or public good) the issue

becomes more complicated. It is worth to point out that the absence of market price does not mean

that these goods have no value. 15

Authorities in charge of management and protection of the natural resources often have to make

difficult decisions in allocation of resources. Those decisions are basically economic decisions

which reflect our society’s values. Thus economic valuation is frequently used to provide means to

justify priorities for programs, actions or policies that protect ecosystems and their services. Thus

valuation of ecosystem services is an important and necessary tool that helps to integrate economic

considerations and ecological understanding to address ecosystem services in action and policy

decisions. 16

5.2.3 Methods of valuation

The value of ecosystem services can be difficult to calculate but economists have developed some

methods to examine consumers’ preferences regarding non-market goods. The following are the

most commonly used valuation methods:

a) The Hedonic Price Method allows seeing how the presence or quality of environmental

good influences prices of other goods. This method is widely used in the real estate market

for the estimation of the value of houses that are located near a park, forest or lake. 17

b) The Travel Cost Method estimates how much people are willing to pay for visiting a given

place. Even though entrance to some natural areas is free of charge, one has to travel to visit

them thus pay for fuel, train or bus tickets and spend time for travelling. This method is

typically used for estimating the value of ecotourism facilities and national parks. 18

c) The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) uses surveys that create hypothetical scenario

of changes to the good or service, along with the costs related to those changes. This allows

14 Costanza,R., d'Arge, R., de-Groot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Limburg, K., Naeem, S., O'Neill, R.V.,

Paruelo, J., Raskin, R.G., Sutton, P,van den Belt M., The Value of the World's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital,

Nature Vol. 387: May 15, 1997, p. 253-260.

15 Czajkowski, M. (2010). Non-market valuation methods, in Kronenberg J., Bergier T. (eds.), Challenges of Sustainable

Development in Poland, The Sendzimir Foundation, Krakow, p. 14-16.

16 Chee, Y.E. (2004). An ecological perspective on the valuation of ecosystem services, Biological Conservation 120.

17 Czajkowski, M. (2010). Non-market valuation methods, in Kronenberg J., Bergier T. (eds.), Challenges of Sustainable

Development in Poland, The Sendzimir Foundation, Krakow, p. 14-16.

18 Ibidem.

36


espondents to express their willingness to pay. 19

d) The Choice Experiment Method (CE) is a variation of the Contingent Valuation Method

(CVM), the respondent is asked to choose from a set of alternatives. These alternatives are

composed of attributes that describe an environmental good. The respondent’s answer

reveals not only his/her preferences for entire scenario but also rates at which he/she is

willing to trade-off one attribute for another. 20

Of the four methods presented above, the Choice Experiment Method (CE) is the most suitable for

the valuation of the trees in Lodz. The main disadvantage of the Hedonic Price Method and the

Travel Cost Method is that they present the respondent with only one possible answer when in

reality people face a set of alternatives. The advantage of the CE over the CVM is that in the CE the

participants are not faced with the radical answer of “all” or “nothing” options, they might choose

between several possible scenarios or the “no-action” option. The CE uses a several set of scenarios

which allows obtaining more consistent answers. Moreover, this method is good for ranking

alternatives. 3

5.3 Methodology of the Study

The main goal of the research study was to valuate the ecosystem services of street trees in the

center of Lodz. The research study was performed in the form of a survey and took place between

10am and 4pm on Thursday, July 7 th , 2011. A selected group of volunteers was divided into two-

person teams which were sent to different parts of the city (e.g. Dabrowski Square, Piotrowska

Street and Manufaktura Shopping Mall.

Each interviewer was approaching one person at a time and asking if she/he is willing to participate

in the survey. Filling out the survey took approximately 20-30 minutes. The respondents were

informed that the survey is anonymous and conducted for scientific purposes.

The survey had four elements:

1. Three general questions about a respondent’s subjective opinion in regards to the amount

of trees in the center of Lodz and in the neighbouring area of his/her home.

2. Part describing the present situation and prospect for changes. The respondent was

informed that the survey refers only to street trees in the center of the city. After that, a brief

description of the degree of tree coverage on the streets in the selected area was provided.

According to this description the three types of streets could be distinguished: with a high

number of trees, with an average number of trees and with no trees or with single-growing

trees.

Furthermore, the respondent was presented with a hypothetical program of planting trees in

19 Heal, G. (2000). Valuing Ecosystem Services, Ecosystems 3 (1), p. 24-30.

20 Czajkowski, M. (2010). Non-market valuation methods, in Kronenberg J., Bergier T. (eds.), Challenges of Sustainable

Development in Poland, The Sendzimir Foundation, Krakow, p. 14-16.

37


the center of the city on the streets with an average number of trees or with no trees at all.

The trees can be planted in the spots left after cut/withered trees, in lanes parcelled from the

sidewalk if it was wide enough, and if this was not possible – on special “islands” which

would replace chosen parking lots by the street.

3. Part where the respondent chooses a preferred program from a given scenario. The

hypothetical programs of planting trees were connected with costs bared by the inhabitants

of Lodz, thus the respondent was asked how much he/she would be willing to pay (in a form

of a monthly tax) for a given program. The preferences regarding this matter were examined

by considering 12 hypothetical scenarios, each of them containing four possible choices –

status quo (where no trees are planted and the inhabitants of the city do not have to bare any

additional costs), and programs 1, 2 and 3 presenting different possibilities of planting new

trees and costs attributed to them. Within one scenario the respondent had to choose

a program which was in his/her opinion the best, the worst and better of the remaining two.

Thus, each person had to choose 36 variants from 12 scenarios. The respondent was asked to

provide answers according to ones preferences and actual financial capabilities.

4. Demographic questions. At the end of the survey the respondent was asked some statistical

questions concerning his/her year of birth, sex, education, income, number of people in the

household and whether or not he/she had a car.

In general, the respondents were enthusiastically responding to the questions. Most of them were

carefully analyzing each program of trees planting and its cost. Some of them expressed some

additional comments and personal reflections about trees in the city. The emotional tone of the

declarations and a widely expressed interest in the survey prove that the subject of urban trees is

important and very up-to-date for the inhabitants of Lodz.

5.4 Results of the Study

Preliminary results of a study on valuation of street trees in the center of Lodz are based on

questionnaires completed by 133 respondents whose social and demographic characteristics are

shown in Figure 5.1.

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Figure 5.1 Socio-economic Characteristics of Respondents (n=133)

The results confirmed that for the respondents the most important is to plant trees on the

streets where there are currently no trees at all. This was identified by comparing the declared

willingness of inhabitants to bear a monthly fee for transformation of the street from a lower to

a higher category in terms of the street trees coverage.

The inhabitants of Lodz are willing to pay monthly 2.10 PLN / km for changing the streets from the

category with no trees to the category with the average number of trees. For planting trees on

special “islands” the respondents were willing to pay a monthly fee of 1.60 PLN / km. These results

are statistically significant and consistent with generally accepted economic logic (the most

important factor preferred by the respondents was the cost of various options of the program).

Furthermore, the respondents’ willingness to pay any fee for increasing the number of street trees in

the center demonstrate that people are not satisfy with the status quo.

The results presented above are the average for the whole respondents and will be further analyzed

for individual preferences. In addition, they should be treated as incomplete, since interviews will

continue to survey a statistically representative sample. These results should be perceived as

a preliminary identification of the problem – the residents believe that there are not enough street

trees in the center of Lodz.

39


5.5 Conclusions

The results of the research study indicate that according to the respondents the most important is to

plant trees on the streets where there are currently no trees at all. The respondents would like to see

more trees in the city center planted either on the street or on special “islands”. Although these are

only preliminary results, they are statistically significant.

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CHAPTER 6

Stakeholders Analysis

A brief definition of a term “stakeholder” and a description of the main

interest groups that should be taken into consideration when formulating

a strategy for Lodz to become the European Green Capital by 2020 were

presented in the first part of this chapter.

In the second part, based on the Amoeba Tool, the specific roles that each

stakeholder may play in the implementation of the strategy are described.

The last section explains how each of the interest groups could be

encouraged to get involved in the idea of E uropean Green Capital.

6.1 Introduction

Stakeholders are persons or groups who are directly or indirectly affected by the project, or who

may have interests in the project and/or the ability to influence its outcomes, either positively or

negatively. The stakeholders may include local communities or individuals and their formal and

informal representatives, national or local government authorities, politicians, religious leaders,

civil society organizations and groups with special interests, the academic community, or

businesses. 21

Identification of key stakeholders and their interests related to the project is very important while

developing a strategy that will help Lodz obtain the title of the European Green Capital by 2020.

A stakeholder analysis allows identification of the role of each stakeholder and helps to understand

the relationships and the dynamics between different actors. Moreover, it can be helpful in

predicting the attitudes of stakeholders towards planned actions.

6.2 Stakeholder Identification

6.2.1 Local Authorities

The City Office of Lodz is a key decision maker in regards to the implementation of innovations on

a local level.

The City Office might become the honorary patron of a variety of events associated with the

project. This kind of support could help to attract more sponsors and supporters as well as local

media. Involvement of the City Office would increase the prestige of a given project and could help

21 International Finance Corporation (2007). Stakeholder Engagement: A Good Practice Handbook for Compa nies

Doing Business in Emerging Markets, World Bank Group.

41


to gain local inhabitants’ trust. Local authorities could also encourage numerous experts to become

involved in certain issues and share their knowledge and experience in such areas as spatial

planning, environmental protection etc.

In addition, in Lodz there are 36 Councils of Settlement Residents that also could be involved in the

project.

Examples of stakeholders from this group can be found in Appendix 3 – 1. Local Authorities.

6.2.2 Regional Authorities

The regional authorities operate on a bigger area than the city (usually in voivodship) and also could

influence the implementation of innovations.

The Marshal Office that operates in the voivodship is responsible for the regional policy,

distribution of the European Union funds as well as development of the regional strategy and for its

implementation. An important role can also play the provincial Fund of Environment Protection and

Water Management that can finance some projects related to environmental protection.

Examples of stakeholders from this group can be found in Appendix 3 – 2. Regional Authorities.

6.2.3 Scientific Institutions

Universities, especially those focusing on environmental studies, spatial management, economics or

public health, are great sources of independent experts, researchers and can provide very useful

databases of analysis, scientific papers, international contacts and experience.

There are several scientific institutions in Lodz including University of Lodz, the Technical

University of Lodz, the Polish Academy of Science and the European Regional Centre for

Ecohydrology. These institutions as well as individual scientists could support the project. In many

cases, they can be innovators or important partners.

Examples of stakeholders from this group can be found in Appendix 3 – 3. Scientific Institutions.

6.2.4 Non-governmental Organizations

The non-governmental organizations’ (NGO) engagement and support is a critical success factor in

local initiatives, especially in the field of environmental protection and spatial planning. The local

NGOs very often have established good connections with experts, decision-makers and business

organizations that could be involved in the project and provide support for it.

Some of the NGOs are like independent ‘think tanks’ that could bring to the discussion another

point of view. Another advantage of local NGOs is that they are aware of local problems and know

the local context. They have good knowledge about the limitations and capabilities of local

communities. Moreover, very often they represent more practical approach to solving problems.

They are a very good source of information because of the reports, analysis, impact assessments,

legislative projects, etc. that they work on.

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Examples of stakeholders from this group can be found in Appendix 3 – 4. Non-governmental

Organizations.

6.2.5 Business Stakeholders

Business entities provide employment for local citizens and contribute to the local budget thus are

very important for local community. The activities that they conduct significantly influence the

city’s image. In the past, Lodz was famous for its textile industry, and now there is an opportunity

to decide on new pathway of development. Currently, in Lodz there operate some international

corporations (e.g. Indesit, Dell), logistics centers and business process outsourcing companies

(e.g. Infosys), as well as some local service providers (e.g. banks, restaurants, cafes).

Many of these entities may gain some benefits if Lodz becomes the European Green Capital. Some

of the local business entities may be interested in sponsorship or broadening their portfolio with

green investments. Moreover, the cities with high quality of life are perceived by business entities

as attractive ones and worth their attention and investment.

Examples of stakeholders from this group can be found in Appendix 3 – 5. Business Stakeholders.

6.2.6 Inhabitants

While developing and implementing any innovations it is very important to take into account the

opinion of local communities, people that will be directly or indirectly impacted by the changes.

Any strategic decisions made without public participation may not be welcomed, and may create

disapproval and a conflict may emerge.

The inhabitants are very often the best experts as they are familiar with local conditions and very

often have ideas how to solve local problems. However, one has to keep in mind that it is very

difficult to predict the attitude of a society as a whole towards a given innovation, because each

citizen can have different point of view and diverse interests.

6.3 Stakeholders Analysis Based on the Amoeba Tool

This subchapter provides a better understanding of the potential roles the stakeholders can play in

the preparation for the European Green Capital Award contest.

The main purpose of the Amoeba 22 is to support successful diffusion of innovations and to suggest

strategies for the successful cooperation between the different groups of interest.

22 A description of the Amaeba can be found in Appendix 4.

43


Figure 6.1 Amoeba Tool – example from Lodz

Source: Interpretation of The Amoeba of Cultural Change – Alan AtKisson, Believing Cassandra (1999)

and The ISIS Agreement (2008)

6.3.1 Stakeholders in Lodz and Description of Their Roles

1. Innovators – those who formulates, discovers and champions new ideas. Innovators should

cooperate with the Changes Agents that will help them spread new ideas and, if needed,

adopt the innovation to the real situation.

In order to fully understand the role of the innovators it is crucial to underline that innovations not

necessarily have to be associated with science. Innovation is any new application of a solution that

was adapted to a local context.

Below there is a list of stakeholders-innovators, important for Lodz as it attempts to become the

European Green Capital.

- NGOs – sometimes NGOs are innovators and change agents at same time. A good example

of such a situation can be the Lodz Sustainable Transport Initiative. (This NGO has prepared

a plan of making tram transport more efficient by creating Central Tram Station that makes

switching the means of public transportation much easier and faster);

- Local universities have created several institutions (e.g.: the Centre for Innovations and

Technology Transfer and Lodz Regional Science and Technology Park). Their main task

is to formulate new ideas, spread information about new discoveries and technologies

invented by themselves and their partners, and take care of practical implementation of

innovations. They are well connected to many international institutions and thanks to this

connections they can provide new ideas from all over the world;

44


- science clusters in Lodz – they increase development potential of Lodz through innovations

and collaboration between local governments, universities and entrepreneurs. This group of

stakeholders may play a huge role in creating green workplaces in a knowledge-based

economy. Moreover, an important result of the business-science cooperation is the synergy

effect which provides the society with many fresh and creative solutions to solve its

sustainability problems;

- the European Regional Centre for Ecohydrology deals with a variety of water

management problems and coordinates the work of other institutions responsible for

hydrology. The Centre is focusing mainly on the implementation of eco-hydrological

measures for restoring freshwater resources in the framework of the UNESCO International

Hydrological Program.

The innovators should be directly involved in the development of the strategy that will help Lodz

become the European Green Capital by 2020. It is crucial to listen to their suggestions and support

them with available data and analysis that can provide them the background information necessary

to formulate the innovations.

2. Change Agents – these are the stakeholders with abilities and skills to promote new ideas to

the broaden audience and to the decision makers. They take the idea from innovators and

translate “the pure idea” into practical projects. Sometimes they modify the original concept

in order to adapt it to the real needs and capacities of local community. In a long term they

should concentrate on cooperation with other change agents, and they should not waste their

time and energy on trying to convince the reactionaries. The change agents should put more

attention to transformers and provide them with necessary information.

Below there is a list of the most important change agents in Lodz:

- President Proxy for Bicycle Policy (so called Cycling Officer) – is a person who links the

office of President of Lodz with the cyclists’ environment. The Cycling Officer closely

cooperates with individual cyclists and with their representatives to estimates their needs

and opinions. He collects information about potential innovations that can be implemented.

The Cycling Officer can influence the decision making process of the City Office of Lodz

thus he can assure that objectives and activities included in the strategic documents are

compatible with Lodz attempts to become the European Green Capital by 2020.

As a president proxy he can influence the decision makers (transformers) – he can provide

them with the information about sustainable transport and mobility. Moreover, the Cycling

Officer is responsible for implementation of the Brussels Charter that includes objectives

very close to the idea of the European Green Capital (e.g.: increase to 15% the share of

cycling in transport or 50 % reduction of cycling accident risk by 2020). He can be a very

important stakeholder and supporter of the idea of Lodz becoming the European Green

Capital;

- NGOs (active in the fields of transportation, environment, and society) – it is a very

important group that delivers good practices and examples of innovations to decision

makers. Very often they have developed good relations with diverse group of experts. NGOs

45


are important lobbyists of different interests and needs. They are close to people they serve

thus they can be important partners responsible for disseminating the idea of the European

Green Capital among Lodz inhabitants. They can also be responsible for organizing

grassroots groups of supporters of the European Green Capital idea. It is very important to

involve them in the strategy development from the very beginning;

- Departments of the City Office of Lodz (e.g. Environmental Protection and Agriculture,

Urban Planning and Architecture, Public Procurements) – they have the tools to translate

an innovation into tangible project that can be implemented in a real life. They can also

assure that key documents, strategies, local spatial management plans etc. include records

that support and promote the idea of Lodz as the European Green Capital. Different

departments can promote the project to other groups e.g. business entities. The Department

of Public Procurement by “greening” the regulations can influence and encourage

contractors (e.g. investors, developers, service/goods providers) to develop and implement

new green technologies. Through “green public procurements” (e.g. purchase of

environmentally friendly buses) the city can improve the quality of local environment and

the quality of life.

The change agents can be involved in promotion of the European Green Capital idea to the

particular target groups. They can also be engaged in formulation of operational plans and projects

that will adopt the general concept of a given innovation to the specific local situation in Lodz.

3. Transformers – so called early adopters, people who approve a new idea and have the

power or authority to support its implementation. They are organizational or cultural

gatekeepers who are interested in new ideas. They carefully select the innovations they

support and sometimes they also optimise them in order to adapt them to a local context.

If the change agents and transformers have an opportunity to work together and have

a general trust towards each other it is very likely that the project implementation will be

successful.

Public institutions and leading companies are important actors in the sustainability principles

implementation. Their status and the power they posses substantially help in implementation of

projects. Their general respect among citizens makes them very powerful leaders whom others want

to follow. When they approve a given idea and support a project it is very likely that also

mainstreamers will support it.

The stakeholders who are identified as transformers can be divided into two groups:

- the first group is represented by public institutions (e.g. the Marshal Office, the City

Office) that have a general interest in citizens’ well-being. The local authorities have

an access to local experts, human resources, managerial skills, and have the power to initiate

and carry on projects related to the European Green Capital Award contest. The local

authorities can use a great range of incentive (institutional, financial or legal) to support the

implementation of a variety of projects;

- the other group consists of the business related stakeholders such as local and

46


international companies and investors who are interested in projects and initiatives that

will be beneficial for them. Local leaders can also be included in this group.

In order to capture the interest of transformers it is worth to underline the benefits Lodz will derive

from obtaining the title of the European Green Capital:

- environmental (improvement of the microclimate, improvement of the purity of waters and

air, creation of new recreation areas, etc.);

- political (increase of trust towards local authorities and politicians, etc.);

- economical (creation of new “green” workplaces, increase of number of tourists visiting the

city, etc.);

- social (increase of the quality of life, improvement of the inhabitants’ health).

To explain the potential benefits it would be also useful to present the transformers with good

practices of other cities that are or were the European Green Capitals. A good way of approaching

transformers is also to show them that the idea has already gained a broad support from different

interests groups.

A successful cooperation of Fenomen Foundation (a local NGO identified as change agent and

innovator) with the local government provides a good example of collaboration of different

stakeholders. The NGO collects new ideas and knowledge in order to adapt innovations to a local

context. The local governments as the transformers support the implementation of new solutions.

This mechanism of cooperation can be very productive if the transformers keep their openness for

new external ideas.

4. Mainstreamers – are represented mainly by diverse group of inhabitants. They tend to

accept a change only when other people around them are supporting that change.

Mainstreamers are generally busy people and not overly interested in new ideas. It is

important that the change agents approach them and provide them with data in favour of the

innovation. In most cases the best way to make them involved in the change process is by

educating them.

The stakeholders who are identified as mainstreamers can be divided into three groups:

- inhabitants – among inhabitants, different interest groups can be found, such as:

o the elderly and people with disabilities – they are interested in green areas, parks,

forests and street greenery. Sometimes, because of their health, they are too weak to

go to more distant parks thus even “single” trees on the yard or street are becoming

important places where they can rest and relax;

o families with children – interested in access to green and safe areas with

playgrounds;

o the youth – a group interested in spending time on green areas (practicing different

47


sports, socializing with peers, organizing events). They are looking for safe and clean

places where they can spend their leisure time;

- some companies (especially big international ones like Accenture, Infosys, and Indesit) –

they could include some “green policies” in their CSR strategies and in this way improve

their image as a responsible and caring for local community company;

- early adopters – are those who are more likely to be in favour of innovations. For example

joggers, cyclists, Nordic walkers are interested in increasing the amount of green areas;

they are looking for places where they can practice sport in friendly and safe environment.

They support development of new “green paths” and networks of green spaces.

5. Reactionaries – these are the people who, because of their own interests, are against the

change. They would like to stop implementation of a change because they can lose

something important for them (e.g. power, money). Their critical remarks could be valuable

for the improvement of the project thus their opinions should be taken into account. Their

point of view can bring to light new perspective of the whole situation.

Below there is a list of the most important reactionaries in Lodz:

- illegal sewage droppers, waste droppers – these are the people who for financial reasons

(poverty or just meanness) or because of the low ecological awareness, illegally get rid of

sewage and wastes. Usually it is difficult to prove that a particular person is conducting this

illegal procedure. In other to gain their support they should be educated that their actions

have negative impact on the natural environment, image of neighbourhood, and the wellbeing

of inhabitants. Moreover, there should be also some incentives for them to change

their behaviour (e.g. non-refundable financial assistance for poor families for conjoining to

the sewer system or monthly discounts on bills for new conjoined households, etc.);

- car drivers – it is a very diverse group. Some of them are just mainstreamers interested in

greenery using cars to ensure mobility for their whole family (including children, elderly or

disable members of the family). However, there is also a group of car drivers that is

interested in keeping traffic in strict center, increasing an area of parking lots, removing

obstacles (also street trees, trams) that they believe slow down the traffic, etc. The important

thing is that in the past some of the car drivers could be the public transportation users but

because of bad condition of public transportation they switched to the cars. In order to

change their attitude campaigns encouraging car drivers to change their commuting habits

should be implemented. There is also a need to provide them with real attractive alternative

(efficient and cheap public transport, safe cycling paths). They should be also approached

with some information, education campaigns that would explain them the advantages of

more sustainable transport;

- some developers buy empty green areas only to transform them into new construction zones

and destroy current greenery (e.g. investor on Piotrkowska street cut a group of old trees

important for local inhabitants). On the other hand, some developers appreciate green areas

– greenery increases the value of estate. It is important to show the developers the benefits

48


they can derive from greenery. Moreover, the local authorities should consequently punish

those who do not obey the law protecting the greenery.

6.3.2 Stakeholders and Their Areas of Interests

The figure below presents the analysis of the stakeholders and their relationship with the main

indicator areas of the European Green Capital.

Based on information provided by the local stakeholders during the meeting in the City Office when

they identified main problems Lodz is currently facing five key action areas were selected: urban

green areas, mobility and local transport, energy, eco-innovations and “green” workplaces, and

water managements. (A full description of identified challenges can be found in Appendix)

Figure 6.2 Stakeholders and Their Areas of Interests

49


6.4 Conclusions

Based on the above analysis one can conclude that there are certain areas of stakeholders’

interactions that could be improved in the near future.

At the very beginning, it is important to focus on the areas where some cooperation already exist

(e.g. the cooperation between Fenomen Foundation and the City Office; the cooperation between

the City Office and OPUS; SWITCH project – a result of the cooperation of the Centre for

Ecohydrology and the City Office) in order to improve and further develop it.

The next step should be the identification of the roles each stakeholder can play (this can be done

using the Amoeba Tool) in each domain and approach them according to their abilities and

influence they have on a given area.

During the interviews, the local innovators and change agents admitted that their initiatives are

often rejected because the transformers – those who approve a new idea and have power or

authority to support the implementation of the innovation – feel that their knowledge has been

questioned. Therefore, it is important to take this into consideration when developing new projects.

There is a need to emphasis the fact that the new projects are neither in contradiction with

transformers’ suggestions nor questioning their knowledge. They are complementing the existing

ideas, bringing additional information on a given issue.

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CHAPTER 7

Indicators and Trends of Sustainable Development in Lodz

This chapter refers to indicators and trends of sustainable development

in Lodz that were identified using the Compass Tool. All the indicators

have been discussed by representatives of the stakeholders. They make it

possible to understand current situation and estimate future developments.

Trends and indicators help us to observe a problem and react before it

escalates. These indicators are based both on public participation and long

term observations, which make them to be understandable by non -experts.

7.1 Introduction

This chapter presents indicators and trends of sustainable development in Lodz that were identified

using the Compass Tool. This tool allows formulate measurable and comparable quantified

indicators for various areas. Indicated values are normalized to the range 0 – 100, where 0 is the

worst state and 100 the ideal state; 50 is the average everything above it is better than average, and

everything below it is worse than average.

By stating the current level, observed past levels and possible (estimated) future levels of a given

variable a diagram was developed for each indicator. For scaling the diagrams no scientific method

or data was used, and it is completely based on subjective estimation.

Identification of the indicators is the first step in the so called ISIS Methodology (more information

about this method can be found in Chapter 8).

On July 11 th , 2011, a participatory workshop “What to do for Lodz to receive the title of European

Green Capital by 2020?” was organized at the Lodz City Council – Department of Environment and

Agriculture. The representatives of regional and local governmental organizations responsible for

environmental protection, urban forestry, urban architecture, land melioration, development of

infrastructure, public health, public utilities and local non-governmental organizations participated

in the workshop. (A complete list of participants can be found in Appendix 1).

The participating stakeholders identified and discussed a number of indicators suitable for

describing the current situation and estimating future changes in Lodz. These are grouped in

following four areas (that reflect the four compass directions):

- Nature: green areas in the city center, local spatial management plan, illegal sewage/water

quality, social awareness, water in landscape (water retention);

- Economy: existence of local spatial management plans, financing of urban green areas (by

the government), public-private partnerships in green areas management, traffic volume, use

51


of geothermal energy;

- Society: ecological education, neighbourhood relationships (private and public spaces),

multifunctional green areas, awareness of inhabitants;

- Well-being: access to green areas, accessibility of different areas in the city for people with

mobility limitations, safety of green recreational areas, proportion of the length of trips

made by pedestrians and cyclists to the length of trips made using other means of

transportation.

The next section of the report presents these areas in more detail, describing each indicator

separately. The presented trends were identified by the stakeholders taking part in the participatory

workshop.

A number of indicators which were identified by the stakeholders are related to the indicators used

for evaluation of the city to be awarded the title of the European Green Capital. For example,

ecological education is linked with promotion of public knowledge and understanding of nature and

biodiversity among young people; public-private partnerships in green areas management

correspond to social innovation indicator; use of geothermal energy complies with the development

of renewable energy use (for the full list of indicators for European Green Capital Award please see

Appendix 5).

7.2 Indicators for Nature

The participants of the Nature workgroup mentioned many interconnected problems that Lodz is

facing. The five most important (according to the stakeholders) issues are described below.

7.2.1 Green Areas in the City Center

The discussion about green areas was divided into two parts: green areas in the city center and the

green areas located outside the city center. According to the workshop participants, the quantity of

the parks and forest in the outer parts of the city is satisfactory. The situation is worse in the city

center thus the discussion focused on this area.

Currently, the quantity of green areas in the city center is on a very low level. Moreover, the

tendency is decreasing. If no changes are implemented it is predicted that there will be no green

areas in the city center at all.

7.2.2 Local Spatial Management Plan

The lack of local spatial management plan was a problem indicated by all workgroups. Currently,

approximately 5 - 10 % of Lodz surface is covered by spatial management plan (these are mainly

outer areas like the Green Ring of Culture and Tradition). According to the stakeholders, the current

situation is worse than it was 10 years ago – most of the spatial management plans expired or is

52


eing modified. Future trends could not be estimated because the stakeholders have no idea what

are the plans of local authorities.

7.2.3 Illegal Sewage / Water Quality

The amount of illegal sewage in Lodz is gradually decreasing thanks to the urban drainage system

as well as to one of the most modern Combined Wastewater Treatment Plant in Poland. In

consequence, the quality of the tap water from water mains and wells is increasing.

However, the number of connections to the public sewage system within the city is still lower than

expected. Due to illegal sewage discharge into natural flows, the level of water contamination

exceeds corresponding standard threshold values. Nevertheless restoration and filtration initiatives

(like the Blue-Green Network) are gradually improving the situation.

7.2.4 Social Awareness

Social awareness regarding environmental issues is still not on a satisfactory level. Although, there

are many initiatives already carried on in the elementary schools (like collecting rubbish or planting

trees), and a number of NGOs working in this field is increasing, however there is still room for

improvement. The ignorance of officials is a huge problem and a serious obstacle for further

development. The stakeholders expressed hope that the situation change in the near future.

7.2.5 Water in Landscape (Water Retention)

The area of sealed surfaces is increasing in Lodz. Many permeable areas are transformed into

construction zones for roads and housing. This significantly decreases the amount of rainwater that

can infiltrate into the ground. When it rains or snow melts, storm water runs off to sewage system

and is not being managed in a sustainable way. Moreover, this water does not return to natural

water cycle, and this causes a decrease in ground water level.

In stakeholders’ opinion, the city should attract more investments that would increase the permeable

surfaces that would support water infiltration into the ground. Without taking such actions, current

situation can rapidly cause undesirable effects.

53


Green areas in the city center

Spatial management plan

Illegal sewage / Water quality

Awareness

Water in landscape

(water retention)

Timeline

7.3 Indicators for Economy

Figure 7.1 Diagram of Indicators for Nature

2000 NOW (2011)

0

2020

During the workshop the stakeholders emphasized five the most important indicators in the

Economy section: existence of local spatial management plans, financing of urban green areas by

the city government, traffic volume in the city, public-private partnership in green areas

management, use of geothermal energy.

7.3.1 Existence of Local Spatial Management Plans

Development of urban areas requires planning that takes into account potential future changes in the

city both in short and long term perspective. The main goal of development of the spatial

management plan is to provide a strategic vision of a given territory development to guarantee the

most efficient way of using it.

Currently, spatial planning in Lodz is not well developed; there are only a limited number of areas

in the city center, for which spatial management plans have been detailed. However, the

stakeholders believe that the situation will change for better.

7.3.2 Financing of Urban Green Areas (by the government)

This indicator shows the readiness and ability of the city authorities to develop and maintain urban

green spaces. The amount of money dedicated to develop and maintain urban green areas was

54

Level

100

50


decreasing over the past 10 years. The stakeholders expect that this situation will change and more

money will be spent on this purpose in the future.

7.3.3 Public-private Partnerships in Green Areas Management

The idea of a public-private partnership is to take advantage of the strongest assets of the two

sectors and use it to create added value for society. Motivated by their own interests, public and

private actors develop long-term cooperation to gain common benefits in a sustainable manner.

So far public-private partnerships have not been extensively used for green areas management in

Lodz. This innovative solution has a potential to significantly increase the quality of already

existing and new green areas in the city. The stakeholders are convinced that public and private

sectors are ready for this kind of cooperation.

7.3.4 Traffic Volume

High volume of car traffic in Lodz hinders the development of bike lanes and paths in the city, and

negatively impacts the overall ecological situation. Over the last decade the number of cars in the

city has been increasing. According to the stakeholders, the current situation is not acceptable. They

believe that implementation of new initiatives promoting alternative modes of transportation will

improve the situation in the city.

7.3.5 Use of Geothermal Energy

Use of alternative energy sources (such as geothermal energy) helps to solve urgent environmental

problems (such as reduction of CO2 emissions).

The potential of using geothermal energy in Lodz is very high – the estimated stocks are valued on

10 873 tpu, which amounts to 33% of the total geothermal energy in Poland. The stakeholders are

aware of this potential and believe that this renewable energy source will be used in Lodz.

55


Level

100

7.4 Indicators for Society

Figure 7.2 Diagram of Indicators for Economy

50

Existence of spatial

development plans

Financing of urban green areas

(by the government)

Public-private partnerships in

green areas management

Traffic volume

Timeline 0

Use of geothermal energy

2000 NOW (2011) 2020

The Society workgroup focused on the indicators that should be taken into account if Lodz wants to

become the European Green Capital by 2020. From all suggested indicators, stakeholders choose

four that according to them are the most important.

7.4.1 Ecological Education

Ecological education should be perceived as a long-term process if tangible results are expected.

All citizens should have an opportunity to gain knowledge in the area of ecology. Currently in

Lodz, the level of ecological education is increasing. A curriculum for kindergarten and primary

schools covers basic ecological issues and young people learn how to respect and protect nature.

The ecological education of adults is based on media and social campaigns organized by NGOs and

in some cases by the local authorities.

The stakeholders expect further improvement of the situation.

7.4.2 Neighborhood Relationships (private and public areas)

Improvement of neighborhood relationships can have a positive impact on reduction of the problem

of social ignorance. The lack of cooperation between neighbors results in a creation of disrespectful

attitudes towards neighborhood and other public areas (e.g. citizens do not care for green areas).

56


The stakeholders had difficulties to define a single trend for this indicator thus they decided to

divide the indicator into two parts: private properties and public areas. The private green spaces

within closed housing estates isolate the tenants from other inhabitants. According to the

stakeholders, this is not a desirable situation because it has negative impact on the integration of

neighbors and development of interpersonal relationships. Based on this, the stakeholders think that

within the next decade the quality and intensity of neighborhood relationships will get even worse.

On the other hand, the green areas surrounding public estates are neglected – nobody feels

responsible to care for their maintenance. Unfortunately, according to the stakeholders in the next

ten years the situation will not improve.

7.4.3 Multifunctional Green Areas

The urban green areas are expected to play a “multifunctional” role in the city infrastructure.

It means that the green areas should provide opportunities to use them for many activities and

purposes, such as recreational, sport and entertainment.

A good example of a positive change in this regard is a new resolution passed in June 2011 by the

local government, which allows citizens to grill in the urban parks. One can notice that the number

of green areas managed in a way that meets inhabitants’ expectation is increasing.

7.4.4 Awareness of Inhabitants

The local government is responsible for taking care of green areas such as parks, green squares or

trees. The residents of Lodz very often alert the authorities about the situations that require attention

and actions.

This indicator is based on the number of inhabitants’ initiatives undertook to notify the responsible

agencies about the current situation of the greenery (e.g. phone calls and letters to the Department

of Environmental Protection and Agriculture of the City Office and the League of Nature

Protection).

The majority of people contacting the government is concerned about the greenery and wants it to

be protected. On the other hand, some of them complain that the greenery is mismanaged and they

insist on its removal. The trend of this indicator is increasing due to raising awareness of the

citizens.

57


Timeline

Level

100

50

7.5 Indicators for Well-being

Figure 7.3 Diagram of Indicators for Society

0

2000 NOW (2011) 2020

The Well-being workgroup focused its attention on the most important environmental aspects that

influence the life of inhabitants. The predictions were based on stakeholders’ knowledge about

existing projects and actions undertaken in Lodz.

7.5.1 Access to Green Areas

A possibility to use nearby parks and green areas is essential for the most of inhabitants. The goal of

the Blue-Green Network project that is implemented in Lodz is to provide the opportunity for every

citizen to reach green areas within a ten minutes walking distance from home. This network is

design in a way that allows inhabitants to move across the city in the so called “green tunnels” and

to access the green areas located outside the city.

Currently, the city’s green infrastructure is not well-developed. Some of the stakeholders were

rather pessimistic about feasibility of proclaimed aims. Thus the indicator was defined by the

possibility of a citizen to see some greenery from a window at home. Within the next ten years the

stakeholders expect slight improvement of the situation.

58

Ecological education

Neighborhood relationships

(private areas)

Neighborhood relationships

(public areas)

Multifunctional green areas

Awareness of inhabitants


7.5.2 Accessibility to Different Areas in the City for People with Mobility

Limitations

The elderly and disabled as well as parents with baby carriages travelling through the city come

across many obstacles such as underpasses without lifts and wheelchair ramps, too high curbs, cars

parked on a pavement, etc.

It is expected that in the future most of these barriers will be eliminated, and new projects will be

implemented that will meet the needs of people with mobility limitations. According to the

European Union regulations, it is required to adjust public transportation and infrastructure to be

friendly for all users. The stakeholders had a positive view on the development of this indicator’s

trend.

7.5.3 Safety of Green Recreational Areas

This indicator was based on a number of incidents occurred on green areas reported to the Police

Department or the Municipal Police. The green areas are not perceived as safe ones especially

during the night time. According to the stakeholders an installation of street lamps would change

this situation. Moreover, there is a need to increase the law enforcement by police. It is believed that

raising the attractiveness of green areas could encourage more people to spend their leisure time

over there and that would also decrease the number of criminal acts.

The current situation is better than it used to be, but it is still not satisfactory – further improvement

is expected by the stakeholders.

7.5.4 Proportion of the Length of Trips Made by Pedestrians and Cyclists

to the Length of Trips Made Using Other Means of Transportation

The available data show that in the past, there were more pedestrians and cyclists. Currently, the

number of cyclists in Lodz is decreasing, and in general citizens prefer to use their cars as a main

mode of transport. This is caused mainly heavy traffic on the main roads and lack of safe bicycle

routes in the city center.

By signing the Charter of Brussels in January 2011, the city authorities committed themselves to

promote the use of bicycles and develop the appropriate infrastructure. Therefore, it is believed that

the current situation will improve.

59


Access to green areas

Accessibility to different areas

in the city center for people with

mobility limitations

Safety of green recreational

areas

Proportion of trips made by

pedestrians and bicyclists to

trips made by other means of

transportation

Timeline

7.6 Conclusions

Figure 7.4 Diagram of Indicators for Well-being

2000 NOW (2011)

0

2020

This chapter presented indicators and trends of sustainable development in Lodz that were

identified using the Compass Tool.

Some of the indicators have negative trends, and that means that if no action is taken the problem

will escalate. The indicators which are likely to develop in negative direction are mostly connected

with water in landscape, green areas in the city center, neighbor relationships.

The positive trend of other indicators is the result of actions which have already been taken or are

planned in the near future. This group of indicators includes: ecological education, social

awareness, safety and implementation of public-private partnership projects. The trends turn out to

be the most positive in the Well-being and Economy sections.

60

Level

100

50


CHAPTER 8

Systems Thinking Approach and Causal Loops Diagram

Complex problems require exploration and consideration of a whole

system, rather than separated elements of it.

This chapter illustrates how the systems thinking approach can be used for

addressing existing problems in Lodz.

8.1 Introduction

Complex problems, like those related to sustainable development, usually have more than just one

cause and a number of effects. In order to find appropriate solutions to these problems it is

important to identify all causes and analyze the relations between them.

In this chapter the systems thinking approach is applied for finding best solutions for some of the

problems Lodz is straggling with. A tool named Compass 23 was used to analyze current problems

that were divided into four areas: nature, economy, society, and well-being (more information about

identified problems can be found in Chapter 7).

For each problem a system map was created, where causes and their interconnections as well as

suggested solutions are visually presented (more information about the proposed solutions can be

found in Chapter 9). These maps are the result of a group work, in which people with different

background shared their knowledge and experience to get more comprehensive view and

understanding of a given issue.

8.2 Nature Section

Within the last 10 years the amount of green areas in the city center decreased and the condition of

the greenery in the city centers became worse. 24 This is why the condition of the greenery in the city

center was identified as the biggest problem in the Nature section. Three main causes of this state

were identified: the level of public participation, the quality of the maintenance of existing greenery

and the condition of the environmental factors.

Level of Public Participation

The level of public participation is directly related to the social awareness. More socially aware

residents are more willing to change their habits to those that are more sustainable. Moreover, they

are more willing to be involved in decision making process, comply with the existing law and

protect the environment. The level of social awareness increases when there is more opportunities

to gain knowledge about the environmental issues.

23 A description of the Compass can be found in Appendix 4.

24 Statistic for Lodz 2010, Statistical Office in Lodz 2010.

61


The second, most important factor that influences the level of public participation is the level of

trust towards local authorities. When inhabitants observe and experience daily consequences of the

ineffective city management and decisions, their willingness to participate decreases.

The Quality of the Maintenance of Existing Greenery

As mentioned above, the level of ineffective management is a serious factor that influences the

quality of the maintenance of existing greenery. The ineffective management is caused by the lack

of vision and political instability (relatively frequent rotation of city authorities). All of this leads to

permanent lack of funds, lack of new spatial management plan and to ineffective public

transportation system (e.g. lack of cycling infrastructure).

The Condition of the Environmental Factors

The condition of environmental factors (air, water, soil, etc.) influences the condition of green areas

in the city center. Poor water retention in the urban area, itself a consequence of unsustainable

investment preferences (covering most of the urban space with concrete), causes poor water quality.

The illegal sewage disposal to the river channels further lowers the water quality.

To solve the problem of the poor condition of the greenery in city center it is recommended to

implement the system of Participatory Management of Greenery. This system would increase the

level of public participation – the inhabitants would be involved in decision-making process in the

field of greening the city. However, this solution has also some negative side effects such as:

increase of transaction costs, additional expanses and bureaucracy.

The other recommended solution to improve the condition of the greenery in city center is the

Competitive Greenery Policy which would lead to more effective management of green areas. It is

believed that this solution will increase the level of inhabitants’ motivation to care for green areas

and will encourage them to implement new initiatives. The downside of this solution is that it could

increase the inequalities in greenery level between districts. It could also generate corruption.

More information about recommended solutions can be found in Chapter 9.

62


Figure 8.1 Causal Loop Diagram – Condition of the Greenery in the City Center

CONDITION OF THE

GREENERY IN THE

CITY CENTER

Learning by doing

+

SOLUTION 1:

Participatory Management

of Greenery

+

+

+

Bureaucracy +

+

+

The Condition of the

Environmental Factors

+

Use of salt during

the winter

Water - quality

-

Poor water retention in

+ the urban area

Increase of

transaction costs

The Quality of the

Level of Public

Maintenance of Existing

+ Participation

Greenery

+

-

+

-

-

Law enforcement

Lack of spatial

+

Preference of

Social awareness

management plans

unsustainable

+

investments

+ + Level of trust towards

+

local authorities -

+

Lack of funds

Eco-friendly habits Level of environmental

Ineffective

+

education

Lack of vision

+ management

+

+

-

+ +

Research on current

environemntal situation Political instability Ineffective public

-

transportation system

63

Illegal sewage

disposal

+

Poverty

Inequalities in greenery

level between districts

+

Corruption

+

SOLUTION 2

Competitive Greenery

Policy

+

+

Unsustainable

transport preferences

+

+

Poor quality of cycling

infrastructure

More innovations


8.3 Economy Section

The lack of local spatial management plans was identified as one of the most important problems

within the Economy area. In order to address other problems that Lodz is facing it is crucial to solve

the issues related to the urban planning.

Four main causes of this problem were identified: lack of comprehensive vision of the city

development, lack of funding, low level of cooperation between different departments, and existing

legal regulations.

Existence of Comprehensive Vision of the City Development

Currently in Lodz, main attention is paid to the most urgent problems and immediate solutions are

desired. Lack of long-term approach is partly caused by the low pressure from the society that is not

aware of the influence they might have on the development of their city. The inhabitants are not

involved in city affairs and tend to focus more on their own interest without considering the interest

of the entire community. In order to develop a comprehensive vision of the city involvement of

competent experts is necessary.

Available Funds

Insufficient funds are a common problem often caused by inconsistent distribution of available

money, itself a consequence of lack of defined priorities.

Level of Cooperation between Different Departments

The spatial management plans are comprehensive documents that preparation requires cooperation

between different departments. In order to ensure an interdisciplinary approach it is essential to

cooperate with various groups of specialists.

Legal Regulations

Unclear legal regulations are serious barriers for the creation of spatial management plans.

Moreover, uncertain juridical status and difficulties with properties’ ownership identification very

often block initiatives that aim at improvement of urban space.

64


Figure 8.2 Causal Loop Diagram – Lack of Local Spatial Management Plans in Lodz

+

LOCAL SPATIAL

MANAGEMENT PLAN

+

+

Competent experts in

urban planning

+

Interdisciplinary

approach (systems

thinking)

Level of +

Cooperation

between Different

Departments

+

Available + Funds

+

Existence of

Comprehensive Vision of

the City Development

-

+ -

+

Pessure from the

society

+

Legal regulations

Ownership

identification

Distribution of

money

+

Focus on urgent

problems

SOLUTION 2: Put Me

on the Map Campaign

65

Defined priorities

SOLUTION 1:

Comprehensive Vision and

Identity of Lodz

Public awareness

Stronger connection

with the city

Community

involvment

Promotion of the

city

Self-interest stronger than

interest of community

Cooperation

Raising public

awareness

Less money for

urgent problems

Increased attractiveness

of the city

First step to the

development of spatial

management plan


A lack of comprehensive vision of the city development was recognized as a key obstacle for the

development of the local spatial management plans in Lodz. The efforts to address this challenge

were made and two possible innovations were identified. One of them is the participatory approach

to the inventory of urban green areas. A web-based map of a given district would be made available

to inhabitants that would be asked to update the information about green areas in their

neighborhood. It is believed that the proposed initiative will raise citizens’ awareness and will

increase community involvement. It can also result in stronger identification with the local

community and the city as a whole. Once the map is ready, it could be also helpful as a source for

experts developing spatial management plans.

The second recommended solution is to develop a comprehensive vision of city development based

on SWOT analysis. The vision should be developed in a participatory process where all the key

stakeholders (i.e. city council, various administrative departments, business representatives, experts

and inhabitants of the city) have an opportunity to state their opinion.

The implementation of proposed solutions will require time and financial resources.

More information about recommended solutions can be found in Chapter 9.

8.4 Society Section

Insufficient number of multifunctional green areas was identified as the main problem in the

Society section. The stakeholders believe that this is an area that is most likely to be improved

before 2020. In Lodz, there are several green areas but there is potential to create more

multifunctional green spaces.

Three main causes of this problem were identified: low level of public awareness, low level of local

government efficiency, low level of investment in green areas.

Level of Public Awareness

The level of public awareness is low thus there is no pressure on the local government to create new

green areas. Moreover, the local government does not encourage private investors to invest in

greenery. In addition, the inhabitants are not aware of the benefits they can derive from

multifunctional green areas and their capabilities to change the existing special development plans.

Local Government Efficiency

The second cause, the efficiency of local government, can be characterized by several symptoms

such as gaps in spatial planning (this leads to unsustainable use of land) or not practical local legal

regulations (e.g. law that makes access to the green areas difficult).

Level of Investment in Green Areas

The low level of private and public investments in green areas was identified as a third cause of

insufficient number of multifunctional areas. The investors are not interested in investing in

66


greenery because they do not perceive this kind of investment as a profitable. Moreover, the gaps in

spatial planning make it easier for the investors to enforce their ideas. In addition, the local

authorities do not promote greenery as an interesting asset for inhabitants or investors.

These three causes are interrelated therefore an improvement in any of them could have a positive

impact on the others.

In order to increase the number of multifunctional green areas two potential solutions were

recommended. One of the possible initiatives is Green Tram that will promote greenery in the city.

The goal of this action is to increase inhabitants’ awareness about greenery. It is also recommended

to implement a project called Green It Well which directly affects the public awareness, local

government efficiency and the level of investment in the green areas.

More information about recommended solutions can be found in Chapter 9.

67


Figure 8.3 Causal Loop Diagram – Insufficient Number of Multifunctional Green Areas

+

NUMBER OF

MULTIFUNCTIONAL

GREEN AREAS

+

Quality of green areas

Available funds

infrastructure +

+

Level of Investment

Local Government

in Green Areas

Efficiency

+

+

-

- + Awareness of the

benefitts of green areas

services

Not practical local Gaps in spatial SOLUTION 2:

+

legal regulations planning

"Green It Well"

Level of interest in

investing in services in

green areas

+

Level of Public

Awareness

+

+

Pressure from the

society

68

Knowledge

SOLUTION 1:

"Green Tram"

Biodiversity

Expenses Social relations


8.5 Well-being Section

The problem of accessibility of green areas was identified as the most important in the Well-being

section. Finding a solution to this challenge will increase Lodz’ chances of becoming the European

Green Capital by 2020.

Three main causes of this problem were identified: lack of spatial management plans, uneven

distribution of green areas in the city and difficult access to the green areas by public transportation.

Lack of Spatial Management Plans

The protection and maintenance of green areas as well as creation of new ones is challenging

because there is lack of spatial management plans. Moreover, the local authorities are characterized

by low level of ecological awareness. The selection of priorities and funds location prove that the

local government is not aware of the importance of the services provided by the ecosystems.

Uneven Distribution of the Green Areas in the City

The uneven distribution of the green areas in the city is caused by their small number. These areas

are usually poorly managed thus very often they are neglected and not attractive for the visitors.

Moreover, not many new green spaces are created. In addition, there is a need for more experts that

would serve as professional advisors to the local authorities on how to care for the greenery in the

city.

Access to the Green Areas by Public Transportation

Very often the green areas are located outside the city center thus are difficult to reach by public

transportation or bicycle. The existing public transportation network is inefficient with low

frequency of buses and trams. In addition, the network of bicycle paths is badly organized.

In order to address the problem of accessibility of green areas two innovations were proposed:

Green Bus Initiative and Green Bike Corridors. Implementation of these two solutions would have

following effects:

- more people using bicycles;

- more people visiting green areas;

- improvement of the quality of inhabitants' life;

- better health and physical condition of inhabitants;

- reduction of pollutants;

- reduction of car traffic.

More information about recommended solutions can be found in Chapter 9.

69


ACCESSIBILITY

OF GREEN AREAS

Figure 8.4 Causal Loop Diagram – Accessibility of Green Areas

+ +

+

Distribution of the

Green Areas in the

City

+ +

Spatial

Management Plans

+

+

Access to the Green

Areas by Public

Transportation

+

+

Quantity and quality

of green areas

+

Quality of

management of green

areas

+

Professional advisors to the

local authorities on how to care

for the greenery

Public transportation Funds distribution

infrastructure

priorities Land use priorities

+

+

+

+

Public transportatin

Frequency of buses

network

Awareness of

and trams ecosystem services

Bicycle

infrastructure

Number of streets wide

enough to build bicycle

lines

70

SOLUTION 1:

Green Bus Initiative

+

Plan of public

transportation

Network of

bicycle paths

+

More people visiting

green areas

Quality of

inhabitants' life

+

Funs for development

of bicyckle paths

SOLUTION 2: Green

Bike Corridors Use of bicycles

Air quality

Reduction of car

Better health and physical

traffic

condition of inhabitants


CHAPTER 9

Innovations

The system maps described in the previous chapter helped to identify

leverage points – places in the system where intervention can be

implemented in order to modify the system.

This chapter provides a more detailed description of proposed innovations

that will help to address the challenges Lodz is facing.

9.1 Nature Section

9.1.1 Participatory Management of Greenery

The goal if this innovation is to address the problem of poor condition of the greenery in Lodz

caused by: low level of public participation, poor maintenance of existing greenery and bad

condition of the environmental factors. This innovation provides an alternative approach to

greenery management based on direct involvement of citizens.

It embraces two elements: (1) a financial mechanism of obtaining extra money for greenery

investment (Local Green Fund), and (2) a participatory decision making process in which

inhabitants directly decide where and how new greenery will be developed or maintained in Lodz.

The Local Green Fund is a name for a new independent entity (foundation) that will be established

by public-private-social partnership. The local authorities, businesses and NGOs would be the

founders of the Fund and the representatives of these three sectors will create the Board of the Fund.

The budget of the Local Green Fund will consist of:

- endowment provided by the local government;

- financial input from private entities and individuals;

- fines and penalties for illegal sewage dropping, cutting trees, etc.;

- income from local green tax – it will be an additional tax imposed on people who will

exceed the predetermined limit of usage of some key natural resources (e.g. water, energy)

or emission of pollution. The tax can be paid in money or in a form of voluntary work that

benefits the greenery;

- Green City Card – the owners of this card will receive special discount (e.g. 10%) from local

companies (e.g. shops, restaurants etc.). The cards will be emitted by the Local Green Fund

and all profit form sales will be donated to the Fund endowment;

71


- as a foundation the Fund could obtain a status of Public Benefit Organization and collect

money in a form of so-called “1% mechanism”;

- grants from the European Union, private foundations, World Bank etc.

A significant portion of funds will be dedicated to the Local Green Fund’s endowment. The interest

revenue from the endowment will provide an ongoing source of funding to support the core

activities of the Fund.

Local Green Fund will:

- educate inhabitants about value of ecosystem services – the objective is to explain

inhabitants that by changing their habits they can use local ecosystems in a sustainable way

and reduce their expanses (pay less for energy, fuel, water, etc.); it will also promote ecofriendly

solutions in everyday life and in business activities;

- provide grants for local grassroots supporting green area development and/or maintenance –

only projects initiated by the neighbourhood groups can apply for supports;

the neighbourhood group must contribute its voluntary work; all submitted projects will be

presented on the Fund’s webpage and the citizens of Lodz will be asked to vote on

the projects that should receive financial support;

- provide experts support (e.g. landscape architects, gardeners, social innovators, etc.) for

projects that received grant;

- award the best green initiatives implemented by a company and neighbourhood groups;

- partial refund of investment costs for individuals building permeable pavements, green roofs

and other stormwater reuse systems on their private properties, installing alternative sources

of energy (e.g. solar panels) or connecting to public sewage system.

The advantages of this innovation:

- more green areas in the city;

- reduction of CO2 and other pollutants;

- improvement of air quality and water retention;

- improvement of the living conditions of the inhabitants;

- integration of the local community;

- opportunities for residents to influence the local environmental policies;

- chance to improve management system and obtain additional money for environmental

policy.

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9.1.2 Competitive Greenery Policy

In order to support environmental protection in Lodz it is important to formulate Competitive

Greenery Policy which should include two leading actors: local authorities and districts. The key

point of this policy is to:

- Push and enhance environmental competition between local authorities and districts;

- Support interconnections between local authorities and districts.

The figure below is a graphical presentation of the connection between competition, cooperation

and sustainable development. The competition and cooperation are crucial to reach a sustainable

state. In this case, competition is defined as a race towards sustainability within the authorities on

one hand, and within the districts on the other hand. After the intra-actions within one sector have

started, the second phase – interactions between the sectors – will start.

Figure 9.1 Cornerstones of Sustainable Development - Competition + Cooperation

Intra-actions (authorities)

The local authorities and agencies should compete with each other in the context of sustainable

development. It is important to establish a mixed committee under the framework of green

competitive policy. This committee (including representatives from the department of transport,

energy, infrastructure, environmental protection etc.) will be responsible for coherent decisions and

joint actions that are supposed to lead to effective urban spatial development and environmental

management. The goal of this competition is to attract and implement more innovations. The

cooperation will make governmental programs and policies more productive. Such cooperation will

provide a good example for people on how to take care for the environment.

Intra-actions (districts)

Districts should be divided into smaller units like neighborhoods. Competition and cooperation is

also important at this level. The goal is to take care of the surroundings and help the authorities

implement some policies, e.g. urban greenery, recycling, composting and so on. Some new projects

could be planned e.g. “My Green House”, “Green Yard”, “My Urban Kitchen Garden”, etc.

However, it is important to encourage society and provide some incentives for inhabitants to stay

involved therefore inter-actions are necessary.

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Inter-action (authorities + districts)

The goal of inter-actions between districts and authorities is to share and take mutual

responsibilities. This will help to solve problems like lack of public awareness and mistrust. The

local authorities should encourage the society to participate in decision-making and implementation

processes. The city or district authorities should support the individuals that act in a sustainable way

(e.g. they could receive discount cards for city transport, coupons for communal payments etc.).

9.2 Economy Section

9.2.1 Put Me on the Map Campaign

One of the social barriers in the preservation of trees identified by the experts was citizens’ low

awareness of the importance of trees (see Chapter 3). On the other hand, trees related issues are not

perceived as a priority by the local authorities to a point where there is no data on the number of

trees in the city. The campaign entitled Put me on the map would address both problems.

The goal of the campaign Put me on the map is to involve inhabitants in the process of greenery

inventory. This participatory process would provide the foundation for establishing short and longterm

maintenance and management goals.

A web-based map of a given district would be made available to inhabitants that would be asked to

update the information about green areas in their neighborhood. The local communities would have

an opportunity to actively participate in a project that in a long-term would help to improve the

quality of their own life and enhance the beauty of green areas.

The main outcome of the campaign is to create an inventory of Lodz’s street trees and green areas

in order to determine their quantity, the diversity and composition of species present, the condition

of the greenery, and their exact locations. The collected data would be crucial for the routine

maintenance and management of urban greenery, and would also help to identify possible spaces of

new green areas and assess which areas have the highest need for trees planting.

Once the map is ready, it could be used by the experts developing spatial management plans – the

map would provide specific information about green areas in the city and their biodiversity value.

The objectives of this campaign include also empowerment and community building. Inclusion of

community members in the urban greenery inventory would provide an opportunity to increase

residents’ stewardship capacity and awareness of the urban greenery at a local level. Moreover,

informed citizens can play an active role in the stewardship of the urban green spaces by informing

and involving their neighbors in the process.

In addition, citizens can take the lead to increase plantings and tree care in their neighborhood’s

yards and other private spaces. And then, a management agency may be more willing to provide

new plantings in areas where they know residents will assist a tree’s survival by watering and

monitoring the health of public trees.

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9.2.2 Comprehensive Vision and Identity of Lodz

Successful cities have a clear strategy and vision that is recognized countrywide and even abroad.

They develop clear strategies that set the development directions which help them become places

where business want to invest and people want to live. The Polish examples of Wroclaw famous of

being “the meeting place”, and Krakow famous as a cultural city prove that clear development

directions set upon the strengths of the city as well as clear communication of these directions are

important for cities to succeed.

Development of a strategy with clearly defined vision, strategic success factors, objectives and

indicators to measure the progress is very important. Without it the city management will be based

on solving urgent problems which cannot guarantee a long term success. On the other hand, clear

vision is an important first step in solving a problem that is already becoming urgent for Lodz,

i.e. the lack of spatial management plans. It seems that local authorities recognize the need for

vision development. There are some documents like the Lodz Cluster Development Strategy or

Lodz Brand’s Management Strategy already prepared however there is no comprehensive vision of

the city as a whole.

With clearly defined goals that specify how the city will look like in 2020, what type of investments

it would like to attract and which areas it would like to focus the development on, it will be easier

for the local government to define the functional areas of the city so that the later developed special

plan will already include long term plans and objectives. The strategy should also include indicators

that are crucial to succeed as the European Green Capital.

Lodz also needs a well defined identity that would be recognizable in the country and even abroad.

This identity should be developed in a participatory process where all the key stakeholders (i.e. city

council, various administrative departments, business representatives, experts and inhabitants of the

city) have an opportunity to state their opinion.

The tools used to encourage the participation could include meetings with stakeholders, surveys,

public discussions, consultations through internet discussion forums or interactive tools (for

example see Put me on the map section).

It should be ensured that the entire process is clear, transparent and that all the key stakeholders are

informed about it. In order to ensure that the participation process is organized in a proper way it

should be led by an external entity (a leader of the project). This could be a consulting company or

an NGO chosen and approved by the city council. The leader of the project should be independent

so that the objectivity and equal treating of various stakeholders groups is ensured.

It is expected that engaging various groups of stakeholders in identity development process will

have the following positive effects:

- It will ensure that all the issues important for key stakeholders groups will be taken into

account;

- It will make stakeholders support the communication of the vision and identity.

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Two practical tools that could be used by the local authorities to facilitate the identity creation

process were identified:

- Advisory committee – technical advisory body composed of representatives of local

businesses, experts, interest groups and NGOs. Its mission will be to coordinate the work on

identity identification and guarantee high quality of the final outcome;

- Images of the Future – different visualizations of the city’s future are presented to the

inhabitants. The local people have a chance to see how the actions they are taking now (or

not taking) will influence the city’s image in the future. The inhabitants can comment on

possible development scenarios and present their own visions. As many people do not think

about long-term consequences of their actions, this approach can force people to think how

their actions will influence the future.

Strategy development and identity identification process is considered as the first step that is needed

to set the framework for the spatial management plan and an important part of preparations to

become the European Green Capital.

9.3 Society Section

9.3.1 Green It Well Project

Green it well project was designed to address the problem of insufficient number of multifunctional

green areas in Lodz itself a consequence of low level of public awareness, low level of local

government efficiency, low level of investment in green areas.

According to this project, the local authorities will provide an area in the city that could be

transformed into a multifunctional park. Next, the inhabitants as well as business entities will be

asked to participate in a contest and they will share their ideas about the best way to use the land.

The initiative should be promoted in local media and on billboards, bus stops, in schools etc. in

order to spark interest and involve as many people as possible in the planning process. The most

rational and sustainable idea will be selected by a special committee. The winner will have

an opportunity to manage and implement his/her idea.

The main idea of this innovation is to fill the space with greenery, facilities and equipment

(benches, table tennis tables, chess tables etc.), food courts, playgrounds, ponds etc. and create

a multifunctional park.

Moreover, each of the facilities mentioned above could be sponsored by a family, individual,

company or institution. Those contributing to the project will receive engraved brick pavers bearing

their name (e.g. John Smith’s Tree, Anna Nowak’s Garden or Klak Ltd. Pond).

This kind of participation and ownership could increase communities’ sense of responsibility and

tighten interpersonal relationships. In addition, from the environmental point of view, such

an investment can enrich biodiversity and create new ecosystems which can provide local

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communities with its services. Moreover, the nice surroundings can encourage amateur theatres,

wedding planners, fitness instructions etc. to provide their service in this multifunctional park.

To attract investors to invest in new facilities in the provided area, the local government could for

example offer tax incentives. In the long run, the investments will bring additional profit to the local

budget.

Green it well project could help Lodz become the European Green Capital by bringing

improvements in the following areas:

- reduction of CO2 emission;

- green areas and sustainable land management;

- nature and biodiversity;

- air quality;

- Eco-innovation and 'green' jobs.

9.3.2 Green Tram Project

The Green Tram Project is designed to solve the problem of poor awareness about the importance

of green areas and their functions among inhabitants of Lodz. During the meeting in the City Office,

the stakeholders emphasized that there is a need for such an initiative.

The project takes into consideration educational, cultural and social aspects. It facilitates the

inhabitants’ mobility between Lodz’s biggest parks and green areas by creating special tram trips.

Every weekend several trams will take inhabitants and tourists free of charge for a trip to the nearest

green area or park. Painted in green with a slogan “Follow the green tram”, the trams will be

accessible for handicapped people and families with baby carriages. In addition, the low-emission

electric trams will also promote the alternative way of public transportation.

During the journey, the passengers will experience an unforgettable trip by passing through the city

center, watching educational movies, discussing environmental issues, getting familiar with the idea

of Lodz as European Green Capital or just having a rest on a special green lawn made of

biodegradable material imitating natural grass. When getting off the tram passengers will receive

a flyer containing information about the usage of green areas in a rational and multifunctional way.

After a pleasant journey on the Green Tram, the passengers will be encouraged to spend some time

in the multifunctional green areas and to use one of the facilities e.g. mobile-library, spots for

aerobic or other sport activities, grill appliances or simply deck chairs.

Another important issue is to encourage local high-school students, representatives from

environmental NGOs or just people interested in the ecological issues to get involved in the Green

Tram project as volunteers. The volunteers will be responsible for providing information for the

passengers.

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The passengers of the Green Tram will:

- learn more about the nature and the use of green areas;

- observe nature;

- get aesthetic experience;

- take break from the city.

The schedule of the green trams will be adjusted to the regular schedule that already exists in Lodz.

The green tram will leave every hour. If the demand be higher more trams will be available.

It is believed that the Green Tram Project will increase the environmental awareness of all residents

and visitors of Lodz. Moreover, it will increase the attractiveness of Lodz among investors and

increase the frequency of social interrelations. The environmental benefits together with the issues

mentioned above will contribute to Lodz efforts towards receiving the title of the European Green

Capital by 2020.

9.4 Well-being Section

9.4.1 The Green Bus Initiative

The Green Bus Initiative focuses on providing the inhabitants, especially those from the city center,

easy access to green areas in Lodz. The stakeholders from local NGOs pointed out that most of

green areas are located outside the city therefore the inhabitants experience difficulties in reaching

them. The Green Bus Initiative will not only address this issue, but will also provide a good

opportunity to raise ecological awareness among inhabitants.

The green buses will operate on afternoons, weekends and holidays based on schedule adjusted to

the potential users’ needs. These buses will travel around the city and carry people who are willing

to spend time in green areas.

The Green Bus ticket will be cheaper than the one for the regular bus. In addition, the Green Buses

will use eco-friendly fuel. Moreover, while on the bus the passengers will receive brief information

on ecosystem services (posters, videos, brochures, etc. that will be displayed in the bus). The goal is

to increase people's awareness, reduce their ignorance and provide an opportunity to visit green

areas. In the bus, the passengers will also find maps with information about all green areas in the

city and that will help them to plan their future trips.

9.4.2 The Green Bike Corridors

Another innovation concerning accessibility to green areas in Lodz is called The Green Bike

Corridors. This project combines development of infrastructure for mobility, increases the total

number of bicycle lanes and makes it easier and more pleasant to move between different green

spaces in the city.

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According to the project, the existing and new bike lanes will connect city parks and other green

areas. The new bicycle paths will be created by narrowing the streets. The new infrastructure will

include parking lots for bicycles and bicycle rentals. The parking lots will be provided mainly near

green areas so that people could leave their bicycles in safe place and enjoy the nature.

It is believed that more bicycle lanes will encourage more people to give up their cars and switch to

environmentally friendly mode of transport.

9.5 Feedback from the Seminar Participants

The local project in Lodz was presented as a case study during the international seminar

Synthesizing different perspectives on the value of urban ecosystem services that was held on 15-16

July 2011 at the University of Lodz, Faculty of Economics and Sociology. The presentation

included the explanation of the goal of the local project, and milestones on the way to coming up

with innovations that could be an inspiration for Lodz. Afterwards, the participants of the seminar

were asked for a feedback and comments regarding proposed innovations. Their comments and

suggestions are described below.

Increasing motivation among the inhabitants to participate more actively in the projects focusing on

greening the city can be achieved in many ways, for example by involving children and students

from schools and universities. The youth have a big influence on their families, especially parents,

and they may persuade them to join the green initiatives.

Another way to involve inhabitants is to organize participatory workshop – for example a workshop

where inhabitants will be asked to draw their vision of the city in order to visualize their ideas and

therefore make it more realistic and feasible.

One of the most important aspects influencing people’s motivation is their knowledge about the

ecosystem services and benefits they provide. Therefore, there is a need to educate inhabitants. It is

recommended to keep in mind that education in the nature through practical experience (e.g. field

trips) gives better results than theoretical lectures in the classroom. Also people should have an

opportunity to see the ecosystems' performance in practice and this can be done by creating green

roofs and walls in their apartment buildings. Also the inhabitants can be asked to plant trees.

However, it must be taken into account that most of them are not ready to maintain the trees.

Another powerful tool is to organize different types of ‘green’ competitions among districts and/or

neighborhoods, for example competition for the greenest garden or backyard, contests among

children and their parents to create indigenous garden (gardens only with traditional type of plants

for that area).

Other suggestions include:

- Creating gardens that can be used for improving biodiversity, food provision (fruits and

vegetables) and educational purposes;

- Creating "open room" for community – to open information centers with qualified people

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who will provide information on ecosystem services to local community;

- Well-developed Local agenda 21 and its implementation;

- Greater involvement of business entities that could profit from the ecosystem services;

- Engagement of people 55+ in environmental projects to prevent their social isolation;

- Creating urban biosphere reserves;

- Not to overload the green campaigns with scientific terms – use simple language to explain

complex processes and phenomenon;

In addition, in order to motivate inhabitants to join the European Green Capital campaign and

familiarize them with the contest requirements it would be more efficient to organize the activities

on the districts level.

9.6 Conclusions

The innovations that were described in this chapter address the most important problems Lodz is

facing, namely: lack of spatial management plans, poor condition of green areas in the city and

difficulties to access them and lack of multifunctional green areas. For each problem two innovative

solutions were suggested. The implementation of these innovations would not only help to solve the

particular problem, but would also positively affect their causes for example by creation of

comprehensive vision for the city development and increasing citizens’ awareness and engagement

into green spaces management.

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CHAPTER 10

Final Conclusions

This report presents the results of the local project “Lodz as European

Green Capital by 2020”. The goal of the project was: to estimate the value

of ecosystem services in Lodz, to support the efforts of the city to become

the European Green Capital by 2020, to promote implementation

of innovations and facilitate the use of innovations by local government,

to assist in further development of research in sustainable development.

In order to achieve these objectives a survey among inhabitants and

interviews with local authorities were conducted, and meetings with experts

and local stakeholders were organized.

Each chapter of this report addresses particular aspects of the local project.

Chapter 1 Challenges of Sustainable Development in Lodz highlighted the sustainability challenges

Lodz is facing, and presented existing and implemented in the city initiatives organized by local

government and NGOs. Currently, the biggest challenges for Lodz are the reconstruction and

revitalization of the valuable city center and implementation of initiatives that would make Lodz

more sustainable. The sustainable development takes time, preparation, commitment and patience.

One can already observe many positive innovative trends in the city which should be taken into

account, supported and further developed.

A detailed description of the local project was provided in Chapter 2 Project Description. One of

the indirect outcomes of the project is to support Lodz’s efforts to become the European Green

Capital by 2020.

Chapter 3 contains a description and results of a research project entitled Barriers to the

preservation of trees in cities and ways to overcome these barriers. The results prove that there are

many administrative and social barriers to the preservation of trees. To overcome those barriers it is

necessary to raise public awareness about the importance of ecosystem services.

In Chapter 4 Good Practices in Ecosystem Services Management, the examples of projects from all

over the world were presented. These examples can be inspiration for Lodz on its way to the

European Green Capital Award.

In order to estimate the value of ecosystem services provided by the street trees in the city center

a survey among inhabitants was conducted. The research study and its results were described in

Chapter 5 Valuation of Ecosystem Services – Example of Street Trees in the Center of Lodz.

According to the respondents the most important is to plant trees on the streets where there are

currently no trees at all.

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An important part of the project was identification of key stakeholders and their interests.

A description of the main interest groups that should be taken into consideration when formulating

a strategy for Lodz to become the European Green Capital by 2020 was presented in Chapter 6.

Chapter 7 presented indicators and trends of sustainable development in Lodz that were identified

by the stakeholders. Some of the indicators have negative trends, and that means that if no action is

taken the problem will escalate. The indicators which are likely to develop in negative direction are

mostly connected with water in landscape, green areas in the city center, and neighbor relationships.

In Chapter 8, the systems thinking approach was applied for finding best solutions for some of the

problems Lodz is straggling with. For each problem a system map was created, where causes and

their interconnections as well as suggested solutions were visually presented.

The system maps described in Chapter 8 helped to identify leverage points – places in the system

where intervention can be implemented in order to modify the system. In Chapter 9 Innovations,

a detailed description of innovations was provided. It is believed that these innovations will help to

address the sustainability challenges Lodz is facing and will help Lodz become the European Green

Capital by 2020.

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APPENDICES

Appendix 1

List of stakeholders participating in the workshop “What to do for

Lodz to receive the title of European Green Capital by 2020”? (July

7 th , 2011)

Name Institution

Magda Affeltowicz The City Office of Lodz – Department of Public Health

Hieronim Andrzejewski Lodz Hills Landscape Park

Jarosław Białek Urban Forestry in Lodz

Dariusz Chmiel The City Office of Lodz – City Architecture Team

Bartłomiej Dana Newspaper „Gazeta Wyborcza”

Andrzej Derulski Land Melioration and Water Units Board

Henryka Gapińska Regional Directorate of Environmental Protection in Lodz

Barbara Gortat The City Office of Lodz – Department of Public Utilities

Ewa Kamińska Centre of Ecological Activities "Zrodla"

Mirosław Konwerski League of Nature Protection

Marek Kubacki Polish Society of Trees Surgeons – NOT

Agata Kupisz Lodz Voivodship Office – Department of Infrastructure

Bartłomiej Łuszczak Radio Lodz / Lodz radio

Beata Makota Land Melioration and Water Units Board

Wojciech Makowski Foundation „Phenomenon” / The Civil Affairs Institute (INSPRO)

Anna Olaczek-Wołowska Municipal Urban Office in Lodz – Department of Studies and

Monitoring

Elżbieta Pamulska The City Office of Lodz – Department of Public Utilities

Halina Skonieczna League of Nature Protection

Grzegorz Socha Regional Directorate of Environmental Protection in Lodz

Monika Socha Sewage Treatment Plant

Anita Waack-Zając The City Office of Lodz – Department of Public Utilities

Dariusz Wrzos The City Office of Lodz – Department of Environmental Protection

Marek Wasiak The City Office of Lodz – The Office of City Architect

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Appendix 2

Main Challenges of Lodz Identified by Stakeholders

The appendix presents an alternative approach to the stakeholders’ analysis. The five main

problems Lodz struggles with are described below with a brief description of identified

stakeholders.

1. Urban Green Areas

The green areas in Lodz can be divided into two main groups:

- greenery in the downtown (single trees or alleys of trees and bushes) – unfortunately,

a significant portion of these areas is gradually disappearing (mainly because of new parking

lots, acts of vandalism, dogs’ wastes, salt used during the winter for removing ice from

streets);

- larger green areas (e.g. parks, gardens, forests) – there are 34 city parks in Lodz.

1.1. Business Sector (Companies and Developers)

- sports shops, bike services, etc. – probably they will be interested in developing green

areas. More green areas may encourage more people to start practice sport thus the shops

will gain new clients that need some sport equipment and services;

- restaurants, pubs, etc. – interested mainly in street greenery: during the spring-fall period,

green surrounding makes people more eager to stop by and have a drink/eat in so called

“gardens” i.e. small areas on the street where restaurants/pubs provide services;

- developers, housing cooperatives – on the one hand they appreciate green areas, because

greenery increases the value of estate; on the other hand they often buy green areas only in

order to transform them into construction zone for new investments (e.g. investor on

Piotrkowska street that cut out a group of old trees important for local inhabitants);

- IT and financial sector, international companies (e.g. Infosys, Indesit, Accentrure) – they

may be interested in including some “green policy” in their CSR strategy and by doing so

improve their image and present themselves as responsible and caring company.

1.2. Environmental NGO’s – are involved in projects concerning greenery/environmental

protection and rising ecological awareness (workshops, awareness campaigns, etc.).

1.3. Local authorities (the City Office of Lodz)

- Department of Environmental Protection and Agriculture – issues permits for the

removal of trees and shrubs, imposes administrative fines for the destruction or removal of

trees and shrubs without permission, establishes legal protection of natural monuments,

monitors the management and use of green areas, manages urban green areas owned by the

city, supervises the Urban Forestry Agency in Lodz;

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- Department of Urban Planning and Architecture and District Branches of Municipality

– issue permissions for construction and demolition of buildings and roads, are involved is

the development of the local spatial management plans etc. They can determinate which area

of the city will be dedicated for investments and which could be kept as a green area;

- Urban Forestry – Lodz is responsible for: forest management in forests owned by the City,

supervision of non-state forests, environmental and forest education, taking care of wild

animals;

- Voivodship Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management in Lodz – its

mission is to financially support projects that protect the natural environment and respect

values of environment in accordance with the principle of sustainable development. The

Fund provides loans, grants, interest rate subsidies to preferential loans and gives award for

activities for environment protection and water management.

2. Mobility and Local Transport

An efficient transport can address many problems contemporary cities are facing. The mobility is

one of the factors that directly influence the cultural landscape, sustainability and the dispersion or

sprawl of the city. The public transportation system in Lodz is based on a network of buses and

trams however, the system is not efficient. The waiting time on bus/tram stops is too long, as well

as the time spent for reaching a certain destination. The number of cars in the city is rapidly

increasing and the cycling network is underdeveloped.

- developers, entrepreneurs and some shop owners are interested in having more roads and

parking lots;

- pedestrians, disabled people and families with children are interested in having larger

and safer sidewalks; they would like to reduce the number of cars (especially those illegally

parked on sidewalks) and remove the architectural barriers that limit their mobility;

- passengers are interested in improving the comfort and efficiency of public transportation;

- cyclists would like to have more bicycle lanes and make the existing safer;

- public institutions (e.g. the Department of Entrepreneurship and Investor Assistance, the

Department of Infrastructure, the Downtown Branch of the City Office of Lodz) – mobility

is an important factor of the economic growth and employment thus they may have interest

in promoting public transport;

- housing cooperatives and associations would like to eliminate psychological barriers

caused by city infrastructure (e.g. a wide road which seems to be unsafe to cross); are

interested in a good accessibility of parking lots;

- architects, urban designers, planners, engineers, other experts and researchers are

responsible for coming up with innovations that will address challenges Lodz is facing;

- The Department of Spatial Planning plays a key role in issues related to infrastructure and

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3. Energy

mobility; represents the interests of local communities and is responsible for balancing the

needs and finding the best solutions for spatial planning that will be reflected in strategic

documents.

The Polish Energy Group is the biggest energy provider company in Lodz. The company provides

combined energy and heating services for inhabitants and business entities. .

The number of companies providing “green energy” is increasing however the position of

traditional energy providers is not threatened. The situation may change when the “Ekoenergia”

cluster develops. The “Ekoenergia” cluster is a joined initiative of Lodz University and some

companies operating in Lodz Voivodship.

There are several different stakeholders who could be interested in energy issues however the most

important actors are the main energy provider companies and the City Office of Lodz.

4. Eco-Innovations and Green Workplaces

An eco-innovation is the commercial application of knowledge to elicit direct or indirect ecological

improvements. In Lodz, there are many stakeholders that could be interested in implementation of

eco-innovations and creation of green workplaces. The most important of them are the Department

of environmental Protection and Agriculture and the department of Entrepreneurship and

Development in the City Office of Lodz. They are responsible for green areas management,

forestry, nature preservation, surveillance over private green areas, and introduction of innovations

in the city’s economy by supporting local entrepreneurs and encouraging foreign capital to invest in

Lodz.

The Centre for Innovations and Technology Transfer, Lodz Regional Science and Technology

Park and local universities discover and formulate new ideas. An important group of stakeholders

are local housing cooperatives and associations, but also construction companies – very often

they are the decision makers and it is up to them if eco-friendly technologies and solutions will be

implemented.

5. Water Management

The European Regional Centre for Ecohydrology in Lodz in cooperation with the City Office of

Lodz initiated a pilot program called SWITCH. The water management was identified as a field in

which Lodz is able to achieve improvement in a short run. The illegal sewage was identified as

a primary issue in water management. The City Office implements initiatives that increase

inhabitants’ awareness in regards to the water management. The City Office seems to be opened for

applying sustainable principles in storm water management.

88


Appendix 3

Stakeholders’ Contact Information

Name

of

Organi

zation

City Council

Marshal Office

Additional Information

Department of Public

Utility

Department of

Environmental Protection

and Agriculture

Department of Urban

Planning and Architecture

89

Contact Information

Address Phone, fax e-mail, website

1. Local Authorities

90-926 Lodz

ul. Piotrkowska 104

90-447 Lodz

ul. Piotrkowska 175

90-365 Lodz

ul. Tymienieckiego 5

90-926 Lodz

ul. Piotrkowska 104

Office of City Architect 90-926 Lodz

ul. Piotrkowska 104

Office of Information and

Social Communication

Office of Promotion,

Tourism and International

Cooperation

Office of Enterprise

Development and Service

of Investors

Administration of Roads

and Transportation

Municipal Urban Planning

Office

90-926 Lodz

ul. Piotrkowska 104

90-423 Lodz

ul. Piotrkowska 87

90-430 Lodz

ul. Piotrkowska 113

90-447 Lodz

ul. Piotrkowska 175

94-016 Lodz

ul. Wilenska 53/55

Urban Forestry - Lodz 91-509 Lodz

ul. Lagiewnicka 305

Department of Agriculture

and Environmental

Protection

Department of

Infrastructure

Regional Spatial Planning

Office of Lodz Voivodship

2. Regional Authorities

90-051 Lodz

al. Pilsudskiego 8

90-051 Lodz

al. Pilsudskiego 8

90-051 Lodz

al. Pilsudskiego12

90-113 Lodz

ul. Sienkiewicza 3

tel.: (42) 638-40-00

fax.: 48 (42) 638-40-04

uml@uml.lodz.pl

www.lodz.pl

tel.: (42) 638-49-12 komunalny@uml.lodz.pl,

gkom@uml.lodz.pl

tel.: (42) 638-47-11

fax.: (42) 638-47-47

tel.: (42) 638-54-40

fax.: (42) 638-43-91

tel.: (42) 638-43-84

fax.: (42) 638-54-41

tel.: (42) 638-58-80

fax.: (42) 638-40-90

tel.: (42) 638-47-00

fax.: (42) 638-44-85

tel.: (42) 638-49-11,

tel.: (42) 638-49-59

tel.: (42) 680 82 60

fax.: (42) 680 82 52

srodowisko@uml.lodz.pl,

osr@uml.lodz.pl

wuia@uml.lodz.pl

bam@uml.lodz.pl

promocja@uml.lodz.pl,

bpt@uml.lodz.pl

biuro.rozwoju@uml.lodz.pl

zdit@uml.lodz.pl

www.zdit.uml.lodz.pl

mpu@uml.lodz.pl

http://www.mpu.lodz.pl/pag

e/index.php

tel.: (42) 659-02-49 lml@infocentrum.com

www.las.lodz.pl/bip/

tel.: +48 (42) 663-33-80 info@lodzkie.pl

http://www.lodzkie.pl/wps/

wcm/connect/lodzkie/lodzki

e/

tel.: (42) 663-35-30

fax.: (42) 663-35-32

tel.: (42) 663-31-50

fax.: (42) 663-31-52

sekretariat.ro@lodzkie.pl

tel.: (42) 630-57-69 sekretariat@bppwl.lodzkie.

pl

http://bip.bppwl.lodzkie.pl/k

at/id/1


Voivodship Fund for

Environmental Protection and

Water Management in Lodz

90-562 Lodz

ul. Lakowa 11

90

tel.: (42) 663-41-00

fax.: (42) 639-51-21

Provincial Nature Conservator 48 (42) 665-03 70/71

Directorate of Landscape Park

Lodz Hills”

The Regional Directorate of

Environmental Protection

91-829 Lodz

ul. Zawiszy

Czarnego 10

90-113 Lodz

ul. Traugutta 25

University of Lodz 90-131 Lodz

ul. Narutowicza 65

3. Scientific Institutions

Technical University of Lodz 90-924 Lodz

ul. Zeromskiego 116

Polish Academy of Science –

division in Lodz

European Regional Centre for

Ecohydrology

Foundation "Academy of Social

Initiatives"

The League of Nature

Conservation, Directorate in Lodz

The Centre for Environmental

Activities "Zrodla"

90-434 Lodz

ul. Piotrkowska

137/139

30-364 Lodz

ul. Tylna 3

tel./fax.: (42) 640-65-61

tel.: (42) 665-03-70

fax.: (42) 665-03-71

tel.: (42) 635-40-00

fax.: (42) 665-57-71

tel.: (42) 636-55-22

fax: (42) 636-56-15

tel.: (42) 636-80-18

fax.: (42) 636-24-15

tel.: (42) 681-70-07

fax.: (42) 681-30-69

4. Non-governmental Organizations

94-049 Lodz

ul. Hippiczna 41/9

91-213 Lodz

ul. Wici 20/8

90-430 Lodz

ul. Piotrkowska 113

90-602 Lodz

ul. Zielona 27

Lodz Ecological Civic Forum 93-548 Lodz

ul. Pabianicka 74/76

Ecological Education and

Sustainable

Development Foundation of Green

Party of Republic of Poland

m. 72

90-601 Lodz

ul. Zielona15

fundusz@wfosigw.lodz.pl

http://new.wfosigw.lodz.pl/s

trona/aktualnosci.php?idt=1

sekretariat.lodz@rdos.gov.pl

dyrekcja@pkwl.pl

http://www.pkwl.pl/

sekretariat.lodz@rdos.gov.pl

http://www.uni.lodz.pl/index

.php

http://www.p.lodz.pl/index.h

tm

oddzial@pan.lodz.pl

http://www.pan.lodz.pl/

erce@erce.unesco.lodz.pl

http://www.erce.unesco.lodz

.pl

tel.: (50) 128-87-19 biuro@inicjatywyspoleczne.

org.pl

www.inicjatywyspoleczne.o

rg.pl

tel./fax.: (42) 633-30-45 http://www.loplodz.toya.net.

pl/

tel.: (42) 632-81-18

fax.: (42) 291-14-50

tel./fax.: (42) 632-31-39

office@zrodla.org

www.zrodla.org

leszek_precikowski@o2.pl

www.ekologiczneforum.zafr

iko.pl

ecretariat@zielonirp.org.pl

info@zielonirp.org.pl

Group of Certain People grupa.pewnych.osob.lodz@

gmail.com

Polish Association of Tree 90-447 Lodz

ul. Piotrkowska

Citizen’s Ecological Forum in

Lodz

Polish Association of Allotment

Owners in Lodz

Phenomenon - the Normal City

Foundation

Center of Promotion and

Development of Civil Initiatives

“OPUS”

165/169 p. 405

93-548 Lodz

ul. Pabianicka 74/76

m 72

91-202 Lodz

ul. Warecka 3

90-301 Lodz

ul. Wigury 12a

91-415 Lodz

pl. Wolnosci 2

tel./fax.: (42) 637 62 81

tel.: (50) 074 02 82

tel.: (42) 655 94 54

fax.: (42) 655 94 30

tel.: 531-157-000

fax.: (42) 209 32 55

www.gpo.blox.pl

poczta@ptchd.org.pl

www.ptchd.org.pl

lodz@pzd.home.pl

kontakt@fundacjafenomen.

pl

tel.: (42) 231-31-01 opus@opus.org.pl

http://www.opus.org.pl/inde

x.php


COHABITAT Group tel.: 889-907-710 l.nowacki@cohabitat.net

http://cohabitat.net/info.html

Municipal Institution of Public

Utility Services

Municipal Enterprise Responsible

for Garbage

5. Business Representatives

94-102 Lodz

ul. Nowe Sady 19

91-842 Lodz

ul. Tokarzewskiego 2

Lodz Gardening Company 91-202 Lodz

ul. Wareckiej 3

Company „Urban Greenery- the

South”

94-303 Lodz

ul. Konstantynowska

3/5

Tree surgeon 90-369 Lodz

ul. Piotrkowska

204/210 m. 175

Dendro-Geo Service 91-765 Lodz

ul. Gornicza 12/14

Municipal Transportation

Company in Lodz

90-132 Lodz

ul. Tramwajowa 6

91

tel.: (42) 272-34-50 zaklad@lzuk.lodz.pl

www.lzuk.lodz.pl

tel.: (42) 616-04-14 sekretariat@mpolodz.pl

www.mpolodz.pl

tel.: (42) 640-65-58 zielen@zielen-miejska.pl

www.zielenmiejska.pl

tel.: (42) 633-07-40 zielen@binar.pl

www.zielenpoludnie.lodz.pl

tel./fax.: (42) 636-47-

28, (501) 21-85-,

(501) 26-44-23

tel.: (60) 231-06-33

fax.: (42) 616-85-01

tel.: (42) 672-11-11

fax.: (42) 672-12-09

www.chd.pl

dendro@dendrogeoservice.p

l

http://www.dendrogeoservic

e.com.pl/

http://mpk.lodz.pl/start.jsp

Note:

The above list provides only examples of stakeholders. It has to be emphasized that there are many more entities such as

business representatives, local associations, social groups (especially those informal) that could become stakeholders.

Each innovation related to the European Green Capital contest could involve new stakeholders.


Appendix 4

ISIS Methodology

The AtKisson Group’s ISIS Accelerator is a set of tools for working with sustainable development.

ISIS Accelerator is based on nearly twenty years of development and practice, in many different

countries, cultures, and types of organizations, around the world. Each core element in the ISIS

Accelerator – Compass, Pyramid, Amoeba, StrateSphere – is a family of methods and processes,

documents and presentation slides, that can be adapted and applied to a very wide variety of

situations.

The purpose of the ISIS Accelerator is to speed up the process of doing sustainability work, by

providing proven methods for bringing people together, building common understanding and

commitment, and taking effective and innovative action to develop or change systems to be more

sustainable.

Compass

Compass is a tool for managing indicators and assessment, and

the stakeholders who need them. Four compass directional points

North – East – South – West became four key dimensions of

sustainability: Nature, Economy, Society, and Well-Being. This

tool is used for framing, defining, assessing, and measuring

progress towards sustainability, also for risk management and gap

analysis, monitoring and evaluation performance indexing.

Pyramid

"Building the Pyramid" is an exciting and effective workshop tool

for training on every dimension of sustainability, or for planning

strategic initiative, developing plans, teambuilding, building broad

consensus for action. "Pyramid" is named for the three-dimensional

model that is built during the course of the workshop. The Pyramid

model is used to capture and reflect the results of the group process,

and to symbolize the group's conclusions and group’s commitments

to future action.

92


Amoeba

"Amoeba" is the classic and essential tool for sustainability

change agents seeking to bring new ideas into organizations,

communities, or any group culture, train change agents,

strategize for innovation, prepare for cultural change,

accelerate rates of innovation adoption, adaptation, and

replication. Amoeba is named for its central metaphor:

thinking of cultural groups as "amoebae", first sending out

exploratory "pseudopods" towards new ideas, and then

shifting the whole amoeba to a new position. The tool is based on classic innovation diffusion

theory, augmented by fifteen years of consulting experience in sustainable development.

StrateSphere

"StrateSphere" guides you through comprehensive strategic planning,

performance metrics, evaluation and more... with a 360-degree

perspective. Focus on implementation, formal strategic planning,

organizing and prioritizing, evaluating penetration and impact,

highlighting areas for strategic revision. The "sphere" metaphor is

used because the system – which is comprised of several different

specific tools – can give the 360-degree "global picture" for your

initiative to be most effective. StrateSphere is especially useful for

groups that need to develop basic strategic planning competency, as it

comes with basic planning templates for setting goals and establishing performance metrics. But is

also especially useful for larger scale initiatives that need to map a complex set of actors, assess

where the gaps are in the field or sector in which they operate, and determine their most effective

course of action to advance sustainability.

93


Appendix 5

Indicators Used for European Green Capital Award 2014

A

Climate change 25

B

Mobility and

public

transportation

C

Green areas and

sustainable land

management

D

Nature and

biodiversity

E

Air quality

F

Noise level

G

Waste

management

H

Water use

I

Sewage

managemant

Total CO2 equivalent per capita, including emissions resulting from use of

electricity

CO2 per capita resulting from use of natural gas

CO2 per capita resulting from transport

Grams of CO2 per kWh used

Length of designated cycle lanes in relation to total number of inhabitants in the

city

Share of population living within 300 meters of an hourly (or more frequent)

public transport service

Proportion of all journeys under 5 km by private car

Proportion of public transport classified as low emission

The proportion of areas located within the inner city / on city boundaries

The distribution across the city

Size of areas

Fragmentation

Soil sealing (m 2 ) per capita

Managing areas designated for nature protection and biodiversity

Protecting nature in other open spaces

Promotion of public knowledge and understanding of nature and biodiversity,

particularly among young people

Number of days per year on which EU limit values were exceeded for PM10

(daily mean of 50µg/m 3 )

Number of days per year on which EU limit value/long term objective for

ozone was exceeded (8h mean of 120µg/m 3 )

Annual mean concentration of NO2 and PM10 and PM2,5

Share of population exposed to noise values of L (day) above 55 dB(A)

Share of population exposed to noise values of L (night) above 45 dB(A)

Amount of waste per capita; Household, Municipal

Proportion of total/biodegradable waste sent to a landfill

Percentage of recycled municipal waste

Proportion of urban water supply subject to water metering

Water consumption per capita (in l/capita/year for households and business)

Water loss in pipelines

Compliance with the EU Water Framework Directive and related Directives

Make particular reference to waste water services quality, focusing on:

Access to service

Flood occurrences and management

Economic sustainability

Infrastructures sustainability (treatment capacity, treatment level; drainage

systems rehabilitation)

Environmental sustainability (energy efficiency, renewable energy, pollution

25 European Green CapitalEuropean Commission website: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/europeangreenca

pital/index_en.htm (July 13, 2011).

94


J

Eco-innovations

and „green”

workplaces

K

Environmental

management of

local authority

L

Energy

prevention efficiency; sludge treatment and final disposal, public health

Integration into water management in general closing the cycle (efficient water

use, treated waste water reuse)

Innovations that address material security (substitution, minimization of

material use, closing loops, etc.) and reduce environmental impacts

Awareness raising and training to encourage the development and take-up of

environmentally friendly technologies, particularly through training in

industrial and business settings

Social innovation, including for example community programs, that shows

entrepreneurship and new ways of organization in order to promote sustainable

development and protect the environment locally and globally

Number of jobs created in green sectors such as renewable energy and waste

recycling, in total and as share of total jobs in the city and total jobs created

during a period of one year

Share of energy provided in the city that is sourced from renewable energy

sources. Renewable energy sources to be specified

Share of hybrid or fully electric cars sold in total car sale

Number of municipal departments with certified environmental management

systems (ISO 14001/EMAS)

Percentage of consumed eco-labeled and organic products by municipalities,

measured as a share of the total product consumption within similar category

Energy consumption & performance of municipal buildings per square meter

The development and goals for renewable energy share of all energy (heat and

electricity)

The strategy of renewable vs. non-renewable mix as well as the renewable

energy mix (different renewable sources) dynamics for the coming 2 decades

Integration and performance of renewable energy technology in municipal

buildings and homes

Development of compatible and integrated district systems and the facilitation

of more sophisticated city-wide control.

95


Appendix 6

List of Best Practices and Corresponding European Green Capital

Criteria

No. Best Practice

European Green Capital

Criteria

(see Appendix 5)

1 Peñalolén crece verde (Peñalolén Grows Green) A, E, K

2 Eco-Roof Incentive Program E, K, L

3 The Kfar-Sava Biofilter H, I

4 Hammarby Sjöstad L, H, K

5 Garden for a Living London Campaign A, C, D, H

6 Ørestad Urban Gardens A

7 Neighborhood Gardens and Creepers for Cracow – Competition C, E

8 Green Stormwater Infrastructure Programs – Green City, Clean Waters E, H, J, K

9 The Creation of Lublinek Forest Park in Lodz A, C, D, J

10 Bristol's Parks and Green Space Strategy A , C, K

11 Green Poznan A , D, K

12 Urban Tree Program: Re-Green Atlanta A, C, D, E, F, K

13 Cork South Docklands B, C, H, I, K

14 McGill University Edible Campus A, C, G

15 Philadelphia Green Plan A, C ,E, F, K

16 Warsaw University Library A, C, D, E, H, J

17 The Forest of Belfast A, C, D, E, F

18 Emscher Park Restoration in Ruhr A, C, D ,E, K,F

19 High line – Innovative Park in New York A, C, D, E, F, K

20 Rotterdam Green Roofs C, H, K

21 Introduction of Eco-system Solution to Urban architecture: Yard-Skreper C, J, L

22 Master Composter - Soil Building Program G

23 Most Beautiful Garden Contest C, D, E, K

24 Vertical Farming, Sky Farming C, D, E, G, H, J, K, L

25 Seattle’s Urban Forest Management Plan C, D, E, F, K

26 NeighborSpace Program: Converting Vacant Lots to Greenery C, D, E, F, K

27 Revitalization of Ślepotka River A, C, D, E, F, I

28 Melbourne Water's 10,000 Rain Gardens Program A, C, D, E, F, I, K

29 Plant-it 2020 A, C, E, F, K

30 Shanghai Houtan Park A, C, D, E, F, I

31 Catskill/Delware Watershed Protection H, K

32 Integrated Resources Management Plan for Muthurajawela Marsh and Negombo I, J, K

Lagoon Complex, Sri Lanka

33 Forest for Peterborough Project A, C, D, E

34 Sustainable Stormwater Management in Portland H, I, K

35 The Conservation Zone in Aalborg D, F, H, J, K

36 Chicago’s Green Alley Program A, H, K

37 The Living Roofs for Wildlife C, D, J

38 Invasión Verde A, C, K

39 Melbourne City Rooftop Honey D

40 Plant-A-Tree Program in Singapore A, C, D, F, J

41 "Széktó" Stormwater Catchment Lakes: Leisure Center and Local Nature

Conservation Area

D, F, H, I, J

42 SolarCity Linz-Pinchling – Sustainable Urban Development A, C, D, J, K, L

43 Chicago Trees Initiative A, D, F, K

44 Grants Program for Housing Associations and District Communities in the Field D, E, F, K

of Greenery Management and Trees Planting

45 NeighborWoods Program A, D, F

46 The "Green Belt" of Vitoria-Gasteiz A, D, F, H, J, K

96


No. Best Practice

European Green Capital

Criteria

(see Appendix 5)

47 EarthWorks' Urban Wilds Program A, H, K

48 Münster - the Eco-mobility City A, B, K

49 Geothermal Energy – Natural Warm A, K, L

97


Appendix 7

List of Selected Best Practices

Best Practice 1. Peñalolén crece verde (Peñalolén Grows Green)

Category and

subcategory of

ecosystem services to

- Regulating (air pollution, extreme temperature);

- Cultural (aesthetics)

which the example refers

What element of nature Trees in the street

does it refer to?

City/Town Peñalolén, Santiago, Chile

Year Started in October 2010 but it was postponed to the beginning of May 2011 (Fall) because high

temperatures (December-February) are not good for young trees.

Initiator Peñalolén Municipality

Short summary The project aims to raise local community’s awareness about the environment and also educate

and train them in the correct tree care techniques. The project promotes an active participation

and community and municipality shared responsibility of the greenery of the streets.

Problem that needed The government has found that survival of new or younger trees in the streets after the second

a solution

or third years was around only 40-60%. It was caused by the fact that the community did not

care for the trees, and the lack of capacity of the municipality to monitor the trees condition.

Moreover, trees were pruning by some residents without any technical knowledge (how and

when to trim).

Solution This project is an expert-led initiative, in turn, by the Environmental Unit and the

Responsibility Business and International Relations Management of the Municipality of

Peñalolén as a part of its Environmental Management Plan. The project is a joint partnership

with Dimacofi, Chilean private company, which will provide 1,000 trees (specially selected for

streets), the virtual platform, and publicity materials.

The local people were not involved in the planning process, but they are the key actors in the

planting and monitoring of the development of the tree. Each family has to take a trainin g

course and pass an exam. The task for the family will be to plant a tree and to put it on a virtual

map of the community. The family has the responsibility to monitor the tree and inform the

municipality and the community about the tree’s condition. The goal of the project is to reach

80% of survival of the new trees in the streets.

In May 2011, there were 58 highly motivated persons on training and 46 trees were planted.

Budget $18,500,000 Chilean peso (ca USD 39,000)

Has this best practice No

been replicated

elsewhere?

Contact information Ricardo Cofré Meza, Environmental Coordinator, Peñalolén Municiplaity

E-mail: rcofre@penalolen.cl

Internet links or other http://www.creceverde.cl

resources where more

information is available

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Jorge Ueyonahara

Affiliation (university, Uppsala University

institution...)

Email address ueyonahara@yahoo.com

98


Best Practice 2. Eco-Roof Incentive Program

Category and

subcategory of

ecosystem services to

which the example

refers

What element of nature

does it refer to?

- Supporting (air purification);

- Regulating (climate regulation, reduction of urban heat, stormwater runoff management);

- Provisioning (solar energy);

- Cultural (aesthetic quality of roof gardens)

Trees, biodiversity, climate, air quality

City/Town Toronto, Canada

Year 2009-2012

Initiator The City of Toronto – City Council

Short summary Toronto’s Eco-Roof Incentive Program is designed to promote the use of green and cool roofs

on Toronto’s commercial, industrial and institutional buildings.

Problem that needed The project was design to fulfill the City’s Climate Change Action Plan. The goal of the Action

a solution

Plan is to reduce Toronto’s greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050.

Solution The City of Toronto has had an interest in encouraging green roofs for some time, starting with

its participation in the construction of two demonstration green roofs on the podium of City

Hall and the roof of the Eastview Community Center. In 2004, the City commissioned a team

from the Ryerson University to prepare a study on the potential environmental benefits of

widespread implementation of green roofs to the City of Toronto. The City held a set of

consultation workshops with green roof stakeholders to receive input on its proposed strategies

to encourage green roofs. Following these consultations, the City prepared a discussion paper,

called Making Green Roofs Happen, which proposed options for encouraging implementatio n

of green roofs. On February 1 st 2006, Toronto City Council approved a set of recommendations

to encourage green roofs that for over 3 years effectively comprised Toronto's green roof

strategy. The initiatives in this strategy fell into four main categories: installation of green roofs

on City buildings; a pilot grant program; use of the development approval process to encourage

green roofs; publicity and education.

Toronto is the first city in the North America to have a bylaw to require and govern the

construction of green roofs on new developments.

Budget Eligible green roof projects receive $50 / square meter up to a maximum of $100,000. Eligible

cool roof projects receive $2 - 5 / square meter up to $50,000.

Has this best practice

been replicated

elsewhere?

Contact information Green Roofs

Phone: 416-392-0191, 416-392-0191

E-mail: sustainablecity@toronto.ca

Internet links or other http://www.toronto.ca/greenroofs/

resources where more

information is available

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Agata Golec

Affiliation (university, InE

institution...)

Email address agata.golec@hotmail.com

99


Best Practice 3. The Kfar-Sava Biofilter

Category and

subcategory of

ecosystem services to

- Regulating (regeneration – cycling and filtration processes);

- Cultural (quality of life – aesthetic beauty, social)

which the example refers

What element of nature Water

does it refer to?

City/Town Kfar-Sava, Israel

Year The construction 2009-2010, realization –present

Initiator Yaron Zinger, Keren Kayemeth LeIsrael (KKL) – Jewish National Fund (JNF)

Short summary The Kfar-Sava bio-filter is the first engineered 'green' water treatment system in Israel, which

harvests stormwater and treats polluted groundwater.

Problem that needed About 200 million cubic meters (3 million of Kfar-Sava) of polluted runoff water are absorbed

a solution

by the sewage system and channeled to the sea, which is a waste of huge amounts of precious

water that can be reused, and also pollutes natural water reservoirs.

Solution The bio-filter was developed by a research group from the Monash University in Australia,

with the participation of Israeli Yaron Zinger, who became one of the initiators of the Kfar-

Sava project. It was supported, also financially, by JNF, the Kfar-Sava municipality and KKL-

JNF and approved by the Health, Environment Protection and National Infrastructure

Ministries.

The bio-filter system is a method of storing urban runoff water and treating it by means of

a filtering system, plants and bacteria. The purified water is reintroduced into the aquifer for

urban use.

This project is an example of sustainable usage and compilation of different ecosystem

services. It uses purification abilities provided by plants and living organisms. At the same

time it increases efficiency of water usage and reduce necessity in pumping more water. It also

supports cultural ecosystem services since it requires planting of additional trees that will

provide services to local community.

Budget Information is unavailable, but many specialists agree that technology itself is relatively

inexpensive.

Has this best practice

been replicated

elsewhere?

Contact information Yaron Zinger

PhD Candidate – Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University

Yaron.Zinger@monash.eduend

Internet links or other About the project: http://www.watersensitivecities.org.au/?page_id=1976

resources where more Project brochure: http://www.watersensitivecities.org.au/wp-content/uploads/israel-biofilterinformation

is available Brochure.pdf

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Marina Kovaleva

Affiliation (university, American University of Central Asia

institution...)

Email address kovaleva_m@mail.auca.kg

100


Best Practice 4. Hammarby Sjöstad

Category and - Provisioning (water, fuel);

subcategory of - Regulating (flood regulation);

ecosystem services to - Cultural (educational, recreational)

which the example refers

What element of nature Water, soil, trees

does it refer to?

City/Town Stockholm, Sweden

Year 1995-2017

Initiator The City of Stockholm Development Office in cooperation with the City Planning Department

Short summary The urban development project is located in the south-east of Stockholm covering 145 ha

including a lake. The project goal is to create a closed-circuit system that allows reduction of

energy and water use within the Hammarby Sjöstad by 50% comparing with other housing

areas in Stockholm.

Problem that needed In the beginning of 1990-s the land in Hammarby Sjöstad belonged to private owners and was

a solution

built up with industrial squatters. Due to lack of regulations the area soon reached a point close

to collapse of the local ecosystem. The city authorities decided to buy out the land and

construct a new city district with a special focus on use of ecosystem services, environment al

protection and sustainable development.

Solution The project was initiated by Stockholm City Council and has involved spatial planners, public

sector stakeholders and inhabitants of the city.

The local eco-cycle has been established in order to support and protect existing ecosystem

services. For instance, solar energy is used for production of electrical energy, combustible

waste is used as biomass for district heating and biogas is extracted from the digestion process

of sewage. The sludge remained after extraction is used for soil fertilizing. Roofs of the

buildings are planted with sedum in order to collect rainwater, delay it and evaporate it.

Furthermore, it helps to create green city milieu.

Budget The City of Stockholm invested about €500 million in the project. About €3 billion of private

investment was generated within the project.

Has this best practice On the basis of the project a model of the sustainable city Symbiocity was developed by the

been replicated Swedish Trade Council (www.symbiocity.org). Hammarby Sjöstad was used as a case study

elsewhere?

for consideration of the Scottish government

http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2010/12/31110906/15

Contact information E-mail: info@hammarbysjostad.se

Phone: +46 8 522 137 00

Internet links or other http://www.hammarbysjostad.se/

resources where more http://www.stockholm.se/hammarbysjostad

information is available http://www.futurecommunities.net/case-studies/hammarby-sjostad-stockholm-sweden-1995-

2015

Information on the person who described this best practice

First name and surname Mariya Dedova

Affiliation (university, University of Gothenburg, Sweden

institution...)

Email address Mariya.dedova@gmail.com

101


Best Pactice 5. Garden for a Living London Campaign

Category and - Supporting (habitat for animal and bird species, terrain providing network for wildlife

subcategory of ecosystem migration);

services to which the - Regulating (absorbing carbon, soaking up flood water, retain water, cooling the city,

example refers balancing the local climate)

What element of nature Plants (trees, grasses, shrubs, flowers), animals, birds, biodiversity, water, climate

does it refer to?

City/Town London, Great Britain

Year From 2009 ongoing

Initiator London WildLife Trust

Short summary The Program aims to transform the London's 3 million gardens into a network of nature

reserves that make a city more resilient to climate change and better for wildlife, engaging

open access, self-initiated participation of local inhabitants.

Problem that needed Climate change is predicted to make summers hotter and drier and winters warmer and wetter.

a solution

As a result, we are likely to experience overheating, droughts and flash-flooding, with an

increased demand on water resources. The impact will be probably greatest in cities, where

hard surfaces prevent water absorption into the ground. An influx of new species attracted by

the warmer climate can cause a shift in the balance of predators, pests and disease. Some

native species will need help to adapt to these changes.

Solution The London Wildlife Trust’s Garden for a Living London campaign aims to highlight the

importance of the capital’s gardens to wildlife and to people. The organization wants London's

private gardeners to pledge to do one of seven things to make their garden more wildlife and

climate friendly. These are: planting drought resistant plants, planting mixed hedgerows,

planting broad leaved trees, making a pond, using mulch, roof greening and wilding up

dockings. The campaign has attracted attention of the Mayor of London and is supported by

Thames Water – private utility company responsible for the public water supply and waste

water treatment.

The idea of the program is to rely on self-initiative of London inhabitants. Everybody who has

a garden can apply. The London Wildlife Trust supports participants with online accessible

information in form of „How to” guides on each of seven above-mentioned topics and

„Wildlife Gardening Pack” guidebook with lots of tips and advices on wildlife and climate

friendly gardening. Gardeners are also welcomed to visit mini "Future Gardens" placed in

London area.

Budget The Wildlife Trust spent £2,303,490 on charitable activities and £233,076 on fundraising and

publicity in 2009-2010 financial year.

Has this best practice Similar campaigns can be find in Holland (Amsterdam), USA ( New York, Chicago),

been replicated Denmark (Copenhagen).

elsewhere?

Contact information London Wildlife Trust

General enquiries: enquiries@wildlondon.org.uk

Internet links or other http://www.wildlondon.org.uk/gardening/Home/tabid/384/language/en-US/Default.aspx

resources where more

information is available

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Mariusz Boćkowski

Affiliation (university, Jagiellonian University, Cracow

institution...)

Email address mariusz.bockowski@uj.edu.pl

102


Best Practice 6. Ørestad Urban Gardens

Category and

subcategory of

ecosystem services to

- Provisioning (food);

- Cultural (green areas)

which the example refers

What element of nature Garden

does it refer to?

City/Town City Copenhagen, Denmark

Year 2005

Initiator The Association Ørestad Urban Gardens

Short summary The project offers gardens of approximately 16 m², in which the members of the Association

can grow organic food. There are about 60 small gardens. In addition to the individual plots,

the Association's members also have the opportunity to help cultivate a large shared garden.

Problem that needed The project was started by the Association Ørestad Urban Gardens, which used empty building

a solution

sites to bring life and establish green areas in a district characterized by construction

machinery and bare fields. The individual gardens consisted of raised beds in Euro-pallet

boxes. The members were entitled to two 'plant boxes' in which they could cultivate flowers,

herbs and vegetables. The gardens had no sheds or permanent installations.

Solution In collaboration with Agendacenter Amager, local residents established the Association

Ørestad Urban Gardens (2005). The land for the gardens is made available by the Area

Development Company that supports the district's local initiatives.

At the beginning, the Association experimented with small, mobile gardens . In 2009, the

common area has tables, benches and a barbecue facility for everyone to use. An old site hut

functions as a tool shed. The Association is responsible for the purchase of tools, tables and

benches, as well as measuring up and allocation of plots. The practical work of laying out the

gardens, etc. is carried out by the members on special work days. From time to time, the

Association holds social and gardening-related events during which the district's residents can

get together to work in their gardens, enjoy each other’s company or to attend theme days

which focus on gardening, ecology and the environment.

Budget Membership costs DKK 200 year (≈37 USD), project budget not given

Has this best practice There are some examples of urban gardens not exactly in building sites but also in cities called

been replicated "urban agriculture", Pomona Valley, California, 2008

elsewhere?

Contact information Ørestad Urbane Haver, Asger Jorns Allé, 2300 København S

E-mail: urbanehaver@live.dk

Phone: 9607-68 84 82 82 428

Internet links or other http://www.urbanehaver.dk/?page_id=67

resources where more

information is available

Information on the person who described this best practice

First name and surname Maruta Jankēvica

Affiliation (university, University of Latvia Faculty of Geography and Earth Sciences

institution...)

Email address maruta.jankevica@gmail.com

103


Best Practice 7. Neighborhood Gardens and Creepers for Cracow – Competition

Category and

- Regulating (natural air filter);

subcategory of ecosystem - Supporting (oxygen production);

services to which the - Cultural (aesthetic and spiritual)

example refers

What element of nature Trees, plants like creepers

does it refer to?

City/Town Cracow, Poland

Year 2005 – 2010

Initiator Ecological Animation Workshop

Short summary Each year (last in 2010) most valuable gardens and creepers rising in the city are selected.

Selection of winners is based on strictly specified conditions .

Problem that needed The initiators are trying to encourage more and more of Cracow inhabitants to joint

a solution

responsibility for greenery in the city. Competition encourages citizens to “invite” nature into

places from which it was removed for instance because of urbanization. According to the

initiators there is a need to popularize gardening knowledge which helps to create plant

landscapes and knowledge about value of green areas in the city.

Solution In 1995, an educational program called Garden City Project was started. One of the program’s

components was a contest. From the beginning, the project was opened to everyone:

community activists, representatives of housing cooperatives, administrators of blocks and

private tenements and residents of Cracow.

Nowadays, also consultations, lectures, inspections, educational meetings and trips are carried

out.

Budget

Has this best practice

been replicated

elsewhere?

Contact information Elżbieta Urbańska – Kłapa

Pracownia Animacji Ekologicznej Ośrodka Kultury im. C. K. Norwida

os. Górali 5, 31 – 959 Kraków

Phone: 12 644 27 65 w. 18

E-mail: elzbieta.uk@gmail.com

Internet links or other http://www.okn.edu.pl/ekologia/miasto.htm

resources where more

information is available

104


Best Practice 8. Green Stormwater Infrastructure Programs – Green City, Clean

Waters

Category and

subcategory of

ecosystem services to

which the example refers

What element of nature

does it refer to?

- Cultural (recreation and tourism);

- Regulating (water and air quality regulation, habitats, water regulation, erosion regulation,

water cycling);

- Provisioning (fresh and clean water)

Trees, water management, water protection, rain garden

City/Town Philadelphia, PA (USA)

Year Green Stormwater Infrastructure Program is a part of general Water Protection Program and it

was implemented in 1999.

Initiator Philadelphia Water Department

Short summary The program aims to reduce local flooding, reduce combined sewer overflows and improve

Problem that needed

a solution

water quality while also improving the quality of life of residents.

The problem of stormwater management in the cities is very common. If rain is not properly

managed and flows over impervious surfaces (streets, rooftops, pavements) into the nearest

storm drain, it can have a detrimental effect on water quality in river and stream corridors and

provide flooding and on the other hand faster water fall and consequently lead to drought.

The air quality in the cities is also worse because of lack of large green areas. This results in

deterioration of health condition and quality of residents ’ life.

Solution The most important outcomes of the project include:

- design of a Backyard Buffer Program for a property owner situated along the Poques sing

Creek, the Pennypack Creek to enhance the habitat surrounding water sources, stabilize creeks

to protect against erosion and improve the water quality of the creeks;

- study of integrated green stormwater infrastructure;

- selection of tools including stormwater planters, rain gardens and green roofs and gradual

implementation of them;

- waterways restoration (to more natural ecosystems) involves the re-design of streams,

enhancement and creation of wetlands;

- the Energy Coordinating Agency and the Philadelphia Water Department were distributing rain

barrels to people located within the watersheds of Philadelphia.

The residents are also involved in different activities.

Budget No data available

Has this best practice

been replicated

elsewhere?

10,000 Rain Gardens in Kansas City

(http://www.rainkc.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/home.home/index.htm)

Contact information E-mail: questions@phillywatersheds.org

Phone: (215) 685-6213, Rita Montague

Internet links or other http://www.phillywatersheds.org/

resources where more http://www.phila.gov/water/

information is available

Information on the person who described this best practice

First name and surname Katarzyna Szrama

Affiliation (university, Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Biology, Department of Plant Ecology and

institution...)

Environmental Protection

Email address katarzyna.szrama@wp.pl

105


Best Practice 9. The Creation of Lublinek Forest Park in Lodz

Category and

- Provisioning (gene bank);

subcategory of ecosystem - Regulating (climate regulation);

services to which the - Supporting (soil formation, oxygen production);

example refers - Cultural (recreation, restoration)

What element of nature Trees, biodiversity, water, air

does it refer to?

City/Town Lodz, Poland

Year 2005 – 2010

Initiator Aeris Futuro Fundation, Urban Forestry Lodz, Dell

Short summary Creation of the park consisted of two phases implemented in 2004-2010. In 2005-2006, native

trees and shrubs were planted. In 2007-2010, green collar insulation around the municipal

waste sorting Lublinek was created.

Problem that needed Recreational and environmental potential of uncultivated lands in the vicinity of Forest

a solution

Lublinek was untapped. Large housing estates in the area, the nearby airport and the municipal

waste sorting posed a serious environmental burden. The main problems were the high

concentration of CO2, low air humidity and pollutants in the air and soil.

Solution During the first phase of the project, works was conducted on the area of about 37 ha. The

work was carried out based on the concept of a park in English style, which sought

revitalization of the natural rural character of these areas (establishing meadows, grasslands

and pastures). The total area arranged in the second phase was 11.87 ha. DELL’s employees as

volunteers participated in planting trees and shrubs.

According to the estimations made by the Aeris Futuro Foundation before the tree reaches

maturity calculated at 100 years, they can accumulate 1,250 tones of CO2.

The project also had its spontaneous stage – in 2008, the Art of Living Foundation encouraged

local residents to visit the park and planted another 200 plants there.

Budget Total investment cost amounted to 362,018 PLN (2005-2007).

Has this best practice Similar initiatives based on cooperation between NGOs, city administrations, business and

been replicated local community were carried out in several places throughout the country.

elsewhere?

Contact information Joanna Mieszkowicz, Executive Director

Internet links or other http://www.aeris.eko.org.pl/projekty/czas-na-las

resources where more

information is available

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Renata Putkowska

Affiliation (university,

institution...)

Email address r.putkowska@gmail.com

106


Best Practice 10. Bristol's Parks and Green Space Strategy (P&GSS)

Category and - Cultural (recreational, aesthetic)

subcategory of ecosystem

services to which the

example refers

What element of nature Trees

does it refer to?

City/Town Bristol, United Kingdom

Year 2008

Initiator Bristol City Councils Cabinet

Short summary The Bristol’s parks are considered to be the main destination (seasonal and fixed) for UK

citizens. Twenty-five million of Bristol’s citizens are visiting the parks annually. The strategy

was designed in order to protect and improve ecosystem services in Bristol’s Parks to ensure

citizens with facilities for recreation and leisure.

Problem that needed The Bristol’s parks tend to be the enjoyable spaces for citizens to amend their well-being and

a solution

healthy life-styles. However, parks were threatened to be reduced. A constant decrease in the

investments for parks improvements led to the decision made by the UK government for selling

some of the green land. Thus there was a need to find new investments and to prevent the

reduction. Moreover, it was essential to safeguard the old trees growing in the historical green

areas, as well as to plan more trees, to develop and grade up the quality of parks.

Solution Trees deficit has been overcome by changes in the planning systems for a higher quantity of

green space. The tree planning has been improved in 450 parks in Bristol, where approx. 4,000

trees were planted (2009). Moreover, progress report indicated that in the year 2009

a number of investments came from external funds and contributions, less from the City

Council’s budget, and that helped in the implementation of the Bristol's Parks and Green Space

Strategy.

The biggest outcomes of the project ware the increased citizen’s satisfaction and

a clear growth of time spent in the parks for leisure activities.

In total 34 organizations took part in the strategy development process. Moreover, 5,500 Bristol

inhabitants have signed several petitions calling to improve and save trees in the Bristol’s parks.

Local people were also involved in the following processes: public consultation to express their

ideas concerning the parks preservation; development of the community groups (the Bristol

Parks Forum); learning programs for children and youth; events and open space festivals.

Budget £ 4.35 million per year

Has this best practice

been replicated

elsewhere?

Contact information Rob Acton-Campbell

The Bristol Parks Forum: info@bristolparksforum.org.uk

Internet links or other

resources where more

information is available

Bristol City Council: Parks.Strategy@bristol.gov.uk

http://www.bristolparksforum.org.uk/ParksFunding.pdf

http://www.bristol.gov.uk/parkstrategy

Information on the person who described this bes t practice:

First name and surname Natalia Stepanova

Affiliation (university, University of Gothenburg, Sweden

institution...)

Email address natalia.stepanova@live.ru

107


Best Practice 11. Green Poznan

Category and

- Supportive (production of oxygen);

subcategory of ecosystem - Cultural (aesthetic values)

services to which the

example refers

What element of nature Trees, greenery

does it refer to?

City/Town Poznan, Poland

Year Since 1994

Initiator City Council

Short summary Since 1994, the President of Poznan announces the competition for the most beautiful green

area. The competitors can take part in the contest in one of the following categories: gardens;

terrace, loggias and balconies, allotments at the area of Family Allotment Gardens; green

belts; greenery nearby housing estates, offices, schools.

Problem that needed Poznan is one of the biggest cities in Poland and is important center of trade, industry and

a solution

education. Like every big agglomeration, Poznan suffered from atmosphere pollution,

biodiversity loose and small quantity of green areas. This influenced quality of life in the city.

Moreover, Poznan’s citizens were exposed to urban stress and health problems connected with

air and water pollution and noise. Green areas in the city contribute to the quality of life. They

play crucial role in CO2 reduction and oxygen production, thus city carbon footprint is reduced

and air quality is improved. It also provide habitat for native plants, animals and wildlife.

Solution Each of participants contributes to urban scenery creating picturesque green area that is

beautiful and provides aesthetic values. Moreover, every year the greater number of various

species is planted thus biodiversity in urban area is increasing.

The City Council was initiator of the contest and the idea behind it was to involve as many

citizens as possible. It has engaged many citizens since the beginning – around 40 000

participants has already taken part in the competition.

Budget

Has this best practice This practice has been replicated in many towns and cities: e.g. in Ciechocinek (2010)

been replicated

elsewhere?

Contact information Contest Office:

ul.Libelta 16/20; 61-706 Poznan

Phone: 48 61 878 50 49

E-mail: wos@um.poznan.pl

Internet links or other http://www.poznan.pl/mim/public/wos/news.html?co=print&id=44162&instance=1000&lang=

resources where more pl

information is available

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Dominika Dzwonkowska

Affiliation (university, Cardinal Stephan Wyszynski University

institution...)

Institute of Ecology and Bioethics

Email address d.dzwonkowska@uksw.edu.pl

108


Best Practice 12. Urban Tree Program: Re-Green Atlanta

Category and

- Regulating (trees)

subcategory of ecosystem

services to which the

example refers

What element of nature Trees

does it refer to?

City/Town Atlanta, GA (USA)

Year 2004-2008

Initiator Trees Atlanta organization in collaboration with the City of Atlanta

Short summary The goal of the project is to restore Atlanta’s urban forest by planting and maintaining

thousands of trees. This should help the City cope with such environmental problems as: urban

heat island, air pollution and flooding while at the same time educate the citizens about the

importance of trees.

Problem that needed The population of Atlanta is continuously growing. Because of that, there is an increased

a solution

demand for land to build houses, commercial centers or industrial sites. During the 30 years

before the implementation of the project, Atlanta lost around 65% of its trees .

Solution Planting trees is very well organized – it involves using GIS mapping to identify the areas in

need of trees. Then, the organization asks for appropriate permissions for planting trees and

arranges the land. Planting trees, itself, takes place during events which are usually organized

every weekend and rely on volunteers. The volunteers receive training at the beginning of each

tree-planting event.

Once, new trees are in the ground, Trees Atlanta staff is responsible for caring for the trees for

the first three years of their life. After that, residents of Atlanta take charge of them. Most of the

trees planted are indigenous, which means that the organization wishes to restore native tree

species.

Planting trees helped to overcome the problems mentioned earlier as well as integrate the

residents of Atlanta in a common effort to take care of the environment they live in. Tree

planting events still take place and the next thing the Trees Atlanta plans to do is create an

enormous park around the city.

Budget The budget for 2007-2008 was $2.3 million.

Has this best practice

been replicated

elsewhere?

Contact information Marcia Bansley

Executive Director

Phone: (404) 522-49057

E-mail: marcia@treesatlanta.org

Internet links or other http://www.sustainablecitiesinstitute.org

resources where more

information is available

Information on the person who described this best practice

First name and surname Justyna Dziankowska

Affiliation (university,

institution...)

Email address jdziankowska@gmail.com

109


Best Practice 13. Cork South Docklands

Category and

- Provisioning (water and energy);

subcategory of ecosystem - Regulating (cycling and filtration processes);

services to which the - Stabilization (coastal and river channel stability)

example refers

What element of nature Water (River Lee, Atlantic Coast), Land, Oil

does it refer to?

City/Town Cork, Ireland

Year Strategy - October 2004 to April 2008; Implementation – starting in 2008

Initiator Howards Holdings Ltd.

Short summary The entire project for the docks in Cork is very ambitious, identified as a priority in more

national strategic plans, and is reflecting Ireland’s ambition to take its place as a leading

knowledge economy. The Cork South Docklands project is a first part of the Cork Docklands

Problem that needed

a solution

project that gives sustainability a high importance.

The Cork South Docklands to the east of Cork city was reclaimed from the marsh which was

a floodplain covered by the River Lee at high tide back centuries ago. Due to the nature of

historical manufacture and industrial activity at South Docklands, it was presumed that there

is

a legacy of contaminants in the soil and groundwater (including hydro-carbons, chlorinated

solvents and various metals).

The area is low-lying and prone to flooding, problem that seemed to be exacerbated by

climate change. Quay walls needed to be strengthened and upgraded and the ground levels

within the area needed to be raised.

Solution There was an integrated and multidisciplinary approach with focus on environmental factors

in an urban context. New system solutions provide scope for synergies between sewage,

waste and energy production and enable coordination with efficient land use, landscape

planning and transport systems.

Budget 600 million Euro

Has this best practice been The concept of SymbioCity has been an inspiration for urban development projects around

replicated elsewhere? the world, e.g. Buffallo City in South Africa, Toronto Waterfront in Canada (2005), Pune in

India, and also in Europe – Narbonne in France, London Olympic Village in the UK.

Contact information Cork Harbour – Integrated Management Strategy, May 2008

Internet links or other http://www.cvarg.azores.gov.pt/CVARG/swim21/Topic%203.pdf

resources where more

information is available

Information on the person Urban Planner, Bucharest, Romania

who described this best

practice

First name and surname Aura Istrate

Affiliation (university, University of Architecture and Urban Design „Ion Mincu” Bucharest

institution...)

Email address aura.istrate@yahoo.com

110


Best Practice 14. McGill University Edible Campus

Category and

- Provisioning (food);

subcategory of ecosystem - Cultural (aesthetic and educational)

services to which the

example refers

What element of nature Edible plants

does it refer to?

City/Town Montreal, Canada

Year 2007

Initiator Alternatives, Santropol Roulant, Minimum Cost Housing Group

Short summary The creation of the Edible Campus is the result of a partnership between the McGill

University’s School of Architecture and two local non-governmental organizations:

Alternatives, dedicated to the greening of cities through community participation, and

Santropol Roulant, which focuses its efforts on food security. This innovative urban agriculture

project has been honored with a National Urban Design Award from the Royal Architectural

Institute of Canada and Canadian municipalities.

Problem that needed 1. Food trasportation

a solution

2. Wastes by generating packaging

3. Organic wastes

4. “Heat island”

Solution The Edible Campus project demonstrates that underutilized concrete spaces can become green

and provide food with little effort and low cost. Productive growing in the cities will help to

reduce their global ‘ecological footprint’ made especially by transporting and storing food.

This would help reduce food transportation and in consequence CO2 emission.

Food from the Edible Campus along with other food from registered suppliers is processed in

Santropol Roulant’s kitchen. Forty percent of the kitchen's organic wastes are turned into

natural fertilizer through vermin-composting. The Edible Campus uses two wooden compost

bins to recycle garden’s organic wastes. The garden’s vegetation contributes to microclimatic

cooling by evapo-transpiration and thus reducing the “heat island” effect. The total number of

the volunteers who worked for the garden amounts 266. This includes the McGill University

community, volunteers – children and students, NGO actors and visitors.

Budget

Has this best practice

been replicated

elsewhere?

Contact information

Internet links or other http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-129018-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html

resources where more http://www.mcgill.ca/files/mchg/MakingtheEdibleCampus.pdf

information is available

Information on the person who described this best practice

First name and surname Mariam Qalebashvili

Affiliation (university, Tbilisi State University

institution...)

Email address qaleba@yahoo.com

111


Best Practice 15. Philadelphia GreenPlan

Category and subcategory - Cultural (aesthetic);

of ecosystem services to - Supporting (carbon sequestration);

which the example refers - Regulating (increase of air quality maintenance)

What element of nature Trees

does it refer to?

City/Town Philadelphia, PA (USA)

Year Since 2001

Initiator City of Philadelphia (Mayor’s Office of Sustainability)

Short summary Efforts to increase green coverage was proposed and supported by the City Council and the

Mayor. Actions were supported by association “Next Great City”. The main goal of this

project is to transform Philadelphia into green city.

Problem that needed The main problem is lack of trees in some Philadelphia’s districts. From 1976 to 2004

a solution

Philadelphia lost ca. 200,000 trees (about one half). It has a several negative consequences,

e.g. lower air quality maintenance, unattractive appearance of city and so on.

The second problem is still big number of dead, ill or potentially dangerous trees near the

streets. It entails worse level of ecosystem services.

Solution In response to above mentioned problems, the Mayor’s Office of Sustainability designed

a project (GreenPlan) to increase tree coverage toward 30% in all neighborhoods by 2025. But

firstly city promised to remove old trees, and this part was done (since 2001 ca. 23,000 dead

or dangerous trees were removed). This part was a necessary, preparatory phase for second

part of the project: planting new trees. The main citywide goal is to plant 300’000 trees by

2015.

The City Council Department, several partnership communities, individuals and businesses

are involved in this project.

Another movement involved in this process is TreeVitalize – a public-private partnership to

restore tree cover in Pennsylvania communities. Since 2004, this organization has already

planted 20,000 trees in Philadelphia Metropolitan Area.

Also local people can make the city greener thanks to Plant!Philadelphia fund (created by

administration); it directly helps to plant new or remove old trees in City Center District.

Achievements: replacing about 8% of old trees City Center District annually. The

contributions to the fund are tax-deductible and everyone can decide where new trees will be

planted.

Budget $1 million for tree planting, with an additional $2,5 million for the Department of Parks and

Recreation

Has this best practice been

replicated elsewhere?

Contact information Katherine Gajewski, Director In Mayor’s Office of Sustainability

Internet links or other http://www.nextgreatcity.com/actions/trees

resources where more http://www.phila.gov/green/greenworks/equity_Trees.html

information is available

Information on the person who described this best practice

First name and surname Michał Jarzyna

Affiliation (university, Jagiellonian University

institution...)

Email address jarzyna.michal1@gmail.com

112


Best Practice 16. Warsaw University Library

Category and

- Provisioning (fresh air);

subcategory of ecosystem - Regulating (climate regulation, neutralize the heat island effect, elimination of CO2, water re-

services to which the usage);

example refers

- Cultural (aesthetic, recreational, educational)

What element of nature Trees, bushes, biodiversity, water, air,

does it refer to?

City/Town Warsaw, Poland

Year 2002

Initiator University authorities

Short summary Not only this investment is supporting the idea of sustainable usage of ecosystem services and

its natural growth, but also is non-commercial and innovative idea in Warsaw (and also

Poland). It’s connecting cultural, technological and protecting environment functions as well as

modernity and nature.

Problem that needed The problem was to create a cultural-nature area which allows drawing from investment’s

a solution

utility as well as improvement of the local nature balance. The goal was to create a new

quality, eliminate a detrimental influence of the huge “concrete” investment in the center of the

town. The main goal was to larger the green area in the town, neutralize the “heat island effect”

without using too much space.

Solution The investment consists of cultural, ecological and aesthetical elements and 3 parts: upper,

bottom and the entrance and covers the area of 1 hectare, 5111 m 2 of which is covered by the

greenery.

This investment was implemented by the University authorities with a great support from the

town’s authorities. It was an expert-led process.

The library is open to everyone and fulfills recreational, educational and economical functions.

Budget $80 million

Has this best practice The Copernicus Science Center in Warsaw (2002)

been replicated

elsewhere?

Contact information bnp@adm.uw.edu.pl

Internet links or other http://www.buw.uw.edu.pl/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=286&Itemid=91

resources where more

information is available

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Beata Młynarska

Affiliation (university,

institution...)

Email address mlynarska.beata@gmail.com

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Best Practice 17. The Forest of Belfast

Category and subcategory - Cultural (green areas as space where people meet)

of ecosystem services to

which the example refers

What element of nature Trees, green areas in the urban public space

does it refer to?

City/Town Belfast, Northern Ireland

Year Since 1992

Initiator Partnership of more than 20 organizations

Short summary A public-private partnership program that aims on protecting and managing city trees,

especially by promoting them, tree planting, providing research in this area, taking care of

trees, connecting the nature with arts and citizens, with involvement of stakeholders and local

people.

Problem that needed How to strengthen people awareness of how important and valuable urban forests ecosystems

a solution

are?

Solution The Belfast Forest implemented few initiatives:

- Belfast’s trees survey – over 36 000 trees were examined between 1993 and 1995 to

understand species composition, ownership, tree condition and age and provided the basis of

a strategy for the future of the urban forest.

- Encouraging public involvement – every year new projects were implemented to enable

local community to actively take part in creating public areas in urban forests.

- Nearly 90 000 trees were provide in a three year program.

- Environmental arts – one or two timber wood sculptures were created and placed in various

areas of city forests in Belfast every year. They were presented to the citizens and visitors to

show importance of the city forests trees and that the nature is a real kind of art.

- Tree care – there was an educational program that explained how to take care of trees.

- Citizens could participate in seminars that involved representative of central government,

NGO’s etc.

Budget

Has this best practice been Similar program – Forrest of Cardiff (started in 1998)

replicated elsewhere? http://internationaltreefoundation.org/get-involved/plant-a-tree/wales/st-georges-wood-forestof-cardiff/

Contact information Dr Ben Simon

Forrest Officer

Forrest of Belfast 4-10 Linenhall Street Belfast BT2 8BP

Internet links or other

resources where more

information is available

Phone: (028) 9027 0350

http://www.belfastcity.gov.uk/parksandopenspaces/artinthepark.pdf

http://www.belfastcity.gov.uk/parksandopenspaces/forestofbelfast.asp

Information on the person who described this best practice

First name and surname Marcin Walków

Affiliation (university, Wroclaw Medical University, Faculty of Health Sciences

institution...)

Wroclaw University of Economics, Faculty of Management, Informatics and Finance

Email address mwalkow@gmail.com

114


Best Practice 18. Emscher Park Restoration in Ruhr

Category and subcategory - Regulating;

of ecosystem services to - Supporting;

which the example refers - Cultural

What element of nature Trees

does it refer to?

City/Town Federal Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Year 1989

Initiator Authorities of the federal land

Short summary The Ruhr area has been dominated by coal mining and heavy industry for more than a century.

It was left with ecological problems after the industrial decline of the 1980s. To change this

situation and restore the ecosystems, the region authorities came up with a comprehensive

restoration plan for the Emscher Park.

Problem that needed Over the past 30 years, the heavy industries in Ruhr district have been massively restructured,

a solution

causing the abandonment and dereliction of many steel works and coal mining operations

throughout the region.

Solution The project focuses on:

- using ecology as a central organizing focus for the regeneration of the region’s economy as

well as its environment;

- turning industrial wastelands into a regional network of open space, recreation, and cultural

resources;

- being the largest re-naturalization project in Europe, and one which is rare in the world for

undertaking brown fields restoration on a regional, rather than site- specific, basis.

A central aim of the project was to clean up the river and to integrate and develop existing open

spaces to create a regional park system that would include seven green corridors running

north–south and east–west through the region.

Budget Between 1991 and 2000 (first decade) the government of North Rhine Westphalia and the EU

(Aim 2) has financed over 270 projects with a volume of nearly 200 million

Has this best practice been

replicated elsewhere?

Contact information

Internet links or other

resources where more

information is available http://80.33.141.76/pe_sta_perpetua/attachments/article/75/Emscher.pdf

115


Best Practice 19. High Line – Innovative Park in New York

Category and subcategory - Regulating;

of ecosystem services to - Cultural (recreational)

which the example refers

What element of nature Trees, plants

does it refer to?

City/Town New York, NY (USA)

Year 2009

Initiator Friends of the High Line and New York city Department of Parks and Recreation

Short summary The High Line is a park built on an elevated former freight rail trestle on the West Side of

Manhattan. It runs from Gansevoort Street in the Meatpacking District, through Chelsea, to 34 th

Street. The main function of this park is recreation for citizens. It also helps to purify the air in

the city center and provides an opportunity to plant some local vegetables.

Problem that needed The main problem in big cities like New York is to keep air in a good condition.

a solution

Solution Friends of the High Line and New York City Department of Parks and Recreation were the

main initiators of the project. The park features an integrated landscape, designed by James

Corner Field Operations.

In the park, there are bike and run paths, as well as an area for planting vegetables.

Additionally, cultural events like concerts, exhibitions are hosted in the park.

The main function of this is the purification of urban air.

Budget

Has this best practice been

replicated elsewhere?

Contact information

Internet links or other http://www.thehighline.org/

resources where more

information is available

Information on the person who described this best practice: Marine biologist

First name and surname Kamila Janiak

Affiliation (university, Gdańsk University

institution...)

Email address janiakamila@gmail.com

116


Best Practice 20. Rotterdam Green Roofs

Category and subcategory - Regulating (regulation of floods);

of ecosystem services to - Provisioning (water);

which the example refers - Cultural (spiritual and nonmaterial benefits, relaxation)

What element of nature Air, water, biodiversity, natural flora and fauna

does it refer to?

City/Town Rotterdam, Netherlands

Year January 2007 – present

Initiator Rotterdam City Council, Port Authority, employers’ organizations and the Environmental

Protection Agency

Short summary Rotterdam participates in the international climate program for metropolis “Clinton Climate

Initiative”. Part of the collective initiative is the creation of green roofs, which aims to achieve

a 50% reduction of CO2 emissions.

Problem that needed Rotterdam had high emissions of CO2. Thus the goal is to improve the climate for the benefit

a solution

of people, the environment and the economy. The project “Green roofs” aims to achieve

a 50% reduction of CO2 emissions and help city being 100% climate proof.

Solution Rotterdam municipality has received so far applications for over 30,000 square meters of green

roofs. Their aim is to have a total of 800,000 square meters of green roofs by the year 2030.

Budget Approximately € 900,000

Has this best practice been

replicated elsewhere?

Contact information Albert Jan Kerssen, Product Manager, Roofgardens & Living/Green Walls ISS Landscaping

Services in the Netherlands

Internet links or other

resources where more

information is available

www.rotterdamclimateproof.nl (adaptation program)

117


Best Practice 21. Introduction of Eco-system Solution to Urban Architecture: Yard-

Skreper

Category and subcategory - Regeneration (quality of life, production of goods)

of ecosystem services to

which the example refers

What element of nature Trees, plants, biodiversity

does it refer to?

City/Town Brooklyn, NY (USA)

Year 2010

Initiator Rogers Marvel Architects

Short summary The Brooklyn Yard-Scraper is a new mixed-use, super-sustainable redevelopment proposal of

new residential and commercial-office building with an integrated concept of reducing the

overall footprint.

Problem that needed Overpopulation, food security, „concrete over green areas”, lack of oxygen and fresh air and

a solution

places for recreation for inhabitants of large cities.

Solution Properly designed high scrapers provide the most efficient mode for utilizing both space and

on-site resources, serving a larger majority of the population than could have otherwise been

served. According to the solution of the Rogers Marvel Architects, a New York based

architectural company with a high expertise of its employees in sustainable and green design,

the Yard-Skreper will provide its users not only economic, but also environmental services.

The lower floors of the new Yard-Scraper will comprise areas for social, commercial and

educational activities, and each of these will have direct access to an open or closed green

space. The upper floors will house what could be considered as Brooklyn’s nouveau

brownstones, in addition to a number of other flats. Not tied to the planar grid of the streets,

each unit will be stacked one upon another and oriented in such a way to maximize airflow

and interior light distribution, reducing the dependency on energy hungry mechanical systems.

Certain areas of the facade will also be clad in solar voltaic panels, and the building will host

a green house center, a vertical farm, numerous garden terraces, the Institute for Urban

Sustainability, the Brooklyn Library of Science and Environment and other similar

organizations.

Budget

Has this best practice been Green design (roofs and balconies), urban agriculture and application of energy conservation

replicated elsewhere? are becoming popular worldwide.

Where? When?

Contact information Rogers Marvel Architects, http://www.rogersmarvel.com/contact.html

Internet links or other http://inhabitat.com/yard-scraper-seeks-to-change-the-face-of-brooklyn-sustainably/

resources where more http://www.rogersmarvel.com

information is available

118


Best Practice 22. Master Composter - Soil Building Program

Category and subcategory - Supporting (nutrient cycle, soil formation supporting other ecosystem services)

of ecosystem services to

which the example refers

What element of nature Soil, worms, nutrient cycle

does it refer to?

City/Town Seattle, WA (USA)

Year Start date is unknown; the program is well established and operating on an annual basis.

Initiator The Master Composter (MC) program is part of the Natural Soil Building Program which is

run by Seattle Tilth.

Short summary The MC program trains individuals to become experts at composting and then allows them to

request an MC to help implement composting projects around the city to reduce waste and

increase soil quality.

Problem that needed Municipal waste is a major environmental concern in both space for and toxic content of

a solution

landfills. The renewable resources thrown away in landfills become contaminated with

chemicals, so even vegetable matter cannot be extracted for composting after contamination.

The waste stream must be diverted as much as possible in order to limit landfills' impact on

environment. An additional problem is constant harvesting and removal of excess foliage from

lawns, trees, and gardens disrupts the nutrient cycle in urban settings.

Solution This program trains experts who can then educate the public on how to reduce their waste and

improve soil quality at the same time.

In providing this solution, soil is formed through human intervention (creation and continuous

feeding of composting units) using natural life processes (digestion) to breakdown waste and

create nutrient-dense soil-castings. Municipal governments benefit reducing the amount of

waste reaching landfills (estimates are between 25% and 50%). The urban environment

benefits by the replenishing of nutrients lost in the nutrient cycle disruption.

The program was developed by Seattle Tilth that fosters a community of stakeholders who

collectively enact changes for the betterment of the environment. The process that developed

the original program was expert-led, however, now non-expert communities can implement the

program.

Budget No direct information on the program's budget was available, though it is a (probably very

small) portion of the Seattle Tilth budget of US$ 1 million spent on all of its programs.

Has this best practice been This practice has been replicated in a number of cities throughout the United States and

replicated elsewhere? Canada: Alemada County (http://www.stopwaste.org/home/index.asp?page=170),

San Mateao County (http://www.recycleworks.org/compost/mcprgrm.html), Edmonton,

Canada (http://www.edmonton.ca/for_residents/garbage_recycling/master-composter-recyclerprogram.aspx),

Vancouver, Washington

(http://www.co.clark.wa.us/recycle/yard/MasterComposter.html)

Contact information Graham Golbuff

Phone: +1 (206) 633-0097

E-mail: grahamgolbuff@seattletilth.org

Internet links or other http://seattletilth.org/learn/mcsb

resources where more

information is available

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Gerald Gugerty

Affiliation (university, Central European University

institution...)

Email address gugerty@gmail.com

119


Best Practice 23. Most Beautiful Ggarden Contest

Category and subcategory

of ecosystem services to

which the example refers

What element of nature

does it refer to?

- Cultural (aesthetic)

Plants, flowers, tress, insects

City/Town Croatia

Year 1995 – today

Initiator Croatian National Tourist Board

Short summary Every year, the Croatian National Tourist Board and/or local government (depends on the

town) organize a contest with a task to arrange a garden around family houses in towns which

Problem that needed

a solution

participate in the contest.

Tourism is very strong economic segment in Croatia and with main focus put on coastal area,

where tourism generates the most economic activities, the National Tourist Board tried to

include other parts of the country as well. The idea was to make incentives for as many

household as possible to arrange their gardens around the houses, balconies etc. This contest

was a part of a broader action with the aim to raise the awareness of the people to take care of

the environment, to reduce garbage on the streets and to make streets greener. The main

slogan of the action was „Less garbage – more flowers”.

Solution The action is organized in urban areas – cities around the country. The concept of the contest

is simple: households have to arrange their gardens and area around the house, people in the

strict city center have to arrange their balconies. The main objective is to create a ‘little green

zone’ around the house. At the end of the application period, the representatives from the

Tourist Board/City government evaluate the gardens and give awards. Usually three

(symbolic) awards are given in the amount within range 1500 – 3000 HRK (depending on the

town) for the first prize, 1000 – 1500 for the second and 500 – 1000 for the third.

Budget < 6000 HRK per town

Has this best practice been This contest is now held every year in many towns (large and small) around the country.

replicated elsewhere?

Contact information Croatian National Tourist Board

Internet links or other www.croatia.hr

resources where more

information is available

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Marko Matosović

Affiliation (university,

institution...)

Email address marko.matosovic@gmail.com

120


Best Practice 24. Vertical Farming, Sky Farming

Category and subcategory - Provisioning (fresh food supply);

of ecosystem services to - Supporting (reduction of green house gases emission and pollution caused by food

which the example refers transportation)

What element of nature Plants

does it refer to?

City/Town Not implemented yet

Year

Initiator Dr. Dickson Despommier, an American ecologist and Dr. Ken Yeang a prolific Malaysian

architect

Short summary Dickson Despommier's 'The Vertical Farm', promotes the mass cultivation of plant and

animal life for commercial purposes in high-rises. This concept emerged at the Columbia

University in 1999. Using advanced greenhouse technology such as hydroponics and

aeroponics, these Skyscrapers could theoretically produce fish, poultry, fruit and vegetables.

Problem that needed According to the UN’s Population Division, by 2050 around 70% of the world’s population

a solution

will be living in urban areas. Moving farms closer to settlements would reduce human

ecological impact.

Solution Most vertical farm designs depict them as ultra-modern, stylish skyscrapers. Each floor could

potentially feature a variety of crops and small livestock. Tanks would house fish and other

seafood. Using technology to minimize waste and energy use, and to facilitate recycling, is

essential. To that end, they would contain glass walls, large solar panels, high-tech irrigation

systems and incinerators that burn waste for energy. A variety of monitoring systems would

ensure that energy and water go where they need to go and that temperature controls are

carefully maintained.

It is economically rational to allow traditional outdoor farms to revert to a natural state and

reducing the energy costs needed to transport foods to consumers. Vertical farms might

significantly alleviate pollution caused by transportation.

Another important benefit would be the sewage recycling, "black water" could be cleaned by

algae and plants and made potable or it can be treated by filters and made into "gray water,"

which is sterile and useable for irrigation.

Budget Over $100 million, for a 60 hectare vertical farm

Has this best practice been Developers and local governments in the following cities have expressed serious interest in

replicated elsewhere? establishing a vertical farm: Incheon (South Korea), Abu Dhabi, and Dongtan (China), New

York City, Portland, Los Angeles, Las Vegas, Seattle, Surrey, Toronto, Paris, Bangalore,

Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Incheon, Shanghai, Beijing and others.

Contact information Dr. Dickson Despommier, Environmental Health Science of Columbia University

E-mail: ddd1@columbia.edu

Internet links or other http://www.verticalfarm.com/contacts

resources where more http://nymag.com/news/features/30020/

information is available http://www.economist.com/node/17647627

121


Best Practice 25. Seattle’s Urban Forest Management Plan

Category and subcategory - Provisioning (wood);

of ecosystem services to - Supporting (fresh air);

which the example refers - Cultural (leisure)

What element of nature Trees

does it refer to?

City/Town Seattle, WA (USA)

Year April 2007

Initiator The City of Seattle’s Urban Forest Coalition (now known as the Urban Forest Interdepartmental

Team), a group representing nine City departments with tree management or

regulatory responsibility.

Short summary The City of Seattle set the goal of achieving 30% tree canopy cover by 2037 to increase the

environmental, social, and economic benefits trees bring to Seattle residents. The Seattle

Urban Forest Management Plan (UFMP) is a comprehensive strategy to achieve the goal.

Problem that needed Seattle’s urban forest has significantly declined over the last few decades as the city has

a solution

grown. Today, about 18% of the city is covered by tree canopy as compared with 40% just 35

years ago. Tree cover loss since 1972 has cost Seattle $1.3 million each year in stormwater

mitigation benefits and $226,000 per year in air cleaning value. The City has planted

thousands of trees during restoration projects and as replacements for trees that were

removed. The City also creates incentives for private tree planting. However, these efforts

have not been enough to preserve Seattle’s urban forest.

Solution The City of Seattle formed an Urban Forest Coalition in 1994. The coalition is represented by

all city departments that have urban forest management responsibilities. They collaborated to

assess current conditions, establish goals, and chart a path to long-term management of

Seattle’s trees. The UFMP is the result of that effort. The plan provides a framework for

many actions that will help to preserve, maintain and enhance the condition of Seattle’s urban

forest. Urban forestry experts from outside the city government helped develop the UFMP.

City staff worked with consultants, academia, private nonprofits as well as urban forest

management experts. The final draft plan was available to the public on the web and received

over 90 written comments. The Seattle Urban Forestry Commission was created in 2009 to

advise the Mayor and City Council concerning the establishment of policy and regulations

governing the protection, management and conservation of trees and city vegetation. Citizen

input and volunteer participation are critical to the success of city programs. 110,000 hours of

outdoor volunteer stewardship are facilitated in the City’s parks by the Urban Forestry

Commission coordinators each year.

Budget No data available

Has this best practice been -

replicated elsewhere?

Contact information E-mail: sandra.pinto_de_bader@seattle.gov

Internet links or other http://www.seattle.gov/trees/management.htm

resources where more http://www.seattle.gov/trees/benefits.htm

information is available http://www.seattle.gov/trees/ufmpoverview.htm

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Olena Baltina

Affiliation (university, Donetsk National Technical University, Donetsk, Ukraine

institution...)

Email address jelena_baltina@mail.ru

122


Best Practice 26. NeighborSpace Program: Converting Vacant Lots to Greenery

Category and subcategory - Provisioning (food);

of ecosystem services to - Regulating (regeneration - cycling and filtration processes, stabilization – partial

which the example refers stabilization of climate, regulation of hydrological cycle, protection against UV radiation,

reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, stormwater management, improved wildlife habitat,

reduction of the heat island effect);

- Cultural (quality of life – aesthetic beauty, cultural and intellectual inspiration, serenity,

relaxation, noise abatement, increase property values, improved energy conservation).

What element of nature Trees, plants

does it refer to?

City/Town Chicago, IL (USA)

Year Since 1996

Initiator NeighborSpace in partnership with the three governmental agencies: the City of Chicago,

Chicago Park District and the Forest Preserve District of Cook County.

Short summary The non-profit NeighborSpace works with neighborhood groups to acquire and support the

community based management of small parks, gardens, natural areas, and river edges in

Chicago. Properties acquired from the city (usually for $1), and owned by NeighborSpace are

Problem that needed

a solution

no longer vulnerable to redevelopment.

The city's growth over time has left new and changing neighborhoods without sufficient open

space. Conducted in 1993 study revealed that the city failed to provide recreational

opportunities equally to all residents – 63% of Chicagoans lived in areas where parks were

either too crowded or too far away. While Chicago was ranked 18 th out of 20 cities of

comparable size in the ration of open space acres to population, many vacant parcels were

available for use and transformation to open public green areas.

Solution To address the problem, the City of Chicago, Chicago Park District, and Forest Preserve

District of Cook County worked together to establish NeighborSpace, a non -profit that

partners with residents, businesses, private organizations and public agencies to preserve and

expand community managed open space. A community group concerned about ownership

issues and their site’s future can apply to have their site acquired by NeighborSpace. Once

a property is acquired, the applicant enters into a long-term management agreement with

NeighborSpace. The applicant, represented by min. 3 individuals, become the “NeigborSpace

Garden Leader”, and is paired with a local non-profit or other group familiar with the

community and its needs (school, church, etc.). The entities in partnership provide local

leadership for the continued effective use of the land. A success of this program is based on

local leaders’ initiative and community participation. In addition to three representatives, no

less than 10 individuals must sign on as stakeholders of the site. NeighborSpace also provides

basic liability insurance for those who use the site. It can also help pair local community

group with organizations that may be able to supply gardening materials, funding, and

technical assistance and training for building and maintaining community managed open

spaces. Currently, NeighborSpace owns 57 sites, and holds long-term leases for an additional

four sites. The sites are located in 31 wards across the City of Chicago. Over 20 additional

sites are currently in the review or acquisition process.

Budget Total Assets in 2009: $4,255,316

Has this best practice been NeighborSpace of Baltimore County (since 2002)

replicated elsewhere?

Contact information NeighborSpace, 25 East Washington Street, Suite 1670, Chicago, IL 60602, USA

Phone: (+1) 312-431-9406

E-mail: info@neighbor-space.org

Internet links or other NeighborSpace: http://neighbor-space.org/about.htm

resources where more Sustainable Cities: http://sustainablecities.dk/en/city-projects/cases/chicago-converting-

information is available vacant-lots-to-greenery

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Joanna Klak

Affiliation (university, Independent Consultant

institution...)

Email address klakjoanna@wp.pl

123


Best Practice 27. Revitalization of Ślepotka River

Category and subcategory - Cultural (aesthetic values, relaxation);

of ecosystem services to - Supporting (soil formation; provisioning: fresh water, food – plant cultivation in allotments

which the example refers nearby; reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, stormwater management, improved wildlife

habitat)

- Regulating (water purification, soil purification);

What element of nature Water, biodiversity, flora, amphibians, riparian forest, meadows, trees

does it refer to?

City/Town Katowice, Poland

Year 2008-2010

Initiator Leszek Trząski – Central Mining Institute, Katowice (GIG)

REURIS Project partners

Short summary This is one of the pilot initiatives of the REURIS Project (Revitalization of Urban River

Spaces). The goals of the project are: creation of the strategy how to revitalize river areas,

taking into account the specificity of cities and regions; to point out the barriers of

revitalization and showing the potential solutions of those problems.

Problem that needed The Ślepotka River is an 8 km long brook in Ochojec, Ligota and Panewniki quarters. Over

a solution

30 years ago it was regulated and its banks were concreted. Until recently it had been

intoxicated for many years by industrial and household wastewater. The riparian areas were

degraded and abandoned. The water was contaminated by the domestic waste water and

wastes from industrial plants.

Solution The REURIS Project is the result of cooperation of 8 partners representing the cities in 3

countries: Poland (Katowice, Bydgoszcz), the Czech Republic (Pilzno, Brno), Germany

(Stuttgart, Lipsk). Central Mining Institute (GIG) is the coordinator of the whole Project and

University in Lipsk is responsible for promoting the results of the Project.

The core of the project is to revitalize the Ślepotka river valley corridor in its middle (urban)

part. The corridor is 2.2-km long and is supposed to become an open natural space for

retention of rain and brook water, communication footpath for local society and an area for

“soft” forms of recreation. The revitalization began in fact as a result of a smaller project

concerning abandoned allotments nearby, implemented by experts of GIG, Katowice

municipality and inhabitants of Ligota. Then GIG prepared a set of criteria for analysis of

natural, economic, legal, social and spatial factors of such investments in the Upper Silesia

region. Joining the REURIS project helped to finance: modification of the river bed with

natural material for boosting biodiversity of habitat; renewing the rain water collection;

restoration of natural plant coverage (forestall and meadow) on the valley shores and bottom,

and eradication of invasive plants; construction of recreational spots: educative footpaths,

playgrounds, “green amphitheatre” bridges, scenic venues, educative info boards.

Budget 3,409,303 Euro (REURIS Project)

Has this best practice been Bydgoszcz, Brno, Pilzno, Stuttgard, Lipsk, Zabrze

replicated elsewhere?

Contact information

Internet links or other http://www.reuris.gig.eu/pl/o-projekcie/opis-projektu.html,

resources where more http://reuris-f.gig.eu/pilot/4073/index.html

information is available http://www.piotrowice.katowice.pl/reuris-rewitalizacja-rzeki-slepiotki

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Maciej Nowicki

Joanna Pustelak

Affiliation (university, Warsaw School of Economics (SGH)

institution...)

University of Economics

Email address maciej.e.nowicki@gmail.com

joannapustelak@yahoo.pl

124


Best Practice 28. Melbourne Water's 10,000 Rain Gardens Program

Category and subcategory - Provisioning;

of ecosystem services to - Cultural (aesthetic, recreational);

which the example refers - Regulating (air purification)

What element of nature Water

does it refer to?

City/Town Melbourne, Australia

Year Ongoing

Initiator Melbourne Water

Short summary ‘Rain Garden’ is the term commonly used to describe a vegetated area that removes

pollutants from stormwater runoff (also known as bio-retention systems). Project known as

Melbourne Water's 10,000 Raingardens Program aims at creating rain gardens across private

and public areas in order to increase water management effectiveness.

Problem that needed Polluted stormwater was the most significant threat to the condition of Port Phillip Bay.

a solution

Cutting down pollutants, such as nitrogen and heavy metals, flowing into the Port Phillip Bay

as well as to the Yarra River was one of the government's environment strategies.

Solution Melbourne Water has been working with local councils and communities to build rain

gardens in public spaces. The target of this project is to reach 10,000 gardens, whereas more

than 1,500 have been created already.

A residential rain garden can be described as water sensitive garden that is positioned to

receive stormwater from hard surfaces such as driveways, patios and roofs via downpipes.

Layers of sandy soils help to slow the rate of stormwater entering rivers, creeks and bays and

also assist in the removal of pollutants and heavy metals.

Rain gardens in public spaces such as streets, parks and schools also filter out litter, oil,

excess nutrients, chemicals and sediment that normally build up on hard surfaces such as

roads, car parks and roofs.

Researchers at the International Water Center (a partner organization) have been responsible

for developing rain gardens. In terms of implementation, Melbourne Water together with

local councils and the community have created numerous rain gardens, which even in small

urban spaces can be helpful in contributing to better water quality.

The project also plays an important role in educating the community about the water cycle

and how they can contribute to reduction in water pollution.

Budget

Has this best practice been This practice has been replicated in numerous places around the world, amongst others in

replicated elsewhere? Kansas City (Kansas, USA) and Meplewood (Minnesota, USA).

Contact information

Internet links or other http://raingardens.melbournewater.com.au/

resources where more

information is available

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Mia Smietanska

Affiliation (university, Manchester Metropolitan University

institution...)

Email address miasmietanska@wp.pl

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Best Practice 29. Plant-it 2020

Category and subcategory - Regulating (health)

of ecosystem services to

which the example refers

What element of nature Trees

does it refer to?

City/Town USA and many countries abroad

Year Founded in 1992 and initially named Plant-it 2000, its end is predicted for 2020

Initiator John Denver

Short summary Plant-it 2020 is a non-profit, private foundation that has set numerous benchmarks in the

forest industry along with many competitive advantages. It has two main programs: 1) The

“dollar-per-tree” program and 2) The city planting program.

Problem that needed Lack of trees in many urban locations.

a solution

Solution People are encouraged to donate $1 per tree, which is then planted in the USA or one of the

chosen 28 countries around the world (mainly in Americas and Africa) in urban, forest or

riverside areas. The benefits of planting trees include: provision of sound barriers for large

urban areas, flooding reduction by rainfall intercepting, help to cool cities by reduction of

heat sinks, cleaning of the air, and many more.

The idea started in 1992 in the USA. It is based on the cooperation between the founders,

volunteers and representatives of forest industry in many countries. The Foundation provides

trees for volunteers; the donator covers the cost difference, so the price is always $1 per tree.

The program was invented by musician and activist John Denver who was followed by many

of his fans, who contacted the tree industry representatives and helped to broaden the

project's range. At the beginning, it was a spontaneous idea, but with the increasing number

of volunteers and donators, it has become more serious and the experts were invited to take

part in this program.

This idea involves local people and authorities – local people serve as volunteers and local

authorities have to give permission to plant the trees. Initially it was invented as Plant-it

2000, but with increasing number of people involved in the action, it has changed its name on

Plant-it 2020.

Budget Unknown, depends mainly on the amount of donations

Has this best practice been Similar ideas of planting the trees are very popular nowadays.

replicated elsewhere?

Contact information Plant-It 2020

PMB 310

9457 S. University Boulevard

Highlands Ranch, CO 80126, USA

Phone: (303) 221-0077

E-mail: plantit@mac.com

Internet links or other www.plantit2020.org

resources where more

information is available

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Tomasz Błaszczak

Affiliation (university, Technical University of Lodz, Board of European Students of Technology

institution...)

Email address tomaszblaszczak@hotmail.com

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Best Practice 30. Shanghai Houtan Park

Category and subcategory - Provisioning (water);

of ecosystem services to - Regulating (flood control);

which the example refers - Cultural (recreation, reflection, aesthetic experience);

- Supporting (production of oxygen)

What element of nature Water, biodiversity

does it refer to?

City/Town Shanghai

Year 2007-2009

Initiator Chinese Government

Short summary Shanghai Houtan Park is built on brown field of a former industrial site. Previously the area

belonged to the steel factory and shipyard, which used it as landfill for industrial materials.

Nowadays the area is transformed into Houtan Park with restorative design strategy

Problem that needed

a solution

implemented to treat polluted river water and recover the degraded waterfront.

The environmental damage caused by industrial investments was the main problem.

Brownfield was littered with industrial and construction debris, which were also buried in the

area. Next problem was water pollution - Huangpu River was highly polluted (the lowest

grade in a national water quality ranking). The third challenge was to improve previously

existing flood control. Floodwall which was designed to protect against a 1,000-year flood

(with a top elevation of 6.7 meters), after industrial investments was ruined. Moreover,

muddy and littered shoreline was inaccessible to the public.

Solution The main goal of the project was to implement design strategies to transform the site into

a living system that offers comprehensive ecological services including: food production,

flood control, water treatment, and habitat creation combined in an educational and aesthetic

form.

The project goal was to create:

1) Constructed Wetland and Regenerative Design (linear constructed wetland, reinvigorated

waterfront as a living machine to treat contaminated water, cascades and terraces, species of

wetland plants);

2) Memory and Prophecy area (areas inspired by Chinese agricultural landscape, terraces –

reminiscent of Shanghai’s agricultural heritage, selected plants, reclaimed steel panels)

3) Path Network (network of paths where visitors are educated about green infrastructure

within a lushly restored recreational area).

Nowadays, Houtan Park is the example of a living system in which ecological infrastructure

provides multiple services for society and nature, and also for new ecological water treatment

and flood control methods. Moreover, landscape evokes memories of past civilization and

future of ecological civilization. Project is an expert-lead process, designed and implemented

by experts. Responsible for inventing and implementing changes was Turenscape

(certificated by the Chinese government as a first-level design institute) supported by experts

form Peking University Graduate School of Landscape Architecture.

Budget

Has this best practice been

replicated elsewhere?

Contact information TURENSCAPE

E-mail: info@turenscape.com

Internet links or other

resources where more

information is available

Phone: (86-10) 6296-7408

http://www.turenscape.com/english/projects/project.php?id=443

http://www.asla.org/2010awards/006.html

http://www.asla.org/2010awards/006.html

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Aleksandra Sztobryn

Affiliation (university, University of Wrocław

institution...)

Email address ola.sztobryn@gmail.com

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Best Practice 31. Catskill/Delware Watershed Protection

Category and subcategory - Provisioning (water)

of ecosystem services to

which the example refers

What element of nature Water

does it refer to?

City/Town New York City, NY (USA)

Year Project had been developed since early 1990’s, in 1997 a Memorandum of Understanding

was signed

Initiator New York City, Department of Environmental Protection

Short summary New York City reached an agreement with farmers to protect Catskill-Delaware watershed

that is a main source of drinking water for the city. This helped to improve the water quality

by protecting ecosystem services and allowed for savings for the city.

Problem that needed The New York City water supply system is the largest unfiltered water supply in the USA.

a solution

Approximately 1.2 billion gallons of water are delivered each day to nearly 9 million people

in New York City and nearby. Due to increasing pollution, quality of water from

Catskill/Delaware reservoir had been decreasing over years. In 1990s, following the issue of

the new federal water quality standard, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency informed

the City of New York that building a filtration plant would be necessary to ensure drinking

water quality.

Solution The city entered into an agreement with farmers in Cats kill/Delaware that was aimed to

protect the watershed and natural filtering process and to avoid costs of building and

maintaining a filtering facility. The city commitment was to share costs of the project and to

purchase of 355,000 acres of land in the watershed between 1997 and 2007. The city

committed to bare the operating costs of the program and the investment costs of pollution

control investments on each farm. Part of the agreement was also regulations imposed by the

city.

The idea was invented and implemented by the New York City in cooperation with partners

including state and federal agencies and institutions, local communities and farmers,

environmental and agricultural institutions and experts. Although resistant at the beginning,

local farmers were actively involved in defining the frameworks of the program.

The program continues with supplementary documents issued in 2006 and 2008.

Budget The initial budget was approximately $1.5 billion to be spent over 10 years. It is also a huge

cost saving in comparison with building and maintaining a filtration facility (at last $6.0

billion to construct and roughly $1.5 billion to operate it and maintain over 5 years). Further

costs, although difficult to quantify, do not exceed $100 million a year.

Has this best practice been This case is unique among large cities worldwide.

replicated elsewhere?

Contact information David Warne, Chief of Staff, Bureau of Water Supply, Department of Environmental

Protection, New York City

Phone: +191 474 22 099

E-mail: dwarne@dep.nyc.gov

Internet links or other http://ice.ucdavis.edu/node/133

resources where more http://www.dec.ny.gov/lands/25599.html

information is available http://www.dcecodev.com/documents/NYCWatershedImpactStudy-FinalReport.pdf

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Anna Huskowska

Affiliation (university,

institution...)

Email address anna.huskowska@gmail.com

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Best Practice 32. Integrated Resources Management Plan for Muthurajawela Marsh

and Negombo Lagoon Complex, Sri Lanka

Category and subcategory

of ecosystem services to

which the example refers

- Provisioning (food – fish and arable crops, fresh water);

- Regulating (water purification, flood regulation);

- Cultural (recreational, aesthetic);

- Supporting (siltation, nutrient cycling)

What element of nature Ecosystem of coastal wetlands (including water, soil, biodiversity, landscape etc.)

does it refer to?

City/Town Muthurajawela Marsh and Negombo Lagoon (MMNL) complex including cities/towns:

Welisara, Kandana, Ja-Ela, Seeduwa, Katunayake, Negombo and numerous villages

(Gampaha District, Western Province, Sri Lanka)

Year 1998 – 2003

Initiator Central Environmental Authority (CEA) – Sri Lanka – under supervision of an interagency

Muthurajawela Management Committee

Short summary Urban wetlands need special attention, because they are under pres sure for economic

development and unsustainable management that can cause degradation of these areas with

adverse effects for inhabitants. An example of such ecosystem is Muthrajawela Marsh and

Negombo Lagoon, Sri Lanka. Integrated management plan was carried out in order to

prevent overfishing, increasing pollution and floods.

Problem that needed MMNL (approximately 6000 ha) is an urban system firmly intra-connected with the coastal

a solution

wetland of high ecological significance which provides numerous services for inhabitants.

The marsh and the lagoon undergo increasing degradation due to growing urbanization and

industrialization in the region. Wild species are harvested, land is being modified for

agricultural/residential purposes, siltation processes are being accelerated by human activity

and majority of houses within MMNL are regularly flooded. Population expansion causes

overfishing, increasing water pollution and the quantity of waste discharged from upstream

industries and households into the wetland.

Solution Integrated Resources Management Plan (IRMP) was developed in order to establish

conservation management plan and sustainable use of natural resources and to strengthen

capability of agencies and local communities to cooperate in resources management. IRMP

project has adopted several activities among which particularly important was enabling

participatory fishery management by creating regulations and community -based fishery

committees to direct consensus-building.

The next step of IRMP was to continue and evaluate the MMNL zoning strategy. Specific

land use purpose including safeguarding was developed for each zone which were: s trict

conservation zone, recreational buffer zone, resettlement zone, mixed urban zone, residential

zone. In this way development opportunities were provided as well improvement of flood

protection, biodiversity conservation, reduction of wastewater discharged and inhibition of

habitats' fragmentation.

A support tool for IRMP was setting up revolving funds administered by the fishery

committees. These funds were designed to work for the poorest families either to compensate

the new fishery restrictions or to help those under resettlement projects due to the zoning

strategy.

Mainly as an argument for continued conservation of MMNL and to show economic profits

of doing so, an assessment was carried out in which goods and services provided by the

wetland were valued. According to the study the wetland generates economic benefits worth

more than Rs 726 million (€ 4.6 million) a year taking into account ecosystem services such

as food and water supply, flood regulation and waste and pollution treatment.

Budget € 2.47 million

Has this best practice been - Nakivubo Swamp, Uganda

replicated elsewhere? - That Luang Marsh, Lao PDR

Contact information IRMP Team Leader: Dr Jayampathy Samarakoon, samarakoon@eureka.lk

Internet links or other - Emerton L., Kekulandala L.D.C.B., 2003. Assessment of the economic value of the

resources where more Muthurajawela Wetland. Occ. Pap. IUCN, Sri Lanka;

information is available - IRMP for MMNL was described in: Samarakoon et al., 2008. Good Practices and Lessons

Learned in Integrating Ecosystem Conservation and Poverty Reduction Objectives in

Wetlands. International Water Management Institute and Wetlands International;

- Central Environmental Authority – Sri Lanka, 2003. Muthurajawela: a single, unitary

129


coastal system, http://www.lankalibrary.com/natural/muthu.htm;

- Emerton L. (ed.), 2005. Counting the Costs of Urban Wetland Reclamation [in:] Values and

Rewards. Counting and Capturing Ecosystem Water Services for Sustainable Development.

IUCN Water, Nature and Economics Technical Paper No. 1, IUCN — The World

Conservation Union, Ecosystems and Livelihoods Group Asia

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Anna Matkowska

Affiliation (university, Jagiellonian University

institution...)

Email address anna.matkowska@uj.edu.pl

130


Best Practice 33. Forest for Peterborough Project

Category and subcategory

- Supporting;

of ecosystem services to

- Regulating services (habitat and regulation of climate)

which the example refers

What element of nature Trees, biodiversity

does it refer to?

City/Town Peterborough, United Kingdom

Year The program started in 2010. It is continued.

Initiator Peterborough Environment City Trust (PECT)

Short summary The project assumes planting trees in different areas all over the city. Native varieties being

planted include: oak, lime, guelder rose and blackthorn. The main aim of the project is to

Problem that needed

a solution

increase the range of habitats in the city as well as introduce more grassland and woodland.

Urban development has negative effects on biodiversity, especially in terms of irrecoverable

habitat fragmentation and loss, associated physical changes and local extermination of native

species.

Solution The project is one of many initiatives planned as part of Peterborough's bid to become the

environment capital of the United Kingdom. The Peterborough Environment City Trust

(PECT) in cooperation with a range of different partners creates forests for Peterborough. The

project has been developed in conjunction with the Natural Networks Partnership, a group that

represents many of the leading nature conservation organizations operating locally, including

Peterborough City Council, the Forestry Commission, Natural England, RSPB, Nene Park

Trust, and the Wildlife Trust. Local schools and community groups are also involved so that

the project has also educational impact.

Volunteers help plant the trees. There is also an opportunity to donate money to support the

project. Everyone for just £15 can give the gift of a tree in the Forest for Peterborough. PECT

sends a personalized certificate to the “owner” of a tree and donor’s name is recorded on the

Forest website. The more trees are purchased, the price per unit is lower (the cost of the trees

includes planting and maintenance). Everyone can also support the Program by sending text

message as many times as he/she likes (message cost £3). So far 5,000 trees have been planted

and it is planned to plant a total of 170,000 trees – one for each resident of the city.

Budget The project is financed by local and national organizations as well as individuals who can buy

trees and sent text messages. No data available on the total project cost.

Has this best practice been

replicated elsewhere?

Contact information Sophie Antonelli Forest for Peterborough project officer for PECT

Phone: 01733 568408

Internet links or other

resources where more

information is available

E-mail: sophie.antonelli@pect.org.uk

www.pect.org.uk/forest

Urban Forest Strategic Plan for the City of Peterborough: http://www.peterborough.ca

http://www.peterborough.gov.uk/news

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Ewa Burszta-Adamiak

Affiliation (university, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Institute of Environmental

institution...)

Engineering

Email address ewa.burszta-adamiak@up.wroc.pl

131


Best Practice 34. Sustainable Stormwater Management in Portland

Category and

- Regulating (water purification);

subcategory of ecosystem - Supporting (water supply)

services to which the

example refers

What element of nature Mainly water but also to green areas (trees, plants) and soil

does it refer to?

City/Town Portland, OR (USA)

Year Since 1991

Initiator Portland's Bureau of Environmental Services (BES)

Short summary Most of the big cities, like Portland, deal with problem of storm water and expensive and

insufficient sewer system. The solution for that is to mimic natural system – to implement

sustainable stormwater management that is based on the natural retention and infiltration

capabilities of plants and soil.

Problem that needed Portland receives an average of 37 inches of precipitation annually. That creates about 10

a solution

billion gallons of stormwater runoff per year that washes over streets, parking lots, buildings

and other hard surfaces carrying pollutants to rivers and streams. The volume and speed of the

runoff can cause flooding and erosion, destroy natural habitat and contribute to combined

sewer overflows.

Traditional stormwater management emphasizes putting runoff in a pipe to dispose it. This

approach does not take into account the fact that stormwater can be an asset when

appropriately integrated into building and site design.

Solution Portland’s sustainable stormwater management endorses onsite collection and transportation of

stormwater from roofs, parking lots, streets, and other surfaces to infiltrate into the ground or

collect for reuse, often reducing the need for costly underground structures. The method relies

on the natural retention and infiltration capabilities of plants and soil.

There are different types of infiltration facilities e.g. swales, curb extensions, rain barrels,

cisterns, planters and infiltration basin. The City of Portland implements projects such as:

Green Street, Rain Gardens, Green Roofs that include various combinations of infrastructures

mentioned above.

Green infrastructure benefits include: reduced and delayed stormwater runoff volumes,

stormwater pollutant reductions, enhanced groundwater recharge, reduced sewer overflow

events, increased carbon sequestration, urban heat decrease and reduced energy demand,

improved air quality, additional wildlife habitat and recreational space, improved human

health, increased land value.

Portland’s sustainable stormwater management is based on integrated approach to the problem

and involves different stakeholders dealing with landscape architecture, architecture,

engineering, institutional organizations, the stormwater treatment industry. To ensure

community acceptance, homeowners were also consulted.

First program was implemented on the public property. Then the City started to offer

incentives (discounts, credits, grants) to homeowners to apply it in their properties.

The City conducts also information (water bill inserts, publications, etc.) and education (free

workshops) activities for raising awareness and promotes stormwater management. The

actions focus primarily on the general public but also on specific audiences, such as business

and industry.

Budget $1 billion (the total amount spent during 20 years)

Has this best practice Other cities that are implementing green stormwater management in the USA: Bellevue,

been replicated Burnsville, Chicago, Denver, Kansas City, Los Angeles, Milwaukee, Orlando, Philadelphia,

elsewhere?

Portland, Santa Monica, Seattle, Truckee Meadows.

Contact information Emily Hauthat

E-mail: emilyh@bes.ci.portland

Phone: 1 503-823-7378

Internet links or other - The City of Portland: http://www.portlandonline.com/bes/index.cfm?c=34598

resources where more - Water Environment Research Foundation - case study report for Portland:

information is available http://www.werf.org/livablecommunities/studies_port_or.htm

- International Stormwater Best Management Practice Database

http://www.bmpdatabase.org

- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - Managing Wet Weather with Green Infrastructure:

http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/home.cfm?program_id=298

132


- Greek Values. Stormwater Management Calculator (The difference between the conventional

system and the green stormwater management):

http://greenvalues.cnt.org/calculator/calculator.php

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Anna Pakowska

Affiliation (university, Centre for Promotion and Development of Civil Initiatives OPUS

institution...)

Email address apakowska@opus.org.pl

133


Best Practice 35. The Conservation Zone in Aalborg

Category and subcategory - Provisioning (drinking water);

of ecosystem services to - Regulating (air quality)

which the example refers

What element of nature Trees, water

does it refer to?

City/Town Aalborg, Denmark

Year Since 1992

Initiator The Aalborg City Council

Short summary The conservation zone in Aalborg has a positive effect on local air quality and drinking water.

Comparing to the traditional ways of environmental protection, it evolves different NGOs,

university, the local government and so on.

Problem that needed Agriculture-based economy causes environmental problems. One of the problems is polluted

a solution

drinking water, due to the large amount of sewage and inappropriate us e of chemicals for

farming. This has a bad effect on local ecosystem and people.

Solution The Aalborg City Council has cooperated with different NGOs, individuals and the local

university to solve the problem. First, the local government has convinced the farmers and

landowners to sign an agreement and claim that they use the pesticides and fertilizers in the

limited way. Second, the local government has cooperated with the local hospital and NGOs

to inspect the groundwater in order to make the monitoring more reliable and valid. Third, the

local government has either rented or bought the land and plant a large number of trees

around the groundwater as a conservation zone. At last, the students of local university did

a lot of study on the strategy of setting up conservation zone. It is an expert - led example,

but still, the local people were involved.

Budget 402,000 euro from the Aalborg municipality, 805,000 euro from the EU

Has this best practice been

replicated elsewhere?

Contact information Bente Graversen, Director, Health and Sustainable Development of Aalborg Kommue

Internet links or other http://www.aalborgkommune.dk/english-version/Sider/Sustainable_Development.aspx

resources where more

information is available

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Hao Cai

Affiliation (university, Aalborg University

institution...)

Email address Howard007008@hotmail.com

134


Best Practice 36. Chicago’s Green Alley Program

Category and subcategory - Regulating (water flow regulation, water purification, air purification, climate mitigation)

of ecosystem services to

which the example refers

What element of nature Water, soil, vegetation

does it refer to?

City/Town Chicago, IL (USA)

Year Fall 2006 – present

Initiator City of Chicago Department of Transportation

Short summary The four basic components of Chicago’s Green Alley program are effective storm water

management, minimizing heat absorption, creating designs to reduce light p ollution, and

maximizing the use of recycled materials wherever possible. The project focuses on

restructuring city alleys using permeable materials which let rainwater to infiltrate to the soil,

store and purify in the ground.

Problem that needed Chicago has more than 13,000 alleys that total more than 1,900 miles of area. Those 3,500

a solution

acres of alleys consist of impermeable surfaces, which make a significant contribution to

urban runoff. An overabundance of nonporous surfaces exacerbates local flooding. Rainwater

flowing through road’s surface pollutes local water bodies. Dark surface of traditional alleys

absorbs solar radiation, increasing temperature in the city.

Solution The Department of Transportation is an innovator and director of Green Alley Program. The

Program aims at rebuilding city alleys, where conventional concrete and asphalt are gradually

being replaced by permeable pavers. The new porous paving allows up to 80% of rainwater

to infiltrate the subsoil, filtering out pollutants as water returns to the aquifer and, ultimately,

the Michigan Lake. The new alleys reclaim industrial waste, alleviate water damage and

pollution and reduce urban interference with the natural water cycle.

The Green Alley Program mandates the use of pavements that absorb minimal heat, reducing

heat island effect. Benefits include reducing the need for air-conditioning in surrounding

structures and creating a better environment for vegetation growth. Using recycled

construction materials is crucial for the Green Alley Program and creates cost savings while

reducing raw material consumption and stress on landfills. The Program requires the use of

energy safe street lightening that give street-level illumination for residents without shining

upward into the sky, reducing light pollution.

The Department of Transportation is also working with property owners to encourage their

involvement in the Green Alley Program, by providing maintenance advice and encouraging

projects like rain gardens to complement the new alley designs. The Chicago Green Alley

Handbook was published that presents numerous best practices that citizens as well as other

cities can adopt.

The program has been enormously successful and well received. Since the pilot projects

began in 2006, the city has resurfaced 15-20 alleys per year. The Green Alley Program won

a Chicago Innovation Award.

Budget $900,000 – pilot Project

Has this best practice been - Los Angeles 2008 -

replicated elsewhere? http://www.chcinc.org/downloads/CASLA%20Alleyway%20Report.pdf

- Ventura County Regional Watershed Program 2008

Contact information 30 N. LaSalle Street, 11th Floor, Chicago, IL 60602, phone: (312) 744-3600

www.cityofchicago.org/transportation,

david.leopold@cityofchicago.org, janet.attarian@cityofchicago.org

Internet links or other http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/publicroads/10mayjun/05.cfm

resources where more http://www.stormh2o.com/october-2008/chicago-green-alleys-3.aspx

information is available http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/cdot/provdrs/alley/svcs/green_alleys.html

http://inhabitat.com/chicagos-next-lead-the-green-alley-project/

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Justyna Pietras

Affiliation (university,

institution...)

Email address pietrasjustyna@gmail.com

135


Best Practice 37. The Living Roofs for Wildlife

Category and subcategory - Supporting (translocation process, pollination of crops, cycling and filtration process,

of ecosystem services to purification of air and water);

which the example refers - Provisioning (food: honey, herbs);

What element of nature

does it refer to?

- Cultural (quality of life, scientific discovery, aesthetic beauty)

Birds and insects; this project mainly focuses on the threatened species of birds and insects

like: brown-banded carder bee (Bombus humilis) and the black redstart (Phoenicurus

ochruros).

City/Town London, United Kingdom

Year 2009

Initiator Buglife –The Invertebrate Conservation Trust (www.buglife.org.uk) and Green Roof

Organization (www.livingroofs.org)

Short summary The Living Roofs for Wildlife Project resulted in establishing 6 living roofs in the top of

buildings located in London's most densely populated areas with small amount of greenery to

make preserving natural habitats and their wildlife. The project is mainly focusing on

establishing the best possible habitats for birds and insects which are the most threaten by

Problem that needed

a solution

intensive urbanization.

Nowadays in cities, green areas are shrinking to make way for asphalted parking spaces,

dwellings and road networks. Many species of insects and birds are threatened by extinction

due to lack of space to live, foods and pollution. Birds and insect are important links of food

chain due to pollinate plants. Without insects (e.g.: bees) plants reproduction will be

impossible. In a long term this could cause global food crisis.

Solution During the project the roofs of six buildings situated in London's most densely populated

areas with small amount of greenery have been adapted as green roof to create habitat for

birds and insects. The living roofs were covered in wild flower meadows, sandy areas and

shingle to attract for example honey bees. Besides providing necessary habitats for the city's

insects, living roofs also help to reduce energy consumption and prevent the flooding of the

sewage system. The Living Roofs for Wildlife Project is a result of collaboration between the

wildlife charity Buglife and green roof experts LivingRoofs. The project is primarily being

financed by the SITA Trust’s Enriching Nature Program.

Budget No data avaialable.

Has this best practice been No

replicated elsewhere?

Contact information

Internet links or other http://www.buglife.org.uk/conservation/currentprojects/Habitats+Action/

resources where more Living+Roofs+for+Bugs/Living+roofs+for+bugs;

information is available http://www.buglife.org.uk/News/newsarchive/newsarchive2009/highrisehomesforwildlifeproj

ectlaunches;

http://sustainablecities.dk/en/city-projects/cases/london-insects-up-high;

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Marta Kobyłecka

Affiliation (university,

institution...)

Email address martakob@o2.pl

136


Best Practice 38. Invasión Verde

Category and subcategory - Cultural service (recreation)

of ecosystem services to

which the example refers

What element of nature Greenery

does it refer to?

City/Town Lima , Peru

Year 2010

Initiator Lima City Hall

Short summary Lack of recreational space available for citizens. The Lima’s City Hall decided to create

recreational place (park) in the city center.

Problem that needed Lima has grown rapidly, and as the demand for housing grew, the city did little to incorporate

a solution

public park and recreational space into their development plans. According to the World

Health Organization, every person living in a city should have 8 sq. meter of recreation

space, and Lima has only 1.98 sq. meters per person, resulting in a shortfall of 4,800 hectares

of recreational spaces. Invasion Verde is an attempt to insert extra park space into a packed

city, in order to improve the quality of life for Lima’s citizens.

Solution The solution to this problem was the creation of the pop up park zone, which has created an

eco-friendly retreat in the middle of the city for recreation and relaxation.

The undulating mini-hills are covered in natural grass; recycled tires are planted with

flowers and grass and mounted on stool legs, serving as fun outdoor chairs. Recycled

plastic is also used as sculptural pieces throughout the park, which is planted entirely with

drought tolerant plants.

Budget $ 6,000

Has this best practice been

replicated elsewhere?

Contact information

Internet links or other http://inhabitat.com/pop-up-green-park-invades-the-city-of-lima-peru/green-invasion-8/

resources where more

information is available

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Alena Halamazava

Affiliation (university, Belorussian Economy State University (Minsk)

institution...)

Email address elena-golomazova@yandex.ru

137


Best Practice 39. Melbourne City Rrooftop Honey

Category and subcategory - Provisioning (honey);

of ecosystem services to - Supporting (trees pollination)

which the example refers

What element of nature Bees and trees

does it refer to?

City/Town Melbourne, Australia

Year November 2010

Initiator Rick and Sharron Hocking, Vanessa Kwiatkowski and Mat Lumalas

Short summary The project is organized by hobby-beekeepers with the aims to support the global effort to

help save the honey bees and bring bees back to the city and suburbs of Melbourne.

Buildings' rooftops are used for keeping and looking after the bees free of charge and using

natural beekeeping methods.

Problem that needed Decline in honey bee population has been reported in a number of regions, largely in Europe

a solution

and Northern America, and is becoming a global problem.

Solution The project has started as a hobby of two beekeepers. However, it has grown into an initiative

to get involved in the worldwide effort to save the honey bees. The main idea was to bring

bees back to the city and suburbs of Melbourne. The long-term goal is to produce honey

specific to each Melbourne suburb.

The project uses the buildings’ rooftops to install hives, maintain and look after the bees free

of charge and using natural beekeeping methods. It improves bees’ life conditions and

increases their life expectancy, especially during Winter season. The honey production of the

urban bees is often higher that of those forms the country-side.

City and suburban restaurants have the opportunity to sign up to participate in the project. It

also enables individuals to host the bees.

Currently there are 20 hives placed around Melbourne and an offer of more than 55

businesses and 55 individuals wanting to get involved or adopt a hive. From November 2010

40-50 kg of honey were extracted from 2 hives.

Budget Self-funded at the beginning. In January 2011, the project was awarded a monthly $1,000

grant by the Melbourne Awesome Foundation

Has this best practice been “The bee: Environment sentinel”, Paris, France, December 2005

replicated elsewhere? “Urban Bees”, London, UK (http://www.urbanbees.co.uk/index.htm)

“NYC Beekeeping”, New York, US (http://www.nycbeekeeping.com/)

“The Toronto Beekeeper’s Co-operative (TBCo-op)”, Toronto, Canada, 2000

“Chicago Honey Co-op”, Chicago, US, 2004 (http://www.chicagohoneycoop.com/)

Contact information Melbourne City Rooftop Honey

E-mail: info@rooftophoney.com.au

Internet links or other http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/on-the-citys-roofs-keepers-get-that-swarm-and-buzzy-

resources where more feeling-20110226-1b9b5.html

information is available

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Ksenia Petrichenko

Affiliation (university, Central European University, Environmental Sciences and Policy Department, Budapest,

institution...)

Hungary

Email address

138


Best Practice 40. Plant-A-Tree Program in Singapore

Category and subcategory - Supporting;

of ecosystem services to - Regulating

which the example refers

What element of nature Trees

does it refer to?

City/Town Singapore, Singapore

Year April 2010 – June 2010; March 2011 – December 2011

Initiator Garden City Fund Singapore (GCF)

Short summary Plant-A-Tree Program is one of nowadays common projects concerning planting trees in the

urban areas, invited by charity foundation – GCF. Planting process is funded by individuals,

families, corporations which can personally plant donated tree/s.

Problem that needed In response to increasing global concern over climate change, destruction of forests and

a solution

species extinction, the Garden City Fund from Singapore decided to plant more trees in their

urban zone. Trees help beautify environment, they absorb carbon dioxide from the

atmosphere, increase biodiversity, prevent soil erosion, provide shade, lower the temperature

of their surroundings. Moreover, 'visual exposure to trees' can also reduce stress in the fastpaced

world.

Solution The program invites individuals, families, corporations, schools, etc. to make a donation and

plant a tree personally (if it is possible). Personal planting is a great solution to encourage

local people to take part in protecting process of mutual ecosystems and be able to play

a part in creating a green, healthy, livable and salubrious environment that can all enjoy and

also ensure its continuity for generations to come.

Plant-A-Tree Program was implemented by Garden City Fund – registered charity Singapore.

It was established in 2002 under the patronage of the then Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew and

who, as Minister Mentor, is still GCF’s Patron today.

In the first edition between April 2010 and June 2010, 459 trees were planted, generally on

the last Sunday of each month, or on special days like World Environment Day or Earth Day.

In 2011, there is 17 public planting events planned (7 have already took place – but there is

no data available how many trees were planted).

Budget $200 per tree. In 2010, there were 459 trees planted (total amount about $91,800)

Has this best practice been All over the world e.g. New York City, Los Angeles, Peterborough

replicated elsewhere?

Contact information Garden City Fund

E-mail: garden_city_fund@nparks.gov.sg

Internet links or other www.gardencityfund.org

resources where more http://www.gardencityfund.org/PAT/index.htm

information is available

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Anna Gust

Affiliation (university, Faculty of Economics and Sociology, University of Lodz

institution...)

Email address aniagust@gmail.com

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Best Practice 41. "Széktó" Stormwater Catchment Lakes: Leisure Center and Local

Nature Conservation Area

Category and subcategory - Provisioning (water, wood, fish, biodiversity);

of ecosystem services to - Regulating (water purification and regulation, air quality and flow, (micro) climate);

which the example refers - Supporting (soil regeneration);

- Cultural (aesthetic values, recreation and fitness, education)

What element of nature Trees, water, biodiversity, birds, fish, air, climate, soil

does it refer to?

City/Town Kecskemét, Hungary

Year 2006 (local nature conservation area status granted)

Initiator Local Patriots' Association Kecskemét

Short summary This nearly 100 ha fenced area is a continuous urban forest around five open stormwater

aquifers and protected as a local nature reserve. It is divided into two parts: the safe

waterworks zone maintains 10 artesian wells and their surrounding protective forest belt, and

Problem that needed

a solution

the public accessible part serves as leisure center.

After some unsuccessful drainage attempts, comprehensive research revealed high quality

and quantity artesian water. First wells were driven in 1912; the city waterworks was founded

here in 1948. Inland inundation was channeled into a natural streamlet, which could not

handle increased stormwater runoffs anymore due to urban sprawl.

Solution In 2006, the whole area was taken under local nature conservation regulation for following

reasons and purposes:

- environmental: to protect the city against the prevailing winds and regulate air quality and

climate;

- ecological: to preserve the city's largest permanent water surface;

- zoological: to elevate the reconstruction of the habitats biodiversity and population;

- botanical: to maintain native trees and forest ecosystems;

- recreational and educational: to offer access to nature for city dwellers;

- water protection: to ensure water management of the city (freshwater source, stormwater

catchment).

An NGO that initiated the project, coordinated the necessary conciliation between the expert

planning team of Naturglob Service and Trade Ltd.

Budget The annual maintenance budget: 100,000 – 200,000 EUR. Last known expenses cover

160,000 EUR for establishing public grill places in 2010, or 100,000 EUR for habitats and

shoreline reconstruction in 2009.

Has this best practice been

replicated elsewhere?

Contact information Mayor's Office of Kecskemét, http://kecskemet.hu/?l=en

Internet links or other

resources where more

information is available

Management plan of „Széktó” stormwater catchment lakes: leisure center and local nature

conservation area (in Hungarian)

http://kecskemet.hu/doc/071220-04-030_0.doc

Information on the person who described this best practice

First name and surname Attila Lakatos

Affiliation (university,

institution...)

Email address future@kispitye.hu

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Best Practice 42.SsolarCity Linz-Pinchling – Sustainable Urban Development

Category and subcategory - Supporting (nutrient cycling);

of ecosystem services to - Regulating (water purification – wetland);

which the example refers - Cultural (aesthetic, recreational – Natura 2000 area, park, lake, riverside);

-Provisioning (biomass, solar, fuel for heating, ventilation – distinct heating, solar panels,

passive buildings)

What element of nature Biomass, biodiversity, wetland, rainwater, green spaces

does it refer to?

City/Town Linz – Pichling

Year 1991

Initiator City of Linz

Short summary The government designed a new urban district, solarCity, to become an exemplary model for

low-energy construction using alternative energy sources in social housing (1300 homes were

built with the usage of regenerative energy). The landscape architecture and the configuration

of local infrastructure followed ecological principles, which increas ed the ecological value of

the overall energy concept implemented in solarCity.

Problem that needed The problem behind the project was the vast need for housing.

a solution

Solution Orientation of the buildings and large windows were designed to utilize solar energy.

Resource-saving solar architecture was strengthened by bio-climatic design to reduce

expensive air conditioning (commercial center, schools, kindergarten). The primary aim was

to reduce energy consumption by thermal, solar panels and photovoltaics, as well as by wind

and biomass. Besides, native landscape was restored, and a continuous web of native habitats

was created by using greenbelts and protected wetland (Traun-Danube Riverside,

Aumühlbach). Recreational facilities are supported by the riverside, park landscape and the

lake (Weikersee). Harvested water is collected by roof greening, retention ponds and

rainwater is cultivated by swale retention system. Grey water is cleaned in planted sand bed

filters. Natural wetland near the riverside is used as pre-flooder. Disposal is composted and

reclaimed water is used as fertilizer.

An interdisciplinary working group led the project. According to systemic principles there

were representatives in the advisory board from the public sector, the business sphere, and the

community. Moreover, 12 non-profit residential construction organizations, eco-architects,

and energy technology planners (READ) participated in the project as experts.

Budget 190,000,000 Euro

Has this best practice been solarCity is a manifestation of the EU-Ecocity project and applies the ecocity principles.

replicated elsewhere?

Contact information

Internet links or other

resources where more

information is available

Such comprehensive projects are unknown elsewhere.

http://www.linz.at/english/life/3199.asp

http://www.iale.sk/download/breusteSS/solar_city.pdf

Information on the person who described this best practice

First name and surname Beata Imre

Affiliation (university, Corvinus University of Budapest, Budapest, Hungary

institution...)

Email address imre.beata.orsolya@gmail.com

141


Best Practice 43. Chicago Trees Initiative

Category and subcategory - Regulating;

of ecosystem services to - Cultural;

which the example refers - Supporting

What element of nature Trees, water, climate, birds, biodiversity

does it refer to?

City/Town Chicago, IL (USA)

Year 1989 – now

Initiator Municipality of Chicago

Short summary Chicago Trees Initiative supports Chicago Climate Action Plan and aims at reduction of CO2

emission.

Problem that needed The lack of trees in the city and all the problems caused by it (heat island, water retention,

a solution

low air quality, aesthetic problems)

Solution Till now more than 500 000 trees were planted in public and private areas in Chicago. The

program is created by experts with strong participation of the society, socially responsible

businesses, community organizations and individual partners. The Municipality of Chicago

takes active part as a project leader.

Every person who has its own backyard is invited to plant a tree. For that reason the list of

species and nurseries, as well as basic information about trees and its maintenance was

provided in a document Chicago City Urban Tree Planting Listing. For those who don’t have

own garden there are activities that they can take part in as volunteers. It is organized by

partner organization Chicago Gateway Green, launched in 2008 with a support of the Bank of

America Charitable Foundation. There are also educational programs that provide

information about planting and maintenance of trees.

Budget Data not available.

Has this best practice been Similar practices are run in other US cities for example: New York City or Seattle.

replicated elsewhere?

Contact information E-mail: chicagotrees@cityofchicago.org

Internet links or other http://www.chicagotrees.net/

resources where more

information is available

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Beata Dreksler

Affiliation (university, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Department of Landscape Architecture

institution...)

Email address Beata.dreksler@gmail.com

142


Best Practice 44. Grants Program for Housing Associations and District

Communities in the Field of Greenery Management and Trees Planting

Category and subcategory - Cultural (aesthetic)

of ecosystem services to

which the example refers

What element of nature Trees, greenery

does it refer to?

City/Town Gdansk, Poland

Year 2009

Initiator Gdansk City Council

Short summary The grant financially supported projects of greenery management and trees planting carried

out by housing associations and district communities in the city. The biggest beneficiary was

the Morena District Community which implemented “Plant a tree” project (planting 20,000

trees’ and bushes’ seedlings).

Problem that needed Many of Gdansk districts, especially those build in the 70s and 80s, have very bleak scenery

a solution

consisting of similar concrete blocks of flats. The attractiveness for living in such places is

low.

Solution In June 2009, the President of the City of Gdansk announced the Grants Program supporting

the projects of greenery management and trees planting carried out by housing associations

and district communities in the city. The problem was pointed out by the au thorities as well

as by local communities in many complaints. Twenty-four projects of creating or improving

the backyard greenery were supported by the grant program funded by the Gdansk Municipal

Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management (in total 239,000 PLN).

Housing associations could win a grant amounting to 50% of the planned project developing

backyard greenery.

Budget 239,000 PLN

Has this best practice been

replicated elsewhere?

Contact information Gdansk City Council

Nowe Ogrody 8/12, 80-803 Gdańsk

Phone: +48 (058) 323 60 30

E-mail: umg@gdansk.gda.pl

Internet links or other www.gdansk.pl

resources where more http://www.gdansk.pl/nasze-miasto,97,12242.html

information is available http://www.morena.com.pl/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=701&Itemid=1

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Adrian Strzalkowski

Affiliation (university, AGH University of Science and Technology

institution...)

Email address adrian.strzalkowski@gmail.com

143


Best Practice 45. NeighborWoods Program

Category and subcategory - Regulating (regulating climate)

of ecosystem services to

which the example refers

What element of nature Trees

does it refer to?

City/Town Austin, TX (USA)

Year From 2004

Initiator Non-profit corporation TreeFolks/Austin City

Short summary Planting trees to shade pavement is one of the ways to combat the urban heat island effect.

NeighborWoods' program wants to create shady areas along residential streets involving local

people by providing approximately 4,000 trees a year to homeowners during the planting

season.

Problem that needed As urban areas develop, changes in the landscape occur that cause urban areas to become

a solution

warmer than their surroundings causing and "island" of higher temperatures. The mean

temperature of a city with one million people or more can be 1.8-5.4 degrees warmer than its

surrounding.

Solution Strategically planting trees to shade pavement is one of the most cost effective ways to

combat the urban heat island effect. Covering 40% of Austin with trees would lower peak

summer temperatures by as much as two degrees and make Austin more livable. They

provide shade and help keep buildings cool, remove pollutants from the air and create oxygen

while reducing CO2, cool the air by as much as four degrees by releasing cooling water

through pores in their leaves. Homeowners that properly place trees in their landscape can

realize savings up to 58% on daytime air conditioning.

NeighborWoods' mission is to create shady areas along residential streets and sidewalks in

the Austin Energy service area by providing approximately 4,000 trees a year to homeowners

during the planting season.

TreeFolks performs site visits in residential areas, identifying suitable locations in the City's

right-of-way. When an opportunity to place a tree is spotted, a flag is placed in the

appropriate area and an order form is left on the property owners' door handle. The home -

owner must send the complete order form back to TreeFolks or sign up through online order

form. There is yellow and blue flag system. Owner can choose some particular tree form the

suggested group of tree species, which varies year to year to maintain higher diversity of

planted trees in the city. Five-gallon trees and planting instructions are offered to

homeowners of these suitable locations, if they agree to water and maintain the trees.

TreeFolks follows up with watering reminder cards for the first year.

Budget Data not available.

Has this best practice been

replicated elsewhere?

Contact information E-mail: admin@treefolks.org

Internet links or other http://www.treefolks.org/prog_neighborwoods.asp

resources where more http://www.ci.austin.tx.us/urbanheatisland/trees.htm

information is available

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Renata Dagiliute

Affiliation (university, Vytautas Magnus University

institution...)

Email address r.dagiliute@gmf.vdu.lt

144


Best Practice 46. The "Green Belt" of Vitoria-Gasteiz

Category and subcategory - Supporting;

of ecosystem services to - Provisioning;

which the example refers - Regulating;

- Cultural

What element of nature Trees, biodiversity, water, birds

does it refer to?

City/Town Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain

Year 1993

Initiator City Hall of Vitoria-Gasteiz

Short summary The “Green Belt” of Vitoria-Gasteiz, a semi-natural green area partially reclaimed from

degraded areas, surrounds the center and brings nature into the city, ensuring that the entire

population lives within 300 m of an open green space. Numerous tangible measures are in

Problem that needed

a solution

place to assist and increase biodiversity and ecosystems services.

The „Green Belt” aimed to provide a solution to the problems of the peripheral areas of

Vitoria-Gasteiz and to their state of degradation. There were areas of high ecological value

situated around the edge of the city, such as the forests of Armentia and Zabalgana (although

affected by erosion, fires, etc., they had managed to survive the urban expansion), but also

gravel pits, landfills and other degraded spaces that threatened the survival of the remaining

natural spaces. This zone offered precarious conditions for walking and had become

a physical and social barrier between the urban environment and the rural milieu.

Solution Vitoria-Gasteiz is divided into three „circles”: the first one is the city center, the second one

was degraded land and the third one encompasses mountains and forests. The „Green Belt”

project initiated by the City Hall refers to the activities within the second circle. The

degraded areas were not only converted into rich, diverse ecosystems, but the city also

monitors the growth and environmental impact of flowers, plants, and animals within the

Green Belt”. The project promotes the conservation of natural peri-urban spaces and the

ecological restoration of other recoverable spaces, integrates the city’s peri-urban parks into

the urban layout and at the same time connects these with the natural environment, develops

peri-urban spaces for satisfying the demands of the inhabitants for open-air leisure and

encourages environmental awareness and education. The idea of the „Green Belt” was

creation/recovery of several interconnected parks (currently seven) surrounding the city

under the slogan of „bringing nature to the city”. An information office and two bird

observatories help visitors to discover and enjoy the natural wealth of this place.

Budget Data not available

Has this best practice been

replicated elsewhere?

Contact information

Internet links or other

resources where more

http://egc.gecoloco.com/winning-cities/2012-vitoria-gasteiz/

http://www.vitoria-gasteiz.org/anilloWeb/en/html/4/49.shtml

information is available

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Anna Harutyunyan

Affiliation (university, K-Telecom CJSC

institution...)

Email address harutuniananna@yahoo.com

145


Best Practice 47. EarthWorks' Urban Wilds Program

Category and subcategory - Provisioning (food and air);

of ecosystem services to - Regulating (storing floodwater, air quality maintenance);

which the example refers - Cultural (recreation and aesthetic experiences);

- Supporting (production of oxygen)

What element of nature Trees and other plants, biodiversity, water, wild animals and birds.

does it refer to?

City/Town Boston, MA (USA)

Year 1999 – ongoing

Initiator EarthWorks and Boston Parks and Recreation Department

Short summary EarthWorks is working to restore Boston's city-owned natural areas by cleaning up, restoring

and protecting native ecosystems and natural ecological functions after decades of abuse and

neglect. The program connects urban residents to the natural areas through volunteer service

Problem that needed

a solution

projects, educational events, door-to-door outreach, and community meetings.

Urban areas faced a various problems such as vandalism, illegal dumping, fires, changes to

hydrology, soil erosion and compaction. A second set of factors (less related to urbanization)

such as invasive plant and animal species, insect infestations, excessive nitrogen deposition,

and climate change threatened and diminished the ecological functions and value of urban

natural areas.

Solution In 1999 and 2000, EarthWorks (EW) worked with the Parks Department (PD) to test

methods for removing exotic invasive plants (Norway maples, common buckthorn) from

urban wilds and restoring native trees and shrubs (suited to the soil, drainage, and s unlight

conditions) beneficial to wildlife.

The Urban Wilds Restoration Program was fully launched in 2001 (with a help from

volunteers and financial grants from the federal level). Beside ground work, EW also tried to

raise public awareness about the urban wilds and support restoration work by organizing and

conducting community meetings for neighborhood groups near the restoration sites.

Budget Data not available

Has this best practice been Chicago, USA - by Chicago Wilderness, 1996.

replicated elsewhere?

Contact information

Internet links or other http://earthworksboston.org/urbanwilds

resources where more http://www.cityofboston.gov/parks/UrbanWilds/default.asp

information is available http://www.bostonnatural.org/uwsurvey/uwfindings.asp

http://www.interenvironment.org/pa/hutcherson.htm

Information on the person who described this best practice:

First name and surname Octavian Moldovan

Affiliation (university, Central European University, Budapest

institution...)

Email address moldovanoctavian1986@yahoo.com

146


Best Practice 48. Münster - the Eco-mobility City

Category and subcategory - Provisioning (clean air);

of ecosystem services to - Regulating (climate regulation);

which the example refers - Cultural (recreational)

What element of nature Air

does it refer to?

City/Town Münster, Germany

Year Started in early 1980s

Initiator The City of Münster

Short summary For more than 20 years the City of Münster has been developing its bicycle infrastructure and

public transportation aiming at becoming "eco-mobility city". Promotion campaigns were

carried out and a service centre for clever transportation choices was established. Today,

Münster is a well-known environmentally-friendly transportation city.

Problem that needed Münster used to be a city with a very few bicycle lanes thus cycling was dangerous. Another

a solution

problem was traffic congestion and pollution.

Solution The City of Münster decided to systematically plan its traffic with the aim of consolidating

eco-mobility and limiting individual motor transportation. Bicycles became main focus

related to the traffic infrastructure in Münster. In 2007, the total number of bicycle paths was

already 304 km – new paths were built along seven green corridors which connect the

outskirts with the city center. In 1993, the City Council adopted the public transport

promotion program which included bus lanes and traffic lights priorities.

In addition, a service centre for clever transport choices (Mobilé) was established in

collaboration with communal transportation company, where citizens and tourists are

provided with the information on the best travel options and alternatives.

Budget

Has this best practice been

replicated elsewhere?

Contact information Mr. Heinrich Bruns

Green Spaces and Environmental Protection Department

City of Münster, Germany

Internet links or other Münster - the eco-mobility city. Urban sustainability - learning from the best.

resources where more http://ec.europa.eu/environment/europeangreencapital/wpcontent/uploads/2011/05/egc_bpcat

information is available alogue_2010-2011.pdf (July 13, 2011)

The Münster Application for the European Green Capital Award

http://www.muenster.de/stadt/greencapital/muenster-application.pdf (July 13, 2011)

147


Best Practice 49. Geothermal Energy - Natural Warm

Category and subcategory

of ecosystem services to

which the example refers

What element of nature

does it refer to?

- Provisioning (geothermal energy)

Earth's hot water

City/Town Reykjavik, Iceland

Year 1930 – ongoing

Initiator The Icelandic Government

Short summary Since 1930 Reykjavik has been developing its potential in utilization of geothermal energy.

In late 1960s the Icelandic Government set up an Energy Fund to further increase the use of

geothermal resources in the country and since then it has granted numerous loans to

companies for geothermal exploration and drilling. Today, Reykjavik has the world's largest

geothermal heating system and it powers the entire city, which considerably reduces the city's

dependence on fossil fuels and delivers savings of up to 4 million tons CO2 every year.

Problem that needed Raykjavik used to be completely dependent on fossil fuels (mainly oil) with consequent high

a solution

emissions of CO2 from its combustion.

Solution The special geological condition of Iceland (location along the Mid Atlantic ridge – a deep

sea mountain range with a high concentration of volcanoes) allowed it to take a huge

advantage of geothermal energy. Geothermal heat comes from the Earth's core, where

temperatures may reach 4,000-7,000°C; geothermal power plants can turn such heat into

clean energy.

In 1930, the Icelandic Government decided to turn its policy on developing the country's

geothermal energy potential. Energy Fund was set up and numerous loans have been granted

for companies specialized in geothermal exploration and drilling.

Today, there are five geothermal plants in Iceland – producing 26.5% of the country's

electricity and 87% of the housing and building heating needs (2005). These plants provide

energy for the entire country.

The price of geothermal water is one third of the cost of heating with oil, which can be the

basis for estimating financial savings. The total financial savings from 1944 to 2006 would

amount to about 4,290 million USD.

Total CO2 reductions are between 2.5 and 4 million tons annually, which is estimated on the

basis of other possible alternatives – in the case of Reykjavik this would have been the use of

fossil fuels such as gas, oil or coal.

Budget If the entire system were to be built today: 773 million USD. Connecting private homes to

system: 1,000-2,000 USD.

Has this best practice been Geothermal heat can be used by countries that sit over magma hot spots, including the

replicated elsewhere? following:

- Volcanic regions that border the Pacific Ocean (known as the Ring of Fire) such as the

USA, Mexico, Central America, Japan, Philippines, Indonesia and New Zealand;

- Volcanic chains that form along mid-ocean or continental rift zones: Iceland and Kenya;

- Hot spots where magma plumes continuously ascending from deep in the mantle, such as

the Hawaiian Islands and Yellowstone

Contact information Reykjavik Energy (Orkuveita Reykjavikur)

Einar Gunnlaugsson

Manager of Geothermal Research

E-mail: einarg@or.is

Internet links or other Reykjavik, Iceland. C40 CITIES website:

resources where more http://www.c40cities.org/bestpractices/renewables/reykjavik_geothermal.jsp (July 13, 2011)

information is available Reykjavik: the ground heats the city. SUSTAINABLE CITIES website:

http://sustainablecities.dk/en/city-projects/cases/reykjavik-the-ground-heats-the-city (July 13,

2011)

148


Participants of the XIV Summer Academy Challenges of Sustainable Development in Poland 2011

149

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