{ Earth Science Reference Tables - New York State Museum

nysm.nysed.gov

{ Earth Science Reference Tables - New York State Museum

The University of the State of New York • THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT • Albany, New York 12234 • www.nysed.gov

Earth Science Reference Tables

RADIOACTIVE

ISOTOPE

Carbon-14

Potassium-40

Uranium-238

Rubidium-87

Radioactive Decay Data

DISINTEGRATION

HALF-LIFE

(years)

C 14

K 40

U 238

Rb 87 N 14

Ar 40

Ca 40

Pb 206

Sr 87 5.7 × 10 3

1.3 × 10 9

4.5 × 10 9

PHYSICAL CONSTANTS

4.9 × 10 10

Properties of Water

MATERIAL

solid

Water liquid

{ gas

Dry air

Basalt

Granite

Iron

Copper

Lead

Energy gained during melting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 calories/gram

Energy released during freezing . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 calories/gram

Energy gained during vaporization . . . . . . . . 540 calories/gram

Energy released during condensation . . . . . 540 calories/gram

Density at 3.98°C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.00 gram/milliliter

Specific Heats of Common Materials

SPECIFIC HEAT

(calories/gram • C°)

0.5

1.0

0.5

0.24

0.20

0.19

0.11

0.09

0.03

cm

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Percent deviation

from accepted value

Eccentricity of an ellipse

Gradient

Rate of change

Density of a substance

EQUATIONS

2001 EDITION

This edition of the Earth Science Reference Tables should be used in the

classroom beginning in the 2000–2001 school year. The first examination

for which these tables will be used is the January 2001 Regents

Examination in Earth Science.

difference from accepted value

deviation (%) = × 100

accepted value

eccentricity =

gradient =

rate of change =

density =

distance between foci

length of major axis

change in field value

distance

mass

volume

change in field value

time

EURYPTERUS

New York State Fossil

15

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

(Revised November 2006)


NEW ENGLAND PROVINCE

(HIGHLANDS)

HUDSON HIGHLANDS

MANHATTAN PRONG

ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN

LOWLANDS

CHAMPLAIN

TACONIC MOUNTAINS

LAKE ONTARIO

TUG

HILL

PLATEAU

LAKE

ERIE

ALLEGHENY PLATEAU

ADIRONDACK

MOUNTAINS

HUDSON – MOHAWK LOWLANDS

THE

CATSKILLS

NEWARK

LOWLANDS

Generalized Landscape Regions of New York State

ST. LAWRENCE LOWLANDS

GRENVILLE PROVINCE

(HIGHLANDS)

INTERIOR LOWLANDS

ERIE–ONTARIO LOWLANDS

(PLAINS)

KEY

Major Geographic Province Boundary

Landscape Region Boundary

State Boundary

International Boundary

N

APPALACHIAN PLATEAU (UPLANDS)

2 Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition (Revised November 2006)


Generalized Bedrock Geology of New York State

modified from

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM

1989

N

ISLAND SOUND

LONG

Niagara River

GEOLOGICAL PERIODS AND ERAS IN NEW YORK

CRETACEOUS, TERTIARY, PLEISTOCENE (Epoch) weakly consolidated to unconsolidated gravels, sands, and clays

LATE TRIASSIC and EARLY JURASSIC conglomerates, red sandstones, red shales, and diabase (in Palisades Sill)

PENNSYLVANIAN and MISSISSIPPIAN conglomerates, sandstones, and shales

DEVONIAN limestones, shales, sandstones, and conglomerates

SILURIAN Silurian also contains salt, gypsum, and hematite.

ORDOVICIAN

CAMBRIAN

}

}

limestones, shales, sandstones, and dolostones

CAMBRIAN and EARLY ORDOVICIAN sandstones and dolostones

Moderately to intensely metamorphosed east of the Hudson River.

CAMBRIAN and ORDOVICIAN (undifferentiated) quartzites, dolostones, marbles, and schists

Intensely metamorphosed; includes portions of the Taconic Sequence and Cortlandt Complex.

TACONIC SEQUENCE sandstones, shales, and slates

Slightly to intensely metamorphosed rocks of CAMBRIAN through MIDDLE ORDOVICIAN ages.

MIDDLE PROTEROZOIC gneisses, quartzites, and marbles

Lines are generalized structure trends. Intensely Metamorphosed Rocks

MIDDLE PROTEROZOIC anorthositic rocks (regional metamorphism about 1,000 m.y.a.)

}

}

}

Dominantly

Sedimentary

Origin

Dominantly

Metamorphosed

Rocks

Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition (Revised November 2006) 3


Surface Ocean Currents

4 Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition (Revised November 2006)


Tectonic Plates

Mid-Atlantic Ridge

KEY:

Philippine

Plate

Fiji

Plate

Divergent Plate Boundary

(usually broken by transform

faults along mid-ocean ridges)

Mid-Ocean Ridge

Sandwich

Plate

overriding

plate

subducting

plate

Convergent Plate Boundary

(Subduction Zone)

Transform Plate Boundary

(Transform Fault)

Complex or Uncertain

Plate Boundary

Relative Motion

at Plate Boundary

Mantle

Hot Spot

NOTE: Not all plates and boundaries are shown.

Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition (Revised November 2006) 5


Metamorphism

Cementation

SEDIMENTARY

ROCK

Heat and/or Pressure

METAMORPHIC

ROCK

Rock Cycle in Earth’s Crust

Melting

Melting

Burial

Compaction

(Uplift)

Weathering & Erosion

Heat and/or Pressure

Metamorphism

(Uplift)

Weathering & Erosion

Melting

MAGMA

Deposition

SEDIMENTS

Erosion

(Uplift)

Weathering & Erosion

IGNEOUS

ROCK

Solidification

PARTICLE DIAMETER (cm)

100.0

10.0

1.0

0.1

0.01

0.001

0.0001

Relationship of Transported

Particle Size to Water Velocity

BOULDERS

COBBLES

PEBBLES

SAND

SILT

CLAY

25.6 cm

6.4 cm

0.2 cm

0.006 cm

0.0004 cm

0.00001

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

STREAM VELOCITY (cm/sec)

*This generalized graph shows the water velocity needed to

maintain, but not start, movement. Variations occur due to

differences in particle density and shape.

Scheme for Igneous Rock Identification

GRAIN

SIZE

TEXTURE

IGNEOUS ROCKS

ENVIRONMENT OF FORMATION

EXTRUSIVE

(Volcanic)

INTRUSIVE

(Plutonic)

Obsidian

(usually appears black)

Pumice

Vesicular Rhyolite

Rhyolite

Granite

Pegmatite

Vesicular

Andesite

Andesite

Diorite

Basaltic Glass

Vesicular Basaltic Glass

Vesicular

Scoria

Basalt

Basalt

Gabbro

Dunite

less than

1 mm

1 mm

to

10 mm

10 mm

or

larger

Glassy

Fine

Coarse

Very

Coarse

Vesicular

(gas

pockets)

Noncrystalline

Peridotite

Nonvesicular

Nonvesicular

CHARACTERISTICS

LIGHT

LOW

FELSIC (Al)

100%

Potassium

feldspar

(pink to white)

COLOR

DENSITY

COMPOSITION

DARK

HIGH

MAFIC (Fe, Mg)

100%

MINERAL COMPOSITION

(Relative by Volume)

75%

50%

25%

Quartz

(clear to

white)

Plagioclase feldspar

(white to gray)

Biotite

(black)

Amphibole

(black)

Pyroxene

(green)

Olivine

(green)

75%

50%

25%

0%

0%

6 Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition (Revised November 2006)


INORGANIC LAND-DERIVED SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

TEXTURE GRAIN SIZE COMPOSITION

COMMENTS ROCK NAME MAP SYMBOL

Clastic

(fragmental)

Pebbles, cobbles,

and/or boulders

embedded in sand,

silt, and/or clay

Sand

(0.2 to 0.006 cm)

Silt

(0.006 to 0.0004 cm)

Clay

(less than 0.0004 cm)

Scheme for Sedimentary Rock Identification

Mostly

quartz,

feldspar, and

clay minerals;

may contain

fragments of

other rocks

and minerals

Rounded fragments

Angular fragments

Fine to coarse

Very fine grain

Compact; may split

easily

Conglomerate

Breccia

Sandstone

Siltstone

Shale

CHEMICALLY AND/OR ORGANICALLY FORMED SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

. . . . .

. . . .

. . . . .

. . . .

TEXTURE GRAIN SIZE COMPOSITION

COMMENTS ROCK NAME MAP SYMBOL

Crystalline

Varied

Varied

Halite

Gypsum

Crystals from

chemical

precipitates

and evaporites

Rock Salt

Rock Gypsum

Varied

Dolomite

Dolostone

Bioclastic

Microscopic to coarse

Calcite

Cemented shell

fragments or precipitates

of biologic origin

Limestone

Varied

Carbon

From plant remains

Coal

TEXTURE

Scheme for Metamorphic Rock Identification

GRAIN

TYPE OF

SIZE COMPOSITION METAMORPHISM

COMMENTS ROCK NAME

MAP SYMBOL

FOLIATED

MINERAL

ALIGNMENT

BAND-

ING

Fine

Fine

to

medium

Medium

to

coarse

MICA

QUARTZ

FELDSPAR

AMPHIBOLE

GARNET

PYROXENE

Regional

(Heat and

pressure

increase

with depth)

Low-grade

metamorphism of shale

Foliation surfaces shiny from

microscopic mica crystals

Platy mica crystals visible from

metamorphism of clay or

feldspars

High-grade metamorphism;

some mica changed to feldspar;

segregated by mineral type

into bands

Slate

Phyllite

Schist

Gneiss

Fine

Variable

Contact

(Heat)

Various rocks changed by

heat from nearby

magma/lava

Hornfels

NONFOLIATED

Fine

to

coarse

Coarse

Quartz

Calcite and/or

dolomite

Various minerals

in particles

and matrix

Regional

or

Contact

Metamorphism of quartz

sandstone

Metamorphism of

limestone or dolostone

Pebbles may be distorted

or stretched

Quartzite

Marble

Metaconglomerate

Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition (Revised November 2006) 7


(Fossils not drawn to scale)

GEOLOGIC HISTORY OF NEW YORK STATE

A B C D E F G

H I J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V W X Y Z

Cryptolithus

Elliptocephala

Valcouroceras

Phacops Hexameroceras

Centroceras Eucalyptocrinus Tetragraptus

Manticoceras

Ctenocrinus

Dicellograptus

Coelophysis

Stylonurus

Eurypterus Mastodont

Beluga

Whale

Bothriolepis

Cooksonia Naples Tree

Aneurophyton

Condor

Lichenaria Pleurodictyum Platyceras Mucrospirifer

Cystiphyllum Maclurites Eospirifer

Eon

Millions of years ago

0

500

1000

2000

3000

4000

4600

PHANERO-

ZOIC

P R E C A M B R I A N

ARCHEAN PROTEROZOIC

L

A

T

E

M

IDDLE

E

A

R

L

Y

L

A

T

E

M

I

D

D

L

E

E

A

R

L

Y

Oldest

multicellular

life

First

appearance

of sexually

reproducing

organisms

Era

Transition to

atmosphere

containing

oxygen

Oldest microfossils

Geochemical evidence

for oldest biological

fixing of carbon

Oldest known rocks

Estimated time of origin

of Earth and solar system

CENOZOIC

MESOZOIC

PALEOZOIC

QUATERNARY

TERTIARY

NEOGENE

PALEOGENE

CRETACEOUS

JURASSIC

TRIASSIC

PERMIAN

CARBONIF-

EROUS

Period Epoch Life on Earth

PENNSYLVANIAN

DEVONIAN

SILURIAN

MISSISSIPPIAN

ORDOVICIAN

CAMBRIAN

Millions of years ago

HOLOCENE 0

0.01

PLEISTOCENE 1.6 Humans, mastodonts, mammoths

PLIOCENE Large carnivores

5.3

MIOCENE Abundant grazing mammals

24 Earliest grasses

OLIGOCENE Large running mammals

EOCENE

33.7

Many modern groups of mammals

54.8

PALEOCENE

65 Extinction of dinosaurs and ammonoids

Earliest placental mammals

LATE Climax of dinosaurs and ammonoids

Earliest flowering plants

Decline of brachiopods

EARLY Diverse bony fishes

142

LATE

MIDDLE

EARLY

206

LATE

MIDDLE

EARLY

251

LATE

EARLY

290

LATE

EARLY

323

LATE

EARLY

362

LATE

MIDDLE

EARLY

LATE

EARLY

LATE

MIDDLE

EARLY

LATE

MIDDLE

EARLY

418

443

Earliest birds

Abundant dinosaurs and ammonoids

Modern coral groups appear

Earliest dinosaurs and mammals with

abundant cycads and conifers

Extinction of many kinds of marine

animals, including trilobites

First mammal-like reptiles

Earliest reptiles

Extensive coal-forming forests

Abundant sharks and amphibians

Large and numerous scale trees

and seed ferns

Earliest amphibians, ammonoids, sharks

Extinction of armored fish, other

fish abundant

Earliest insects

Earliest land plants and animals

Peak development of eurypterids

Invertebrates dominant

– mollusks become abundant

Diverse coral and echinoderms

Graptolites abundant

490

Earliest fish

Algal reefs

Burgess shale fauna

Earliest chordates, diverse trilobites

Earliest trilobites

Earliest marine animals with shells

544

580 Ediacaran fauna

Soft-bodied organisms

Rock

Record

in

NYS

Time Distribution of Fossils

(Including Important Fossils of New York)

Lettered circles indicate the approximate time of existence of a specific

index fossil (e.g. Fossil A lived at the end of the Early Cambrian).

TRILOBITES

B

A

NAUTILOIDS

AMMONOIDS

C F G

E

D

CRINOIDS

I

H

Earth’s

first forest

GRAPTOLITES

DINOSAURS

L

K

J

EURYPTERIDS

O

MAMMALS

N

M

VASCULAR PLANTS

Q

P

S

PLACODERM

FISH BIRDS

R

Earth’s first

coral reef

CORALS

V

U

T

GASTROPODS

X

W

BRACHIOPODS

Z

Y

Rifting

Tectonic

Events

Affecting

Northeast

North

America

Passive Margin

Rifting

Passive Margin

Subduction

Continental Collision

Transform Collision

Important Geologic

Events in New York

Advance and retreat of last continental ice

Uplift of Adirondack region

Sands and shales underlying Long Island and Staten

Island deposited on margin of Atlantic Ocean

Development of passive continental margin

Initial opening of Atlantic Ocean

North America and Africa separate

Intrusion of Palisades sill

Pangea begins to break up

Extensive erosion

Appalachian (Alleghanian) Orogeny

caused by collision of North America

and Africa along transform margin,

forming Pangea

Catskill Delta forms

Erosion of Acadian Mountains

Acadian Orogeny caused by collision of

North America and Avalon and closing

of remaining part of Iapetus Ocean

Salt and gypsum deposited in evaporite basins

Erosion of Taconic Mountains; Queenston Delta forms

Taconian Orogeny caused by closing of

western part of Iapetus Ocean and

collision between North America and

volcanic island arc

Iapetus passive margin forms

Rifting and initial opening of Iapetus Ocean

Erosion of Grenville Mountains

Grenville Orogeny: Ancestral Adirondack

Mtns. and Hudson Highlands formed

Inferred Position of

Earth’s Landmasses

TERTIARY

CRETACEOUS

TRIASSIC

ORDOVICIAN

59 million

years

ago

119 million

years

ago

232 million

years

ago

DEVONIAN/MISSISSIPPIAN 362 million

years

ago

458 million

years

ago

Stromatolites

1300

8 Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition (Revised November 2006) Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition (Revised November 2006) 9

96-001TN (rev) 11/2006


Inferred Properties of Earth’s Interior

ATLANTIC OCEAN

MID-ATLANTIC

RIDGE

DENSITY (g/cm 3 )

2.7 continental crust

3.0 oceanic crust

MOHO

PACIFIC

OCEAN

C

ASCADES

T

RENCH

NORTH

AMERICA

4

CRUST

RIGID

MANTLE

LITHOSPHERE

ASTHENOSPHERE (PLASTIC MANTLE)

STIFFER

MANTLE

OUTER CORE (IRON?)

INNER CORE

IRON & NICKEL

3.3–5.5

9.9–12.1

12.7–13.0

PRESSURE

(millions of atmospheres)

3

2

1

0

EARTH’S CENTER

TEMPERATURE (°C)

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

? ?

?

MELTING POINT

?

MANTLE

?

?

?

?

?

ACTUAL TEMPERATURE

MELTING POINT

1000

PARTIAL MELTING OF

ULTRAMAFIC MANTLE

0

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

DEPTH (km)

10 Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition (Revised November 2006)


Average Chemical Composition

of Earth’s Crust, Hydrosphere, and Troposphere

ELEMENT

(symbol)

Percent by

Mass

CRUST HYDROSPHERE TROPOSPHERE

Percent by

Volume

Percent by

Volume

Percent by

Volume

Oxygen (O)

Silicon (Si)

Aluminum (Al)

Iron (Fe)

Calcium (Ca)

Sodium (Na)

Magnesium (Mg)

Potassium (K)

Nitrogen (N)

Hydrogen (H)

Other

46.40

28.15

8.23

5.63

4.15

2.36

2.33

2.09

0.66

94.04

0.88

0.48

0.49

1.18

1.11

0.33

1.42

0.07

33.0

66.0

1.0

21.0

78.0

1.0

TRAVEL TIME (minutes)

24

23

22

21

20

19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Earthquake P-wave and S-wave Travel Time

S

P

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

EPICENTER DISTANCE (×10 3 km)

9 10

Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition (Revised November 2006) 11


1

–33

–28

–24

–21

–18

–14

–12

–10

–7

–5

–3

–1

1

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

19

21

23

25

27

29

2

–36

–28

–22

–18

–14

–12

–8

–6

–3

–1

1

3

6

8

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

27

0

–20

–18

–16

–14

–12

–10

–8

–6

–4

–2

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

–20

–18

–16

–14

–12

–10

–8

–6

–4

–2

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

3

–29

–22

–17

–13

–9

–6

–4

–1

1

4

6

9

11

13

15

17

20

22

24

26

4

–29

–20

–15

–11

–7

–4

–2

1

4

6

9

11

14

16

18

20

22

24

5

–24

–17

–11

–7

–5

–2

1

4

7

9

12

14

16

18

21

23

6

–19

–13

–9

–5

–2

1

4

7

10

12

14

17

19

21

7

–21

–14

–9

–5

–2

1

4

7

10

12

15

17

19

8

–14

–9

–5

–1

2

4

8

10

13

16

18

9

–28

–16

–10

–6

–2

2

5

8

11

14

16

10

–17

–10

–5

–2

3

6

9

11

14

11

–17

–10

–5

–1

2

6

9

12

12

–19

–10

–5

–1

3

7

10

13

–19

–10

–5

0

4

8

14

–19

–10

–4

1

5

15

–18

–9

–3

1

Difference Between Wet-Bulb and Dry-Bulb Temperatures (C°)

Difference Between Wet-Bulb and Dry-Bulb Temperatures (C°)

Dry-Bulb

Temperature

(°C)

1

28

40

48

55

61

66

71

73

77

79

81

83

85

86

87

88

88

89

90

91

91

92

92

92

93

93

2

11

23

33

41

48

54

58

63

67

70

72

74

76

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

86

0

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

–20

–18

–16

–14

–12

–10

–8

–6

–4

–2

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

3

13

20

32

37

45

51

56

59

62

65

67

69

71

72

74

75

76

77

78

79

4

11

20

28

36

42

46

51

54

57

60

62

64

66

68

69

70

71

72

5

1

11

20

27

35

39

43

48

50

54

56

58

60

62

64

65

66

6

6

14

22

28

33

38

41

45

48

51

53

55

57

59

61

7

10

17

24

28

33

37

40

44

46

49

51

53

55

8

6

13

19

25

29

33

36

40

42

45

47

49

9

4

10

16

21

26

30

33

36

39

42

44

10

2

8

14

19

23

27

30

34

36

39

11

1

7

12

17

21

25

28

31

34

12

1

6

11

15

20

23

26

29

13

5

10

14

18

21

25

14

4

9

13

17

20

15

4

9

12

16

Dry-Bulb

Temperature

(°C)

12 Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition (Revised November 2006)

Dewpoint Temperatures (°C)

Relative Humidity (%)


Temperature

Pressure

Water boils

Human body

temperature

Room

temperature

Ice melts

Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvin

220

200

180

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

–20

–40

–60

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

–10

–20

–30

–40

–50

380

370

360

350

340

330

320

310

300

290

280

270

260

250

240

230

220

Weather Map Symbols

one

atmosphere

1013.2 mb

millibars

1040.0

1036.0

1032.0

1028.0

1024.0

1020.0

1016.0

1012.0

1008.0

1004.0

1000.0

996.0

992.0

988.0

984.0

inches

30.70

30.60

30.50

30.40

30.30

30.20

30.10

30.00

29.90

29.80

29.70

29.60

29.50

29.40

29.30

29.20

29.10

29.00

Station Model

Temperature (°F)

Present weather

Visibility (mi)

Dewpoint (°F)

Wind speed

28

1

2


27

whole feather = 10 knots

half feather = 5 knots

total = 15 knots

Amount of cloud cover

(approximately 75% covered)

196

+19/

.25

Barometric pressure

(1019.6 mb)

Barometric trend

(a steady 1.9-mb rise

the past 3 hours)

Precipitation

(inches past 6 hours)

Wind direction

(from the southwest)

(1 knot = 1.15 mi/hr)

980.0

976.0

972.0

968.0

28.90

28.80

28.70

28.60

28.50

Drizzle


Snow

Rain

Sleet

Present Weather Air Masses

Front Symbols Hurricane

Smog

Freezing

Rain

Hail

Fog

Thunderstorms


Haze

Rain

Showers


Snow

Showers

cA continental arctic

cP continental polar

cT continental tropical

mT maritime tropical

mP maritime polar

Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition (Revised November 2006) 13

Cold

Warm

Stationary

Occluded


Selected Properties

of Earth’s Atmosphere

km 150

mi

Temperature

Zones

Atmospheric

Pressure

Water

Vapor

75

100

Thermosphere

Altitude

50

Mesopause

Mesosphere

50

25

Stratopause

Stratosphere

Sea Level

0

0

Tropopause

Troposphere

–100° 0° 100°

–90° –55° 15°

Temperature (°C)

10 –4

10 –3

10 –2

10 –1

10 0

Pressure (atm)

0 20 40

Concentration

(g/m 3 )

cm

0.000,000,000,1

0.000,000,001

0.000,000,01

0.000,000,1

0.000,001

0.000,01

0.000,1

0.001

Electromagnetic Spectrum

0.01

0.1

1.0

10

100

1,000

cm

10 –10

10 –9 10 –8 10 –7 10 –6 10 –5 10 –4 10 –3 10 –2 10 –1 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3

Gamma rays

x rays

Microwaves

Ultraviolet

Visible

Infrared

Radio waves

Decreasing Wavelength

Visible Light

Increasing Wavelength

Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red

4.0 × 10 –5

4.3 × 10 –5

4.9 × 10 –5

5.3 × 10 –5

5.8 × 10 –5

6.3 × 10 –5

7.0 × 10 –5

DRY

N.E.

WET

S.W.

WINDS

DRY

N.E.

WINDS

WET

S.E.

WINDS

DRY

N.W.

WINDS

WET

S.E.

DRY

60° N

60° S

30° N

30° S


Tropopause

Polar Front Jet Stream

Polar Front

Subtropical

Jet Streams

Planetary Wind

and Moisture Belts

in the Troposphere

The drawing to the left shows

the locations of the belts near

the time of an equinox. The

locations shift somewhat with

the changing latitude of the

Sun’s vertical ray. In the

Northern Hemisphere, the belts

shift northward in summer and

southward in winter.

Polar Front Jet Stream

14 Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition (Revised November 2006)


Luminosity and Temperature of Stars

(Name in italics refers to star shown by a + )

Luminosity (Relative to the Sun)

1,000,000

Massive

Stars

10,000

100

1

0.01

Small

Stars

0.0001

Blue

Supergiants

Blue Stars

Rigel

+

Main Sequence

+ Sirius

Red

Dwarfs

Barnard’s

Star +

20,000 10,000 5,000 2,500

Temperature (°C)

White Stars

Color

Supergiants

Polaris +

White Dwarfs

+ Procyon B

+

+

Sun

Yellow Stars

Red Giants

Betelgeuse

+

+ Aldebaran

Alpha Centauri

Red Stars

Luminosity is the

brightness of stars

compared to the

brightness of our

Sun as seen from

the same distance

from the observer.

Solar System Data

Object

Mean Distance

from Sun

(millions of km)

Period

of

Revolution

Period

of

Rotation

Eccentricity

of

Orbit

Equatorial

Diameter

(km)

Mass

(Earth = 1)

Density

(g/cm 3 )

Number

of

Moons

SUN — — 27 days — 1,392,000 333,000.00 1.4 –

MERCURY 57.9 88 days 59 days 0.206 4,880 0.553 5.4 0

VENUS 108.2 224.7 days 243 days 0.007 12,104 0.815 5.2 0

EARTH 149.6 365.26 days 23 hr 0.017 12,756 1.00 5.5 1

56 min

4 sec

MARS 227.9 687 days 24 hr 0.093 6,787 0.1074 3.9 2

37 min

23 sec

JUPITER 778.3 11.86 years 9 hr 0.048 142,800 317.896 1.3 16

50 min

30 sec

SATURN 1,427 29.46 years 10 hr 0.056 120,000 95.185 0.7 18

14 min

URANUS 2,869 84.0 years 17 hr 0.047 51,800 14.537 1.2 21

14 min

NEPTUNE 4,496 164.8 years 16 hr 0.009 49,500 17.151 1.7 8

EARTH’S 149.6 27.3 days 27 days 0.055 3,476 0.0123 3.3 —

MOON

(0.386 from Earth)

8 hr

Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition (Revised November 2006) 15


Properties of Common Minerals

HARD- COMMON DISTINGUISHING

LUSTER NESS COLORS CHARACTERISTICS USE(S) MINERAL NAME COMPOSITION*

Metallic Luster

Either

Nonmetallic Luster

1–2

2.5

5.5–6.5

6.5

1–6.5

1

2

2

2–2.5

2.5

2.5–3

3

3.5

4

5–6

5.5

6

6

6.5

7

7

CLEAVAGE

FRACTURE






















silver to

gray

metallic

silver

black to

silver

brassy

yellow

metallic silver or

earthy red

white to

green

yellow to

amber

white to

pink or gray

colorless to

yellow

colorless to

white

black to

dark brown

colorless

or variable

colorless

or variable

colorless or

variable

black to

dark green

black to

dark green

white to

pink

white to

gray

green to

gray or brown

colorless or

variable

dark red

to green

black streak,

greasy feel

very dense (7.6 g/cm 3 ),

gray-black streak

attracted by magnet,

black streak

green-black streak,

cubic crystals

red-brown streak

greasy feel

easily melted,

may smell

easily scratched

by fingernail

flexible in

thin sheets

cubic cleavage,

salty taste

flexible in

thin sheets

bubbles

with acid

bubbles with acid

when powdered

cleaves in

4 directions

cleaves in

2 directions at 90°

cleaves at

56° and 124°

cleaves in

2 directions at 90°

cleaves in 2 directions,

striations visible

commonly light green

and granular

glassy luster, may form

hexagonal crystals

glassy luster, often seen as red

grains in NYS metamorphic rocks

pencil lead,

lubricants

ore of

lead

ore of

iron

ore of

sulfur

ore

of iron

talcum powder,

soapstone

vulcanize rubber,

sulfuric acid

plaster of paris

and drywall

electrical

insulator

food additive,

melts ice

electrical

insulator

cement,

polarizing prisms

source of

magnesium

hydrofluoric

acid

mineral

collections

mineral

collections

ceramics

and glass

ceramics

and glass

furnace bricks

and jewelry

glass, jewelry,

and electronics

jewelry and

abrasives

Graphite

Galena

Magnetite

Pyrite

Hematite

Talc

Sulfur

Gypsum

(Selenite)

Muscovite Mica

Halite

Biotite Mica

Calcite

Dolomite

Fluorite

Pyroxene

(commonly Augite)

Amphiboles

(commonly Hornblende)

Potassium Feldspar

(Orthoclase)

Plagioclase Feldspar

(Na-Ca Feldspar)

Olivine

Quartz

Garnet

(commonly Almandine)

*Chemical Symbols: Al = aluminum Cl = chlorine H = hydrogen Na = sodium S = sulfur

C = carbon F = fluorine K = potassium O = oxygen Si = silicon

Ca = calcium Fe = iron Mg = magnesium Pb = lead Ti = titanium

✔ = dominant form of breakage

C

PbS

Fe 3 O 4

FeS 2

Fe 2 O 3

Mg 3 Si 4 O 10 (OH) 2

S

CaSO 4 •2H 2 O

KAl 3 Si 3 O 10 (OH) 2

NaCl

K(Mg,Fe) 3

AlSi 3 O 10 (OH) 2

CaCO 3

CaMg(CO 3 ) 2

CaF 2

(Ca,Na) (Mg,Fe,Al)

(Si,Al) 2 O 6

CaNa(Mg,Fe) 4 (Al,Fe,Ti) 3

Si 6 O 22 (O,OH) 2

KAlSi 3 O 8

(Na,Ca)AlSi 3 O 8

(Fe,Mg) 2 SiO 4

SiO 2

Fe 3 Al 2 Si 3 O 12

16 Earth Science Reference Tables — 2001 Edition (Revised November 2006)

DET 633TN

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