The First Israelites Sec 1

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The First Israelites Sec 1

Chapter 3 Lesson 1


How might religion influence culture?

o Religious beliefs might affect laws and behavior, including directing

people how to dress or act.


Terms

o Monotheism

The belief in one God

o Tribe

• Separate family groups

o Torah

• Laws received from God;

first 5 books of the Old

Testament

o Covenant

• An agreement with God

o Alphabet

• Group of letters that stand

for sounds

People

o Abraham

o Jacob

o Moses

o Deborah

o Phoenician

Places

o Canaan

o Mt. Sinai


Small group of people who were monotheistic

Settled in Canaan in 1200

o Land on eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea

Known today as Judaism

o Followers of Judaism are called Jews

o Influenced Christianity and Islam

Spoke Hebrew

Wrote down their history in what is called Hebrew Bible

o Old Testament in Christian Bible


Earliest were herders and traders

Came from Mesopotamia and settled in Canaan

o Modern day countries: Lebanon, Israel and Jordan

Israelites believe they are descendants of Abraham

o God told Abraham and his followers to leave Mesopotamia and

move to Canaan

o God asked Abraham to worship the one true God

• Canaan would belong to Abraham and his descendants


Jacob, grandson of Abraham

o Renamed Israel

• “one who struggles with God”

• Name was given to Jacob’s descendants: Israelites

o Raised 12 sons in Canaan

• Family divided into tribes

• 12 tribes of Israel

Israelites lived in Canaan for 100 years

o Long drought forced them to move to Egypt


Egyptians enslave Israelites

To prevent rebellion, Hebrew baby boys thrown in Nile

o One mother hid her baby in a basket on riverbank

• Found by Pharaoh’s daughter: Moses


Moses:

o Raised in Pharaoh’s

house

o Banished from Egypt for

killing an Egyptian

o Became a sheep herder

o 1290 B.C., while tending

sheep saw burning bush

and heard God’s voice

• God told Moses to lead

the Israelites out of Egypt

To get Pharaoh to let the

Israelites go, God sent

10 plagues

o Water to blood

o Frogs

o Gnats or Lice

o Flies

o Diseased Livestock

o Boils

o Thunder and Hail

o Locusts

o Darkness

o Death of Firstborn


Escape from Egypt

o The last plague, God sent

the Angel of Death to kill the

firstborn of the Egyptians

Israelites marked their doors

with lamb’s blood

The angel passed over

those houses: Passover

• Pharaoh agreed to let the

Israelites leave

• Passover

o While they were leaving,

pharaoh changed his mind

and sent his army

• Moses parted Red Sea with

God’ help

• Sea flowed back drowning

Egyptian soldiers


Israelites were able to escape Egypt and began their long

journey back to Canaan

During their journey, they spent many years on the Sinai

peninsula traveling through the desert

o Moses went to the top of Mount Sinai

• Received 10 Commandments:

• God’s Law: Torah

• Covenant between God and Israelites

• Follow and love God and God will return them to Canaan


Torah: God’s Law

o Explained right from wrong

o Helped shape basic moral laws for many nations

o 10 Commandments told people not to:

• Steal

• Murder

• Tell lies

• Avoid jealousy

• Honor their parents

o Developed a belief that laws should apply to everyone equally


1. I am the Lord your God; you shall not have strange gods

before me.

2. You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain.

3. Remember to keep holy the Lord’s Day.

4. Honor your father and your mother.

5. You shall not kill.

6. You shall not commit adultery.

7. You shall not steal.

8. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.

9. You shall not covet your neighbor’s wife.

10. You shall not cover your neighbor’s goods.


What is monotheism?

o

It is the belief in one God.

Which religions practice monotheism?

o

o

o

Judaism

Christianity/Catholicism

Islam

Which laws of the Israelites explained what God considered to be

right and wrong?

o

The Torah

What has helped shape the moral laws of many nations?

o

The Ten Commandments

On the eastern shore of which sea is the region of Canaan?

o

The Mediterranean Sea


It took around 40 years for the Israelites to reach Canaan

o Because Moses sinned against God, he was not allowed to enter

Canaan.

o He died across the Jordan River before the Israelites entered

Canaan

• Joshua became the new leader

When they arrived outside Canaan, it was inhabited by other

people

o Canaanites


Israelites believed it was God’s will that they conquer the

Canaanites

o Went into battle with the Canaanites

Battle of Jericho

o Joshua led the troops to the city of Jericho

o Troops marched around the city for 6 days; 7 priests blew trumpets

o 7 th Day: Troops marched, priests blew their trumpets and walls

collapsed

Israelites conquer the city

Walls of Jericho

Joshua leads 3 more wars

o Land is divided amongst 12 tribes


Judges

o Took leadership roles after Joshua died

o Military leader

o Commanded 1 or 2 tribes, rarely all 12

o Bible tells of: Barak, Gideon, Samuel, Eli, Samson

• Deborah, woman

• Told Barak to attack the army of King Jabin

• Showed up at the battle

• Barak and 10,000 Israelites soldiers destroyed King Jabin 1125 B.C.

Over time, Israelites won more battles and controlled central

Canaan

To protect themselves, Israelites:

o

o

Built walled towns

Developed an alphabet and calendar based on Canaanite ideas


Phoenicians: Canaanites

o

o

o

Lived in cities along the Mediterranean Sea

Skilled sailors and traders

• Carried goods across Mediterranean to:

• Greece

• Spain

• Western Africa

Through trade spread ideas and goods

• Especially their Alphabet

Phoenician Alphabet

o

Group of letters that stood for sounds

• Used to spell out words in their language

• Writing became simpler

• Passed on to Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans

Hebrew/Phoenician Alphabet


Who led the Israelites into Canaan, and what city did they

conquer under his leadership?

o Joshua led the Israelites, and they conquered the city of Jericho.

What was the name of the leaders who commanded 1 or 2

tribes of the Israelites?

o Judges

Who was an influential female judge?

o Deborah

Why is the religion of Israel unique in the ancient world?

o The Israelites had only 1 God.

What is the Torah, and how did the Israelites obtain it?

o The laws (Ten Commandments) God gave to Moses on Mt. Sinai.

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