Tech_Issue 1 2009_0127_Final:TechToday_012709 ... - Raytheon

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Tech_Issue 1 2009_0127_Final:TechToday_012709 ... - Raytheon

Technology

Today

HIGHLIGHTING RAYTHEON’S TECHNOLOGY

Raytheon’s Culture of Innovation

Providing Leading-Edge Leading Edge Customer Solutions

2009 ISSUE 1


A Message From Mark E. Russell

Do you have an idea for an article?

We are always looking for ways to connect

with you — our Engineering, Technology and

Mission Assurance professionals. If you have an

article or an idea for an article regarding

technical achievements, customer solutions,

relationships, Mission Assurance, etc., send it

along. If your topic aligns with a future issue of

Technology Today or is appropriate for an online

article, we will be happy to consider it and will

contact you for more information.

Send your article ideas to

techtodayeditor@raytheon.com.

On the cover: Raytheon technicians

prepare a miniaturized radio frequency

antenna for thermal vacuum testing,

which mimics the extreme conditions

encountered in space, at the company's

Space Manufacturing Center of

Excellence in El Segundo, Calif. It is part

of a Raytheon-built radar that will circle

the moon and help scientists search

for ice and water deposits. For more

information, see the story on page 25.

2 2009 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Vice President of Engineering, Technology and Mission Assurance

There are many approaches to technological innovation. At Raytheon, our approach

is diverse. It captures both top-down and bottom-up ideas. It is disruptive and

incremental. It is directed at broad areas for use by the entire company, and the

needs of individual Raytheon businesses. Our approach is comprehensive because

innovations can come from anywhere.

At the same time, we know that the goal of innovation is not just to come up with

state-of-the-art technologies, but to develop new capabilities that meet our customers’

needs in a timely manner. Raytheon has a long history of developing innovative

solutions for our customers, as highlighted in this issue of Technology Today.

Innovation at Raytheon results from a culture that enables individuals to challenge

themselves and the status quo to develop new and better solutions. Innovation

occurs within our programs — as part of our technology planning and independent

research and development programs — and through numerous initiatives

aimed specifically at identifying and nurturing innovation. At Raytheon, innovation

is more than coming up with a new idea — it’s making that idea a reality.

That is what makes the difference for our customers.

This philosophy comes directly from our Chairman and CEO William H. Swanson,

who leads Raytheon with a consistent focus on the customer. In fact, Raytheon’s

goal is to be regarded as a customer focused company known for its technology and

innovation, enabling our customers’ success.

In the following pages, you will learn about the many ways Raytheon innovates,

including articles about our culture of innovation, the processes we use to innovate,

and of course, the innovations our culture and processes have produced.

In this issue’s Leaders Corner column, we hear from John Zolper, Raytheon

vice president of Research and Development. John talks about the importance of

mining fresh ideas and the programs that the company has implemented to

nurture innovation.

In 2009, innovation is taking on added significance. Engineering, Technology and

Mission Assurance is holding the Raytheon Technology Forum, March 25–26, in

Washington, D.C. Organized under a theme of “Innovating the Future,” the event

will be an opportunity for our engineers and customers to discuss innovative ways

to meet tomorrow’s evolving mission needs.

Best regards,

Mark E. Russell


View Technology Today online at:

www.raytheon.com/technology_today/current

Technology Today is published

quarterly by the Office of Engineering,

Technology and Mission Assurance.

Vice President

Mark E. Russell

Managing Editor

Lee Ann Sousa

Senior Editors

Donna Acott

Tom Georgon

Kevin J. Wynn

Art Director

Debra Graham

Photography

Jon Black

John Barela

Douglas Bobilya

Brad Hines

Matt Kuhlen

Dan Plumpton

Charlie Riniker

Jeff Thompson

Website Design

Joe Walch IV

Publication Coordinator

Dolores Priest

Contributors

Carrie Brown

John Cacciatore

Christel Kittredge

Marcilene Pribonic

Sharon Stein

INSIDE THIS ISSUE

Feature: Raytheon’s Culture of Innovation

An Integrated Approach to Innovation at Raytheon 4

Raytheon’s Innovations in Sensor Systems 7

Mission Innovation: Fueling the Engine 10

Swarm Intelligence for Automatic Knowledge Extraction 12

The Bike Shop: Engaging the Innovator 14

The Rapid Initiatives Group 17

Office of Innovation 19

Connecting the Quantum Dots 21

Raytheon’s Innovation Partnerships 23

Raytheon Innovations Making Headlines 25

Leaders Corner: Q&A With John Zopler 27

Legacy of Innovation: Seven Early Innovations

Eye on Technology

28

RF Systems 31

Architecture & Systems Integration 32

Materials & Structures 34

Information Systems 35

EO/Lasers

Special Interest

36

National Data Exchange System 38

The Science of Sports

Events

39

2008 Summer Symposia

People

40

Raytheon Certified Architects 42

U.S. and International Patents 43

EDITOR’S NOTE

At Raytheon, we have some of the most talented and innovative people in the world, all

focused on one thing — providing the best possible solutions to our customers around

the world. Whether it’s developing state-of-the-art technologies or redesigning existing

products and technologies in new and creative ways to meet a customer need, innovation

is truly part of our culture — it’s in our DNA.

This issue of Technology Today explores our innovative culture and initiatives, such as

the Raytheon IDEA program, the annual Raytheon Innovation Challenge, and university

partnerships, to name a few. It also highlights some of the technologies and programs

that make Raytheon an innovative leader, like swarm intelligence, oil extraction from

shale technology and SilenTrack for surveillance in dense urban environments.

This issue introduces a new section called Legacy of Innovation, which highlights some

of Raytheon’s early innovations. You’ll also read about a new MathMovesU initiative,

called Science of Sports, as well as our summer technology symposia.

Enjoy!

Lee Ann Sousa

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2009 ISSUE 1 3


Feature

Enterprisewide Innovation Initiatives

Raytheon Certified Architects Program

Innovation Challenge

IDEA Program

Technology Networks

External Collaboration

Independent Research and Development

Collaborating

to Ensure

Customer

Success

An inclusive approach to

Innovation at Raytheon

Innovation, as embodied in a novel product,

method, or service providing a result

with a valued quantifiable gain, is receiving

significant attention in industry and

government. The mantra, “innovate or

die,” is now being applied to corporations

and industries. At Raytheon, we have

always prided ourselves on our culture of

innovation — it’s not a passing trend, it’s

how we do business. This culture of innovation

enables us to provide leading-edge

solutions to our customers, as we have

continuously done for more than 85 years.

But we are not resting on our laurels.

Our innovative culture is rooted in our

diversity of people, products and thoughts,

and we continue to look for new ways to

drive innovation to address our customers’

needs. We nurture numerous specific internal

initiatives and strengthen our external

partnerships to ensure we constantly challenge

ourselves to invigorate the company

with new ideas to maintain our edge in

the marketplace.

4 2009 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Experience has convinced us that there is not

just a single approach that leads to successful

innovation in all aspects of the company.

We benefit from multiple complementary

approaches to encourage innovation across

Raytheon. Today, we are opening the aperture

by developing and applying internal

and external technologies to core and

growth markets. Our innovative culture

is at the center of these initiatives.

This set of approaches to innovation is

rooted in a set of principles outlined below:

Raytheon Principles for Innovation

Ideas can come from anyone, anywhere

in the organization

Robust ideas come from nurturing collaborative

environments

Innovation occurs at the intersection of

needs and ideas

Ideas may exist for sometime before value

or need is determined

Trust is crucial for people to collaborate

and share ideas

Radical/disruptive ideas are more likely to

come from diversity of thought created by

intersections of people with differences

Organizational Innovation Initiatives

Programs and Systems

Office of Innovation

The Bike Shop

Innovation Day

Rapid Initiatives Group

The Mission Innovation Group

Truly radical/disruptive ideas will often be

viewed as not feasible, impractical, or of

no value

Ideas are initially fragile; they need to be

nurtured

Different people have different styles of

creating ideas

Innovation cannot be scheduled, it occurs

when it does (but it can be facilitated and

encouraged)

Like innovation itself, Raytheon’s approaches

to innovation are dynamic and varied.

Together, they form a tapestry from which

internal and external inventions are

spawned, nurtured and matured into truly

innovative solutions. Some of the

approaches are summarized below and

described in further detail throughout this

edition of Technology Today.

Certified Architects – Through the

Raytheon Certified Architect Program

(RCAP), Raytheon’s top architects receive

advanced training to hone their skills and

enable them to define world-class architectures

that will integrate internal technologies


and products from across industry to form

innovative solutions. More than 100 architects

across the company are RCAP-certified.

Independent Research and

Development – Raytheon has a long

history of funding Independent Research and

Development (IRAD) to develop the next

generation of technology ahead of customer

requirements. This has enabled us to maintain

our technical excellence and challenge

our technologists to always consider innovative

approaches to hard problems.

Advanced Technology Organizations –

Chartered to work with our customers and

programs to develop and mature revolutionary

new technologies and products, our

Advanced Technology organizations execute

research and development programs under

contract to our customers. We look to team

with small businesses, universities and

commercial partners to leverage external

technologies; we understand that innovation

can come from anywhere.

Raytheon Innovation Challenge –

The enterprisewide Raytheon Innovation

Challenge (RIC) exposes employees to customer

problems with the belief that they

already have, or could readily conceive of,

new solutions to these difficult problems

when given the opportunity.

For the past two years, Raytheon has sponsored

the RIC. Last year’s targeted five key

challenges of one of Raytheon’s customers:

the U.S. Department of Homeland Security.

Reviewers received 230 white papers from

engineers in all six Raytheon businesses.

Authors of the most compelling white papers

attended a workshop to foster dialogue on

new ideas and stretch their concepts to further

enhance their approach. From the workshop,

eight ideas were selected for further

refinement, analysis and troubleshooting to

move them from an idea to a product concept.

Future plans for the RIC include formulating

additional challenge topics, increasing the

emphasis on constructive feedback and

encouragement, and broadening the pool of

innovators beyond the engineering community.

The challenge format focuses innovators’ attention

on known problems — if these problems

are solved, it immediately benefits our customers

and new product or service offerings.

Identify-Develop-Expose-Action:

Raytheon’s IDEA program – The intent

of the corporate IDEA program is to identify

novel ideas of value to the business, develop

them to a point where other funding is

appropriate, expose the idea to appropriate

business leaders, and quickly take action on

the most promising ideas. Here again the key

concept is that innovation can come from

anywhere, and this program enables the

employee with the idea to have time to

refine his or her concept.

This program is administered by Corporate

Technology and Research with the expressed

intent of making rapid decisions on funding

early-stage ideas for an investigator to perform

initial analysis, simulation or experiments

to refine an idea. The evaluation criteria

address technical originality and business

relevance. This “grass roots” system to gather

ideas allows anyone with a bright idea to

come forward.

Technology Networks – Raytheon has

established five technology networks which

also drive innovation: Mission Systems

Integration, Multifunction RF Systems, Multifunction

EO Systems, Information Systems

and Computing, and Mechanical Materials

and Structures. Within each technology

network are Technology Interest Groups,

each of which focuses on a specific technology,

and connects experts, peer-to-peer, across

Raytheon. For the past decade, Technology

Networks have provided an exceptional tool

for engaging leading-edge technology and

explaining customer needs. Each Technology

Network also hosts an annual symposium

and periodic workshops on special topics to

promote the exchange of technology and

knowledge sharing.

University Collaboration – The

Raytheon University Program sponsors university

memberships and research in areas that

align with our business needs, ensure our

awareness of important current innovations,

and enable our growth strategy. Colleges and

Continued on page 6

Feature

William H. Swanson on

Technology and Innovation

Raytheon is a technology

company. We believe that

developing the best solutions

for our customers is

all about fostering an

open culture that supports

rich dialog to generate

the best ideas. In

other words, it comes

down to inclusion: creating

a welcoming environment,

drawing on the

largest pool of the best

talent, and encouraging

diversity of thought and

opinion with customer

success in mind.”

William H. Swanson

Chairman and CEO

Raytheon Company

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2009 ISSUE 1 5


Feature Innovation at Raytheon

Continued from page 5

universities are the vanguard of basic and

applied research in the United States and

abroad. The objectives of this program are

to strategically align Raytheon technology

road maps and university research, sponsor

targeted advancements in core and adjacent

markets, and implement a disciplined

process for leveraging investments to

enable growth. The University Program also

operates in conjunction with other

Raytheon university activities to build relationships

and provide assistance to our college

recruiting program.

Small Business Collaboration

Programs – Raytheon is working to find,

nurture and leverage technologies being

developed by small businesses. Two programs

that foster this collaboration are the

Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)

and pilot Mentor-Protégé Program. The

SBIR program is a federal program that

funds small businesses to conduct research

and development of new and emerging

technology. These programs enable

Raytheon to utilize small-business capability

to develop key technologies while establishing

long-term relationships with small businesses

and strengthening relationships with

our customers. The U.S. Dept. of Defense

pilot Mentor-Protégé Program is designed

to provide small disadvantaged businesses

with technical and developmental assistance

from large businesses.

Innovation Organizations –

Organizations have been chartered across

Raytheon with identifying and developing

innovative products and business models.

Five such organizations are currently executing

in Raytheon, and each has demonstrated

results with a slightly different approach

to innovation.

Mission Innovation

Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems’

Mission Innovation (MI) group provides an

excellent example of far forward-looking

innovation applied to compelling issues

threatening our world: global warming,

renewable energy, biological diversity

protection, world health, education, and

civil defense. Using a dedicated group of

innovators, MI applies the company’s

6 2009 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

technologies and capabilities beyond the

core businesses. Not constrained to our current

products or technologies, MI broadly

partners with universities or other businesses

to create valuable solutions.

The Bike Shop

The Bike Shop at Raytheon Missile Systems

houses a world-class capability to rapidly

develop solutions and prototypes, drawing

on a skilled, passionate small team of people

who ignore the time clock and do

whatever it takes to fulfill the customer’s

needs — and fulfill them now.

The Bike Shop starts all projects with a

brainstorming session — its Envision

phase — to understand the real problem.

Once a workable solution to a problem is

envisioned, The Bike Shop assembles the

smallest possible team to execute the

effort: This is the Create phase of

their process.

The result of the final phase — Accomplish

— is a product of the intent and scope of

the work. The Bike Shop delivers two

primary products: special testing setups

and services for existing programs, and

prototype systems.

Rapid Initiatives Group

Within Raytheon Network Centric Systems,

the Rapid Initiatives Group provides the

mechanisms to tap into the broad, distributed

capabilities of the business. Established

to quickly address customer needs, it maintains

an experienced staff of program leaders

and a network of connections to the

engineering and functional units.

Using proven processes, the RIG can rapidly

marshal resources to meet a customer need.

All functions — business development,

contracts, finance, operations and

engineering — rapidly converge on a

viable approach to offer a solution to

the customer.

The ability to convert concepts and ideas to

contracted solutions provides strong benefits

to customers.

Office of Innovation

Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems

established an Office of Innovation to foster

a culture of innovation across all employees

and leverage ideas into new business. The

dedicated staff provides focus, creating a

connect point for anyone with an idea or a

problem needing a solution. Four systems

gather and develop ideas into business

value: Originator Assisted, Innovation

Centers, Innovation Challenge, and

Distributed Think Tank.

Innovation Day

In November 2008, Raytheon Intelligence

and Information Systems (IIS) held its first

“Innovation Day.” The event took place at

nine sites and showcased the best of the

business’s technology and innovation.

Innovation Day also included the first IIS

Innovator of the Year Award.

Five IIS projects received funding during

2008 under Raytheon’s IDEA program:

Helibuoy Prototype

Capture HPC for Malware Analysis

Stealth Modulation

Fast, Unsupervised Hyperspectral Imagery

Exploitation

Swarm Intelligence for Knowledge

Extraction

In 2009, IIS will begin implementing its own

IDEA program, using the tools from the corporate

program to help uncover more innovative

ideas from within the business.

Summary

Raytheon’s world-class innovation systems

continue to pump technology, products,

and customer solutions, creating value for

our stakeholders. The breadth and richness

of the systems that allow each business

and each individual to find novel, valued

solutions are unique.

Innovation is important to individuals as

well as to the company’s business growth.

Innovation kindles a special engineering

spirit: With a can-do attitude, nothing is

really impossible.

This edition of Technology Today describes

some of our innovations and the systems

used to produced them. We hope that the

examples provided will give you a glimpse

into the types of exciting work we do.

Bill Kiczuk

kiczuk@raytheon.com


Raytheon’s

Innovations in Sensor Systems

Raytheon has a long history of applying

and integrating innovations to produce

world-class sensor solutions for

our customers. One area where this is

readily apparent is in our state-of-the-art

systems. Today’s sensor systems have

become more capable, affordable and

reliable through an evolution fueled by constant

and consistent innovation. For example,

systems such as the Cobra Dane and

Pave Paws radar systems were leading-edge

radar sensors when developed 30 years

ago, and with 21st-century enhancements,

these early-warning systems continue to

play a key role in missile defense.

Numerous innovations are required to realize

each of these systems. During World

War II, radar systems were enabled by innovations

such as mass production of the

magnetron, which Raytheon pioneered in

the 1940s. Future sensor systems will benefit

from some innovative new technologies:

Gallium nitride (GaN), which will provide

radio frequency (RF) sensors with

increased power and advanced capabilities,

where needed

Compound Semiconductor Materials on

Silicon (COSMOS) to achieve revolutionary

semiconductor performance

Advanced electro-optical (EO)/infrared (IR)

detection and imaging devices for applications

in the x-ray, visible, infrared, terahertz

and millimeter-wave regions of the

electromagnetic spectrum

Advanced materials and mechanical

structures that not only provide support

and environmental protection, but also

remove heat, all while maintaining the

critical tolerances necessary for optimal

performance

Supercomputing technologies that execute

advanced signal processing algorithms

Systems that maintain the nanosecond

timing tolerances required for success

This wealth of experience and portfolio of

technologies enable Raytheon to provide

solutions that are scalable, affordable,

reliable and highly capable in response to

our customers’ operational needs.

Four of Raytheon’s state-of-the-art complex

sensor systems are described below:

AN/APG-79 AESA, which makes the U.S.

Navy’s F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet more

lethal and less vulnerable

X-Band Radar, the largest, most sophisticated

phased array, electro-mechanically

steered X-band radar in the world

SPY-3, the U.S. Navy’s first shipboard

active phased array multifunction radar

ARTEMIS, a sophisticated hyperspectral

imaging sensor that was designed and

built in less than 15 months

AN/APG-79 AESA Radar System

The AN/APG-79 AESA radar system is a significant

advance in airborne radar technology.

Entirely new — from front-end array to

back-end processor and operational software

— the system substantially increases

the power of the U.S. Navy’s F/A-18 E/F

Super Hornet, making it more lethal and

less vulnerable than ever before.

With its active electronic beam scanning,

which allows the radar beam to be rapidly

steered as it searches the surrounding airspace,

the APG-79 optimizes situational

awareness and provides superior air-to-air

and air-to-ground capability. The agile beam

enables the radar’s air-to-air and air-toground

modes to interleave in near-real

time, so that pilot and crew can use both

modes simultaneously, an unprecedented

technological leap.

Now in flight test with the Navy, the APG-79

demonstrates reliability, image resolution,

and targeting-and-tracking range signifi-

Feature

cantly greater than that of the current

F/A-18 radar. With its open systems architecture

and compact, commercial-off-theshelf

(COTS) parts, it delivers dramatically

increased capability in a smaller, lighter

package. The array is composed of numerous

solid-state transmit and receive modules

to virtually eliminate mechanical breakdown.

Other system components include

an advanced receiver/exciter, ruggedized

COTS processor, and power supplies.

X-Band Radar

The nine-story-high XBR is the world’s

largest X-band radar, weighing four million

pounds. The sea-based X-band (SBX) platform

that it sits on stands more than 250

feet and displaces more than 50,000 tons.

It consists of a semi-submersible oil production

platform, topped with the XBR. XBR is

the primary payload on the semi-submersible

platform supporting the Ground-

Based Midcourse Defense phase of the

Missile Defense Agency Ballistic Missile

Defense System. SBX’s floating platform, a

modified oil-drilling vessel, was designed

for exceptional stability in high winds and

storms. Measuring 240 feet wide and 390

feet long, the vessel includes a power plant,

bridge and control rooms, living quarters,

storage areas, and enough floor space and

infrastructure to support the X-band radar.

The X-band radar itself, which sits on top of

the floating platform, is the largest, most

sophisticated phased array, electro-mechanically

steered X-band radar in the world. It

consists of thousands of elements driven by

transmit/receive (T/R) modules. In the Xband

radar, they provide the full fire control

sensor functions for the Ground-Based

Midcourse Defense system, including

search, acquisition, tracking, discrimination

and kill assessment.

Continued on page 8

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2009 ISSUE 1 7


Feature

Continued from page 7

SPY-3

The AN/SPY-3 Multi-Function Radar (MFR) is

the U.S. Navy’s first shipboard active phased

array multifunction radar. It is an X-band

active phased array radar designed to meet

all horizon search and fire control requirements

for the Navy in the 21st century. MFR

is designed to detect the most advanced

low-observable anti-ship cruise missile

(ASCM) threats and support fire-control illumination

requirements for the Evolved Sea

Sparrow Missile, Standard Missiles, and

future missiles that will be required to support

engagement of the most stressing

ASCMs. MFR combines the functions provided

by more than five separate radars

currently aboard Navy combatant ships and

also supports new ship-design requirements

for reduced radar cross-section, significantly

reduced manning (no operators), and total

ownership cost reduction.

The radar performs such functions as horizon

search, limited above-the-horizon search,

and fire control track and illumination. One

of the most significant design features of the

radar is to provide automatic detection,

tracking and illumination of low-altitude

threat missiles in the adverse environmental

conditions routinely found in coastal waters.

ENGINEERING PROFILE

Katherine

Herrick

Deputy to the

Technology

Director, RMS

A fresh face at

Raytheon Missile

Systems (RMS),

Dr. Katherine

Herrick arrived

in Tucson, Ariz., in April 2008 from

Raytheon Integrated Defense

Systems’ Advanced Technology

Directorate. She brought her extensive

experience in cutting-edge RF

semiconductor technology, but

Herrick sees her current work as

deputy to RMS’ technical director as

drawing less upon her background

in solid state III-V devices, and

more upon her experience as a yoga

instructor and cellist.

8 2009 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

SPY-3 uses three fixed-face arrays, each

containing around 5,000 T/R elements.

These elements are connected to T/R integrated

multi-channel modules, each of

which drives eight elements. Individual

modules are designed to slide into the array

structure and provide a high-conductivity

thermal path to the cooling-array manifold

without having any connection to the T/R

module itself.

ARTEMIS

ARTEMIS is a sophisticated hyperspectral

imaging sensor for the Operationally

Responsive Space Office’s flagship Tactical

Satellite (TacSat) program. The U.S. Air

Force selected Raytheon to research and

develop the primary surveillance sensor for

the TacSat-3 mission. This groundbreaking

space sensor was designed and built in

less than 15 months as a rapid development

project.

ARTEMIS makes extensive use of COTS

components and industry-standard interfaces

to create an affordable, high-performance

space-based surveillance option. It also realizes

the operationally responsive space vision

of fast, flexible launch and use capability.

As defined by the joint Operationally

Responsive Space Office at Kirtland Air

“RMS is a bit like the human body,

or an orchestra,” Herrick said. “It’s

an extraordinarily complex system

of systems that’s capable of amazing

performance, but you can’t get the

best out of it unless you view it

holistically and determine the optimal

way for its elements to work

together in a dynamic environment.

“We work across RMS, and enterprisewide,

to develop strategic technology

road maps at multiple levels,

from basic technological innovation

to Supply Chain to Business

Development.” she explained. “We

evaluate capability gaps against

internal technology investment

efforts aimed at an array of technology

solutions. What we bring into

the equation is an integrative

approach that treats RMS as a

whole, preparing it for agility and

success in a complex environment of

developing customer needs and

technological possibilities.”

After receiving her Ph.D. in 2000

and conducting post-doctoral work

at the University of Michigan,

Herrick joined the Advanced

Technology Department at

Raytheon RF Components with a

focus on high-frequency semiconductor

circuits and integrated

arrays. After transferring to

Raytheon IDS’ Advanced Technology

Directorate, Herrick led the capture

of, and served as Raytheon’s principal

investigator for, the DARPA

COSMOS (Compound

Semiconductor Materials On

Silicon) program. That effort, she

recalled, was one of the most exciting

and rewarding experiences of

her professional career. “COSMOS

truly enables a new paradigm in circuit

design through the innovative

ARTEMIS baffle mirror assembly

Force Base, N.M., the responsive space

approach seeks to “assure space power

focused on timely satisfaction of Joint Force

Commanders’ needs.” Under one envisioned

scenario, warehoused satellite components

would be rapidly assembled, configured,

and transported to nearby sites for

quick launch into low Earth orbit — some

200 miles overhead. The TacSat-3 program

will test the feasibility of launching a payload

such as ARTEMIS within as few as

seven days after receiving the request.

Once in orbit, ARTEMIS’s quick-reaction

optics will enable it to see otherwise hidden

targets, such as disturbed earth.

When operated by a military commander

in the field, ARTEMIS is able to provide data

heterogeneous integration of semiconductors

via direct epitaxial

growth. It’s easy to be passionate

about your work when it’s this

transformational.”

Herrick received the 2007 IDS

President’s Award as the driving

force behind Raytheon’s path-breaking

COSMOS effort. Her other

recent awards include: the 2008

Outstanding Young Engineer Award

from the IEEE Microware Theory

and Techniques Society, 2008 RMS

Technical Honors Award, and

selection to the 2008 National

Academy of Engineers Frontiers’

of Engineering Symposium.

Herrick has published more than

40 technical papers, and holds

several patents in the areas of

antennas, RF MEMS packaging,

and microwave circuits.


in a user-friendly format, greatly reducing

critical response times and enhancing battle

assessment capabilities.

The Future of Sensor Systems

Raytheon continues technological advances

that improve sensing capabilities at different

wavelengths. As these sensors improve

in performance with reductions in size and

cost, wideband/multispectral/multiband sensors

are becoming powerful, practical solutions

for many applications. These sensors

integrate multiple phenomenologies to

exploit the unique characteristics of the target

and environment, for improved performance

against the most challenging targets

in the most challenging environments.

Polarization: A natural discriminant.

Electromagnetic waves may be resolved into

orthogonal oscillating electric fields. If there

is a significant difference in the amplitude

of one of the fields compared to the other,

the light is said to be polarized. Polarization

is of interest because manmade objects that

contain sharp edges and flat surfaces tend

to polarize light, while naturally occurring

objects do not.

Multiband: Detection can be optimized by

employing many segments of the spectrum.

Targets appear different across the spectrum

because of their composition. Components

are designed to operate across a limited range

of the spectrum, driven by system requirements

and physical parameters. By using sensors

that employ multiple portions of the spectrum,

selected for the best sensor performance

in that range, sensing can be optimized.

Multispectral: A color-based discriminant.

Objects are not typically blackbodies —

they emit or reflect some wavelengths preferentially

to others. This is obvious in the

visible, when we see the rich diversity of

color in the world. We can far more easily

separate objects from their surroundings in

a color image than a black-and-white one.

Yet we only sense three primary colors. All

other sensed colors are mixtures of these.

This is the idea of multispectral systems that

are two or three infrared colors.

Hyperspectral: Exploring color as a multidimensional

discriminant. Hyperspectral

systems use tens to hundreds of colors at

each pixel. Using this technology, we can

identify individual chemicals through their

line emissions. Thus, we can discriminate

painted vehicles from foliage, and even

identify gas emission from factories or gas

clouds. Raytheon has been a pioneer in this

technology for space applications.

Wideband: System range resolution is driven

by its operating bandwidth. Wideband is

a relative term used to describe a broader

range of operating frequencies enabled by

the use of improved component designs.

Ultra-Wideband: Ultra-wideband yields

higher range resolution. This is also a relative

term used to describe a significantly

broader frequency range; octaves or even

decades wider in operating frequencies.

Under DARPA’s COSMOS program,

Raytheon offers the designer the “best

junction for the function” without compromising

the yield and scale of complementary

metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) or

the speed and breakdown of compound

semiconductors (CS). COSMOS’s unique

technology enables the micron-scale placement

of CS (GaAs, InP, and eventually GaN)

in arbitrary locations on a CMOS wafer,

while maintaining co-planarity with the

CMOS for simple, high yield, monolithic

integration. This monolithic integration

approach is akin to the move from hybrids

to MMICs, which enabled compound semiconductor

insertions into systems over the

last decade. The figure below shows InP

heterojunction bi-polar transistors (HBT)

integrated onto a silicon-on-lattice engineered

substrate to enable InP performance

while maintaining CMOS affordability.

HBT

CMOS

Today’s multifunction systems integrate

sensing functions with communications and

electronic warfare functions by sharing the

aperture, processing and power to minimize

weight, volume and total lifecycle costs.

Two additional constraints are also driving

innovations in future sensor systems. First,

the available surface area or volume on a

platform may not accommodate multiple

unique sensors, each optimized for a specific

Feature

application. Second, if platforms operate

independently, this results in larger and

more expensive sensor systems. Thus, the

next generation of sensor systems will use

the techniques described, to enable multiple

simultaneous functions out of a

common aperture and to operate as nodes

in a network, sharing information with

other sensors.

Sensor netting is a powerful capability that

provides an interoperable plug-and-fight

architecture with networked multimission

sensors that are tasked by “mission managers.”

Acting as a network, the sensors

can provide persistent surveillance while

supporting multiple simultaneous missions.

Additionally, network performance exceeds

what is achievable by any individual sensor

because multiple sensors are viewing

objects from multiple angles and potentially

with greater spectral diversity (RF, millimeter

wave, terahertz, IR, visible regions, ultraviolet,

etc.) to dramatically improve our ability

to detect, track and identify objects.

Raytheon is a world leader in sensor

networking with products such as the

Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC),

deployed by the U.S. Navy, and the

Tactical Component Network (TCN) which

provides a bandwidth-efficient composite

tracking capability.

Summary

The four systems described in this article are

examples of how Raytheon’s culture of

innovation has resulted in providing

unmatched capabilities for our customers

and warfighters. As we address next-generation

systems, we continue to extend the

performance envelope while reducing cost

and increasing reliability. Raytheon is

extending its technological expertise and

integration skills to provide key sensor

technologies in a joint environment: joint

in the sense of the services working together,

joint in the sense of space, air, surface

and subsurface, and joint in the sense of

allies working together. We are developing

the architecture, the connectivity, the

software, the sensors and the electronics

to help choreograph how today’s joint task

force commanders integrate and employ

their assets.

Bill Kiczuk

kiczuk@raytheon.com

Contributor: Tony Marinilli

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2009 ISSUE 1 9


Feature

Mission

Innovation: Fueling The Engine. A Dual V Model Approach

Raytheon’s formal innovation organizations

are the “sparks” that ignite the

engine into creative action for solving

a wide variety of pressing global issues. One

such organization — Integrated Defense

Systems’ (IDS) Mission Innovation (MI) —

has been generating sparks for four years.

A Model for Innovation

The Mission Innovation team uses a Dual V

Model to look at society and technology

trends to anticipate where the next needs

and solutions may be — extending well

beyond just developing the next product

and into imagining how existing world challenges

potentially intersect with existing

Raytheon technologies and capabilities.

Following the top-down path, the MI team

examines near- and long-term global issues

across a multitude of focus areas; matching

those broad areas with external technologies,

solutions and partners in an open

innovation model. The bottom-up path

continuously draws from Raytheon’s

portfolio of technologies, capabilities and

expertise, using them to resolve world

problems. The intersection of these paths

10 2009 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

is where appropriate business models,

technologies, partners, and supporting

functions meet to create a solution.

Raytheon IDS Mission Innovation applies

the Dual V model to several focus areas,

including energy and environment, global

health, and civil defenses.

Oil Extraction From Shale Reserves

According to the latest studies, the United

States has an oil reserve of at least three

times that of Saudi Arabia locked in a

16,000-square-mile formation of oil shale

deposits beneath federal land in Colorado,

Utah and Wyoming. If successfully harvested,

it’s estimated that this resource could

yield anywhere from 500 billion to more

than two trillion barrels of oil — enough

to meet U.S. demand at current levels for

more than 250 years.

Raytheon’s solution combined its established

expertise in radio frequency (RF)

technology — more commonly used for

radar and guidance systems — with critical

fluids (CF) processes of small-business

partner CF Technologies.

Under this extraction scenario, oil wells are

drilled into the shale strata using standard

oil industry equipment. RF antennae, or

transmitters, are lowered into the shale.

The antennae then transmit RF energy to

heat the buried shale. Super-critical carbondioxide

is pumped into the shale formations

to extract the oil from the rock and carry

the oil to an extraction well. At the surface,

the carbon-dioxide fluid is separated and

pumped back into injection wells, while the

oil and gas are refined into gasoline, heating

oil and other products. These same

process could also be used to extract oil

from tar sands.


This method is more economical and environmentally

responsible than older oil shale

extraction techniques, as it uses far less

power, does not severely disrupt the landscape

or leave behind residue that can

enter groundwater supplies.

Raytheon sold its technology to extract oil

from shale and tar sands to Schlumberger Ltd.,

a leading oilfield services company, in 2008.

Global Public Health Surveillance System

Disease surveillance at the national and

international levels can provide critical information

for early detection and containment

of emerging health threats. However, disease

surveillance systems have evolved

without international standards or collaborative

protocols for specific data types,

resulting in a wide variety of unique databases

containing valuable information.

Information-sharing across the various

reporting systems (human, veterinary and

wildlife) happens via human-intensive, timeconsuming

activities such as the exchange

of e-mails or faxes.

The Global Public Health Surveillance

(GPHS) system would connect all existing

healthcare networks and add additional

virological disease-monitoring capabilities

to provide real-time global situational

awareness. The system leverages technologies

developed for the U.S. Department of

Defense with the existing public health

communications infrastructure to provide

data exchange.

Applications automatically process the

metadata in real time, and software agents

continuously search the metadata for virological

disease anomalies and trends using

numerical, temporal and geographic criteria

for alerting human operators when and

where appropriate. A metadata catalog provides

a substantial information resource for

human exploration using visualization tools

and data mining applications.

Feature

Detection of Threats Using Honeybees

For more than 100 years, it has been

known that honeybees can be conditioned

to detect chemical substances. In fact, the

bees can detect chemicals in parts per

quadrillion — orders of magnitude more

sensitive than the best man-made sensors.

Training insects to detect threats is not a

new concept. Using associate conditioning,

bees are exposed to a scent and then fed.

Within a couple of hours, bees associate

the scent with food. When they detect

the scent, they swarm to the source to

find the food.

Raytheon has built on this established

research and leveraged its expertise in RF

technology to improve upon previous

methods. Raytheon has developed a technique

of attaching RF identification tags to

honeybees. When bees that have been

trained to detect chemicals swarm to a

location, that location becomes a point of

interest for security officials.

Previous methods to track insects have

relied on “line of sight” methods, which

are difficult to maintain. Using RF

technology, the swarm can be monitored

electronically, out of sight of the handler.

In the short term, applications of the

technology could include locating landmines

and buried devices. Future uses could

involve homeland security applications such

as sensing explosives and illegal drugs.

Innovation for Global Stewardship

Raytheon is a leader in defense, homeland

security, and other government markets,

but the company now applies its

technologies and capabilities beyond

our core businesses, emphasizing our

responsibility of “global stewardship” to

solve issues threatening our world: global

warming, renewable energy, biological

diversity protection, world health,

education, and civil defense.

ENGINEERING PROFILE

Colin Whelan

Engineering Fellow

IDS

Whether developing

the next generation

of radar technology

or modifying sports

cars, Colin Whelan’s

passion for innovation

is unmistakable.

“I always wanted to

understand how

things worked, so I could try to improve

their performance and use them in new ways,”

said Whelan.

After joining Raytheon in 1998, Whelan led the

development of the Metamorphic High Electron

Mobility Transistor technology used in low-noise

microwave receivers. InP had long been the ultimate

low-noise transistor, but was cost prohibitive.

“Our diverse team of skilled engineers and technicians

took an innovative approach to the problem.

By discovering how to grow InP transistor layers

on low-cost gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrates, we

realized the performance and manufacturing

advantages, without the associated costs,” noted

Whelan. Following the successful transition of the

technology to Raytheon’s production GaAs

foundry, the team was recognized with Raytheon’s

Excellence in Technology Award.

With such projects, Whelan became fascinated

with “driving innovation through the right technology

investments, leadership and organizational

and team structures.” He graduated from

Raytheon’s Engineering Leadership Development

Program and Raytheon Integrated Defense

Systems’ Program Management College. He also

earned executive education certificates in strategy

and innovation and management and leadership

from the MIT Sloan School of Management.

In his present role as technology director for IDS’

Advanced Technology group, he fosters the innovation

of state-of-the-art materials, software and

sensors to meet our warfighters’ needs by partnering

with our customers, universities and small

businesses. Specializing in radar module technology,

Whelan leads the development of gallium

nitride (GaN), a semiconductor circuit technology

that offers disruptive capabilities in efficient

microwave power generation. “We needed numerous

innovations to bring this technology from

initial concept to its current robust state. Led by a

core group of dedicated Raytheon engineers, our

diverse team of government customers, universities

and business partners were able to significantly

accelerate the development,” he said. As GaN

now transitions into Raytheon’s systems, it will

enable a new generation of smaller, more affordable

RF sensors that produce even higher power.

Raytheon has honed its development activities

to produce not just inventions, but innovations,

where cost-effective technology solutions for our

customers’ needs are created and quickly moved

to production.”

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2009 ISSUE 1 11


Feature

Raytheon internal research in ant

colony systems (ACS) and artificial

immune systems (AIS) was recognized

with Raytheon’s 2007 IDEA Program

Innovator of the Year award. (For more

about the IDEA program, see “Innovation

at Raytheon.”) The IDEA Program seed

funding led to the award of a highly competitive

contract research and development

project from the National Reconnaissance

Office’s Director’s Innovation Initiative

Program. It also led to another recently

awarded highly competitive contract with

the Air Force Research Laboratory on

dynamic defensive counter-space indications

and warning.

Most complex problems in mission management

and sensor data exploitation are related

to optimization, search, learning or control.

Traditional mathematical techniques in

operations research require rigorous problem

formulation, and an optimal solution is

not always achievable. Furthermore, a realtime

solution is frequently needed by the

decision-maker in the battlefield and often

must be drawn from a set of incomplete

and uncertain observations.

12 2009 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Swarm Intelligence

for Automatic Knowledge

Extraction

Raytheon’s 2007 IDEA program of the year enables competitive awards

New techniques that are more robust, fast

and effective in solving these problems are

required. Raytheon has been exploring

bio-inspired techniques, in particular swarm

intelligence, for automatic knowledge

extraction, target recognition and tracking,

and anomalous event detection. Two

specific techniques under investigation

within Raytheon include ACS and AIS,

due to their robustness, great flexibility,

and efficiency in automatic complex

optimization problem-solving.

ACS and AIS provide better tools for solving

complex problems in mission management

and data exploitation. They are particularly

suitable for designing multi-agent systems

for solving difficult combinatorial optimization

problems. There is currently a lot of

ongoing activity in the scientific community

to extend/apply these algorithms to many

different problems like task scheduling,

vehicle routing, sequential ordering, graph

coloring, routing in communications

networks, etc.

Recognizing the utility of swarm intelligence,

a team of European researchers is

currently developing tiny autonomous

robots that can cooperate to perform

different tasks — much like termites, ants

or bees forage collaboratively for food,

build nests and work together for the

greater good of the colony. Under the

European Union-funded I-SWARM

project, a team created a 100-strong

centimeter-scale robots to be used for

future exploration of the planet Mars.

Applying Swarm Intelligence

Swarm intelligence, when combined

with knowledge representation techniques

such as cognitive graphs, will become a

very powerful means for solving many

complex problems in data exploitation;

system analysis; intent identification; and

intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance

mission management.

Current research and development efforts

are in the use of swarm intelligence for

automatic knowledge extraction for


situational awareness, robust intrusion

detection, mobile target detection and

tracking, abnormal behavior recognition,

cancer detection and screening, etc. The

use of ACS and AIS as a new and better

way of solving old problems in Raytheon

traditional markets will support our effort

to maintain our customer base and provide

a means to expand our business into

adjacent markets.

Ant Colony Systems

Ant algorithms were inspired by the observation

of real ant colonies. Ants are social

insects; insects that live in colonies are

directed more to the survival of the

colony as a whole than to that of a single

individual component of the colony. An

important and interesting behavior of ant

colonies is their foraging behavior, in

particular how they can find the shortest

paths between food sources and their nest.

While walking from food sources to

the nest and vice versa, ants deposit

pheromones, forming a pheromone trail.

Ants can smell the pheromones, and when

choosing their way, they tend to choose, in

probability, paths marked by strong

pheromone concentrations. It has been

shown experimentally that this pheromone

trail-following behavior can give rise, once

employed by a colony of ants, to the emergence

of the shortest paths.

Artificial ants (e.g., robotic ants or software

agents) have a double nature. On one

hand, they are an abstraction of those

behavioral traits of real ants that seem to

be at the heart of the shortest-path-finding

behavior observed in real ant colonies. On

the other hand, they have been enriched

with some capabilities that do not have a

natural counterpart, making them more

effective and efficient.

Artificial Immune Systems

Parallels have been drawn between the

human immune system (HIS) and anomaly

detection problem domains, particularly

with regard to intrusion detection systems.

The HIS, for the most part, successfully pro-

Feature

tects the body from harmful pathogens

that come in many forms. Each type of

pathogen has a different cellular structure,

method of replication and mechanism for

entering the body. The immune system

has evolved complex structures and

methods for identifying these pathogens

and removing or responding to the threat

that they possess.

The widely held view in immunology is that

the main function of the immune

system is to distinguish between “self”

(cells belonging to the individual) and “nonself”

(pathogens). However, immunologists

are increasingly finding fault with traditional

“self–nonself” thinking and a new “danger

theory” is emerging. This new theory suggests

that the immune system reacts to

threats based on the correlation of various

(danger) signals, and it provides a method

of “grounding” the immune response, i.e.,

linking it directly to the attacker.

In AIS, a variety of contextual clues may be

essential for a meaningful danger signal,

and immunological studies provide a framework

of ideas as to how danger is assessed

in the HIS. Once the danger signal has been

transmitted, the AIS can react to those artificial

antigens (e.g., anomalous events/targets

in the input data set) that are “near”

the emitter of the danger signal. This allows

the AIS to pay special attention to dangerous

components and would have the

advantage of detecting rapidly spreading

viruses or scanning intrusions at an

early stage, preventing serious damage.

Swarm intelligence belongs to the

relatively new wave of stochastic metaheuristics

like evolutionary computation,

simulated annealing, tabu search and

neural computation, which are built

around some basic principles taken by

the observation of a particular natural

phenomenon. Within the artificial-life

field, ACS and AIS represent the two

most successful applications of

swarm intelligence.

Duong Nguyen

dnguyen1@raytheon.com

ENGINEERING PROFILE

Duong

Nguyen

Senior Principal

Multi-Disciplined

Engineer, IIS

During his seven

years with

Raytheon, Duong

Nguyen has been

a member of the

Intelligence and

Information

Systems (IIS)

Rocky Mountain

Engineering/Advanced Planning and Technology

Development program. He is also responsible

for contract funded research and development

(CRAD) and University Directed Research

Programs at IIS’ Aurora, Colo. site.

Before joining Raytheon, Nguyen was in

academia for many years. He also worked in

research and development at Centre National

d’Etudes Spatiales in France, as chief scientist

at Geodynamics, and as a technical advisor

at Northrop Grumman.

According to Nguyen, innovation is creating a

new and useful idea that provides a solution to

a problem of interest to our customer, or helps

improve Raytheon in-house capability and

allows it to operate more effectively. He has

applied this definition throughout his career.

He was the first to propose the use of “Real

Options Theory” in the financial investment

domain for dynamic satellite tasking and

secured a highly competitive CRAD project for

the idea. Later, while exploring bio-inspired

techniques for better space mission planning

and management, he proposed the use of

“swarm intelligence” for automatic knowledge

extraction. This innovative idea led him to

receive an in-house IDEA award and another

CRAD project. In all, Nguyen has been awarded

two in-house IDEA projects and three highly

competitive CRAD projects, with two patents

pending, in four years.

One of the biggest challenges that Nguyen

encounters is motivating engineers to come up

with innovative ideas. He believes that it’s

imperative for Raytheon engineers to realize

that innovation generates CRAD, and CRAD

sustains and supports business growth.

“It’s relatively easy to motivate young engineers

to realize that innovation and CRAD have a

causal relationship. Without innovation, it’s

hard to get CRAD projects,” he explained.

“Also, without CRAD requirements we don’t

know what innovative ideas customers need.”

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2009 ISSUE 1 13


Feature

The Bike Shop: Engaging the Innovator

Understanding the problem; working with the customer; methods to achieve success through

Envision, Create and Accomplish; and pitfalls to avoid

Innovation, rapid product development,

rapid reaction, prototyping, rapid transition

to production. Sound familiar?

These, and many other semantically similar

phrases, have become the ubiquitous

clichés of developmental industries. This

article is about innovation and innovators; it

is also about customers, problem solving

and growing the business.

Raytheon Missile Systems’ Bike Shop is often

asked what the formula is for innovation.

Our answer is simple: “You are asking for a

roadmap to a place where nobody has

been before; it doesn’t exist.” We describe

ourselves as a rapid product development

and experimentation lab. Fundamentally,

we are problem solvers. Problems come in

myriad forms but generally share some

basic characteristics: A customer is willing

to pay to satisfy a need. The customer has

a pre-conceived notion of what the solution

looks like. The first is the genesis of business.

The second is the first mistake in the process.

The Bike Shop’s motto is “Envision – Create

– Accomplish.” This consistently proves to be

an effective program plan for innovation.

Envision

The first task of an innovative solution

provider is to understand the problem —

the real problem. Too often engineers make

their first mistake on a project by trying to

understand the solution or accepting the

proffered problem statement at face value.

The Bike Shop starts all projects with a

brainstorming session.

Here is an opportunity for an early mistake.

Assuming you don’t need a theoretical

physicist and a machinist at your brainstorming

session is a sure sign that you

have pre-supposed the expertise required to

achieve an optimum solution. Envision the

problem. Put the problem into your own

14 2009 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

team’s terms and understand it from the

ultimate user’s perspective.

If your team can’t envision the problem,

and communicate it to each other and

the customer in their own terms, you

have no business trying to solve it.

If a customer comes in and says “I need a

bridge,” don’t start ordering steel and

searching for a civil engineer. Find out what

problem he or she is trying to solve. The

real answer may not be “I need a bridge.”

The problem may be something like, “My

house is on this side of the river and my

fields are on the other side.” There are a lot

of solutions to that problem. Build a new

house, reroute the river, plant new fields,

sell everything and move to a new location.

In the end, you might not build a bridge.

The Box

Think of industry as three nested boxes,

business inside physics inside imagination.

We can imagine all kinds of things we can’t

build. We can build all kinds of things that

the business is not set up to handle. The

business box is the safe box, the box where

there is a process, procedure or precedent

to cover an action or concept. It is also the

box that supplies paychecks, benefits, capital,

facilities, resources and retirement.

Paradoxically, we want everyone to operate

outside the box while simultaneously telling

them on a daily basis that they must follow

the rules. Company policies define the business

box. If you start the process of innovation

inside the business box you will fail, by

definition. As Albert Einstein once stated,

“The definition of insanity is doing the

same thing over and over again and expecting

different results.” Attempting to accomplish

outside of the business box is tricky. If

it is done right, the boundaries of the business

box expand and you grow into new

Imagination

markets, opportunities and technologies. If

it is done poorly, problems can be created

for both the company and the innovator.

Innovation starts in the imagination box.

There is a ping-pong table in the Bike Shop.

Real innovation has occurred with four

engineers playing doubles and saying things

like, “What if we…” or “Have you ever

seen a…” and a favorite, “Here’s a ridiculous

idea…” Brainstorming teams need to

be comfortable with each other and willing

to engage in open imagination without ego

or prejudice. Remember: It’s OK to pay

people to think, not just work. Part of envisioning

is mentally mapping out how to

navigate through the boxes. A real challenge

for the Innovator is to understand

that every project or product must end up

“inside the box.”

Create

Laws of Physics

Business

Envision Create Accomplish

Once a workable solution to a problem is

envisioned, the smallest possible team

should be assembled to execute the effort.

Choosing the right team members and

team lead is critical to success. The leader

for a project should be chosen based on his

or her passion for the particular challenge.

A good leader is a good leader — but a

passionate leader inspires success and will

accept nothing less.


COTS

On Hand

MCOTS

Prototype

Function

New

Design

Hardware

Store

Design

Reuse

A serious pitfall is waiting at the start of

the creation process — the plan. Funding,

manpower and schedule: all are rolled up

into a program plan intended to accomplish

something that hasn’t been done yet. Toorigid

plans are a common mistake. A good

plan for the creation of an innovative solution

accepts that there are many unknowns

that will need to be sorted out quickly

along the way. Plans should be flexible

enough to accommodate these changes.

Do your homework. Raytheon has produced

extremely satisfied customers, in short

order, by understanding their problem,

doing the research, and proposing that the

customer go to another company to buy

an off-the-shelf 85 percent solution. Little

business is generated for us on those cases,

but it fosters relationships with customers

who subsequently bring us a lot of business,

because they trust the Bike Shop as

an honest broker for their interests.

The final required piece of the creation part

of our process is a dedicated group of artisans

who not only have a high level of skill

in their craft, but also the confidence and

communication skills necessary to be a significant

contributor to the creative process.

On Hand

Vendor

Controls

COTS

MCOTS

Accomplish

Feature

Configuration Management and

Data Management Controls

New

Design

Prototype

Function

Production

Traditional Prototype Model Quality Prototype Model

Design

Reuse

Quality

Assurance

and SCM

Hardware

Store

What a particular project accomplishes is

clearly a product of the intent and scope

of the work. The Bike Shop delivers two

primary products: special testing setups and

services for existing programs, and prototype

systems (see figure above). The

panacea of prototype systems is the new

product that goes into production and

feeds the product lines. Here again is a pitfall

to be understood. If one in 10 or 20

prototypes ends up as a product, when is

the right time and what is the right amount

of effort to put into documentation and

configuration management? The Bike Shop

has learned, by trial and error, a few general

guidelines to help answer that question.

We identify two distinct but related versions

of the prototype: the traditional prototype,

and the quality prototype. Virtually every

project starts out building the traditional

prototype through design, vendor-part

identification, and understanding existing

hardware. As the prototype evolves, and

customers’ and Raytheon’s awareness of it

develops, an unquantifiable sense of applicability

and relevance takes root and the

potential for more than a one-off product is

realized. As soon as this starts to take place,

Continued on page 16

ENGINEERING PROFILE

Daniel Charlin

Innovation

Advocate, SAS

Innovation Advocate

Daniel Charlin’s 26

years at Raytheon are

just a part of his lifelong

dedication to

science and innovation.

“I took apart

toys at a very early

age,” he remembered.

“I became more creative

as a teenager,

and since then solving problems and developing

new ways of doing things has been a way of life.”

Working in the aerospace industry has helped

Charlin follow this path. “I’ve been allowed to use

my inquisitive nature to work in chemical, physical

analysis, electronic, RF, and opto-mechanical laboratories

— solving problems and finding new ways

of doing things.”

At Raytheon, Charlin has rotated through engineering,

quality, manufacturing, supply chain, and

program management roles. “Each of these roles has

developed a different facet of my career,” he said.

For Charlin, “Innovation occurs at the intersection

of preparation and opportunity.” As an innovation

advocate, he helps others prepare and focus their

vision so they can identify opportunities. “I help

unlock their creativity; guide them to potential

sponsors, champions and customers; and help put

their ideas in a place where they can become solutions

to real problems and provide value to Raytheon.”

One of the biggest challenges to innovation,

according to Charlin, is time. “Ideas need to be to

be nurtured and developed and funding found.

Going from need, to idea, to a funded innovation,

to a marketed product can take years — but we

often only have months.” He added that while it’s

possible to educate people on the time it takes to

innovate, it’s important to also find creative

approaches to shortening cycle time.

Another challenge is ensuring that we can tap into

the ideas of innovators from across the company.

“We have made great strides in a number of areas,

but we still haven’t fully tapped the thousands of

innovators across SAS. There is still much to be

done to unlock the innovators’ creativity and

connect them to real needs and real customers in

order to grow the Raytheon business.”

Innovation often requires taking risks, according

to Charlin. And sometimes this, combined with

tight deadlines, can mean a lot of stress. “I sometimes

wake up at night and wonder how we will

meet the deadlines and manage all the risk. But

then I see the goal, and realize that it’s worth the

risk and this is the most exciting job there is.” In

fact, he added, “These same risks and deadlines are

what make this job so exciting.”

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2009 ISSUE 1 15


The Rapid Initiatives Group:

Responding to Today’s Threats

The mission of Raytheon Network Centric Systems (NCS) Rapid Initiatives Group (RIG) is to explore and pursue

rapid and/or adjacent market opportunities to grow beyond the product lines’ core businesses. We target

customers with critical near-term needs requiring unique, high-assurance solutions.

The RIG, led by NCS Vice President

Gene Blackwell, is a strategic business

growth organization that operates in

a streamlined, rapid-response environment

to identify opportunities, assess and shape

their strategic value, develop solutions and

form partnerships, and transition the pursuit

to the appropriate Raytheon product line.

The 12 members of the RIG are currently

involved in 40 domestic and 30 international

opportunities in more than 20 countries.

Many significant opportunities have been

identified in:

Infrastructure protection

Critical asset protection

Border security

Crisis management

Cyber security

Civil command and control

ENGINEERING PROFILE

Tim Smith

Engineering

Fellow, IIS

In 1986, Tim

Smith graduated

from the

University of

Maryland

with a degree

in aerospace

engineering.

Upon graduation, he was faced with

a decision: Should he follow his

classmates and take one of many

industry jobs, or take a relatively

low-paying job at a government lab?

For Smith, it was an easy choice.

He spent several semesters as co-op

employee in the Aviation & Surface

Effects Division of the David Taylor

Research Center, the U.S. Navy’s premier

platform research lab. “It was a

cool place to be in the 1980s. The

cold war was still on, the ‘100 knot

Navy’ initiative was winding down,

Historically, many security threats were

effectively and affordably addressed using

conventional technologies such as metal

detectors, surveillance cameras or access

controls. These controlled, single-sensor,

binary decision techniques are ineffective

for today’s asymmetric threats. Most — in

some cases all — technical challenges have

been solved; the key is bringing them

together effectively and affordably. Also

critical is user adoption of incremental, fundamental

and sometimes revolutionary

changes in products, applications or

processes that solve these new challenges.

Recasting the opportunities listed above

into paradigms, they could be rewritten as:

Threats in which the enemy has a significant

return on investment advantage.

For example, tens of millions of dollars

in damages can result from an attack on

and stealth was just taking off,” he

said. “The lab did truly breakthrough

technology research on

hydrofoils, hovercraft, helicopters,

submarines, hypersonic aircraft, racing

boats — you name it, if it needed

to go fast or quiet on the sea or in the

air, the David Taylor Research Lab

was involved. None of the industry

job offers were remotely comparable.”

Fifteen years at the lab augmented

Smith’s intelligence analysis work

with numerous odd-job assignments

writing design codes, deriving

physics models and supporting

experiments. In 1993 Smith completed

a master’s degree in mechanical

engineering with focus on distributed

optimization using intelligent

agents. He was then selected as

a founding member of the

Autonomic Ship Team to develop

automation concepts for reducing

manning on naval ships. The team

went beyond simple autonomy and

presented a vision of improved performance

through reduced manning

that influenced the requirements

for all modern ship acquisition

programs. Smith was hooked;

engineering disruptive change on

a large scale was very rewarding.

In the final five years of his government

service, Smith supported several

DARPA, ONR and NAVSEA

programs. “I was always asked to

lead a small team of bright people

far into the future — where none of

their risk-adverse development

managers dared go — develop a

vision, run a couple of feasibility

projects, and recommend options

for the next phases of development.

The advance team would usually

find a better way and point out a

disruptive new technology or

approach that would doom the current

development effort and embarrass

the program leadership. I got

used to being suddenly dismissed.”

In 1997 a leading consulting firm

took note of Smith’s odd career and

made him an offer he couldn’t

Feature

an oil refinery, which might cost $10,000

to stage.

Protection of borders or critical infrastructures

without limiting the flow of pedestrian

or vehicular traffic.

Providing covert surveillance and rapid

threat response capabilities for densely

populated public areas without infringing

on personal privacy.

Developing system-level solutions that

can adapt as fast as the threat, such as

detection of improvised explosive devices

or defense against cyber attacks.

Cultural, privacy, financial and ITAR issues need

to be addressed, as well as technology and cost.

The RIG’s Innovation Environment

The RIG creates solutions through innovative

integration of existing and proven

emerging technologies. We are also

Continued on page 18

refuse. Shortly after joining Syntek

Technologies, Inc., in 1987, he was

sent to Berlin to assist the German

startup, CargoLifter, GmbH, as they

attempted to create the world’s first

transcontinental heavy-lift airship.

Smith joined Raytheon in 2003 to

help develop advanced ground

segments for the rapidly growing

unmanned vehicle market. He is

now focusing on research and development

programs to improve the

“user experience” for IIS’s product

lines. He recently received the 2008

IIS Technology Innovator of the

Year award.

“True innovation requires a deep

understanding of human fears and

desires, deployment issues, and

financial reality,” Smith said. “Sexy

new component technologies and

clever system engineering are exciting,

but until the new product or

service is deployed and making a

difference in people’s daily lives it is

all just talk.”

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2009 ISSUE 1 17


Feature

Continued from page 17

spearheading the exploration of innovative

business models to expand NCS’ ability to

grow in non-traditional markets. Our multidisciplinary

team is made up of senior engineers,

scientists, business development staff

and program leaders. They can leverage

customer relationships and operational

knowledge and draw on the skills and

experience of thousands of people within

Raytheon and its partner companies to

deconstruct the problem, envision many

possible solutions, and define the path for

customer adoption.

We go where others aren’t, often venturing

off established paths toward finding solutions.

We seek out and partner with nontraditional

businesses — both large and

small — to supply the new technologies

that provide the innovative solutions.

Consider the possibilities: 3-D imagery

enables the viewer to visualize and rationalize

relevant battlefield information for

quicker decision-making. Advanced biometric

technologies provide covert scanning of

crowds for individuals of interest.

We take an unbiased approach to seeking

out best-in-class capabilities from across

industries and technologies and integrate

them into an appropriate solution. Our

team regularly taps into the skills, knowledge,

processes and technologies that have

established Raytheon’s reputation as a

world-class Mission Systems Integrator. The

great depth of expertise resident throughout

Raytheon allows us to rapidly respond

to complex and multi-disciplinary needs.

The Initiative That Launched the RIG

The best example of a successful rapid initiative,

and the one that help form the RIG,

was the Persistent Surveillance &

Dissemination System of Systems (PSDS2).

On the battlefield, rapid integration and

dissemination of sensor data is vital. At the

onset of the Iraq war, sensors were not

linked and data dissemination was slow and

unreliable. Simply put, quick and efficient

integration of sensor data would save lives.

For the first time, Raytheon’s PSDS2 allowed

a command and control system to put sensor

data and intelligence information into

meaningful context, providing rapid and

accurate situational awareness. The system’s

3-D picture enabled operators to better

understand what they were seeing and

18 2009 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Affordable surveillance supports multiple missions

where it was happening — enabling anticipation

of the threat’s next actions. The initial

PSDS2 system achieved the goal of

improved decision making and quicker reaction

time; time from concept to initial system

delivery was less than 110 days. The

Rapid Initiatives Group continues to work

with government and industry partners to

enhance operational capability and efficiency.

Emerging Innovations

Many of the challenges described above

require innovations in detection of anomalous

activity from what would typically be

considered routine behavior. In order to

provide solutions, emerging RIG innovations

exploit advances in persistent surveillance,

multi-intelligence data fusion, video analytics,

biometric sensing on-the-move, and spectroscopic

and imaging detection technologies.

Mobile Enhanced Situational Awareness

Mobile Enhanced Situational Awareness

(MESA) is a RIG innovation that exploits

commercial off-the-shelf technology to provide

a global tracking and alert network.

The MESA system leverages commercial

satellite, existing communications networks,

and RFID technology. RFIDs provide timecritical

information through existing bidirectional

satellite communication networks,

which also provide an alert capability

to commercially available or secure

radios. The architecture is scalable and

supports highly mobile applications. We

envision homeland security, military and

commercial applications: for example,

covert tracking of packages, alerts from

unattended ground sensors, or wide-area

broadcast to emergency responders.

Affordable Air Surveillance

Serving as the Mission Systems Integrator,

the Rapid Initiatives Group assembled 15

industry vendors to demonstrate how offthe-shelf

technologies could be integrated

to provide greater effectiveness to military,

law enforcement and first responder operations.

The demonstrations showed various

ways to increase the efficiencies in detecting,

identifying, responding and eliminating

threats for force protection, counter-terror

and first responder missions. The event,

held at the French Valley Airport in

Temecula, Calif., showcased Raytheon’s

ability to visualize and execute the “Art of

the Possible,” the theme of the event. The

demonstration highlighted the increase in

situational awareness and quicker, more

accurate decision making through integration

of existing technologies. Payloads on

an ultralight aircraft and a hyper-blimp were

used to efficiently provide persistent surveillance

of a specific geographic area. Existing

technologies allowed interoperable communications,

mobile ad-hoc networks, data

sharing and Web-based collaboration across

currently stovepiped organizations.

It is not just technology, but innovation

(technical, process and business model) that

is critical to respond to current needs in the

areas of infrastructure protection, critical asset

protection, border security, crisis management,

cyber security, and civil command and control.

Raytheon’s focus on Mission System

Integration aligns with many of these

opportunities and allows for the multi-disciplinary

solutions required to meet technical,

cultural, financial and user needs.

Mitchell P. Ayoob

mitchell_p_ayoob@raytheon.com


Rapid development of space vehicles,

three-dimensional sensing systems,

and homeland defense systems are

just three of hundreds of ideas that have

been arriving in Raytheon Space and

Airborne Systems’ (SAS) Office of Innovation.

Each shows how employees with good

ideas relate to customer needs to create

growth using the SAS innovation tools.

We use an emergent strategy to explore

ideas. Unlike business practices that start

with the customer-stated need, in our

innovation process all ideas are welcome,

no matter how unusual. Innovation

centers allow for idea assessment, while

full-time innovation advocates help the

idea’s originator expand the idea to

create valuable solutions.

In June 2006, we held our first disruptive

technology workshop, looking beyond our

normal business methods for ideas that

solve customer needs. Three ideas from that

workshop are described below; following

the emergent strategy approach, their

content continues to be refined today.

Responsive Space

The term “responsive space” means rapid

development of small, inexpensive satellites

that can be controlled by the people who

use the sensor data. Key innovations are

needed in the business model, development

process, and product technology. The value

proposition is gathering the right information

at the right time for the right cost. It

expands the market with new customers

who can afford their own space assets. This

is potentially highly disruptive to conventional

satellite acquisitions. To explore this

market, two satellite payloads have been

built using novel practices.

In 2008, the plug-and-play satellite team

demonstrated the ability to rapidly develop

a payload with a beam steering mirror.

Development began in February, and the

payload was ready for delivery to the U.S.

Air Force by May — in just four months.

Needing to respond quickly to customer

needs, the team extensively used the

innovation centers for rapid prototyping

and rapid procurement of supplies. With

equipment and supplies readily available,

plus 24x7 access, the innovators developed

their envisioned product.

Feature

Office of Innovation

using emergent strategies to explore new ideas

Engaging all of engineering, the small

UAV threat is demonstrated as part of

Innovation Challenge 2007 kickoff.

The PnP satellite payload was ready for

launch in just four months, using the

innovation centers, which provide supplies,

tools and machinery for rapid prototyping.

Another team developed a full hyper spectral

imager payload, ARTEMIS, in just 15

months. This team showed the ability to

quickly and economically create complex

sensing systems, while pioneering new

processes for design, procurement and

integration — all done with a skeleton team.

3-D Surveillance in Dense

Urban Environments

Persistent, covert, urban surveillance

is needed in the urban battlefield.

Viewing distances are short due to many

obstructions (buildings, vehicles, etc). Key

Continued on pge 20

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2009 ISSUE 1 19


Feature Office of Innovation

Continued from page 19

innovations must be very low-cost and be

able to see around the corner or down

alleys into urban canyons. At the initial

innovation workshop, ultra low power and

packaging were identified as key enablers

for creating a disposable, self-forming

surveillance grid.

Initial exploration of this idea evaluated

existing sensor and wireless mote technologies.

A prototype sensing and tracking system

was built. New transmitter designs at

W-band were explored. Then this idea dramatically

changed direction. Instead of

using many disposable sensors, the plan

changed to using sophisticated signal processing

of a few small, low-cost unmanned

aerial vehicle (UAV) airborne sensors, to

create stabilized images and provide a rich

3D view of the urban battlefield. With the

ability to fly up and down streets, UAVs

could detect obstructions, collect relevant

imagery, and use low-bandwidth links for

real-time data.

As often occurs during emergent innovation,

the team discovered limitations in the initial

approach and found a better approach.

Now, novel algorithms in a prototype computing

architecture are showing a visualization

system that may be as dramatic as the

shift from commercial black-and-white to

color TV — the viewer is no longer bound to

where the sensor is, but can view the scene

from any perspective. We call this technique

automated landscape visualization.

SilenTrack –

Homeland Defense Protection

20 2009 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

This emergent strategy innovation started

with one possible U.S. Department of

Defense need and evolved into a general

security solution, performing video analytics

in a billion-dollar annual market.

During the workshop, a need was hypothesized

for our soldiers to know when they

are being watched or attacked by small

(model-airplane sized) UAVs. Many possible

solutions to identify the UAV and to provide

defense were considered.

A small team was formed. They interacted

with customers and went to field demonstrations

and threat evaluations. They did

market analyses. They went to trade shows

looking for possible solutions. They explored

existing Raytheon technologies. They discovered

a large market, growing rapidly but

with major holes in the available solutions.

Enter SilenTrack, the team’s solution.

SilenTrack uses low-cost video or infrared

cameras with sophisticated, proprietary

algorithms in a unique architecture to reliably

detect small UAVs and provide accurate

three-dimensional tracks. The passionate

team conducted initial work in the innovation

centers and in neighborhood parks.

The team’s work was so successful that we

created an Innovation Challenge to engage

SAS engineers on how to prevent the

detected UAV from completing its mission

without creating collateral damage in an

urban environment. Thirty-nine teams competed.

Potential solutions were discovered

and funded to develop prototypes.

Most exciting is that the initial work has

expanded to four other adjacent uses of

SilenTrack technology — showing how an

unconstrained team with ideas can grow

many customer solutions. SilenTrack is

being widely demonstrated for protecting

airports, plants, ports and even cruise ships.

People — The Source for Innovative Ideas

At SAS the focus of our innovation is on

our people — they are the source of ideas.

We remove barriers to innovation and

encourage everyone to bring all ideas forward.

Employees with ideas can contact the

SAS Office of Innovation.

We use targeted and originator-assisted

innovation systems. We strive not to pre-filter

ideas — no one can tell what the next

truly disruptive idea will be. Our systems

allow the idea’s value to be explored

through peer interaction, innovation center

tinkering, and customer interactions. This

not only helps us find new market options;

it invigorates our engineering staff.

Mike Vahey

mdvahey@raytheon.com


Connecting the Quantum Dots

What’s a Quantum Dot?

Quantum dots are tiny pieces of

semiconductor that have a specified, unique

composition and size to give them novel

quantum properties. Traditional

semiconductors have optical and electronic

qualities that are costly to adjust because their

bandgap cannot be easily changed. Quantum

dots exist in a quantum world where

properties can be adjusted and mixtures

assembled with different bandgaps, allowing

for unique optical and electronic properties

and a broad range of emission frequencies.

They can be mixed into liquid solution for

fluorescent tagging in biological applications.

They can be used as an innovative security

taggant in quantum dust, adhering invisibly to

trespassers while emitting an infrared signal

that is visible to law enforcement. In bead

form, they can be blended into ink for an

anti-counterfeiting pigment.

The process of coming up with a good

idea can be long; building a prototype

and acquiring funding can have many

facets. Most pursuits of technology breakthroughs

are dry holes. But sometimes an

examination of the pile of dirt next to the

hole leads you in a new direction that eventually

creates real value.

Connecting the Dots From Concept

to Customer

In the 1990s, Raytheon was completing

a project that studied the possibility of

constructing a massively parallel image

processor chip for use in kinetic kill vehicles.

The logic circuits at the heart of this superprocessor

would be composed of quantum

dot logic gates. These tiny logic elements

are about 10 nanometers in each

dimension and ideally suited to packing into

the three-dimensional logic arrays needed

to make the concept work. Since the quantum-coupled

image processor (QuIP) project

was only a design effort, when it ended it

was judged a complete success. The component

was never built, but the effort

resulted in a lot of creative thinking and

a few patents.

One question arose while pondering the

quantum content of the processor. “What

would happen if this ‘Rubik’s Cube ® ’ of

quantum dots blew up at impact and scattered

the quantum dot cells all over outer

space?” Besides wasting a lot of perfectly

good quantum dots (about 10 trillion),

there would in fact be an optical side

effect. The ambient solar energy, rich in

ultraviolet radiation, would optically pump

the quantum dots and they would re-emit

this absorbed energy in the visible and

infrared region of the spectrum. In fact, the

plume of debris would create a brilliant fluorescent

cloud of broadband light that could

emit many watts of optical power. So the

ambitious but successful super-processor

would disassemble into a nebula of brilliant

light some hundred miles above the earth.

Feature

Fast forward to today. In 2007 Raytheon

held the first Grand Challenge workshop

that united people from across the company

to stimulate new ideas and concepts.

One of the challenges included the need to

develop ways to counter enemy air defenses.

One idea that emerged was the notion

of an electronic, fog-like material that could

be dispersed into a giant plume and used

to degrade the ability of enemy radar to

detect aircraft. The concept is similar to the

old idea of deploying clouds of metallic

chaff that would reflect radar signals and

generate false echoes. This “chaff” would

be different — scavenging energy from

sunlight and enemy radar and using this

energy to effectively shield incoming aircraft

from detection. The idea evolved into a

concept for environmentally powered

electronic mist.

A connection with the cloud of optically

fluorescent quantum dots from the 1990s

was made. The particles in this fog needed

to be tiny but very energy efficient, and be

able to scavenge power from very lowdensity

sources. After analyzing the

Continued on page 22

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2009 ISSUE 1 21


Feature

Continued from page 21

concept, it became clear that the ideal

device to absorb ambient energy and disrupt

the radar was indeed a variation of the

quantum dot used in the conceptual QuIP

super-processor. A single quantum tunnel

diode could be used as an energy harvester

and allow for remote on/off control.

Importantly, this functionality could be

packed into microelectronic chips small

enough to be used as the pigment in a

fog generator.

To prove out the notional idea, some

archived samples of quantum tunnel diodes

were tested in the Raytheon Space and

Airborne Systems APC Innovation Center

using an in-place probe station, light

source, signal generator, and spectrum analyzer.

As conjectured, injecting energy into

the diode generated a DC voltage that

charged up an on-chip capacitor. When this

power was removed, the voltage dropped

ENGINEERING PROFILE

Peter Gould

SAS Engineering Vice President

and Chief Engineer

“Solutions that cost less, that are

simpler to build and are more

reliable for our customers … all

of this opens up when we start

looking at problems in new ways,”

according to Peter Gould, Space

and Airborne Systems vice

president for Engineering and

chief engineer.

Throughout his career, Gould has

seen the connections between creative

innovations and business

wins. Gould was actively involved

22 2009 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

to a level that caused the diode to spontaneously

oscillate. This experiment provided

the confidence needed to engage with

potential customers, one of whom was

keenly interested.

Playing in the Innovation Sandbox

This project would have lain dormant if

there hadn’t been an innovation lab with

equipment available to go in and test the

concept. Resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs)

that were more than 10 years old were

used to show that the concept worked.

These parts had been sitting in a dry-box in

the innovation lab for a long time and by

most accounts should have been thrown

away. The RTDs were never designed to be

used this way, but they solved an important

problem in an unintended fashion. There are

many more technological gems populating

Raytheon’s innovation labs just waiting for

someone to find a new way of using them.

in capturing new business such

as the X-Band Radar, Terminal

High Altitude Area Defense, Joint

Land Attack Cruise Missile

Defense Elevated Netted Sensor

System, and SPY-3 Multi-

Function Radar. He was also

responsible for providing program

support on the Seasparrow and

MILSTAR programs.

“Sometimes we need to have a

different way of looking at a problem

and come up with a totally

different solution in order to be

competitive,” he said.

Offering an example of an especially

effective innovation he’s

seen in his career, Gould, a 33year

Raytheon veteran, describes

working on the mechanical design

of the Ground Based Radar

Theater Missile Defense antenna.

He and his team used liquidcooled

assemblies to cool the

transmit/receive (T/R) modules

on the antenna; the assemblies

used blind-mate fluid couplings to

connect to the antenna. Because of

the size of the antenna, there were

thousands of blind-mate fluid

couplings buried within the structure

when assembled. The system

was going to be used in a tactical

environment where it would be

subject to road shock and vibration,

so ensuring a leak-free

assembly was essential.

This was challenging, though,

as using the liquid coolant was

the only way they had of cooling

the plates. “We were in a trap,”

Gould said.

While attending a technical presentation,

Gould saw that there

might be a new way of dealing

with this problem. He said that at

the presentation, “They demonstrated

pyrolytic graphite sandwiched

between aluminum sheets

as a heat transfer mechanism.” He

thought this technology might

work for cooling the T/R modules

in an antenna application.

It is important to note that none of these

ideas arose in response to a well-defined

customer requirement, but rather fell out of

free thinking about how to solve multiple

big-picture problems. With this in mind,

engineers should try to frame their own

problems and not wait for someone to

define the problem or the solution space.

One person’s kinetic kill vehicle seeker is

another person’s can of electronic fog.

Rubik’s Cube is a registered trademark

of Seven Town Ltd.

Brandon Pillans

b-pillans@raytheon.com

Contributor: Gary Frazier

Gould was a department manager

at the time, and he and his team

studied the potential of this

solution, acquired some funding,

and ultimately came up with a

solution that worked: a dry fit

assembly that didn’t require the

use of fluid.

This technology was ultimately

used in the mechanical architecture

for the winning approach for

the SPY-3 radar. Gould emphasized

that looking beyond the

standard way of doing things

opened up a whole new approach

that he and his team were able to

turn into a competitive advantage.

“This is now the backbone of how

large-surface active aperture

antennas are built.”

Gould’s commitment to innovation

continues. “We have to always

be looking at different ways of

solving what appears to be the

same old problem.”


Raytheon’s Innovation Partnerships

Cultivating External Sources of Innovation

Part of Raytheon’s technology strategy

incorporates external sources of innovation

as a complement to its internal

and contracted research and development

efforts. Raytheon invests and teams on

applied research that supports the company’s

core and growth market pursuits.

Collaborating with universities, federally

funded research and development centers,

and other companies helps ensure

Raytheon remains a leader in integrated

technology solutions. Here are several

examples of the hundreds of initiatives

Raytheon supports.

UNIVERSITY RESEARCH

Universities are at the forefront of basic and

applied research in the United States and

abroad. Raytheon taps this source by sponsoring

research through its University

Program in areas that align to business

needs, build awareness of important innovations,

and enable the company’s growth

strategy. In the current academic year,

Raytheon is sponsoring more than 35 university-directed

research projects (see table

on page 24 for some highlights).

Solving the Indoor Positioning Problem

One of the most-requested capabilities of

first responders and dismounted soldiers is

the ability to track users in indoor and

underground situations. There is little to

no GPS coverage in environments such as

residential buildings; warehouses; parking

garages; heavily forested areas; and underground

tunnels, caves and mines. No single

technology exists that effectively solves

this problem.

Seeking a solution, Raytheon is supporting

directed research projects in the area of

indoor positioning/precision personnel location,

including one with Worcester

Polytechnic Institute (WPI).

The university is conducting research

into the performance of Raytheon’s

Worcester Polytechnic Institute’s personnel

location research workshop

MicroLight handheld network radio

system for indoor positioning and

robustness. One of the goals is to construct

and demonstrate a prototype system that

integrates the MicroLight tactical radio with

existing WPI beacon technology.

For nearly a decade, WPI’s Precision

Personnel Location (PPL) research group has

been a leader in researching solutions to

the problems of precision first-responder

indoor location. The PPL group’s collaboration

with Raytheon aims to configure a

loosely coupled (federated) solution based

on information generated by both the

Raytheon MicroLight system and the WPI

radio frequency PPL technology. The objective

is to obtain improved performance of

both systems by fusing location information.

The research will also evaluate the

coupled system and document the

cooperative benefits derived from the

diversity of location technologies these

two systems represent.

The research has the potential to greatly

enhance the viability of MicroLight as a

source of position location information,

maintain market-entry barriers to other

communications providers, and support

growth in commercial markets such as

public safety, public utilities and

communications for mining safety.

Feature

Sensing and Responding

to Explosive Threats

In October 2008, Raytheon joined the new

U.S. Department of Homeland Security

(DHS)-funded Center of Excellence for

Awareness and Localization of Explosive

Related Threats (ALERT).

Co-led by Northeastern University and the

University of Rhoad Island, ALERT is a partnership

among leaders in academia, industry

and laboratories that are collaborating

on research projects that will lead to the

development of cutting-edge technology to

protect the United States from explosiverelated

threats.

As an ALERT industrial partner, Raytheon

will collaborate on research that focuses on

the long-range needs of homeland security.

These include developing an ultra-reliable

passenger and cargo screening method, the

neutralization of newly improved explosives,

and the detection of suicide bombers at a

safe distance.

Advancing Networks of

Low-Cost Radars

Since 2002, Raytheon has been the lead

industry partner in CASA (the Center for

Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the

Atmosphere), a National Science

Foundation Engineering Center multidisciplinary

partnership. Its vision is to advance

mankind’s ability to observe, understand,

predict and respond to hazards through

fundamental inquiry, new technology, and

systems integration, while providing education

opportunities for tomorrow’s leaders.

CASA builds upon a relationship between

University of Massachusetts Amherst and

Raytheon that began more than 25 years

ago with the establishment of an Advanced

Study Program. CASA now consists of five

government, 10 industry, and seven

academic partners.

Continued on page 24

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2009 ISSUE 1 23


Feature Innovation Partnerships

Continued from page 23

The CASA system promises to revolutionize

our ability to observe, understand, predict

and respond to weather hazards by creating

distributed collaborative adaptive sensing

(DCAS) networks that sample the atmosphere

where and when end-user needs are

greatest. One critical element of the partnership

is Raytheon’s collaboration with the

center’s lead institution, the University of

Massachusetts Amherst, to study and develop

very low-cost radar concepts and

designs. These radars use low-cost siliconbased

technologies, and will be designed to

minimize manufacturing and assembly costs

while maximizing radar performance.

7:26 P.M. 7:39 P.M.

Scan of Oklahoma severe thunderstorm by

CASA weather radar testbed on May 8−9,

2007, showing development of the “hook”

where tornadoes typically form.

The resulting radars will be less expensive

and inexpensive enough for widespread

commercial use. This especially impacts

CASA, as the economics of the DCAS system

depends on networks of very low-cost

reliable radar systems.

As a CASA industry partner, Raytheon also

participates in providing strategic planning,

internships and employment opportunities

for student researchers, as well as advanced

study for Raytheon employees. CASA is a

model for how industry, government and

academia can collaborate to provide innovative,

leading-edge solutions.

24 2009 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Reliable and Affordable Nuclear

Detection Technology

Raytheon recently received a contract from

the DHS to develop a Stand-Off Warning

Against Radiological Materials (SWARM)

technology.

DHS’ Domestic Nuclear Detection Office

under the Exploratory Research in Nuclear

Detection Technology Program is funding

the research, which Raytheon is leading

using its OpenAIR business model to

leverage the best talents and capabilities of

academia and large and small businesses

to provide the best value solution for the

customer. The company is teaming with

experts from Los Alamos National Laboratory,

ORTEC, the Massachusetts Institute of

Technology and Boston University.

The transportation of nuclear material into

and within the United States and allied

countries is a serious security threat.

SWARM will develop a radiation detection

and localization approach that uses multiple,

mobile and highly distributed sensors.

This approach will enable first responders

to accurately evaluate a situation and take

swift action in the event of a threat to our

national security.

Microlight and OpenAir are trademarks of

Raytheon Company.

A Sampling of Raytheon’s Current University Directed Research Projects University

Indoor Navigation Air Force Institute of Technology

Flexible Electronics Arizona State University

SAR ATR California Polytechnic State University

High Resolution Processing for Radar California Polytechnic State University, Pomona

Advanced Algorithms for ATR Carnegie Mellon University

New Class of Infrared Fibers Clemson University

mm-Wave 0.20-0.25 Micron Al(In,Ga)N HEMTs with >10-dB Gain Cornell University

Cyber Battle Management Language George Mason University

Collaborative Solutions Development Environment ET Georgia Institute of Technology

Cyber Battle Management Language Massachusetts Institute of technology

Lateral Wave Ground Penetrating Radar Ohio State

3-D Immersive Visualization Environment Development Penn State

TruST for Semantic Data Association and Correlation Across Knowledge Stores University at Buffalo

Terahertz Spectroscopy and Radar Imagery University of Arizona

Development of Microwave High Efficiency Power Amps University of California, Davis

Tunable Organic Filters for IR Applications University of California, Santa Barbara

Public Land Mobile Network Modeling and Simulation University of Illinois

Probabilistic Evaluation of Computer Security Based on Experimental Data University of Maryland

Multiagent Approach for Heterogeneous Persistent Surveillance UMass Amherst

uFrame System Enhancement University of Nebraska-Omaha

3-D Modeling of Semi-Guiding Fiber University of Rochester

Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networks University of Southern California

KM/KD Enabling Technologies University of Texas at Dallas

Mathematical Framework for Saliency Analysis University of Wisconsin-Madison

Improving IA and Reliability with Fast Event Notification Vanderbilt University

MicroLight Indoor Positioning Performance Evaluation Worcester Polytechnic Institute

System-on-Chip; Silicon Back-End Chip Development Wright State University


Raytheon Innovations

making HEADLINES

Raytheon’s newest innovations have

garnered attention from around the

world. Media outlets are highlighting

new capabilities the company has identified

and matured, most notably in the areas of

force protection, space sensing, search and

rescue, and advanced robotics.

Protecting Soldiers in the Blink

of the Eye

With its heading “Bullets That Shoot

Bullets,” TIME magazine gets to the heart of

Raytheon’s Active Protection System (APS),

featured eighth among the magazine’s “50

Best Inventions of 2008.” TIME describes

APS as “Star Wars for soldiers,” noting it is

designed to protect them from short-range

attack while enabling the U.S. Army to

develop vehicles requiring less armor.

APS interception

APS uses vertical launch technology

that launches an interceptor to shoot

down rocket-propelled grenades or

anti-tank guided missiles coming in

from any direction.

“Hitting bullets with bullets, so to speak,

requires very complex and inventive technology,”

said Glynn Raymer, vice president

of Raytheon’s Network Centric Systems

(NCS) Combat Systems business. “We view

TIME’s selection as reflective of the APS

team’s commitment to innovation, and its

dedication to delivering the very best force

protection technology to our soldiers.”

Raytheon NCS and Missile Systems are

developing APS with U.S. Army Future

Combat Systems (FCS) One Team

partners — the FCS Lead Systems

Integration team of Boeing and Science

Applications International, and

BAE Systems.

Searching for Ice on the Moon

Raytheon had a hand in another of TIME

magazine’s “Best Inventions of 2008.”

Number three on the list was NASA’s Lunar

Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), for which a

Raytheon team led by Space and Airborne

Systems (SAS) provided key components of

the miniaturized-radio frequency system.

The LRO is set for launch in spring 2009,

and the mini-RF system will help to determine

whether the polar regions of the

moon contain ice.

Deposits of ice and water have a relatively

large radar reflectivity and also a large circular

polarization ratio. By bouncing a rightcircular

polarized signal off the lunar surface,

then calculating the ratio of the rightcircular

polarized to the left-circular polarized

return signals, areas of interest can be

identified. The circular polarization ratio

plus high radar reflectivity will give scientists

possible locations of water deposits.

In October, a similar system known as

Mini-SAR (for synthetic aperture radar) was

launched aboard India’s Chandrayaan-1

spacecraft, now in orbit around the moon.

Both the LRO and Chandrayaan-1 missions

will study and map the lunar surface in

advance of possible manned missions

to the moon.

Under contract to the U.S. Navy, Raytheon

provided the antenna (see cover image),

transmitter, analog receiver and software

for the mini-RF system for both missions.

The company also supplied systems engineering

and integration and test support.

Feature

Preparing to test the miniature RF system

Raytheon’s work on the mini-RF programs

takes advantage of the company’s experience

in support of the U.S. Department of

Defense’s operationally responsive space initiative,

which calls for smaller, less expensive

satellites that can provide scientific or tactical

information on an as-needed basis. Because

of its low development cost and miniaturization,

the mini-RF technology provides a

wealth of sensing capabilities in a relatively

inexpensive and easily adapted platform.

“The responsive space concept holds great

promise for many kinds of future missions,

and Raytheon is proud to extend its leading

role in that future with the mini-RF payloads,”

said Bill Hart, vice president

for SAS Space Systems. “We’re excited to

be applying the lessons from our experience

in operationally responsive space to these

important lunar exploration projects.”

Continued on page 26

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2009 ISSUE 1 25


Feature Headlines

Continued from page 25

Breaching Concrete in Half the Time

Raytheon’s advanced concrete breaking

technology for urban search and rescue

received a “Best of What's New 2008”

award in the security category from the

world’s largest science and technology

magazine, Popular Science.

Advanced concrete-breaking enables

rapid rescues

Called the Controlled Impact Rescue Tool

(CIRT), it uses shock waves to pulverize

concrete. The tool removes the barrier

material, which allows rescue workers

faster access to victims.

“For 21 years, Popular Science’s ‘Best of

What’s New’ awards honor the innovations

that a make positive impact on life today

and change our views of the future,” said

Mark Jannot, editor-in-chief of Popular

Science. “PopSci’s editors evaluate thousands

of products each year to develop this

thoughtful list; there’s no higher accolade

Popular Science can give.”

CIRT’s innovative design can shatter a concrete

wall in 13 minutes, compared with more

than 30 minutes for conventional methods.

”Less effective solutions require a lot more

time to breach the concrete,” said Guy

DuBois, Raytheon Intelligence and

Information Systems (IIS) vice president of

Operational Technologies and Solutions.

“The CIRT decreases the breach time by

50 percent. That’s life-saving news for a

trapped victim.”

26 2009 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

CIRT was developed by IIS under the rapid

technology application program of the U.S.

Department of Homeland Security’s Science

and Technology Directorate. The rapid

breaching technology meets the need for

increased speed in breaching concrete walls

and barriers.

Inventing a Robotic Suit for the

Solider of Tomorrow

Popular Science used the cover of its May

2008 issue to highlight a robotic suit

Raytheon Sarcos is developing for the

soldier of tomorrow. Known as an

“exoskeleton,” it is essentially a wearable

robot that amplifies its wearer’s strength

and endurance.

The magazine likened the exoskeleton to

the Iron Man in the blockbuster movie of

the same name, and suggested a blurring

of the lines between science fiction and

reality. The technology was also featured

worldwide in print, television and the

Internet — from the Boston Herald and the

Daily Telegraph, to BBC News and CBS

Sunday Morning, to Wired.com and YouTube.

Made of a combination of sensors,

actuators and controllers, the futuristic suit

enables a test engineer to easily carry a

man on his back or lift 200 pounds several

hundred times without tiring. Yet it is agile

enough to play soccer and climb stairs and

ramps without issue.

The suit is being developed for the U.S.

Army. Stephen Jacobsen leads Raytheon

Sarcos and this project. He says his work is

a combination of art, science, engineering

and design. “People call it different things.

Sometimes they call it inventing, sometimes

they call it engineering. Sometimes they call

it being a mad scientist. To us, it’s the

process of getting together, understanding

the problems, goals, and then designing

something to satisfy the need.”

Development of the exoskeleton has

been underway since 2000 when Jacobsen

realized that if humans could work

alongside robots, they must also be able

to work inside robots.

MALD Wins 2008 Aviation Week

Program Excellence Award

Aviation Week magazine has named

Raytheon Company’s Miniature Air

Launched Decoy (MALD) the winner of the

2008 Program Excellence Award in the

System Research and Development

Category. MALD is a state-of-the-art, lowcost,

air-launched programmable craft that

Exoskeleton provides superhuman strength MALD protects our aircraft

weighs less than 300 pounds and has a

range of approximately 500 nautical miles

(about 575 statute miles). It is used to stimulate,

deceive and confuse opposing air

defense systems by generating radar target

returns that appear as attacking manned

aircraft flying typical flight paths. This forces

difficult engagement decisions by opposition

commanders who will have to decide if

a tracked target is a manned aircraft or a

low-cost decoy. The wrong decision will

expose their own defensive elements and

make them vulnerable to attack.

Iron Man is a trademark of Marvel Entertainment Group.

MALD is a trademark of Raytheon Company.


LEADERS CORNER

John Zolper

Corporate Vice President, Research and Development

Technology Today recently sat down

with John Zolper to address the

importance of mining fresh ideas

within Raytheon’s Engineering, Technology

and Mission Assurance community, as well

as the programs that have been implemented

to nurture such innovation. He also

discusses his experiences from a broad

career prior to joining Raytheon.

TT: What are your chief responsibilities?

JZ: Together with [VP of Corporate

Technology and Research] Heidi Shyu, we

collaborate with technologists across the

company to look strategically across our

technology portfolio for opportunities to

move the company forward. One of the

areas that I’m particularly responsible for is

looking at corporate innovation activities —

ways to nurture new technology ideas and

bring them forward across the company.

TT: Coming up on your one-year anniversary

with Raytheon, what are some of your

impressions of the company and its people?

JZ: What first attracted me to the company

is its core interest in technology and its tens

of thousands of engineers. My impression

is that there’s a strong core technology

base and a lot of very talented and capable

people. What I’m trying to do is leverage

the workforce and bring their expertise forward

into some new opportunities.

TT: Let’s say you’re an engineer in a

Raytheon business. How do you get your

innovative ideas heard?

JZ: Programmatically, there are two primary

opportunities that we offer to complement

the businesses’ technology planning

processes — both of which we’re looking

to expand. The first is the IDEA program,

which is a corporate-funded activity where

anybody in the company can put in a brief

white paper and propose to get up to

$50,000 just to flush out their idea. For the

first time last year, we identified an

Innovator of the Year to go with the IDEA

program. The person who won was Duong

Nguyen from Raytheon Intelligence and

Information Systems. He had a proposal

that was funded out of the IDEA program

and then subsequently won an award from

the National Reconnaissance Office for

$400,000. So his initial idea was taken to

the next step and beyond.

TT: What’s the second opportunity for

people to bring forward their ideas?

JZ: The Raytheon Innovation Challenge.

This past year we identified five technical

areas that the Department of Homeland

Security considers high-priority technology

needs. Then we posted technical challenge

statements out to the company through

lunchtime seminars, announcements and

presentations at the technology symposiums.

We also sent e-mails to the engineers

across the company, asking them to

submit brief white papers on ideas that

would address those challenge areas.

TT: I would imagine you probably received

hundreds of submissions.

JZ: Yes, we received 231 white papers. We

had a team from Corporate Technology

and Research review and evaluate them

with input from the businesses. We then

recommended 51 of those white paper

authors to come to a workshop to build on

those ideas. The next step was to identify

eight outputs from that workshop. Some of

them were a direct one-to-one mapping to

the original white papers; others were

broader ideas developed at the workshop.

We gave them funding for one month to

go and flush out those ideas. Basically, they

start with this initial nugget of an idea, and

then we want them to really dig into the

ideas to identify a potential path forward.

TT: Generally speaking, how do you decide

which ideas to develop and fund?

JZ: That’s always a key challenge with any

research project. Part of it is in asking the

questions, making sure you’re articulating

what you’re looking for. Giving good, clear

guidance is important. How to effectively

communicate your ideas is something we

need to nurture across the company. You

ask for specific responses regarding what

their technical approach is, what their

quantified milestones are, and how their

plan will progress toward an ultimate goal.

Basically, it’s in the way people articulate

their proposed solution and the credibility

of their concepts.

TT: How did your experience at DARPA and

other government labs help prepare you for

this position?

JZ: The opportunity at DARPA allowed me

to drive a whole technology area by putting

together a program and bringing in the

leading performers across the country. I first

worked as a program manager, then as a

deputy office director, then, the last three

years I was director of the Microsystems

Technology Office. The experience helped

me gain valuable insight into how people

think about technology. It also taught me

how to lead and inspire people to bring

forward new technical ideas. It all comes

down to finding the right people and then

giving them the resources and time to

flourish and develop their ideas.

TT: What’s Raytheon’s technology vision

going forward?

JZ: Our vision is to maintain world-class

technology and then strengthen Raytheon’s

position across a broad range of technologies.

The world is rapidly changing and it’s

essential that we respond and change to it.

Our activities in corporate innovation and

our technology projects are focused on

positioning us to maintain that technology

leadership. Five or 10 years from now, our

goal would be to have Raytheon still

identified as a technology leader within the

defense industry — an industry that will

likely be very different than it is today.

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2009 ISSUE 1 27


Legacy of Innovation

The Legacy Begins: Seven Early Innovations of Raytheon Company

The three individuals who founded

the American Appliance Company

in 1922 — Dr. Vannevar Bush,

Lawrence K. Marshall and Charles G. Smith

— would lay the foundation for many years

of innovation and invention and for the

amazing growth from “that little firm in

Boston” to a formidable industry giant.

The breakthroughs these men directly

influenced are impressive enough, but

when combined with the innovations and

inventions of the companies Raytheon later

acquired — such as Hughes Aircraft’s

Defense Electronics business, A.C. Cossor,

E-Systems, Anschütz, and Texas

Instruments’ Defense Systems and

Electronics business — the full legacy

of innovation is among the richest in

the industry.

1920s: Creating “Light of the Gods”

At the beginning, Marshall and Smith

worked late into the night on Smith’s new

refrigerator invention: a heat engine with

no moving parts. The refrigerator work was

abandoned after a cross-country marketing

trip, where Marshall found Americans were

not ready to give up their ice boxes. He did,

however, notice that people were investing

in radios for their homes. This observation

would change the direction of the company.

In 1924 the B-Tube Rectifier — or battery

eliminator — was an immediate success.

Smith had previously applied lessons

learned during his thesis experiments at

Harvard to the S-Tube, the immediate

ancestor of the B-tube. The S-Tube came

into being as a result of three properties of

helium: a long electronic free path, ease of

purification and the relative mildness of the

sputtering qualities of helium ions.

28 2009 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Raytheon BH tube, 1920s

Bush suggested that the cathode be

coated with the oxides of barium and

strontium; this improvement would reduce

the electrical losses and reduce the disappearance

of the helium. The result was a

tube of low loss and long life. The tube

was named Raytheon, from the Greek

“light of the gods.”

This first major innovation from the

American Appliance Company made it possible

for consumers to plug their radios into

their AC outlets; they would no longer need

to continually purchase replacement batteries.

When the industry tube standard was

changed from 135-volt plate to a 180-volt

plate, making the B-Tube obsolete,

Production Inspector Percy Spencer quickly

redesigned the new BH-Tube for higher

voltage. Later Smith and Bush would

improve the coating, and soon the threat to

their new product line was overcome.

In 1925 The American Appliance Company

was renamed Raytheon Manufacturing

Company.

1930s: Inventing Radar and the Air

Defense Radar Network

Across the ocean, an enterprising young

man in London reached a pinnacle of his

dreams when the small electronics firm he

founded, a forerunner to Raytheon Systems

Limited, was first listed as a private company

in 1908. Alfred Charles Cossor more

than likely could not have envisioned the

tremendous impact his small firm would

have on a nation when he founded the

A.C. Cossor electronics company 100

years ago.

Royal Air Force radar room, 1935

The Cossor family, which had been in business

since 1859, was developing vacuum

tubes at the birth of the electronics era.

Eldest son Alfred began his own company

to manufacture equipment for wireless

technology at a time when radios across

Britain were about to become household

necessities. By 1927, Cossor launched his

famous “Melody Maker” radio set that

would become ubiquitous in British homes.

By 1936, Cossor became the first company

to reach another historic British milestone,

as the first company in the United Kingdom

to sell a television set.

Yet it was the global turbulence that

emerged in the late 1930s that brought the


Cossor company together with fate.

Experiments in 1935, which included A.C.

Cossor personnel, proved that radio waves

could be “bounced” off aircraft and the

“echo” picked up and interpreted by a

receiving station to determine the bearing

and distance of the aircraft. The secret

technology was the RAdio Detection And

Ranging system, a device more commonly

known today by its acronym … RADAR.

A.C. Cossor was selected by the Air

Ministry to build the critical receiving units

and operator displays that made Britain’s

“Chain Home” air defense radar network

usable and the first operational radar system

in the world. At the onset of the Battle

of Britain, Chain Home included 19 transmitter

and receiving stations, providing a

protective umbrella from the Shetlands to

Lands End. With Chain Home, the Royal Air

Force had a precious 20-minutes warning

to deny the German Luftwaffe the element

of surprise and scramble fighter squadrons

to form “welcoming committees” for their

uninvited visitors.

1940s: Mass-producing Magnetrons

Born from necessity, the World War II years

were a period of tremendous innovation,

spawning technological changes that continue

to reverberate into the 21st century.

One of Raytheon’s first innovations of the

1940s would significantly improve the capability

of radar to detect enemy planes.

Laminated magnetron anode with cooling

fins, early WWII

In 1940, British scientists brought their new

magnetron tube — a device for producing

high-power microwaves used in radar protecting

their country’s coastline — to the

United States. They hoped to draw on

Americans’ manufacturing ingenuity and

find a better process for producing these

magnetrons.

The visiting scientists had planned meetings

with industry leaders in microwaves —

General Electric, Westinghouse and Bell

Labs; all were dabbling in lower power

radar work.

Dr. Edward L. Bowles of the Massachusetts

Institute of Technology’s Radiation Lab recommended

that the British bring their magnetron

to Raytheon. “It is not good to give

a large company an exclusive … It should

always be pitted against a smaller one.

Small firms are mobile, and can be quick in

an emergency,” Bowles later wrote.

The cavity fabrication was a complex

machining operation from four-inch copper

bar that required skilled labor and many

hours to produce, with an output of only

several magnetrons per week. Percy

Spencer wrote of that Friday afternoon

meeting, “The technique for making these

tubes, as described to us, was awkward

and impractical.” After asking, and then

arguing, to take the highly secret device

home for the weekend, Spencer began to

ponder the problem. A man with no formal

education, he had many past successes

improving radio tubes.

Monday morning Spencer came in with a

simple solution: To make the cavity from

multiple stamped 1/8-inch sheet metal copper

plates, stack them in a fixture with silver

solder layers in between, and finish the

process in a hydrogen brazing oven. The

thermal properties of the stacking fixture

would expand faster than the copper and

lock them into conformity.

This was a tremendous breakthrough for

British radar production. Because this technique

employed two mass production

processes, “Out were coming magnetrons

Legacy of Innovation

like sausage!” said Charles F. Adams, president

of Raytheon from 1948 to 1950.

Raytheon received the contract in 1941 and

was soon producing an astonishing 2,600

magnetrons per week.

Before long, Raytheon would be producing

80 percent of the U.S. and free world’s

magnetrons. For his work, Spencer received

the Distinguished Public Service Award, the

U.S. Navy’s highest award for excellence.

1940s: Developing Subminiature Tubes

for the Proximity Fuse

Raytheon did not invent the highly accurate

fuse using radio waves to trigger a

time at distance detonation. However, in

1945 the company perfected the integral

subminiature tubes to survive the harsh

environment of acceleration force 20,000

times stronger than Earth’s gravity and a

centrifugal force set up by approximately

500 rotations per second until the projectile

reached its target.

Subminiature tubes

Many scientists did not want to use the fuse

because if it was captured by the enemy, it

could be used against the Allied Powers. It

was so secret it was considered “fantastic

secret” — higher than top secret during the

war because of its scientific importance.

Years before the fuse was put into use,

Spencer had been working to add radio

controls to an airplane model for his son.

Using several types of receiving tubes and a

heavy battery, it could not get off the

ground. So he was already miniaturizing

tubes that use lower power.

Continued on page 30

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2009 ISSUE 1 29


Legacy of Innnovation

Continued from page 29

Vannevar Bush sent a physicist to meet Percy,

and that’s how he became one of the developers

of the proximity fuse tube. Spencer

and his team’s innovative engineering, along

with trial and error, quickly solved the problems

of breakage. Raytheon would manufacture

more than 100 million subminiature

tubes during WWII. These were used to

shoot down buzz bombs over Britain,

artillery in the Battle of the Bulge, and later

by the Pacific fleet against Kamikaze fighters.

Bush later credited three things for winning

the war: the atomic bomb, radar and the

proximity fuse.

1940s: Changing the Way America Cooks

Many engineers knew that radar radiated

energy that generated heat in various substances,

but it took the agile mind of Percy

Spencer to make the connection between

an incident involving a snack in his coat

pocket and a technology that would

change the way America cooks.

Raytheon microwave oven, 1946

One day in 1945, Percy Spencer was standing

in front of an open magnetron tube

when he noticed a chocolate bar had melted

in his pocket, but was not warm to the

touch. Spencer’s curiosity was piqued, and

he wondered what else he could heat. The

next day he brought in un-popped popcorn

and held the bag in front of the magnetron

30 2009 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

probe, and “It popped as if it were in

front of fire.”

Spencer and co-worker Fritz Gross, the

design engineer of Raytheon’s first SG

radar, put together the first microwave

oven. Using a standard metal garbage

bucket, they cut a hole in the end and

affixed a waveguide over the hole and

began experimenting.

They were cooking popcorn, exploding

eggs, and burning cake mixes while trying

different power levels. Marshall immediately

saw the potential for this mass cooking and

heating. First placed in a Boston restaurant

for testing, the commercial microwave oven

became a fixture on passenger trains and

institutional vending machines and was

used throughout the U.S. Navy. It wasn’t

until after the war that Raytheon executives’

plan to bring the technology to the

home would change the way America cooks.

1950s: Defending the Skies

Engineer Royden Sanders conceived

continuous-wave radar as a homing seeker

Lark missile intercepts drone, 1950

and developed the first missile-guidance

computer, which was installed on the

Navy-designed LARK missile. On Dec. 18,

1950, one of those missiles intercepted a

target drone for the first time in history. As

a result, Raytheon received the contract for

the nation’s first supersonic air-to-air

missile, the Sparrow.

By 1952, Thomas L. Phillips had been

named program manager of the Hawk surface-to-air

and Sparrow III air-to-air guided

missile systems. After the success with the

Sparrow missile, Phillips and his team went

to work on the Hawk system, using stateof-the-art

homing guidance, servo mechanisms

and feedback systems. “It was a very

exciting place to work for a young engineer,”

according to Phillips.

On June 22, 1956, Raytheon’s Hawk air

defense system underwent its first test

launch and interception of a fast-moving

airborne target. With the Hawk surface-toair

missile system, Raytheon acquired and

achieved the entire system: the acquisition

radar, control center, communications, guided

missiles and launcher — handling equipment

and second- and third-echelon maintenance.

“The whole thing, soup to nuts,”

Phillips said.

Phillips was elected Raytheon chairman in

May 1975, having previously served as

President since 1964 and chief executive

officer in 1968. During the 1960s and

1970s, he was the architect behind

Raytheon’s diversification into commercial

businesses. Phillips retired as chairman

and CEO in March 1991 and retired as a

director of the company in April 2000.

1960s: First Working Laser

In May 1960, the world's first laser was

operated successfully at the Hughes

Research Laboratories in Malibu, Calif.

Hughes physicist Theodore Maiman is credited

with its invention — a major breakthrough

in the field of applied physics.

The development of the laser can be traced

to Albert Einstein’s concept of “stimulated

emission of radiation,” which he outlined in

a paper delivered in 1916. However, it was

a 1958 paper on laser theory by two physicists,

Charles Townes and Arthur L.

Schawlow, that started the race to make

Ted Maiman and the ruby laser, 1960


the theory a reality: the first working laser.

Huge amounts of research funding and

government grants were poured into laboratories

large and small across the United

States in a race to be first.

But it was a lone physicist, Dr. Maiman,

who created the first working laser. When

he passed away in 2007, The New York

Times described his approach of using artificial

rubies as the active medium:

“Others had judged that rubies did not

work and were trying various gases. Dr.

Maiman found errors in their calculations.

He also used pulses of light to excite atoms

in the ruby. The laser thus produced only a

short flash of light, rather than a continuous

wave. But because so much energy

was released so fast, it provided considerably

more power than in past experiments.

This first laser, tiny in power compared with

later versions, shone with the brilliance of a

million suns. Its beam spread less in one

mile than a flashlight beam spreads when

directed across the room.”

Today, lasers are nearly ubiquitous — reading

grocery barcodes, repairing damaged

retinas, recording and playing CDs and

DVDs, and performing countless other

tasks that make our lives better and safer.

Future Issues: The Legacy Continues

As a recurring Technology Today feature,

future “Legacy of Innovation” articles will

examine additional breakthroughs that

have made Raytheon a technology leader.

Firsts such as the first gyro compass for use

on a ship, and the first single-chip digital

signal processor. Raytheon and its 72,000

employees are proud of its past, which has

positioned the company well for an even

more successful future

Chet Michalak

chet_a_michalak@raytheon.com

Sources and recommended reading:

“As we may Think” Atlantic Journal essay, Bush, 1945

Modern Arms and Free Men, Bush, 1949

Creative Ordeal – History of Raytheon, Scott, 1974

Pieces of the Action, Bush, 1970

Spirit of Raytheon documentary DVD, Krim, 1985

Endless Frontiers, Zachary, 1997

SubSig−Odyssey of an Organization, Rainout, 2002

From Submarine Bells to SONAR, Merrill, 2003

Raytheon Co. The First Sixty Years, Edwards, 2005

onTechnology

On the Ground and in the Air,

RF Panels are the Future of AESAs

There are many challenges driving the

development of the next generation of

radar, communications and electronic warfare

active electronically scanned arrays

(AESAs). The ground- and surface-based

applications must meet a broad range of

requirements, from simple low-power

radars for weather, surveillance and communications,

to high-power radars for

ship and missile defense. The airborne

applications are additionally challenged by

weight and volume constraints of the

platform and, increasingly, by radar signature.

Affordability, however, is a common

challenge across all of the applications.

AESAs applications have traditionally been

limited to systems and platforms where

the benefits could justify their higher price

tag. The maturation of RF panel AESA

technology is now beginning to change

the cost–benefit paradigm.

Large liquid cooled assemblies

Discrete PWBs and beamformers

Significant touch labor assembly

MESFET and P/HEMT module technology

Raytheon began investing in architectures

and technologies several years ago to

improve and streamline the affordability

and integration of AESAs for a variety of

platforms. Unfortunately, many times the

desired capabilities are compromised

because of cost and integration constraints.

The challenge has been to

develop affordable architectures and

technologies that may overcome these

constraints. The major challenge AESAs

face is providing the required level of

RF SYSTEMS

performance within available cost, size,

weight and power constraints.

AESAs have been a key subsystem in

many production radars for nearly two

decades (see Fig 1). The cost of AESAs is

driven primarily by the high number of

packaged components and interconnects

associated with the several hundred to

tens of thousands of transmit/receive (T/R)

channels. The supporting structure/platform

integration, thermal, power conditioning

and control subsystems can also

drive cost. Reducing the cost of an AESA

requires a decrease in the number of

devices, greater power efficiencies and

advanced packaging. This decrease must

be achieved within a modular structure

that scales uniformly with size of the array.

Thinner modular/scalable assemblies

Low power to high power applications

Significant cost savings,

surface-mount RF electronics

Integrated cooling, power electronics

GaN, RF CMOS, SiGe, RF MEMS technologies

Digital beamforming

Figure 1. AESA Evolution and Revolution: more affordable, efficient and functional

Looking at the evolution of X-band AESAs

from the early 1990s to today, we see a

dramatic increase in capability enabled by

key technology developments in

microwave monolithic integrated circuits

(MMICs), packaging and interconnects.

These technology developments enable

architectures that are focused on cost,

scalability and modularity and more easily

integrated into a wider variety of platforms

and applications.

Continued on page 32

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2009 ISSUE 1 31


RF SYSTEMS

Continued from page 31

The production of AESAs for many military

applications began in earnest in the early

1990s. Packaging the microwave electronic

circuitry in most cases required hermetic

environmental protection, and along with

the corresponding interconnects, thermal

control, etc., dictated the weight and volume

of the AESAs. Today’s AESAs have

evolved to lighter, denser packages —

some with hermetic packages and some

exploiting alternative environmental protection

technologies. This evolution, along

with technology improvements in MMICs,

interconnects, thermal control, etc., have

realized a 50 percent savings in both

weight and cost (see Fig 2).

Raytheon’s next generation of affordable

AESAs are enabled by emerging MMIC

High

Unit Weight

(lbs/sq ft)

Low

1995 Demo Brick Array

technologies capable of supporting higher

RF power per unit area (e.g., gallium

nitride) and those providing more functionality

per unit area (e.g., RF CMOS and silicon

germanium). Higher levels of circuit

board integration/manufacturing; surface

mount assembly (eliminating expensive

interconnects); and environmental protection

technologies (eliminating the need for

hermetic packages) are enabling more

affordable and lightweight panels as the

major building block of the AESA. These

architectural leaps are realizing significant

savings in both cost and weight and

32 2009 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

enabling solutions and capabilities that

aren’t available today.

Raytheon is leveraging maturing RF MEMS

technology in order to realize low loss, low

cost phase shifters in Active Electronically

Scanned Lens Array (AESLA) architectures

for some applications. The AESLA

architecture allows us to reduce the number

of T/R modules compared with a traditional

AESA by using a single higher power

module. Each module drives a constrained

lens of low loss phase shifters, thereby

achieving the desired electronic scan and

power aperture requirements more affordably.

Panel-based AESAs will not replace all radar

arrays in the future. There will always be a

need for brick architecture’s replaceable

assemblies for certain applications requiring

mission-specific access for repairs. Also,

1998–99 Airborne Brick Array

Present Airborne Array Tile

2006 Panel Array

2009 Panel Array

High Relative Production Cost (%)

Low

Figure 2. AESA panels arrays provide dramatic weight and cost improvements.

Conformal

2012

panel architectures will not be used where

the antenna’s element spacing is limited

due to power or frequency.

Summary

Raytheon’s panel AESAs will revolutionize

the way RF sensors are packaged and integrated,

enabling new capabilities affordably

across many applications from lowpower

ground-based, to high-performance

low-observable airborne, to very large missile

defense and surveillance sensors.

Mike Sarcione

michael_g_sarcione@raytheon.com

AESLA is a trademark of Raytheon Company.

onTechnology

Raytheon Mission

Architecture

Program (RayMAP)

Provides a Foundation

for System Success

More than ever, today's rapidly changing

and increasingly complex systems

demand quality architecture development.

This benefits customers and developers by

helping to define the problem space, validating

needs and requirements, and providing

a platform for sharing ideas.

Architecture also aids in system development

by concisely and comprehensively

describing the system’s structure to the

developers and maintenance engineers,

and it facilitates technology transfer by fostering

reuse of domain architectural styles

and patterns. Careful architecture development

helps ensure that detailed design and

implementation maximize requirements

compliance, but minimize cost and schedule.

Inadequate attention to architecture,

however, can harm system performance

and inhibit reusability, interoperability and

other areas of customer concern. It makes

sense, then, to maximize the effectiveness

of a system’s architectural foundation.

While Raytheon has embraced the architecture

discipline for some time, Raytheon

leadership also recognizes the need for a

unified, cross-business approach to capture

and leverage best architecture practices. A

corporate-funded enterprise initiative that

began in 2006 formally started the process

of unifying architecture across Raytheon.

The Raytheon Mission Architecture Program

(RayMAP) is Raytheon’s response to customer

needs for architected solutions.

Corporate Engineering will take over the

sustainment of RayMAP starting in 2009.

RayMAP includes the following six key elements,

which collectively lay the foundation

for solid, disciplined architecture capabilities

across Raytheon.


RayMAP Elements

Raytheon Enterprise Architecture Process

(REAP): REAP is the companywide, standards-based

architecting process that

includes the technical and non-technical

aspects of addressing a customer’s needs.

The first stages of REAP are focused on context,

need, mission, operations, and other

fundamental elements impacting architecture

choice. The entire REAP capability has

been available internally to Raytheon via the

Integrated Product Development System

since 2002. This “road map” includes 60

subprocesses to guide our architects from

“enterprise understanding” through “architecture

validation.”

Raytheon Certified Architect Program

(RCAP): RCAP is a companywide certification

program to grow a renewable supply of

outstanding systems and enterprise architects.

Many senior engineers are currently

enrolled in this rigorous program, which

began in January 2004 and is

sponsored by Engineering, Technology and

Mission Assurance. RCAP has been compared

to seeking an advanced academic

degree, and completing the program

bestows prestige and other rewards.

Reference Architectures (RAs): These partially

populated architecture “templates” have

been developed across Raytheon during the

past several years. The RAs are tailorable

ARCHITECTURE & SYSTEMS INTEGRATION

and provide basic but important information

to help users create consistent,

domain-specific architectures more quickly.

Several RAs — such as Command and

Control and Hard Real Time Sensing and

Effecting — exist at both the business

and corporate levels.

Architecture Review Board (ARB): The corporate

ARB was established in 2003 and is

Raytheon's cross-business governing body

responsible for architecture initiatives. This

group of senior architects from across the

company conducts independent architecture

reviews for critical pursuits.

Architecture Collaboration Tool: On July 22,

2008, the RayMAP team set up an internal

Raytheon collaboration environment that

includes a repository of architectures, a

national architecture tool server and an

architecture social-networking capability.

This portal gives architects, systems engineers

and other users access to a common

framework of information for developing

architectures, new capabilities and systems.

Architecture Standards Collaboration:

Raytheon is actively engaged with government

and industry architecture standards

bodies. As a contributing participant and, in

some cases, as a leader within these various

groups, Raytheon provides state-of-the-art

architectural guidance and direction. We

fold any improvements from these groups

back into our REAP architecting process.

These groups include:

Department of Defense Architecture

Framework (DoDAF) 2.0 Working Group

Zachman Institute for Framework

Advancement

The Open Group Architecture Forum

Carnegie Mellon University Software

Engineering Institute

Object Management Group

International Council on Systems

Engineering

Stevens Institute and Embedded Systems

Institute: System Architecture Forum

RayMAP is an integrated One Company

approach to architecting. Our processes,

training, certification, reference repository,

review boards and corporate governance

provide methods that contribute to the

NoDoubt assurance we provide to every

customer and user of our systems.

Raytheon personnel wanting more

information on RayMAP can visit

http://home.ray.com/rayeng/architecture.

Bert Schneider

hgschneider@raytheon.com

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2009 ISSUE 1 33


onTechnology

Nanocomposites

Enhance Window Durability and Transparency

To improve the strength and transparency

of windows used in our products, Raytheon

is spearheading an organizationally diverse

project to develop a revolutionary new class

of highly durable infrared materials. These

new materials, called nanocomposite optical

ceramics (NCOCs), contain two or more distinct

phases that have been combined at the

nano scale. 1 This project, which is funded by

DARPA and monitored by the Office of Naval

Research, has a practical goal of replacing

sapphire as the material of choice for windows

in systems operating in the tactically

important mid-wave infrared wavelength

range of three to fiive micrometers.

Currently, the transparency of single-phase

window materials in the MWIR must be

traded against their mechanical durability.

The stronger atomic bonds needed for

improved strength and hardness also absorb

at these wavelengths and limit transparency.

Sapphire (single-crystal aluminum oxide

[Al 2 O 3 ]) is the most durable MWIR missile

dome material, but it also has the most limited

in-band transmittance. Fully transmitting

materials such as yttrium oxide (Y 2 O 3 )

and magnesium oxide (MgO) have much

lower strengths, while aluminum oxynitride

(Al 23 O 27 N 5 ) and magnesium aluminate

spinel (MgAl 2 O 4 ) exhibit intermediate durability

and transmittance.

Raytheon is breaking this performance stalemate

by creating multiphase, polycrystalline

ceramic materials having grain sizes in the

nanometer range. By mixing two or more

dissimilar compounds to make a multiphase

material, we prevent the grain growth that

normally occurs during the high-temperature

heat treatment needed to eliminate all porosity.

Reducing the size of the grains in the

material increases its strength and hardness

by reducing flaw sizes. Figure 1 shows an

electron microscope image of a Y 2 O 3 -MgO

optical nanocomposite. Note the small size

and uniform distribution of the two phases.

Normally, multiphase composites appear

opaque because differences in the refractive

index between grains scatter the electromagnetic

radiation. However, when the size

of the phase domains is kept substantially

34 2009 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

MATERIALS & STRUCTURES

Figure 1. Scanning electron microscope

image of Raytheon’s recently developed

Y 2 O 3 -MgO optical nanocomposite. In this

back-scatter image, the light- and dark-colored

grains are Y 2 O 3 and MgO, respectively.

With an average grain size of approximately

100 nanometers, this new MWIR

optical material is highly transparent to

radiation with wavelengths of 2-6 micrometers

and is more than twice as strong as

either single-phase Y 2 O 3 or MgO.

smaller than the wavelength (less than

about λ/20), light-scattering is eliminated

and transparency is restored. In Figure 2,

note that the nanocomposite becomes

transparent at the specified wavelength.

Raytheon’s approach to fabricating optical

nanocomposite MWIR window materials

combines newly available nanopowders

with aspects of traditional ceramic processing,

supplemented by state-of-the-art densification

techniques. Nanopowders are produced

from carefully controlled reactions of

chemical precursors in a flame, plasma torch

or liquid bath. Ideal nanoparticles are spherical

in shape, less than 50 nanometers in

diameter, loosely agglomerated and very

pure. The nanopowders are then pressed

together in a die or are cast in a mold to

form a “green” (un-fired) part of the

desired shape, such as a circular disk or a

hemispherical dome. The green part —

which may contain as much as 50 volume

percent void space (porosity) — is then sintered

(made dense) by firing at an elevated

temperature, which causes individual atoms

to diffuse to pores and fill them. In some

cases, high pressures and/or electric fields

are employed to enhance densification and

eliminate porosity. During densification, the

part maintains its original shape but shrinks

in size by as much as 20 percent. With optimum

processing, all porosity is removed,

the final grain size is kept under 100

Figure 2. Raytheon’s optical nanocomposites

appear white and opaque in the visible

spectrum (top), but are transparent in the

mid-wave infrared band (bottom) where

the wavelength is more than 20X larger

than the 100 nanometer grain size.

nanometers, and MWIR scattering in the

NCOC is eliminated.

The NCOC development team is led by

Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems (IDS)

and Missile Systems (RMS), and includes

leading researchers from Rutgers University,

the University of California at Davis, the

University of Connecticut and three small

companies with unique ceramics capabilities.

IDS provides overall project leadership

and years of experience in materials development

and processing. RMS represents

customer needs and also models and characterizes

the optical and thermal performance

of NCOCs.

By covering the development cycle from

need, through innovation, to production,

the Raytheon NCOC program is poised to

advance the technology and manufacturing

readiness levels of this new class of materials

and will produce hemispherical domes

within a few years. The development of

NCOCs will, for the first time in several

decades, dramatically expand the collection

of materials available for use and may well

end the need to trade off optical performance

for mechanical durability in MWIR

windows applications.

Rick Gentilman

richard_gentilman@raytheon.com

Contributors: Scott Nordahl, Brian Zelinski

1Phases defined as a discrete part of a material that has a

specific composition and crystalline structure.


onTechnology

INFORMATION SYSTEMS

Using System Dynamics for Advanced Whole-Life Forecasting

and Opportunity Identification

In today’s do-more-with-less environment,

customers and contractors must consider

not only a product’s development cost, but

its whole-life cost as well. This is because in

most cases the operations and sustainment

costs are greater than the procurement cost.

Forecasting whole-life cost also helps identify

opportunities to reduce cost and/or improve

mission success that may be addressed during

development. Forecasting whole-life

cost and identifying these opportunities is

often challenging. System dynamics is a

new approach being successfully employed

by Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems

Engineering’s Whole Life Engineering

Directorate (WLED) for forecasting costs/

performance and quantifying opportunities.

What is System Dynamics?

System dynamics is is a structured process

methodology for modeling complex systems

over time. First developed in the 1950s to

model industrial systems, system dynamics

is a proven, powerful approach that can be

used to model system interdependencies to

enable identification of the variables driving

complex system behaviors such as reliability,

availability, mission effectiveness and ultimately

cost of ownership.

John P. Bergeron, director of WLED, summarizes

system dynamics capabilities: “System

dynamics is a powerful tool we use in

assisting our customers in making strategic

decisions on how best to deploy performance-based

logistics programs and assure

mission success. System dynamics allows us

to accurately analyze the entire life cycle of

a system with quantitative predictions of

system performance and cost. This will

enable us to grow our business by identifying

and prioritizing process improvements

to deliver ‘no doubt’ mission assurance,

while limiting our risk and establishing and

maintaining a competitive advantage.”

Various commercially available tool suites

implement the system dynamics modeling

methodology. The modeler focuses on

understanding and correcting the root causes

of a problem through modeling the

endogenous interactions within systems.

These tools implement a wide range of

mathematical techniques to enable systems

to be analyzed dynamically across multiple

levels of aggregation and unit type. This

ability to take complex concurrent processes

and simplify the specific behavior drivers for

quantitative analysis and optimization

makes system dynamics ideal for the modeling

and simulation of complex, system-ofsystems

problems. These analyses can then

be used to support fact-based decisions to

reduce overall lifecycle costs.

Meeting Raytheon and Customer

Sustainment Support Challenges

Increasingly complex sustainment support

challenges caused Raytheon and its customers

to migrate to a modeling methodology

with system dynamics capabilities.

Some examples of where systems dynamics

has proven valuable are:

Optimizing the repair-and-return

process to shorten the repair turnaround

time, thereby decreasing the cost

per transaction

Optimizing the deployment schedule

for software updates to balance

anticipated downtime with the upgrades’

performance improvements

Quantifying the increase in production

line capacity needed to handle varying

order increases to ensure that delivery

commitments are met while minimizing

excess capacity

System Dynamics Modeling Benefits

The systems dynamic model can be used to

explore numerous less-tangible aspects of a

system. For example, by utilizing a “whatif”

scenario capability, we can determine

how policy changes impact the system. In

addition to producing the executable

model, the model-building process gives the

program team a greater understanding of

how its individual tasks impact the system

as a whole. Finally, the model allows the

problem to be visualized. This has proven to

be a powerful tool, promoting managerial

and customer understanding and decreasing

the risks associated with making key

decisions on systems where there may be

complex, dynamic interdependencies that

need to be understood to ensure the right

sets of decisions are made.

Future Use of System Dynamics

As systems grow in complexity, the use of

system dynamics modeling will continue to

increase. These tools have proven themselves

in applications such as performancebased

logistics and enhancement of agile

value streams. This technique can also be

applied to other program and businessfocused

problems.

Andrew Gallerani

andrew_gallerani@raytheon.com

Contributor: John M. Costello

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2009 ISSUE 1 35


onTechnology

Using Liquid Crystals

for Laser-Beam Steering

By far the most common use of liquid

crystals is in visual displays, from cell

phones to televisions. You may therefore be

surprised to learn that since the late 1980s,

Raytheon’s Optical Phased Array group —

now part of Network Centric Systems (NCS)

— has been using liquid crystals to perform

electronically controlled laser-beam steering

with micro-radian angular accuracy1 .

The liquid crystals used for laser-beam

steering have significantly different material

constraints than those designed for visual

displays. From the need to understand,

synthesize and improve liquid crystal (LC)

material for beam-steering, a symbiotic

relationship has grown between Raytheon

and the University of Central Florida’s (UCF)

Center for Research and Education in

Optics and Lasers Liquid Crystals Research

Lab. The principal goal of the lab’s research

for Raytheon is to create liquid crystal

mixtures having increased optical birefringence

that will improve laser-beam switching

speed and steering efficiency. This

article describes how LC material is used

in this application.

36 2009 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

OPA Structure

As shown in Figure 1, the basic structure of

an optical phased array consists of two

transparent substrates: one with individually

controlled striped electrodes, and the other

with a common-ground electrode. LC material

fills the gap between these substrates

and is oriented in its unpowered (no-voltage-applied)

state with the material’s long

molecular axis parallel to the substrates.

This state lets a laser beam simply pass

through the device.

When, however, a voltage profile is applied,

the LC molecules — represented by green

cylinders in Figure 1 — reorient. The higher

the applied voltage, the greater the reorientation,

causing an optical density gradient

that affects the incident laser beam. The

beam is then steered by applying a modulo

2*π sawtooth voltage pattern to the electrodes,

as is also done in microwave phased

arrays. Range-limiting optical aberrations

are removed from the laser beam by a

pixilated version of the OPA device

(called an adaptive optic, or AO).

Minimum

Voltage

Incident

Laser

Beam

Maximum

Voltage

LC Material

Striped

Electrodes

Transparent

Substrates

Steered

Laser Beam

Common

Electrodes

Figure 1. The optical beam encounters

the electrically reoriented liquid crystal

material, which steers the beam in a

predictable way.

Liquid crystals are cylindrical organic molecules

that exist in an intermediate material

phase between an ordered solid crystal and

a randomly oriented liquid. Therefore, the

first defining characteristic of an LC molecule

is the temperature range over which it

exists in a liquid crystal phase.

This range is bounded by the LC melting

temperature (when it transitions from a

solid to a viscous ordered liquid) and the

clearing temperature (when it changes from

an ordered liquid to a clear, randomly oriented

liquid). The research challenge is to

design LC molecules and mixtures of molecules

that have relatively wide LC ranges,

usually ~100 degrees celsius, and are also

LC at room temperature.


E

Electric Field Oscillation

of Incident Laser Beam

Liquid crystals are useful in laser-beam

steering because they can produce an electronically

controlled optical phase change of

up to 2 π. This change is caused solely by

the action of the LC material rather than by

differing lens thicknesses. Figure 2 shows

the extreme orientations of the molecules:

with maximum voltage applied across the

device (red) and with no voltage (blue).

An incident laser beam impinging upon the

front surface of a powered OPA device

(Figure 1) encounters spatially distributed LC

molecules in various degrees of rotation.

The laser beam’s electric field oscillates

along the long axis of the molecules having

no voltage, but along the short axis of the

fully rotated molecules (seen in Figure 2).

This difference results in essentially two different

materials having different refractive

indices: the extraordinary (nE ) and ordinary

(nO ) indices, respectively. The difference

between these refractive indices is defined

as birefringence — a temperature-dependent

property existing only in the liquid crys-

k

ne

Striped

Electrodes

Transparent

Substrates

no

Common

Electrode

Figure 2. An electric field incident upon the relaxed LC (blue) passes through a material with

the extraordinary refractive index, but an electric field incident upon the reoriented LC (red)

passes through a material with the ordinary refractive index.

tal phase — and this is the second defining

molecular characteristic of LC. Increasing

birefringence improves beam steering by

allowing the necessary phase change to

be accumulated over a shorter propagation

distance through the cell, thereby allowing

the device’s thickness to be reduced. In the

UCF research, birefringence is improved by

elongating the π-electron conjugation of

the molecule.

The last defining characteristic of LC

material is its molecular-restoring forces.

Applying voltage potential causes LC molecules

to rotate, but, just as importantly,

removing the voltage allows the molecular

restoring-forces to return LC molecules to

their resting orientation. For the operational

mode used by OPAs, the elastic splay constant

and rotational viscosity are the primary

determining forces to be considered. The

elastic splay constant is a measure of the

ease with which a material can be made to

move (as the LC molecule rotates and reorients).

The rotational viscosity value is a

EO/LASERS

measure of the material’s resistance to

movement. These can be grouped into the

temperature-dependent visco-elastic coefficient.

The lower the coefficient, the more

easily the LC material can move, which

increases switching speed.

The materials designed by the UCF team

minimize the visco-elastic coefficient by limiting

the molecular weight and cross-sectional

area of the LC molecules. Combining

the three defining characteristics, LC molecules

for beam steering and adaptive optics

can be compared by using a figure of merit

(FoM), which is defined as birefringence

squared divided by the visco-elastic coefficient

and plotted against temperature over

the range in which the molecule exists as a

liquid crystal. The FoM is proportional to the

switching speed of a device that is onewavelength

thick.

The liquid crystal material produced by the

UCF research has an optimal FoM of 45,

versus a 3.9 FoM for the commercial liquid

crystal mixture E7. The improved material

has enabled Raytheon’s OPA group to

steadily reduce the switching time and

improve steering efficiency over the

past six years, and to capture new business

in high-energy-directed weapons and

laser communications.

Amanda Parish

amanda_j_parish@raytheon.com

1 A radian is a measure of angular orientation.

Two π radians = 360 degrees.

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2009 ISSUE 1 37


Special Interest

Sharing Critical

Information

to Fight Crime and

Terrorism on a

National Scale

Raytheon is helping the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Criminal Justice

Information Services Division to put powerful, yet simple-to-use, information

sharing capabilities in the hands of law enforcement agencies nationwide.

The National Data Exchange (N-DEx)

system will dramatically enhance

public safety by enabling federal,

state, local and tribal agencies across the

country to effectively work together with

actionable information to help fight crime

and prevent terrorism. From incident reports

to incarceration data, N-DEx gives users an

easy way to search, link, analyze and share

criminal justice data on a national basis in

ways never before possible.

As the prime contractor and systems integrator,

Raytheon’s support for N-DEx includes

the design, development, engineering and

implementation of the N-DEx system, as well

as user support, operations and maintenance.

When complete, the system will enable up

to 200,000 investigators in 18,000 federal,

state, local and tribal enforcement agencies

to collect and share incident and investigative

information. Users are estimated to

make about 6 million queries a day through

the system — moving key investigative

information across disparate systems and

jurisdiction boundaries, and into the hands

of those who need to know.

Raytheon and FBI N-DEx:

Enhancing the Nation’s Ability to

Fight Crime and Terrorism

Working together with the FBI and the enduser

community, Raytheon is developing

and deploying N-DEx to provide a nationwide

capability to share critical criminal

38 2009 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

data, and provide new investigative tools

that enhance the nation’s ability to fight

crime and terrorism. Our architecture solution

will provide the law enforcement community

with intuitive ways to rapidly search

and visualize data, new insights into the

data’s non-obvious relationships, and easy

ways to collaborate as virtual investigative

teams. While supporting the information

sharing needs of all levels of law enforcement,

N-DEx will ensure security and protect

privacy in the handling, storing and sharing

of sensitive incident-based information.

The N-DEx system is being developed and

deployed incrementally, consistent with

functional, operational and technical priorities.

Each phase results in a unique, discernable

service or capability. Our approach is

driven by the desire to offer as much

capability as possible without added risk,

and to engage the law enforcement user

“ N-DEx highlights

the ability of the FBI,

Raytheon and the law

enforcement community to

work together to improve

criminal investigations

nationwide.”

Kevin Reid

FBI N-DEx Program Manager

community throughout the development

process to ensure N-DEx meets its information-sharing

needs.

Increment 1

Raytheon successfully completed and

deployed Increment 1 in March 2008,

establishing a single point of integration

and discovery for national criminal justice

information. Up to 50,000 users will be

able to capture case data and conduct entity

resolution on incidents and arrest data,

correlating the data to result in the identification

of candidates for consideration.

Thirteen organizations from around the

United States are in the process of providing

their data for inclusion within N-DEx.

Increment 2

This increment will provide subscription and

notification, geovisualization and collabora-

Raytheon has developed cutting-edge solutions that combine biometrics and RFID technologies

to give customers the ability to verify individual identities remotely, quickly, and in large

numbers. Whether it’s federal credentialing, border entry or exit, military base access, or law

enforcement applications, Raytheon’s RFID-enhanced biometric solutions provide secure and

mobile processing in mission-critical situations.


tion capabilities and will include

additional data sources. Increment 2

increases users of the system to

100,000, by integrating nine more

law enforcement agencies, including

additional federal agencies.

Increment 3

The final increment is set to launch in

2010 and will provide a completed system

for 200,000 users and an additional

nine law enforcement agencies, with a

comprehensive set of Web services to

facilitate navigation and usability.

Enhancements to the correlation and

visualization tools will help users detect

crime networks, patterns and trends.

This phase completes the N-DEx vision by

giving ubiquitous and seamless access to

the entire law enforcement community.

A Nationwide Partnership

to Fight Crime

The September 11 attacks drove home

the importance of information sharing in

law enforcement and national security.

The deployment of N-DEx marks the first

time in U.S. history that federal, state,

local and tribal criminal data has been

openly shared.

Although law enforcement is the initial

focus, N-DEx future iterations will incorporate

the larger criminal justice community

such as courts, probation agencies,

parole boards and prisons. The FBI’s ultimate

goal is to transform all available

criminal justice data into knowledge for

the entire justice community. The foundation

of the N-DEx solution supports

the long-term vision of information sharing

across a wider set of agencies and

boundaries. This vision will evolve as

N-DEx is implemented, but it establishes

a larger framework within which to

explore a broader law enforcement

information sharing strategy. Our open,

scalable, standards-based architecture

provides a flexible and expandable N-DEx

system that meets the long-term requirements

necessary for FBI to provide

efficient, cost-effective support for the

law enforcement community now and

in the future.

Rita Bergman

rita_f_bergman@raytheon.com

Contributor: Melanie Plunkett

“Science of Sports,” launched in

November 2008, is an outreach and mentoring

program that will use sports to teach

the principles of math and science to

Boston-area Boys & Girls Club students.

Forty students were joined by Pro Football

Hall of Famer John Hannah to kick off the

program at The Hall at Patriot Place presented

by Raytheon.

Students witnessed a science demonstration

by “Gravity Gus” of Mad Scientists, while

learning about the program.

“The Hall at Patriot Place is the perfect setting

to kick off this program and host the

Science of Sports Science Fair,” said Bryan

Morry, executive director of The Hall at

Patriot Place presented by Raytheon. “Our

education program is centered on using

football to educate, and Raytheon is a perfect

partner. Their employees offer worldclass

expertise in math and science.”

Throughout the school year, Raytheon

employees will volunteer at the Boys & Girls

Clubs of Lawrence, Woburn, Waltham,

Roxbury and Dorchester-Blue Hill Avenue to

create and implement “science projects”

that use math and science in sports.

Teams will compete against one another in

the Science of Sports Science Fair, and the

members of the winning team will each

receive a $1,000 scholarship.

Special Interest

Exciting Children About Math and Science

Using a New Educational Tool: Sports

“Our Boys & Girls Clubs are much more

than ‘gym, swim and games’ and the

Science of Sports program will give our kids

an amazing opportunity to explore math

and science in a very unique and creative

way,” said Rick Metters, executive director

of the Boys & Girls Club of Woburn. “With

first-class, caring partners like Raytheon and

the New England Patriots, this program has

a great foundation for success and our kids

are excited to get started.”

The program expands the partnership

between Raytheon and The New England

Patriots, who opened The Hall at Patriot

Place presented by Raytheon in September.

Raytheon supports The Hall’s education program,

which benefits visiting school groups,

and sponsors an “In the Numbers” exhibit

— an interactive trivia game using math

and science questions related to football.

Raytheon is committed to instilling in students

a lifelong passion for math, science

and technology and our proud support of

the Science of Sports program is just one of

the myriad ways in which we are doing

this,” said Kristin Hilf, vice president of

Public Affairs for Raytheon Company. “It is

critical to engage young minds now, during

their formative years, to build within them

the skills that will help them achieve greater

success in school, their careers, and

throughout their lives.”

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2009 ISSUE 1 39


Events

2008 Summer Symposia

Raytheon’s Technology Networks transition to align with

Raytheon’s key strategic markets and mission-focused

technology in 2009

2008 Systems Engineering Symposium

The Systems Engineering Symposium, titled

“Achieving World-Class Program Capture

and Performance through Systems

Engineering,” was attended by more than

360 systems engineers on Aug. 4–8 in

Richardson, Texas.

The event was sponsored by the Systems

Engineering Technology Network; hosted by

Raytheon Intelligence and Information

Systems (IIS); and co-chaired by Paul

Benton, Frank Miville and Tom Jones. It

boasted representatives from each U.S.based

Raytheon facility and attendees from

12 states. The symposium featured presentations

on technology developments and

applications with a technical program consisting

of five super-tracks: Architecture,

Mission Systems Integration, Best Practices,

Modeling and Simulation, and

Specialty Engineering.

In his opening statements, co-chair Paul

Benton referred to the event as a “knowledge

buffet” and encouraged each participant

to go back to the serving line again

and again. “With 115 presentations,

there’s certainly a rich variety of knowledge

foods for your benefit, and I’d like to see

everyone leave here with a few extra

pounds of intellectual knowledge.”

The keynote speaker, IIS Vice President of

Engineering Sylvia Courtney, discussed the

theme selected for the symposium as well

as systems engineering’s relevance in driving

Raytheon’s business plan. She

presented four adjacent markets that will

be the cornerstone of our growth strategy

during the next five years and what

strengths we bring forward as we try to

move, grow and continue to evolve

the company.

“There are opportunities, but I’d say that

there are some real challenges,” she said.

40 2009 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

According to Courtney, we have new missions

that we need to learn and we have

new customers. Ultimately, the final determinant

of whether we will succeed as a

company will be the relationships we build

with those customers. Do we deliver for

them? Do we understand their mission?

Do they trust us? We will have to become

world class in our ability to manage local

distributed teams. Gone is the day when

we as Raytheon would take on the entire

program and reach deep within our organization

and deliver the system. More and

more, the systems we deliver are dependant

on the supply chain of development

companies and academia, often from

around the world. As a systems engineering

team, we’re going to have to understand

that the timelines in our world have

changed. We’re working to counter an

adversary that moves in cyber speed, and

we have to be ready to move in cyber

speed as well.

“I believe Raytheon is responding

remarkably well to these challenges,”

Courtney said. “We are reinventing

ourselves. When I look at programs like

the Raytheon Certified Architect Program,

it’s one-of-a-kind in industry and it recognizes

that architecture is fundamental

and foundational to these large-scale

distributed systems.”

Courtney believes that one of Raytheon’s

greatest riches and strengths is the fact

that we build relationships. “As we move

forward as an engineering team, and try to

live to the challenge of this symposium, of

achieving world-class capture and performance

with system engineering, it’s critical

that we truly value the importance of the

relationships we build across the company.

And we take advantage of this opportunity

to network. Because our ability to excel in

the coming years, in the adjacent markets

and within our core markets, is dependent

on how rapidly we can synthesize new

knowledge and integrate that knowledge

into how we build and deliver systems.”

IIS Chief Technology Director Dr. J Smart

said, “We really do need that diverse integrated

team of vision, and we need some

robust solid engineers to bring it together.

It’s so important that we reach across the

company and get the best and brightest,

and actually, reach all across the industry,

all across academia, and all across the

world with our customers.”

The content was informative and the list

was rich with qualified, technical and

dynamic speakers such as Heidi Shyu,

Raytheon vice president of Technology &

Research; Terry Jaggers, deputy assistant

secretary of the Air Force for Science,


Raytheon’s Technology Network symposia are recognized as leading sources of knowledge exchange

and employee networking for Raytheon engineers.

Technology and Engineering; Kelly Miller,

chief systems engineer and cryptologic

community architect for the National

Security Agency Central Security Service;

Darlene Mosser-Kerner, part of the

Developmental Test and Evaluation for the

Dept. of Defense; Carl Siel, Jr., chief systems

engineer for the Office of the

Assistant Secretary of the Navy for

Research, Development and Acquisition;

and Brian Wells, senior principal engineering

fellow and chief systems engineer with

Raytheon’s Engineering, Technology and

Mission Assurance organizations.

This SE symposium also served as the

beginning of the SETN transition into the

newly formed Mission Systems Integration

Technology Network (MSITN). Co-chair

Frank Miville hosted the MSITN war room,

which was open to all attendees and

facilitated discussion and suggestions

on the focus of the MSITN as it moves

into the future.

2008 MMTN Symposium – Catalyst for

a Changing Technology Network

This past September marked the fifth and

final Raytheon Technology Network (TN)

symposium for 2008, with the Mechanical

and Materials Technology Network

(MMTN) symposium held in Dallas, Texas.

2008 was a year of transition for the TNs,

each renewing the focus to align better

with the company’s key strategic markets.

MMTN was no exception.

Now called the Mechanical, Materials and

Structures Technology Network (MMSTN),

this new network looks forward to

expanding beyond some of the traditional

commodity-type roles it’s had in the past

and toward leadership in some new,

important areas like disruptive technology,

IED and ballistic armor, and green technology.

The network will continue to support

technologies that contribute to Raytheon’s

success in its core markets — such as thermal

management, nanotechnology and

electromagnetic materials — as well as

provide insight into which emerging technologies

might lead to success in adjacent

markets. Because it is a key part of the

TNs, the MMSTN has the distinct advantage

of potentially contributing to many

other critical technologies, programs and

development for all the networks.

Through events like its annual symposium

and workshops, and key projects developed

through its Technology Interest

Groups (TIGs), the MMSTN hopes to take

advantage of the existing TN interdependence

by breaking down the silos between

the networks and even within MMSTN

itself. MMSTN members also look forward

to the opportunity for the MMSTN to be

integrated into the core teams of the other

TNs by showing value and applying its

technology, capabilities and subject matter

experts into critical parts of the program.

The Nanotechnology TIG expects to have a

stronger presence, becoming a reliable

resource of nanotechnology for the company.

The constant introduction of new

threats into the battlespace forces requirements

changes and demands innovative

solutions. By working closely with the

leaders in corporate technology who have

the knowledge of technical challenges

in various programs across Raytheon,

the TIG will ensure effective flow of

information and provide technical expertise,

delivering the best possible solutions

to our warfighter.

The Blast Mitigation and Ballistic Protection

TIG also has an aggressive agenda for the

next five years: To develop a strategy for

changing specification requirements for

blast and ballistics for improved protection;

promoting technology sharing for novel

lightweight armor solutions including bioinspired

ideas like the bombardier beetle;

developing collaboration opportunities for

inclusion of new armor systems; identifying

Department of Homeland Security borders

and maritime security contacts for

border officer safety; and looking for

opportunities in vulnerability engineering

for public buildings.

Upcoming Engineering and

Technology External Event

21st Annual Systems and

Software Technology

Conference (SSTC)

Technology: Advancing

Precision

April 20–23, 2009

Salt Lake City, Utah

www.sstc-online.org

Events

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2009 ISSUE 1 41


PEOPLE: RAYTHEON CERTIFIED ARCHITECTS

Steven P. Davies

Engineering Fellow

Network Centric Systems

Steven Davies is a Raytheon certified architect

working in the Advanced Engineering

Solutions department at Raytheon Network

Centric Systems (NCS) in Fullerton, Calif.,

supporting a number of programs and pursuits.

Recent endeavors include a Houston

Metro highways proposal, support for the

GPS Operational Control Segment program/pursuit

and the pursuit and recent

contract award for the Joint Precision and

Approach Landing System.

A 28-year veteran of Raytheon and Hughes, Davies’ professional

experience spans digital hardware design in the area of programmable

digital signal processing, real-time embedded software development for

sonar systems, and systems engineering and architecture development

across distributed sensor systems, ship computing infrastructure, and

navigation and landing systems.

While designing a next-generation digital signal processor, Davies

developed logic synthesis and simulation technology that enabled

implementation of four of the most complex Configurable Gate Arrays

that Hughes Ground Systems Group had developed up to that time.

He leveraged that computer-aided engineering software experience and

moved to developing embedded real-time software to support the digital

signal processor. Following that experience, he developed networking

and application software for one of the first U.S. Navy real-time

systems implemented on a Unix operating system using commercial

computer networking technology. He followed that system into testing

and deployment, which included going to sea in order to test and

demonstrate the system. All of this experience, he said, “Gave me a

breadth of technical experience and a full lifecycle perspective to be an

effective systems engineer.”

For Davies, the appeal of his work is simple: “I enjoy tackling

engineering challenges. To me, finding a solution to a difficult problem

is reward in itself.”

With four patents in the area of programmable digital signal processing

architectures — one for a high-assurance computing architecture —

and an invention disclosure pending for a dynamic toll road pricing

algorithm, Davies attributes much of his success to the encouragement

of his managers. “I was fortunate to have managers who made sure I

got opportunities and exposure I needed to grow and advance.”

Beyond his program and pursuit responsibilities, Davies is a member of

the NCS Architecture Review Board. Active in technical instruction

within Raytheon, he was the developer and primary instructor for the

Reference Architecture module of the Raytheon System Engineering

Technical Development Program and recently developed a SEtdp module

on System of Systems architecture. He also teaches Raytheon

Enterprise Architecture Process, Principles of Systems Engineering, and

Architecture Methods.

Teaching and mentoring play a prominent role in Davies’ career, and

they reflect his lifelong philosophy of learning and adding value. “I

advise everyone to never stop learning, always be aware of how your

work adds value, and seek out opportunities to help others. I believe

that we all benefit when we make an effort to help each other.”

42 2009 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

John McDonald

Chief Engineer/Chief Architect

Intelligence and Information Systems

Raytheon Six Sigma Expert

In nearly 25 years working at Raytheon or

one of its legacy companies, Raytheon

Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS)

Chief Engineer and Chief Architect John

McDonald has worked in a variety of areas.

“My focus will be quite different at any one

time depending on the current focus at IIS,”

he said. He is currently working on the

acquisition phases of the global positioning

system control segment (GPS/OCX); Geostationary Operational

Environmental Satellite System (GOES-R); and Global Broadcast

Service (GBS) III, as well as the execution phase of Seahorse.

“I was always looking for a position in the organization where I could

make a difference in the company’s success,” McDonald said. “I’ve done

that, plus I enjoy the diversity of the job.”

In addition to directly working on two major program acquisitions in

the last several years, McDonald played a significant role in the MIND

proposal, which became a program.

In 1999, McDonald and his team launched what eventually became

the Raytheon Enterprise Architecture Process (REAP). “A lot of great

people got involved in this effort and saw it through,” McDonald

recalled. “I am sure that I will always remember this as one of the

more satisfying accomplishments for me at Raytheon.”

McDonald’s daily tasks involve a variety of activities at the corporate

and IIS level. He manages both the Systems Engineering Technical

Development Program and the Raytheon Certified Architect Program

for IIS. He is a charter member of the Raytheon Architecture Review

Board and a member of the IIS Technology Council and Garland,

Texas, Site Council.

A common theme throughout McDonald’s work is a “focus on the

fundamentals.” He also emphasizes the role of building relationships

as key to business success. “It’s important to exercise the diplomacy it

takes to get the many varied factions and functions to work together,”

he explained.

McDonald offered advice to others on how to succeed at Raytheon,

and in life. “First, be considerate and respectful of people in general.

Be sincere, because they will know if you are not. Second, try to get

through your own bias to see the other person’s perspective. This can

often help reconcile difficult situations. Third, take ownership of

maintaining your professional skills.”

The Raytheon Certified Architect Program (RCAP)

is the culmination of Raytheon’s systems architecting

learning curriculum. RCAP focuses on providing our

customers with the expertise needed to support their

long-term transformational goals. In recognition of their

certification, we continue to highlight our Raytheon

certified architects.


U.S. Patents

Issued to Raytheon

At Raytheon, we encourage people to work on

technological challenges that keep America

strong and develop innovative commercial

products. Part of that process is identifying and

protecting our intellectual property. Once again,

the U.S. Patent Office has recognized our

engineers and technologists for their contributions

in their fields of interest. We compliment

our inventors who were awarded patents

from August through mid-November 2008.

MORRIS E FINNEBURGH

WILLIAM G WYATT

7415830 Method and system for cryogenic cooling

RICHARD M LLOYD

7415917 Fixed deployed net for hit-to-kill vehicle

JIM L HAWS

BYRON E SHORT JR

7416017 Method and apparatus for cooling with a phase

change material and heat pipes

ERIC L HANSEN

7417538 Dynamically tasking one or more surveillance resources

ROBERT S AGER

RICHARD B FLEURY

GREGORY D HEUER

THOMAS E WOOD

7417583 Methods and apparatus for providing target altitude

estimation in a two dimensional radar system

THOMAS H BOOTES

JESSE T WADDELL

7418905 Multi-mission missile payload system

SHARON A ELSWORTH

WILLIAM H FOSSEY JR

MARVIN I FREDBERG

THAD FREDERICKSON

STUART PRESS

7419719 High strength, long durability structural

fabric/seam system

SHARON A ELSWORTH

7420476 Programmable cockpit upgrade system

WILLIAM H FOSSEY JR

7421212 Detecting and locating pulses using a bragg cell

MARVIN I FREDBERG

7423498 Compact multilayer circuit

THAD FREDERICKSON

7423582 Determining a predicted performance of a navigation

system

STUART PRESS

7423601 Reflect array antennas having monolithic sub-arrays

with improved DC bias current paths

GEORGE P BORTNYK

DAVID J LUPIA

Combining signals exhibiting multiple types of diversity

MICHAEL K HOLZ

IRL W SMITH

7427948 Wide-angle beam steering system

BRIEN ROSS

CONRAD STENTON

7428796 Method and apparatus for using a lens to

enhance illumination of a reticle

MARK L BOUCHARD

MATTHEW B CASTOR

AARON C HEIDEL

KEVIN J HIGGINS

CHARLES D LYMAN

7429017 Ejectable aerodynamic stability and control

ROY E KECHELY

7429018 Methods and apparatus for a fluid inlet

JONATHAN J LYNCH

7429962 Millimeter-wave transreflector and system

for generating a collimated coherent wavefront

STEVEN G BUCZEK

STUART B COPPEDGE

ALEC EKMEKJI

Shahrokh Hashemi-Yeganeh

WILLIAM W MILROY

7432871 True-time-delay feed network for CTS array

LACY G COOK

7433120 Multi-telescope imaging system utilizing a single

common image sensor

ANTHONY N RICHOUX

7433931 Scheduling in a high-performance computing system

PETER C LUKENS

7434471 Pressure measurement transducer with protective device

WILLIAM M HATALSKY

GREGORY A MITCHELL

7434762 Retractable thrust vector control vane system and method

BRIAN T HARDMAN

DENNIS K MCLEAN

WILLIAM T STIFFLER

7437221 Interactive device for legacy cockpit environments

STEPHEN C JACOBSEN

MICHAEL G MORRISON

SHANE OLSEN

7438277 Flow force compensated sleeve valve

HOSSEIN AHMAD

DAVID F CIAMBRONE

KIRK E JOHNSON

7438781 System and method for vacuum bag fabrication

ROBERT W BYREN

7439482 Automatic avalanche photodiode bias setting system

based on unity-gain noise measurement

HANSFORD H CUTLIP

7439486 Inflatable spherical integrating source for spaceflight

applications

LEONARD P CHEN

DAVID R RHIGER

7439518 Multi-layer pixellated gamma-ray detector

VICTOR JARINOV

MICHAEL D THORPE

7440185 Method and apparatus for internally zeroing a sight

PAUL H GROBERT

7440988 System and method for dynamic weight processing

KENNETH W BROWN

7443573 Spatially-fed high-power amplifier with shaped reflectors

NIKKI J LAWRENCE

THOMAS K LO

HAGOS TEKU

7444002 Vehicular target acquisition and tracking using a

generalized Hough transform for missile guidance

International

Patents Issued to Raytheon

Titles are those on the U.S.-filed patents; actual titles on

foreign counterparts are sometimes modified and not

recorded. While we strive to list current international

patents, many foreign patents issue much later than

corresponding U.S. patents and may not yet be reflected.

AUSTRALIA

JACQUELINE M BOURGEOIS

BORIS S JACOBSON

2003280008 Intelligent power system

DAVID A CORDER

JEFFREY H KOESSLER

GEORGE R WEBB

2005290315 Air-launchable aircraft and method of use

BORIS S JACOBSON

2004322719 Method and apparatus for converting power

BELGIUM, FRANCE, GERMANY, GREAT BRITAIN,

SPAIN, SWEDEN

KAPRIEL V KRIKORIAN

ROBERT A ROSEN

1886163 Technique for compensation of transmit leakage in radar

receiver

CANADA

JAMES G SMALL

2443779 Sparse-frequency waveform radar system and method

RICHARD M LLOYD

2496546 Tandem warhead

ALBERT E COSAND

2459180 Multi-bit delta-sigma analog-to-digital converter with

error shaping

RONALD T AZUMA

2419818 System and method for automatic placement of labels

for interactive graphics applications

YUEH-CHI CHANG

COURT E ROSSMAN

2460200 Low radar cross section radome

CHINA

MARWAN KRUNZ

PHILLIP I ROSENGARD

03816536.8 Method and system for encapsulating cells

FRANCE, GREAT BRITAIN

KAPRIEL V KRIKORIAN

ROBERT A ROSEN

1883995 Variable inclination array antenna

FRANCE, GERMANY, GREAT BRITAIN

EDWARD N KITCHEN

DARIN S WILLIAMS

1803291 FLIR-to-missile boresight correlation and non-uniformity

compensation of the missile seeker

JAMES G CHOW

KAPRIEL V KRIKORIAN

ROBERT A ROSEN

1505408 Method for SAR processing without INS data

FRANK N CHEUNG

1639479 Efficient memory controller

GEORGE AVERKIOU

GABRIEL BAKHIT

VINCENT A PILLAI

PHILLIP A TRASK

0801423 HDMI decal and fine line flexible interconnect forming

methods

MICHAEL B MCFARLAND

ARTHUR J SCHNEIDER

WAYNE V SPATE

1597533 Missile system with multiple submunitions

JOHN S ANDERSON

CHUNGTE W CHEN

1915781 Two F-number, two-color sensor system

LACY G COOK

BRYCE A WHEELER

1416312 Wide field of view, four-telescope, radial scanning search

and acquisition sensor

DAVID A ANSLEY

ROBERT B HERRICK

1705469 Polarimeter to simultaneously measure the stokes vector

components of light

GERMANY, SWEDEN

MEL V HUYNH

PHILIP G MAGALLANES

CARL W TOWNSEND

01597792 Corrosion resistant waveguide systems and method

JAPAN

PYONG K PARK

4163108 Conformal two dimensional electronic scan antenna

with butler matrix and lens ESA

TAHIR HUSSAIN

MARY C MONTES

4170228 Ion-implantation and shallow etching to produce effective

edge termination in high-voltage heterojunction biploar transistors

MICHAEL J DELCHECCOLO

DELBERT E LIPPERT

MARK E RUSSELL

HBARTELD B VANREES

L K WANSLEY

WALTER G WOODINGTON

4194493 Auto-docking system

ERNEST C FACCINI

RICHARD M LLOYD

4199118 Warhead with aligned projectiles

NORWAY

JOSEPH M BRACELAND

JEFFREY W DIEHL

MARY L GLAZE

325919 Mobile biometric identification system

SINGAPORE

KEH-CHUNG WANG

LOUIS LUH

132875 Comparator with resonant tunneling diodes

SOUTH KOREA

GEORGE A BLAHA

RICHARD DRYER

CHRIS E GESWENDER

ANDREW J HINSDAL

851442 2-D projectile trajectory correction system and method

KAICHIANG CHANG

SHARON A ELSWORTH

MARVIN I FREDBERG

PETER H SHEAHAN

860888 Radome with polyester-polyarylate fibers and a method of

making same

Raytheon’s Intellectual Property is valuable. If you become

aware of any entity that may be using any of Raytheon’s

patented inventions or would like to license our patented

inventions, please contact your Raytheon IP counsel: Leonard

A. Alkov (SAS), Horace St. Julian (MS & RTSC), Robin R.

Loporchio (NCS), Edward S. Roman (IDS), John J. Snyder (IIS).

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2009 ISSUE 1 43


Copyright © 2009 Raytheon Company. All rights reserved.

Approved for public release. Printed in the USA.

Customer Success Is Our Mission is a registered trademark of Raytheon Company.

Raytheon Six Sigma, MathMovesU and NoDoubt are trademarks of Raytheon Company.