Unit 5 – Solutions, Acids & Bases


Unit 5 – Solutions, Acids & Bases

Essential Skills Review

5-1. Know the definitions of solute and solvent (CSS: 6a)

5-2. Know how to describe the dissolving process at the

molecular level using the concept of random molecular

motion & how temperature, pressure and surface area

affect the dissolving process. (CSS: 6b, 6c)

5-3. Know that molecules in a liquid move in random

patterns relative to one another because the

intermolecular forces are too weak to hold the molecules

in a solid form. (CSS: 2d)

Making Solutions

• Solution: a mixture of two or more

substances in a single phase

• Solute: the substance that is dissolved into

the solution

• Solvent: the substance that dissolves the


• Factors that Speed Up the Dissolving


1. Increase in temperature

2. Increase in surface area (grinding up

the substance)

3. Agitation (stirring or shaking)

4. Increase in pressure (this only works

for gases)

• “Like Dissolves Like”

Solute + Solvent = Solution

5-4. Know how to calculate the concentration of a solute in

terms of grams per liter, molarity, parts per million and

percent composition. (CSS: 6d)

Concentration Calculations

• Molarity (M)

• % Composition





% Composition



• Grams per Liter (g/L)




• Parts per million (ppm)


• Conversion Factors to know:

• 1 gram H2O = 1 mL H2O

• 1 L = 1000 mL

GramsofSolute 6



5-5. Know the observable properties of acids, bases, and

salt solutions; that acids are hydrogen-ion-donating and

bases are hydrogen-ion-accepting substances; (CSS: 5a,


5-6. Know how to use the pH scale to characterize acid and

base solutions. (CSS: 5d)

5-7. Know that strong acids and bases fully dissociate and

weak acids and bases partially dissociate. (CSS: 5c)

pH Scale

• Reading a pH Scale:

• 0 < 7 = acid

• 7 = neutral

• 7>14 = base

• Strong acids are closer to

pH 0

• Strong bases are closer to

pH 14

• Weak acids & bases are

closer to pH 7

Dissociation of Acids & Bases

Strong Acids or Bases

Weak Acids or Bases

• Almost completely

dissociation in water

• Only partially dissociation in


5-8. Know how an acid and a base neutralize each other.


Acids and bases react to form salts (ionic

compounds) and water

• The products of this reaction have a pH ≈ 7 (neutral)

• Acid + Base Salt + H 2 O (neutral substance)

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