Ch 8 Sec 3 Alexander the Great

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Ch 8 Sec 3 Alexander the Great

Chapter 8 Section 3


• Key Terms:

• Legacy

• What a person leaves

behind when he or she dies

• Hellenistic Era

• Period when the Greek

language and Greek ideas

spread to the non-Greek

peoples of southwest Asia

• Key People:

• Philip II

Alexander the Great

• Key Places:

• Macedonia

Chaeronea

• Syria

• Alexandria


• Macedonians

• Raised sheep and horses

• Grew crops in river valleys

• Warrior people: fought on horseback

• 400 B.C., became a powerful kingdom


• 359 B.C., became king of Macedonia

• Lived in Greece as a young man

• Admired Greeks

• Art

• Ideas

• Armies

• Wanted a kingdom strong enough to defeat Persian Empire

• Needed to unite Greek city-states and Macedonia


• Military Methods:

• Established a professional

army

• Full-time

• Well-paid

• Highly skilled

• New battle formations

• Improved Phalanx

• New Weapons

• Catapults

• Wheeled battering rams


• Using his military, he took over city-states:

• Force

• Bribed to surrender

• Some united voluntarily

• Demosthenes: Athenian lawyer

• Warned Athenians about Philip

• Peloponnesian War had left Greeks weak and divided

• Many young Greeks joined Persian army

• 338 B.C., Macedonians defeat Greeks at Battle of Chaeronea

• Philip controls most of Greece


• Gather with your 2 nd Base Partner

• Turn to Page 399

• Read “Demonsthenes’ Warning”

• Answer the Document-Based Question (DBQ)

• Which line of Demosthenes’ speech tells what he thinks will happen if

the Greeks ignore Philip?

• “ . . . unless we are willing to fight him there we shall be forced to fight

here. . . .”


• What did Philip train to help him take over the Greek citystates

one-by-one?

• Philip trained a vast army of foot soldiers to take over the Greek citystates

one-by-one.

• Why did Philip II invade Greece?

• He wanted to unite all of Greece under Macedonia in order to defeat

Persia.

• Who urged the Greek city-states to join together to fight Philip

II?

• Demosthenes, an Athenian lawyer and great public speaker, urged the

Greek city-states to join together to fight Philip II.


• Son of King Philip

• Came to power at age

20 in 336 B.C.

• Father was murdered

• Put down revolts

• Goal was to expand his

empire

Alexander the Great


• 334 B.C., invaded Asia Minor

with

• 37,000 foot soldiers

• 5,000 mounted warriors

• Defeated Persian satraps at

Battle of Granicus

• 332 B.C., Captured

• Syria

• Egypt

• Built city of Alexandria

• City of business and trade

• 331 B.C., headed east and

defeated Persians at

Gaugamela

• After this battle, easily

conquered rest of Persian

Empire

• 326 B.C., Crossed Indus River

into India

• Stopped his army there

• 323 B.C., returned to

Babylon

• Planned to invade southern

Arabia

• Died of Malaria/High Fever at

age 32


• Gave Alexander

additional:

• Land

• Power

• Wealth

• Extended empire into:

• North Africa:

• Egypt

• Libya

• Asia:

• Persia

• Syria

• India


• Established colonies

• Modeled conquered lands

after Greek cities

• Left behind Greeks to rule

• Assured consistency and

unification throughout the

empire


Great military leader:

• Brave and reckless

• Often rode ahead of his

soldiers into battle

• Risked his own life

• Inspired his armies to

march into unknown lands

• Key to courage: Childhood

education

• Hero: Achilles from Illiad.

• Helped extend Greek/

Macedonian rule over a vast

region

• Greek armies spread Greek

• Art

• Ideas

• Language

• Architecture

• Brought back ideas from Asia

and Africa

• Beginning of Hellenistic Era

• Greek language and ideas

spread to non-Greeks


• How do you think a person living in a country conquered by and

under the rule of Alexander the Great would describe him as a

ruler?

• How was the world changed by the conquests of Alexander the

Great?


Alexander hoped that

Greek rule was not alien

• Did not want rebellions

Alexander wore Persian

clothing

• Brought Persian soldiers

into his army


• Results:

• People did not rebel

• Conquered people:

• Learned Greek language

• Worshiped Greek gods

• Read Greek literature

• Today, some people in

Central Asia proudly claim

the Greeks as their

ancestors


• Brought something other

than destruction to

conquered people:

• Citadels of Greek

government and culture

• Ensuring that conquered

lands could be controlled

• By naming after himself,

left a trail of reminders

that he was a powerful

conqueror


• He died of a fever in 323 B.C. at age 33

• Reign was 13 years, created largest empire in the western world

• After his death, Greek culture united empire

• Politically broke up, no single leader had enough power to

maintain empire

• Generals split empire among themselves

• Macedonia

• Pergamum

• Egypt

• Seleucid


• Which kingdom appears

to have had the most

territory?

• Which kingdoms were at

least partially located in

Asia?

• The Seleucid kingdom

appears to have had the

most territory.

• The Egyptian, Seleucid

and Pergamum kingdoms

were at least partially

located in Asia


• What dream of his father’s

did Alexander fulfill after

Philip II died?

• Why is Alexander

considered a great military

leader?

• How did Alexander plan to

unite the people in his new

Empire?

• What was Alexander’s

legacy?

Alexander the Great fulfilled his

father’s dream of an invasion of

the Persian Empire.

Alexander is considered a great

military leader because he often

rode into battle ahead of his men,

he risked his own life, and inspired

his armies.

Alexander united the people in his

new Empire by using Persians as

officials and encouraging his

soldiers to marry Asian women.

• He spread Greek art, ideas,

language, and architecture across

southwest Asian and brought new

ideas from Southwest Asia to

Greece

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