SOURCE: Sustainable Development

SOURCE Sustainable Development magazine will be exploring the post 2015 international development landscape. It will engage the private sector to drive innovation and support the ever growing need to achieve the UN Sustainable Development goal’s

SOURCE Sustainable Development magazine
will be exploring the post 2015 international
development landscape.
It will engage the private sector to drive
innovation and support the ever growing
need to achieve the UN Sustainable
Development goal’s


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<strong>SOURCE</strong><br />


<strong>SOURCE</strong><br />


April 2015<br />

April 2015<br />

• Gender equality<br />

Understanding how<br />

it can help solve<br />

food and nutrition<br />

challenges<br />

• Water conservation<br />

New strategic<br />

techniques are key to<br />

boosting agricultural<br />

productivity<br />

• Capacity building<br />

Smart, pre-emptive<br />

approaches for NGOs<br />

to deal with disaster<br />

more effectively<br />

SSD_Cover.indd 1 04/03/2015 18:20




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SDD_IFC.indd 2 04/03/2015 14:11

SSD_Cover.indd 1 04/03/2015 18:20<br />


<strong>SOURCE</strong><br />


<strong>SOURCE</strong><br />


April 2015<br />


April 2015<br />

• Gender equality<br />

Understanding how<br />

it can help solve<br />

food and nutrition<br />

challenges<br />

April, 2015<br />

Publisher<br />

Mohammed Rami<br />

Mo.rami@mediawireglobal.com<br />

Editor-in-Chief<br />

James Hayes<br />

James.hayes@mediawireglobal.com<br />

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Jon Bonny<br />

Jon.bonny@mediawireglobal.com<br />

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Publishing@mediawireglobal.com<br />

Commercial Director<br />

Teresa Elizabeth Rami Yahyaoui<br />

Info@mediawireglobal.com<br />

<strong>SOURCE</strong>: <strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong> is distributed<br />

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mw<br />

<strong>Sustainable</strong> Solutions<br />

• Water conservation<br />

New strategic<br />

techniques are key to<br />

boosting agricultural<br />

productivity<br />

• Capacity building<br />

Smart, pre-emptive<br />

approaches for NGOs<br />

to deal with disaster<br />

more effectively<br />

© Mediawire Limited UK 2015<br />

Disclaimers: every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy<br />

of this publication, neither <strong>SOURCE</strong>: <strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong>,<br />

nor its contributors, accept any legal responsibility whatsoever<br />

for consequences that may arise from errors or omissions, or<br />

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No part of the content of this publication may be copied,<br />

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written permission from the Publisher.<br />

<strong>SOURCE</strong>: <strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong> is printed on responsiblysourced<br />

paper stocks.<br />

The mid-point in a decade is often seen as a time to pause for reflection, a chance to<br />

review progress against set objectives, and re-set them if necessary. This certainly<br />

applies for 2015: the year in which the Millennium <strong>Development</strong> Goals give way to<br />

the <strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Goals offers a rare opportunity for people engaged<br />

with humanitarian and sustainability programmes around the world to appraise<br />

their plans and actions, and decide if they are still fit for the purposes they were<br />

set-up for. Alas, they have precious little time to do so, in this world beset with an<br />

unprecedented number of humanitarian emergencies, environmental challenges, and<br />

human bellicosity. The demands being placed on the many different organisations<br />

and agencies now intent on remediating those tragic zones, taking time out for<br />

reflective analysis is not feasible. There’s just too much that needs to be done – and<br />

done yesterday.<br />

Meeting the information requirement for sustainable development professionals<br />

is one of the primary aims of <strong>SOURCE</strong>: <strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong>. The publication has<br />

been created for the post-2015 international development sector, with special interest<br />

in highlighting ways in which private sector engagement will drive innovation and<br />

support the impetus to deliver on the UN <strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Goals as they are<br />

agreed and implemented.<br />

What is a sustainable development professional? Not an easy question to answer<br />

with absolute assurance – but a demographic profile has emerged. It enfranchises an<br />

increasingly broad range of skill-sets and competences from lawyers and diplomats,<br />

medicos and nutritionists, to aid workers to logistical managers, entrepreneurs and<br />

scientists. All these professional disciplines (and many others), are in some capacity<br />

engaged in working toward a common set of aims – aims that will inform the editorial<br />

foci of <strong>SOURCE</strong>: <strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong> going forward.<br />

The achievements of the sustainable development sector should be better<br />

recognised and celebrated. As prosecuted under the auspices of the United Nations,<br />

sustainable development is of course a matter of global importance that has the<br />

power to affect millions of lives for the better. Presenting key innovations and success<br />

stories is an aim of this new publication. Sharing the fruits of experience and firsthand<br />

knowledge – the sharing of professional expertise usually described as ‘best<br />

practice’ – is another.<br />

<strong>Sustainable</strong> development as a professional sector is also benefiting from a broad<br />

base of qualified new recruits, as well as a volunteer base that is richly skilled and<br />

highly-motivated. More people than ever before are pursuing careers that are shaped<br />

– directly or indirectly – by sustainable development programmes and initiatives.<br />

The principles and practices of sustainable development hold a political resonance<br />

that has been widely recognised. Indeed, taking sustainable development ideas as a<br />

‘the central organising principle for the whole of government’ is no new idea, but its<br />

adoption has some way to go. However events unfold, <strong>SOURCE</strong>: <strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong><br />

will cover them.<br />

James Hayes<br />

Letter From the Editor<br />

1<br />

SSD_Eds Letter.indd 1 05/03/2015 10:01


50<br />

1 From the Editor<br />

Time for change: 2015 is the year that the sustainable<br />

development sector must recognise and assert its<br />

professional identity, says James Hayes.<br />

5 Foreword<br />

The rule of law is an inseparable part of sustainable<br />

development: it embodies the principles and institutions<br />

that render justice – legal and social – and as such, it is<br />

the foundation on which to build durable development,<br />

believes Irene Khan, Director-General of the<br />

International <strong>Development</strong> Law Organization (IDLO).<br />

7 Foreword<br />

Challenges associated with the new operating environment<br />

for global humanitarianism call for a reaffirmation and<br />

strengthening of core principles, insists Angharad Laing,<br />

Executive Director of the International Association of<br />

Professionals in Humanitarian Assistance and Protection.<br />

10 Best Practice Profile: OCHA<br />

There is much for the sustainable development profession<br />

to learn from the ways in which the UN Office for the<br />

Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs – OCHA – pursues<br />

its aims and objectives, explains James Hayes, Editor-in-<br />

Chief of <strong>SOURCE</strong>: <strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong>.<br />

16 Interview<br />

Gerhard Putman-Cramer discusses on the nature<br />

of progress in humanitarian assistance, and explains<br />

the rationale behind this year’s DIHAD themes of<br />

opportunity, mobility, and sustainability.<br />

20 Youth and education<br />

Helping young people to successfully make the transition<br />

between their education and their employment prospects is<br />

achievable when multiple parties join forces, finds <strong>Sustainable</strong><br />

<strong>Development</strong> Goals Fund Director Paloma Durán.<br />

8 News round-up<br />

Gender work gap cost ‘now surpassing GDPs’ says<br />

ActionAid; Global Ocean Commission wants an ‘ocean<br />

SDG’ to counter high-seas ‘anarchy’.<br />


10<br />

24<br />

24 Interview<br />

HE Shaima Al Zarooni talks about her focus on extending<br />

awareness of the global humanitarian agenda into the<br />

many other spheres of public life that she is committed to.<br />

2<br />

SSD_Contents.indd 2 04/03/2015 13:49


56 Food security<br />

At first sight, the factors that make gender equality and<br />

women’s empowerment a food and nutrition issue may<br />

not be obvious – but the issues are closely interdependent.<br />

By understanding how, we are better placed to promote<br />

equality, social equity, gender equality – and women’s<br />

empowerment, writes Sonsoles Ruedas, Director of the<br />

Gender Office at The World Food Programme.<br />


34<br />

29 Digital technology<br />

For anyone looking to invest in technology start-up<br />

projects that are emerging in Africa, the risk levels may<br />

seem daunting – but anyone with a passion for funding<br />

entrepreneurial innovators should not be deterred, argues<br />

Dr Loren Treisman, Executive, The Indigo Trust.<br />

34 Cities and sustainable innovation<br />

Smart city concepts can go beyond their original remit<br />

and help create incubatory environments that encourage<br />

and promote innovative sustainability at grass-roots levels,<br />

reports Professor Martin Charter, Director of the Centre<br />

for <strong>Sustainable</strong> Design ® .<br />

40 Interview<br />

Professor Mukesh Kapila shares his perspectives on the<br />

nature of humanitarian progress, and on why the mix of<br />

cultures between private and public sectors in the cause<br />

of better aid relief is not necessarily something to be<br />

concerned about.<br />

62 Economic growth<br />

Enabling the efficient and effective spending of public and<br />

private funds for an array of development purposes has<br />

been an important facet of Crown Agents’ work for many<br />

years. Senior Fund Manager at Crown Agents Defrim<br />

Dedej looks at how challenge funds can help to strengthen<br />

the private sectors of developing countries, and the<br />

important considerations of their use<br />

68 Impact, scalability, and sustainability<br />

Bringing water and sanitation to 220 of Haiti’s<br />

earthquake-struck schools has not only re-established<br />

their students’ educational prospects, but also made a<br />

quantifiable contributed toward community health and<br />

well-being. Tariq Al Gurg, Chief Executive Officer at<br />

Dubai Cares, tells the inspiring story, and explains the<br />

factors behind Dubai Cares’ success.<br />

72 <strong>Sustainable</strong> tourism<br />

When it comes to making the most of the opportunities<br />

tourism brings without jeopardising sustainability, islands<br />

– especially small islands – can find mutually-supporting<br />

solutions that balance the needs of them both, finds<br />

Dr Rachel Dodds, Director/Owner, Sustaining Tourism.<br />

76 DIHAD Conference Guide<br />

Your at-a-glance guide to the Agenda Sessions and<br />

Speaker Details for the 2015 DIHAD Conference taking<br />

place on 24th, 25th and 26th March in Dubai.<br />

78 Contributors Profiles<br />

<strong>SOURCE</strong>: <strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong> contributors represent a<br />

wide range of expertise and specialist knowledge. Find out<br />

more about them.<br />

80 Events calendar<br />

Conferences, exhibitions, and seminars that sustainable<br />

development professionals will want to know about.<br />

44<br />

44 NGOs and capacity building<br />

Capacity building is a vital element in taking a pre-emptive<br />

approach to dealing with distress and disaster, explains<br />

Martin McCann, Chief Executive Officer, RedR UK.<br />

50 Water management<br />

A changing climate will cause us to adapt our management<br />

of water to new techniques and practices - techniques and<br />

practices that can also contribute to greater productivity,<br />

explains Peter McCornick, Deputy Director General,<br />

Research, International Water Management Institute.<br />

72<br />

3<br />

SSD_Contents.indd 3 04/03/2015 13:49

SSD_Khan_Foreword.indd 4 04/03/2015 19:34


Law must prevail:<br />

setting standards for the<br />

bedrock of development<br />

World governments are working to pindown<br />

what has become known as the<br />

Post-2015 Agenda. A blueprint for our world<br />

over the next generation, this Agenda will<br />

set out a series of commitments known as<br />

the <strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Goals (SDGs),<br />

with targets and indicators to measure<br />

progress. There is strong consensus on some<br />

goals, such as fighting hunger and eradicating<br />

poverty, and less so on some others, such<br />

as access to justice and the rule of law.<br />

The rule of law trails a baggage of controversy.<br />

Some governments see it as West-centric,<br />

prescriptive, and irrelevant to development;<br />

some others argue that it is too hard<br />

to measure, and unsuitable as a development<br />

target.<br />

From the perspective of my organisation,<br />

with both development and law embedded<br />

in its very name, the rule of law is an inseparable<br />

part of sustainable development. It<br />

embodies the principles and institutions that<br />

render justice – legal and social. As such, it<br />

is the essential foundation on which to build<br />

development, and to do so durably.<br />

When the rule of law does not function<br />

properly, inequality grows: when the law<br />

does not protect against discrimination;<br />

when opportunities are only open to a few<br />

based on wealth and privilege; when corruption<br />

and bribery thrive unchecked; when<br />

the law is selectively applied for the benefit<br />

of the powerful and against the poor; when<br />

public goods are siphoned off by private<br />

interests with total impunity.<br />

Equality, equal protection and fair treatment<br />

are fundamental principles of the rule<br />

of law.<br />

Take women and girls. In many countries,<br />

the law, whether formal or customary, continues<br />

to exclude and discriminate against<br />

them. This is not only morally reprehensible:<br />

it also deprives societies of wealth and skills;<br />

it endangers food security; and it has adverse<br />

effects on the health of nations. This is not<br />

rule of law, but rule by law. Properly understood,<br />

the rule of law upholds the universal<br />

values of human rights, and far from hampering<br />

development, strengthens it.<br />

Or take business and economic growth.<br />

The rule of law ensures predictability and<br />

certainty, and by so doing, creates confidence<br />

and promotes responsible investment.<br />

By contrast, its absence opens the way to<br />

corruption and predatory practices. Natural<br />

resources are unlawfully exploited. Environmental<br />

degradation follows. Climate resilience<br />

may suffer. Entire communities may be<br />

uprooted or destroyed.<br />

By setting the standards and institutions<br />

for equitable development and providing<br />

avenues for redress when rules and regulations<br />

are breached or rights are violated, the<br />

rule of law promotes transparency, accountability<br />

and inclusive participation. Legal<br />

empowerment strategies help the poor and<br />

the marginalised to access justice and claim<br />

their rights.<br />

Far from being impossible to measure, the<br />

justice sector – like any sector of governance<br />

– can be evaluated, and people’s ability to<br />

access justice can be measured. Far from importing<br />

‘foreign’ norms, the principles of the<br />

rule of law can be applied in context-specific<br />

ways that encourage local ownership.<br />

Challenges vary from country to country,<br />

and so do legal systems. There is plenty of<br />

good practice to show that solutions can be<br />

tailored, while the basic principles of the rule<br />

of law remain the same: fair, predictable,<br />

equally applicable, and equally accountable.<br />

If sustainability is to become a principle of<br />

global governance, the rule of law must be<br />

the bedrock of development. The alternative<br />

is a world of conflict and perpetual humanitarian<br />

crises.<br />

Irene Khan<br />

Director-General, International <strong>Development</strong><br />

Law Organization (IDLO)<br />

For more information about the IDLO, visit<br />

www.idlo.int<br />

5<br />

SSD_Khan_Foreword.indd 5 04/03/2015 19:34

WFP/Joelle Eid<br />

Join us<br />

on Facebook<br />

follow us<br />

@WFP<br />

Syria<br />

Millions of Syrians are displaced<br />

inside Syria or in neighbouring<br />

countries. They face a 5 th year<br />

away from home and their needs<br />

continue to grow.<br />

The World Food Programme is<br />

helping them by providing food or<br />

vouchers or e-cards to buy food.<br />

Fighting Hunger Worldwide<br />

If you would like to know how<br />

you too can help, please visit:<br />

www.wfp.org/Syria<br />

SDD_Laing_Foreword.indd 6 04/03/2015 13:52


Focus on the individual: responding<br />

effectively and responsibly to<br />

current and future crises<br />

Global humanitarian need has increased<br />

significantly in recent decades – in<br />

terms of the frequency, severity, and scale of<br />

natural disasters, as well as the number of<br />

people affected by armed conflicts and other<br />

situations of violence. Although the scale of<br />

the global humanitarian response has also<br />

been increasing, with humanitarian aid flows<br />

having been on an upward trend for over a<br />

decade, it has been in the context of an increasingly<br />

complex humanitarian landscape.<br />

The challenges associated with this new<br />

operating environment call for a reaffirmation<br />

and strengthening of core principles<br />

and approaches, together with concerted efforts<br />

to anticipate and address the questions<br />

and concerns that arise among humanitarian<br />

actors – both at the organisational and<br />

individual level.<br />

The International Association of Professionals<br />

in Humanitarian Assistance and Protection<br />

(PHAP) was established five years ago<br />

in an effort to help address these challenges.<br />

As a global and sector-wide professional<br />

association, bringing together all kinds of<br />

humanitarian actors at the individual level, it<br />

is the first and only organisation of its kind.<br />

The main strengths of PHAP’s unique<br />

approach and structure are three-fold: it<br />

encompasses diversity, it is complementary<br />

to existing organis ational initiatives, and it<br />

offers long-term sustainable support to the<br />

humanitarian community.<br />

First, an individual-based professional<br />

association is ideal for fostering cross-sector<br />

exchange and understanding. The membership<br />

already spans all the major ‘divides’<br />

in the humanitarian landscape: members<br />

are affiliated with organizations that are<br />

‘Northern’ and ‘Southern’; large and<br />

small; secular and faith-based; and local,<br />

national, and international. They include<br />

staff and volunteers of NGOs, the United<br />

Nations, the Red Cross and Red Crescent<br />

movement, academia, and governmental<br />

agencies. They are based in field and headquarters<br />

locations around the world.<br />

They have different areas of expertise,<br />

such as health, nutrition, logistics, child protection,<br />

international law, communication,<br />

and management. PHAP offers members<br />

the opportunity to share experiences and<br />

learn from others beyond their current<br />

organisational affiliations, which improves<br />

understanding among different actors and<br />

enhances humanitarian capacity as a whole.<br />

Second, the overarching mission of<br />

PHAP is shared by many important initiatives<br />

operating at the organisational level,<br />

which PHAP through its individual-based<br />

approach can support and strengthen.<br />

Initiatives and organisational networks that<br />

PHAP has worked with in various ways<br />

include ALNAP, the developers of the Core<br />

Humanitarian Standard, ELRHA, ICVA,<br />

InterAction, the IASC’s Transformative<br />

Agenda, the World Humanitarian Summit,<br />

and others. The membership of PHAP<br />

has come together on multiple occasions<br />

to provide their views and expertise, to<br />

help clarify questions and issues that arise,<br />

and to amplify the positive impact of these<br />

organisational networks and initiatives.<br />

Finally, the individual-based structure<br />

of the association provides the basis for a<br />

much-needed longer-term perspective in a<br />

sector that operates – out of necessity – almost<br />

exclusively in the short term. PHAP’s<br />

more than 2,500 professional members, and<br />

more than 30,000 active contacts in its larger<br />

practitioner network, are a truly global<br />

community, with a majority based in – and<br />

from – the Global South.<br />

By joining and participating as members<br />

of PHAP, people from all over the world<br />

demonstrate their individual commitment<br />

to effective, responsible, and principled<br />

humanitarian action. With this broad base<br />

of membership, PHAP is able to serve as<br />

a long-term resource, steadily enhancing<br />

humanity’s capacity to respond effectively<br />

and responsibly to current and future crises,<br />

for years and decades to come.<br />

Angharad Laing<br />

Executive Director, PHAP<br />

For more information about PHAP, visit<br />

https://phap.org<br />

7<br />

SDD_Laing_Foreword.indd 7 04/03/2015 13:52

NEWS<br />

News round-up<br />


Gender work gap cost ‘now<br />

surpassing GDPs’ – report<br />

Gender inequality in work costs women<br />

in poor countries $9 trillion each year –<br />

more than the combined gross domestic<br />

products of the UK, France, and Germany –<br />

according to research report by international<br />

development agency, ActionAid. The<br />

inequality exists because women get paid less<br />

than men, and do not attain the same levels<br />

of employment.<br />

The report, ‘Close the Gap’, calls for exploitation<br />

of women’s work to receive more<br />

attention. Closing the gender pay gap and<br />

gender employment gap could, dramatically<br />

improve, women’s lives, and as well as help<br />

their wider communities, as women tend to<br />

spend increased income on food, health, and<br />

Women’s care comes with a cost<br />

Maltese singer and personality, Ira Losco<br />

has been appointed as the island’s goodwill<br />

ambassador for sustainable development,<br />

Malta Today has reported.<br />

The 33-year-old artist has had a succession<br />

of top-charting recordings, and competed<br />

for Malta in the 2002 Eurovision Song<br />

Contest, finishing second.<br />

“I am very honoured by this title, and<br />

I understand it is a great responsibility,”<br />

Losco told an conference audience of<br />

representatives of the Mediterranean<br />

Commission for <strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong><br />

(MCSD). “I will... use my position to promote<br />

sustainable development in my everyday life,<br />

and to bring this concept closer to members<br />

of society who might not be aware of how<br />

[they] can make a change themselves.”<br />

education of their families. The report found<br />

two main causes of the huge inequality in<br />

the developing world.<br />

First, across the developing world, women<br />

do the most exploitative forms of work – jobs<br />

such as garment makers, roadside hawkers,<br />

and domestic servants – for the lowest wages.<br />

The second causes is that women do not<br />

get the same employment opportunities as<br />

men, because they spend so much of their<br />

time caring for children, the sick, and the<br />

elderly – all work that is largely invisible and<br />

totally unpaid. In poor countries women’s<br />

burden is increased by having to spend time<br />

on collecting fuel and water, and taking-up<br />

the slack when governments cannot fund<br />

basic health and education services.<br />

Women living in poverty have a vast mine<br />

of untapped potential which could improve<br />

their own lives and those of their families,<br />

the report concludes: ‘The costs of economic<br />

inequality to women are not only monetary,<br />

but also affect their life choices, leaving them<br />

vulnerable to violence and other forms of<br />

discrimination and exploitation’.<br />

ActionAid is calling for concerted action<br />

from governments, businesses and international<br />

institutions to value women’s work in<br />

its entirety – from caring for families and<br />

communities, to toiling long hours on the<br />

factory floor.<br />

‘Food security and gender’ – page 56<br />

Malta music star Losco made sustainable development ambassador<br />

Losco added: “Some concepts and<br />

terminology [around sustainable<br />

development] might seem complicated to<br />

some people, and... it will be my task to<br />

help society understand that they need not<br />

necessarily be so confusing.”<br />

Maltese Minister for Environment,<br />

<strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong>, and Climate<br />

Change, Leo Brincat, told conference<br />

delegates that it was important to have<br />

a guiding strategy to inspire and direct<br />

activities in sustainable development that can<br />

benefit all stakeholders and members of the<br />

public, both in Malta and the Mediterranean<br />

region, according to the report.<br />

More details at http://www.unepmap.org/index.<br />

php?module=content2&catid=001017002<br />

RAIN project wins prestigious<br />

agriculture-for-nutrition award<br />

A project that aims to improve under-nutrition<br />

and mortality rates in children under<br />

two years old that’s been rolled out in<br />

Zambia has won an international World<br />

Bank award for its potential impact on<br />

nutrition in developing countries.<br />

The project, known as RAIN (Realigning<br />

Agriculture to Improve Nutrition) – a<br />

joint imitative been humanitarian NGO<br />

Concern Worldwide and food processing<br />

firm Kerry Group – was a winner in the<br />

Harvesting Nutrition Contest awards<br />

for bridging the gaps between nutrition,<br />

agriculture and food security.<br />

Launched in 2011 by Ireland’s Minister<br />

for Agriculture, Food and the Marine,<br />

Simon Coveney, the RAIN project has seen<br />

Kerry Group contribute €1.25m of the overall<br />

€3.7m budget to the five-year initiative.<br />

The World Bank, in collaboration<br />

with the Global Alliance for Improved<br />

Nutrition (GAIN) and Save the Children<br />

UK, selected RAIN one of three<br />

winning projects of the SecureNutrition<br />

Knowledge Platform’s 2013 Harvesting<br />

Nutrition Contest for bridging the gaps<br />

between nutrition and agriculture and/or<br />

food security.<br />

As the winner in the category entitled<br />

‘Potential Impact on Nutrition’, the RAIN<br />

project will receive a boost of $5,000<br />

(approximately €4,465), and will also be<br />

documented by a multimedia portrait.<br />

Under-nutrition results in stunting - and is<br />

the underlying cause of 3.5m deaths a year<br />


8<br />

SDD_News.indd 8 04/03/2015 13:53

NEWS<br />

SDG investment in youth ‘could help counter extremism’<br />


Siemens wins technology partnership<br />

for Triangulum project<br />

Manchester City Council has selected<br />

Siemens as the technology partner to The<br />

University of Manchester, Manchester<br />

Metropolitan University, and IT Solutions<br />

provider, www.clicksandlinks.com, on the<br />

pioneering European-wide smart city project<br />

Triangulum, in a contract worth around<br />

€6million over five years.<br />

The project will aim to transform the<br />

city’s ‘Manchester Corridor’ student district<br />

into a ‘smart quarter.’ Supported by<br />

European Commission’s ‘Smart Cities and<br />

Communities’ Horizon 2020 funding call,<br />

the Triangulum project will install a range<br />

of energy management technologies in a<br />

number of Manchester Corridor’s buildings,<br />

developing an autonomous energy grid that<br />

demonstrates how the entire district could be<br />

supplied with heat and electricity.<br />

The Corridor covers some 243 hectares<br />

and is home to The University of Manchester<br />

and Manchester Metropolitan University,<br />

and The Central Manchester University<br />

Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust – making<br />

the Corridor the largest academic campus in<br />

the UK and also the largest clinical academic<br />

campus in Europe.<br />

Siemens will lead the energy-related aspects<br />

of the Triangulum project in Manchester,<br />

connecting-up a number of local energy<br />

generation assets, electrical storage devices<br />

and buildings, within the Corridor to a centralised<br />

control platform. The Triangulum<br />

project is led by Fraunhofer IAO with the<br />

support of the Steinbeis-Europa Zentrum,<br />

and involves 23 European partners.<br />

Investment in social sectors as part of SDG<br />

programmes would help address extremist<br />

recruitment, outgoing United Nations<br />

Resident and Humanitarian Co-ordinator<br />

in Pakistan, Timo Pakala, has said. In a<br />

newspaper interview, Pakala said that a<br />

growing number of the country’s young<br />

people and out-of-school children were<br />

becoming major challenges for its security<br />

and economic development.<br />

Appreciating the efforts of the federal<br />

and provincial governments to come<br />

together to work on education under the<br />

Millennium <strong>Development</strong> Goals, Pakala<br />

was also quoted as saying that the Pakistan<br />

government was now making efforts to<br />

overcome bottlenecks to send 6 million<br />

children to school.<br />

GOC wants ‘ocean SDG’ to counter<br />

wave of high-seas ‘anarchy’<br />

The Global Ocean Commission (GOC) has<br />

called for a stand-alone <strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong><br />

Goal (SDG) for the global ocean, in an<br />

effort to catalyse the development of more<br />

co-ordinated ocean management and the<br />

restoration of ocean health.<br />

It has warned that the high seas, the<br />

portion of the global ocean outside national<br />

jurisdiction that covers 45 per cent of the<br />

planet’s surface, and contains more than 50<br />

per cent of its biodiversity, are suffering from<br />

over-exploitation and ineffective management.<br />

“The high seas are in a state of anarchy,”<br />

said GOC Co-chair David Miliband.<br />

“Regional stability, food security, climate<br />

resilience, and a flourishing ‘blue economy’<br />

are all at risk. Fragmented and inadequate<br />

management has pushed ocean systems to<br />

the point of collapse – a stand-alone SDG<br />

for the ocean can deliver integrated and<br />

holistic management across the whole ocean<br />

system.”<br />

Miliband adds: “Healthy oceans must be<br />

at the centre of the global sustainable development<br />

agenda post-2015. SDGs present an<br />

opportunity to recognise ocean threats, and<br />

“Moving on to the SDGs does not<br />

[now] mean that challenges aren’t there,”<br />

he told The Express Tribune last month.<br />

“You cannot have sustainable economic<br />

development unless you have well<br />

educated, well nourished, and healthy<br />

population. There is no shortcut to<br />

development.”<br />

“If I look at the trends from 2010,<br />

disasters have taught the country a lot,” he<br />

says. “There is a positive trajectory in the<br />

capacity of the country’s response.”<br />

Pakala added that the safe return of<br />

the 1.6m displaced population remains<br />

a major challenge for Pakistan, and the<br />

UN was working with the government of<br />

Pakistan to find a sustainable solution to<br />

the displacement issue.<br />

Miliband:<br />

high seas are<br />

in a state of<br />

‘anarchy’<br />

to galvanise efforts by governments and civil<br />

society – including the private sector and<br />

NGOs – to work together in pursuit of targets<br />

and indicators that are bold, ambitious,<br />

and pragmatic.”<br />

The GOC – an independent international<br />

body addressing ocean health and high seas<br />

governance – was created to propose solutions<br />

to address the principal threats facing<br />

the global ocean, including acidification,<br />

illegal and destructive fishing, overfishing,<br />

plastic pollution, and inadequate governance.<br />

It will publish proposals for reform in<br />

mid-2014.<br />

9<br />


SDD_News.indd 9 04/03/2015 13:53


Dealing with a<br />

new world disorder<br />

There’s much for the sustainable development profession to learn from the ways in<br />

which the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs – OCHA – pursues its<br />

aims and objectives, explains James Hayes, Editor-in-Chief, <strong>SOURCE</strong>: <strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong><br />

Implicit in the broader realisation of the<br />

Millennium <strong>Development</strong> Goals is the need<br />

for the many agencies and organisations involved<br />

in achieving them to base their efforts<br />

on exemplary organisational techniques and<br />

strategy, and the application of the most upto-date<br />

methods of situation management.<br />

Governmental – and non-governmental<br />

organisations, humanitarian bodies, and<br />

charitable agencies, et alia, have in recent<br />

decades adopted many techniques from the<br />

worlds of business and commerce in order<br />

to bring improved performance (and help<br />

recruit personnel from the private sector), but<br />

have also built upon this with their own direct<br />

experience and sense of professionalism.<br />

The term ‘best practice’ is overused in our<br />

public discourse, but is useful in denoting the<br />

way in which professionals working in any<br />

sector can benefit from a knowledge of the<br />

working methods of the successful entities in<br />

10<br />

SSD_Best Practice.indd 10 04/03/2015 13:53


OCHA chief Baroness Amos’s public<br />

profile ensure that her organisation’s<br />

concerns are communicated to those it is<br />

working with - and seeking to help<br />

their given field of expertise. In the humanitarian<br />

field, the UN Office for the Coordination<br />

of Humanitarian Affairs – OCHA – is<br />

a ‘market leader’, and there’s much to be<br />

learned from the methods and procedures by<br />

which it pursues its objectives.<br />

OCHA has tremendous asset in being<br />

helmed by Baroness Valerie Amos. The<br />

opening months of 2015 proved exceptionally<br />

busy ones for UN Under-Secretary-General<br />

for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency<br />

Relief Co-ordinator, to give the OCHA chief<br />

her full job title.<br />

The year opened with an unprecedented<br />

number of emergencies raging on the<br />

humanitarian aid global horizon, caused by<br />

a range of natural- and man-made disasters.<br />

The statistics for any one of these troubled<br />

regions continue to update their shocking<br />

news. At the beginning of January, by the<br />

OCHA’s estimation, there were some 78<br />

million people in 31 countries requiring humanitarian<br />

support just to survive on a daily<br />

basis. Last year was dominated by the three<br />

emergencies that have claimed the highest<br />

of priorities – those in Syria, South Sudan,<br />

and the Central African Republic. These<br />

and other humanitarian events unfolded<br />

alongside protracted crises in Yemen, Sudan,<br />

Somalia, the Sahel, the Democratic Republic<br />

of the Congo, and Afghanistan, and many<br />

others.<br />

The challenge facing the OCHA and its<br />

many partners and affiliates (working in<br />

home countries and ‘in the field’ in response<br />

to these emergencies) is not only of massive<br />

scale, but also of escalating and exasperating<br />

complexity. As the OCHA’s ‘Strategic<br />

Plan 2014-2017’ explains, such multifaceted<br />

catastrophes – and again, these include<br />

both the forces of nature and the forces of<br />

arms – are causing even greater burdens<br />

for humanitarian operators. “The effects of<br />

climate change, environmental degradation,<br />

economic inequality, population growth, political<br />

unrest, and migration, have weakened<br />

community resilience in many countries,”<br />

the plan’s authors report. Protracted and<br />

recurring emergencies, they add, are creating<br />

groups of people for whom crisis is ‘the new<br />

normal’, and this phenomenon is “making<br />

humanitarian case-loads harder to define”.<br />

In addition to the making additional demands<br />

on aid organisations, these malevolent<br />

trends are making, in terms of funding<br />

and resources, co-ordination and delivery,<br />

there’s been an upsurge in threats aimed<br />

at front-line humanitarian personnel. The<br />

ferocious nature of much of civil warring –<br />

where armed militias are actors in conflicts<br />

that pay no heed to international law, national<br />

governance, or the basic tenets of human<br />

decency – mean that aid workers and their<br />

local partners in field operations are increasingly<br />

targets of attack.<br />

In the face of this escalation of disastrous<br />

incidents, the role of OCHA has become<br />

even more prominent, and the scope for it to<br />

demonstrate even greater leadership has become<br />

more acute. The OCHA is the part of<br />

the United Nations Secretariat responsible<br />

for bringing together humanitarian actors<br />

▲<br />

11<br />

SSD_Best Practice.indd 11 04/03/2015 13:53

SYRIA<br />


APPEAL<br />

Scared and exhausted<br />

Fleeing for their lives<br />

Learn more about their needs<br />

www.unhcr.org/syria<br />

SSD_Best Practice.indd 12 04/03/2015 13:53


Aid workers and<br />

their local partners in<br />

field operations are<br />

increasingly the targets<br />

of violent attack.<br />

– be they charities, humanitarian assistants,<br />

or aid suppliers, say – to ensure a coherent<br />

response to emergencies. OCHA also ensures<br />

there is a framework, within which, each actor<br />

can contribute to the overall response effort.<br />

To be sure, the OCHA is much more than<br />

that in its many activities and programmes;<br />

and its structure and organisation, its principles<br />

and philosophy, provide a strategic blueprint<br />

for best practice that contains much that<br />

could be adopted by – or prove inspirational<br />

to – those professionals engaged in the delivery<br />

of <strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Goals (SDGs).<br />

As the figurehead of OCHA, Baroness<br />

Amos’s position empowers her to cast the<br />

most authoritative perspective on many of the<br />

humanitarian challenges that the world faces<br />

in this pivotal year when progress toward<br />

SDGs starts to gather pace. The OCHA’s<br />

mission now, she suggests, is nothing short of<br />

helping to set the agenda for future humanitarian<br />

action. Amos’s declarations can serve as<br />

a focal point around which much of the sustainable<br />

development sector can take bearings<br />

for its future challenges.<br />

Telling it as it is<br />

Amos’s enhanced status is perhaps best<br />

illustrated by two speeches she made earlier<br />

this year, which evidenced her ability to<br />

encapsulate the many jarring aspects of the<br />

humanitarian world-view in a style that is<br />

lucid and hard-hitting.<br />

Baroness Amos and UNESCO<br />

Special Envoy Forest Whitaker<br />

called for peace while visiting<br />

South Sudan in February<br />

In the first, delivered on 13th January, as<br />

part of of the Sorenson Lecture series in<br />

New York, she told the Council on Foreign<br />

Relation that the world is seeing a “convergence<br />

of global trends which is increasing<br />

the risk of major crises, as well as their scope<br />

and complexity... Conflict and complex<br />

emergencies drove over 75 per cent of<br />

humanitarian response needs [in 2014], and<br />

most of the conflicts we are responding to<br />

have implications far beyond their borders.”<br />

This knock-on effect, particularly when it<br />

occurs in neighbouring nations in the same<br />

region, can have significant deleterious impact<br />

on countries not directly involved with<br />

the initial conflict or disaster. “The crises in<br />

Iraq and Syria have consequences across the<br />

whole of the Middle East and beyond,” said<br />

Amos. “The fall of Moammar Gaddafi in<br />

Libya led to major insecurity, and the spread<br />

of weapons across West and Central Africa,<br />

the impact of which is still being felt.”<br />

Perils of mission creep<br />

Humanitarian actors are increasingly being<br />

called on to deal with the consequences of<br />

crises that “essentially have their roots in a<br />

complex set of interrelated factors” Amos<br />

continued, citing poor governance, political<br />

paralysis, underdevelopment, rising levels of<br />

poverty, and inequality; and these negative<br />

dynamics are, in many countries, “overlaid<br />

by the growth of terrorist and radical armed<br />

groups, and [other] challenges to democratisation,<br />

which create further instability”.<br />

Force for change<br />

The nature of these remarks and others<br />

made since being appointed to her position<br />

in 2010, indicate how far Baroness<br />

Amos can be credited with having been a<br />

profound influence over how the OCHA<br />

has adapted to such changed circumstances,<br />

and to a shift in the core expectations<br />

being placed upon it and its partners. Amos<br />

has also used her role to voice widely-held<br />

frustration at the failure of governments,<br />

international organisations, and other<br />

political agencies in finding even partial or<br />

temporary solutions to the tide of strife that<br />

globally confronts us on a daily basis – if<br />

only in our newspapers and on our TV<br />

screens.<br />

Later in her Sorenson Lectures address,<br />

Amos described 2015 as set to become “a<br />

particularly critical time when the world is<br />

grappling with a series of challenges which<br />

are bringing us closer together and pushing<br />

us wider apart”. Amos holds a position –<br />

arguably a unique position – to publicly<br />

raise questions over how, at a time when<br />

many are seeking to redefine the role of the<br />

nation state, of governments, and of the<br />

United Nations itself, and given the complex<br />

set of challenges we are facing, we are<br />

also debating searching questions about the<br />

nature of terrorism, security, freedom of<br />

speech and religion; the limits (or otherwise)<br />

of press freedom; tolerance, racism, inequality;<br />

the impact of social media and the<br />

Internet; the lack of connectivity between<br />

people and cultures, and – most poignantly<br />

– the quality of global leadership.<br />

That sounds like a lot to include in a single<br />

sentence; but an all-encompassing purview<br />

is essential if the nature of the complexity,<br />

and the inter-relatedness of its causes, is to<br />

be comprehended constructively.<br />

Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding<br />

of these ‘back-story’ issues is essential,<br />

Amos maintains, if we are to stand<br />

a chance of moving away from the (essentially)<br />

fire-fighting model of humanitarian<br />

aid and developmental assistance, and progress<br />

toward programmes that predictively<br />

and pre-emptively tackle root causes that,<br />

▲<br />

13<br />

SSD_Best Practice.indd 13 04/03/2015 13:53


With an escalation of disastrous<br />

incidents, the role of OCHA has<br />

become even more prominent, and<br />

the scope for it to demonstrate<br />

even greater leadership has<br />

become more acute.<br />

left unchecked, will lead to future human<br />

tragedy, be it from societal disharmony or<br />

environmental imbalances.<br />

Baroness Amos’s concern over this issue<br />

was perhaps at its most pointed in the 3rd<br />

February address she gave in Budapest to the<br />

World Humanitarian Summit. During this<br />

two-day event, representatives from national<br />

governments, regional bodies humanitarian<br />

and development organisations, academia,<br />

civil society groups, and the private sector<br />

discussed how to reshape aid to improve the<br />

response to critical humanitarian events.<br />

“Year on year, humanitarian needs are<br />

outstripping our capacity and the resources<br />

available to us to respond effectively,”<br />

Amos warned. The situation is no longer<br />

one of providing aid to contained numbers<br />

of displaced civilian refugees or the victims<br />

of cyclical storms and floods that will, in<br />

time, pass and hopefully return to something<br />

resembling normality. “Now, nearly 80 per<br />

cent of our work is in countries and regions<br />

affected by conflict – countries where active<br />

zones of conflict, proliferation of armed and<br />

terrorist groups, and [other] parties to the<br />

conflict combines with other factors, producing<br />

complex operating environments.”<br />

The scale of the challenges is immense, but<br />

Amos’s closing message was that many of them<br />

can be addressed with greater co-operation –<br />

and by informing our responses evaluations with<br />

an abiding and genuine sense of honestly. ■<br />

<strong>SOURCE</strong>: <strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Best Practice file: UN Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs<br />



OCHA is the part of the United Nations Secretariat<br />

responsible for bringing together humanitarian<br />

actors to ensure a coherent response to<br />

emergencies. OCHA also ensures there is a<br />

framework within which each actor can contribute<br />

to the overall response effort. Its mission is to<br />

mobilise and coordinate effective and principled<br />

humanitarian action in partnership with national<br />

and international actors in order to alleviate<br />

human suffering in disasters and emergencies;<br />

advocate the rights of people in need; promote<br />

preparedness and prevention; facilitate<br />

sustainable solutions.<br />

Open strategy, defined aims,<br />

achievable objectives<br />

The OCHA is committed to ensuring<br />

that its guiding principles and aims are clearly<br />

articulated into the public domain, and it’s<br />

‘Strategic Plan 2014-2017’, published last year,<br />

should be required reading for anyone tasked<br />

with directing programmes in the humanitarian<br />

or sustainable development professions. This<br />

40-page document is both an action plan and an<br />

insightful study of key aspects of contemporary<br />

world history.<br />

Well-informed statements that<br />

are routinely updated<br />

The OCHA information management<br />

systems are consistent and effective; this is a core<br />

factor to its success. Organisations of all kinds in<br />

the sustainable development sector should be<br />

aware of the growing the growing importance<br />

of digital information and communications<br />

technologies – not as a means of disseminating<br />

key messages to the wider world, and ensuring<br />

that teams in the field are kept informed about<br />

developments back at base and elsewhere, but<br />

also for communications between co-actors in<br />

the field. ICT is having a demonstrable effect on<br />

humanitarian actions across a range of contexts,<br />

from supporting platforms that enable the<br />

monitoring and delivery of improved healthcare,<br />

to tracking the movements of individuals acting in<br />

risky locations. Increasingly, it will provide key tools<br />

for validating and quantifying aid programmes,<br />

and enabling them to be quickly modified in<br />

response to changed circumstances, to deliver<br />

better outcomes.<br />

Lucid, cogent, well-informed<br />

key messages<br />

There are no shortage of assessments<br />

and top-level surveys of the crises that beset our<br />

societies around the world. In the same way that<br />

the humanitarian aid sector is being influenced<br />

by international media, in terms of a a connection<br />

between response and coverage, organisations<br />

such as international agencies, charities, and<br />

NGOs, who are aligned with the Post-2015 sDGs<br />

are learning how to deliver their key messages<br />

more effectively. Baroness Amos’s remarks are<br />

lucid and well-researched.<br />

Seek-out and benefit from<br />

colleague/partner experience<br />

OCHA is part of a wider, well-established<br />

and very experienced organisation, and is well<br />

placed to take advantage of the expertise that this<br />

can put it in contact with. Many organisations –<br />

in public and private sector – could boost their<br />

efficiency and effectiveness by doing more to<br />

extract value from the data that already existing<br />

somewhere on the system, or by soliciting<br />

intelligence from co-workers, contacts, or other<br />

affiliates.<br />

Facing-up to political realities without<br />

adopting a political standpoint<br />

This issue is already a tough one for<br />

NGOs and agencies working on the ground. As<br />

Amos has noted, humanitarian workers must be<br />

impartial as they do their work, even though they<br />

may be acutely affected by politic considerations<br />

both locally, nationally and internationally. In this<br />

context it is constructive to place greater emphasis<br />

on the importance of international law and justice<br />

as a benchmark that transcends political issues,<br />

and to call upon governments to do their utmost<br />

to ensure that the relevant laws are applied in a<br />

compelling manner.<br />

Technologically-informed speculation<br />

While fully engaged and committed<br />

to immediate priorities, the OHCA is<br />

not blinkered by them. If Baroness Amos and<br />

her teams are correct, there will be increasing<br />

convergence between the humanitarian<br />

assistance and sustainable development<br />

sectors going forward. Successful pre-emptive<br />

humanitarian programmes will reply on know-how<br />

in predictive analysis involving a multi-disciplinary<br />

approach to interpreting data from diverse sources<br />

– meteorological data is an obvious example for<br />

informing capacity building in areas vulnerable<br />

to extreme weather. The OHCA’s ideas remind<br />

us that open-data initiative, for instance, makes<br />

freely-available information that could usefully<br />

shape future strategies.<br />

Leadership that engages with policy<br />

making and agenda setting<br />

Baroness Amos’s status means that<br />

she has direct access to heads of state and<br />

other high-ranking civil leaders, as well as<br />

senior executives in the private sector. As a<br />

public figurehead for the OCHA and other<br />

groups she represents, her role is defined and<br />

focused. It is, of course, essential that those<br />

figurehead roles stay focused, and that their<br />

roles and responsibilities are openly defined in<br />

order to manage expectations that may arise<br />

during the course of interactions with partners<br />

and stakeholders, etc. The role of figurehead<br />

can easily become diffused by ‘over-exposure’.<br />

Although they may serve as the public-facing<br />

‘face’ and ‘voice’ of the body and ideology which<br />

they represent, organisational figureheads must<br />

be cautious of accepting too many invitations to<br />

provide media comment or speak at events.<br />

14<br />

SSD_Best Practice.indd 14 04/03/2015 13:53


Reflections On CSR<br />

By Beatriz Bayo<br />

If we look back ten years, we can say that much<br />

has changed in the world and also of course,<br />

in business, and in great measures thanks to<br />

corporate social responsibility (CSR). That does<br />

not mean that CSR has changed the world, is<br />

not even what it claims, but it has contributed to<br />

a new business perspective, and in my view, a<br />

more friendly one that goes beyond the purely<br />

economic.<br />

Today, it is hard to imagine a company that does<br />

not integrate into the business strategy aspects of<br />

CSR. In our organization we have always believed<br />

in this sustainability model. A global organization<br />

like ours that operates in over one hundred<br />

countries and with great influence worldwide<br />

through its supply chain has much to contribute<br />

and great responsibility for the impact it has on<br />

both people and the environment.<br />

But social demands and increasing international<br />

initiatives on human rights and environment have<br />

worked for the commitment of companies to be<br />

increasingly more solid and credible. In today’s<br />

world everything is governed by measurable<br />

values, tools that allow us to quantify: balances,<br />

risk analysis, indicators, etc. To such an extent, that<br />

it seems that everything that can not be measured<br />

is worthless. But in reality the true CSR is not<br />

measurable but it is a behavior, internally within the<br />

company and externally towards the stakeholders.<br />

In the same way that companies seek ways to<br />

improve the competitiveness, there is the need<br />

to contribute to the positive development of the<br />

environment, make commitments that favor the<br />

impacts of our activities and that these provide a<br />

socialy beneficial opportunity. It is essential to listen<br />

and meet their demands and give a response that<br />

satisfies them. We may not always succeed, but<br />

that should be a daily challenge and the engine<br />

that drives us to move forward.<br />

Brands have the duty and the need to contribute<br />

to social and environmental development through<br />

tangible, innovative and collaborative actions<br />

with shared value both for society, community,<br />

consumers and of course, for the brand itself<br />

because when companies took CSR efforts,<br />

consumers responded with enthusiasm and<br />

participation. For this reason, the communication<br />

of these aspects is also critical: if a company<br />

discloses information about its relevant social and<br />

environmental issues, it provides a transparency<br />

which gives greater confidence and credibility to<br />

consumers.<br />

Obviously doubts will arise, there are limitations<br />

and mistakes but also there is the willing to<br />

improve in this regard. Only then can a credible<br />

policy can be settled, through an open dialogue<br />

with groups of interest, focused on the people,<br />

very clear and with the main goal of improving<br />

progressively.<br />

It is time to be optimistic. There are still<br />

challenges ahead but progress is undeniable.<br />

www.mango.com<br />

15<br />

SSD_Best Practice.indd 15 04/03/2015 13:53


16<br />

SSD_Q&A_Gerhard Putman Cramer.indd 16 04/03/2015 13:54


Q & A<br />

Gerhard Putman-Cramer<br />

Director of DISAB for DIHAD 2015<br />

Gerhard Putman-Cramer talks about the nature of progress in<br />

humanitarian assistance, and explains the rationale behind this<br />

year’s DIHAD themes of opportunity, mobility, and sustainability.<br />

<strong>SOURCE</strong>: <strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong><br />

How, in your view, has DIHAD developed in<br />

terms of influence and significance during<br />

the time that you have been associated with<br />

the event?<br />

Gerhard Putman-Cramer DIHAD is an<br />

event that is now recognised in the region,<br />

and well beyond, as an annual get-together<br />

of all parties concerned with humanitarian<br />

assistance and development, to jointly<br />

review best practices, to exchange views and<br />

experiences on topics of common interest,<br />

and to establish effective partnerships in this<br />

context.<br />

SSD Some years ago in an address to<br />

Organization of the Islamic Conference<br />

(OIC), in your role as Deputy Director<br />

UN Office for the Coordination of<br />

Humanitarian Affairs, you said that much<br />

greater international recognition should be<br />

given to Muslim NGOs for the humanitarian<br />

assistance these organizations and countries<br />

have provided. Do you think that this<br />

recognition deficit, so to speak, has been<br />

corrected since then?<br />

Gerhard Putman-Cramer Yes, Muslim<br />

NGOs have increasingly gained recognition<br />

for their most valuable efforts in the realm of<br />

humanitarian assistance and development.<br />

[This has come about] on account of the<br />

intensification of their interaction with<br />

international organisations and non-Muslim<br />

NGOs, and also on account of the visibility<br />

gained in fora, such as DIHAD.<br />

SSD You explain in your DIHAD 2015<br />

message that DISAB (DIHAD’s Scientific<br />

Advisory Board) decided to adopt Dubai’s<br />

EXPO 2020 theme, and specifically its<br />

sub-themes ‘opportunity’, ‘mobility’, and<br />

‘sustainability’, as its own themes. Can you<br />

enlarge on why these themes have such<br />

resonance for DISAB?<br />

Gerhard Putman-Cramer From a<br />

humanitarian and development assistance<br />

perspective, this year’s DIHAD will<br />

endeavour to elaborate on these sub-themes<br />

with an eye to pro-actively seizing the<br />

‘opportunity’, further developing various<br />

aspects of ‘mobility’, and contributing to the<br />

essential ‘sustainability’ of achievements,<br />

past and present.<br />

SSD Let’s take those sub-themes one at a<br />

time. First, ‘opportunity’ – can you elaborate<br />

on its resonance in this context?<br />

Gerhard Putman-Cramer Opportunity is<br />

to be found everywhere, every day; and yet<br />

we have to identify and capture it. Our ever<br />

more frequent innovations, in all fields, have<br />

to constitute opportunities for the production<br />

of enhanced structures, new instruments<br />

and improved systems and mechanisms.<br />

Importantly, we have to seize opportunities<br />

to diminish the need for humanitarian<br />

assistance!<br />

SSD And ‘mobility’?<br />

Gerhard Putman-Cramer In regard to<br />

mobility, we need free flows of knowledge,<br />

competences, data, ideas, goods, and<br />

services. We need efficient logistics and<br />

transportation systems. In humanitarian<br />

operations, we need access to those in need<br />

of assistance, and the mobility to reach all<br />

of them, quickly and effectively. That said,<br />

crises also cause the forced mobility of<br />

persons – who seek shelter, refuge, asylum<br />

or simply better conditions elsewhere. The<br />

reasons for this type of mobility (numbering<br />

over 50 million internally displaced, refugees<br />

and asylum seekers today, according to<br />

UNHCR) have to be urgently addressed.<br />

SSD That leaves ‘sustainability’. You have<br />

said that “Sustainability is what we wish for<br />

our collective achievements, our objectives<br />

and our goals. <strong>Development</strong> has little value<br />

without it.” Can you explain this further?<br />

Are you suggesting that, in the context of<br />

sustainable development, there has been a<br />

tendency to place too much emphasis on<br />

‘development’, and not enough emphasis on<br />

the ‘sustainable’ aspect?<br />

Gerhard Putman-Cramer It is not so<br />

much that ‘sustainability’ has not been given<br />

the required emphasis vis-a-vis development,<br />

but more that development activities have<br />

not always been planned in the appropriately<br />

sustainable manner.<br />

A culture of sustainability is crucial – be it<br />

in regard to our environment or to our natural<br />

resources, including water and energy,<br />

of course. Much will be said and written in<br />

2015, in various fora, on the sustainability<br />

17<br />

SSD_Q&A_Gerhard Putman Cramer.indd 17 04/03/2015 13:54


Opportunity is to be<br />

found everywhere,<br />

every day; and yet<br />

we have to identify<br />

and capture it.<br />

of development objectives as we collectively<br />

continue to ‘create the future’, endeavouring<br />

to productively ‘connect the minds’ of all<br />

concerned in this regard.<br />

SSD How will these aims be explored at<br />

DIHAD 2015?<br />

Gerhard Putman-Cramer We will<br />

capitalise on existing partnerships and<br />

past discussions in our attempt to arrive<br />

at a number of constructive conclusions.<br />

Moreover, by bringing together international<br />

agencies, governmental and nongovernmental<br />

organisations, foundations<br />

and charities, the media and academia,<br />

the corporate sector, Red Cross and Red<br />

Crescent Societies – as well as individual<br />

practitioners and experts – we will try to<br />

make valuable contributions to the ongoing<br />

global discussions on development goals,<br />

climate change, disaster reduction, and<br />

best practices in the realm of humanitarian<br />

assistance.<br />

Besides being an educational platform, DIHAD also provides an opportunity for a variety of partners<br />

to get together and become acquainted – or better acquainted – with each-other.<br />

speaking, these organisations have become,<br />

besides more numerous, also larger, more<br />

experienced, better funded and, on that<br />

account, more ubiquitous.<br />

huge expansion over the years of the need<br />

for humanitarian assistance – this specifically<br />

in the context of unresolved ‘complex<br />

emergencies’, some seemingly never-ending.<br />

DIHAD<br />

SSD So DIHAD is looking to improve the<br />

delivery of humanitarian aid for this year,<br />

2015 – what are its key strategies?<br />

Gerhard Putman-Cramer Besides<br />

being an educational platform, DIHAD<br />

also provides an opportunity for a variety<br />

of partners to get together and become<br />

acquainted – or better acquainted – with<br />

each-other, and to enhance knowledge<br />

of each other’s capacities. This means<br />

that international organisations, NGOs,<br />

foundations, charities, Red Cross and Red<br />

Crescent Societies, et alia, are increasingly<br />

cognisant of [their respective] mandates,<br />

capacities, and resources.<br />

This, in turn, enables all concerned to act<br />

in a much more collaborative and co-ordinated<br />

manner – which minimises both gaps<br />

and duplication, and hence enhances the<br />

overall humanitarian assistance effort and<br />

efficiency of aid delivery.<br />

SSD In the context of your own estimable<br />

career and experience in the humanitarian<br />

aid and sustainable development sectors,<br />

what have been the most significant<br />

changes to the role of non-governmental<br />

organisations, and aid charities?<br />

Gerhard Putman-Cramer Generally<br />

18<br />

SSD You once observed that the impact of<br />

natural disasters is increasing because of<br />

factor such as population growth, climate<br />

change, and more extensive urbanisation. Is<br />

there anything that technology-based tools,<br />

such as computer-based predictive analysis,<br />

can do to help us try and locate pre-emptive<br />

aid relief to areas most vulnerable to these<br />

kinds of adverse natural events?<br />

Gerhard Putman-Cramer Much<br />

can be done – and is being done – with<br />

technology-based instruments, in terms<br />

of disaster reduction and preparedness.<br />

This is an issue that will be addressed in<br />

Session 1 on the first day of DIHAD 2015<br />

[session entitled ‘Disaster Reduction and<br />

Preparedness – opportunities’, to be chaired<br />

by Ms. Margareta Wahlstrom, Special<br />

Representative of the Secretary – see<br />

DIHAD Conference Programme guide on<br />

page 76 of this issue of <strong>SOURCE</strong>: <strong>Sustainable</strong><br />

<strong>Development</strong>].<br />

SSD Looking back on your career, what<br />

would you say were the general or specific<br />

developments in the history of humanitarian<br />

aid that were perhaps least-well anticipated<br />

by the sector?<br />

Gerhard Putman-Cramer Possibly, the<br />

SSD As the conference agenda for DIHAD<br />

becomes confirmed, which of the speakers<br />

are you looking forward to hearing and/or<br />

meeting during the course of the event?<br />

Gerhard Putman-Cramer All of them,<br />

naturally!<br />

Gerhard Putman-Cramer:<br />

career briefing<br />

LEADERSHIP ROLES: Ambassador, Permanent<br />

Observer of the Parliamentary Assembly of the<br />

Mediterranean (PAM) to the United Nations and<br />

other International Organisations in Geneva; and<br />

Director, DIHAD International Scientific Advisory<br />

Board (DISAB) of Dubai International Humanitarian<br />

Aid and <strong>Development</strong> Conference and<br />

Exhibition (DIHAD).<br />

He has previously held the office of Deputy<br />

Director and Chief, Emergency Services Branch<br />

for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs<br />

(OCHA), Geneva, Switzerland<br />

Mr. Putman-Cramer completed his Diplome<br />

Universitaire en Santé Humanitaire through<br />

the Centre européen de santé humanitaire,<br />

Université Claude-Bernard after completing his<br />

Postgraduate Diploma (Economics, International<br />

Relations, Political Science, International Law and<br />

Organizations, History), Diplomatic Academy of<br />

Vienna, Austria.<br />

You can read his DIHAD Message at http://dihad.<br />

org/about-dihad/message.<br />

SSD_Q&A_Gerhard Putman Cramer.indd 18 04/03/2015 13:54


Natural resource trading opportunities drive positive change<br />

Conflict-free minerals delivered through the ITSCI Programme<br />

What are ‘conflict minerals’?<br />

Many developing countries are rich in natural resources, a sector from<br />

which earning and development opportunities are frequently lost<br />

through poor management and corruption. The UN has also highlighted<br />

concerns over the role that mineral trade can play in funding armed<br />

conflict such as from cassiterite (tin), tantalite (tantalum), wolframite<br />

(tungsten) and gold production from the Democratic Republic of the<br />

Congo (DRC) and surrounding areas; the so called 3T&G ‘conflict<br />

minerals’. Other organisations also aim to encourage responsible conflictfree<br />

supply chains with a key framework being the OECD Due Diligence<br />

Guidance for sourcing from high risk and conflict areas.<br />

Co-operative action to facilitate responsible trade<br />

Since 2010 the ITSCI supply chain initiative has rapidly developed<br />

from a small pilot to become the foundation of conflict-free 3T mineral<br />

trade across the DRC, Rwanda and Burundi. ITSCI is a voluntary private<br />

sector initiative understanding the importance of global markets and<br />

open, business friendly trading opportunities, yet working hand in hand<br />

with Government services and international (Pact) and local NGO’s to<br />

deliver capacity building and improved governance. ITSCI is a practical<br />

mechanism developed to implement complex OECD due diligence<br />

expectations in an accessible and appropriate manner for the small<br />

businesses and artisanal miners of the African mining sector. This rule<br />

based trading environment instils confidence and assures credibility thus<br />

allowing conflict-free African minerals to access international markets at<br />

fair prices.<br />

Delivering results locally to access global markets<br />

ITSCI has demonstrated the power of market incentive to create change in<br />

the most challenging areas of the world. Even small miner co-operatives<br />

in the remotest areas of central DRC have come to understand the<br />

importance of responsible trading in order to maintain their market<br />

and earnings. They are playing their part in this global mechanism of<br />

information collection and exchange which also integrates technology<br />

into activities of local communities and authorities. The knowledge that<br />

wayward actions of police and security forces can create ‘conflict minerals’<br />

unacceptable to the international market brings a new focus to local<br />

accountability and contributes to the objective of increasing stability and<br />

peace.<br />

Trade incentive as a driver to associated change<br />

Aside from delivering responsible mineral trade, and encouraging industry<br />

investment, ITSCI has indirectly created employment, improved earnings,<br />

created opportunities for learning, and increased professionalism. The<br />

programme is also reducing illicit trade and tax evasion, as well as<br />

discouraging corruption and increasing mineral revenue transparency.<br />

Stakeholders, including women and civil society groups, participate in<br />

resolution of local conflicts through a committee process producing<br />

effective results around the mining areas as a result of the highly valued<br />

market access incentive.<br />

ITSCI was developed and is managed by the global not-for-profit tin<br />

and tantalum industry trade associations ITRI and T.I.C.<br />

http://itsci.org email: itsci@itri.co.uk<br />

ITSCI is an inclusive, sustainable, multi-stakeholder programme with a track record of global co-operation and achievement contributing to better<br />

governance, human rights and stability. The programme currently supports more than 1,000 artisanal mine sites, providing a livelihood for around<br />

75,000 miners, with a likely 400,000 dependents.<br />

We welcome new donors and participants to help the programme expand and be part of this success<br />

19<br />

ITSCI Ad.indd 19 04/03/2015 13:55


Prioritising Post – 2015<br />

youth opportunities<br />

20<br />

SSD_Youth and Education.indd 20 04/03/2015 13:56


Helping young people to successfully make the transition between their education<br />

and their employment prospects is achievable when multiple parties join forces,<br />

finds <strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Goals Fund Director Paloma Durán<br />

According to the United Nations Fund<br />

for Population Activities (UNFPA)’s State<br />

of World Population 2014, there are more<br />

than 1.8 billion young people in the world,<br />

many of who find themselves in the disadvantageous<br />

situation of not having access to<br />

education, or of not being equipped with the<br />

proper skills to prosper in the employment<br />

market.<br />

Another report, this time by United<br />

Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural<br />

Organisation (UNESCO), Education For<br />

All Monitoring report, Youth and Skills: Putting<br />

Education to Work (2012), says that that many<br />

adolescents of lower secondary school age<br />

are out of school, and many others have limited<br />

access to primary and secondary education<br />

and employment opportunities. Poverty<br />

has a negative impact on youth (a term used<br />

here collectively), and creates obstacles in<br />

obtaining basic education and technical skills<br />

necessary to access decent jobs and acquire<br />

skills necessary to live productive, healthy,<br />

and enriching lives.<br />

Secondary schooling is considered to be<br />

one – if not the – most effective way to develop<br />

the set of skills needed for work and for<br />

life. It is in the transitioning from schooling<br />

to finding job opportunities where young<br />

people face the most number of obstacles.<br />

This is where they encounter a lack of training,<br />

and professional orientation services,<br />

incentives to stay in school, and thus quality<br />

employment opportunities are limited.<br />

To survive in their communities, youth<br />

finds itself choosing low-paying jobs over education.<br />

This has led to governments, United<br />

Nation agencies, development partners,<br />

businesses, and civil society, to find new ways<br />

of providing education and livelihoods opportunities<br />

for youth: this is necessary if they<br />

are to be able to provide for their families<br />

while receiving an education and building<br />

thriving societies. The <strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong><br />

Goals Fund (SDG-F) – an initiative<br />

which expands on the previous experience of<br />

the MDG (Millennium <strong>Development</strong> Goals)<br />

Achievement Fund (2007-2013) – has been<br />

working in creating livelihoods opportunities<br />

for young people. We count with an<br />

extensive experience of promising practices<br />

of what can be done to promote inclusive<br />

growth that creates livelihoods and education<br />

opportunities for youth, especially in the<br />

context of the new Post-2015 development<br />

agenda.<br />

Capacity building for youth<br />

Determining the skill-sets necessary for<br />

youth to thrive in its respective communities<br />

calls for a multi-sectorial approach. Engaging<br />

the communities, governments and<br />

businesses creates windows of opportunity<br />

for youth to apply the skills it learns in school<br />

when they enter the job market.<br />

The importance of quality education<br />

(versus quantity), is essential to ensuring<br />

that we can target outputs and indicators to<br />

measure the results of youth programmes. In<br />

fact, the tentative list of sustainable development<br />

goals, targets and indicators, agreed by<br />

the Open Working Group on SDGs, has put<br />

youth at the very epicenter of sustainable<br />

development.<br />

Something that is clear from the SDG-F<br />

experience is that the approaches that try to<br />

bridge the efforts of the different stakeholders,<br />

with a clear understanding of the needs<br />

of the job market, community and private<br />

sector needs and opportunities, will help us<br />

to guarantee sustainable development for<br />

young women and men. The importance of<br />

integrating gender sensitivity guidelines in<br />

such programmes is also key to bridging education<br />

gaps between female and male youth.<br />

To address this, for example, the SDG-F<br />

has supported programmes in 15 countries<br />

to improve young people’s chances of<br />

securing decent work, self-employment, and<br />

entrepreneurial opportunities, as well as<br />

promoting socially-inclusive development<br />

and respect for youth’s fundamental rights.<br />

These initiatives have created community<br />

▲<br />

21<br />

SSD_Youth and Education.indd 21 04/03/2015 13:56


Creating opportunities<br />

for youth through formal<br />

and non-formal education<br />

is required to achieve<br />

sustainable development.<br />

employment services, encouraged new job<br />

opportunities, promoted legal frameworks,<br />

and tackled the issues around migration,<br />

with new policies and awareness-raising<br />

campaigns.<br />

Engaging community Post-2015<br />

There has been a growing awareness among<br />

stakeholders of the potential role that youth<br />

plays in the development process. Engaging<br />

the community, governments, development<br />

partners, UN agencies and civil society<br />

organisations is key towards creating efficient<br />

and effective strategies in tackling high youth<br />

unemployment and dropout rates.<br />

Private sector co-operation sparks innovative<br />

exchanges of ideas, and promotes<br />

entrepreneurship among youth. Engagement<br />

with the inner-workings of commercial<br />

organisations, for instance, can provide<br />

inspiration for future drive. Education can<br />

also be used as a vehicle to convey ideas that<br />

improve communities, as youth acquires the<br />

understanding of their role in a community.<br />

It is for these reasons that empowering<br />

youth is a priority in the new development<br />

agenda, including the Open Working Group<br />

Proposals for <strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong><br />

Goals[itals] outcome document, which outlined<br />

the importance of education as a vehicle<br />

towards achieving a global development<br />

The importance of quality education is essential to ensuring that we can target outputs and<br />

indicators to measure the results of youth programmes<br />

agenda. It also enforced the needs for a cross<br />

sectoral approach in achieving the SDGs.<br />

By engaging all actors in the discussion,<br />

we can create linkages between the education<br />

youth receives, the needs of the<br />

community and those who employ them.<br />

There is now a greater understanding that a<br />

great loss of potential can occur when youth<br />

unemployment rates are high, as this phenomenon<br />

creates an obstacle to the overall<br />

development of a given region. So it is that<br />

all parties stand to gain from the contributions<br />

of an empowered youth.<br />

The <strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Goals Fund<br />

is the first cooperative mechanism created<br />

to achieving the SDGs. Created under the<br />

leadership of the United Nations <strong>Development</strong><br />

Programme with an initial contribution<br />

Success story: the Philippines<br />

With a long-standing tradition in youth<br />

employment, the SDG-F supported a joint<br />

programme in the Philippines that tackled<br />

high youth unemployment and also youth<br />

underemployment. Its priorities included<br />

improving policy coherence and implementation<br />

on youth, employment, and migration, through<br />

full stakeholder participation and increasing access<br />

to decent work for poor women and men though<br />

public private partnerships, more inclusive basic<br />

education and life skills, and career guidance,<br />

including guidance on safe migration, vocational<br />

training, and entrepreneurship.<br />

In order to combat the low retention rates of<br />

secondary students, the programme implemented<br />

an education subsidy system aimed at increasing<br />

youth participation and decreasing high education<br />

drop-out rates. School fees, and a monthly<br />

allowance, were paid, but the allowance was<br />

based on school attendance. It also provided<br />

Proudly proficient: graduates of a computer<br />

hardware servicing training course<br />

gender sensitivity guidelines in its curriculum<br />

for public secondary education, and it engaged<br />

the community and local stakeholders in the<br />

importance of gender mainstreaming. Four Public-<br />

Private Partnership (PPP) Fora were carried-out,<br />

with the aim of increasing access to livelihood<br />

opportunities for poor young women and men.<br />

The results included 115 partnership agreements,<br />

and 115 commitments made by public and<br />

private sectors to provide on-the-job training and<br />

post-training services for 2,000 youths.<br />

Opportunities for youth to develop a specific<br />

set of skills that aligned with the needs of the<br />

job market are often limited, and in the case of<br />

the SDG-F programme in the Philippines, this<br />

issue was targeted by providing support to the<br />

development of entrepreneurship training through<br />

Career Pathways and Livelihood Education (CP-<br />

TLE) courses at the secondary education level.<br />

This training was also extended to teachers,<br />

and teacher trainers and supervisors, in four pilot<br />

provinces and 17 regions. The 2,000 youths<br />

who were reached underwent career profiling for<br />

technical vocational skills training, with 995 having<br />

received vocational training.<br />

22<br />

SSD_Youth and Education.indd 22 04/03/2015 13:56


There has been a<br />

growing awareness<br />

among stakeholders<br />

of the potential role<br />

that youth plays in the<br />

development process.<br />

from the Government of Spain, the SDG-F<br />

understands the importance of having progammes<br />

with a focus on youth and gender.<br />

The SDG-F implements multi-sectorial<br />

approaches towards youth education and<br />

employment that, to date, has proved to be<br />

very successful. Two actual examples, in the<br />

Philippines, and in Bosnia and Herzegovina<br />

– highlighted in the panel box-outs elsewhere<br />

in this article – bear out two important<br />

lessons of this work. First, that it is necessary<br />

to create opportunities while young<br />

people transition from the school system to<br />

the job market; and second, that successful<br />

approaches should articulate the work of all<br />

stakeholders.<br />

Success story: Bosnia and Herzegovina<br />

The multistakeholder partnership for youth<br />

employability in Bosnia and Herzegovina is an<br />

excellent example of multi sectoral collaboration.<br />

Within this programme Government, United Nations<br />

agencies, civil society organisations, and the<br />

private sector, worked closely to ensure disadvantaged<br />

youth would be provided with entry points<br />

to the labour market while strengthening primary<br />

and secondary education for youth.<br />

Two thousand students from 188 primary<br />

and secondary schools took part in the creation<br />

of 142 small- scale business projects. Employment<br />

opportunities were created as selected<br />

students were able to present the results of these<br />

projects to local community stakeholders, such<br />

as businesses, with the aim of fundraising, and of<br />

securing support for similar activities in the future.<br />

The programme in Bosnia and Herzegovina<br />

took advantage of incorporating a gender-responsive<br />

policy and operational guidelines relating<br />

to facilitating school enrollment and retention,<br />

including disabled youth, Roma, and girls from<br />

rural areas. It also created teacher modules trainings<br />

packaging and competency-based education<br />

modules for primary and secondary schools.<br />

Students were taught the direct application of life<br />

skills to their employment and income-generating<br />

prospects.<br />

Future directions<br />

The SDG-F is in the process of launching<br />

new programmes, and these will take<br />

stock of the lessons learned in previous and<br />

ongoing initiatives. Its programmes which<br />

are now underway in Bangladesh and in<br />

Sierra Leone, for example, are tackling high<br />

unemployment and drop-out rates, creating<br />

gender-sensitive curriculum and employment<br />

guidelines and engaging key community<br />

stakeholders to ensure sustainable results.<br />

The joint programme in Bangladesh<br />

incorporates non-formal education training<br />

through the use of informal apprenticeship<br />

to provide life skills to youth. It is a community-based<br />

training for rural economic<br />

empowerment, and is designed to be gender-mainstreamed.<br />

This entails designing training courses to<br />

promote the strategic interests of women,<br />

and in increasing gender responsiveness of<br />

training institutions, as well as guidance of<br />

instructors, and the use of women instructors.<br />

Youth employment forms one of the key<br />

challenges in Sierra Leone, and its Government<br />

has placed youth employment as a core<br />

area of their agenda, which allows for an<br />

alignment of guidelines for all stakeholders.<br />

The programme will support diversification<br />

in sectors that offer potential for job creation<br />

and business opportunities. Strategic<br />

public/private partnerships will be established<br />

with regional and local businesses,<br />

and with local councils, for risk-sharing and<br />

resource-leveraging with focus on promoting<br />

job creation and income generation for<br />

youth and for women<br />

Unemployed young women and men<br />

(including rural communities) will benefit<br />

from workshops, entrepreneurial training,<br />

post-training support, mentorship, coaching,<br />

business advisory services, seed funds (that<br />

will help them gain skills); they will also have<br />

the opportunity to acquire the knowledge<br />

and the confidence to help them transform<br />

their lives.<br />

Stakeholder partnerships<br />

These examples show clearly that creating<br />

opportunities to youth through formal and<br />

non-formal education is required to achieve<br />

sustainable development. In order to make<br />

the most of the experience gained and<br />

lessons learned from the transition from the<br />

MDGs to the SDGs, it is important to keep<br />

youth as a priority in pushing forward the<br />

development agenda.<br />

All parties involved must continue to<br />

bring awareness to governments, donor<br />

agencies, and civil society – as well as the<br />

private sector – of the key role that youth<br />

can play in empowering communities and<br />

contributing to local economies. As the<br />

international community weighs-in on the<br />

Post-2015 agenda, it is imperative for all<br />

interested stakeholders to commit themselves<br />

to supporting education programmes<br />

that empower youth and the marginalised<br />

around the world. Let us always remember<br />

that the opportunities of 1.8 billion youth<br />

are at stake. ■<br />

Engagement with the inner-workings of<br />

commercial entities can provide inspiration<br />

for future drive<br />

The <strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Goals Fund<br />

(SDG-F) is a new development co-operation<br />

mechanism created in 2014 by the government<br />

of Spain and UNDP, on behalf of the UN system,<br />

to support sustainable development activities<br />

through integrated and multidimensional<br />

joint programmes. It builds on the experience,<br />

knowledge, lessons learned and best practices<br />

of the previous MDG Achievement Fund,<br />

which supported 130 joint programmes in 50<br />

countries, while expanding its activities towards<br />

sustainable development, a greater focus on<br />

public-private partnerships, and updating its<br />

operational framework to incorporate recent<br />

advancements in development.<br />

For more information about the Fund, go to<br />

http://proposals.sdgfund.org<br />

23<br />


SSD_Youth and Education.indd 23 04/03/2015 13:56


24<br />

SSD_Q&A_Shaima Al Zarooni.indd 24 04/03/2015 13:56


Q & A<br />

HE Shaima Al Zarooni<br />

CEO, International Humanitarian City<br />

HE Shaima Al Zarooni talks about her focus on extending<br />

awareness of the global humanitarian agenda into the many<br />

other spheres of public life that she is committed to.<br />

<strong>SOURCE</strong>: <strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong><br />

You are well known as being a member of,<br />

and involved in, quite a number of national<br />

and international institutions and bodies. Can<br />

you remind us of some of those?<br />

Shaima Al Zarooni I was privileged to be<br />

a member of various local and international<br />

institutions [such] as the Executive Office of<br />

UAE National Olympic Committee, Dubai<br />

Free Zones Council, DIHAD Scientific<br />

Advisory Board, Humanitarian Partnership<br />

and Information Sharing Steering<br />

Committee, External Advisory Council of<br />

the University of Wollongong in Dubai,<br />

Prestigious Judge on the 2013 and 2014 Hult<br />

Prize Committee, Sphere Project Trainer:<br />

Humanitarian Charter & Min. Standards<br />

in Humanitarian Response, and I was a<br />

mentor of Hamdan Bin Mohammed Student<br />

Personal <strong>Development</strong> Programme.<br />

SSD That’s quite a schedule – and the<br />

guiding principle between them is your<br />

humanitarian work?<br />

Shaima Al Zarooni Definitely, joining those<br />

institutions is in line with my humanitarian<br />

work main objectives. And it maximizes the<br />

role of the International Humanitarian City<br />

(IHC) and its engagement in various sectors<br />

– which enhances partnership, collaborations,<br />

and humanitarian efforts on a local and an<br />

international level.<br />

SSD In your closing remarks to the 11th<br />

DIHAD in March 2014 you said that one<br />

of the key points that the event highlighted<br />

was how women can take the lead in solving<br />

major social and economic problems,<br />

especially in areas like agriculture, nutrition,<br />

and small-scale businesses. How do you<br />

think that aspiration has developed since a<br />

year ago?<br />

Shaima Al Zarooni I am inspired by<br />

the leadership of UAE, and especially<br />

HH Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al<br />

Maktoum, to ‘Vice-President, Prime<br />

Minister, and Ruler of Dubai. The UAE is<br />

keen to empower women, and encourages<br />

them to assume leadership positions in<br />

various sectors. We in the UAE are keen to<br />

find best solutions and methods to support<br />

women, also to praise Emirati women’s<br />

achievements in the public sector, of which<br />

they now make up 66 per cent of the<br />

workforce.<br />

SSD Another important point that you made<br />

in your closing remarks last year referred to<br />

the fact that a disabling outcome of conflicts<br />

for women caught-up in them is that their<br />

access to education becomes blocked. Could<br />

you update us on any positive developments<br />

that have occurred that are relevant to this<br />

issue?<br />

Shaima Al Zarooni Education is the most<br />

important element in the development of<br />

any nation, and women in particular are<br />

the first to be affected by any conflict, being<br />

less fortunate in underdeveloped countries.<br />

To overcome this challenge, we need to<br />

give more attention to the educational<br />

development projects and ensure that it is<br />

serving females equally.<br />

During my last visit to the Syrian refugee<br />

camps in Jordan, I had the chance to meet<br />

smart and intelligent young women who<br />

are keen to continue their education despite<br />

all the challenges and lack of resources.<br />

The UAE government is supporting several<br />

educational programmes around the world<br />

and we shall continue our work. According<br />

to UNICEF reports, while most of the<br />

Millennium <strong>Development</strong> Goals face a<br />

deadline of 2015, the gender parity target<br />

was set to be achieved a full ten years earlier<br />

– an acknowledgement that equal access<br />

to education is the foundation for all other<br />

development goals. Yet recent statistics show<br />

that for every 100 boys out of school, there<br />

are still 117 girls in the same situation.<br />

SSD What is the outcome of that statistic?<br />

Shaima Al Zarooni Until equal numbers<br />

of girls and boys are in school, it will<br />

be impossible to build the knowledge<br />

necessary to eradicate poverty and hunger,<br />

combat disease, and ensure environmental<br />

▲<br />

25<br />

SSD_Q&A_Shaima Al Zarooni.indd 25 04/03/2015 13:56


Media plays an important and<br />

big role in shaping the future<br />

of nations and definitely, it<br />

has a great impact on forming<br />

the humanitarian work<br />

development and progress.<br />

February 2014: Shaima Al Zarooni presents HE Ahmed Butti Ahmed, Executive Chairman of Ports, Customs and Free Zone Corporation, and Director<br />

General of Dubai Customs, with the IHC Shield and a Letter of Appreciation, during an IHC delegation visit to Dubai Customs. The IHC Board of Directors<br />

expressed their gratitude to Dubai Customs for its support and co-operation with IHC through facilitating customs transactions for IHC members, such as<br />

UN organisations and international humanitarian organisations.<br />

sustainability. And, furthermore, millions<br />

of children and women will continue<br />

to die needlessly, placing the rest of the<br />

development agenda at risk.<br />

SSD In January 2014 International<br />

Humanitarian City launched, in coordination<br />

with the United Nations High<br />

Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in<br />

Dubai, regional training workshops on the<br />

topic of ‘Emergency Management’. Could<br />

you tell us something more about how that<br />

initiative has structured itself, and how it has<br />

progressed?<br />

Shaima Al Zarooni The International<br />

Humanitarian City is proud to join hands<br />

with the UNHCR in augmenting the Gulf<br />

Co-operation Council region’s emergency<br />

capacity. With various humanitarian crisis<br />

26<br />

reaching an exceptional level, and crises<br />

elsewhere around the world, there is an<br />

increased urgency for comprehensive and<br />

effective training in emergency response<br />

management. Holding the training session<br />

in Dubai is a critical step that reflects the<br />

Gulf Co-operation Council’s commitment<br />

towards the international humanitarian<br />

response.<br />

Upon completion of the training, the<br />

participants are able to respond to international<br />

emergencies with increased capacity,<br />

apply key emergency standards and indicators<br />

in emergency operations planning and<br />

implementation, manage personal and team<br />

security on disaster and humanitarian crisis<br />

sites and function successfully with other<br />

international humanitarian actors within<br />

humanitarian clusters and international<br />

emergency response standards.<br />

SSD How is the workshop structured?<br />

Shaima Al Zarooni The workshop is<br />

structured based on the UNHCR’s longstanding<br />

training exercise held at regular<br />

intervals throughout the year in Germany,<br />

Norway, Sweden, and will be commencing<br />

later this year in Senegal. The UNHCR has<br />

fielded specialist trainers from its Global<br />

Learning Centre in Budapest to manage<br />

the exercise as well as experienced resources<br />

from Amman, Beirut, and Riyadh to support<br />

the training.<br />

SSD Is formal training in various skills for<br />

aid workers generally an area that may have<br />

been under-resourced in the past?<br />

Shaima Al Zarooni International<br />

SSD_Q&A_Shaima Al Zarooni.indd 26 04/03/2015 13:56


Until equal numbers of girls and<br />

boys are in school, it will be<br />

impossible to build the knowledge<br />

necessary to eradicate poverty and<br />

hunger, combat disease, and ensure<br />

environmental sustainability.<br />

Humanitarian City is keen to enhance<br />

the capabilities of the international and<br />

local humanitarian workers through<br />

utilising the exceptional platform provided<br />

by the International Humanitarian City<br />

community, where international and local<br />

experts exchange experiences, knowledge<br />

in emergency response implementations,<br />

and explore potential collaborations and<br />

partnerships.<br />

The International Humanitarian City’s<br />

strategy launched recently in January 2015<br />

includes an important pillar, ‘Connect:<br />

Humanity’, with an aim to position the International<br />

Humanitarian City as a leading<br />

organiser, facilitator, and host of annual<br />

regional and world humanitarian events.<br />

Also, the International Humanitarian City<br />

launched the World Humanitarian Forum<br />

which will be held in September, every two<br />

years, in the UAE.<br />

SSD Digital technology is obviously a vital<br />

element in organising aid. Are you able<br />

to say something about its importance<br />

to the implementation of International<br />

Humanitarian City’s four strategy pillars?<br />

Shaima Al Zarooni Through ‘Innovate:<br />

Humanity’ pillar, the International<br />

Humanitarian City shall create a ‘think-tank’<br />

for the humanitarian sector, develop global<br />

online humanitarian portal, and support<br />

start-ups focusing on innovations applicable<br />

to humanitarian aid, in order to position<br />

International Humanitarian City as a global<br />

centre of research, development and thought<br />

leadership in the humanitarian space.<br />

There will be a global online knowledge<br />

and experience sharing portal, innovation<br />

labs to drive entrepreneurship in line with<br />

Dubai plan 2021, and the smart city.<br />

SSD In February 2014 the International<br />

Humanitarian City’s board of directors<br />

expressed their gratitude to Dubai Customs<br />

for its support and co-operation with the<br />

International Humanitarian City through<br />

facilitating customs transactions for<br />

International Humanitarian City members<br />

and partners. Clearly, such bodies have a key<br />

role to play in ensuring that humanitarian<br />

aid is transported expediently, and that aid<br />

consignments comply with the necessary<br />

regulations, so that delays are minimised<br />

– and that’s hard work. Stakeholder<br />

partnerships are clearly important in this<br />

respect.<br />

Shaima Al Zarooni There are several local<br />

partners who play big role in supporting<br />

the International Humanitarian City work<br />

and its valuable members’ operations – in<br />

particular, those run from UAE and Dubai.<br />

Those partners comprise a large number of<br />

federal and local government departments<br />

and institutions. The International<br />

Humanitarian City’s partnership with<br />

the different stakeholders maximises the<br />

facilitations given to the International<br />

Humanitarian City members to deliver aid<br />

as fast as possible with less cost. I take this<br />

opportunity to extend the International<br />

Humanitarian City’s gratitude and<br />

appreciation to the leadership of the UAE<br />

who leads this inspirations and to all our<br />

partners who support the humanitarian work<br />

and its efforts.<br />

SSD In 2012 International Humanitarian<br />

City signed a memorandum of<br />

understanding with the Dubai press club<br />

as part of a partnership to support and<br />

enhance humanitarian journalism as a<br />

media genre. How is the impact that the<br />

mainstream media has on humanitarian and<br />

development programmes changing?<br />

Shaima Al Zarooni Media plays an<br />

important and big role in shaping the future<br />

of nations and definitely, it has a great<br />

impact on forming the humanitarian work<br />

development and progress. Whether we<br />

are in need to spread awareness about the<br />

humanitarian crises and appeals to overcome<br />

the challenges and needs of beneficiaries, or<br />

to encourage media intervention to reflect<br />

the reality and ensure active engagement by<br />

the local community and public support.<br />

SSD Last November, the International<br />

Humanitarian City hosted the first<br />

Humanitarian Action Rooted in Islam and<br />

International Humanitarian Law (IHL)<br />

Forum. Can you explain why you believe the<br />

outcomes of this gathering are important for<br />

the humanitarian aid sector, and also what,<br />

for you, were the most interesting aspects of<br />

the event?<br />

Shaima Al Zarooni This forum is first of<br />

its kind, it tackled the complementary rules<br />

of Islam and International Humanitarian<br />

Law (IHL). The forum also presented<br />

the opportunity to increase participants’<br />

awareness on our neutral and independent<br />

humanitarian action in the region and<br />

we were pleased to join the efforts with<br />

International Committee for Red Cross and<br />

the Norwegian Refugee Council to host such<br />

an informative Forum.<br />

Our unique platform at the International<br />

Humanitarian City enables our members<br />

and partners to utilise Dubai’s unique<br />

facilities for capacity building, information<br />

sharing and dialogue about various relevant<br />

topics in the humanitarian field. ■<br />

HE Shaima Al Zarooni:<br />

career briefing<br />


Officer, International Humanitarian City, Dubai.<br />

HE received her Bachelor Degree in Business<br />

Sciences from Zayed University and two Master<br />

Degrees – one in International Business from the<br />

University of Wollongong, and the other in Public<br />

Administration from the Dubai School of Government.<br />

She also graduated from the Mohammed<br />

Bin Rashid Centre for Leadership <strong>Development</strong><br />

in June 2011.<br />

Prior to joining IHC in 2011, HE worked for the<br />

Office of HRH Princess Haya Bint Al Hussein,<br />

Wife of HH Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al<br />

Maktoum, Vice-President and Prime Minister of<br />

UAE, Ruler of Dubai. HE also worked in the Office<br />

of HH Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum,<br />

Vice President and Prime Minister of the<br />

UAE and Ruler of Dubai at the Ruler’s Court prior<br />

to joining the Executive Council of Dubai.<br />

HE is a member of various local and international<br />

institutions and bodies, among which are:<br />

• Member of the Executive Office of UAE National<br />

Olympic Committee<br />

• Member of Dubai Free Zones Council<br />

• Member of DIHAD Scientific Advisory Board<br />

• Member of Humanitarian Partnership and Information<br />

Sharing Steering Committee<br />

• Member of External Advisory Council of the<br />

University of Wollongong in Dubai<br />

• Prestigious Judge on the 2013 and 2014 Hult<br />

Prize Committee<br />

• Sphere Project Trainer: Humanitarian Charter &<br />

Min. Standards in Humanitarian Response<br />

• Mentor of Hamdan Bin Mohammed Student<br />

Personal <strong>Development</strong> Programme<br />

27<br />

SSD_Q&A_Shaima Al Zarooni.indd 27 04/03/2015 13:56



Accountability<br />

in Somalia<br />

Somalia, with an estimated population of 10 addressing its underlying causes – social, economic<br />

Million, is a country emaciated with war. Its and environmental. Illegal fishing and waste<br />

terrain is known to be challenging and significantly dumping are now seen as a new form of piracy,<br />

dangerous. This is largely owing to high levels including by the new pirates themselves. While<br />

of insecurity, poor infrastructure and a widely security in Mogadishu has improved as armed<br />

scattered population. After more than two<br />

confrontations moved to agricultural areas of Lower<br />

decades,the international community recognized Shabelle and Middle Shabelle, as well as to the<br />

a new federal government in 2012. However, regions of Lower Jubba, Gedo, Bay, Bakool and<br />

insecurity still remains a grave threat in most Hiiran, the costs for these badly drought-affected<br />

parts of country. This has thus, led to the country areas will be huge<br />

remaining under the control of militant groups. The United Nations for years handed out tens of<br />

Oxford’s Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) millions of dollars to non-government organizations<br />

reported from a 2006 survey that 65.6% of the involved in humanitarian work in strife-battered<br />

population lives in severe poverty, lacking basic Somalia with “no assurance” that the money<br />

services, including access to education. Moreover, was used for the intended purposes. In 2012,<br />

the Fund for Peace report in 2012 indicated that Somalia received US$627 million in international<br />

appalling as it was in the past, the situation is humanitarian assistance, making it the fourth<br />

growing worse. Together with the rest of Horn of largest recipient. In 2014, the U.S. has contributed<br />

Africa, Somalia is now facing another food crisis, $207.6 million, or nearly 38 percent of the total<br />

and the politicized aid system is unable to meet donated so far. Overall, Somalia’s consolidated aid<br />

basic needs<br />

appeal for 2014 is calling for $933 million.<br />

Massive deforestations, concomitant shortages The dozens of organizations assess the needs<br />

in rainfall, and the long-neglected impacts of prior to their interventions, as a practical way to<br />

droughts are the main issues related to conflict and discover the needs of destitute people. However,<br />

environment. Although the incidence of off-shore the findings are seldom used to refine objectives,<br />

piracy has declined, it is generally recognized, develop new strategies or design new interventions<br />

including by the UN Security Council that patrolling that are tailored to the needs of the targeted<br />

the coast is not enough to fight piracy without people. It was reported that one rural villager,<br />

addressing a United Nations team commissioned<br />

in 2012 to conduct assessments in that area,<br />

stated: ‘Every month, two or three assessment<br />

teams come to our village enquiring about our<br />

needs. We tell them the challenges we face. They<br />

disappear and do not come back. I wonder what<br />

kind of needs these people look for that they are<br />

not seeing in our communities.’<br />

In view of this, large donors have recently<br />

begun auditing the millions of dollars pumped<br />

into Somalia. Baker Tilly Merali’s, Certified Public<br />

Accountants is an established firm of accountants<br />

having being formed in 1983. Its head office<br />

is based in Nairobi and it has other offices in<br />

Uganda- Kampala, Rwanda- Kigali and recently<br />

opened an affiliate office in Mogadishu - Somalia.<br />

It is an independent member firm of Baker Tilly<br />

International Ltd - the 8th largest accountancy and<br />

business advisory network in the world. Baker Tilly<br />

International is owned by its members, all of whom<br />

hold an equal interest in the legal entity. Client<br />

services are delivered regionally and nationally<br />

by the members of Baker Tilly International, each<br />

of which is a locally owned and managed as an<br />

independent firm.<br />

Baker Tilly Merali’s conducts its Somalia audits<br />

and other assessments keeping in mind the safety<br />

of its staff with low profile, 24 hour armed security,<br />

coupled with local and international intelligence<br />

as they traverse the unfriendly region. Despite<br />

numerous challenges such as limited movement,<br />

threats on personal safety, presence of Al Shabab<br />

and lack of governance structures, the firm has<br />

created safeguard pillars within its structures to<br />

ensure top quality on all assignments.<br />

Baker Tilly Meralis partners and staff are aware<br />

that Somalia is an intimidating and fearsome<br />

country for auditors seeking to uncover the truth.<br />

Managing partner, Bhandari says a massive ‘bravo’<br />

to his auditors who have done a great job in<br />

Somalia and continue to do so! He adds that<br />

accounting is not accountability and ultimately<br />

it is up to the citizens of Somalia and those in<br />

the diaspora to hold the government and the<br />

international community to account. Developing<br />

such a framework will take time.<br />

Jimmy Merali<br />

Practice<br />

<strong>Development</strong><br />

Manager<br />

Madhav Bhandari<br />

Managing<br />

Partner<br />

Mahmud Merali<br />

Group Executive<br />

Partner -<br />

EMEA region<br />

28<br />

Baker Tilly Merali Ad.indd 28 04/03/2015 13:57


Why it’s worth taking a risk…<br />

Around the world, some new business ideas succeed, and some don’t. For anyone looking<br />

to invest in technology start-up projects that are emerging in Africa, the risk levels may<br />

seem daunting – but those looking to fund grassroots innovation should not be deterred,<br />

argues Dr Loren Treisman, Executive, The Indigo Trust<br />

As a grant-making foundation, The Indigo<br />

Trust provides small grants – usually<br />

in the region of £10,000-£15,000 – to<br />

organisations which are using Web and<br />

mobile communications-based technologies,<br />

in demonstrably innovative ways, to bring<br />

about social change in Africa. While it has a<br />

special interest in the areas of transparency,<br />

accountability, and citizen empowerment,<br />

the Trust also supports the use of digital<br />

technologies in other social sectors. These<br />

include health, education, and agriculture.<br />

Although technology can prove a tremendous<br />

enabler when applied to social<br />

transformation, it is not a panacea for all<br />

social problems; but it certainly has the<br />

ability to enable people to access, create and<br />

share information at a cost, scale, and speed<br />

which was never previously possible. This, in<br />

turn, empowers people to make the changes<br />

which they wish to see in their own lives and<br />

communities.<br />

When integrated into well-devised programmes,<br />

technology can also help to<br />

▲<br />

29<br />

SSD_Digital Technology.indd 29 04/03/2015 13:58


Successful grassroots projects<br />

can have a tremendous impact<br />

at a scale and cost that was<br />

almost impossible before new<br />

digital technologies arrived on<br />

the African aid scene.<br />

amplify the voices of marginalised communities,<br />

and to strengthen offline mobilisation,<br />

campaigning and development programming.<br />

The Indigo Trust views itself as a<br />

‘high-risk’ funder: providing small grants to<br />

grassroots organisations across the African<br />

continent allows social entrepreneurs,<br />

community-based organisations, and technologists,<br />

to pilot new ideas, with room for<br />

trial-and-error to occur.<br />

It is a risky business, and the Trust freely<br />

acknowledges the fact that many of the projects<br />

supported are unlikely to achieve scale<br />

or financial sustainability; so, it is reasonable<br />

to ask – why does it bother?<br />

The risk-innovation equation<br />

The answer is both simple and complex. A<br />

high-risk strategy allows a thousand flowers<br />

to bloom, in a manner of speaking. Encourage<br />

people to test-out many ideas from many<br />

sources, and while some will falter, those that<br />

do succeed can have a tremendous impact at<br />

a scale and cost that was almost impossible<br />

before new digital technologies arrived on<br />

the African aid scene.<br />

Furthermore, some have the potential to<br />

become financially sustainable, removing the<br />

on-going reliance on aid that often results in<br />

given projects falling to the wayside at the<br />

end of their funding cycles.<br />

While the Indigo Trust is happy to award<br />

App specialist Pledge 51 has developed a<br />

Nigerian Constitution App which has now been<br />

downloaded more than 1,000,000 times.<br />

Nigerian start-up Co-Creation Hub generates revenue through consultancy work and from<br />

corporates for training, managing community relations, business advice, and corporate membership.<br />

high-risk grants, it takes a portfolio approach,<br />

so the risk is managed across lots of<br />

different grants. This might prompt another<br />

question: why does the Trust fund projects<br />

that many would view as more appropriate<br />

for commercial investment from venture capitalists<br />

and ‘angel’ investors than a charitable<br />

foundation? This time the answer is simple.<br />

To begin with, few investors will come in<br />

at the critical early stages from ideation to<br />

prototype – and sometimes beyond. While<br />

they are willing to take some risks, they are<br />

seldom ready to take a leap of faith before<br />

they are confident in their investment.<br />

For social entrepreneurships, this consideration<br />

can take time. So The Indigo Trust<br />

comes in to fill the gap, giving entrepreneurs<br />

some crucial breathing space to innovate,<br />

experiment, and optimise their concepts so<br />

that they are then ready for commercial investors<br />

to scrutinise. Entrepreneurs may also<br />

seek funding from larger donors when they<br />

are ready to scale, or become sustainable via<br />

partnerships with the public/private sectors.<br />

Challenges to innovation<br />

It is also worth mentioning that the pool of<br />

venture capitalists and angel investors willing<br />

to invest in African countries is very small.<br />

The ‘social tech sector’ is still at a relatively<br />

early stage in its development, and the continent<br />

of Africa is viewed as risky to investors<br />

for a variety of factors.<br />

First, in many countries on the continent,<br />

the policy environment, high costs, and<br />

poor infrastructure, minimise the likelihood<br />

of a project’s eventual success. Second,<br />

the tech for social change sector is in its<br />

infancy; and there are few examples of<br />

profitable, scalable solutions for them to<br />

draw upon.<br />

So investors entering this space need to<br />

adopt new investment models and shift<br />

their expectations in terms of returns on<br />

investment. Many just are not ready to take<br />

the plunge.<br />

This is a key consideration in how Indigo<br />

trust differs in its approach. It is often even<br />

willing to take a chance to support driven<br />

and talented individuals who have not<br />

even established an organisation yet. For<br />

example, three years ago the Trust awarded<br />

a grant of £5,000 to Bosun Tijani and<br />

Femi Longe to run a ‘Tech in Governance<br />

Hackathon’ in Lagos, Nigeria. It brought<br />

together techies, government officials, and<br />

activists, to explore the ways in which technology<br />

could improve governance in that<br />

country, and empower citizens to hold their<br />

leaders more to account.<br />

The event attracted much interest on the<br />

day, and it was clear that Bosun and Femi<br />

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Investors entering<br />

this space need to<br />

adopt new investment<br />

models and shift their<br />

expectations in terms of<br />

returns on investment.<br />

really understood how to build community<br />

and stimulate innovation. The concepts<br />

being developed were certainly impressive.<br />

They included iWatch Live, a platform<br />

that enables citizens to track the budgets of<br />

government projects, and to submit reports<br />

monitoring their progress. Another concept,<br />

called BudgIT, develops infographics which<br />

explain critical elements of Nigeria’s national<br />

and state budgets in a simple format,<br />

contributing towards more informed public<br />

debate. More on them later…<br />

Following the event, Bosun and Tunji<br />

expressed an interest in establishing a technology<br />

innovation hub in Lagos to support<br />

social tech entrepreneurs, and they were the<br />

right people to do it. Back in the UK, The<br />

Indigo Trust was able to stimulate interest<br />

from social investor Omidyar Network and<br />

together, the organisations funded them to<br />

set up Co-Creation Hub with $245,000.<br />

Investing in such an unknown entity<br />

might seem, on the face of it, rather crazy;<br />

but it was certainly worthwhile. Walking<br />

into the Co-Creation Hub space now brings<br />

to mind Silicon Valley. Set on two floors,<br />

with a roof balcony and funky furniture,<br />

the space buzzes with activity. State-of-theart<br />

facilities, high-speed Internet access, and<br />

a stimulatingly collaborative environment,<br />

have attracted young, tech-savvy talent. The<br />

team support social entrepreneurs from<br />

ideation through to incubation.<br />

Impressively, they generated 40 per cent<br />

of their income independently in the first<br />

year, and they are aiming for 55 per cent in<br />

the second. This has been achieved through<br />

consultancy work and from corporates for<br />

training, managing community relations,<br />

business advice, and corporate membership.<br />

The UK’s Department for International<br />

<strong>Development</strong> has paid them £30,000 for<br />

innovation mapping, and tech companies<br />

pay $3,650 each to pitch to the community<br />

they have created.<br />

They also managed to leverage free<br />

Internet access from African telecommunications<br />

services provider MainOne; and<br />

they have been so successful that industry<br />

is now leading an initiative to turn Lagos<br />

suburb Yaba, where the hub is located, into<br />

an ‘innovation city’ – a hotspot attracting<br />

a range of stakeholders with adequate<br />

resources and infrastructure where creative<br />

ventures can thrive and prosper. Fibre-optic<br />

cables are now being brought directly to the<br />

hub, which should help attract more tech<br />

players into the area.<br />

Hi-tech start-ups are enabling Nigerians to become more involved in how their country is run<br />

Success leads to success<br />

So what about the projects they’re supporting?<br />

BudgIT, mentioned previously here,<br />

has secured over $500,000 in grants, and is<br />

already generating some of its own income<br />

through providing infographics to banks, the<br />

Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative,<br />

and other clients.<br />

Wecyclers, meanwhile, collect recyclable<br />

waste from households on bicycles in<br />

exchange for points which are managed<br />

through mobile phones, and can be exchanged<br />

for household products and other<br />

goods. Wecyclers then brings the waste to<br />

processing plants, which utilise it to make<br />

products and pay the team for the raw materials:<br />

a win-win situation for all involved.<br />

To date, around $3,000-worth of prizes have<br />

been collected, and it has generated $13,000<br />

in revenue, and now generates $25-per-day<br />

in profit.<br />

Efiko, a mobile platform (based on Android)<br />

designed to enhance learning through<br />

fun-to-use social quizzes, already has over<br />

10,000 users, and over 150,000 quizzes have<br />

been played. And Pledge 51 has developed a<br />

Nigerian Constitution App which has been<br />

downloaded more than 1,000,000 times.<br />

The Indigo Trust has invested in both enterprises,<br />

and is naturally delighted with the<br />

progress made so far: how often can a funder<br />

say that an investment of just £7,000 has<br />

gone on to reach this many people?<br />

Business applications<br />

It is not easy for projects to become financially<br />

sustainable in the social space, but<br />

models are emerging. Some are based on<br />

end-user charging. Take iCow, one of the<br />

best cases in point. It provides critical information<br />

to dairy farmers in Kenya through<br />

SMS. Farmers are willing to pay a premium<br />

rate for the services.<br />

This is because through using this service,<br />

their incomes have increased as a result<br />

of increased milk yields, and of decreased<br />

disease outbreaks. The iCow service is now<br />

scaling across the country with Safaricom,<br />

Kenya’s largest mobile network operator,<br />

and adopting a revenue share model.<br />

Organisations are also exploring ‘freemium’<br />

models, where users are able to pay<br />

for additional services, generating income<br />

32<br />

SSD_Digital Technology.indd 32 04/03/2015 13:58


Impressively, they<br />

generated 40 per cent of<br />

their income independently<br />

in the first year, and they<br />

are aiming for 55 per cent<br />

in the second.<br />

through advertising, providing chargeable<br />

services like consulting and data mining/<br />

analysis, and through seeking impact investors<br />

who pay for delivery against outcomes<br />

which save governments money in the longterm.<br />

Private-public-charity partnerships can<br />

also provide a route to sustainability.<br />

This is not to suggest that The Indigo<br />

Trust, as a charitable foundation, expects all<br />

the projects that it supports to be financially<br />

sustainable. Many of the projects which it<br />

supports fall into a category which economists<br />

refer to as ‘public goods and services’,<br />

an area which has experienced conspicuous<br />

market failure. Although some examples of<br />

projects focusing on transparency, accountability,<br />

and citizen empowerment, do generate<br />

income, these are certainly the exception<br />

rather than the norm.<br />

Models are being explored – such as the<br />

consultancy services offered by BudgIT and<br />

mySociety – which build websites to benefit<br />

the civic and community aspect of people’s<br />

lives. Others, like the Lungisa platform<br />

(created by Cell Life) enables citizens in<br />

Khayelitsha to report problems in local service<br />

delivery aim to outsource their service to<br />

other non-governmental organisations.<br />

Nonetheless, whether on the African continent,<br />

in the UK, or anywhere else around<br />

the world, it is likely that many transparency<br />

projects will require on-going funding; and<br />

in these cases, The Indigo Trust simply expects<br />

teams to keep their operating costs low.<br />

Grant proposal attributes<br />

Given its somewhat unorthodox ethos in<br />

respect to the projects its supports, what does<br />

The Indigo Trust look for when reviewing a<br />

grant proposal? Crucially, a proposed solution<br />

must address a genuine need in society,<br />

and it needs to be convinced that technology<br />

is the right way to tackle the problem. The<br />

trust wants potential grantees to demonstrate<br />

a clear theory of change, that is, it<br />

wants them to be able to demonstrate how<br />

their solution will contribute towards social<br />

change, and to show how they will measure<br />

their potential impact.<br />

Whatever form it takes, digital technology<br />

on its own is rarely provides the total<br />

solution. Tech platforms need to be integrated<br />

into a well-devised programme. Techies<br />

Wecyclers collect recyclable waste from<br />

households on bicycles in exchange for points<br />

which are managed through mobile phones<br />

working in isolation often struggle to create<br />

societal change. This usually requires close<br />

connections to end-users, such as farmers<br />

groups or community health workers.<br />

Projects are also usually most successful<br />

when the tech solution is built into a broader<br />

campaign, and connected to an organisation<br />

which is able to respond to queries or reports<br />

through close connections to communities<br />

on the ground – and ideally, to government<br />

and other service providers.<br />

It is important that grantees utilise technology<br />

that is appropriate to their target users.<br />

If a project is targeting rural farmers or<br />

pregnant mothers, they are unlikely to have<br />

the latest smartphones or broadband-speed<br />

Internet access; so the use of SMS, USSD<br />

(Unstructured Supplementary Service Data,<br />

a protocol used by GSM phones to communicate<br />

with the service provider’s computers),<br />

or Interactive Voice Response services<br />

(IVR) from basic feature phones are most<br />

appropriate.<br />

In some cases, information does not<br />

necessarily have to reach the whole population<br />

to be impactful. For example, if the<br />

information in a parliamentary monitoring<br />

site – such as People’s Assembly in South<br />

Africa or Odekro in Ghana – is picked up<br />

by journalists, other media, or activists, who<br />

can amplify crucial messages, this can have<br />

the desired effect of holding politicians to<br />

account. In these such cases, smartphone or<br />

Internet-based solutions may be appropriate.<br />

The Indigo Trust also requires grantees to<br />

be transparent and open about their work,<br />

just as the Trust itself is. Ideally, it looks for<br />

sustainable, replicable and/or scalable solutions,<br />

or solutions with low operating costs.<br />

And it admits to a soft-spot for local organisations<br />

with small budgets, open-source, and<br />

interoperable solutions, innovative approaches,<br />

and two-way interactivity.<br />

The Trust has often found that it is a passionate<br />

individual that really drives a project<br />

forward – someone who really understands<br />

the sector and local context, and who is truly<br />

dedicated to the cause. ■<br />

For more information about The Indigo Trust,<br />

visit http://indigotrust.org.uk.<br />

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Smart gets<br />

Smarter<br />

Smart city concepts can go beyond their original remit and help create incubatory<br />

environments that encourage and promote innovative sustainability at grassroots levels,<br />

reports Professor Martin Charter, Director of the Centre for <strong>Sustainable</strong> Design<br />

Cities are major hotbeds of environmental,<br />

social and economic problems, as we well<br />

know; but they can also be catalysts for the<br />

development of new sustainable solutions.<br />

Cities are important, and are predicted to<br />

become even more important: 70 per cent of<br />

the global population will be located in cities<br />

by 2050, compared to 50 per cent at present<br />

(according to UN World Urbanisation<br />

Prospects); at present, 60 per cent of global<br />

GDP is from 600 cities (says consulting firm<br />

McKinsey); and cities currently account for<br />

70 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions<br />

(according to UN Habitat).<br />

The expanding city populations will<br />

mean growing environmental impacts and<br />

challenges, as well as, potential opportunities<br />

related to the development of more<br />

sustainable solutions for energy, water,<br />

and food production/storage/distribution,<br />

transportation, housing and waste (or<br />

resource) management.<br />

What, however, will the increase in<br />

urbanisation mean for regions, towns,<br />

villages and rural areas? What will be the<br />

future role and influence of regional and<br />

provincial governments (and other local<br />

stakeholders) as populations migrate to<br />

cities? And what will be the implications for<br />

more sustainable economic development?<br />

‘Green Growth’<br />

Post-2008, the concept of ‘green growth’<br />

has gained international support among<br />

policy makers as a means of reconciling<br />

the ongoing need for economic growth set<br />

within environmental limits. Reports in<br />

the late 2000s from the World Economic<br />

Forum (WEF), United Nations Environment<br />

Programme (UNEP), and the Organisation<br />

of Economic Cooperation and <strong>Development</strong><br />

(OECD) helped to shape the development<br />

of the ‘green economy’ and ‘green growth’<br />

policy agendas. This thinking has now<br />

filtered down into a range of national,<br />

regional, and city government initiatives as<br />

illustrated in the recent report by the Global<br />

Green Growth Institute.<br />

To facilitate discussion, the Danish<br />

government have established and host the<br />

3GF (Global Green Growth Forum), an<br />

annual gathering of policy makers, CEOs,<br />

and other key decision-makers that debates<br />

the evolving ‘green growth’ agenda while<br />

acting as a platform for the development of<br />

national and international public-private<br />

partnership projects.<br />

A number of cities are engaging in and<br />

taking leadership on the ‘green growth’<br />

agenda and are embracing the associated<br />

change. For example, Copenhagen is the<br />

2014 European Green capital, was voted<br />

number one in the European green city<br />

index, and hosts the 3GF.<br />

Climate change returns<br />

Cities face major climate change impacts<br />

and will increasingly need to implement<br />

climate change mitigation and adaptation<br />

strategies. In 2013, the Intergovernmental<br />

Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported<br />

that the evidence for global climate change<br />

is unequivocal, and there are likely to<br />

be an increased number of extreme and<br />

unpredictable weather events.<br />

Climate change is moving back into the<br />

spotlight. In September 2014, there were<br />

demonstrations in New York and London<br />

over the need for action over climate<br />

change in parallel to United Nations<br />

Climate Change Summit in New York.<br />

Coupled to this, the Hollywood movie<br />

actor and environmental activist, Leonardo<br />

DiCaprio, was appointed the United Nations<br />

Messenger of Peace, and delivered a keynote<br />

speech on the climate change imperative as<br />

part of a strategy of raising the media profile<br />

in advance of the 2015 United Nations<br />

Framework Convention on Climate Change<br />

(UNFCCC) in Paris.<br />

November 2015 will be a pivotal date in<br />

the climate change agenda as UNFCCC will<br />

aim to decide on a legally-binding agreement<br />

on greenhouse gas emission targets linked<br />

to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. City leaders are<br />

likely to play a prominent role in discussions<br />

drawing on lessons from initiatives such as<br />

C40 and the Mayors Covenant that have<br />

developed city-based learning networks<br />

focused on reducing carbon emissions and<br />

developing low-carbon innovation.<br />

Related challenges<br />

Alongside climate change, cities need to<br />

tackle many other environmental challenges<br />

– such as access to water and food, and<br />

health issues associated with air and water<br />

pollution. For example, over the last 12<br />

months, Beijing has faced significant air<br />

pollution problems, where on a significant<br />

number of days, emissions have far-exceeded<br />

World Health Organisation (WHO) safety<br />

levels.<br />

While not achieving the public visibility of<br />

climate change, there is growing recognition<br />

among policy makers, business, civil<br />

society, and a number of innovative cities,<br />

of the need to move away from the linear<br />

‘take-make-waste’ economy, to a Circular<br />

Economy model that aims to stimulate<br />

improved resource efficiency and innovation<br />

through, for example, re-manufacturing,<br />

re-conditioning, refurbishment, and repair –<br />

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‘Places and spaces’ are<br />

emerging where people<br />

come together to make,<br />

modify and/or repair<br />

products – such as<br />

consumer goods.<br />

while at the same time creating jobs. Despite,<br />

the financial cut backs that many cities in<br />

western economies have faced post-2008,<br />

there is a sense that sustainability has moved<br />

back onto the agenda for many mayors.<br />

‘Turning point’?<br />

Despite the financial challenges imposed<br />

by the ‘austerity age’, are we now moving<br />

toward a turning point in relation to the<br />

sustainability of our cities? Are we now in a<br />

time of major change driven by a range of<br />

environmental, social, and economic issues?<br />

And how significant will that change be?<br />

Some cities may embrace the change and<br />

transform (e.g., Copenhagen); and some may<br />

react or rebel against it. Will responses to<br />

the change be driven ‘top down’ (by policy<br />

makers) or emerge ‘bottom up’ (by civil<br />

society and citizens)? If we are to achieve<br />

more resilient, resource-efficient, low-carbon<br />

economies and societies, we will need to<br />

break away from the conventional ‘ways<br />

of doing things’ to the creation of new<br />

models of – for example – consumption and<br />

production.<br />

Managing that change will not be<br />

easy. Cities are large and complex ‘living<br />

organisms’, and include many subsystems<br />

and networks that are often unconnected.<br />

To enable change, those subsystems and<br />

networks will need to be connected-up more<br />

effectively; and this may mean re-designing<br />

city systems to bring together those groups in<br />

different ways.<br />

For example, building new platforms to<br />

connect-up policy makers with inventors,<br />

thinkers, designers, financiers, entrepreneurs,<br />

and researchers to accelerate the creation,<br />

development, and commercialisation<br />

of sustainable solutions through labs,<br />

incubators, clusters and new ‘places and<br />

spaces’.<br />

Smart city motivators<br />

Cities need to get ‘smarter’. There has<br />

been a growing discussion over smart cities,<br />

and significant interest being expressed<br />

in the concept by some. However, are<br />

smart cities purely large-scale strategic<br />

experiments created by a small number of<br />

transitional corporations, rather than being<br />

real catalysts for smarter, more sustainable<br />

Seen here with UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, actor and environmental activist Leonardo<br />

DiCaprio was appointed the United Nations Messenger of Peace<br />

urban regeneration? At present much of the<br />

smart city development is being driven by a<br />

few key information and communications<br />

technology (ICT) players – names such as<br />

IBM, Cisco Systems, Schneider Electric,<br />

and Siemens, in co-operation with a<br />

number of major cities. For example,<br />

Songdo in Korea, is a smart city that has<br />

been built from scratch in partnership with<br />

companies, including Cisco.<br />

To develop smarter, more sustainable<br />

cities will require partnerships between<br />

a range of stakeholders, including<br />

government, business, finance and civil<br />

society. Smart cities, smart grid, and Big<br />

Data (of more later) discussions should<br />

dovetail and a key part of the focus should<br />

be on how we establish secure and effective<br />

systems to collect, analyse, and present<br />

environmental, social and economic data to<br />

enable improved decision-making.<br />

The ‘Internet of Things’ (IoT) – the<br />

network of physical objects accessed through<br />

the Internet – linking-up data from vehicles,<br />

buildings, smart meters, lighting systems,<br />

etc., will expand the available pool of Big<br />

Data. A standard definition of Big Data is<br />

as an all-encompassing term for data sets<br />

so large or complex – in terms of volume<br />

or structure – that it becomes impractical,<br />

if not impossible, to process using<br />

traditional data processing applications.<br />

Main challenges posed by Big Data include<br />

analysis, capture, search, storage, transfer,<br />

and visualisation.<br />

In a number of cities – Barcelona is a<br />

good example – major networks of sensors<br />

have been installed throughout the city to<br />

monitor, for example, recycling rates and<br />

levels of air pollution.<br />

Smart cities are a techno-centric concept,<br />

and a key issue will be how we move<br />

beyond technological discussions to explore<br />

how civil society and citizens can engage<br />

and involve themselves in the process of<br />

making cities smarter, more sustainable, and<br />

importantly, liveable. How cities democratise<br />

smart city development to engender and<br />

motivate citizen feedback (in terms of<br />

ideas and information through online polls,<br />

observations and sharing pictures through<br />

social networks and mobile devices) will<br />

again be key to helping to develop new<br />

behavioural-, as well as, technological-,<br />

solutions to environmental, social, and<br />

economic problems.<br />

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City leaders are likely to play a<br />

prominent role in discussions<br />

drawing on lessons from initiatives<br />

that have developed city-based<br />

learning networks focused on<br />

developing low-carbon innovation.<br />

Innovation toward sustainability<br />

As part of the Big Data revolution, many<br />

companies are starting to explore the use of<br />

open innovation competitions to source ideas<br />

and funding from ‘the crowd’. A number<br />

of major companies have started to utilise<br />

crowd sourcing strategies related to the<br />

development of more sustainable solutions<br />

– they include big names like Unilever and<br />

GE.<br />

In parallel, a range of new initiatives are<br />

starting to emerge from city governments<br />

and civil society. These include ‘hackathons’<br />

and ‘jams’ focused on environmental or<br />

broader sustainability issues. Hackathons<br />

bring together computer software coders,<br />

programmers and other creatives in intensive<br />

sessions. They have been established by some<br />

cities to hack Big Data datasets to produce<br />

apps to improve, for example, recycling. At<br />

the leading-edge of this initiative are New<br />

York and Singapore, for example.<br />

Such sustainability-focused hackathons<br />

and jams – intensive ‘open’ innovation<br />

collaborative workshops – have also been<br />

organised by civil society groups from the<br />

‘bottom-up’. For example, last year the<br />

Sensors are monitoring air pollution levels in<br />

Barcelona - good news for the city’s cyclists<br />

38<br />

Futuristic metropolitan<br />

developments, such as<br />

Chengdu in China, set<br />

the benchmark for the<br />

smart cities concept<br />

Global Sustainability Jam documented<br />

around 80 simultaneous events worldwide in<br />

late November 2014.<br />

There are indications that traditional<br />

boundaries of innovation are starting<br />

to dissolve, with the potential means to<br />

innovate increasing from civil society<br />

and citizens. So are we moving into<br />

(or have already entered) a new age of<br />

industrialisation – ‘Industrialisation 4.0’ –<br />

that is based on information, collaboration,<br />

and decentralisation. The advent of this<br />

‘new Industrial Age’ appears to be driven by<br />

a new spirit of doing and making, increased<br />

access to information through Internet,<br />

increased sharing of ideas and information<br />

through social networking technologies,<br />

increased access to Open Source designs,<br />

availability of new ‘making’ tools such as<br />

additive manufacturing (or 3D printing), and<br />

new ‘places and spaces’ to enable individuals<br />

to ‘make, modify, and fix’.<br />

New places and spaces<br />

We may be starting to see the emergence of<br />

a new Industrial Renaissance. As indicated,<br />

these new ‘places and spaces’ are starting to<br />

emerge in many cities where individuals are<br />

coming together physically, face-to-face to<br />

discuss, collaborate, experiment, and share<br />

information and ideas to make, modify<br />

and/or repair products – products such as<br />

consumer goods. As indicated above, these<br />

new ‘places and places’ are part of a process<br />

of democratising innovation by providing<br />

access to the knowledge and equipment for<br />

prototype development and job production<br />

outside of corporate research and<br />

development laboratories and factories.<br />

Fab Labs<br />

Is this a threat or opportunity in relation<br />

to the established order? At present, this<br />

democratisation appears to be primarily<br />

in the spirit of experimentation but there<br />

some indications that some of these new<br />

‘places and spaces’ may start to incubate the<br />

development of new products and businesses.<br />

Perhaps the most well-known example of<br />

these new ‘places and spaces’ are the ‘Fab<br />

Labs’ that emerged from Massachusetts Institute<br />

of Technology in 2001, by providing<br />

organised facilities to enable individuals to<br />

fabricate products from digital images utilising<br />

a portfolio of manufacturing equipment<br />

including 3D printers and laser cutters.<br />

As of 2013, there were 125 Fab Labs in<br />

34 countries. Alongside Fab Labs, there has<br />

been the explosion of Makerspaces around<br />

the world, where organised facilities are<br />

being created or ‘opened up’ for individuals<br />

to network, design, and make products. For<br />

example, the RDM campus in Rotterdam in<br />

the Netherlands has established the RDM<br />

Makerspace where citizens can rent the<br />

use of equipment from the technical school<br />

SSD_<strong>Sustainable</strong> Cities.indd 38 04/03/2015 13:59


for a fee during certain time periods. More<br />

informally, Hackerspaces have also seen<br />

significant growth from around 20 in 2005 to<br />

1035 in 2014 (Hackerspaces, 2014 1 ).<br />

Other recent research (Charter & Keiller 2 )<br />

has indicated that individuals participating<br />

in Hackerspaces are not just making and/or<br />

hacking or modifying products, but are also<br />

fixing or repairing products. For example,<br />

members of the Reading Hackspace in<br />

the UK reported that they repaired (and<br />

therefore extended the product life) of<br />

broken baby stroller by downloading an<br />

Open Source design and 3D printing a<br />

missing component (Charter, 2014 3 ). Repair<br />

Cafés – informal groups that get together to<br />

repair and modify products – have also seen<br />

significant growth.<br />

Since the inception of the Repair Café<br />

Foundation in 2010, numbers have grown to<br />

more than 700 Repair Cafés worldwide, with<br />

the Netherlands accounting for more than<br />

200, and Amsterdam around 15 (Repair<br />

Café Foundation, 2014 4 ). A new group that<br />

may start to emerge are hybrid community<br />

businesses that combine facets of the above:<br />

cafés for networking with repair workshops<br />

for learning, incubators for making up-cycled<br />

products with in-house retail outlets to sell<br />

the products; a notable example of this is<br />

Repair cafés are expanding in cities and towns<br />

worldwide, with over 400 starting in 2014. For<br />

example, after a series of test sessions, Farnham<br />

Repair Café (FRC) was launched in February 2015<br />

as a unique collaboration between a university and<br />

civil society organisation (The Centre for <strong>Sustainable</strong><br />

Design at University for the Creative Arts and Transition<br />

Town Farnham). FRC provides repair stations covering<br />

a range of product categories: electronics, electrical,<br />

mechanical; and bicycles; and has a ‘creative zone’ to<br />

create art and products from waste.<br />

Editor’s background briefing: smart cities investment and the smart money<br />

The promise of smart cities was already gathering<br />

pace when United Nations Secretary General Ban<br />

Ki-moon, opined that new ideas from smart cities<br />

will point the way to sustainable urbanisation,<br />

in a message issued to mark World Habitat Day<br />

2009. In the intervening five years the smart city<br />

concept has evolved apace with developments in<br />

information and communications technology and<br />

the connected built environment.<br />

A general definition maintains that smart cities<br />

use a mix of digital technologies to enhance<br />

performance and well-being, to reduce costs<br />

and resource consumption, and to engage<br />

more effectively and actively with its inhabitants.<br />

Key ‘smart’ sectors include transport, energy,<br />

healthcare, water and waste. A smart city should be<br />

able to respond faster to city and global challenges<br />

than one with a simple ‘transactional’ relationship<br />

with its citizens. “Smart cities are places where IT is<br />

wielded to address problems [both] old and new,”<br />

explains Anthony M. Townsend, author of the book<br />

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the<br />

The Goldfinger Factory in London, UK.<br />

Futures and forecasts<br />

The world is a very different place, in many<br />

senses, compared to even five-to-ten years<br />

ago. Change is the constant, and predicting<br />

the future is an increasingly difficult exercise.<br />

However, it is likely that cities will become<br />

significantly more important and powerful;<br />

but will cities become smarter, more<br />

sustainable and liveable? As we see more<br />

urbanisation, what will this process mean<br />

outside of cities, in regions, in provinces, in<br />

towns and rural areas?<br />

The process is likely to mean that<br />

knowledge, finance and other resources<br />

may get more concentrated in major cities.<br />

Cities may increasingly be designed to be<br />

the ‘hubs of innovation’; however, we may<br />

increasingly see innovation arise bottom-up<br />

from civil society and citizens in a new age<br />

of experimentation driven by a new ‘do it’<br />

mind-set of Generation Z (people born after<br />

the Millennial Generation or Generation Y),<br />

increased access and sharing of information<br />

and ideas, availability of new tools and new,<br />

decentralised ‘places and spaces’ that enable<br />

collaboration, making, modifying, and fixing.<br />

That said, it is reasonable to ask: will<br />

these trends be truly transformative or<br />

Quest for a New Utopia.<br />

Since then the perception that the smart cities<br />

concept applies mainly to high-profile future<br />

(and futuristic) builds – such as Songdo in South<br />

Korea, Dubai in United Arab Emirates, Chengdu<br />

in China, and Konza City in Kenya – has been<br />

overtaken by developments in the smart built<br />

environment sector. More recently there has<br />

also been growing interest in applying smart<br />

city principles and techniques to established<br />

metropolitan areas that might be anything but<br />

‘smart’ – a trend that has been described as<br />

‘retrofitting the future’.<br />

Interest in smart cities is motivated by major<br />

challenges, including climate change, economic<br />

restructuring, the transition to online retail and<br />

entertainment, ageing populations, and pressures<br />

on public finances. It has sponsorship at the<br />

highest levels: the European Union, for instance,<br />

has assigned constant efforts to devising a<br />

strategy for achieving ‘smart’ urban growth for its<br />

many city-regions.<br />

just be a peripheral grassroots innovation<br />

movement that does not enter the<br />

mainstream? Will cities become the nexus<br />

for new developments or will innovators<br />

increasingly feel that cities stifle creativity<br />

with ‘innovation hubs’ breaking out of cities?<br />

Will this new age of experimentation lead<br />

to a more sustainable path (environmentally,<br />

socially or economically)? Or not? There are<br />

many open questions – and the book is still,<br />

very much, open. ■<br />

Professor Martin Charter is Director of the Centre for<br />

<strong>Sustainable</strong> Design ® - mcharter@ucreative.ac.uk /<br />

www.cfsd.org.uk.<br />

References<br />

1. Hackerspaces (2014), List if Active Hackerspaces<br />

[online]. Available from http://hackerspace.org/wiki/<br />

List_of_Hacker_Spaces [accessed on 20th May 2014].<br />

2. Charter & Keiller (2014), Grassroots Innovation &<br />

Circular Economy: A Global Survey of Repair Cafés<br />

and Hackerspaces [online]. Available from www.cfsd.org.<br />

uk/news/circular-economy-innovation [accessed on 27th<br />

October 2014].<br />

3. Charter (2014), Makers & Fixers: Circular Economy<br />

& Grassroots Innovation: 10 Lessons Learnt [online].<br />

Available from www.cfsd.org.uk/news/circular-economyinnovation<br />

[accessed on 27th October 2014].<br />

4. Repair Café Foundation (2014), Repair Café Locations<br />

[online]. Available from http://repaircafe.org/locations<br />

[accessed on 09/02/2015].<br />

The smartening of urban centres around the<br />

world shouldn’t be easily confused with more<br />

traditional concepts of urban regeneration and<br />

renewal, although there are many overlaps. The<br />

sustainability element to smart cities is, arguably,<br />

the defining factor that takes urban renewal<br />

toward a more comparable level of achievement.<br />

Another compelling motive is that cities large and<br />

small, smart and non-smart, will continue to be<br />

both sources of environmental challenges, but<br />

also continue to be critical revenue generator<br />

and contributors to their respective gross national<br />

products well into the foreseeable future.<br />

Investment in smart cities and smart city projects<br />

is also good news for economic growth prospects.<br />

According to market analyst Frost & Sullivan, the<br />

global smart city market will be valued at $1.565<br />

trillion in 2020, with over 26 global cities expected<br />

to be in a position to qualify as ‘Smart Cities’ in<br />

2025. More than 50 per cent of these smart cities<br />

will be located in Europe and North America.<br />

James Hayes<br />

39<br />


SSD_<strong>Sustainable</strong> Cities.indd 39 04/03/2015 13:59


40<br />

SSD_Q&A_Mukesh Kapila.indd 40 04/03/2015 13:59


Q & A<br />

Professor Mukesh Kapila CBE<br />

Professor of Global Health and Humanitarian Affairs / Executive Director,<br />

Office for Global Health, University of Manchester, United Kingdom<br />

Professor Mukesh Kapila shares his perspectives on the nature of<br />

humanitarian progress, and on why the mix of cultures between<br />

private and public sectors in the cause of humanitarian aid<br />

provisioning can prove to be constructive<br />

<strong>SOURCE</strong>: <strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong><br />

You are speaking on Day 2 of the DIHAD<br />

2015 conference sessions - a keynote address<br />

on the topic of ‘Sustainability’. One of the<br />

great advantages hosting the three-day event<br />

in Dubai is that it affords opportunities<br />

for contact with the city’s entrepreneurial<br />

atmosphere. In what ways do you think that<br />

the spirit of entrepreneurism, so to speak,<br />

affects the way in which humanitarian aid in<br />

general is organised and delivered?<br />

Professor Mukesh Kapila Good<br />

partnerships between the private and public<br />

sector are vital – because the best methods<br />

and capacities of both need to deployed<br />

in service of humanity, as the needs are so<br />

great. [My view is that] DIHAD and Dubai<br />

provide good models for doing that.<br />

SSD One of the principle objectives of<br />

DIHAD is the sharing of knowledge –<br />

through presentations, through debate, and<br />

via face-to-face dialogue. Are there more<br />

ways in which the first-hand experience of<br />

professionals engaged in the humanitarian<br />

and sustainable development sectors, for<br />

instance, could be captured, and best<br />

practice made available to colleagues and<br />

other agencies facing similar challenges? If<br />

so, what are they, in your view?<br />

Professor Mukesh Kapila DIHAD<br />

provides a great opportunity for mutual<br />

learning, as it brings together experts,<br />

practitioners, and students from many<br />

walks... More could be done through<br />

organising more training and coaching<br />

sessions beyond the conferencing. Sponsors<br />

for that are welcome.<br />

SSD What are the most significant<br />

developments that you have been aware of<br />

over the seven years in the humanitarian<br />

▲<br />

41<br />

SSD_Q&A_Mukesh Kapila.indd 41 04/03/2015 14:00


Listening to their feedback is<br />

the best way to co-ordinate<br />

– rather than top-down<br />

bureaucratic co-ordination that<br />

can be remote from issues.<br />

programmes you have been involved with?<br />

Professor Mukesh Kapila A great deal<br />

of progress has been made – especially in<br />

making the cause of humanitarianism a<br />

global concern and improving co-operation.<br />

SSD How important are modern<br />

communications technologies in bringing<br />

about progress?<br />

Professor Mukesh Kapila Modern<br />

technologies being used now, especially for<br />

needs assessments, and for communications,<br />

as well as greater emphasis on beneficiary<br />

participation and accountability for results,<br />

have [certainly] improved effectiveness.<br />

SSD You have spoken about the importance<br />

of partnerships between private and public<br />

sector in support of the humanitarian cause.<br />

Do you think there is any risk of a clash<br />

of ‘cultures’ with the corporate world as<br />

gets more directly involved in supporting<br />

humanitarian aid and development<br />

programmes? We mean, as it finds that its<br />

approaches differ from those of what might<br />

be called the ‘professional’ aid providers,<br />

such as NGOs, charities, and other agencies?<br />

Professor Mukesh Kapila Such a clash<br />

in organisational cultures [if it does occur]<br />

is not necessarily a bad thing if each side is<br />

sufficiently open-minded to learn the best<br />

practices from the other.<br />

SSD There are now many organisations<br />

and agencies active in the humanitarian<br />

aid initiatives around the world. What do<br />

you see as the challenges in terms of coordinating<br />

those efforts, and in ensuring that<br />

efforts are not duplicated, nor that the coexisting<br />

bodies are not inadvertently creating<br />

problems for each-other?<br />

Professor Mukesh Kapila We should not<br />

over-emphasise the problem of co-ordination.<br />

It is good that many more groups are interested<br />

in contributing to addressing [the alleviation<br />

of] human misery. There is plenty for all to<br />

do. The best coordination is on the ground<br />

– addressing real problems, and providing<br />

necessary services. Those at the receiving end<br />

soon figure out who is working well, and who<br />

is not. Listening to their feedback is the best<br />

way to co-ordinate – rather than top-down<br />

bureaucratic co-ordination that can be remote<br />

from issues, and certainly more expensive.<br />

Long-time allies: UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon (right) met with Mukesh Kapila, former UN staff member and currently Professor of Global Health<br />

and Humanitarian Affairs at the University of Manchester in November 2012.<br />

42<br />

SSD_Q&A_Mukesh Kapila.indd 42 04/03/2015 14:00


ICT is transforming the<br />

humanitarian world, because<br />

knowledge and experience can<br />

be instantly shared, as well as<br />

skills and opportunities<br />

SSD In your opinion, is the world actually<br />

getting better at responding to crises or<br />

disasters as they happen?<br />

Professor Mukesh Kapila Yes, by and<br />

large, the world is getting better at disaster<br />

response – not least because of more and<br />

more practice.<br />

Dubai is an<br />

event location<br />

that affords<br />

opportunities for<br />

entrepreneurial<br />

interaction<br />

SSD It is a situation that varies from country<br />

to country.<br />

Professor Mukesh Kapila For many<br />

communities and countries, living with<br />

repeated disasters is a new norm, and they,<br />

and their governments, have a direct stake<br />

in investing for preparedness and protection.<br />

Of course, more can be done – but best<br />

returns are at local level.<br />

SSD The information and communications<br />

technology that has had a profound impact<br />

on the developed world is increasing finding<br />

its way into the developing world. Could you<br />

comment on the impact this is having on<br />

humanitarian programmes, and on how you<br />

feel this will continue into the future?<br />

Professor Mukesh Kapila This is<br />

transforming the humanitarian world because<br />

knowledge and experience from anywhere<br />

can be instantly shared, as well as skills and<br />

opportunities. And most importantly, people<br />

can witness the suffering of others, even if<br />

they are far away. This builds empathy – the<br />

most important human and social capital<br />

necessary in humanitarianism. ■<br />

For full DIHAD 2015 Conference Programme<br />

details, see page 77 of this issue of <strong>SOURCE</strong>:<br />

<strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong><br />

Professor Mukesh Kapila: career briefing<br />


Global Health and Humanitarian Affairs / Executive<br />

Director, Office for Global Health, University of<br />

Manchester; Special Representative of the Aegis<br />

Trust for the prevention of crimes against humanity;<br />

Vice Chair of the Board of Nonviolent Peaceforce;<br />

Associate Fellow of the Geneva Centre for Security<br />

Policy; and Adjunct Professor at the International<br />

Centre for Humanitarian Affairs, Nairobi.<br />

Professor Kapila has extensive experience<br />

in the policy and practice of international<br />

development, humanitarian<br />

affairs, human rights and<br />

diplomacy, with particular<br />

expertise in tackling crimes<br />

against humanity, disaster, and<br />

conflict management, and in<br />

global public health. He is an<br />

extensive public and media<br />

speaker. His published memoir<br />

Against a Tide of Evil was<br />

nominated for the ‘2013 Best<br />

Non Fiction Book award’.<br />

Previously in his career he was Under Secretary<br />

General at the International Federation of Red<br />

Cross and Red Crescent Societies, the world’s<br />

largest humanitarian and development network.<br />

Earlier, he served the United Nations in different<br />

roles as Special Adviser to the United Nations<br />

High Commissioner for Human Rights in Geneva<br />

and then Special Adviser at the UN Mission in<br />

Afghanistan. Subsequently, he led the UN’s largest<br />

country mission at the time as the United Nations<br />

Resident and Humanitarian Co-ordinator for the<br />

Sudan, and then became a Director at the World<br />

Health Organisation.<br />

Prior to the UN, Professor Kapila was at the UK<br />

Foreign and Commonwealth Office’s Overseas<br />

<strong>Development</strong> Administration (now Department<br />

for International <strong>Development</strong>), initially as senior<br />

health and population adviser, and latterly as the<br />

first head of a new Conflict and Humanitarian<br />

Affairs Department that he set-up.<br />

He has also been Chief Executive of the<br />

PHG Foundation, a senior policy adviser to the<br />

World Bank, worked as part of the UN Disaster<br />

Assessment and Co-ordination system, and<br />

advised the UN International Strategy for Disaster<br />

Reduction, International Labour Organisation,<br />

UNAIDS, and many other agencies. In 2014 he<br />

founded People4Sudan.<br />

His earliest career was in clinical medicine,<br />

primary health care, and public health in the British<br />

National Health Service in Oxford, Cambridge, and<br />

London, where he helped set up the UK’s first<br />

national HIV and AIDS programme at the Health<br />

Education Authority, becoming its deputy director.<br />

He has initiated several NGOs, and served<br />

on the Boards of many bodies, including the<br />

UN Institute for Training and Research, and the<br />

International Peace Academy in New York, and as<br />

Chair of Minority Rights Group International. He is<br />

also a Senior Member of Hughes Hall College at<br />

Cambridge University.<br />

Born in India, Professor Kapila is a citizen of<br />

the United Kingdom. He has qualifications in<br />

medicine, public health, and development from<br />

the Universities of Oxford and London. In 2003, he<br />

was honoured by Queen Elizabeth II, and named a<br />

Commander of the Order of the British Empire for<br />

his international service. In 2007, he received the<br />

Global Citizenship Award of the Institute for Global<br />

Leadership. In 2013, he received the ‘I Witness’<br />

award for his work on human rights, and a special<br />

resolution of the California State Legislature for<br />

‘lifetime achievements and meritorious service’.<br />

More information about Professor Kapila’s life<br />

and work can be found at www.mukeshkapila.<br />

org, and on his blog, ‘Flesh and Blood’, at<br />

www.e-ir.info/category/blogs/kapila/<br />


43<br />

SSD_Q&A_Mukesh Kapila.indd 43 04/03/2015 14:00

NGOS<br />

Capacity at the core<br />

Capacity building is a vital element in taking a pre-emptive approach to<br />

dealing with distress and disaster, explains Martin McCann, CEO, RedR UK.<br />

In July last year, Ian Birrell, an occasional<br />

columnist in the UK’s Guardian<br />

newspaper, and former speechwriter for UK<br />

Prime Minister David Cameron, highlighted<br />

what he felt were major shortfalls of the<br />

humanitarian sector.<br />

Citing a report by MSF, he claimed<br />

the sector was failing in its most basic<br />

duty: to help ensure the continuation and<br />

improvement of people’s lives. He claimed<br />

aid organisations were instead choosing<br />

to undertake: ‘lucrative work on modish<br />

concepts such as conflict resolution, capacity<br />

building and governance’.<br />

We should, of course, welcome criticism<br />

of our sector. Openness and transparency<br />

should be priorities in all our activities, and<br />

enabling people to understand what we do<br />

– and why – helps us focus our attention on<br />

the most important elements of our work. But<br />

criticism can sometimes miss its target.<br />

Capacity building, for example, may<br />

be ‘modish’ (though it is not especially<br />

‘lucrative’), but just because an idea is<br />

popular – particularly among experts in a<br />

sector – does not make it wrong. In fact,<br />

capacity building is central to what the<br />

44<br />

SSD_NGO_capacity_building.indd 44 04/03/2015 14:00

NGOS<br />

In response to the Syria<br />

crisis, for example, dedicated<br />

Syrians, Lebanese, Turkish,<br />

Jordanian and Iraqi people<br />

are committed to helping the<br />

millions of displaced - but<br />

the helpers also need help<br />

humanitarian sector is, to the role of NGOs,<br />

to the saving and improvement of lives<br />

around the world.<br />

There is a multiplicity of potential roles<br />

for NGOs in the modern world. Front-line<br />

delivery of services, policy discourse and<br />

suggestion, the facilitation and promotion<br />

of best practice. But in all cases, the aim<br />

of these organisations is to preserve and<br />

promote life. To keep people alive despite<br />

immense challenges, and to help them thrive<br />

and succeed. And capacity building is one of<br />

the surest ways to help that happen.<br />

RedR UK focuses on front-line agencies:<br />

their skills, and the future humanitarian<br />

agenda. In times of disaster, local capacity,<br />

even including the state, is by definition<br />

overwhelmed. When war, earthquake,<br />

typhoon or floods strike, the state – the<br />

guarantor of the welfare of the people –<br />

may be forced to call upon the UN, other<br />

nation states, and national and international<br />

NGOs.<br />

The work of each of these actors<br />

deserves – and receives – praise. But each<br />

also have their own limitations. The UN<br />

and international donors cannot possibly<br />

be expected to have sufficient manpower to<br />

reach all areas affected by disasters. And in<br />

the kind of life-and-death situations caused<br />

by disaster, speed is critical.<br />

Speed of response<br />

In the Asian tsunami of 2004, 80 per cent<br />

of those who died, did so in the first hour. It<br />

is a reminder that although an international<br />

response and the expertise and help it brings,<br />

is vital, many lives will be lost if we only wait<br />

for people to fly across numerous time zones<br />

to arrive where disaster strikes.<br />

People in regions where disaster strikes need<br />

the skills and abilities to respond when it<br />

happens; and local knowledge is also vital.<br />

In the ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in<br />

West Africa, some communities resisted<br />

outside expert assistance because of<br />

unfamiliarity with Western medical practice,<br />

and because of a desire to continue local<br />

burial traditions – in some cases delaying aid<br />

being delivered.<br />

This is a timely reminder that all those<br />

operating on the ground must understand<br />

the cultural and legal norms in the<br />

location in which they are working; and<br />

▲<br />

45<br />

SSD_NGO_capacity_building.indd 45 04/03/2015 14:00

NGOS<br />

One positive shift in the last<br />

decade has been a move away<br />

from external players flooding an<br />

area to assist ‘helpless victims’,<br />

or regarding local people as<br />

‘consumers of assistance’.<br />

people actually within those communities<br />

understand those norms better than anyone<br />

else. Equally, the unfortunate truth is that<br />

regions where natural disaster strikes once<br />

are likely to experience other, similar,<br />

disasters in future.<br />

Disaster mitigation<br />

So disaster response must go further than the<br />

on-the-spot, immediate saving of lives, and<br />

begin also to work on disaster mitigation:<br />

showing people how to build their homes<br />

stronger. How to restructure water supply<br />

systems, and what to do while a disaster<br />

is taking place, as well as in its immediate<br />

aftermath.<br />

All of these things save lives. And<br />

all require a commitment to capacitybuilding,<br />

enabling people to prepare for<br />

and respond to disasters themselves, with<br />

outside assistance helping to support existing<br />

expertise.<br />

The humanitarian sector has significantly<br />

altered its approach to aid and development.<br />

One positive shift in the last decade has<br />

been a move away from external players<br />

flooding an area to assist ‘helpless victims’,<br />

or regarding local people as recipients,<br />

consumers of assistance. And the<br />

professionalisation of the sector is another<br />

encouraging improvement. Initiatives such<br />

as the NOHA Humanitarian qualifications,<br />

and ELRHA’s adoption of a ‘humanitarian<br />

passport’ set the basis for recognisable<br />

industry-wide standards, and are important<br />

recognitions that it takes more than just<br />

abstract technical knowledge to make an<br />

effective humanitarian.<br />

Capacity building develops<br />

RedR UK illustrates this trend of continuing<br />

improvement in the global humanitarian<br />

Success story: building back stronger in the Philippines<br />

The Build Back Safer<br />

scheme is helping up to<br />

5,000 Filipino households<br />

affected by Typhoon<br />

Haiyan to construct more<br />

resilient dwellings<br />

“I carried my nephews through the surges the<br />

typhoon caused. I was a council worker, but I found<br />

myself up to my neck in water, with two boys raised<br />

above my head to keep them safe”: Kenneth<br />

Renera was one of the estimated 11 million people<br />

caught in and affected by Typhoon Haiyan, which<br />

struck the Philippines on 8th-9th November 2013.<br />

Across the state, the Typhoon’s 195mph winds<br />

caused more than 7,400 deaths, and more than<br />

20,000 injuries. More than one million homes were<br />

destroyed or damaged, leaving more than four<br />

million people homeless.<br />

“More than 50 per cent of homes in some<br />

parts of this region were destroyed,” said Kenneth<br />

– who lives in Santo Nino, near the town<br />

of Palo on the eastern side of Leyte island. “My<br />

own house was swamped by flood waters, and<br />

the oil refinery close to my home spilled oil into<br />

the water I waded through while carrying my<br />

nephews.”<br />

In response, using training developed and<br />

delivered by RedR in Disaster Risk Reduction and<br />

Shelter, he is mobilising people in his and neighbouring<br />

communities, to benefit from the Build<br />

Back Safer scheme. The initiative, which RedR<br />

UK designed for Oxfam and its Philippines-based<br />

partner Green Mindanao, has trained Philippines<br />

nationals to build more resilient housing and<br />

community buildings – and to pass those skills<br />

on to others.<br />

It was attended by 16 people, who are<br />

training 3,000-5,000 households to reconstruct<br />

their homes to help them stand up better to<br />

future disasters. Kenneth added: “The training is<br />

excellent. It means I can help people not just to<br />

rebuild their homes, but to make them stronger.”<br />

46<br />

SSD_NGO_capacity_building.indd 46 04/03/2015 14:00

NGOS<br />

People in regions where<br />

disaster strikes need<br />

the skills and abilities<br />

to respond when it<br />

happens; and local<br />

knowledge is also vital.<br />

sector. It was set-up more than 30 years<br />

ago, as a register of engineers to provide<br />

technically-skilled people to international aid<br />

agencies responding to disasters.<br />

From there, it developed to take the<br />

lessons learned from those engineers’<br />

experiences, and use them to train people to<br />

adapt these technical learned skills to other<br />

environments. For many years, its main<br />

activities were sending Western experts to<br />

the field, and training Western experts to<br />

improve the quality and effectiveness of their<br />

work.<br />

But in the last decade, it has turned<br />

this model on its head. Now, it is taking<br />

the skills in which we specialise – water<br />

and sanitation, shelter, security, logistics,<br />

needs assessment, project management<br />

and humanitarian procedural training – to<br />

communities in disaster-prone regions of<br />

the world. To the first responders, who live<br />

where disasters strike.<br />

In the last year, RedR trained 8,600<br />

people in more than 30 countries, including<br />

INGO and NGO workers, government<br />

employees and community members. Ninety<br />

per cent of those were nationals of disasterprone<br />

countries.<br />

In response to the Syria crisis, for example,<br />

dedicated Syrians, Lebanese, Turkish,<br />

Jordanian and Iraqi people are committed to<br />

helping the millions of people displaced by<br />

the nation’s grim, four-year war. But they are<br />

new to the humanitarian sector.<br />

We are training them in humanitarian<br />

skills, including security, so they can stay<br />

safe and deliver life-saving food, water and<br />

shelter to the people who urgently need<br />

them. In Pakistan, we are training teachers<br />

and schoolchildren potentially lifesaving<br />

The Syrian crisis has caused millions to flee their homes, some leaving the state altogether. Al Za’atri<br />

refugee camp was, in 2013, officially Jordan’s third largest ‘city’ by population.<br />

RedR training in the<br />

Middle East is helping<br />

humanitarian aid<br />

workers develop the<br />

skills they need to<br />

operate in the field.<br />

skills. Communities in the South Asian<br />

state have, in recent years, faced floods,<br />

earthquakes and conflict involving illegal<br />

militia groups.<br />

And shocking recent experience shows<br />

that schools, children and teachers are just as<br />

likely to be struck by the latter as the former.<br />

The skills we and our partners in Pakistan<br />

are delivering have the potential to save lives<br />

when disaster strikes.<br />

Skills transference<br />

These skills are not restricted to those<br />

who take the first training. In the Lower<br />

Dir region, we have trained 16 teachers,<br />

who have in turn passed on the life-saving<br />

techniques to 551 pupils. Those pupils took<br />

their new knowledge home to their families,<br />

while the teachers themselves shared their<br />

skills with their families and with 46 more<br />

teachers.<br />

Training just 18 people has already spread<br />

skills to hundreds of people, and has the<br />

potential to deliver the ability to save lives to<br />

many thousands. This is capacity building in<br />

action.<br />

The same approach was used during<br />

▲<br />

47<br />

SSD_NGO_capacity_building.indd 47 04/03/2015 14:00

NGOS<br />

Capacity building is central<br />

to what the humanitarian<br />

sector is, to the role of<br />

NGOs, to the saving and<br />

improvement of lives<br />

around the world.<br />

the response to Typhoon Haiyan, which<br />

struck the Philippines on 8th-9th November<br />

2013. Haiyan killed more than 7,400<br />

people, injured 20,000 and left four million<br />

homeless. It inspired a unified response,<br />

as the public funded INGOs to deliver<br />

shelter, WASH (water, sanitation and<br />

hygiene) materials, food, water and technical<br />

assistance, while the state’s government and<br />

national NGOs met the crises the Typhoon<br />

had caused (see panel box-out, p46).<br />

RedR UK trained 577 people, 98 per<br />

cent of them Philippine nationals, who were<br />

employed by large international and local<br />

NGOs, as well as government workers and<br />

community members. In one project, Build<br />

Back Stronger, we worked with Oxfam and<br />

Philippine organisation Green Mindanao<br />

to develop and deliver training to people in<br />

how to rebuild their homes and community<br />

structures to better withstand future disaster.<br />

And those skills are transferable. The 16<br />

people we trained spread the knowledge<br />

they had gained to 4,000 households, and it<br />

can be shared further, building the capacity<br />

of communities to mitigate against future<br />

disaster. A similar ‘domino effect’ was used<br />

to spread skills and expertise in Haiti, in the<br />

aftermath of the devastating earthquake<br />

in January 2010, which killed more than<br />

200,000 people.<br />

One part of our skills-based training there<br />

took the form of a WASH week, in which<br />

local aid workers were given core water,<br />

sanitation and hygiene training in Port<br />

Au Prince, where more than one million<br />

people had been left homeless. In total,<br />

1,439 people received WASH training, each<br />

training 30 more, meaning the skills reached<br />

more than 43,000 people.<br />

At RedR UK, we use the slogan We<br />

Train Lifesavers. There are many ways to<br />

save lives, but capacity building – spreading<br />

knowledge and delivering skills to help<br />

people respond to and mitigate against<br />

disaster – is a central component of that.<br />

If the humanitarian sector is dedicated<br />

to saving and improving lives, then building<br />

capacity is one of the most vital and<br />

appropriate roles NGOs can play. ■<br />

For more information about RedR and its work,<br />

see www.redr.org.uk.<br />

Success story: school safety training in Pakistan<br />

“I have been taught that if I see a person unconscious<br />

I should remove anything dangerous and<br />

check if they are breathing, and clear the airway<br />

then check the circulation by checking their<br />

pulse. I will then put them in the recovery position<br />

and wait for help to arrive...” Sawera Saad*<br />

is eight-years-old. She attends school in a village<br />

in Lower Dir region, Pakistan, where natural and<br />

man-made disasters are a real risk.<br />

She has already experienced serious flooding<br />

in her home town, and also faces risk simply<br />

because she attends school, as illegal militia<br />

organisations operating in the region oppose the<br />

education of girls, as well as the employment of<br />

female teachers. As a result, she and her classmates<br />

brave potential attack by going to school.<br />

RedR UK is training teachers who can show<br />

girls like Sawera, as well as boys, teachers and<br />

community members, how to reduce risk,<br />

perform first aid and give them other potentially<br />

life-saving skills. Asma, an English teacher at<br />

another school, says: “First aid saves life. I have<br />

taught the children and other teachers how to<br />

stop bleeding, deal with burns and poisoning.<br />

We learned how to stop fires, and what to do<br />

if the school comes under gunfire and attack.<br />

We have taught children to take cover under<br />

desks, or if they are outside to run inside into the<br />

classrooms.”<br />

Pakistani<br />

schoolchildren<br />

learn first aid as<br />

part of RedR’s Safer<br />

Schools initiative.<br />

RedR UK, with local partner Khwendo Kor,<br />

trained 18 teachers in the Lower Dir region. In<br />

turn, they have trained 551 pupils, and another<br />

46 teachers (who will in turn train their students).<br />

The skills they have learned will be taught to each<br />

new intake of pupils, meaning many thousands<br />

of young people will have the knowledge and<br />

ability to reduce risk, and save lives.<br />

And girls like Sawera are sharing the knowledge<br />

they have learned. She said: “My mother<br />

learned how to tie a bandage from me, and was<br />

very happy that she could do it all by herself.”<br />

*Names changed to protect those interviewed<br />

First aid training taking place as part of RedR’s<br />

Safer Schools initiative in Pakistan.<br />


48<br />

SSD_NGO_capacity_building.indd 48 04/03/2015 14:00<br />




Flexigester<br />

The FIRST rapid deployment anaerobic digestion system with a capacity of 10 tonnes+<br />

Developed to provide a simple solution to many of the challenges facing communities in the global south, the Flexigester kit is an anaerobic<br />

digestion system which easily converts organic waste into biofertiliser and biogas.<br />

It can be attached directly to a pourflush latrine system, capturing sewage and effectively removing waste from the vicinity. This in turn reduces<br />

the risks associated with open defecation / odours / vermin / flies. In addition, waste water from kitchens and latrines, animal manures & food<br />

waste can be reutilised via the Flexigester, returning valuable plant nutrients from the waste material to the land in the form of liquid fertiliser to<br />

help improve soil quality and therefore crop yields.<br />

The smokeless biogas helps to protect and sustain the environment, reducing the need for charcoal and wood as a fuel, potentially decreasing<br />

cases of smoke related respiratory issues and helping to maintain a cleaner kitchen while reducing the time needed for cooking meals.<br />

Small and lightweight : the system can be delivered by air to destinations around the world. The standard V10 unit fits into the back of an<br />

estate car, yet has the capacity to treat around 280 litres of waste per day. The system is available in larger sizes and is scalable dependant<br />

on client requirements. Can be ready for use within 24 hours using simple hand tools for installation. The Flexigester system is an ideal tool to<br />

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Flexigester installed at Namisu Orphanage, Malawi Flexigester Biogas storage bags Children at the Namisu Orphanage<br />

Sewage Isolation Bag<br />

An innovative alternative to open sewage pits / lagoons<br />

Holds sewage in a watertight and gas tight robust Butyl Rubber bag.<br />

Associated fittings keep the contents secure.<br />

Once isolated inside the SIB there are:<br />

• No odours from sewage in the bag<br />

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• No risk to groundwater from the secure contents of the SIB<br />

• Many options for treatment and disposal of the sewage<br />

A standard 5000 litre capacity system fits neatly into a 120 x 80 x 50cm crate and can easily be carried by 2 people.<br />

The bag is available in a range of sizes dependant on requirements and needs no concrete or other groundworks. It is simply installed in a<br />

shallow trench that can be dug by hand.<br />

The input tubes can be connected to latrine pipework or used for manual filling.<br />

The Sewage Isolation Bag is ideal for temporary camp use and can be cleaned and packed for transport and reused elsewhere as required.<br />

Butyl Products Ltd carry an extensive range of Water Storage, Treatment, Distribution and Testing equipment designed for use in emergency aid, camp<br />

infrastructure, civil engineering and agricultural applications, and has the experience and framework in place to react quickly to client’s needs with<br />

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Butyl_Ad.indd SSD_NGO_capacity_building.indd 49 49 03/03/2015 04/03/2015 17:27 14:00


Managing canals<br />

both for multiple<br />

users and natural<br />

systems ensures that<br />

the water they carry<br />

can benefit as many<br />

people as possible<br />

50<br />

SSD_Water_Management.indd 50 04/03/2015 17:56


Protecting our<br />

liquid assets<br />

A changing climate will cause us to adapt our management<br />

of water to new techniques and practices – techniques and<br />

practices that can also contribute to greater productivity,<br />

explains Peter McCornick, Deputy Director General, Research,<br />

International Water Management Institute<br />

Population growth may be slowing, but<br />

the world is projected to have around<br />

9.6 billion inhabitants by 2050. Most of the<br />

population increase will be in developing<br />

countries where land and water are already<br />

under considerable pressure, and producing<br />

food is already stressing ecosystems. There<br />

remains great uncertainty in how climate<br />

change will affect given localities; but it is<br />

likely that it will have a profound effect on<br />

water resources, exacerbating the effects of<br />

other drivers, such as urbanisation and the<br />

need for more food.<br />

Projected rises in average temperature,<br />

more extreme temperatures, and changes<br />

in precipitation patterns, are likely to alter<br />

the amounts and distribution of rainfall,<br />

soil moisture, river flows, groundwater<br />

availability, and ice and snow melt. Now<br />

and in the future, agriculture and food<br />

security depend on managing water,<br />

particularly the variability in time and<br />

space.<br />

Managing water to adapt to changes in<br />

climate emphasises the need to measure<br />

and improve understanding of variability,<br />

and improve understanding of the impacts<br />

of climate change on that variability.<br />

Options to improve the management of<br />

water includes rethinking water storage,<br />

▲<br />

51<br />

SSD_Water_Management.indd 51 04/03/2015 17:56


Harnessing the Power of Earth<br />

Observations to Manage Disaster<br />

Risk and Water Resources<br />

Understanding the Earth system is crucial to addressing the challenges of<br />

economic and social development and environmental sustainability.<br />

Comprehensive, coordinated and sustained observations of the Earth improves<br />

monitoring of the state of the planet, increases our understanding of Earth<br />

processes, and enhances the predictive capability of the behavior of the Earth<br />

system. Earth observations from space, airborne, land or marine-based systems,<br />

collected consistently over time, are critical to providing decision makers at all<br />

levels of society with the information and tools necessary to protect and improve<br />

the lives of citizens while, at the same time, encouraging sustainable growth.<br />

Established in 2005, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is a voluntary<br />

partnership of governments and organizations that envisions a future where<br />

decisions and actions for the benefit of humankind are informed by coordinated,<br />

comprehensive and sustained Earth observations and information. GEO<br />

Member governments include 96 nations and the European Commission, and<br />

88 Participating Organizations comprised of international bodies with a mandate<br />

in Earth observations. Together, the GEO community is creating a Global Earth<br />

Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) that will link Earth observation<br />

resources world-wide across multiple Societal Benefit Areas - agriculture,<br />

biodiversity, climate, disasters, ecosystems, energy, health, water and weather -<br />

and make those resources available for informed decision-making.<br />

One of the key elements in preventing humanitarian crises caused by natural<br />

disasters is for countries to develop robust national disaster risk management<br />

(DRM) systems. Coordinated Earth observations, complemented by in<br />

situ measurements and properly linked to modeling, can provide reliable,<br />

accurate, consistent and continuous information, which is the foundation for<br />

the development and operation of national DRM systems. Natural and humaninduced<br />

extreme events require Earth observation capacities that almost never<br />

can be provided by one country alone; effective response requires regional/<br />

international collaboration and coordination so that, when such events occur, the<br />

flow of data from various countries, as well as international organizations, occurs<br />

seamlessly. GEO is committed to facilitating dialogue between science and civil<br />

society; encouraging the adoption and use of quantitative and qualitative tools<br />

to measure risk; and creating mechanisms and guidelines to communicate and<br />

understand risk and uncertainty.<br />

In the area of water security, members of the GEO community have spent<br />

much of the past decade developing Earth observation-based tools to better<br />

manage and predict the floods and droughts of the natural water cycle. The everchanging<br />

climate poses ever-greater challenges to water management, as variation<br />

in components of the water cycle can wreak havoc on water and energy resources<br />

and food security, and cause both catastrophic droughts and floods, engendering<br />

tremendous human and economic damage. The Water Cycle Integrator (WCI),<br />

developed and refined by GEO<br />

members through years of field<br />

experience in Africa and Asia,<br />

can help national and regional<br />

governments around the world<br />

mitigate water-related disasters and<br />

promote the efficient use of scarce<br />

water resources.<br />

GEO is prepared to work with<br />

governments, development and aid<br />

organizations, the private sector and<br />

civil society, in the Arab region and<br />

across the globe, to develop robust<br />

disaster risk management and water<br />

cycle management systems that will<br />

contribute to the national, regional<br />

and global resilience necessary<br />

to withstand the harsh forces that<br />

nature displays.<br />

www.earthobservations.org<br />

Changes in use of pivot-irrigation in<br />

Saudi Arabia 1991-2012.<br />

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center<br />

Jeddah Flood-King Abdullah Street<br />

by Rami Awad (2009) - Own work.<br />

Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons<br />

52<br />

SSD_Water_Management.indd 52 04/03/2015 17:56


Managing water to<br />

respond to climatic<br />

variability is not<br />

something that can<br />

be done in isolation.<br />

from small to large scale, and emphasising<br />

underground opportunities to improve water<br />

security.<br />

Fundamental to any such approaches<br />

is recognition of the vital role played by<br />

ecosystems, so we need to improve our<br />

understanding of the function of ecosystems<br />

in variability, and how human interventions<br />

influence variability. Our goal should be to<br />

develop and manage water resources fairly –<br />

share water, land, and food, in a co-operative<br />

manner, and in a way that also emphasises<br />

the needs of vulnerable groups and ensure<br />

that they as not disproportionately burdened<br />

by the impacts of variability.<br />

Managing water to respond to climatic<br />

variability is not something that can be done<br />

in isolation. Water underpins sustainable<br />

development. There is broad consensus<br />

that adapting to climate change is best<br />

addressed in the context of sustainable<br />

development. Depending on local contexts,<br />

needs, and interests there are opportunities<br />

for improving water management that<br />

simultaneously help adaptation to climatic<br />

and other changes, and simultaneously<br />

advance development. Improving<br />

our collection of data and developing<br />

comprehensive models will enable scientists<br />

to better advise policy makers how this can<br />

be achieved – and yet decisions will also need<br />

to be made in data scarce environments,<br />

especially in the developing world.<br />

Agricultural changes<br />

Change is nothing new – but the people,<br />

communities, and societies that cope best<br />

with change of any kind are resilient and<br />

able to adapt. The more resilient they are,<br />

the more they are able to manage climatic<br />

variability, diversify their livelihoods, and<br />

reduce risk.<br />

Given that globally agriculture accounts<br />

for 70 per cent–80 per cent of fresh<br />

water use, competition for water among<br />

agricultural and other water users will be an<br />

issue for years to come in many countries.<br />

Over the next 40 years, farmers will have<br />

to find ways to produce 60 per cent to 70<br />

per cent more to feed the growing global<br />

population. They will have to do this<br />

while faced with growing competition for<br />

resources from other sectors, minimising –<br />

▲<br />

A holistic approach to<br />

water management can<br />

support both agriculture<br />

and the ecosystems on<br />

which it depends.<br />

53<br />

SSD_Water_Management.indd 53 04/03/2015 17:56


Farmers have always lived<br />

with climate variability<br />

and have coping strategies<br />

that they can build on to<br />

adapt to climate change.<br />

or even reducing – the impact on already<br />

stressed ecosystems and while adapting to a<br />

progressively changing climate. This means<br />

making each unit of water produce more.<br />

Poverty and food insecurity are often<br />

highest where water productivity is lowest.<br />

Increasing water productivity is an effective<br />

way to intensify agricultural production,<br />

improve community resilience, and reduce<br />

environmental degradation. In many areas<br />

this is already happening.<br />

In South-East Asia and Africa, farmers<br />

who have adopted the ‘system of rice<br />

intensification’ not only use less water –<br />

because they irrigate intermittently instead<br />

of flooding paddy fields continuously – but<br />

also raise yields and benefit the environment.<br />

Nevertheless, adoption of such technologies<br />

often involves trade-offs. In this case,<br />

growing rice more intensively requires more<br />

labour, more weeding, and more attention<br />

to water management. There are very few<br />

completely win-win solutions.<br />

Managing variability<br />

Farmers have always lived with climate<br />

variability and have coping strategies that<br />

they can build on to adapt to climate change.<br />

They already deal with variations between<br />

seasons, and rains coming earlier or later<br />

than usual and lasting for shorter or longer<br />

periods. Following several years of low<br />

rainfall, farmers in the Upper Bhima River<br />

Basin in South-West India, for instance, are<br />

already shifting from ‘thirsty’ sugar-cane to<br />

less-thirsty soybean: an adaptation to water<br />

scarcity that also gives them a better return.<br />

In diversifying their cropping system by<br />

An International Water Management Institute<br />

review has shown that women in Nepal have<br />

less access to land, education, information, and<br />

social networks than men, so are less resilient<br />

than men and have fewer options for adapting to<br />

changes in climate.<br />

Indigenous and Dalit women in Nepal are<br />

more vulnerable still, as they face gender and<br />

caste discrimination. Although Nepal has a<br />

strategy for targeting adaptation programs to the<br />

vulnerable, such as Dalits, women, and disabled<br />

people, this is mainly through groups.<br />

Storing water<br />

at farm level<br />

is an effective<br />

insurance policy<br />

against periods<br />

of water scarcity<br />

Unequal access to adaptation funds in Nepal<br />

planting vegetables as well as rice to adapt<br />

to urbanisation and developing markets, rice<br />

farmers on the outskirts of towns and cities<br />

in South-East Asia are producing more food<br />

per unit of water. At the same time they<br />

are also becoming more resilient to climate<br />

change.<br />

Combining tactics such as growing a<br />

greater variety of crops, growing crops that<br />

are more drought-resistant or need less water<br />

at critical times, installing micro-irrigation,<br />

and constructing small ponds or tanks<br />

However, a study on ‘unequal citizens’ found<br />

that Dalit men and women have no time to be<br />

involved in group activities.<br />

Groups are dominated by men and women<br />

from higher castes. This means that although<br />

the national climate change adaptation policy<br />

endeavors to direct adaptation funds to women<br />

and marginalised groups, Dalit men and women,<br />

and indigenous communities are not accessing<br />

these funds because group members from higher<br />

castes control their distribution.<br />

Source: Sugden et al. Forthcoming<br />

decrease the risk of crop failure, raise overall<br />

farm yields, sustainable use the resource,<br />

and build resilience to changing conditions.<br />

In Madhya Pradesh, incomes of farmers<br />

who constructed on-farm ponds to irrigate<br />

pulses and wheat have risen by over 70 per<br />

cent.<br />

In Tanzania, meanwhile, half of the<br />

dry-season cash incomes of smallholders<br />

come from growing irrigated vegetables.<br />

In Zambia, meanwhile, the 20 per cent of<br />

smallholders who cultivate vegetables in the<br />

dry season by irrigating on a small scale earn<br />

35 per cent more than those who do not.<br />

While farmers can be helped to adapt to<br />

climate variability and change at local level,<br />

the authority to plan and approve basinwide<br />

projects, such as diverting saved water<br />

from irrigation to preserve the environment<br />

and benefit from ecosystem services, may lie<br />

in political or other spheres. Assessments –<br />

for example, that value the benefits forgone<br />

by reallocating water from canal irrigation<br />

to environmental flows under different<br />

water allocation schemes and climate<br />

change scenarios – can help decision-makers<br />

understand trade-offs and manage demand.<br />

54<br />

SSD_Water_Management.indd 54 04/03/2015 17:56


Download the free book<br />

Tackling Change: Futureproofing<br />

water, agriculture<br />

and food security in an era<br />

of climate uncertainty at<br />

www.iwmi.org<br />

Sixty percent of the world’s food<br />

is produced on rain-fed crop-land.<br />

Supplemental irrigation – irrigation applied<br />

only at the critical stages of crop growth<br />

– combined with better management of<br />

soil, nutrients, and crops can more than<br />

double water productivity and yields in<br />

small-scale rain-fed agriculture. Major<br />

increases in production in the Mekong<br />

delta, for example, have been achieved by<br />

supplemental irrigation in the dry season.<br />

Simple water-lifting equipment – powered<br />

by fossil fuels, electricity, the sun, people, or<br />

animals – and micro-irrigation techniques,<br />

ranging from clay pots to drippers, can,<br />

when appropriately used, also dramatically<br />

boost the ability to cope with climatic<br />

variability, and can have a profound effect<br />

on agricultural productivity. Dry-season<br />

irrigation of rice could improve yields<br />

between 70 per cent and 300 per cent across<br />

sub-Saharan Africa.<br />

How governments can help<br />

In the short-term, adaptation in many<br />

agro-economies is likely to involve the<br />

uptake of improved agricultural and<br />

water management technologies. In the<br />

long term, however, diversifying sources<br />

of income is likely to become the main<br />

Farmers will need to<br />

diversify their crops to<br />

cope with climate change<br />

adaptation strategy. Trends in migration<br />

to urban centres, off-farm employment,<br />

remittances from abroad, and new businesses<br />

that capitalise on advances in information<br />

technology and other infrastructure, signal<br />

that adaptation to changes in climate and<br />

Data collection is<br />

vital for sustainable<br />

water management<br />

other circumstances is already underway.<br />

Governments could help men, women,<br />

and communities adapt to changing<br />

circumstances – including more variable<br />

and extreme climate – by delivering public<br />

services (such as sanitation, drinking water),<br />

and information about agriculture, livestock,<br />

and fisheries, more effectively.<br />

Taking a sustainable development<br />

approach to adaptation addresses<br />

vulnerability, rather than just climate change.<br />

Promoting broad-based agricultural<br />

development, appropriate to the respective<br />

ecosystems, to lift rural communities out of<br />

poverty, represents an effective adaptation<br />

strategy in rural areas. The sustainable<br />

development approach builds resilience<br />

in the production and ecosystems and the<br />

ability to cope with climatic variability and<br />

unforeseen circumstances both now and in<br />

the future.<br />

For many communities, adaptation and<br />

sustainable development will be one and the<br />

same. As incomes, livelihoods, and wellbeing<br />

improve, so will resilience. ■<br />

Peter McCornick is Deputy Director General, Research, at the<br />

International Water Management Institute, and co-author<br />

of Tackling change: Future-proofing water, agriculture and<br />

food security in an era of climate uncertainty<br />


55<br />

SSD_Water_Management.indd 55 04/03/2015 17:56


Feeding the need<br />

for food education<br />

At first sight, the factors that make gender equality<br />

and women’s empowerment a food and nutrition<br />

issue may not be obvious – but the issues are closely<br />

interdependent. By understanding how, we are better<br />

placed to promote equality, social equity, gender equality<br />

– and women’s empowerment, argues Sonsoles Ruedas,<br />

Director of the Gender Office at The World Food Programme.<br />

56<br />

SSD_Food security and gender.indd 56 04/03/2015 14:02


The World Food Program (WFP)’s<br />

mandate is to end hunger. In recent years<br />

the organisation has moved from a food aid<br />

model to a food assistance one, that allows<br />

us to close the gap between its humanitarian<br />

work and its development work: this means<br />

that it increases impact and delivers more<br />

efficient and effective services – and more<br />

long-term results and impacts on the lives of<br />

the most vulnerable.<br />

We do not have a real chance of achieving<br />

the Zero Hunger goal unless we better<br />

understand who is hungry or malnourished –<br />

and why. It is for this reason that setting goals<br />

for gender equality in food assistance is a<br />

must-have. If we do not use a gender ‘lens’ to<br />

analyse vulnerabilities to food and nutritional<br />

insecurity, we will fail in our duty to the<br />

world’s hungry.<br />

As long as there is one hungry person in<br />

the world, we will need to continue to ask<br />

‘why?’, and also who that person is (woman?<br />

man? girl? boy?). We will continue to ask their<br />

age, and try to understand what other factors<br />

(disability, race, ethnicity, etc.) keep them<br />

unseen – and unheard; and how all these<br />

factors together contribute to making that<br />

person more likely to suffer from hunger.<br />

The Zero Hunger Challenge<br />

Eliminating hunger means investing in<br />

agriculture, rural development, decent<br />

work, social protection, and equality of<br />

opportunity, investments that will make a<br />

major contribution to peace and stability and<br />

the reduction of poverty and will contribute<br />

to better nutrition for all – especially during<br />

the first 1,000 days of life for a baby girl or<br />

boy: from conception to the age of two.<br />

During pregnancy, under-nutrition can<br />

have a devastating impact on the healthy<br />

growth and development of a child. Babies<br />

who are malnourished in the womb have<br />

a higher risk of dying in infancy, and are<br />

more likely to face life-long cognitive and<br />

physical deficits, and other chronic health<br />

problems. For children under the age of<br />

two, under nutrition can be life-threatening.<br />

It can weaken a child’s immune system and<br />

make him or her more susceptible to dying<br />

from common illnesses such as pneumonia,<br />

diarrhoea and malaria.<br />

There are five challenges outlined in the<br />

Zero Hunger Challenge that will require<br />

contributions from the global community:<br />

1. Zero stunted children less than two<br />

years<br />

Ensuring universal access to nutritious food<br />

in the 1,000-day window of opportunity<br />

between the start of pregnancy and a<br />

child’s second birthday, supported by<br />

nutrition-sensitive health care, water,<br />

sanitation, education, and specific nutrition<br />

interventions, coupled with initiatives that<br />

empower women.<br />

2. 100 per cent access to adequate food<br />

all year-round<br />

Enabling all people to access the food<br />

they need at all times through decent and<br />

productive employment, a social protection<br />

floor, targeted safety nets, and food assistance<br />

3. All food systems are sustainable.<br />

Encouraging and rewarding universal<br />

adoption of sustainable and climate-resilient<br />

agriculture practices; pursuing cross-sectoral<br />

policy coherence (encompassing energy,<br />

land use, water and climate); implementing<br />

responsible governance of land, fisheries,<br />

and forests.<br />

4. 100 per cent increase in smallholder<br />

productivity and income<br />

Supporting nutrition-sensitive agriculture<br />

and food systems and marketing; boosting<br />

food supply from local producers; through<br />

open, fair and well-functioning markets<br />

and trade policies at local, regional and<br />

international level, preventing excessive food<br />

price volatility.<br />

5. Zero loss or waste of food<br />

Minimising food losses during storage and<br />

transport, and waste of food by retailers<br />

and consumers; achieving progress through<br />

▲<br />

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During pregnancy,<br />

under-nutrition can<br />

have a devastating<br />

impact on the<br />

healthy growth and<br />

development of a child.<br />

financial incentives, collective pledges,<br />

locally-relevant technologies, and changed<br />

behaviour.<br />

But achieving zero stunting and 100 per<br />

cent access to adequate food (and, indeed,<br />

all five goals) requires systematic gender<br />

analysis: a profound understanding of<br />

what are the specific barriers that prevent<br />

vulnerable women, men, girls and boys<br />

from having access to appropriate food no<br />

matter what context they live in.<br />

Breaking the cycle of poverty and hunger<br />

requires more efforts in joining-up the dots<br />

between peoples’ ability to produce food<br />

from their own land, their off-farm or selfemployment<br />

earnings so that they can meet<br />

their entire food and nutrition needs.<br />

One example of a programme designed<br />

to close some of the gaps described above<br />

and in ensuring access to food that has<br />

transformative potential for the lives of<br />

subsistence women and men farmers comes<br />

from WFP’s Purchase for Progress (P4P)<br />

programme. This type of project can make<br />

a significant contribution to the economic<br />

and social empowerment of both genders,<br />

with specific targeted actions to include<br />

women and promote gender-equality at the<br />

grass-roots level.<br />

P4P started in 2008 as a pilot initiative<br />

to assist smallholder farmers – most of<br />

whom are women – by offering them<br />

opportunities to have better access<br />

to agricultural markets and become<br />

competitive players in the market place.<br />

P4P was designed to boost the skills and<br />

incomes of women farmers, as they often<br />

are not on the agenda when it comes to<br />

having access to training, inputs, and skillsbuilding.<br />

The vision of P4P is to promote<br />

opportunities for small-holder women<br />

and men farmers in supporting the<br />

development of agricultural markets so<br />

that a targeted number of low-income<br />

smallholder farmers (again, mostly women),<br />

are able to produce food surpluses and sell<br />

them at a competitive price. The result is<br />

improved incomes and capacity-building<br />

training offered to farmers of both sexes,<br />

so as to increase their skill-sets, improve<br />

their production, and make their business<br />

models better suited for the market place.<br />

Piloted from 2008 to 2013 in 21 countries,<br />

of which 15 were located in Africa, it<br />

enabled 41,230 women farmers to sell their<br />

agricultural surpluses to WFP, and 225,575<br />

women farmers to participate in capacitybuilding<br />

training sessions.<br />

Throughout the five-year pilot project,<br />

P4P has shifted from gender-conscious to<br />

gender-transformative, specifically targeting<br />

women farmers and testing models that<br />

benefit them.<br />

In collaboration with a wide range<br />

of partners, P4P has supported women<br />

producers to gain greater control over<br />

their lives, as well as enhanced voice at<br />

community and household levels. Women’s<br />

participation in P4P-supported farmers’<br />

organizations tripled during the pilot period.<br />

However, the experience demonstrated<br />

that numerical participation in a project,<br />

while necessary, does not directly translate<br />

into a positive impact on the lives of women<br />

farmers, nor provide them with the same<br />

financial gains as their male counterparts.<br />

Instead, a range of interventions are<br />

needed to address underlying inequalities,<br />

empowering women farmers socially,<br />

economically and through capacity<br />

development, and assisting them to access<br />

markets and benefit financially from their<br />

work.<br />

Cash transfer schemes<br />

Another of the WFP’s interventions that<br />

has significantly contributed to reducing the<br />

burden of poverty, especially for women, is<br />

the Cash Transfers, Voucher Programmes<br />

and Cash for Work initiatives. Since 2008,<br />

Cash Transfer and Voucher Programmes<br />

and Cash-for-Work (CFW) programmes<br />

have been designed to ensure that women<br />

benefit equally with men, without any<br />

harmful effects.<br />

For years labour-intensive programmes<br />

have targeted women with the well-meaning<br />

objective of increasing their income and<br />

productivity; other income-generating<br />

schemes have demanded that women attend<br />

a slew of training courses and sit on project<br />

management bodies. The results of these<br />

endeavours have, however, often resulted in<br />

doing more harm than good.<br />

A large percentage (if not all) of the work<br />

that women do at the household level is<br />

Involving men in food projects and learning betters the chances that a family’s nutrition will improve<br />

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Numerical participation in a<br />

project does not directly translate<br />

into a positive impact on the lives<br />

of women farmers, nor provide<br />

them with the same financial gains<br />

as their male counterparts.<br />

unpaid and hence uncounted. The poorer<br />

the woman, the heavier the burden: she has<br />

to fetch and carry firewood and water; she<br />

has to cook and clean; she is more often<br />

than not responsible for tending the fields<br />

and the small animals. And here comes the<br />

development project heaping more activities<br />

on this already over-burdened woman…<br />

Through cash-transfer schemes the WFP<br />

ensures that:<br />

• The programmes take into account the<br />

needs of women and children, including<br />

food and nutrition security and links analysis<br />

of the potential for domestic violence with<br />

the issue of control over cash or vouchers<br />

distributed<br />

• A monitoring system is put in place to<br />

ascertain whether women are empowered<br />

by cash transfer and voucher programmes,<br />

through gender analysis of decision-making<br />

processes at the household level, improved<br />

livelihoods, and the introduction of laboursaving<br />

technologies.<br />

• The long-term goal of all of these projects<br />

and interventions is that there will come a<br />

time when all nations will move from social<br />

protection to full empowerment and food<br />

security as envisaged in the Zero Hunger<br />

Challenge.<br />

Challenges: cultural barriers,<br />

stereotypes<br />

If Zero Hunger is to be achieved within in<br />

our lifetime we need to challenge harmful<br />

cultural barriers that render people invisible,<br />

unheard and, as a result, excluded. Together<br />

with stereotypes of women’s and men’s roles<br />

in society, in agriculture, in commercial<br />

business, and the public sector, these cultural<br />

practices can limit people’s ability to become<br />

empowered, accountable citizens who have<br />

the freedom to have a hand in their own<br />

future. While respecting cultural diversity,<br />

we do need to tackle harmful traditions that<br />

perpetuate gender inequality.<br />

These include:<br />

• Child marriage and female genital<br />

mutilation (FGM)<br />

• Empowering women to have better access<br />

and control over agricultural resources will<br />

also increase food security (see the UN Food<br />

and Agriculture Organisation’s ‘State of<br />

Food and Agriculture’ report, 2011 – lifting<br />

Recognition of unpaid<br />

work breaks down<br />

mistaken notions of<br />

women in the home as<br />

just being consumers<br />

100 million out of hunger if women get<br />

better access to improved agricultural to<br />

inputs, and so forth.)<br />

• Involving men in nutrition projects and<br />

learning – because men are entitled to be<br />

educated too about good nutrition; and in<br />

many cultures, because they are responsible<br />

for buying food at the market, there is a<br />

better chance that their family’s nutrition will<br />

improve also<br />

• Keeping children out of school<br />

• Reaching women and children with<br />

lifesaving services, including nutrition<br />

interventions: in food-insecure contexts<br />

asks that we link health and food systems,<br />

and our experience of working in difficult<br />

contexts and in close collaboration with<br />

governments.<br />

• Taboos on food consumption in pregnancy,<br />

which affect nutrition and the well-being<br />

of the unborn child; knowing that there is<br />

a direct link between better nutrition and<br />

healthier children<br />

Over the last 20 years, WFP has done a lot<br />

to contribute to improving women’s access to<br />

food and better nutrition. Mother-and-child<br />

health and nutrition (MCHN) programmes<br />

can break gender barriers in childcare, and<br />

as we have learnt by including men and boys<br />

in nutrition and health education activities,<br />

these improvements have greater impact and<br />

sustainability.<br />

While in the past WFP MCHN programs<br />

had a tendency to focus solely on mothers,<br />

and to ignore fathers and other household<br />

members who can potentially play a<br />

supportive role in improving mother and<br />

child nutrition.<br />

This situation is rapidly changing.<br />

Some WFP programs have taken steps to<br />

introduce gender sensitive approaches to<br />

MCHN by involving men. In Sri Lanka,<br />

for the MCHN program pregnant women<br />

and their husbands were invited to the first<br />

ante-natal check-up at the clinic to discuss<br />

issues related to pregnancy, such as nutrition,<br />

food taboos, hygiene, and domestic violence.<br />

This ensured that both partners were aware<br />

of basic health and nutrition issues during<br />

pregnancy.<br />

In Burkina Faso the evaluation of a WFP<br />

programme there for protracted relief<br />

and recovery in 2012 highlighted that<br />

the gender-bias towards mothers reduced<br />

the possibilities of influencing change in<br />

maternal health and nutrition. Husbands<br />

▲<br />

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Eliminating hunger means<br />

investing in agriculture,<br />

rural development,<br />

decent work, social<br />

protection, and equality<br />

of opportunity.<br />


Breaking the cycle of poverty and hunger requires more understanding of the food-earnings relationship<br />

were only involved erratically in clinic visits.<br />

The evaluation recommended that positive<br />

changes in MCHN could result, if husbands<br />

are involved and also other members of<br />

the household, such as mothers-in-law and<br />

aunts, who often influence young mothers’<br />

nutritional and behavioural health choices<br />

during pregnancy and after.<br />

Supporting evidence...<br />

Gender equality can make substantial<br />

contributions to a country’s economic<br />

growth, and is the single most important<br />

determinant of food security. According to<br />

an the recently-published report, ‘Gender<br />

Equality and Food Security – Women’s<br />

Empowerment as a Tool against Hunger’<br />

(FAO/ADB, 2013), a pan-national study of<br />

developing countries covering the period<br />

1970 –1995, 43 per cent of the reduction of<br />

hunger that was achieved was attributable<br />

to progress in women’s education. The<br />

study goes on to suggest that 55 per cent of<br />

the gains against hunger in said countries<br />

were due to the improvement of women’s<br />

situation in society, reinforcing recent global<br />

comparisons that show a strong correlation<br />

between hunger and gender inequalities.<br />

If the unpaid work of women and girls in<br />

developing countries were to be financed by<br />

the public purse, it would represent 94 per<br />

cent of the total tax revenue of the Republic<br />

of Korea, and 182 per cent of the total tax<br />

revenue of India, according to the ‘Gender<br />

Equality and Food Security’ report. The<br />

contribution made by care and carers to the<br />

economy needs better acknowledgement –<br />

especially in developing countries, because<br />

research indicates that this is done, mostly, by<br />

women.<br />

Recognition of unpaid work in the<br />

care economy breaks down the common<br />

dichotomy that, while men (and women who<br />

join the labour market) produce, women<br />

at home consume. The difference is not<br />

between production and consumption,<br />

it is between work that is recognised and<br />

compensated and work that is not.<br />

Improved representation of women at the<br />

local level is at least as significant as such<br />

improvement in national parliaments and<br />

executives. Decisions made at the local level<br />

are of great practical importance to what<br />

matters most to women’s ability to contribute<br />

to food security.<br />

Such decisions may concern allocation<br />

of land, choice of which crops to grow, or<br />

how available labour is shared between the<br />

plots of land. ‘Gender Equality and Food<br />

Security’ documents how participation<br />

in local decision-making is where women<br />

can most readily challenge dominant<br />

representations concerning power and<br />

voice. Effective gender sensitisation efforts<br />

incorporate the needs of communities,<br />

responding to the opportunities, challenges,<br />

and recommendations identified by countryand<br />

region-specific assessments. Both men<br />

and women have been included during<br />

gender awareness training, providing a<br />

space to stress the economic gains gender<br />

equality can provide for households and<br />

communities.<br />

These methods can assist men to<br />

understand that women’s empowerment<br />

does not mean men’s disempowerment.<br />

They have also proven effective at acquiring<br />

the buy-in of influential members of<br />

communities, such as religious and<br />

customary leaders. In some cases, male<br />

authorities and community leaders have<br />

played leading roles in supporting women<br />

farmers to increase agricultural production<br />

and access markets, recognising the value<br />

of women’s equitable participation in<br />

agriculture.<br />

These are some of the considerations that<br />

motivate the WFP to ensure that women’s<br />

agency in projects such as RWEE, P4P,<br />

R4, etc., as they are based on the idea that<br />

economic and political empowerment are<br />

mutually supportive. ■<br />

The World Food Programme is the world’s<br />

largest humanitarian agency fighting hunger<br />

worldwide – more information at www.wfp.org.<br />

We have a better chance of achieving Zero<br />

Hunger if we know who’s feeling hungry...<br />

60<br />

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SSD_Al-Khair_ad.indd 61 04/03/2015 14:37


Challenging times<br />

for challenge funds<br />

Enabling the efficient and effective spending of public and private funds for an<br />

array of development purposes has been an important facet of Crown Agents’<br />

work for many years. Defrim Dedej, one of Crown Agents’ senior fund managers,<br />

looks at how challenge funds can help to strengthen the private sectors of<br />

developing countries, and the important considerations of their use<br />

62<br />

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In recent years, a number of donors have<br />

increasingly championed the importance<br />

of supporting economic growth to help<br />

bring about sustainable gains in developing<br />

countries. Large volumes of public capital<br />

from DFID, SIDA, and others, have been<br />

targeted at developing with the aim of<br />

private sector development (PSD).<br />

The approaches to facilitating this are<br />

varied but one mechanism utilised with<br />

enthusiasm – one that is seen to yield real<br />

results – is the challenge fund. As a grant<br />

making mechanism, challenge funds are<br />

used in a variety of contexts and targeted at<br />

specific groups of people or issues.<br />

Managed carefully, they can achieve not<br />

only the desired outcomes, but also encourage<br />

innovation and foster genuine partnerships<br />

among various stakeholders, which can<br />

then lead to better learning and stronger<br />

impact in the future. Some of the benefits<br />

arising from using a challenge fund mechanism<br />

include:<br />

• A cost-effective and transparent funding<br />

mechanism<br />

• A mechanism that encourages competition<br />

through triggering a search for smart and<br />

cost-effective solutions<br />

• The ability to generate and test new business<br />

ideas without distorting local markets<br />

▲<br />

63<br />

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It is vital to have a mindset<br />

that acknowledges<br />

the risk and a clear<br />

acceptance of a challenge<br />

fund’s fundamental role<br />

in funding experiments<br />

Challenge funds can<br />

encourage innovation<br />

and potentially<br />

transform how<br />

particular complex<br />

problems are tackled<br />

• A mechanism that if managed well can<br />

encourage and achieve systemic change to<br />

benefit the poor<br />

However, bear in mind that no funding<br />

mechanism is without risks, and neither are<br />

there any funding mechanisms that cannot<br />

be improved upon. Based on Crown Agents’<br />

wide experience in managing donors’ funds<br />

in this way, here, we look at some key ways<br />

in which we try to improve the efficiency of<br />

challenge funds, increasing the likelihood of<br />

more efficient use of private and public capital<br />

and enhancing developmental outcomes.<br />

Better programme design<br />

Strengthening the design of challenge<br />

funds can ensure that they are based<br />

on good research, a strong theory of<br />

change and carefully constructed logical<br />

framework. From Crown Agents perspective,<br />

active challenge funds that are rather<br />

unfocused and overly ambitious and fail<br />

to take particular local conditions into<br />

consideration, are numerous. The potential<br />

implication of this is damage or distortion of<br />

local economies – which goes against the key<br />

‘do no harm’ principle of grant making.<br />

64<br />

It is important to think about the different<br />

components of a challenge fund, and how<br />

they work as a whole – recognising that<br />

there are numerous factors to be considered.<br />

These include:<br />

• The area of focus<br />

• The type of grant winner desired, and<br />

proposals that will lead to grants<br />

• …And, of course, the outcomes anticipated<br />

Each decision along the way makes an<br />

impact upon the others, and may limit a<br />

donor’s choice in other areas or even ruleout<br />

other choices completely. It is important,<br />

therefore, to consider how decisions relate<br />

to each other; no decision should be taken<br />

in isolation, since this could lead to a huge<br />

waste of money and resources.<br />

As part of the challenge fund design<br />

process, donors also need to specify the<br />

outcomes and impacts they are seeking to<br />

achieve and their plans to measure success.<br />

Without doing so – and without clear key<br />

performance indicators – attached, the end<br />

result can take on an ‘Alice in Wonderland’<br />

sense of uncertainty, which naturally is to<br />

nobody’s ultimate benefit. To recall Lewis<br />

Carroll’s classic’s exchange between Alice<br />

and the smug purrings of the grinning<br />

Cheshire Cat,<br />

‘Cheshire Puss,’ [Alice] began, rather timidly…<br />

‘Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go<br />

from here?’<br />

‘That depends a good deal on where you want to get<br />

to,’ said the Cat.<br />

‘I don’t much care where —’ said Alice.<br />

‘Then it doesn’t matter which way you go,’ said the<br />

Cat<br />

‘—So long as I get somewhere,’ Alice added as an<br />

explanation.<br />

‘Oh, you’re sure to do that,’ said the Cat, ‘if only<br />

you walk long enough.’<br />

The focus factor<br />

One approach to focus this is, for<br />

example, to concentrate on a specific<br />

country and/or particular sector (such as<br />

agriculture, education, health, or mobile<br />

communications technology), rather than<br />

a multi-country and more widely-focused<br />

approach. Such targeting can increase<br />

understanding of real dynamics and needs<br />

and improve the cascade of learning in the<br />

chosen sector, while enhancing opportunities<br />

for replication and improving end impacts.<br />

The resources available to manage the<br />

challenge fund can be used more efficiently<br />

As the Cheshire Cat advised Alice, you’re bound<br />

to get somewhere if you walk for long enough...<br />

SSD_supply chain.indd 64 04/03/2015 14:03


Bear in mind that no funding<br />

mechanism is without risks,<br />

and neither are there any<br />

funding mechanisms that<br />

cannot be improved upon<br />

A privately-funded challenge fund can have a greater appetite for risk, supporting unconventional problem solvers<br />

– which can improve services to the grantees.<br />

For example, the challenge fund manager<br />

can deliver capacity building to grantees<br />

through a workshop instead of a one-to-one<br />

basis.<br />

All grantees will benefit when they speak<br />

the same language; and all are operating in<br />

the same field, and might be facing similar<br />

challenges with, for example, the legal system.<br />

Undertaking monitoring and evaluation<br />

could also be easily facilitated, using<br />

meaningful standard indicators, and allowing<br />

a donor to report succinctly on the challenge<br />

fund’s overall outcomes and impact.<br />

Balancing risk with returns<br />

Balancing risk with returns on successful<br />

innovation is a key consideration. By design,<br />

the key purpose of a challenge fund is to<br />

encourage innovation which, given the possibility<br />

of a lack of precedent or best practice<br />

on which to base business activity, implies<br />

risk. A high proportion of new businesses fail<br />

for a wide range of reasons even in apparently<br />

prosperous and opportune Western<br />

markets, so the risks of innovation must not<br />

be ignored at any point. It is vital to have a<br />

mind-set that acknowledges the risk and a<br />

clear acceptance of a challenge fund’s fundamental<br />

role in funding experiments, and in<br />

finding new approaches – and potentially<br />

creating a breakthrough change, by transforming<br />

the way that we tackle a particular<br />

complex problem.<br />

While this might mean accepting a higher<br />

risk of failure, the trade-off has the potential<br />

to be a truly game-changing investment if a<br />

venture succeeds. So, the key question when<br />

assessing challenge fund proposals aimed at<br />

supporting private sector development, is<br />

less ‘Is this going to work?’, and more about<br />

‘What could the end impact be in terms of<br />

poverty reduction and wealth creation?’<br />

Another consequence of funding only<br />

those business ventures that are deemed ‘sure<br />

bets’ is that a donor runs the risk of distorting<br />

local markets, as the sure bets may well<br />

be more likely to obtain commercial business<br />

loans without the need for donor grants.<br />

So risk and reward trade-offs hold good<br />

for challenge funds – with the key aim of<br />

generating larger scale, positive social impact<br />

when successful, set against the potential<br />

downside of financial loss when innovations<br />

fail. Failure, in itself, is not necessarily a bad<br />

thing, so long as lessons can be learned, and<br />

they are not repeated.<br />

Setting–up a Challenge Fund<br />

Bearing in mind the above, when creating a<br />

private sector-focused challenge fund, donors<br />

could take several steps to manage the risk,<br />

while also seeking strong impact:<br />

• Collaborate more with private trusts or<br />

foundations, whose risk profiles may be less<br />

constrained by use of private (rather than<br />

public) funds. Their aim could well be to<br />

find the innovative solutions to complex<br />

social problems, and to learn from the<br />

experience or to concentrate the challenge<br />

fund objective on supporting the scale up of<br />

innovative business venture ideas that have<br />

already proved successful.<br />

• Require the challenge fund manager to be<br />

more proactive at identifying and reaching<br />

beyond the ‘usual suspects’ in order to scout<br />

for promising new business ventures whose<br />

growth will significantly assist the poor.<br />

• Use a selection process that views positively<br />

engaging unconventional problem solvers and<br />

high-risk, high-reward business venture ideas.<br />

65<br />

▲<br />

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The resources available<br />

to manage the<br />

challenge fund can be<br />

used more efficiently<br />

– which can improve<br />

services to the grantees<br />


• As well as providing capital, provide<br />

targeted technical assistance to the new<br />

ventures as they develop. Take a hands-on<br />

approach in helping to shape and guide<br />

early-stage ideas as they move from concept<br />

to implementation – and use mentors, or<br />

others who have good experience of microbusiness<br />

and its growth path.<br />

• Closely monitor and evaluate all funded<br />

business ventures, and consider diverting<br />

funding from weaker performers to the more<br />

promising ideas, allowing enough time for<br />

ideas to percolate, iterate, and emerge.<br />

To conclude, the challenge for statutory<br />

donors as far as deploying the mechanism<br />

of challenge fund to support private sector<br />

development is to achieve a realistic and<br />

balanced approach. In practical terms,<br />

this means improving the challenge fund’s<br />

programmatic design and finding innovative<br />

means of management and perhaps accepting<br />

a higher risk profile.<br />

A key point worth remembering is that the<br />

biggest risk to any donor is not financial loss<br />

but inability to achieve the desired outcome/<br />

impact for their funds because after all money<br />

given away for social purposes is effectively<br />

gone, regardless of outcomes. ■<br />

Crown Agents is an international development<br />

company that partners with governments, aid<br />

agencies, NGOs, and companies in nearly 100<br />

countries. Find out more at www.crownagents.<br />

com.<br />

Challenge funds can generate and test new<br />

business ideas without distorting local economies<br />

Background Briefing: what are challenge funds?<br />

Challenge funds sit among a wide range of funding<br />

mechanisms that exist on the development<br />

finance landscape, but its name is very specifically<br />

defining.<br />

In a challenge fund, a donor provides grants or<br />

subsidies aimed at addressing a core ‘challenge’:<br />

the donor defines a goal and then invites service<br />

providers or agencies to achieve it through competitive<br />

bids for the money. The goal generally<br />

has an explicit public purpose and the grant<br />

recipients are given broad control over how the<br />

goal is achieved and they can share risks with the<br />

grant provider.<br />

They often invite innovation and risk-sharing<br />

– particularly when aimed at private sector<br />

development – opening-up opportunities for new<br />

development ideas to be put forward and tried,<br />

as mentioned in the main part of this article.<br />

Despite inviting this innovation, the allocation of<br />

funding is still strictly monitored through clearly<br />

defined and advertised rules and procedures.<br />

So: what makes challenge funds different from,<br />

say, managed funds or prize funds?<br />

Unlike managed funds, challenge funds are<br />

more defined in what they what to achieve but<br />

they also put more responsibility in the hands<br />

of those being challenged – the grant recipients.<br />

And prize funds are more reward-focused and often<br />

look at the past performance of the recipient.<br />

While bearing strong similarities to prize funds,<br />

challenge funds generally have higher expectations<br />

on the outcomes. Within the definition<br />

of challenge funds there are further variants:<br />

enterprise challenge funds, for example, promote<br />

innovation and enterprise in developing markets<br />

and must pass the business test of being potentially<br />

viable without recurrent subsidy. And civil<br />

society – or social – funds largely contribute to<br />

social goals such as building people’s livelihoods,<br />

promoting human rights or improving public<br />

sector accountability.<br />

Crown Agents has managed numerous challenge<br />

funds over the years, including Department<br />

for International <strong>Development</strong> (DFID)’s Global<br />

Poverty Action Fund (GPAF), and its Civil Society<br />

Challenge Fund (CSCF).<br />

GPAF is a £120 million fund, running from<br />

2010 to 2017 that supports projects focused on<br />

poverty reduction, service delivery and the most<br />

off-track Millennium <strong>Development</strong> Goals in countries<br />

including Afghanistan, Cambodia, the Central<br />

African Republic and Somalia.<br />

CSCF, meanwhile, is a fund that Crown Agents<br />

has managed since 2010, funding projects that<br />

are all scheduled to be completed by the end<br />

of 2015. It is aimed at UK-based civil society organisations<br />

(CSOs) to strengthen the role of civil<br />

society in reducing levels of poverty among poor<br />

and marginalised groups around the world.<br />

In both funds we have been integral in carrying<br />

out duties including technical appraisals of project<br />

proposals, performance assessments of project<br />

implementation and overseeing financial management<br />

of the fund to ensure value for money.<br />

66<br />

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IDRF (International <strong>Development</strong> & Relief Foundation)<br />

A Canadian, registered charitable organization, dedicated to empowering the disadvantaged people of the world.<br />

IDRF provides effective humanitarian aid and sustainable development programs, without discrimination, based<br />

on the Islamic principles of human dignity, self-reliance and social justice.<br />


When disasters strike or conflicts disrupt communities leaving people in desperate need of shelter, food, medical<br />

attention and psychological support, IDRF swiftly partners with organizations on the ground saving lives, helping them<br />

recover and rebuild.<br />


For the past 30 years, IDRF has helped victims of war and disasters while working towards alleviating poverty. We have<br />

reached out to deprived communities in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, the Middle East and the Americas.<br />


Nearly 75 million children in the world have no opportunity to attend primary school. IDRF’s Enabling Education<br />

campaign provides quality education for poor girls and boys through several strategic initiatives.<br />

Access to safe water is linked to food security, health and hygiene. IDRF Water helps poor families and communities get<br />

clean water through wells and mobile distribution in several regions.<br />

www.idrf.com<br />

908 The East Mall Road<br />

Toronto, Ontario, M9B 6K2<br />

Canada<br />

1 866 497 IDRF (4373); office@idrf.ca IDRF Charitable #: 132542705RR0001<br />

SSD_supply chain.indd 67 04/03/2015 14:03


WASH and learn<br />

Bringing water and sanitation to 220 of Haiti’s earthquake-struck schools<br />

has not only re-established their students’ educational prospects, but<br />

also contributed toward community health and well-being.<br />

Tariq Al Gurg, Chief Executive Officer at Dubai Cares, has the inspiring story.<br />

Haiti was already an impoverished and<br />

politically-unstable country when a 7.0<br />

magnitude earthquake struck on January<br />

12, 2010, reducing much of the Caribbean<br />

country to many mounds of rubble, and<br />

killing tens of thousands of its inhabitants.<br />

In 2015, the country is still suffering from<br />

the aftermath of the earthquake which has<br />

caused poverty and widespread diseases,<br />

such as cholera.<br />

Over one million people were displaced<br />

by the catastrophe, many of them forced to<br />

live in camps with limited access to clean<br />

water and sanitation. Some 5,000 schools<br />

were damaged or destroyed by the disaster<br />

– a staggering figure, by any estimation<br />

– but even before that, sanitation in Haiti’s<br />

schools was often very substandard, putting<br />

the children who attended them at risk of<br />

waterborne diseases.<br />

More than 60 per cent of schools across<br />

the country (both public and private) had no<br />

access to water, hygiene, or sanitation. This<br />

created a difficult learning environment for<br />

children, to say the least.<br />

After the quake, a devastating cholera<br />

outbreak made proper sanitation more<br />

important than ever before. Hundreds of<br />

thousands of people have been sick with<br />

cholera since the outbreak began in October<br />

2010, and there have been more than 7,000<br />

fatalities.<br />

Dubai Cares, in close collaboration with<br />

UNICEF, worked primarily on schools which<br />

are a priority according to the Ministry of<br />

Education. A comprehensive list of 220<br />

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WASH and go on: pupils<br />

at the Institution Mixte de<br />

Beauvoir in Port-au-Prince<br />

have learnt how personal<br />

acts as simple as washing<br />

hands with soap, will ensure<br />

better productivity at school.<br />

lacked proper facilities. Children used<br />

latrines; but due to lack of water, they were<br />

constantly dirty, posing a health risk for the<br />

students. To find water, they had to dig a<br />

well, install a pump, and then carry water to<br />

the facilities.<br />

“It was really complicated,” recalls Ms.<br />

Beauvoir. “Now there are enough toilets<br />

for all the school children – and the air is<br />

breathable. Now children can go safely without<br />

worrying about soiling their clothes.”<br />

The change is not just limited to bricks<br />

and mortar. Now that good knowledge can<br />

actually be practiced, Ms. Beauvoir has<br />

instituted new hygiene promotion activities.<br />

“We are doing permanent outreach work<br />

with the students on hygiene,” she explains.<br />

“That way they also become ‘health officers’<br />

– passing on the information they learn here<br />

at school to their families at home, and [then<br />

into the] communities in which they live.<br />

These practices should now become part of<br />

their habits.”<br />

Year after year, millions of school-age<br />

children fall prey to diseases linked to poor<br />

water and sanitation which leave them weakened,<br />

and therefore unable to attend school<br />

on a regular basis or participate to their full<br />

potential. The tragedy of the situation is that<br />

this could be easily prevented by enforcing<br />

sound hygiene and sanitation practices.<br />

Through Dubai Cares’ WASH programs<br />

in Haiti, the organisation is tackling the<br />

issue by changing student attitudes towards<br />

hygiene, and showcasing how a personal act<br />

as simple as washing hands with soap, will<br />

ensure better productivity at school.<br />

These positive results of the WASH<br />

program, achieved in the context of a life<br />

threatening cholera outbreak, and combined<br />

with higher level advocacy, inspired<br />

the Government of Haiti to declare WASH<br />

in schools one of its key priorities – and to<br />

establish a National Alliance for WASH in<br />

Schools. Launched on March 20, 2012 with<br />

the Ministry of Education, this national<br />

alliance unites a variety of actors that see<br />

children as key ‘agents of change’ in their<br />

communities and their nation.<br />

Dubai Cares helped improve the wellbeing<br />

of children through the integration of<br />

water and sanitation facilities and hygiene<br />

activities in primary schools. As part of<br />

the program, Dubai Cares supported the<br />

sustainable integration of WASH in primary<br />

schools by reinforcing the child as the ‘Agent<br />

of Change’ and the school as a ‘centre of<br />

excellence’ for sanitation and hygiene in<br />

the community. With the support of Dubai<br />

Cares, UNICEF has also provided WASH<br />

services in displacement camps in the aftermath<br />

of the disaster.<br />

▲<br />

schools was developed and agreed upon with<br />

the Ministry of Education.<br />

Through this programme, from 2010 to<br />

2011, Dubai Cares reached 132,000 children<br />

and 6,600 teachers and at least a further<br />

20,000 future school children benefiting<br />

from the installation of child-friendly water,<br />

sanitation, and hand-washing facilities.<br />

The WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene)<br />

programme has also provided schools with<br />

chlorine tabs, posters about cholera prevention,<br />

and soap.<br />

Ms. Andrelita Beauvoir, headmistress of<br />

Institution Mixte de Beauvoir in Port-au-<br />

Prince, explained that before the earthquake,<br />

the school was in a different building that<br />

Information technology can play a key part in knowledge-sharing when it comes to hygiene<br />

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With the right support,<br />

leadership, and opportunities<br />

– individuals can flourish, and<br />

in turn, initiate real change in<br />

their communities.<br />

Best practice file: Dubai Cares<br />

The United Arab Emirates is a relatively<br />

young country, having only recently celebrated<br />

its 43rd National Day. Despite its<br />

youth, or perhaps because of it, it has fostered<br />

a legacy of change, and has created<br />

a setting where anything may be possible.<br />

Yet just 42 years ago, the UAE was a radically<br />

different place, with approximately<br />

500,000 residents, many of whom lived in<br />

Bedouin communities; in 2015, the UAE is<br />

home to nearly 10 million people, representing<br />

over 200 nationalities.<br />

The UAE has transformed into a vibrant<br />

knowledge-based community – a hub of<br />

culture and commerce where change is celebrated,<br />

and its leaders have the capacity<br />

to contribute and make a real difference.<br />

Experience has taught its citizens that<br />

within the right setting – with the right<br />

support, leadership, and opportunities – individuals<br />

can flourish, and in turn, initiate<br />

real change in their communities.<br />

The UAE has become a substantial<br />

contributor to development aid worldwide,<br />

owing to the vision and hard work<br />

of the UAE’s forefather, His Highness<br />

Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahyan –<br />

who instilled the virtues of giving, and<br />

this is also due to the leadership of our<br />

President His Highness Sheikh Khalifa<br />

bin Zayed Al Nahyan and His Highness<br />

Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum,<br />

Vice President and Prime Minister<br />

of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai – who have<br />

committed themselves to continue in the<br />

same footsteps. In addition to contributing<br />

to international humanitarian activities,<br />

the UAE has also constantly taken full<br />

advantage of its geographical location and<br />

global standing in procuring aid for the<br />

Middle East.<br />

Much of the UAE’s humanitarian work<br />

that has been contributed locally, regionally<br />

and internationally is spearheaded by<br />

government institutions or philanthropic<br />

and charity organisations, such as the<br />

Abu Dhabi <strong>Development</strong> Fund, Khalifa Bin<br />

Zayed Al Nahyan Foundation, Zayed bin<br />

Sultan Al Nahyan Charitable and Humanitarian<br />

Foundation, UAE Red Crescent Society,<br />

Mohammad bin Rashid Al Maktoum<br />

Humanitarian and Charity Establishment,<br />

Sharjah Charity Association, Noor Dubai<br />

Foundation, and Dubai Cares, as well as<br />

many others, alongside contributions by<br />

the private sector and individual donors.<br />

The January 2010 earthquake devastated<br />

Haiti’s educational infrastructure: this<br />

site used to be a university<br />

Dubai Cares was established in 2007<br />

by His Highness Sheikh Mohammed Bin<br />

Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice President and<br />

Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of<br />

Dubai, as a philanthropic organisation with<br />

the aim of improving childrens’ access to<br />

quality primary education in developing<br />

countries. Dubai Cares is headquartered<br />

in Dubai, a strategic location which gives<br />

the organisation a vantage point to access<br />

one-third of the world’s population within<br />

a four-hour flight of UAE airports, and twothirds<br />

within an eight-hour flight.<br />

This enables Dubai Cares to reach out to<br />

developing countries, both regionally and<br />

globally, and be active participants in the<br />

world-wide conversation surrounding the<br />

importance of education.<br />

As an organisation, Dubai Cares’ work<br />

stems from His Highness Sheikh Mohammed’s<br />

vision, guidance and directive. It<br />

works towards eliminating the underlying<br />

obstacles that prevent children from going<br />

to school and learning, and relies on a<br />

holistic approach that motivates children<br />

to attend school, study and move onto the<br />

next level of education.<br />

There are 58 million primary-age<br />

children today who do not have access<br />

to education, and a further 250 million<br />

primary school-age children globally are<br />

still not able to read, write, or count adequately.<br />

Dubai Cares’ basic mandate is to<br />

provide primary-age children in developing<br />

countries with the provisions to gain a<br />

good education while eliminating factors<br />

that lead to drop-outs and absenteeism.<br />

Dubai Cares designs and funds integrated<br />

programmes along with its international<br />

and local implementing partners, which<br />

are aligned with the strategies of the<br />

educational ministries in beneficiary countries.<br />

Programmes comprise building and<br />

renovating schools and classrooms, improving<br />

water, sanitation, and hygiene in<br />

schools; providing school feeding, deworming<br />

activities; early childhood education,<br />

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Dubai Cares is<br />

headquartered in<br />

Dubai, a location which<br />

gives the organisation a<br />

vantage point to access<br />

the world’s population<br />

Dubai Cares’ basic mandate is to provide<br />

primary-age children in developing countries<br />

with the provisions to gain a good education<br />

Boys and girls need equality of access to<br />

safe learning environments with adequate<br />

facilities, materials, and academic support<br />

as well as teacher training, curriculum development,<br />

literacy and numeracy. Gender<br />

equality is a cross-cutting theme in Dubai<br />

Cares programs, with an approach that<br />

aims to secure equality of access for boys<br />

and girls to safe learning environments<br />

with adequate facilities, materials, and<br />

academic support from qualified teachers<br />

and engaged communities.<br />

In 2012, Dubai Cares was selected by<br />

UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon to join<br />

as a partner in his five-year Global Education<br />

First Initiative, launched during the<br />

week of the UN General Assembly in New<br />

York in September 2012. This initiative is<br />

designed to ensure high-quality, relevant,<br />

and transformative, education for all<br />

children around the world.<br />

Moreover, in 2014, and as part of the<br />

London Declaration on Neglected Tropical<br />

Diseases (NTDs), Dubai Cares joined a<br />

global alliance led by the Bill & Melinda<br />

Gates Foundation, with 13 leading pharmaceutical<br />

companies, global health organisations,<br />

private foundations and donors, and<br />

governments pledging support to reduce<br />

the global burden of NTDs.<br />

One of Dubai Cares’ strategic approaches<br />

to improving student<br />

enrolment, and learning<br />

outcomes, is through an<br />

integrated school health<br />

and nutrition model that<br />

is made-up of NTD control,<br />

school feeding and WASH<br />

(water, sanitation and<br />

hygiene) in schools. Dubai<br />

Cares was also a member<br />

of the Learning Metrics<br />

Task Force (LMTF)<br />

between 2012 and 2014,<br />

which was convened by the Brookings<br />

Institution and UNESCO in order to ensure<br />

that learning becomes a central component<br />

of the global development agenda, in line<br />

with the Global Education First Initiative.<br />

Dubai Cares is currently working directly<br />

with developing countries to support the<br />

implementation of the LMTF recommendations,<br />

assisting governments to evaluate<br />

and improve their national assessment<br />

systems.<br />

Dubai Cares is reaching more than 13<br />

million beneficiaries in 38 developing countries.<br />

In 2014 alone, Dubai cares launched<br />

seven programs in India, Kenya, Namibia,<br />

Pakistan, Palestine, Uganda, and Vietnam;<br />

and during the first quarter of 2015, it<br />

oversaw two successful events in the UAE<br />

– the ‘Rebuild Palestine. Start with Education’<br />

campaign, and ‘Walk for Education<br />

2015’ to engage a total of 11,500 supportive<br />

UAE community members.<br />

Monitoring and evaluation of programs,<br />

as well as targeted research, are integral,<br />

as is the importance of evidence-based<br />

programming. Dubai Cares policy is that<br />

its programmes must be based on, or<br />

contribute to, the evidence base, if they<br />

are to have quantifiable impact. Sixty-five<br />

per cent of its programme designs are<br />

based on existing evidence and proven<br />

models; the remaining 35 per cent of its<br />

programs contribute to the evidence base<br />

by including a research component into<br />

the interventions in order to test and<br />

document the impact.<br />

Sharing experiences and learning are<br />

essential when it comes to tackling the<br />

huge humanitarian aid challenges that<br />

confront us. Dubai Cares has convened<br />

four workshops (in Dubai) on topics as diverse<br />

as ‘Building Evidence in Education’,<br />

‘Home Grown School Feeding programs’,<br />

‘Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Schools<br />

programs’, and ‘Girls Education programs’.<br />

In February 2012, Dubai Cares also<br />

supported and hosted the second Learning<br />

Metrics Task Force (LMTF) meeting in<br />

Dubai to identify common learning goals<br />

necessary to improve learning opportunities<br />

for children and youth around the<br />

world. These workshops<br />

bring together high-level<br />

representatives and technical<br />

experts from UN<br />

agencies, international<br />

aid organisations and government<br />

representatives<br />

to discuss projects and<br />

exchange best practices,<br />

as well as disseminate key<br />

learnings. ■<br />

For more information about<br />

Dubai Cares and its work,<br />

go to www.dubaicares.ae.<br />


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SSD_<strong>Sustainable</strong> Tourism.indd 72 04/03/2015 14:05


Islands of<br />

knowledge<br />

When it comes to making the most of the opportunities tourism<br />

brings without jeopardising sustainability, islands – especially<br />

small islands – can find mutually-supporting solutions that<br />

balance the needs of them both, finds Dr Rachel Dodds, Director/<br />

Owner, Sustaining Tourism<br />

The Maldives is one<br />

of the few countries<br />

to establish a tourism<br />

policy that focuses<br />

on setting guidelines<br />

for environmental<br />

construction<br />

Islands are unique not necessarily by size,<br />

but by the physical separation from a<br />

mainland. Being surrounded by water<br />

requires humans to navigate this space by<br />

either air or boat. In a sense, being remote<br />

from other landmasses also gives rise to<br />

heightened challenges for sustainability.<br />

Furthermore, islands – small island<br />

developing states (SIDS) in particular – face<br />

increasingly growing concerns over resource<br />

depletion, climate change, biodiversity loss<br />

and socio-economic inequalities 1 .<br />

The challenge for sustainable development<br />

of these islands involves considering social,<br />

economic and environmental considerations<br />

more urgently than many other destinations<br />

in the world as their predicament is much<br />

more tenuous. Tourism is very often put<br />

forward as a way to achieve sustainable<br />

development, as it can provide employment,<br />

increased foreign exchange, improved<br />

communications, and access and develop<br />

much-needed infrastructure. It should,<br />

however, be properly recognised that tourism<br />

is also dependent on the very resources that<br />

attract tourism and the impacts on islands<br />

are perhaps far greater.<br />

Finite factors<br />

Islands are particularly susceptible to<br />

significant environmental impacts that<br />

may result from the overuse of resources<br />

or uncontrolled tourism development, for<br />

instance. They are also at risk due to their<br />

limited species diversity, often lack of fresh<br />

water, land mass and increasing development<br />

for tourist arrivals.<br />

The sustained beauty of natural and<br />

social environments and hospitality of the<br />

communities where the tourism industry<br />

operates are the core assets of most islands;<br />

yet increased tourism exerts disproportional<br />

influence on the local community; and<br />

cultural homogeneity is ever-increasing.<br />

As the tourism experience is inevitably<br />

linked to many natural and cultural<br />

▲<br />

73<br />

SSD_<strong>Sustainable</strong> Tourism.indd 73 04/03/2015 14:05


Sustainably-developed<br />

tourism can showcase<br />

positive initiatives that<br />

other countries could<br />

duplicate.<br />

resources that are provided by and shared<br />

with the local community, the need to<br />

address sustainability challenges is vital.<br />

More than 10 per cent of the world’s<br />

population can be designated as islanders,<br />

and recognising and addressing their<br />

vulnerabilities is vital to ensure more<br />

sustainable livelihoods.<br />

Island strengths<br />

Islands of various sizes attract tourism not<br />

only for their natural beauty and beaches<br />

(e.g., the Maldives, Mauritius, Caymans,<br />

Seychelles, etc.), unique environmental<br />

attributes (the Galapagos islands are a pereminent<br />

example), but also their history and<br />

culture (e.g. Andaman and Nicobar Islands,<br />

Guam, and Malta). Looking at global<br />

tourism growth, the number of islands<br />

that are focusing on tourism is increasing<br />

rapidly. Seven of the 15 fastest-growing<br />

countries between 1985 and 1995 were<br />

tourism economies and most of them were<br />

island tourism economies with more than<br />

30 percent of gross domestic product (GDP)<br />

coming from tourism 2 . Indeed, of the most<br />

prosperous countries in the world in 2014 3 ,<br />

nine of the top 30 are islands.<br />

As mentioned earlier, tourism also acts as<br />

a multiplier for employment. The countries<br />

74<br />

The Galapaogos Islands<br />

are a sustainability<br />

success story, with a<br />

higher GNP than Ecuador<br />

that have the highest multiplier effect from<br />

tourism are all islands – Jamaica, Mauritius,<br />

Bermuda, Solomon Islands, Malta, Western<br />

Samoa, and Fiji 4 .<br />

Tourism as an enabler<br />

Tourism, when developed sustainably,<br />

can provide a useful tool for sustainable<br />

development and islands, as well as island<br />

states, now showcase positive initiatives that<br />

other countries could duplicate. Islands<br />

benefit from strong kinship networks – that’s<br />

to say, strong family ties leading to high VFR<br />

tourism (visiting friends and relatives) – and<br />

many of the challenges they face have given<br />

islanders the ability to adapt.<br />

When examining sustainability, islands<br />

have showcased many positive initiatives:<br />

• From a management perspective Chumbe<br />

Island, located off the coast of Tanzania,<br />

developed Africa’s first marine park and<br />

established alternative sources of livelihood<br />

for fishermen 5 .<br />

• In Fiji, villagers are using their traditional<br />

practices and an iterative approach to<br />

safeguard their interests in their island<br />

environment. Lacking the resources to make<br />

new drainage systems and seawalls, local<br />

residents are restoring mangroves and coral<br />

reefs to help prevent flooding and erosion 6 .<br />

• The island of Dominica has focused on<br />

smaller scale tourism that has benefited the<br />

local indigenous community through greater<br />

recognition, revival and maintenance of<br />

their culture, as they are less dependent on<br />

imports to satisfy the mass markets.<br />

• The Maldives is one of the few countries<br />

worldwide to establish a tourism policy<br />

that focused on setting guidelines for<br />

environmental construction 7 . They are also<br />

the first country to aim to be carbon neutral<br />

by 2020 8 .<br />

• Bonaire is famous for its marine strategy<br />

where it was the first of its kind to actively<br />

manage marine resources 9 .<br />

Barbadian farmers<br />

are also turning their<br />

hand to selling local<br />

handicrafts<br />

SSD_<strong>Sustainable</strong> Tourism.indd 74 04/03/2015 14:05


Of the most prosperous<br />

countries in the world<br />

in 2014, nine of the top<br />

30 are islands…<br />

• When looking at energy and waste,<br />

Tokelau, one of New Zealand’s territories<br />

recently began producing 100 per cent of its<br />

energy from solar sources.<br />

• St Kitts and Nevis are working towards<br />

converting biomass to local electricity and<br />

the Bahamas is aiming to be 99 per cent<br />

fossil fuel free by 2030 10 .<br />

Many islands have put in place waste<br />

water treatment plants to reduce water<br />

pollution, and work towards re-nourishment<br />

and land reclamation (for example, he<br />

Caribbean and Thai islands). In Bonaire, a<br />

small-scale desalination facility powered by<br />

solar energy was established.<br />

The facility was relatively inexpensive<br />

to construct and maintain and is used to<br />

provide communities with safe drinking<br />

water in an environmentally friendly<br />

manner, thus reducing ecological footprint in<br />

remote areas.<br />

In Roatan, Honduras micro-enterprise<br />

solutions have been put in place to<br />

emphasize how to use local knowledge to<br />

manage waste on the island. Now when<br />

islands use traditional wrapping such as<br />

banana leaves, or other plant materials,<br />

for food, it is considered authentic and<br />

interesting to tourists; and these materials<br />

naturally decompose, thereby eliminating<br />

the need for imported plastic bags that may<br />

end-up as unsightly litter 11 .<br />

Island sustainability exemplars<br />

Economically, islands also showcase<br />

positives. The Galapagos, through protection<br />

of wildlife, went from being a largely<br />

unpopulated volcanic outcrop, to become<br />

the richest department in Ecuador – and<br />

now has a higher gross national product<br />

References<br />

1. Graci, S.R. and Dodds, R. <strong>Sustainable</strong> Tourism in<br />

Islands. Earthscan Press, ISBN 9781844077809<br />

(2010).<br />

2. Giannoni, S. & Maupertuis, M.A. ‘Environmental<br />

quality and optimal investment in tourism infrastructures:<br />

A small island perspective. Tourism Economies, 13(4)<br />

(2007).<br />

3. http://www.businessinsider.com/the-30-mostprosperous-countries-in-the-world-2014-11<br />

499-513<br />

4. http://www.unep.org/resourceefficiency/<br />

Portals/24147/scp/business/tourism/greeneconomy_<br />

tourism.pdf . P423<br />

The island of St. Barthélemy’s<br />

airport’s size limitations have<br />

helped curb mass tourism<br />

(GNP) than mainland Ecuador 12 .<br />

In St. Barthélemy, in the Eastern<br />

Caribbean, meanwhile, a small airport has<br />

prevented the growth of mass tourism, and<br />

has also helped to develop an up-market<br />

destination for French cuisine 13 .<br />

Islands are also supporting livelihoods by<br />

supporting local handicrafts and sourcing.<br />

In Barbados, Antigua and Tobago, efforts<br />

to use local farmers for food production for<br />

tourism as well as selling local handicrafts<br />

have shown many positive benefits 14 .<br />

In the light of these and many other<br />

5. Dodds, R. Ecotourism education and marine conservation:<br />

The Case of Coral Park Chumbe Island, Zanzibar.<br />

Teoros. Vol 1 (2012) .<br />

6. http://www.unep.org/wed/SIDS/about/#.<br />

VNjLY1XF_K0.<br />

7. http://www.unesco.org/culture/natlaws/media/pdf/<br />

maldives/maldives_act_11_08_1998_engl_orof.pdf.<br />

8. http://www.pri.org/stories/2012-01-28/maldivesworking-be-carbon-neutral-2020.<br />

9. http://www.dcnanature.org/bonaire-national-marinepark/.<br />

10. http://www.gseii.org.<br />

success stories, it is evident that islands,<br />

because of their isolation and size and<br />

marginalization and resource limitations<br />

face significant challenges for the sustainable<br />

development of tourism and other<br />

industries. These same traits however, also<br />

offer good examples of how islands can<br />

utilise innovative strategies to become more<br />

sustainable. ■<br />

Dr Rachel Dodds is Director/Owner, Sustaining<br />

Tourism (www.sustainabletourism.net), and Associate<br />

Professor, Ted Rogers School of Hospitality and<br />

Tourism Management, Ryerson University.<br />

11. Graci & Dodds, 2010 ibid.<br />

12. Kerr, S. A. (2005) ‘What is small island sustainable<br />

development about?’ Ocean and Coastal Management,<br />

48: 503-524.<br />

13. McElroy, J. & Dodds, R. ‘What does sustainable<br />

tourism mean for islands’. ID21 Island Insights. P 3<br />

(2007). Special issue invited contribution.<br />

14. PPT (Pro Poor Partnership) & CTO (Caribbean<br />

Tourism Organization). ‘Making Tourism Count for the<br />

Local Economy in the Caribbean: Guidelines for Good<br />

Practice’. UK Travel Foundation, London (2006).<br />

75<br />


SSD_<strong>Sustainable</strong> Tourism.indd 75 04/03/2015 14:05

About<br />

DIHAD<br />

DIHAD was launched in 2004 as the Middle East’s first ever humanitarian aid and development event, with a vision of<br />

creating a platform for exchanging humanitarian ideas and values between the East and West. Over the years, DIHAD<br />

has grown into one of the world’s largest humanitarian events that brings together various humanitarian actors and key<br />

decision makers from leading International, Regional & Local NGOs, UN Agencies, Governmental Departments, Charities,<br />

Relief Suppliers, Donors and Funding Agencies.<br />

DIHAD 2015<br />


UN Messenger of Peace and<br />

Chairperson of International<br />

Humanitarian City<br />

HRH Princess Haya Bint Al Hussein<br />

Wife of HH Sheikh Mohammed Bin<br />

Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice-President and<br />

Prime Minister of the United Arab<br />

Emirates and Ruler of Dubai<br />

HE Mr. Christos Stylianides<br />

European Commissioner for<br />

Humanitarian Aid and Crises<br />

Management<br />

HE Mr. Elhadj As Sy<br />

Secretary General, International<br />

Federation of Red Cross and Red<br />

Crescent Societies (IFRC)<br />

HRH Prince Hassan Bin Talal<br />

of Jordan<br />

HE Mr. Ibrahim Bumelha<br />

Humanitarian Advisor of H.H Sheikh<br />

Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum,<br />

Chairman , DIHAD Higher Committee<br />

and President, DISAB<br />

HE Sheikha Lubna Bint Khalid Al<br />

Qasimi<br />

Minister of International Cooperation<br />

and <strong>Development</strong>, UAE<br />

HE Mr. Pierre Kraehenbul<br />

Commissioner General, United Nations<br />

Relief & Works Agency Palestine<br />

Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA)<br />

HE Mr. William Lacy Swing<br />

Director General, International<br />

Organisation for Migration (IOM)<br />

Mr. Alfredo Zamudio<br />

Director Internal Displacement<br />

Monitoring Centre, Norwegian<br />

Refugee Council – Geneva<br />

Mr. Amin Awad<br />

Director, Middle East & North<br />

Africa Bureau & Regional<br />

Refugee Coordinator (Syria<br />

Situation), United Nations High<br />

- Commissioner For Refugees<br />

(UNHCR)<br />

Mr. Andrew Scott<br />

Research Fellow, Climate &<br />

Environment Programme,<br />

Overseas <strong>Development</strong> Institute<br />

(ODI) London<br />

H.E. Amb. Atta El Manan<br />

Bakheet El- Haj<br />

Adviser to the Minister, Ministry of<br />

Foreign Affairs, Khartoum, Sudan<br />

Mr. Claus Sorensen<br />

Director General, European<br />

Commission Directorate General<br />

for Humanitarian Aid & Civil<br />

Protection (ECHO)<br />

Ms. Daryl Grisgraber<br />

Senior Advocate For the Middle<br />

East, Refugees International,<br />

Washington DC<br />

Mr. David Kaatrud<br />

Director, Regional Office for Asia &<br />

The Pacific , WFP Bangkok<br />

Ms. Degan Ali<br />

Executive Director, African<br />

<strong>Development</strong> Solutions (ADESO),<br />

Nairobi<br />

Mr. Didier Le Bret<br />

Director, Crisis Center, Ministry of<br />

Foreign Affairs and <strong>Development</strong>,<br />

Paris<br />

Mr. Dominique Burgeon<br />

Coordinator, Resilience Strategic<br />

Objective & Director, Emergency<br />

& Rehabilitation Division, Food &<br />

Agriculture Organisation (FAO),<br />

Rome<br />

H.E. Professor Eizi Hibat Allah<br />

Ali Shuraim<br />

Minister For Water & Environment,<br />

Sana’a, Republic of Yemen<br />

Ms. Florika Fink Hooijer<br />

Director Strategy Policy &<br />

International Cooperation,<br />

European Commission Directorate<br />

General for Humanitarian Aid &<br />

Civil Protection (ECHO)<br />

Mr. Francois Grunewald<br />

Executive Director , Groupe<br />

Urgence, Rehabilitation,<br />

<strong>Development</strong> (URD) France<br />

H.E. Amb. Gerhard Putman-<br />

Cramer<br />

Director , DIHAD International<br />

Scientific Advisory Board<br />

Dr. Ghaith Fariz<br />

Director & Coordinator, Arab<br />

Knowledge Report & (UNDP’s)<br />

Arab Water Governance Report<br />

H.E. Dr. Hamdan Musallam Al<br />

Mazrouie<br />

Speaking on Behalf of H.H Sheikh<br />

Hamdan Bin Zayed Al Nahyan,<br />

Representative of the Ruler of<br />

Abu Dhabi in the Western Region<br />

and President, UAE Red Crescent<br />

Authority<br />

H.H Sheikh Abdul Aziz Bin Ali Al<br />

Nuaimi, Ph.D.<br />

Environmental Advisor to the<br />

Ajman Government, UAE<br />

Mr. Henry Gray<br />

Emergency Operations Manager,<br />

Medicins Sans Frontieres (MSF)<br />

SSD_DIHAD_Programme.indd 76 04/03/2015 14:06


f<br />

y<br />

,<br />

H.E Mr. Hesham Youssef<br />

Assistant Secretary- General<br />

for Humanitarian Affairs,<br />

Organisation of Islamic<br />

Cooperation<br />

Ms. Margareta Wahlstrom<br />

Special Representative of<br />

the Secretary - General for<br />

Disaster Reduction<br />

Mr. Mario Stephan<br />

Gulf Office Director, Norwegian<br />

Refugee Council (NRC), Dubai<br />

Mr. Matthew McKinnon<br />

Specialist, Climate Vulnerable<br />

Forum Support, Environment<br />

& Energy Group, United<br />

Nations <strong>Development</strong><br />

Programme (UNDP)<br />

Mr. Michael Talmahi<br />

Regional Water & Habitat<br />

Advisor, ICRC Amman<br />

Mr. Mohamed Beavogui<br />

Director Partnerships &<br />

Resource Mobilisation<br />

Office, Senior Advisor to The<br />

President, International Fund<br />

for Agricultural <strong>Development</strong><br />

(IFAD) Rome<br />

Dr. Mohamed Ateeq Al Falahi<br />

Secretary General, UAE Red<br />

Crescent Authority<br />

Dr. Mukesh Kapila<br />

Professor of Global Health<br />

& Humanitarian Affairs,<br />

Humanitarian & Conflict<br />

Response Institute, University<br />

of Manchester, UK<br />

Mr. Olaf Janssen<br />

Project Director, Humanitarian<br />

Logistics , KUHNE Foundation<br />

Swtizerland<br />

Dr. Rami Ghandour<br />

Managing Director, Metito<br />

Utilities Ltd., Dubai UAE<br />

Mr. Ramiro Lopes Da Silva<br />

Deputy Executive Director ,<br />

World Food Programme<br />

Mr. Rashid Khalikov<br />

Director, Office of The<br />

Coordination of Humanitarian<br />

Affairs (OCHA), Geneva<br />

Mr. Robert Turner<br />

Director, United Nations Relief<br />

& Works Agency Palestine<br />

Refugees in the Near East<br />

(UNRWA)<br />

Mr. Ross Mountain<br />

Deputy Special Representative<br />

of The Secretary General,<br />

Resident Humanitarian<br />

Coordinator - Lebanon<br />

Ms. Salam Kanaan<br />

Care Country Director,<br />

Amman<br />

Mr. Sean Lowrie<br />

Director, Start Network,<br />

London<br />

H.E. Dr. Sergio Piazzi<br />

Secretary General,<br />

Parliamentary Assembly<br />

of The Mediterranean- St.<br />

Julians, Malta<br />

Dr. Shadi Hamadeh<br />

Director, Environment &<br />

<strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong><br />

Unit, American University of<br />

Beirut<br />

HE Ms. Shaima Al Zarooni<br />

CEO, International<br />

Humanitarian City (IHC), Dubai<br />

Day 1: Tuesday, 24 March 2015<br />


14:00 – 15:30 SESSION 1<br />

Disaster Reduction<br />

and Preparedness –<br />

opportunities<br />

16:00 – 17:30 SESSION 2<br />

Environmental Protection<br />

and Climate Change –<br />

opportunities<br />

Day 2: Wednesday, 25 March 2015<br />

09:00 – 10:30 SESSION 3<br />

Moving relief items, where/<br />

when required efficiently<br />

10:30 – 10:45 KEYNOTE ADDRESS –<br />

“MOBILITY”<br />

11:15 – 12:45 SESSION 4<br />

The forced displacement<br />

of persons, causes and<br />

consequences<br />

14:00 – 15:30 SESSION 5<br />

<strong>Sustainable</strong> development,<br />

what happens after 2015?<br />

15:30 – 15:45 KEYNOTE ADDRESS –<br />


16:15 – 17:45 SESSION 6<br />

Water and Energy: will we<br />

have enough tomorrow?<br />

Day 3: Thursday, 26 March 2015<br />

09:00 – 10:30 SPECIAL SESSION (Part 1)<br />

The role of NGOs in the<br />

provision of humanitarian<br />

assistance in today’s crisis<br />

environments<br />

SPECIAL SESSION (Part 2)<br />

The role of NGOs, also as<br />

partners in development<br />

assistance<br />

14:00 – 15:30 SPECIAL PRESENTATIONS<br />

The World Humanitarian<br />

Summit (Istanbul, May 2016)<br />

SSD_DIHAD_Programme.indd 77 04/03/2015 14:06


Writing for this issue<br />

<strong>SOURCE</strong>: <strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong> contributors represent<br />

a wide range of expertise and specialist knowledge...<br />

Appointed its Chief Executive<br />

Officer in 2009, Tariq Al<br />

Gurg has been the driving<br />

force behind Dubai Cares’<br />

role as a global advocate,<br />

champion of education,<br />

strategic convener, and<br />

information disseminator<br />

on key thematics in primary<br />

education. Tariq Al Gurg’s<br />

experience includes 12<br />

years at senior management<br />

positions within the consumer<br />

and corporate banking at<br />

Emirates NBD (formerly the<br />

National Bank of Dubai). He<br />

is a Founding Board Member<br />

and Deputy Chairperson of<br />

the UAE Genetic Diseases<br />

Association (UAE GDA),<br />

which is under the presidency<br />

of His Highness Sheikh<br />

Nahyan bin Mubarak Al<br />

Nahyan (UAE Minister<br />

of Culture, Youth and<br />

Community <strong>Development</strong>).<br />

He was also a member of<br />

the National Anti-Money<br />

Laundering Committee of<br />

the UAE (NAMLC).<br />

Professor Martin<br />

Charter is the Director<br />

of The Centre for<br />

<strong>Sustainable</strong> Design® at<br />

University College for<br />

the Creative Arts. Prof<br />

Charter has completed<br />

product sustainability and<br />

sustainable innovation<br />

research, knowledge<br />

transfer and training projects<br />

worldwide since 1995. He<br />

has also led missions to<br />

Japan, China, Hong Kong,<br />

and Taiwan to explore the<br />

‘state of the art’ in ecodesign<br />

and circular economy;<br />

and he is the organiser of<br />

the <strong>Sustainable</strong> Innovation<br />

series of international<br />

conferences that is now its<br />

twentieth year. Prof Charter<br />

is the author/co-author,<br />

editor/co-editor of various<br />

publications. Books have<br />

included Managing Ecodesign<br />

(1997), <strong>Sustainable</strong><br />

Solutions (2001), and<br />

System Innovation for<br />

Sustainability (2008).<br />

Defrim Dedej is a<br />

Senior Consultant<br />

in Grant and Fund<br />

Management at Crown<br />

Agents, with a strong<br />

academic background<br />

in grant management<br />

and extensive practical<br />

experience. He has<br />

designed and managed<br />

a number of grant<br />

programmes in the<br />

public, CSO, and<br />

private sectors in<br />

the fields of health,<br />

research, education,<br />

poverty, gender equality,<br />

strengthen communities,<br />

civil rights, and arts/<br />

culture. Among Defrim<br />

Dedej’s current projects<br />

are the Global Poverty<br />

Action Fund and Civil<br />

Society Challenge Fund.<br />

Dr Rachel Dodds is a<br />

world-renowned expert<br />

in sustainable tourism. A<br />

Director of consultancy firm<br />

Sustaining Tourism, she is<br />

also an Associate Professor at<br />

Ryerson University in the Ted<br />

Rogers School of Hospitality<br />

and Tourism Management.<br />

Dr Dodds has published and<br />

presented globally about<br />

sustainable tourism, and has<br />

written numerous journal<br />

articles, papers and articles,<br />

and is author of the book<br />

<strong>Sustainable</strong> Tourism in Island<br />

Destinations. Her expertise<br />

focuses on sustainable tourism<br />

development, climate change,<br />

corporate social responsibility,<br />

and determining tourist<br />

motivations. Dr Dodds holds<br />

a PhD from the University of<br />

Surrey in England, as well as<br />

a Masters degree in Tourism<br />

Management from Griffith<br />

University in Australia.<br />

78<br />

SSD_Contributors.indd 78 04/03/2015 14:06


Paloma Durán is<br />

the <strong>Sustainable</strong><br />

<strong>Development</strong> Goals<br />

Director at the United<br />

Nations <strong>Development</strong><br />

Programme. She holds a<br />

Master and PhD in Law,<br />

as well as a Master and<br />

PhD in Political Science<br />

and has authored<br />

numerous journal<br />

articles, book chapters,<br />

and books in the area<br />

of human rights, gender<br />

issues, development,<br />

and equality. Paloma<br />

Durán has an extensive<br />

professional experience<br />

in government<br />

and international<br />

organisations.<br />

Chief Executive of RedR<br />

UK Martin McCann<br />

has been involved in<br />

international development<br />

and humanitarian work for 30<br />

years, ranging from a volunteer<br />

posting in West Africa, to<br />

being the Programme Director<br />

and Deputy International<br />

Executive Director of a<br />

$700m-a-year charity. He also<br />

worked at the appropriate<br />

technology organisation ITDG<br />

(now Practical Action), where<br />

he designed the restructuring<br />

and systems to restore it to<br />

financial viability. McCann<br />

was a founding Board<br />

member of ChildHelpline<br />

International, and the Hope<br />

for African Children Initiative;<br />

and he is an Independent<br />

Member of Council of the<br />

University of Sussex, a Trustee<br />

of Engineers without Borders,<br />

and the Sphere Project, a<br />

member of the Steering<br />

Committee of ELHRA, and<br />

a Fellow of the Institution of<br />

Civil Engineers.<br />

Sonsoles Ruedas was<br />

born in Spain, where her<br />

father was in the first batch<br />

of Spaniards to join the<br />

United Nations, so she grew<br />

up in New York and Geneva.<br />

Sonsoles has worked at<br />

World Food Programme for<br />

30 years, and during her<br />

career has worked in Angola,<br />

Bhutan, Cape Verde, Cuba,<br />

Nicaragua, South Africa,<br />

and Vietnam,as well as at<br />

the World Food Programme<br />

headquarters in Rome,<br />

Italy. Sonsoles Ruedas has<br />

been Director of the Gender<br />

Office since February 2013.<br />

Peter McCornick is Deputy<br />

Director, General (Research) at the<br />

International Water Management<br />

Institute, based in Colombo, Sri<br />

Lanka. His career focus has been<br />

to improve the understanding and<br />

sustainable management of water<br />

resources. He has led research<br />

and development programs<br />

on water, agriculture and the<br />

environment in Africa, Asia, and<br />

the Middle East. Present areas of<br />

particular interest include water<br />

and food security, the waterfood-energy<br />

nexus, water reuse,<br />

irrigation management, and<br />

water and climate adaptation.<br />

McCornick is a licensed<br />

professional civil engineer in<br />

the US State of Colorado,<br />

a member of the American<br />

Academy of Water Resources<br />

Engineers, a senior fellow at<br />

Duke University’s Nicholas<br />

Institute for Environmental<br />

Policy and an affiliate of the<br />

Faculty of Geosciences, Warner<br />

College of Natural Resources,<br />

Colorado State University.<br />

He has contributed to over 30<br />

peer reviewed publications,<br />

and regularly presents at major<br />

international events.<br />

Dr Loren Treisman is<br />

Executive of Indigo Trust,<br />

a grant-making foundation<br />

which supports technologydriven<br />

projects in Africa<br />

with a focus on transparency,<br />

accountability and citizen<br />

empowerment. She holds<br />

a PhD from Cambridge<br />

University, and has<br />

expertise in international<br />

development, health and the<br />

use of new technologies to<br />

stimulate social change.<br />

Dr Treisman was recognised<br />

as one of 2014’s Powerful<br />

Women to Watch in the<br />

Huffington Post, and regularly<br />

writes in the international<br />

Press including Al Jazeera,<br />

The Guardian, and CNN.<br />

79<br />

SSD_Contributors.indd 79 04/03/2015 14:06

EVENTS<br />

Events calendar 2015<br />

A selection of conferences, exhibitions, and seminars of interest to<br />

sustainable development professionals. For more detailed information<br />

about featured events, please visit the event website via the URL provided.<br />


ICTTB 2015 International Conference<br />

<strong>Sustainable</strong> in Tourism Technology<br />

Logistic & Innovation Business Paris<br />

April 12th to 15th April, 2015 / Paris, France<br />

‘The first objective of this program is to<br />

give academics an opportunity to present<br />

their academic works, concepts and new<br />

discoveries; moreover, participants will have<br />

a chance to exchange their ideas and develop<br />

their works; also, they will meet academics<br />

from universities around the world and<br />

create alliances to improve their works.’<br />

Website: http://www.icbtstoronto.<br />

com/14850598/paris-call-for-paper<br />

The Third Conference on <strong>Sustainable</strong><br />

Tourism and Hospitality in Asia (COSTA<br />

2015) Conference<br />

April 26th to April 28th 2015 / Hiroshima, Japan<br />

‘The aim of the conference is to foster<br />

greater communication and collaboration<br />

between scientists, practitioners, and policy<br />

makers, in seeking innovative and pragmatic<br />

approaches to sustainable tourism and<br />

hospitality.’<br />

http://presdafoundation.org/sustainabletourism-hospitality-conference<br />

Humanitarian Technology: Science,<br />

Systems and Global Impact<br />

12th May–14th May 2015 / Cambridge, United<br />

States<br />

‘Technically-focused international<br />

conference designed to explore emerging<br />

technologies that further enable global<br />

humanitarian assistance.’<br />

http://www.humanitariantechnology.org<br />

80<br />

7th International Conference on<br />

<strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong> and Planning<br />

May 19th-May 21th 2015 / Istanbul, Turkey<br />

‘The Conference addresses subjects of<br />

regional development in an integrated way<br />

as well as in accordance with the principles<br />

of sustainability.’ http://www.wessex.ac.uk/15-<br />

conferences/sustainable-development-andplanning-2015.html<br />

Joint International Conference Managing<br />

<strong>Sustainable</strong> Growth (MIC 2015)<br />

May 28th to May 30th, 2015 / Portorož, Slovenia<br />

‘The aim of the conference Managing<br />

<strong>Sustainable</strong> Growth is to analyse various<br />

aspects of sustainable economic growth<br />

and development, and to offer researchers<br />

and professionals the opportunity to<br />

discuss the most demanding other issues of<br />

sustainability.’<br />

Website: http://www.mic15.fm-kp.si<br />

Modelling Innovation Sustainability and<br />

Technologies Conference<br />

June 8th-June 9th, 2015 / Lisbon, Portugal<br />

‘The rise of the middle class in China,<br />

Brazil, and India, among other countries,<br />

the challenges on the employment and the<br />

future of work in the context of automation,<br />

poverty reduction, water and climate<br />

change, represent just a shortlist of very<br />

good reasons to investigate and to discover<br />

innovative solutions to answer the world<br />

global questions, and to design from the<br />

scratch new business models that address<br />

environmental impacts.’<br />

http://misteike.org<br />

Sustainability in Energy and Buildings,<br />

SEB-15 Conference<br />

1st July-3rd July, 2015 / Lisbon, Portugal<br />

‘Aim of the conference is to bring together<br />

researchers and government and industry<br />

professionals to discuss the future of energy<br />

in buildings, neighbourhoods and cities from<br />

a theoretical, practical, implementation, and<br />

simulation perspective. The conference will<br />

be an exciting chance to present, interact,<br />

and learn, about the latest research in<br />

Sustainability in Energy and Buildings.’<br />

http://seb-15.sustainedenergy.org<br />

<strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong> Conference<br />

July 5th-July 7th 2015 / Bangkok, Thailand<br />

‘A forum, discussion and networking place<br />

for academics, researchers, professionals,<br />

administrators, educational leaders, policy<br />

makers, industry representatives, advanced<br />

students, and others.’<br />

http://www.sdconference.org<br />

Humanitarian Innovation Conference<br />

2015: Facilitating Innovation<br />

July 17th-July 18th, 2015 / Oxford, United<br />

Kingdom<br />

‘A key focus of the conference will explore<br />

how we enable innovation, by and for<br />

affected communities. It will also seek to<br />

examine what facilitation means across the<br />

wider humanitarian ecosystem, and how<br />

we can better convene the collective talents<br />

of people within and across traditional and<br />

non-traditional humanitarian actors.’<br />

http://www.ox.ac.uk/event/humanitarianinnovation-conference-2015-facilitatinginnovation<br />

International Conference on Education for<br />

<strong>Sustainable</strong> <strong>Development</strong> (ICESD 2015)<br />

October 6th-October 7th, 2015 / Ebonyi State,<br />

Nigeria.<br />

‘The conference aims to provide a forum<br />

to researchers, practitioners, educators,<br />

entrepreneurs, representatives of industries,<br />

educational research institutes across<br />

developing nations, and scholars in the<br />

education sector, for sharing their research<br />

findings and experiences on various aspects<br />

of education, including recent trends, issues,<br />

and challenges.’<br />

http://icesd2015.org<br />

SSD_Events.indd 80 04/03/2015 14:07

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