Implementing PDF/X-4

gwg.org

Implementing PDF/X-4

PDF/X-4

from Creation to

Output

Peter Kleinheider

Co-Chair of GWG Specifications Subcommittee

inpetto premedia consulting, owner

peter@inpetto.cc


Agenda

PDF/X-4 workflow

PDF/X-4 features

PDF/X-4 creation

PDF/X-4 processing

PDF/X-4 output

•Transparency - a closer look


native PDF/X-4 Workflow

Image

and

artwork

Layout

PDF/X-4

Output

/X

Export

GWG2011 Spec

Proof of

Preflight

Trapping

Export to PDF (via PS and pdfmark)

Impose

Output


PDF/X-4 – lets start using it

•… the Standard has ripened

PDF/X-4:2010 - technical update last September

−no ambiguity

•… the Workflows have ripened

−at Drupa 2008, Adobe announced Print Engine 2

(APPE)

−EFI announced use of APPE with IPEX 2010

−major (soft-)proofing software is based on native

PDF rendering

−Harlequin Version 8 supports PDF1.6

•… the applications are ripe


Transparency -the major

force to move to PDF/X-4

•live transparency is supported since

PDF 1.4


classical usage

Drop-shadows

„ W e r n o c h n a c h S o m m e r - L e k t ü r e s u c h t : H i e r i s t s i e ! “

Brigitte

„... gehört zum besten

elegischen Ton der

Ge genwart.“ FAZ

„Eine ungeheuer

fesselnde und sinnliche

Erzählung von

besonderer sprachlicher

Schönheit. Eine echte

Entdeckung.“

Amelie Fried in der ZDF-

Sendung „Die Vorleser“

„So eindrucksvoll ist das

Ende der Kindheit lange

nicht mehr beschrieben

worden.“

Spiegel Online

224 Seiten, gebunden, mit Schutzumschlag und Lesebändchen

19,90 E [D], ISBN 978-3-86648-101-5, www.mare.de


classical usage

image clipping


extensive use of

transparency


why keep transparency in

PDF?

−ability to search is preserved

−higher quality

• transparency effects are directly rendered to high-res raster image

−no object clipping

• no unnecessary trapping where not needed

−no image clipping

−ability to edit is preserved

−no unnecessary object conversion (Text-2-Outline)


why keep transparency in

PDF?

−allows color managed PDFs

• objects can keep their original color space since the file is not

flattened to the blending color space

−keep spot colors definitions till the very end

−no flattening errors

−no viewing issues

• no antialias effects when viewing (thin white lines)

• Acrobat (Reader) does not rely on overprint simulation

−faster export

−smaller files


further PDF/X-4 aspects

•support for optional content (layers)


Optional Content

áka Layers

−Variant 1: OCMD - Optional Content Membership

Configuration

−Variant 2: OCCD - Optional Content Configuration

Dictionary

−Acrobat support OCMD

−Acrobat 9 supports OCCDs when PDF is X-4

−Acrobat X does not support OCCD

−support to create such optional content is currently

limited

• need of specialized software

• NEW: InDesign CS 5.5 also supports OCMD export


OCMDs (in Acrobat X)


OCCDs (in Acrobat 9)


OCCDs (in Acrobat X)


further PDF/X-4 aspects

•modern compression methods

−JPEG 2000 - for halftone image date

−JBIG2 - for monochrome image data

•both result in smaller files

•same or higher quality (JPEG 2000)


Filesize/Quality comparison

•Original TIFF: 4,6MB

•TIFF/ZIP: 2,6MB

•JPEG/max. Q: 2,3MB

•JPEG 2000/lossless: 2,2MB

•JPEG/low Q: 1,9MB

•JPEG 2000/max. Q: 1,7MB

•JPEG 2000/low Q: 1,7MB


further PDF/X-4 aspects

•OpenType Fonts

−most OpenType Fonts get converted to other font

file formats when generating PDF

•ICC v4 Profiles

−not allowed in GWG2011 spec until we have further

feedback that there is a real benefit and the

technology has proven to work

•16-Bit images

−more details when converting to CMYK


PDF/X-4 and color

•all icc based color definitions are allowed

•GWG2011 spec restricts the usage

−CMYK/Spot only variant

−ICC/CMYK/Spot variant


PDF/

X-1a

PDF/X-4

CMYK

PDF/X-4

RGB (ICC)

PDF/X-4

Full

Color images

• DeviceCMYK

• DeviceGray

• DeviceRGB

• ICC based CMYK

• ICC based Gray

• ICC based RGB / Lab

OK

OK

Error

Error

Error

Error

OK

OK

Error

Error

Error

Error

OK

OK

Error

Warning

Error

OK

OK

OK

Error

OK

OK

OK

Color text + vector

• DeviceCMYK

• DeviceGray

• DeviceRGB

• ICC based CMYK

• ICC based Gray

• ICC based RGB / Lab

OK

OK

Error

Error

Error

Error

OK

OK

Error

Error

Error

Error

OK

OK

Error

Error

Error

Warning

OK

OK

Error

OK

OK

OK

Transparency blend

color space

NA DeviceCMYK /

OutputIntent

DeviceCMYK /

OutputIntent

Anything

Other features

• Transparency

• Layers (OCCD)

• 16-bit images

• JPEG2000 compression

Error

Error

Error

Error

OK

OK

OK

OK

OK

OK

OK

OK

OK

OK

OK

OK


PDF/X-4 creation


PDF/X-1a creation

Image

and

artwork

Layout

PDF/X-1a

/X

Export

GWG 1v4

Check


PDF/X-4 (CMYK) creation

Image

and

artwork

Layout

PDF/X-4

/X

Export

GWG2011

Check


PDF/X-4 (ICC) creation

Image

and

artwork

Layout

PDF/X-4

/X

Export

GWG2011 ICC

Check


PDF/X-4 processing

•trapping

•device link conversion

•layout using PDF/X-4 file


PDF/X-4 and transparencies

•final color in output is not necessary the

objects color in the PDF

−Example: 50% gray in on plate can be defined as

100% Black having 50% transparency or a 50%

transparent white object over a Black object

•color conversion to same visual

appearance might lead to different visual

appearance when using transparency

−typical usage:”ink saving”

•a PDF/X-4 file represents a “digital

master” which should not be modified


Trapping

•trapping is only possible in output color

space (CMYK/Spot)

•object oriented trapping works only partly

−between CMYK/Spot colored objects

−latest updates introduced “trapping exceptions”

−object oriented trapping solutions do not trap

objects with applied transparency or color space

not CMYK/Spot (mostly)

•trapping is being moved to Renderer

−same technology as PostScript InRip Trapping

based on color density


•same issue with overprinting objects

DeviceLink Conversion

•DL conversion is only possible on “known

color” definitions

•Version 1: Colorserver takes into account

transparency

−sometimes involves flattening

−still unsolved issue

•Version 2: support for DL profiles in PDF

renderer on final rendered image

−APPE SDK allows own developments

−APPE Plug/in possible?


“reuse of” PDF/X-4 in layout

applications

•“limited” PDF/X support in layout

applications for placed content

−OutputIntent is (mostly) ignored

−OutputIntent must be same as Document color

space

PDF/X-1a output causes the content of

the placed PDF being flattened

−varying quality depending of used layout product

•if reused for other printing condition,

better prepare new or use DeviceLink

profiles


PDF/X-4 output

•use of native PDF renderer

•advantage of PDF renderer


native PDF/X-4 Workflow

PDF/X-4

Desktop Viewing

/X

Soft Proof

X-4 requires native PDF

rendering at every

stage

Hardcopy Proof

Output


Why native PDF rendering?

−directly from PDF to image model of output device

• no flattening

• no unnecessary color conversion

−possibility to use PDF functions that are not

possible in other formats

−no intermediate format

• no loss of information

• no transformation to other object model

−high quality transparency rendering

−no flattening of transparency at any stage

−possibility of color mapping at the very latest stage


What if output device does

not handle PDF/X-4?

•Best: recreated PDF as PDF/X-1a

•Possibility 1: convert color and flatten

•Possibility 2: render to image

−works best for low res output devices such as

digital printing machines working with 600dpi


simplified transparency

blending in PDF/X-4

Document OutputIntent: ISOcoatedv2

Page blending CS: None/DeviceCMYK

non-isolated group blending CS: None/DeviceCMYK

Image: ECI-RGB v2

Shadow (image): DeviceCMYK 100K

alpha: 0.75

mode: Multiply

Info: a page group is usually treated as isolated transparency group

1.page group blending color space is inherited from Output Intent if None or DeviceCMYK ISOcoatedv2

2.blending color space of none isolated transparency group is inherited from embedding isolated

transparency group or from page group (no matter if defined or not)

ISOcoatedv2

3.objects within the transparency group are converted to this color space

ISOcoatedv2

4.transparency mode is “applied” on objects

5.resulting object is converted to page group color space

ISOcoatedv2

ISOcoatedv2

6.resulting object is converted to Output Intent


simplified transparency

blending in PDF/X-4

Document OutputIntent: ISOcoatedv2

Page blending CS: None/DeviceCMYK

non-isolated group blending CS: ECI-RGB v2

Image: ECI-RGB v2

Shadow (image): DeviceCMYK 100K

alpha: 0.75

mode: Multiply

1.page group blending color space is inherited from Output Intent if None or DeviceCMYK ISOcoatedv2

2.blending color space of none isolated transparency group is inherited from embedding isolated

transparency group or from page group (no matter if defined or not)

ISOcoatedv2

3.objects within the transparency group are converted to this color space

ISOcoatedv2

4.transparency mode is “applied” on objects

5.resulting object is converted to page group color space

ISOcoatedv2

ISOcoatedv2

6.resulting object is converted to Output Intent


simplified transparency

blending in PDF/X-4

Document OutputIntent: ISOcoatedv2

Page blending CS: None/DeviceCMYK

isolated group blending CS: ECI-RGB v2

Image: ECI-RGB v2

Shadow (image): DeviceCMYK 100K

alpha: 0.75

mode: Multiply

1.page group blending color space is inherited from Output Intent if None or DeviceCMYK ISOcoatedv2

2.blending color space of none isolated transparency group is inherited from embedding isolated

transparency group or from page group (no matter if defined or not)

ECI-RGB v2

3.objects within the transparency group are converted to this color space

ECI-RGB v2

4.transparency mode is “applied” on objects

Black is now RGB!

5.resulting object is converted to page group color space

ISOcoatedv2

ISOcoatedv2

6.resulting object is converted to Output Intent


simplified transparency

blending in PDF/X-4

Document OutputIntent: ISOcoatedv2

Page blending CS: ECI-RGB v2

non-isolated group blending CS: None/DeviceCMYK

Image: ECI-RGB v2

Shadow (image): DeviceCMYK 100K

alpha: 0.75

mode: Multiply

1.page group blending color space is inherited from Output Intent if None or DeviceCMYK ECI-RGB v2

2.blending color space of none isolated transparency group is inherited from embedding isolated

transparency group or from page group (no matter if defined or not)

ECI-RGB v2

3.objects within the transparency group are converted to this color space

ECI-RGB v2

4.transparency mode is “applied” on objects

Black is now RGB!

5.resulting object is converted to page group color space

ECI-RGB v2

ISOcoatedv2

6.resulting object is converted to Output Intent


what does this mean for the

GWG2011 ICC specification

•if there is no other color definition used

on a page other than CMYK/Spot, there

must not be a blending color space other

than None or DeviceCYMK

•up for discussion:

−if there is no other color definition used inside an

isolated transparency group other than CMYK/Spot,

there must not be a blending color space other

than None or DeviceCYMK


Thank you

Peter Kleinheider

peter@inpetto.cc

skype: gironimus

mobil: +43.664.2600099

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