Urban Planning in Berlin, London, Paris and Chicago 1910 and 2010

Urban Planning in Berlin, London, Paris and Chicago 1910 and 2010

Urban Planning in Berlin, London, Paris and Chicago 1910 and 2010


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Urban Planning

in Berlin, London,

Paris and Chicago

1910 and 2010

Introduction p. 1

100 Years General Town Planning

Exhibition in Berlin

Town planning concerns everyone. It influences

not just where and how we live and work, and how

much we move around, but ultimately our happiness

and well-being and that of our descendants. But

it also has an impact on the ‘costs’ of urban living,

today and in the future.

Planning creates hopes and visions for a better,

more liveable city. Over the years it has also been the

subject of criticism and outrage. It has a long history

and has been practised since cities came into existence.

It is only since shortly before the First World

War, however, that town planning was established

as a profession with its own visions, principles

and methods. And back then it was a success story.

General Town Planning Exhibition in Berlin 1910

On 1st May, the ‘Allgemeine Städtebau-Ausstellung’

(General Town Planning Exhibition) opened its gates at

the Royal Arts Academy in Charlottenburg at Harden -

bergstrasse (today Berlin’s University of the Arts).

The exhibition was inspired by the urban planning

competition for Greater Berlin, the results of which

were shown alongside many projects and plans from

Germany and abroad. It reached a broad audience,

attracting 65,000 visitors; success which came

as a surprise to some. The feedback from abroad

was equally positive. In August of the same year,

it was shown in Düsseldorf and in the autumn some

sections of the exhibition were presented at the

International Town Planning Conference in London.

City Visions 1910 | 2010

Introduction p. 2

The exhibition City Visions 1910 | 2010 is a celebration

of the anniversary of the General Town Planning

Exhibition. It compares two key moments in time:

The years around 1910 and 2010.


The planning exhibition of 1910 presented the

summation of contemporary urbanist thought and

knowledge. It was the first time that an exhibition

had given a comprehensive account of the reality

of the built environment of metropolitan areas

in the industrial age. The aim was to find solutions

‘for the demands of traffic as well as beauty, public

health and economic efficiency’. The main message

was that the problems of large cities could only

be overcome with a multi-disciplinary approach.


A hundred years later today’s agenda in the post-

industrial metropolis is determined by a sustainable

design approach. The big themes have remained

the same to some degree; their context has changed

dramatically, however. A new understanding of urban

development is finding its way into town planning

strategies, which are often broad in approach and

controversial in design. At the same time new problems

that threaten the integrity of cities are emerging

such as a dramatic weakening of the influence

of the public sector, the encroachment of private

companies on the public realm and new forms of

social polarisation as a result of de-industrialisation

and immigration.

Introduction p. 3

Berlin | Paris | London | Chicago

The exhibition concentrates on Berlin, Paris, London

and Chicago, four outstanding metropolitan cities,

whose approaches to town planning attracted a lot

of attention in 1910 as it does today.


In 1910 Berlin was trying to find answers to the

challenges of unplanned growth in the industrial age.

100 years later Berlin is considered a model city of

the post-industrial society.


Paris in 1910 was characterised by the big plans

and visions of Eugène Hénard. Today’s Grand Pari(s)

initiative marks an era of a new national urban

development policy.


Previously Greater London was the birthplace of the

Garden City Movement, which aimed to decentralise

the metropolis in an orderly way. Today it has

become the model of a renaissance of urban centres.


In Chicago the world famous plan of Daniel H. Burnham

was introduced in 1909. This aspired to enhance

a city seen as lacking in beauty. Chicago Metropolis

2020 presents itself as a new strategic plan to

develop a sustainable metropolitan region.


1910: 1.67 million

2010: 3.46 million


1910: 66 km 2 (25.5 mi 2 )

2010: 892 km 2 (344 mi 2 )

10 miles

One hundred years ago Berlin was

going through immense growth,

encouraged by private initiatives.

This raised numerous key issues:

at the fore were the issues of housing

provision, transport capacity

and the availability of public open

space. At the same time planning

professionals considered Berlin

to be an urban laboratory, where

new visions and new approaches

to planning were tested. Many

of these ideas were made visible

at the Town Planning Exhibition

in 1910.

After the First World War the

circumstances changed dramatically.

Berlin was decentralised,

the construction of housing in

urban areas largely ceased and

urban planning became public

sector led. By the end of the Second

World War, East and West Berlin

faced grave housing shortages.

Social housing delivery, however,

was primarily concentrated in

suburban areas. The compact and

densely populated fabric of Berlin

that had been severely decimated

by bombings was further decreased

by demolition programmes

and car-oriented infrastructure


In the years following the First

World War, Berlin relied on strict

planning policy controls and heavy

subsidies. Since the fall of the Wall


City Portraits

in 1989, Berlin’s public sector-led

approach to urban planning has

faced new challenges. Nowadays,

an ageing population, increased

social polarisation and climate

change require new wasys of

working. This comes at a time

when the public sector is drastically

reducing its lead role.

Today, Berlin is concentrating

its scarce resources on the central

district. Alongside its historic

splendour, the inner city is still

home to former industrial sites

and a great deal of former workingclass

areas with dense tenement

housing, which suffer from social

exclusion but are also places

to experiment.

The outer districts, especially

their vast social housing developments,

are also important. The

major city region of today is larger

than its predecessor in 1910 and

it is stretching beyond Berlin’s

administrative boundaries into the

federal state of Brandenburg.

Limiting urban sprawl on one hand

and addressing the renaissance

of the southern half of the city

region, catalysed by the new Berlin

Brandenburg International Airport

and the revitalisation of Potsdam,

require combined efforts from

the authorities of Berlin and


10 miles

In 1910, London — the heart of the

British Empire — was the capital

of the largest political system in the

world and the largest city in Europe.

In this era, many urban planning

strategies were designed to improve

imperial London, such as the construction

of the ceremonial route,

The Mall and the Kingsway through

Holborn. This followed half a century

from 1855 when large scale urban

infrastructure projects such as

sewers and underground railways

had been pioneered in London.

Large and all-encompassing urban

plans, however, did not really stand

a chance in London around 1900,

at least in central London. The

urban structure of the inner city

experienced little change until the

widespread destruction caused

by the Second World War. Efforts

to decentralise metropolitan

areas, through the development

of garden suburbs and new towns,

were meticulously executed over

decades. London doubled in size

between 1918 and 1939 but lost

population in the 1950s and 1960s

at the height of the decentralisation

to the new and expanded

towns such as Harlow, Stevenage

and Peterborough, regaining its

upward growth from the 1980s.

Industrial decline in London has

freed up many industrial sites for

redevelopment. One of the largest

such sites, was the port of the


City Portraits


1910: 7.16 million

2009: 7.8 million (in 2009)


1900: 311 km 2 (120 mi 2 )

2001: 1,623 km 2 (627 mi 2 )

(Greater London in 2001)

West India Docks in East London,

which was redeveloped into the

Canary Wharf business district

during the 1980s. This vast project

has moved the financial centre of

London eastwards. The late 1990s

brought a u-turn in policy from

de centralisation towards re-urbanisation,

and focused on increased

competition and innovation within

the service and tourism sectors.

The cuts to the system of local

politics and planning made by the

Conservative government under

Margaret Thatcher, reached their

zenith in 1986 with the abolition

of the Greater London Council,

London’s regional governing body.

Its functions were transferred to

the boroughs and the Government

Office for London. The city was

in desperate need of coordinated,

regional planning and so, in the

year 2000, under Tony Blair’s

Labour government, the Greater

London Authority (GLA) was established.

The GLA is an institution

that sees London’s urban development

as a top priority. Strategically

placed urban projects, steered

by a comparatively lean authority,

equipped with similarly lean

budgets, are intended to support

the regeneration of targeted areas

within London. The aim is to turn

London into a city that is economically

thriving, inclusive and sustainable,

with high-quality design.


1914: 2.9 million

Greater Paris region:

> 4 million since 1904

2010: 2.2 million

Greater Paris region:

10.2 million


1910: approx. 100 km 2 (39 mi 2 )

2010: 105 km 2 (40 mi 2 )

Greater Paris region:

2.8 km 2 (1051 mi 2 )

10 miles

By 1910 Paris had accomplished its

dramatic redevelopment programme,

begun during the second

half of the 19th century. This redevelopment,

associated with the

name of prefect Georges Eugène

Haussmann, continues to affect

the fabric and image of the central

city today. Until 1910, its connectivity

to the outer areas was strongly

limited by the historic city wall.

At that time, all attempts to break

this ring failed. The construction

of the underground metro since

1900 and later the introduction of

the regional-high speed-rail system

in the 1970s, however, has since

connected the inner city with outer

areas. Since the 1960s the urban

ring road, Boulevard Périférique,

forms a new barrier.

Neither government nor any other

official planning policy co-ordinated

metropolitan planning / activities

for a long time. The ‘banlieue’, or

urban fringe, remained dominated

by ‘pavillonnaire’, single dwelling

suburban housing. The construction

of five new satellite cities, ‘villes

nouvelles’, from 1965 onwards

has not changed the situation

notably. However, over the last

ten years some new ideas have

emerged. In 2007 the dispute over

the competition for the conversion

of the covered market, Les Halles,

led to a change in opinion about


City Portraits

the importance of this central

location for the entire metropolitan


In June 2009 the cross-borough

partnership, Paris Métropole, was

founded. The historically single

centre-focused Paris is moving

away from splendid isolation.

An expert study by 10 invited

planning groups, Le Grand Pari du

Grand Paris (The Big Challenge

for Greater-Paris), began in 2008

and promised a comprehensive

urban vision. The study envisages

a metropolis suited to the post-

Kyoto Protocol era committing to

reduce the emission of greenhouse

gases, in terms of mobility, density,

densification of the ‘pavillonaire’

(single dwelling suburban housing

areas), regeneration of the ‘grands

ensembles’ (large social housing

estates), urban agriculture and,

lastly, a new structuring of the

spatial organisation of the entire

metropolitan area. The details

of the overall process are highly

debated by the public. The history

of ‘Grand Paris’ might have to

be rewritten.


1910: 2.19 million

2010: 2.70 million

Greater Chicago region:

9.8 million


1920: 500 km 2 (192.8 mi 2 )

2010: approx. 606 km 2 (234 mi 2 )

of which approx. 588 km 2

(227 mi 2 ) is land surface.

10 miles

The second half of the 19th century

brought a phase of incredible

growth for Chicago — which had

not even existed prior to 1800

and was only made a city in 1836.

Within a few decades the city

turned from a small military town

on Lake Michigan to the second

biggest city in the USA and into one

of largest industrial metropolitan

areas in the world. The city became

famous for its dynamism and

prosperity. The unmanaged growth

that accompanied Chicago’s rapid

industrialisation, however, was

characterised by housing shortages,

social conflict, traffic chaos and

unsanitary conditions. The business

elite of the city, in a group called

the Commercial Club, responded

to these problems by commissioning

the Plan of Chicago (1909).

The Plan, designed by Daniel

Burnham and Edward Bennett,

delivered a regional approach to

planning of hitherto unknown scale.

It was recognised as exemplar

well beyond the borders of the US.

Unfortunately this dynamic ‘Spirit

of Chicago’ could not prevent the

post ‘Great Depression’ and World

War II decline of the city which

accelerated because of suburbanisation

and deindustrialisation.

Until the early 1980s, Chicago

was still suffering from the consequences

of this decline and of

comprehensive Urban Renewal


City Portraits

programmes, the construction of

inner city motorways, which were

mostly implemented after World

War II, despite its many modernist

architectural gems. Many parts of

the city were dominated by urban

decline and poverty, with the

declining central business district

surrounded by derelict, post-

industrial quarters.

Nowadays, Chicago’s inner city

area is an attractive workplace,

popular leisure centre and most of

all a desirable residential location.

Its reputation comes mainly from

an innovative approach regarding

urban revitalisation since the

1990s, but also from a clever

combination of market orientated

development policies and strategic

planning. Once again the Commercial

Club helped to deliver change

to the City through planning.

Of particular importance for the

change in planning strategy was

the support given by Richard

M. Daley, Mayor of Chicago since

1989. The socially ambivalent

consequences of this market-

orientated development are very

much apparent in Chicago’s urban

fabric today, mainly in buzzing

public spaces and parks or re-used

historic buildings.

1910 Chapter #1

The big urban plan, and its presentational

medium, the bird’s eye view,

was considered a driving force of

urban planning by 1910. This approach

formed part of a clear style of 20th

century planning, distinct from planning

practices in the 19th century.

This later form of planning used

more pragmatic urban extension

plans to steer the enormous growth

of cities in the era of industrialisation.

The competition ‘Groß­Berlin

1908/1910’ for example, demanded

a comprehensive reform of the

entire metropolitan region including

the historic centre and the suburbs.

In the 19th century town planning

was mostly based on defining the

border between public and privately

owned land, the regulation of building

heights, and initiatives to improve

the city’s technical and transport

infra structures. A more holistic

approach to planning developed in

the 20th century, which included

subjects such as road and rail infrastructure,

public recreation spaces

healthy living conditions and the

grouping of grand civic buildings.


Big Plan

Fascination with the ‘big plan’ was an

international phenomenon. The laborious

images were no longer directed

exclusively at aristocrats or planning

experts, but were looking to appeal

to a broad section of the population

to convince them of the need for

radical plans. The American City

Beautiful Movement is a prime example.

In 1909 politicians and civilians

alike were particularly drawn to the

Plan of Chicago because of its impressive

bird’s eye views painted by

Jules Guerin. This popular plan,

effective as an advertisement yet

extremely complex, became the

subject of a local, national and international

media hype. Today the Plan

of Chicago continues to symbolise

the ‘big plan’.

Make no little plans; they

have no magic to stir men’s

blood […]. Make big plans;

aim high in hope and work,

remembering that a noble,

logical diagram once record

ed will never die, but long

after we are gone will be a

living thing, asserting itself

with ever­growing insistency.

Quote attributed to Daniel H. Burnham,

speech at the Town Planning Conference,

London 1910

1910 #1 — The Big Plan Berlin p. 1


The plan for the spatial development

of Greater Berlin (Grundplan für die

bauliche Entwicklung von Groß-Berlin)

is one of two projects that were awarded

the first prize in the urban planning

competition for Greater Berlin 1908/1910.

The main topic of Hermann Jansen’s

contribution was ‘within the limits of

possibility’. Jansen became Professor

Hermann Jansen

Plan for the spatial development

of Greater Berlin

Contribution to the urban planning competition

for Greater Berlin 1908/1910

of Urban Planning at the Technische

Hochschule Berlin­Charlottenburg in

1923. The plan at a scale of 1:10,000

roughly covers the area of Berlin today,

a size which was initially reached in 1920.

The plan includes eye­catching features,

including parklands and open spaces,

and a railway network, both above and



Hermann Jansen

Contribution to the urban planning

competition for Greater Berlin

1908 /1910, overview

Courtesy: Architekturmuseum der

Technischen Universität Berlin, Inv. Nr. 20513

1910 #1 — The Big Plan Berlin p. 2 1910 #1 — The Big Plan Paris p. 2

Albert Gessner

Vision for Berlin’s urban city region

Contribution to the urban planning competition

for Greater Berlin 1908/1910


This aerial view shows a vision of

an ordered, urban metropolis. It

clearly demonstrates how Greater

Berlin was perceived on a regional

level. The lower third of the

picture shows Kreuzberg Hill. In

the background is Berlin’s green

hinterland, with numerous waterways.

The picture was part of the

contribution by Berlin’s architect

Albert Gessner for the competition

for Greater Berlin 1908/1910

and it won a special prize of the

jury. It followed the motto

‘Become the most comfortable

place to live in the world’

(‘Werde der wohnlichste Wohnort

der Welt’).


Albert Gessner

Contribution to the urban

planning competition for

Greater Berlin 1908 /1910,

Südbahnhofstreet to

Lake Müggel, bird’s eye view

Courtesy: Architekturmuseum der

Technischen Universität Berlin, Inv. Nr. 8014

Léon Jaussely / Roger-Henri Expert /

Louis Sollier

Plan for redevelopment and

extension of Paris

The plan for the redevelopment and

extension of Paris by Léon Jaussely, Roger­

Henri Expert and Louis Sollier won the

first prize in a competition for the extension

and beautification of Paris in 1919.

The basis for the competition, run by the

Département Seine was the release of a

new town planning law from 1919

(Loi Cornudet). The award­winning plan

is considered to be a summary of urban

visions for Grand Paris in the 1910s. The

design is reminiscent of the (also awardwinning)

plan, which Hermann Jansen

submitted for Berlin in 1910.

Framed facsimile:

Léon Jaussely, Roger-Henri

Expert, Louis Sollier

Plan for the redevelopment

and extension of Paris, 1919

Courtesy: Académie d’architecture /

Cité de l’architecture et du patrimoine /

Archives d’architecture du XXe siècle


1910 #1 — The Big Plan London p. 1

This plan is a curious manifesto of idealism

and coherence. Waterhouse reconfigured

the patchwork chaos of London’s

urban fabric into a geometrically ordered

plan, but kept the most important sites,

such as a Royal Palace which would have

replaced Buckingham Palace, in their

historically­determined locations. His plan

was a retroactive manifesto as it maintained

the randomness of historical evolution,

and so demonstrated how London

could have been shaped by a general

plan when there was no desire to have

such a plan.

Paul Waterhouse

An Imaginary

Plan for London

Framed facsimile:

Paul Waterhouse

An Imaginary Plan

of London, 1907

Courtesy: RIBA Library

Drawings & Archives



1910 #1 — The Big Plan Chicago p. 2

Daniel H. Burnham / Edward H. Bennett

Plan of Chicago

Bird’s-eye view looking at Chicago

on the banks of Lake Michigan


Chicago’s strategic position on

two important waterways, and

its importance as a railway centre,

turned the city into a key infrastructure

hub in North America

in the second half of the 19th

century. Burnham’s vision for

the Plan of Chicago was illustrated

with watercolour paintings

drawn in Burnham’s office but

coloured in by Jules Guerin. The

vast extent of the area depicted

in the drawings matches the

scale of opportunities available

to the rapidly growing Chicago.

The existing transport infrastructure

in the region facilitated

Chicago’s expansion plans.


Daniel H. Burnham,

Edward H. Bennett

Plan of Chicago, bird’s eye

view over Chicago on the

banks of Lake Michigan,


Drawing: Jules Guerin

Courtesy: Chicago History


1910 Chapter #2


City Centre

The exceptional growth of large

urban regions put enormous pressure

to modernise on many pre­industrial

cities in Europe. Next to traditional

civic buildings like churches, castles

and town halls, new buildings were

erected such as universities, museums,

theatres, monuments to trade and

commerce, hotels, and government

and administrative buildings. The development

of the contemporary city

centre most notably grew around

train stations and along high streets.

Medieval historic centres were rendered

less relevant and became sites

for radical redevelopment and demolition,

often to clear the way for new


The main objective of the ruling

classes in the era before the First

World War was the construction of

the Monumentalstadt (Monumental

City). An impressive ‘arrangement of

monumental buildings’ was intended

to give the public realm a new and

impressive dimension.

The unchallenged model for these

kinds of transformations was Paris,

which in 1853 was given a modern

yet artful compact shape by Georges­Eugène

Haussmann. Haussmann

concentrated on the meticulous

application of classic design principles

such as ‘axis’ and ‘symmetry’

and therefore focused on a historically

grounded understanding of

‘monumentality’. Via the Parisian

École des Beaux-Arts, which had a

strong influence on urban planning

in the United States, the idea of monumentality

was adopted by Daniel H.

Burnham in the Plan of Chicago of

1909 and informed the City Beautiful


In London the redevelopment of the

Mall embodied a symbol of global

power, though was relatively small

in size, and its impact on the city as

a whole was not great. Paris followed

with projects by Eugène Hénard. At

the Greater Berlin competition 1908/

1910, Eber stadt, Möhring & Petersen

proposed to transform the Königsplatz

(the King’s Square) into the Reichsforum

(National Forum) of imperial grandeur,

while Bruno Schmitz, with his bird’s

eye view of a monumental Berlin,

even outplayed Burnham’s civic

design for Chicago.

Most large cities only show

character in their city centres.

Translated from Werner Hegemann, in:

‘Der Städtebau nach den Ergebnissen der

Allgemeinen Städtebau-Ausstellung in Berlin’,

Vol. 1, Berlin 1911

1910 #2 — Monumental City Centre Berlin p. 1

The most startling contribution to the

Greater Berlin competition was the

set of large charcoal drawings made by

respected preservationist Bruno Schmitz.

The drawings displayed a vision for

Berlin, which overstated the scale of

Berlin as a world city. A ‘monumental

city’ (Monumentalstadt) north of the

Koenigsplatz, accommodating palaces

of the arts and civic buildings, form

the largest of five areas included in the

expansion of Berlin’s city centre. To

avoid disturbing the artistic expression

of his drawings, Schmitz did not define

any specific uses.

Havestadt & Contag / Schmitz & Blum

Monumental City Centre

Contribution to the

urban planning competition

for Greater Berlin 1908/1910

Framed facsimile,


Havestadt & Contag,

Schmitz und Blum

Contribution to the urban

planning competition for

Greater Berlin 1908 /1910,

New-Berlin around

North Central Station,

bird’s eye view

Courtesy: Architekturmuseum

der Technischen Universität

Berlin, Inv. Nr. 8010


Havestadt & Contag,

Schmitz und Blum

Contribution to the urban

planning competition for

Greater Berlin 1908 /1910,

New-Berlin around

South Central Station,

bird’s eye view

Courtesy: Architekturmuseum

der Technischen Universität

Berlin, Inv. Nr. 8008


1910 #2 — Monumental City Centre Berlin p. 3

Joseph Brix / Felix Genzmer

Upgrading of Königgrätzer Street between

Anhalt Station and Potsdam Station

Contribution to the urban planning competition

for Greater Berlin 1908/1910

Like other competitors, Brix and Genzmer

proposed a north­south railway line to be

run under Berlin’s central park (Tiergarten).

With two stations close to Potsdamer Platz

there was not enough space to cope with

the number of people moving to and from

the station. This was solved by directing

commuter trains to Potsdam Station

(Potsdamer Bahnhof) and national rail to

Anhalt Station (Anhalter Bahnhof). Both

were strategically linked by a newly widened

street, which freed up space for the

expansion of the business district around

Leipziger and Potsdamer Platz.



Brix & Genzmer

Contribution to the urban

planning competition for

Greater Berlin 1908 /1910,

perspective view of the

widened Königgrätzer

Street to become a grand

boulevard adjacent

to the station.

Painting: Otto


Courtesy: Architekturmuseum

der Technischen Universität

Berlin, Inv. Nr. 20132


Brix & Genzmer

Königgrätzer Street,

location plan

Courtesy: Architekturmuseum

der Technischen Universität



1910 #2 — Monumental City Centre Paris p. 1

Eugène Hénard

Promenade and viewing corridor between

Champs Élysées and Invalides

Only a few of the ideas of Eugène Hénard

were ever realised. One of them was the

magnificent promenade and visual axis,

which was created for the World’s Fair in

1900. The promenade, which spanned the

River Seine, was designed to connect two

significant areas of the city, the Champs

Élysées and the Esplanade des Invalides.

The Alexander III Bridge (Pont Alexandre

III) was built specifically to form this link.

Hénard’s promenade effectuated one of

the most significant transformations in the

layout of Paris since the extensive interventions

of Georges­Eugène Haussmann

in the 19th century.


Eugène Hénard

The new promenade

Champs Élysées –

Esplanade des Invalides,

bird’s eye view

Courtesy: Cité de l‘architecture

et du patrimoine / Archives

d‘architecture du XXe siècle

(Reproduction of unknown origin)


Eugène Hénard

The new promenade

Champs Élysées –

Esplanade des Invalides,

plan, 1894 / 1900

Courtesy: Cité de l‘architecture

et du patrimoine / Archives

d‘architecture du XXe siècle

(Reproduction of unknown origin)



1910 #2 — Monumental City Centre London p. 1

Aston Webb

Design for the

Queen Victoria Monument

Plan and bird’s eye view

The redesign of The Mall, by Aston

Webb in the early 20th century, forms

the centrepiece of imperial urban planning

in London. The large statue of Queen

Victoria in front of Buckingham Palace,

and Admiralty Arch, which forms the

entrance to The Mall, were part of Webb’s

redesign. Webb also added the very thin

stone facing to the palace’s façade.


Aston Webb

Design for the Queen

Victoria Monument and

the redevelopment of The

Mall, bird’s eye view, 1903

Courtesy: RIBA Library Drawings

& Archives Collections


1910 #2 — Monumental City Centres London p. 2

With his plan to create a new thoroughfare

in the centre of London, Paul

Waterhouse hoped to improve east­west

circulation of traffic. His street layout,

however, was not straight like Georges­

Eugène Haussmann’s design for Paris,

but curved, following John Nash’s design

Paul Waterhouse

Central Plan of London

for Regent Street. Waterhouse thought

the composition would create surprising

moments and enable the design of

interesting commercial buildings.


Paul Waterhouse

Central Plan of London

showing changes to the

two main roads as well

as one additional

thoroughfare south of

the Thames, 1907

Courtesy: RIBA Library

Drawings & Archives



1910 #2 — Monumental City Centre Chicago p. 1

The planners of Chicago paid special

attention to its core or central area, where

central junctions were identified as ideal

locations for grand civic buildings. At the

terminus of an impressive boulevard, was

a 50,000 square metre forum for civic

administration, with the town hall at its

heart. The administrative cluster was never

realised and its site is now a huge motorway


Daniel H. Burnham / Edward H. Bennett

Plan of Chicago

Bird’s-eye view looking from the west with

proposed Civic Center Plaza as urban centre


Daniel H. Burnham,

Edward H. Bennett

Plan of Chicago, bird’s eye

view looking over the city

from the west, showing

proposed Civic Center

Plaza as central hub of

a system of main traffic

thorough-fares and

surroundings, 1909

Drawing: Jules Guerin

Courtesy: Chicago History



1910 Chapter #3

New Models for

Dense Urban Living

‘The housing problem’ formed the

central debate in the European town

planning discourse. Criticism was

focused on the living conditions of

workers in densely­built and overcrowded

tenement housing areas.

Towards the end of the 19th century

these stretched well beyond the

boundary of the city centres into

new developments in the outskirts.

Planners generally saw their own

cities as a ‘bad example’ and looked

to others to draw inspiration. While

Ebenezer Howard wanted to get rid

of the chaos of London, Daniel H.

Burnham recommended George­

Eugène Haussmann’s Paris as a role

model for Chicago’s reorganisation.

This in turn was a nightmare prospect

for many reformers in Germany, who

viewed London with its suburbs as a

role model.

This international climate of criticism

and propaganda furthered impressive

urban alternatives to high­density city

centres. Berlin was one of the centres

of discussion and a testing ground

for new ideas. Experiments with new

urban block typologies, private roads,

mixed­use developments and new

district centres in the urban fringe

were manifold. Eugène Hénard

invented a new ‘stepped’ building

structure for Paris which allowed

façades to project into the streets

they flanked, an alternative that

never saw the light of day.

London’s slums began to be replaced

with modern workers’ quarters funded

from the public purse and charities.

Daniel H. Burnham was inspired by

an all­embracing streamlining of the

large city. All these alternatives insisted

on dense urban patterns, urban

streets and public spaces.

The biggest new invention was a new

type of large­scale urban project;

new city districts built in one go by

a new generation of private land development

companies. These were

typ ically narrow building blocks with

courtyards and were mainly targeted

at high­income residents. To some

progressive planners of the era such

private land development companies

were nothing more than speculative

developers. Their rented apartments

were compared to working class tenements

and urban design exhibitions

largely ignored these typologies.

1,088,269 of Berlin’s residents

(excluding Greater Berlin) are

living in flats, where every

single heated room contains

between 3 and 13 people.

Berlin has got a population

of 2,040,148.

Translated from Statistical Institute Berlin

(Chairman Heinrich Silbergleit),

at the Town Planning Exhibition 1910

1910 #3 — New Models for Dense Urban Living Berlin p. 2


Hermann Jansen

Contribution to the urban

planning competition for

Greater Berlin 1908 /1910,

proposed design for

Tempelhofer Feld

Courtesy: Architekturmuseum

der Technischen Universität

Berlin, Inv. Nr. 20553


Land parcels plan of

Tempelhofer Feld

Courtesy: Architekturmuseum

der Technischen Universität

Berlin, Inv. Nr. 20570

Hermann Jansen

Development of the Tempelhofer Feld

Contribution to the urban planning competition

for Greater Berlin 1908/1910

Framed facsimile:

Hermann Jansen

Contribution to the urban

planning competition for

Greater Berlin 1908 /1910,

bird’s eye view of the

proposed buildings on

the western part of

Tempelhofer Feld

Courtesy: Architekturmuseum

der Technischen Universität

Berlin, Inv. Nr. 20563


The development of the western

Tempelhofer Feld (Field) caused one of

the biggest disputes in Berlin prior to the

First World War. Hermann Jansen submitted

a design proposal to the Greater

Berlin 1908/1910 competition, for a

residential quarter, with an urban block

structure that omitted lateral blocks and

side wings. The bird’s eye view from

1910 shows an attractive urban alternative

to the outdated, dense tenement stock,

and a generous green belt can be seen

in the background. Jansen’s proposal

was never realised.



1910 #3 — New Models for Dense Urban Living Berlin p. 3

Carl-James Bühring

The Civic Forum Weißensee

In the heyday of local municipal competition,

some suburban authorities developed

local town centres, with the hope

of supporting localised urbanisation and

creating local identities. This helped to

establish the base for Berlin’s polycentric

structure. One example is the Civic Forum

(Kommunales Forum) of the Weißensee

borough. This forum, which was built

between 1907 and 1912, was based on

plans by the local development director,

Carl­James Bühring.

New centre in a growing metropolitan region


It comprised a hall for community uses,

a public pool, an innovative high school,

fire station and housing for civil servants

arranged around a small lake. Civic development

in Weißensee was made possible

by the establishment of a land acquisition

fund, a public initiative to acquire the

necessary properties.



Carl-James Bühring

Plan of the Civic Forum


Source: ‘Moderne Bauformen.

Monatshefte für Architektur und

Raumkunst’, 6 / 1915, p. 214


Secondary school at the

Civic Forum

Source: ‘Moderne Bauformen.

Monatshefte für Architektur und

Raumkunst’, 6 / 1915, p. 213


Hospice at the Civic Forum

Source: ‘Moderne Bauformen.

Monatshefte für Architektur und

Raumkunst’,, 6 / 1915,p. 219


1910 #3 — New Models for Dense Urban Living Paris p. 1

With his Boulevard à Redans — ‘stepped

boulevard’, Eugène Hénard developed

an alternative to the out­dated boulevards

of 19th century Paris. While Hénard’s

concept did not greatly alter building

density or landownership rights, interlocking

building frontage elements allowed

Eugène Hénard

Boulevard à Redans

for increased window sizes, improving

access to natural light and broke up the

wall created by building frontages Hénard’s

idea, however, was never implemented.


Aston Webb

Plan des Queen-Victoria-

Denkmals und die

Neuordnung der Mall.

Situationsplan und


Quelle: RIBA Library Drawings & Archives Collections

1 3


Eugène Hénard

Boulevard `a Redans,

1903, section, plan

Source: Eugène Hénard, ‘Études

sur les transformations de

Paris’, 1903 –1909


Comparison to traditional


Source: Eugène Hénard, ‘Études

sur les transformations de

Paris’, 1903 – 1909


Boulevard `a redans,


Courtesy: Eugène Hénard,

Études sur les transformations

de Paris, 1903 - 1909


1910 #3 — New Models for Dense Urban Living London p. 1

London County Council (LCC), Architects’ Department

Condition before and

after redevelopment 1893–1900



The Boundary Street Estate in

Bethnal Green (1893–1900) was

the first big project initiated by

the Architects’ Department of

the London County Council

(LCC) to clear slums and replace

them with flats for workers. The

simple, red brick buildings,

which featured traditional, residential

decorative elements such

as gables, surrounded a circular

green. The LCC applied ideas

from the Arts and Crafts Movement

to the design of buildings.

Despite their configuration in

rows — rather than perimeter

blocks — a mixed­use quarter

with many urban functions

was formed.


Boundary Street Scheme,

before renewal, 1893

Courtesy: City of London and

London Metropolitan Archives


Boundary Street Scheme,

after renewal, 1900

Courtesy: City of London and

London Metropolitan Archives

1910 #3 — New Models for Dense Urban Living Chicago p. 1

Daniel H. Burnham / Edward H. Bennett

Plan of Chicago

Planned boulevard connecting

north and south sides of the river


Chicago’s transport system

could not cope with its volume

of pass engers, and its business

quarter in particular was heavily

congested. One solution proposed

by the planners was the

widening of Michigan Avenue,

which had the purpose to separate

goods and service deliveries

from the elegant lives of shoppers.

Planned as a grand boulevard,

the entire road was to be elevated

so that the east­west

traffic could pass under neath

with help of ramps. A doubledecker

bridge was to then lead

the traffic unhindered across the

Chicago River.


Daniel H. Burnham,

Edward H. Bennett

Plan of Chicago, bird’s eye

view looking over the city

from the west, showing

proposed Civic Center

Plaza as central hub of a

system of main traffic

thorough-fares and

surroundings, 1909

Drawing: Jules Guerin

Courtesy: Chicago History


1910 Chapter #4

Green Belts,

Corridors and Parks

An orderly growth of metropolitan

areas with help of green grids and

green belts or green wedges was

seen by many social reformers as

a way to achieve health and well­

being of the metropolitan population.

Dense development of these areas

was to be structured with ‘decorative,

productive, outer and inner parks’

and flooded with light and air. Public

parks and baths, lidos and large recreational

areas for play and sport

were mostly planned for the working

classes. It was believed that a healthy

population would lead to an increase

in productivity.

In this context the work of landscape

architects came to the fare. The park

section of the Town Planning Exhibition

1910 was a favourite amongst

the visitors.

In Paris Eugène Hénard designed a

plan with nine parks, which, connected

through the ‘Boulevard à Redans’

alongside the former city wall, were

supposed to surround the inner city.

The entries for the Greater Berlin

competition 1908 contained a multitude

of concepts to make the metropolitan

region greener. While

Hermann Jansen proposed two concentric

green belts, Bruno Möhring

envisaged green strips that connected

the city centre with the city fringe.

In the US, park planning reached

hitherto unknown dimensions. The

Plan of Chicago, introduced in 1909

by Daniel H. Burnham and Edward

H. Bennett, envisaged several rings

of parks and thus linked their plan

conceptually to the Park networks of

the Olmsted Brothers. The aim was

to provide every resident in the city

with a park in walking distance. These

American park systems became a

much admired model for Europe.

These parks and open space

networks of the American cities

comprise everything that people

living in dense large cities need

for their recreation.

Translated from Leberecht Migge, in:

‘Die Gartenkultur des 20. Jahrhunderts’,

Jena 1913

1910 #4 — Green Belts, Corridors and Parks Berlin p. 1

The establishment and protection of green

infrastructure was a central concern for

the Greater Berlin competition 1908/10.

The plan by Brix and Genzmer, two professors

at the Technical University, aimed

to maintain surrounding woodlands as well

as significantly expanding green spaces.

Brix and Genzmer also suggested creating

an association with the purpose of acquiring

and managing the woodlands. However,

the jury criticised the plan, arguing

that the ‘green bands’ did not enter deep

enough into the urban centre.

Joseph Brix / Felix Genzmer

Plan for Green Spaces

Contribution to the urban planning competition

for Greater Berlin 1908/1910



Brix & Genzmer

Contribution to the urban

planning competition for

Greater Berlin 1908 /1910,

plan for green spaces

Courtesy: Architekturmuseum der

Technischen Universität Berlin,

Inv. Nr. 20122


Scheme drawing of the

arrangement of green


Source: Eberstadt, Rudolf /

Möhring, Bruno / Petersen,

Richard: ‘Groß-Berlin. Ein

Programm für die Planung

der neuzeitlichen Großstadt’,

Berlin 1901, p. 5


1910 #4 — Green Belts, Corridors and Parks Berlin p. 2

Before the World War I there was widespread

criticism of the lack of playgrounds

and usable small urban spaces (playgrounds,

parks, promenades) in Berlin.

One attempt to rectify this situation was

the Schillerpark, built 1909–1913 in the

North of Berlin and designed by landscape

architect and ‘gardening poet’

Friedrich Bauer of Magdeburg. This park

was widely praised at the time, Werner

Hegemann called the Schillerpark the

Friedrich Bauer

Schillerpark in Berlin

‘first modern park in Berlin’, as it allotted

large spaces to be used for playing sports

and games. The ‘meadow for citizens’

on the left was intended for relaxation

purposes, while the ‘meadow for students’

on the right was for sport.


Friedrich Bauer

Plan of the Schillerpark

in Berlin, 1909 –1913

Source: ‘Bericht über die

Gemeinde-Verwaltung der Stadt

Berlin in den Verwaltungs-Jahren

1906 bis 1910’, Vol.1, Berlin 1912,

after p. 222


1910 #4 — Green Belts, Corridors and Parks Paris p. 1

Eugène Hénard

Expansion of Paris



Eugène Hénard’s plan from

1905, which was never implemented,

addressed a public

debate about the extremely low

proportion of green spaces in

Paris. The planning area included

the suburban area (Grand

Paris) and comprised 165 km2

with 3.47 million residents

(1906). The plan proposed a

homogenous distribution of new

parks, particularly in areas where

parks were lacking. Furthermore

Hénard suggested a total merge

of the suburbs (banlieue) with

Paris — an idea which still preoccupies

planners today.


Eugène Hénard

Extension of Paris with

existing and newly

created green spaces,


Source: ‘Der Städtebau’,

7/1910, table 1/2


Eugène Hénard

Population density in Paris

and surroundings, 1909

Source: ‘Der Städtebau’,

7/1910, table 1/2

1910 #4 — Green Belts, Corridors and Parks Chicago p. 2

Frederick Law Olmsted / John Charles Olmsted

Park No.2


Chicago’s park system included

several neighbourhood parks,

which were comparatively small

(on average 4 hectares). They

were used for recreation and child

play. Park No. 2, for example contained

a large sports field, which

could be turned into an ice skating

rink in the winter. It also contained

a race track, a swimming

and paddling pool, a playground

and playing field for children as

well as a comm u nity centre. Such

facilities were typical of Chicago’s

new parks.


Park No. 2

Source: Werner Hegemann,

‘Der Städtebau’,

Vol. 2, Berlin 1913, fig. 305

1910 #4 — Green Belts, Corridors and Parks Chicago p. 3

Grant Park occupies the central part of

the urban waterfront of Lake Michigan.

The park itself was intended to be

Chicago’s cultural centre, with museums

and a library dedicated to the arts and

sciences. In front of the park a marina

was proposed, while to the north and

south, water parks with lagoons, beaches

and promenades were to be added. Their

purpose was to offer recreational facilities

for Chicago’s residents, especially during

the hot summer months.

Daniel H. Burnham / Edward H. Bennett

Plan of Chicago

Bird’s eye view of Grant Park with planned

marina, lagoons and park on the south side

Framed facsimile:

Daniel H. Burnham,

Edward H. Bennett

Plan of Chicago, bird’s eye

view of Grant Park, the

marina, lagoons and park

on the south side.

Drawing: Jules Guerin

Courtesy: Chicago History



1910 Chapter #5

New Garden


Suburbs had long existed alongside

large cities, but the arrival of railways

meant they could be far larger and

further from the city centre. The

prospect of more space and escape

from the increasingly dense, noisy

and unhealthy central areas gradually

made them favoured residential

districts for the middle class.

In 1898 Ebenezer Howard proposed

a radical new urban model, the

‘garden city’. It was conceived of

as a self­sufficient urban community,

co­operatively organised, made

greener and restricted to 32,000

residents. It aimed for an ideal synthesis

of city and countryside.

This idea was convincing. What

made the ‘garden cities’ distinctive

and attractive, in particular to the

middle classes, was their landscaping,

small commercial centres and good

transport connections to the central

city. Raymond Unwin planned the

first, Letchworth, and with his partner

Barry Parker produced a memorable

architectural idiom that slyly adjusted

vernacular architectural forms for

civic and private life.

The very attractiveness of the image

they produced undermined the purity

of Howard’s social ideals, because

the architecture was easier to imitate

than the social programme was to

inculcate. Consequently what looked

like garden cities were at best garden

suburbs, extensions to towns that

were not self­sufficient in the way

Howard envisaged.

The Garden City Movement had

barely begun to take off when it was

absorbed as yet another suburban

typology. Almost all contributions

to the Greater Berlin competition

1908/1910 used this typology. Examples

were the Garden City Frohnau

in Berlin (1908), London’s Hampstead

Garden Suburb (1905), also planned

by Unwin, and the Cité­Jardin du

Grand Paris (1919) in Paris.

The garden suburb of the early 20th

century was built around its own

local centre and train station, which

differs from later suburbs, characterised

by auto­centric, urban sprawl.

Ebenezer Howard, in:

‘Garden Cities of Tomorrow’,

London 1902

City and countryside need to

‘wed’ and the outcome will be

new hope, new life and a new


1910 #5 — New Garden Suburbs Berlin p. 1

In 1907, the construction of

Frohnau, a commercial garden

city was planned for the Northern

edge of Berlin. The client was

the Berliner Terrain­Centrale.

The design of Frohnau was decided

through a competition in

1908, won by Joseph Brix and

Felix Genzmer, both professors

at the Technical University of

Berlin. As the land parcels plan

from 1913 shows, the garden

city had a distinctive centre with

a square either side of the station,

surrounded by a system of

curved streets.

Joseph Brix / Felix Genzmer

Garden City Frohnau

1 2


Felix Genzmer

Plans for Berlin-Frohnau,


Courtesy: Architekturmuseum

der Technischen Universität

Berlin, Inv. Nr. 1273


Plan of the Garden City


Source: ‘Gartenstadt Frohnau

an der Nordbahn zwischen

Hermsdorf und Stolpe’, advert,

Berlin 1913

1910 #5 — New Garden Suburbs Berlin p. 3

Shortly before the World War I a radical

change took place in the typology of suburban

housing. The aim was to develop

small settlements and single house types

to make life outside the city centre increasingly

accessible to the less privileged

social classes. As part of the Greater Berlin

competition 1908/10 Hermann Jansen presented

a small residential estate with grouped

terraced houses. Jansen succeeded in

creating a relatively urban typology for

this project.

Hermann Jansen

A perfect small settlement

Contribution to the urban planning competition

for Greater Berlin 1908/1910


Hermann Jansen

Competition for Greater

Berlin 1908 /1910, estate

with small residences


bird’s eye view

Courtesy: Architekturmuseum

der Technischen Universität

Berlin, Inv. Nr. B 2619,06


1910 #5 — New Garden Suburbs London p. 2

Barry Parker / Raymond Unwin

Hampstead Garden Suburb

Hampstead Garden Suburb was the most

sophisticated and convincing plan for

a new garden suburb in London. Garden

suburbs differed from garden cities in

that they were attached to existing cities,

rather than self­contained social and economic

entities. It had begun as a social

enterprise by the philanthropist Henrietta

Barnett. In the first plan, Unwin and Parker

suggested an informal and curved network

of streets, which, together with the

traditional English village green, aimed to

give people a sense of traditional village

life. In 1908 Edwin Lutyens turned the

Green into a geometrically ordered town

square with the main frontage formed by

an educational building with two churches

at either side.

Unwin did not have typical suburban

single­family dwellings in mind when

he designed Hampstead Garden Suburb.

Even if the single dwelling formed the

basic typology these were part of a wider

spatial plan. Groupings of eight white

walled and red roofed single family

homes were designed, which created a

unified aesthetic, but allowed for slight

differences on second glance. In addition,

they were assembled around a communal

courtyard and grouped using shared

walls and roofs to create an

enclosed ensemble.





Bary Parker,

Raymond Unwin

Proposal for Hampstead

Garden Suburb, plan,


Courtesy: City of London and

London Metropolitan Archives


Bary Parker,

Raymond Unwin

Plan of Hampstead

Garden Suburb showing

Edwin Lutyens’ design for

the town square

Courtesy: London Metropolitan



Raymond Unwin

Design for group of eight

non-detached dwellings

for Hampstead Garden

Suburb, perspective, 1905

Courtesy: First Garden City

Heritage Museum, Letchworth

1910 Chapter #6



The traffic problem was hotly debated

at the Town Planning Exhibition in

1910. The prime objective was an improved

organisation of the expanding

metropolitan area with the help of a

system of radial high­speed rail and

primary roads. The centre was to

make way for the modern age of

transport with numerous projects to

drive new roads through historic

urban fabric. Metropolitan regions

and mass­transport have since become

important subjects in terms of

town planning.

The extreme growth of many

metropolises in the early 20th century,

made new transport infrastructure

projects inevitable. The old road

network could no longer cope with

the new requirements of passenger

and freight transportation.

The rail lines serving suburban commuters

already played an important

role in 1910. In the early 20th century

newly built and extended railway and

underground systems in Berlin, Paris,

London and Chicago improved connections

between the city centre and

the region. These were funded by

private companies or by the

public sector.

Whether lines were planned above or

below ground was often controversial.

Technical, design quality and financial

arguments had to be weighed

up. Costs for overground lines were

more affordable, but elevated railways

on viaducts were not only a

source of noise but also unsightly. Visions

of high­level railways joining

the tops of buildings did not come to


Many of the plans to open up new

streets inside the city centres, which

were exhibited at the Town Planning

Exhibition in 1910, never saw the light

of day. That spared catastrophic consequences

for the urban fabric

of many cities.

[…] for the first time ever there

has been a planning strategy

for the transport in metropolitan


Werner Hegemann on the

importance of transport issues, in:

‘Der Städtebau nach den

Ergebnissen der Allgemeinen

Städtebau-Ausstellung in Berlin’,

Vol. 2, Berlin 1913

1910 #6 — Metropolitan Mobility Berlin p. 1

Erich Giese

Design for a high-speed rail network

in Greater Berlin

Railways generated rapid growth in

greater Berlin during the second half of

the 19th century. Around 1900 high­speed

rail was the primary driver of de­urbanisation

as it brought more distant areas

within reach. In response to this pressure,

plans for expanding the rail network

became a central part of submissions for

the Greater Berlin competition 1908/10.

The proposal by Eric Giese from 1916

shows the fast growing rail network,

which was slowed down abruptly by

World War I.


Erich Giese

Design for a high-speed

rail network for Greater

Berlin, 1916

Courtesy: Erich Giese, ‘Das

zukünftige Schnellbahnnetz für

Groß-Berlin’, ed. Verband Groß-

Berlin, Berlin 1919, table 13


1910 #6 — Metropolitan Mobility Berlin p. 2

August Scherl

Proposal for an elevated railway

Radical alternatives to the outdated metro

railway system were a frequent topic of

discussion in the years before World War I,

due to the increasing importance of highspeed

rail transport for the metropolitan

region. August Scherl, publicist and media

mogul proposed an elevated railway in

1909. He recommended a radial­periphery

system with several concentric rings,

served by radial railways terminating at

a central station. The elevated trains never

came to fruition but they did attract a lot

of publicity.




August Scherl

Proposal for the central

station for an elevated

railway, 1909

Courtesy: August Scherl, ‘Ein

neues Schnellbahn-System.

Vorschläge zur Verbesserung

des Personen-Verkehrs’, Berlin

1909, p. 95


August Scherl

Proposal for an elevated

railway, 1909

Courtesy: August Scherl, ‘Ein

neues Schnellbahn-System.

Vorschläge zur Verbesserung

des Personen-Verkehrs’, Berlin

1909, p. 95

1910 #6 — Metropolitan Mobility London p. 1

Ebenezer Howard

Diagram of a central city with

surrounding garden cities

Arthur Crow

Map of the Ten Cities of Health



With his original Garden City

concept of a central city for

58,000 inhabitants, surrounded

by six well­connected small garden

cities of 32,000 inhabitants,

Ebenezer Howard proposed a

metropolitan planning vision as

an alternative to the chaotically

growing city. A schematic translation

of this diagram is presented

in the proposal of Ten Cities

of Health in London’s hinterland,

presented by Whitechapel’s

district surveyor at the London

Town Planning Conference of

the RIBA in 1910. It shows how

a social idea with utopian goals

can gradually be translated

into reality. This idea was only

realised after World War II in

the new towns that followed

Patrick Abercrombie’s Greater

London Plan of 1944, the New

Towns Act of 1946 or the Town

and Country Planning Act

of 1947.


Ebenezer Howard

Diagram of central city

with surrounding garden


Source: Ebenezer Howard,

‘Garden Cities of Tomorrow’,

2nd edition, London 1902


Arthur Crow

Map of the Ten Cities

of Health, 1910

Source: Town Planning

Conference, RIBA 1910

1910 #6 — Metropolitan Mobility Chicago p. 1

The design of the Plan of Chicago was

based on contemporary forecasts of population

growth from two to thirteen million

people over 30 years. The developed area

of the region around the southern part

of Lake Michigan had to grow in size

Daniel H. Burnham / Edward H. Bennett

Plan of Chicago

Plan of the outer, concentric

and radial highways

accordingly. A system made of radial and

concentric streets, the longest with a

radius of 90 km, were to provide a future

structure, interconnecting suburbs and

linking them back to the centre.



Daniel H. Burnham,

Edward H. Bennett

Plan of Chicago, plan of

the outer, concentric and

radial highways, 1909

Courtesy: Chicago History


2010 Chapter #7



The idea of ‘mobility’ is the trademark

of the 20 th and 21st century.

It is the embodiment of progress,

advancement, and of the future itself.

Pioneers in mobility can be found in

England, Germany, France and in the

US. Despite high­speed rail and electric

vehicle innovation, the car, with

its immense appetite for fossil fuels,

is still at the centre of investment in

mobility — a potent symbol of individual


Mobility continues to dominate urban

planning. The construction and extension

of motorways is top of the

priority list. This is no longer accepted

by everyone, however, and remains

highly controversial, as it nearly always

has been. The public is aware of the

increased destruction of the countryside

and air and noise pollution. Traffic

congestion is everyone’s urban nightmare.

Overcrowded public transport

is not a meaningful alternative while

increasing ridership and huge costs

make it difficult to satisfy demand

economically. Slowly but surely, however,

more sustainable means of transport,

which conserve resources and

reduce space consumption are gaining


Sustainable mobility must become an

integral part of urban planning. New

transport infrastructure is the armature

of our future regions. Dependence

on the car will only decline if alternatives

like trams and electric buses,

new inner city rail stations and the

urbanisation of airports, receive

sufficient investment.

Political initiatives like congestion

charging, promotion of cycling and

public space programmes also play

an important role. Metropolitan

regions are once again ‘paving the

way’ for new types of mobility, as

they did a hundred years ago.

Suddenly I had the thought

that the balance between

parks and car parks could be

the best indicator for quality

of life in our cities.

Lester R. Brown, in:

‘Plan B 2.0: Rescuing a Planet under Stress

& a Civilization in Trouble’, Washington DC, 2006

2010 #7 — Sustainable Mobility Berlin p. 1

J. S. K. International / gmp

Turn 3 into 1— The Transformation

of Berlin’s Airports

The new Berlin Brandenburg International

Airport is being built in southeast Berlin.

It will cost more than 3 billion and will be

complemented by a wide range of facilities

including an underground railway

station and a business park. It will have a

big impact on movement patterns in the

metropolitan area and on the hier archy of

urban areas. Berlin’s planning department

expects areas along the axis between the

airport and central train station in Berlin’s

centre to undergo strong redevelopment.

In South Berlin areas of which some have

been prosperous since the 19th century

will gain even more importance. In contrast,

combined with the closure of the existing

Tegel Airport, the North will lose out.


Masterplan Gateway BBI

Courtesy: Machleidt & Partner

with Thomas Jansen



BBI Airport City, aerial


Courtesy: gmp Architects / JSK

International Visualisation:

Björn Rolle


Berlin Brandenburg

International Airport (BBI):

FBS Flughafen Berlin

Schönefeld GmbH

Masterplan Gateway BBI:

Senate Department for

Urban Development,




J.S.K. International

Architekten und Ingenieure

GmbH / gmp



Masterplan Gateway BBI:

Machleidt & Partner





1,470 hectares


280.000 m²

gross building area

Airport City:

16 hectares, 148.000 m²

gross floor space

Masterplan Gateway BBI:

450 hectares


around 3 billion Euro



2010 #7 — Sustainable Mobility Berlin p. 2

The Berlin Senate Department for Urban

Development has been seeking to increase

the proportion of bicycles among Berlin’s

transportation options since 2006. At the

moment bicycle trips make up 13% of all

journeys. This should increase to 25% in

the inner city area. Berlin’s cycle lane

network, which covers 125 km, is being

extended by a further 30 km. New cycle

lanes will be largely located on roads.

Simultaneously, the German rail authority,

Deutsche Bahn, with the city of Berlin, is

developing the StadtRAD project, which

will enable public transport ticket holders

to make use of cycle hire.

Berlin’s Cycling Strategy


Senate Department for

Urban Development,



until 2011


Extension of bicycle route

network, July 2010

Courtesy: Senatsverwaltung für

Stadtentwicklung Berlin


StadtRad docking station

at Potsdamer Platz, 2010

Photo: Thomas Spier




2010 #7 — Sustainable Mobility Paris p. 1











Le grand huit — The Big Eight




Saclay Sud

The 130 km new high­speed regional

railway project, which consists of two

overlapping rings, is intended to improve

connections between Paris and its hinterland.

It will serve the most important

existing transport hubs and development

opportunity areas including airports, train

terminals, and destinations like La Défense,

Marne­la­Vallée, Saclay and Saint­Denis.

The controversial project is part of the

government’s major action plan to

strengthen the region in terms of sustainability,

attractiveness and quality of life.






Pont de Sèvres

Ile Seguin

Les Moulineaux

Port de




La Défense

Grande Arche








Les Grésillons



Porte de






Châtillon - Montrouge

Bagneux M4

Arcueil - Cachan

Villejuif Institut

Gustave Roussy

Massy - Palaiseau





Mairie de


Gare de Lyon






Louis Aragon


de Gonesse

Le Bourget


Cour St-Emilion

Bibliothèque François Mitterrand


Vitry Centre

Créteil l’Echat

Le Vert de

Les Ardoines


M.I.N Porte

de Thiais

Aéroport d’Orly

Le Bourget








French government


Secrétariat d’État chargé

du développement de la

région capitale


until ca. 2020


Parc des Expositions


Le Plant

Ligne rouge


21.4 billion Euro

Parc des Expositions





Charles de Gaulle



Le Plessis-Trévise





Ligne bleue

Ligne verte

Ligne 14 actuelle

Ligne du

réseau existant

Gare optionnelle

Gare TGV





Le grand huit, the new

high-speed regional rail

project, planned routes

Courtesy: Société du Grand Paris


Increase in population

of greater Paris until 2030

Courtesy: Société du Grand Paris


Location of Paris’ business

and employment centres

until 2030

Courtesy: Société du Grand Paris




Tracé variante

Tracé variante

Tracé variante

Corridor de tracés possibles

Source fond de plan : © IGN 2010


2010 #7 — Sustainable Mobility London p. 1

University College London / Gort Scott / URS / Fluid / East

Mapping Suburban High Streets

— High Street 2012

London’s high streets are to be strengthened

in recognition of their importance

for the urban fabric. Many used to be

historic corridors for trade. Some date

back to Roman times. High streets suffer

from competition with shopping centres,

heavy traffic and congestion. The High

Street 2012 project will extensively redesign

the stretch between Aldgate and

Stratford in east London, showcasing one

of London’s key high streets during the

2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

The quality of the public realm is to be

upgraded and the distinctive character of

the areas along the corridor is to be

enhanced and celebrated.



High Street London



Design for London

Project team:

Sir Terry Farrell / Joyce

Bridges / University

College London / Gort

Scott / URS


since 2009



High Street 2012,


Courtesy: Design for London /



Sketch of redesign of

Whitechapel Market

Courtesy: East Architecture

Landscape Urban Design


Characteristic mixed uses

along high streets

Courtesy: Gort Scott


High Street 2012


GLA Group / London

Borough of Tower

Hamlets / London

Borough of Newham

Planning team:

Fluid / East Architecture

Landscape Urban Design

(Detail Whitechapel



2010 #7 — Sustainable Mobility London p. 2


Crossrail overview

Courtesy: 5th Studio / Design

for London


Vision for the Abbey

Wood Crossrail station

Courtesy: 5th Studio / Design

for London / LDA

5th Studio / Regeneris / Marks Barfield

Crossrail and Crossrail Urban Impact:

Thamesmead / Abbey Wood

Crossrail, the UK’s largest high speed

regional railway infrastructure project, is

likely to have several dramatic effects on

inner and outer London and the parts of

its catchment area affected by Crossrail’s

route. From 2018 onwards the new route

will connect Heathrow, the West End,

the City of London and Canary Wharf.

Design for London and Crossrail’s Urban

Integration Team are involved in urban

design studies to define regeneration

priorities and to embed individual stations

like Abbey Wood in Thamesmead within

their surroundings, focusing on public

realm improvements and high quality

developments. This work will help to

maximise the potential of these locations

for urban regeneration.




Cross London Rail Links

Limited (Transport for

London, Department for





Crossrail Urban

Integration Study (fig 4)


London Development

Agency / Design for



5th Studio / Regeneris




Thamesmead / Abbey

Wood Crossrail Urban

Impact Study (fig 5)


London Borough of Bexley

/ London Borough of

Greenwich / GLA Group

incl. Design for London /



5th Studio / Marks







2010 #7 — Sustainable Mobility Chicago p. 1


The expansion of Chicago

Courtesy: Chicago Metropolis



‘Intermodal Villages’

in the wider Chicago


Courtesy: Chicago Metropolis


Chicago Metropolis 2020

— Connectivity


The Chicago Metropolis 2020 framework

proposes to strengthen and enhance the

core city, existing centres and districts

in the inner urban area. Urban growth will

be concentrated within regional centres,

with a diverse social structure and a mix

of uses. Local public transport will connect

these centres with suburban employment

areas. A regional green grid will

secure recreational areas close to residential

settlements. Lastly, the plan aims

to create a powerful metropolitan

planning agency.


City of Chicago




2010 Chapter #8

Urban Land


Vacant brownfield sites and derelict

buildings are a big challenge and

a unique opportunity for major cities.

Mixed­use quarters and large developments,

hard to accommodate in

inner cities, can be built on

these sites.

The redevelopment of vacant land

has increased dramatically. Sites

include disused military and industrial

areas, railway sidings and docks

as well as derelict commercial buildings

like empty department stores in

Germany and redundant shopping

centres in the US.

Berlin has a vast offering of brownfield

sites that include a redundant

airport and former border zones.

In London, Paris and Chicago there

is still plenty of land for development

within the urban area, despite great

demand for growth. The Lower Lea

Valley in East London, where the

2012 Olympic Park is sited, is a wellknown


A combination of historic fabric,

romantic notions of former uses, low

values and locational advantages

make urban wasteland areas attractive

for urban pioneers with unusual concepts

for temporary uses. This can

have mixed effects. Landowners and

investors’ objectives often differ from

the requirements of temporary users

and existing residents, but they generally

benefit in the longer term. The

initial conflict frequently causes issues

for less well­prepared local authorities.

A well known case study for this

issue is the eastern area of the River

Spree in Berlin, known as ‘Mediaspree


Unused spaces and wastelands

are not a constraint but a base

condition for urban regenera

tion. They act as a ‘future room’

and offer a field for learning and

experimenting with the future

city. They are part of the richness

of this city.

Translated from Ingeborg Junge-Reyer, in:

Urban Pioneers. Berlin: Stadtentwicklung

durch Zwischennutzung’, Berlin 2007, p. 18

2010 #8 — Urban Land Recycled Berlin p. 1

Until recently Berlin’s central railway

station sat in isolation on a large vacant

site in the former border area between

East and West Berlin. A new urban district

is now developing around the station

on the basis of the Masterplan Berlin

Heidestrasse (April 2009), which proposes

a flexible approach to development. The

pharmaceutical company Bayer Healthcare

is also planning to expand its campus

towards the North Harbour in the northern

part of the masterplan area. Appropriate

station forecourts have yet to be designed

and implemented.

ASTOC / Studio UC Klaus Overmeyer / ARGUS

Urbanisation of the

Main Station Area


Masterplan Heidestraße:

Berlin Borough of Mitte /

Senate Department for

Urban Development /

Vivico Real Estate GmbH

/ Deutsche Bahn AG

Lehrter Straße:

Vivico Real Estate GmbH

PharmaCampus Bayer


Bayer Healthcare


Liegenschaftsfond Berlin /

Senate Department for

Urban Development,


Lehrter Stadtquartier:

Vivico Real Estate GmbH

/ Motel One / Meermann

Chamartin Gruppe


Masterplan Heidestraße:

ASTOC Architects &

Planners / Studio UC

Klaus Overmeyer /


Lehrter Straße:



FAT KOEHL Architekten

PharmaCampus Bayer


Barkow Leibinger



Winkens Architekten /

Augusto Romano Burelli,

Architetto, Kahlfeld


Lehrter Stadtquartier:

O. M. Ungers (south of


Max Dudler (north of


Station forecourts:


Schwartz / Kiefer


until ca. 2030



40 hectares

Lehrter Straße:

ca. 6,5 hectares


ca. 10 hectares

Lehrter Stadtquartier:

ca. 17 hectares

PharmaCampus Bayer


18 hectares


New quarter around

Berlin main station,

overview of the schemes.

Developments shown in

white are proposed

Courtesy: CAD-Daten:


für Stadtentwicklung Berlin

Project Lehrter Strasse:

Vivico / Bayer Healthcare /

Barkow Leibinger Architects

Visualisierung: Aljoscha

Hofmann, Ringo Bigalk


2010 #8 — Urban Land Recycled Berlin p. 3


Faber, Klenzendorf,

Söcknick GbR


until 2010


ca. 10,500 m2

Faber / Klenzendorf / Söcknick GbR

Bar 25 —

Temporary Uses at the Spree




Bar 25 was one of the most prominent

temporary uses along the eastern embankment

of the River Spree. The popular

waterside drinking spot was created

on the site of a former port area previously

occupied by the Berlin Wall. Since 2002

the city’s municipality has been trying to

attract media businesses into the area.

This has been a controversial plan which

threatened to force temporary uses out

of the area, of which Bar 25 is a prime

example. For years it fought to stay, but

was eventually closed down in October

2010. It remains unclear who owns the

waterside of the Spree and who will be

allowed to use it in the future.


Bar extension

Johannesburg 24, 2010

Photo: Carolin Saage


Bar 25, plan


Bar 25, location

Site survey by the TU Berlin

Departments for Sociology of

Planning and Architecture and

Building History, 2009

Survey team led by Aljoscha

Hofmann and Tobias Rütenick.

Students: Anne-Marie Arera,

Svea Esins, Nikolai Kaindl,

Janette Pannek, Janine Sempf,

Daniel Wiest

Editing: Aljoscha Hofmann

2010 #8 — Urban Land Recycled Paris p. 1


Gare du Nord (shown

bottom left) with a green

corridor to replace

dis-used railway tracks.

The new Nord Europe

station replaces both

existing stations Gare du

Nord and Gare de l’Est.

Courtesy: Atelier Christian de



New Nord Europe station

with business district,

residential buildings and

circular railway


Courtesy: Atelier Christian de


Atelier Christian de Portzamparc /

Institut d’urbanisme de Paris / Laboratoire CRÉTEIL

Fenêtre Paris Nord




French government,

study Le Grand Pari(s),



Atelier Christian de

Portzamparc / Institut

d‘urbanisme de Paris,

Université Paris XII /

Laboratoire CRÉTEIL


since 2007

The masterplan for the so­called ‘North

Window’ stretches from the stations Paris

Nord to Paris Est and from the suburb of

Aubervilliers to Saint Denis. Architect

Christian de Portzamparc, one of the

practices involved in the Grand Pari(s)

study of 2008, proposes to close the railway

stations, but to preserve the glamorous

station concourses, dating back to the

19th century. Redundant railway tracks

from Paris Nord could be transformed

into a green corridor with new residential

buildings alongside its edges. At Paris Est

these could also be used for a new, dense

and mixed­use residential quarter, whose

main spine could extend along the

Boulevard Sébastopol to the newly proposed

Europe Station.


2010 #8 — Urban Land Recycled London p. 1 2010 #8 — Urban Land Recycled London p. 2

London’s Olympic project is a catalyst to

the delivery of much­needed investment

in East London and aims to dramatically

improve the quality of life for the communities

of the Lower Lea Valley and

surrounding areas. The Olympic Park

itself will be transformed after the 2012

Olympic and Paralympic Games into a

new urban district with 4 Olympic sporting

venues and the new park at its heart.

This redevelopment will take around 25

years, and will deliver around 10,000 new

homes, neighbourhoods which connect

into the surrounding areas, new schools,

workplaces and transport connections.

The Olympic Legacy for

the Lower Lea Valley

The areas around the Olympic Park itself

are referred to as the ‘Olympic Fringe’,

and it is expected that the new developments

in thse areas will accommodate

around 35,000 new residents, especially

around Stratford, Bromley by Bow, Leyton

and Hackney Wick. The Mayor of London

and the Boroughs, and the London Thames

Gateway Development Corporation are

working together on masterplans and are

already delivering new public spaces,

connections and community facilities to

ensure that all this investment creates

sucessful places which will have a longlasting

benefit for current and future

local communities.



Olympic Site:

Olympic Park Legacy

Company / Olympic

Delivery Authority

Olympic Fringe:

Design for London /

London Development

Agency / London Thames

Gateway Delivery

Corporation / LB Newham

/ LB Hackney / LB Tower

Hamlets / Waltham Forest

Architects include:

Olympic Site:

Allies and Morrison

Architects / AECOM /

Zaha Hadid / Hopkins

Architects / Populous /

Make Architects /

Hargreaves LDA Design

Olympic Legacy:

Allies & Morrison

Architects / Maccreanor

Lavington Architects /

Witherford Watson Mann

Architects / Vogt

Landscape Architects

Olympic Fringe:

muf architecture/art /

5th Studio Architects /

Studio Egeret West / East

Architecture Landscape

Urban Design / Kinnear

Landscape Architects /

Churchman Landscape

Architects / Urban Initiatives

/ Urban Practitioners /



2005–2012 / 2035


Olympic park view in


Courtesy: Olympic Park Legacy


2010 #8 — Urban Land Recycled London p. 4

Design for London / East / Terry Farrell / muf /

Landroom / Maccreanor Lavington / AECOM amongst others

The Royal Docks

The Royal Docks in East London are one

of the biggest regeneration opportunities

in the UK. Derelict since the 1980s, large

swathes of land have lain dormant for the

last three decades, despite large amounts

of investment and a number of attempts

at masterplans. In 2010 the local Mayor of

Newham and the Mayor of Londo launched

a new vision for the Royal Docks, presenting

a strong partnership, using the combination

of land holdings and the local planning

powers to form a ‘virtual development

corporation’. The plan is to develop a

‘flexible strategy’ able to last over a longerterm

development phase, focus a spatial

plan on raising the standard of the in­

between spaces, attract temporary ‘meanwhile

uses’ for 2012 to coincide with the

Olympics, and work with the private

sector to establish para meters for development

without being too prescriptive.





Framework plan

Courtesy: Design for London /

London Development Agency


Siemens Urban

Sustainability Centre,

3D view

(under construction)

Courtesy: Wilkinson Eyre



Thames Barrier Park and

the Royal Docks, aerial


Photo: David Copeman

Courtesy: Design for London /

London Development Agency


Greater London Authority /

London Development

Agency / London Borough

of Newham


East Architecture Landscape

Urban Design / Terry Farrell

with Design for London /

muf architecture/art /

Landroom / Maccreanor

Lavington /Aecom


since 2006

2010 #8 — Urban Land Recycled Chicago p. 1

Office for Metropolitan Studies OMA

McCormick Tribune Campus Center

The Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT)

designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

is situated on the south side of Chicago,

an area with pockets of social and economic

deprivation. As part of a new

masterplan for the campus, Rem Koolhaas

has designed a campus centre, nicknamed

The Tube. The design includes a

noise­absorbing steel tube which wraps

the elevated railway above the centre.

The centre itself is a flat building with

cafes, shops, exhibition and

conference spaces.



Illinois Institute

of Technology


Office for Metropolitan

Studies OMA


Completed 2003



McCormick Tribune

Campus Center

floorplan (ground floor)

Courtesy: Office for

Metropolitan Architecture OMA


McCormick Tribune

Campus Center and

railway station

Photo: Philippe Ruault



2010 Chapter #9


to Suburban


Suburban sprawl has become one of

the most serious global concerns in

urban planning. Suburban development,

once a beacon of hope for

the orderly growth of cities, has lost

some of its appeal in recent years.

Sprawl, it is now thought, can

compromise the social and cultural

coherence of society. Its dependence

on cars and fossil fuels contributes

considerably to climate change.

Sprawl is an issue in all countries but

the most critical debate is taking

place in the US. There is a shared

view amongst US professionals,

media, community initiatives and in

politics, particularly under President

Obama, that urban sprawl needs to

be confined. The aim is to move

away from its land­hungry, car­

dependent typology. An updated

version of the historic garden city

has been trialled incorporating higher

densities, social and functional

diversity and good public transport.

Examples can be found in the

Chicago region.

Suburban sprawl is no longer as

common in Europe where different

problems have arisen. Formerly

sprawling metropolitan regions have

shrunk and re­urbanisation has taken

place — a model that has been promoted

in the US. Curiously Europe

has also been importing some suburban

models of development from

the US such as ‘gated communities’,

although these are increasingly

resisted as being socially exclusive.

The metropolitan regions of London

and Paris have become laboratories

to test out new models to contain

sprawl. The aim is to cut back subsidies,

intensify dispersed comm unities

by adding small centres, encourage

the re­use of brownfield sites and

make life in centres more attractive.

Development of greenfield sites is

heavily regulated and must focus on

key transport hubs.

[…] if the Regional Coordin at

ing Council were even partially

successful in creating intermo

dal transportation hubs in the

region and bring about large

mixed­use developments

surrounding these hubs, more

suburban residents would

choose to live and work in one

of these intermodal villages.

Elmer W. Johnson in:

Chicago Metropolis 2020’,

Chicago 2001, p. 141

2010 #9 — Alternatives to Suburban Sprawl Paris p. 2

Thirty kilometres east of Paris near Euro

Disney, the suburb of Val d’Europe is

being built. Val d’Europe will have fortythousand

residents by 2017. A large

shop ping centre adjacent to the local

station, several business and residential

areas, large parks and a golf course have

already been built. The entire town is

planned and managed by Euro Disney

S.C.A. and located adjacent to the theme

park, surrounded by car parking.

Cooper Robertson & Partners

Val d’Europe


Disney Development

Company, Euro Disney



Cooper Robertson &



660 hectares


Completion ca. 2017



Val d‘Europe, design


Courtesy: Cooper, Robertson &



Residential quarter

quartier du parc

Courtesy: Cooper, Robertson &



Square at Val d’Europe

station with access to

shopping centre

Courtesy: Cooper, Robertson &




2010 #9 — Alternatives to Suburban Sprawl London p. 1

Woolwich Town Centre in South­East

London is an important area for growth.

It is well known as the former location

of the biggest ammunition factory of the

British Empire, the Royal Arsenal. The

area has become more attractive for

investment because of enhanced public

transport connections. A total of approximately

3,700 new units are planned on

the former factory site alone. A variety of

newly designed open spaces will make

Woolwich Town Centre more attractive

for pedestrians and stitch together old

and new parts of the urban fabric.

East / Witherford Watson Mann /

Gustafson Porter / Allies & Morrison

Woolwich Town Centre

Models for urban renaissance



Woolwich Town Centre

(fig 1–3)


London Borough of

Greenwich / Greenwich

Waterfront Regeneration

Agency / GLA Group incl.

Design for London


Framework Study (fig 1):

East Architecture

Landscape Urban

Design / Sergison Bates


Public Realm (fig 2 & 3):

Witherford Watson Mann

Architects / Gustafson





Royal Arsenal

(fig 4)


London Borough of

Greenwich / GLA Group /

Berkely Homes


Allies and Morrison



Since 2008


Woolwich Framework:

urban regeneration

projects in Woolwich

Courtesy: East Architecture

Landscape Urban Design /

Sergison Bates Architects


Overview of public realm

to connect Woolwich

town centre with the

Royal Arsenal

development area

Courtesy: Witherford Watson

Mann Architects


Woolwich Town Centre:

new landscaping

Courtesy: Witherford Watson

Mann Architects



2010 #9 — Alternatives to Suburban Sprawl London p. 2

2010 #9 — Alternatives to Suburban Sprawl Chicago p. 1


Prairie Crossing


Courtesy: Crossing Institute


New development set

into nature reserve

Photo: Barbara Schönig

William Johnson, Peter Lidsay /

Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP

Prairie Crossing

Sustainable urban sprawl



The development of Prairie

Crossing, which refers to itself

as a ‘conservation community’,

is a residential area located

in the outer fringe of the metropolitan

regions of Chicago and

Milwaukee, Wisconsin. It consists

of only 359 houses, one

school, an organic farm and a

comm u nity centre. The original

plan to develop the centre of the

community with medium density

residential buildings and shops

was only partly realised. Special

attention was given to an energyefficient

construction technique,

sustainably­sourced materials

and sensitive integration into

the local landscape and ecology.


Prairie Holdings



William Johnson, Peter

Lidsay (Masterplan) with

Skidmore, Owings &

Merrill LLP




274 hectares

2010 Chapter #10

The Green City

Green spaces are enjoying a renaissance

in the metropolitan areas of

Europe and the US. Brownfield sites

are being turned into new urban

quarters with large parks; gardens

and parks of various scales are

key requirements in planning policy.

They increase attractiveness

and value.

Berlin’s former Tempelhof Airport

is currently available for temporary

uses, seen as part of a phased and

participatory approach to planning.

Chicago’s Meigs Field Airport has

been turned into a park in recent

years. The development of the

Lower Lea Valley in London for the

2012 Games will include a vast new

urban park. The study Le Grand

Pari(s) also suggests the redevelopment

of old industrial and port

areas into new parks.

Allotments and urban agriculture are

playing an increasing role. Urban agriculture

in Chicago is used for food

production and social integration.

Berlin has developed ideas about

how these businesses can

offer leisure and entertainment

as well as food retail. Making public

green spaces multifunctional has

become a key aim of city councils

and park operators.

Climate change and global loss of biodiversity

give urban green space a

new meaning. New policies

demand increases in green space,

living roofs and green walls.

In addition to the large green space

projects led by local government,

bottom­up community greening,

such as ‘guerrilla’ gardening initiatives,

are contributing to the greening

of our cities. Urban policy has

begun to recognise the importance

of these unplanned projects.

We are not doing this because

it is fashionable, but because it

makes sense. It improves the

public health, makes the city

more beautiful, increases the

quality of life, saves money

and will leave a legacy for

generations to come.

The Mayor of Chicago Richard Daley

on sustainable urban development

and green roofs, September 2006

2010 #10 — The Green City Berlin p. 1

Senate Department for Urban Development, Berlin

Tempelhofer Feld

— a Park for Pioneers

A strategy for the re­use of the large area

of the former airport Tempelhof (386

hectares) was agreed in the mid 1990s.

The former airfield was to remain a

meadow with development to be allowed

only along the fringes. One aspect of the

open landscape competition ‘Parklandscape

Tempelhof’ (Parklandschaft

Tempelhof) which took place in 2010

was to clarify future management of the

park despite decreasing investment from

the authorities. The design of the open

spaces is to culminate in an international

garden exhibition in 2017.



Senate Department for

Urban Development,



Ideas Workshop:

raumlaborberlin / Studio

UC Klaus Overmeyer /

Michael Braum und


International competition:

six teams were invited to

develop ideas, among

them: Topotek1


(Berlin) /

Dürig Architekten (Zurich)


gross. max. Landscape

Architecture / Sutherland

Hussey Architects



Ideas Workshop:


International competition:


International Garden

Exhibition IGA:



386 hectares


Costs to make the former

airport site accessible to

the public in 2010:

ca. 800,000 Euro

estimated costs of IGA:

50.5 million Euro

estimated costs to turn

Tempelhof airport into

a park:

ca. 61.5 million Euro


1 & 2

Tempelhofer Feld opened

as a public park in 2010

Photo: Cordelia Polinna


Masterplan for

Tempelhofer Feld

Courtesy: Senatsverwaltung für

Stadtentwicklung Berlin


2010 #10 — The Green City Paris p. 1

LIN Finn Geipel & Giulia Andi

Grand Pari(s)

Multifunctional Landscapes



As part of their contribution to the study

Grand Pari(s), LIN propose that habitation,

water retention, food production, pro tection

of biodiversity and energy prod uction

should all be able to co­exist in equal

measure in the ‘multifunctional landscapes’.

The architects suggest insert ing ‘green

poles’ and ‘ecological micro­centres’ into

a number of sparsely pop ulated suburbs

of Paris. These could become the link

between residential areas, small ecological

businesses and agricultural zones.

Additionally, LIN propose the idea of

‘market lanes’, where community

members can buy fresh produce from

local farmers.


French government, study

Le Grand Pari(s), 2008


LIN Finn Geipel &

Giulia Andi


since 2007


Urban agricultural zones

with intersecting ‘market


Courtesy: LIN Finn Geipel &

Giulia Andi



landscapes, with a

co-existing variety

of different programmes

Courtesy: LIN Finn Geipel &

Giulia Andi

2010 #10 — The Green City London p. 1


Vision of the ‘mature’

state of Bankside Urban

Forest with a rich diversity

of green and open spaces

Courtesy: Witherford Watson

Mann Architects


Sketch for the redesign

and pedestrianisation of

Flatiron Square

Courtesy: Witherford Watson

Mann Architects

The open space strategy, Bankside Urban

Forest, will improve the quality of public

realm in the Bankside area south of the

River Thames. This area has a lack of green

space and is criss­crossed by railway viaducts

and busy roads. The Urban Forest

establishes a network of clearings, meandering

paths and mysterious spaces along

the railway viaducts. Footpaths and bicycle

lanes will be extended and upgraded, tree

planting will make the area greener and

serene gardens will make the area more

attractive for residents.

Witherford Watson Mann Architects

Bankside Urban Forest



London Borough of

Southwark / Design for

London / London

Development Agency /

Council / Better Bankside

/ Tate / Architecture

Foundation / Cross River


Planning Startegy:

Witherford Watson Mann


Architect Flatiron Square:

Witherford Watson Mann



since 2007


2010 #10 — The Green City London p. 2


Lea River Park, overall view

Courtesy: 5th Studio

2010 #10 — The Green City London p. 3


Lea River Park,

3D view

Courtesy: 5th Studio


The ‘Fatwalk’ in

Three Mills Green,

3D view

Courtesy: 5th Studio


‘Fatwalk’ Poplar Reach

Bridge, 3D view

Courtesy: 5th Studio

5th Studio / Jonathan Cook Landscape Architects /

Churchman Landscape Architects

Lea River Park

(The Fatwalk)

The Lea Valley is the largest regen eration

area in London. Together with the 2012

Olympic Park, the Lea River Park will finally

realise a 26­mile connection — first

envisaged in the Greater London Plan of

1944 — between London’s Green Belt

and the River Thames. The ‘Fatwalk’ is

the primary project in the realisation of

the Lea River Park. It will form a generous

walking and cycling route between the

River Thames and the Olympic Park, as

well as creating new cross­valley connections

linking surrounding communities to

the River Lea for the first time. Initial works

will establish a continuous route as the

backbone of the future park and projects

therefore address physical severances

and obstructions with new bridges, a new


lift connection and green links. These

early pieces of infrastructure are regarded

as catalysts for converting what is currently

land used for gas storage, sewage pumping

and transport infrastructure into

diverse park spaces of the Lea River Park:

turning what is today an industrial backwater

into the foreground of a new public

space which people can start to

access, use and enjoy


London Thames Gateway

Development Corporation

/ Lea Valley Regional

Park Authority / Design

for London / London

Development Agency


5th Studio / Jonathan Cook

Landscape Architects

Three Mills Green:

Churchman Landscape



Phase 1: 2008–2012



2010 #10 — The Green City Chicago p. 1

Millennium Park completes the historic

layout of Grant Park designed by Daniel

Burnham. As with Grant Park, it was

necessary that transport infrastructure

in this case a railway station and car

park — was sunk below grade to make

room for the new park. The exciting landscape

features several recreational facilities

and stages, sculptures and fountains.

The Jay Pritzker Pavilion and the BP

Pedestrian Bridge, both designed by Frank

Gehry, are particularly notable. Chicago

City Council provided $270 million and

private donors gave $205 million for the

development of the park.

Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP / Frank O. Gehry

Millennium Park


City of Chicago


Skidmore, Owings &

Merrill LLP / Frank O.


(J. K. Pritzker Pavilion)




10 hectares


475 million US Dollar


Aerial photo, June 2006

Photo: Okrent Associates

Inc. / Lawrence Okrent


Millennium Park,

location plan

Courtesy: Chicago Park District



2010 #10 — The Green City Chicago p. 2


Northerly Island, formerly

Merill C. Meigs Field

Airport, aerial perspective

Courtesy: Chicago Park

District / JJR Architects


Northerly Island, plan

Courtesy: Chicago Park

District / JJR Architects

JJR Landscape Architecture / Studio Gang Architects

Northerly Island Park

Re-development of an airport close to the city centre

According to local newspapers Chicago’s

Mayor Richard Daley arranged to demolish

the runway of Merill C. Meigs Field

Airport on the night of 30th March 2003

in what some would describe as a ‘cloak

and dagger’ operation and in breach of a

contract with federal airport authorities.

Since then, the area has been open to

the public. Open air events are being

held and former airport buildings and

open areas are being converted into a

new park. A themed landscape design

was proposed in 2010 showcasing principles

of nature conservation and sustainability

as part of a development



Chicago Park District


JJR Landscape Architecture /

Studio Gang Architects


Development framework



37 hectares



2010 Chapter #11

Renewal of



Pockets of social and economic deprivation

have developed in many

cities as a consequence of the decline

of the urban industrial sector in Europe

and America. These areas often

function as testing grounds for the

co­existence of different ethnic

groups, while challenges posed

by the transition to a primarily postindustrial

economy are endemic.

Former working­class areas are

often characterised by high­density

housing and redundant post­indust rial

brownfield sites. They are often close

to the revitalised urban centre. An

increasing number are becoming

attractive residential areas for the reurbanised

upper middle classes. Both

‘gentrification’ and revitalisation can

have negative impacts, such as displacement

of existing residents and

business owners.

Versatile support programmes

address the problems of former

working­class areas with varying success.

Since the 1980s the modernisation

of residential buildings has

turned Berlin into a model of ‘gentle

urban regeneration’.

For the past ten years support has

been focused on improving social

structures while issues surrounding

urban planning and housing policy

took a back seat. It is only now that

regeneration projects are progressing

with the aim of strengthening the

neighbourhood centres of problematic

quarters. In London, much focus

has been placed on schemes that

emphasise cultural, social and

spatial conditions.

Important aspects of the future of our

metropolitan regions are being determined

within these inner­city former

working­class areas. They become a

benchmark for weaknesses as well as

opportunities and strengths in terms

of diversity and social incl usion. Due

to their density, mix of uses and

good public transport, these quarters

can become a model for the sustainable


Value what is there.

Nurture the possible.

Define what is missing.

muf architecture/art and J&L Gibbons LLP in

‘Making Space in Dalston’, 2009

2010 #11 — Renewal of Working Class Neighbourhoods Berlin p. 1

The run­down district centre

of Müllerstraße is located in

Wedding, a former workers’

quarter. In 2008 planning consultants

Jahn, Mack & Partner

presented a development proposal

with the slogan ‘re­discover

Wedding at the Müllerstraße’

(‘An der Müllerstraße den

Wedding neu entdecken’). The

proposal seeks to revitalise the

‘hidden treasures’ of the district

centre: the historic Leopoldplatz,

the new areas of Rathausplatz

and Müllerstraße, an extension

of the existing library and the

main arterial road. The concept

is funded by Active Town Centres,

a Federal State programme.


Action plan

Courtesy: Senatsverwaltung für

Stadtentwicklung Berlin / Jahn,

Mack & Partner


The extension of the local

public library, section and

location plan

Courtesy: Berlin Borough of

Mitte / Haberland Architekten

Jahn, Mack & Partner

Revitalisation of the

Local Centre Müllerstraße


Senate Department for

Urban Development,

Berlin Borough of Mitte


Jahn, Mack & Partner (fig 1)

Haberlandarchitekten (fig 2)


since 2008



2010 #11 — Renewal of Working Class Neighbourhoods Berlin p. 3


Senate Department for

Urban Development in

co-operation with the

Berlin Borough of



Plus 4930—Architektur

won the 1st prize in

a competition in 2009


Planning: 2008–2010


ca. 47,900 m²


ca. 24 million Euro

In 2006, in the wake of teachers protesting

about abusive behaviour by students

at the Rütli­Schule in Neukölln, an event

which caused something of a ‘mediastorm’

in Germany, an ambitious regeneration

project was started. The project,

which proposes to cluster education and

welfare institutions, is led by the Zukunft

Berlin Trust (Future Berlin) and the local

council in Neukölln. A masterplan competition

took place in May 2009, but

entries were unable to fulfil the brief’s

vision for a new and well­connected

inner­city district centre.

Plus 4930 — Architektur

Campus Rütli — CR²



Campus Rütli,

3D visualisation

Courtesy: Plus

4930 — Architektur


Campus Rütli,


Courtesy: Plus

4930 — Architektur


2010 #11 — Renewal of Working Class Neighbourhoods London p. 3

Dalston, in the London Borough of

Hackney, is a vibrant and dynamic neighbourhood.

As a relatively afford able

neighbourhood that is close to Central

London, there is increasing development

pressure on the area culminating in the

development around the new East London

Line Station. In close collaboration with

residents a network of high quality open

spaces has been created to ensure the

community benefit from the transformation

processes. One of the key projects

is the ‘Eastern Curve’ community garden,

a temporary project built on a disused

railway cutting.

muf architecture/art / J&L Gibbons LLP

Making Space in Dalston




Making Space in Dalston,

examples of projects

Courtesy: muf architecture/art /

J&L Gibbons LLP


Principles of Making

Space in Dalston

Courtesy: muf architecture/art /

J&L Gibbons LLP


Dalston Eastern Curve

Garden, 2010

Courtesy: muf architecture/art /

J&L Gibbons LLP


London Borough of

Hackney / Design for

London / London

Development Agency


J&L Gibbons Landscape

Architects and

muf architecture/art


since 2009


2010 #11 — Renewal of Working Class Neighbourhoods London p. 1 2010 #11 — Renewal of Working Class Neighbourhoods London p. 2


Entrance gate to

‘Banglatown’ at the south

end of Brick Lane, 2010

Photo: Cordelia Polinna


Bilingual street signs in

English and Bengali,

Brick Lane, 2009

Photo: Cordelia Polinna


Brick Lane Cultural Trail

Spitalfields, orientation


Courtesy: London Borough of

Tower Hamlets

Bordering the City of London to the east

is the culturally rich urban quarter of

Spitalfields, which has become a centre

for the Bangladeshi­Sylheti community

and has traditionally been an area where

immigrants first settle in London. Brick

Lane, in particular, is famous for its curry

houses and has been branded ‘Banglatown’.

The booming popularity of Brick

Lane’s street market and the influx of

‘loft’ dwellers, fash ionable shops, bars,

cafés, restaurants and creative businesses

however is rapidly changing the area’s

character. Extensive improvements to

David Gallagher Associates

Brick Lane Cultural Trail


3 4

historic buildings and the public realm

have been carried out since the end of

the 1990s to make the area more attractive

for businesses and tourists. The public

spaces and streets have been made more

pedestrian­friendly. A culture trail including

information boards and an illuminated

Minaret­like structure has been implemented

in 2010 to make the multicultural

background of the area more accessible

and visible.


London Borough of

Tower Hamlets


Minaret-like structure:

David Gallagher



Brick Lane Cultural Trail

opened in 2010

2010 Chapter #12

Housing Estate


After almost a century of investment

in state­led social housing programmes,

large housing estates of the post­

war period in Europe and the United

States continue to present many

urban challenges and some severe


In France, England and the US, they

have in some extreme instances

become the ‘slums’ they were intended

to eradicate. Many social housing

buildings have lacked neces sary

maintenance and witnessed the

closure of critical social and cultural

facilities despite being well thought

out, designed and constructed. Deindustrialisation,

job losses and falling

household incomes exacerbated

problems. Those with better incomes

often move to other neighbourhoods

and are replaced by immigrants,

often with low levels of education.

Similar trends can be seen in the vast

housing areas of Berlin, the banlieues

in Paris, the council housing estates

in London and the projects in Chicago.

All four cities developed spatial, social

and economical programmes to deliver

the framework for estate regeneration

ranging from refurbishment

to demolition. Each city has enjoyed

some success, mostly addressing

spatial, rather than social conditions.

New quarters often include real

streets and places, better linkages

with the urban fabric and a focus on

greater mix of tenure. While these

are sensible objectives, they hardly

constitute a solution for the problems

of the spatially­isolated, most deprived

parts of society.

The significant housing problem of

the 21st century — which includes

London’s severe shortage of affordable

housing, the rapidly increasing

number of households brought about

by demographic change, and the

need for housing to help tackle

climate change issues — has yet

to become an integral, substantial

part of today’s discourse in urban

planning in the way it was earlier

in the century.

Nowadays urban policies tend to turn

towards areas of opportunity, rather

than areas simply in need. A change

in political priorities would be seen

as a return to old­fashioned socialism

and wealth redistribution with negative

impacts on economic growth.

Metro, boulot, dodo

(commute, work hard, kip)

Graffito dating back to 1968 as a reaction to building

large housing estates in France.

Translated from Hartmut Häußermann in: ‘Nicht pendeln,

nicht malochen, nur noch pennen’, Die Zeit, 10 November 2005

2010 #12 — Housing Estate Renewal Berlin p. 1

Büro Stadt Akzent

Regenerating Marzahn Nord:

Ahrensfelder Terrassen

The Ahrensfelder Terrassen in Marzahn,

East Berlin, is Germany’s largest residential

estate built with pre­fabrication techniques

during the GDR era. Today, the estate is

considered a successful part of the urban

regen eration of East Berlin. Originally including

1,670 flats in eleven storey buildings,

the development was reduced to

409 rented and 38 privately­owned flats

in buildings that ranged from three to six

stories. The large roof terraces are extremely

popular, but the public open

spaces remain a cause for concern and

the over­scaled and car­dominated streets

are even less attractive when surrounded

by buildings of reduced height.

Awarding Authority:

Federal State of Berlin



Marzahn /



Büro Stadt Akzent





size of original scheme:

78,900 m²

size of new scheme:

27,900 m²


ca. 31.5 million Euro


Ahrensfelder Terrassen

after redevelopment, 2010

Photo: Thomas Spier


Ahrensfelder Terrassen

prior to redevelopment

Courtesy: DEGEWO

Photo: Jens Rötzsch


Redevelopment of

housing estates in Marzahn

and Hellersdorf

building to be demolished

building to be reduced

in height

Courtesy: Planergemeinschaft

Dubach Kohlbrenner Plan:

Bezirksamt Marzahn-Hellersdorf

von Berlin (Editor): ‘Im Wandel

beständig. Stadtumbau in

Marzahn und Hellersdorf’, Berlin

2007, p. 23



2010 #12 — Housing Estate Renewal Paris p. 1

Atelier Xavier Bohl

Rebuilding Le Plessis-Robinson

Le Plessis­Robinson, a social housing

estate on the inner fringe of the southern

banlieue of Paris, is a classic garden city.

The first garden city on this site, built

between 1924 and 1939, was demolished

in the late 1980s following steady decline.

It was replaced in 2006–09 with a new

version of the Garden City based on a

masterplan by Xavier Pohl, including

a mixed­use city centre. Mayor Philippe

Pemezec, a member of the conservative

UMP party led by President Nicolas

Sarkozy and key champion of the redevelopment,

was keen to recreate a tradition

al settlement in the suburbs (banlieue)

of Grand Paris, an area dominated by

high­rise development.


City of Plessis-Robinson


Atelier Xavier Bohl


Planning: 2006–2009


Le Plessis-Robinson

Masterplan, 2000

Courtesy: Atelier Xavier Bohl


Garden city Le

Plessis-Robinson, 2008

Courtesy: Atelier Xavier Bohl

Photo: Michel Einsenlohr



2010 #12 — Housing Estate Renewal London p. 2

AHMM / muf / Peter Barber /

East / Sergison Bates amongst others

Revitalising Barking Town Centre

Barking Town Centre, once blighted by

neglected public spaces and council

housing following the decline of local

manufacturing — is now benefiting from

a series of integrated urban design and

public space proposals and projects and

8,000 new homes. The revital isation

of Barking Town Centre improves quality

of life and creates a sense of coherence

and identity for the local population.


London Boroughs of Barking

und Dagenham / GLA Group

incl. Design for London


Town Square Development:

Alford Hall Monaghan Morris

/ muf architecture/art

Tanner Street:

Peter Barber Architects

Framework Plan:

East Architecture Landscape

Urban Design


since 2005




New mixed-use

development including a

library and residential

flats, 2010

Photo: Paul Clarke


New town square with

arboretum, 2010

Courtesy: muf architecture/art


Tanner Street Quarter has

been rebuilt after the

demolition of a post-war

housing estate

Courtesy: Peter Barber


Photo: Morley von Sternberg


Overview of urban

regeneration projects in

Barking, 2004

Courtesy: East Architecture

Landscape Urban Design /

Sergison Bates



2010 #12 — Housing Estate Renewal Chicago p.1

Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP (Park Boulevard, CHA)

Park Boulevard / Stateway Gardens


With CHAnge — Plan for Transformation

the Chicago Housing Authority launched

a programme to demolish more than

18,000 apartments in the city’s large

housing estates in 1999, widely known

as centres of extreme social deprivation.

They are to be replaced by residential

areas with a more diverse social and

functional mix in a traditional layout.

The Robert Taylor Homes (4,230 units)

and Stateway Gardens (1,644 units) form

a long band along the South Side of

Chicago and border the renowned Illinois

Institute of Technology (IIT). This area is

to become the renamed Legends South

and Park Boulevard settlements. The

former will include 851 social housing,

800 affordable and 800 units for the

private market, the latter a further 439

social housing, 437 affordable and 438

private market flats.




Park Boulevard / Stateway

Gardens Masterplan.

From left to right:

plan in 1949; plan in 2001;

current layout, 2005–2010

Courtesy: Skidmore Owings

& Merrill

2 & 3

‘Replace Stateway

Gardens Housing Project

with a mixed income

neighbourhood’ —

Demolition and new


Courtesy: Skidmore Owings

& Merrill


Chicago Housing

Authority CHA


Skidmore, Owings &

Merrill LLP (Park

Boulevard, CHA)


since 1999


2010 Chapter #13

New City Centre —

Mirror of

the City Region

In Europe and the US most city

centres are going through a highly

visible urban renaissance which

significantly alters their shapes and

functions. This is particularly true

of cities such as Berlin, London and

Chicago, where the city centres lost

some of their vitality in the post­war

period — although Paris was perhaps

an exception — prior to a post­

industrial renaissance.

Recent thinking in urban planning

has played an important role in the

renaissance of city centres. Many

public spaces have been re­designed

to become more pedestrian­friendly

rather than car­oriented. Waterfront

locations like the South Bank in London

have benefitted from investment. New

parks are being developed which

can help to mitigate climate change

and add attractiveness. Chicago’s

Millennium Park is a good example.

After decades of indifference, historic

assets which make cities special and

unique are once again in demand.

Historic buildings and spaces are

conserved or reconstructed and, as

in Berlin, historic urban plans are being

recreated. While some unpopular

modern buildings from the post­war

period have been demolished exciting

new landmark developments are

becoming symbols for the innovative

strength of metropolitan regions, but

are quite often controversial.

The renewal of urban centres also

has a social impact. Tourists are attracted

by the recreational qualities of the

enhanced centres and there is a

‘gold rush’ atmosphere to invest

private capital. This effect was seen

in Berlin when the Wall came down

and is still evident in London, even

after the 2008 ‘Credit Crunch’ and

record prices are still being achieved

for developments with global appeal.

This effect can result in rushed and

unsympathetic designs of key, central

sites, as well as increasing privatisation

and control of public spaces.

Successful urban centres need not

only be beautiful, rich in history and

culture, pedestrian and cycle­friendly,

but must also be socially diverse

and inclusive.

The creation of dynamic town

centers that include a mix of

housing, offices, stores, civic

buildings, and theaters — all

in a pedestrian­friendly setting

— is one of the most important

trends in real estate and

planning today.

Charles C. Bohl in: ‘Place Making. Developing Town Centers,

Main Streets, and Urban Villages’, Washington D.C. 2002

2010 #13 — New City Centre Berlin p. 1




David Chipperfield Architects / Franco Stella

Museum Island and Humboldt Forum





Masterplan Museum

Island: Underground

Archeological Promenade

Courtesy: Planungsgruppe



Neues Museum, central

staircase and Egyptian


Courtesy: David Chipperfield

Architects / Stiftung Preußischer


Photo central staircase:

Ute Zscharnt

Foto Egyptian courtyard:

Christian Richters


View of Museum Island

with planned James Simon


Visual: Stiftung Preussischer

Kulturbesitz / Imaging Atelier

1 4

2 5

3 6


James Simon Gallery

Visual: Stiftung Preussischer

Kulturbesitz / Imaging Atelier


Visualisation of Humboldt-

Forums, viewn from

Liebknecht bridge

Courtesy: Stella / Stiftung

Berliner Schloss



View from the inner

courtyard to the historic


Courtesy: Stella / Stiftung

Berliner Schloss


The masterplan of Berlin’s

Museum Island (Museumsinsel)

proposes the redevelopment

of the Northern Island in the

River Spree (Spreeinsel) in the

city’s historic centre. The existing

buildings (Altes Museum,

Neues Museum, the Pergamonmuseum,

Alte Nationalgalerie

and Bode­Museum) will be refurbished,

modernised and connected

through a newly created

Archaeological Promenade for

1.5 billion. The controversial

reconstruction of the Humboldt­

Forum on the other side of the

Lustgarten (Pleasure Garden)

park on the island, envisaged

as ‘an international forum for

art, culture and science’, will

add another 552 million to the

overall cost. These projects will

strengthen Mitte, Berlin’s central

district, as an international

cultural destination.


Museum Island:

Stiftung Preußischer



Stiftung Berliner Schloss

– Humboldtforum



international competition

in 1993

Museum Island:

Hilmer & Sattler, Heinz

Tesar, HG März,

Head: David Chipperfield



international competition

won by Franco Stella,






around 1 km²


Museum Island:

around 1,5 billion Euro,


552 billion Euro

2010 #13 — New City Centre Berlin p. 2

The future of the huge parcel of land

between Berlin’s Fernseh turm (TV Tower)

and the River Spree is highly contested.

Proposals for the site range from reconstructing

the medieval urban fabric to

a massive water basin. Any substantial

development will have to wait until 2017

however, as there are underground railway

works underway. This redeveloped

‘Old Centre’ is to become a symbol of

800 years of vibrant history and act as

an important spatial connector between

East and West as well as North and

South Berlin.

David Chipperfield Architects / Graft /

Kiefer Landschaftsarchitekten

Vision for Berlin’s

Town Hall Forum


Visionary concepts (fig 9):

Senate Department for

Urban Development


Bernd Albers

(without commission, fig 8):

Proposal for new city

quarter on historic

street layout

Visionary concepts of the

Senate Department for

Urban Development (fig 9):

David Chipperfield

Architects, Graft, Kiefer



2017 onwards


around 14 hectares



Aerial picture of large

open space in Berlin’s

historic centre

Photo: Philipp Meuser


New quarter proposed

between TV Tower

and River Spree

Courtesy: Bernd Albers


Proposals for ‘Future

space historic centre’: city

stage / beach terraces /

city green

Project team: David

Chipperfield Architects,

Graft, Kiefer


Courtesy: Client:

Senatsverwaltung für

Stadtentwicklung Berlin





2010 #13 — New City Centre Berlin p. 4

Projektgemeinschaft City West / Christoph Mäckler Architekten / SAQ

New Heart of the ‘City West’

‘City West’, the centre of West Berlin,

has been in economic decline since reunification.

This became apparent when

mainline trains no longer stopped at the

local Zoologischer Garten station and the

permanent site for Berlin’s film festival

was moved to Potsdamer Platz. Planning

guidance for City West, developed in

2009, attempts to address this decline. At

the heart of City West is Breitscheidplatz

(Breitscheid Square) which will soon be

framed by new buildings. Amongst them

is an interesting building, the Zoofenster,

a 118m tall skyscraper by architect

Christoph Mäckler.



City West Design Code:

Senate Department for

Urban Development


Harvest United

Enterprises, Abu Dhabi

Bikini Berlin:

Bayerische Bau- und



City West:

Projektgemeinschaft City

West: Urbanizers – Büro

für städtische Konzepte,

Planungsgruppe Stadt +

Dorf, consultants:

Prof. Luise King

Zoofenster (fig 14:

Prof. Christoph Mäckler


Bikini Berlin (fig 12):

SAQ Studio



Completion mid 2011



ca. 53,420 m²

gross floor area

Bikini Berlin:

ca. 90,000 m²

net floor area



ca. 150–200 million Euro

Bikini Berlin:

ca. 100 million Euro


Bikini Berlin,

Redevelopment of the

Bikinihaus, 3D


Courtesy: SAQ


Location plan showing

development sites at City

West in red

Courtesy: Senatsverwaltung für

Stadtentwicklung Berlin



Courtesy: Prof. Christoph

Mäckler Architekten



2010 #13 — New City Centre Paris p. 1

The Forum des Halles replaced Paris

famous central wholesale market demolished

in 1971 and is now the busiest local

commuter interchange in Europe. Considered

to be confusing and unattractive, the

planning process for its second transformation

started in 2004. The group SEURA

/ David Mangin was commissioned for

the masterplan and landscape design.

Architects Patrick Berger and Jacques

Anziutti won the international competition

in 2007 for a large building — La Canopée

— which will replace the above­ground

buildings. The redesign of the Forum des

Halles will bring more visibility to the

market and become the main gateway

for Paris.

David Mangin / Groupe SEURA / Patrick Berger /

Jacques Anziutti

Forum des Halles



Forum des Halles,

aerial view perspective

Courtesy: La Canopée: Patrick

Berger et Jaques

Anziutti architectes

Perspective: Studiosezz

Aerial photo: Philippe Guiguard

Air images


Forum des Halles,


Courtesy: SEURA — J.-M. Fritz, D. Mangin


City of Paris



David Mangin, Jean-Marc

Fritz, Groupe SEURA /

Patrick Berger, Jacques


Landscape design:

Groupe SEURA with

Philippe Raguin


Henri Marque, Imaginal

Ingénierie, AEP

architectes paysagistes




760 million Euro


2010 #13 — New City Centre London p. 3

William Whitfield / Allies & Morrison amongst others

Paternoster Square and

St Paul’s Environs

One of the longest­running architectural

debates, in which Prince Charles became

involved, came to a close with the redevelopment

of Paternoster Square in

the City of London in 2003. The new

office quarter, assembled around a public

square adjacent to St Paul’s Cathedral,

was built in accordance with a masterplan

created by William Whitfield. The architecturally

controversial design embodies

a significant change in direction from a

rather dull financial quarter to a mixeduse,

multifunctional centre, albeit still

dominated by major office buildings,

which now also attracts a good number

of tourists. More recently the area has

been revitalised through high quality

landscape improvements led by the city

of London and Jean Nouvel’s new shopping

centre ‘One New Change’.




Paternoster Square,

St. Paul´s Cathedral,

Millennium Bridge and

Tate Modern, aerial view,

April 2010

Courtesy: Sky Eye Aerial

Photography Ltd


St. Paul’s Churchyard:

Enhancement of

landscaping in proximity

of St. Paul’s Cathedral

(planning in progress)

Courtesy: City of London


View of Paternoster

Square. The column also

acts as

a vent shaft for the car

park below.

Photo: Cordelia Polinna


MEC / Corporation

of London

St. Paul’s Environs is one

of 36 selected projects in

the Mayor’s Great Spaces

Initiative, which is part of

London’s Great Outdoors




William Whitfield

individual buildings by:

MacCormac Jamieson

Prichard, Eric Parry

Architects / Sheppard

Robson, Allies and

Morrison, Whitfield

Partners with Sidell



1996 – 2003,

St Paul’s Environs:

since 2009


2010 #13 — New City Centre London p. 1

2010 #13 — New City Centre London p. 2

Herzog & de Meuron / Vogt / Foster and Partners / ARUP

Tate Modern and

the Millennium Bridge

The development of the Tate Modern

and the Millennium Bridge, two projects

financed through the Millennium Lottery

Fund, led to the radical transformation

of the South Bank of the River Thames

which had been in decline for several

decades, following the closure of the

nearby docks on both sides of the river.

Since the opening of the Tate Modern —

in the disused Bankside Power Station —

and the Millennium Bridge, the area has

turned into a desirable real estate location,

popular tourist destination and well­used

public space. It has also become an icon

of aspirational planning in London. A dramatic

new extension of Tate Modern is

under construction on site.


Tate Modern /

Transforming Tate



Tate Foundation


Bankside Power Station:

Sir Giles Gilbert Scott

Tate Modern /

Transforming Tate


Herzog & de Meuron /




Bankside Power Station:


Tate Modern: 1995–2000

Transforming Tate

Modern: 2006–2012


Millennium Bridge


Competition 1996:

Financial Times and

London Borough of



Foster and Partners /

Arup / Anthony Caro




Transforming Tate Modern

and adjacent new

developments, aerial


Courtesy: Herzog & de Meuron /

Vogt Landschaftsarchitekten


Sketch of the connection


Square – Southbank with

Tate Modern

Courtesy: Norman Foster



2010 #13 — New City Centre London p. 4


Farringdon Urban Design Study

In 2018, when Crossrail, the new major

railway link through Central London,

will be completed, the urban quarter

of Farringdon will become a key focus

of regeneration. The specific character

of the area — located in the Northern

fringe of the City — will be preserved

with the aid of a spatial strategy, which

will also help steer the expected


momentum for growth. The railway tracks

that run through the area and are parallel

to the subterranean River Fleet are to be

partially decked over to make room for

new public spaces and create a better

visual connection with St. Paul’s Cathedral.




Public realm strategy

for Farringdon

Courtesy: East Architecture Landscape Urban Design /

Design for London / LDA


‘Turn Farringdon outside in’:

opening of restricted access


Courtesy: East Architecture Landscape Urban Design /

Design for London / LDA


Decks over the railway

tracks in Farringdon

create new public spaces

and sports facilities

Courtesy: East Architecture Landscape Urban Design /

Design for London


City of London / Crossrail /

GLA Group / London

Borough of Camden /

London Borough of Islington


East Architecture Landscape

Urban Design



2010 #13 — New City Centre Chicago p. 1

Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP

Chicago Central Area Planning

The Central Area Plan of Chicago,

supplemented in 2009 with the Central

Area Action Plan, provides guidance

for the development of the city centre

in three categories: land use and spatial

design; waterfront and public realm; and

public transport. It seeks to strengthen

the city centre by attracting business, developing

more office space, creating a

science hub and improving cultural

attractions. The adjacent former indust rial

quarters will be developed with middleincome

housing, parks and attractive

public open spaces.


City of Chicago

(Department of Planning

and Development in

co-operation with Department

of Transportation and

Department of Environment)


Skidmore, Owings & Merrill



2000 – ongoing


Proposal for decking over

of Kennedy Expressway

Courtesy: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill


Chicago Central Area Plan,

vision image

Courtesy: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill



2010 Chapter #14

The Strategic Plan

Today, the ‘strategic plan’ is considered

a magic wand in urban planning;

the answer to all new challenges facing

major cities in Europe and the

US. ‘Competition’, ‘quality of life’

and ‘sustainability’ are catchwords

found in most strategic plans. How

these plans are produced, their targets

implemented and who is involved

differs widely.

The plans identify opportunity areas

that should be given development

priority. Economic, social, ecological

and cultural ‘goalposts’ are also defined.

Major topics in Berlin, Paris,

London and Chicago are the demise

of the industrial sector, how to

increase the ability of locations to

compete, as well as a focus on the

environment and how to dampen the

blow of these transformations. The

implementation of these aims focuses

on carefully selected strategic pilot


Paris, London and Chicago are prime

examples of the new renaissance in

strategic planning. The London Plan

is the central planning tool of the

Mayor of London. The study, Le

Grand Pari(s), was initiated on a

national level as a project for the city

region. In Berlin strategic planning is

mainly the duty of the city council.

The US plan — Chicago: Metropolis

2020 — was not commissioned by

the government but by the Com mercial

Club, a consortium of 300 members

from business, politics, civil society

and science backgrounds, which

had also commissioned the Plan of

Chicago 1909.

A strategic plan needs expert political

guidance, which self­confidently communicates

a clear vision supported by

a competent administration. A strategic

plan also needs close cooperation

between representatives from politics,

administration, civil society, economics

and science. This cooperation

demands a public discussion

around common targets and projects.

[…] London will not only

lengthen its lead as the greatest

city on earth. It will come to

be seen as the best big city on

earth, the best big city to live

in. I believe these strategies

will help us to achieve that


London Mayor Boris Johnson,

foreword to the ‘Draft Replacement London Plan’, 2009

2010 #14 — The Strategic Plan Berlin p. 1

Senate Department for Urban Development, Berlin

Berlin’s Strategic Areas

Zukunftsraum Tegel Buch - Medizin im Park

Forschungs- und Industriepark

„Zukunftstechnologien im

Landschafts- und Naturraum“

Innovative urbane Milieus

Kreative Branchen


Innerstädtisches Wohnen

Innenstadt -

Herz der Metropole

Regierungs- und Cityfunktionen

Wirtschaft und Medien

Internationalität und Headquarters

Innerstädtisches Wohnen

Wirtschaft im Westen

Industrielle Kerne, Hafen

Schaufenster am Westkreuz

Messe, Events

Wissenscampus Dahlem

Forschungs- und Bildungsstandorte

Wirtschaft und Wissenschaft


Südkreuz - Gleisdreieck

Verkehrsknoten Südbahnhof

Innerstädtischer Naturpark

Wohnen und Arbeiten am Park

Zukunftsraum Tegel

In 2006 the Senate Department for Urban

Development presented a plan covering

the entire city, pointing out areas of strategic

significance. The plan shows that

the new Berlin Brandenburg International

Airport will significantly change the hierarchy

of Berlin’s urban quarters. Southeast

Berlin will gain in importance while

the northern section will lose its economic

advantage. The map sets out the

vision of the political leadership, its priorities

and where to steer development. It

plays an important role in promoting

investment in strategic areas.


City West

Umfeld Hauptbahnhof


Historische Mitte


Tempelhofer Feld


Wissenschaftsstadt Adlershof

Flughafen BBI


Senate Department for

Urban Development, Berlin


Senate Department for

Urban Development, Berlin


Planning: 2006–2010

Gesundheits- und Wissenschaftsstandorte

Wohnen im Grünen


Wohnen mit Weitblick


Vielfältiges Wohnungsangebot


Innovation und Entertainment

am Spreeufer

Medienstandorte kreative Branchen




Spree - Dahme

Freizeit, Kultur

Wohnen am Wasser


Innenstadt - Flughafen BBI

Flughafenumfeld BBI

Wissenschaft und Wirtschaft

Verkehr und Logistik

Wohnen und Soziale Stadt

© Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung, Abteilung Stadtund

Freiraumplanung, 2006 - Aktualisierung: Dezember 2009

Graphik: Studio UC / Unverzagt. Visuelle Kommunikation

/ bit-better visualisierungen



Berlin’s strategic areas

Courtesy: Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung Berlin

2010 #14 — The Strategic Plan London p. 1

One of the main tasks for the Mayor of

London is to produce a spatial development

strategy for London which defines

a strategic approach for all pressing

issues in the metropolitan region. One

of the central ideas is to absorb the large

projected population growth within the

existing footprint of London, i.e. to avoid

the expansion of the urban area into the

green belt. The London Plan itself lacks

detailed spatial plans but is supplemented

with a number of guidance documents.

It can be seen as the benchmark for planning

strategies in metropolitan areas in

the 21st Century. Design for London has

been instrumental to communicating and

developingthe Mayor’s spatial strategies.

Mayor of London / Greater London Authority

The London Plan





Spatial Planning Strategy

London Plan


Mayor of London /

Greater London Authority


2004 onwards


Town Centres — showing

the ‘Central Activities Zone’

and ‘International,

Metropolitan und District


Courtesy: Design for London / LDA


Map of London High Streets

Courtesy: Gort Scott


Map showing the

‘Opportunity Areas’, ‘Areas

of Regeneration, Areas of

Intensification’ and the

wider development area

‘Thames Gateway’

Courtesy: Design for London / LDA


Map showing the

Green Grid and Parks

Courtesy: Design for London / LDA



2010 #14 — The Strategic Plan Paris p. 1

The French President Nicholas Sarkozy

is keen to turn the metropolitan region

of Paris into a sustainable ‘post­Kyoto

landscape’ with the focus of reducing the

emission of greenhouse gases. In 2008,

under the label Le Grand Pari(s), ten

teams led by architects and planners

were commissioned to develop ideas of

how to achieve this goal. The team LIN

Finn Geipel & Giulia Andi proposes that

LIN Finn Geipel & Giulia Andi

Paris — ‘Soft Metropolis’

existing residential and mixed­use hubs

should be intensified. Wetlands along the

numerous rivers in the region and green

spaces should be protected and renaturalised.

Given that there are eight

Départements and 1,281 local authorities

in the Region Île de France it will be a

challenge in the realization to overcome

the fragmented structure of local authority.



The new metropolitan

region, bird’s eye view

3D visualisation

Courtesy: LIN Finn Geipel & Giulia Andi


French government, study

Le Grand Pari(s), 2008


LIN Finn Geipel & Giulia Andi


since 2007

2010 #14 — The Strategic Plan Chicago p. 1

In 1999, the Commercial Club of Chicago,

a consortium of 300 members from

business, politics, civil society and science

backgrounds, published the strategic

development plan, Chicago Metropolis

2020. The document argues that urban

sprawl is reducing Chicago’s competitive

edge by dispersing the benefits of

agglomeration which cities thrive on.

The proposed solution calls for sustainable

regional development strategies and

political reforms. The Commercial Club

founded the non­profit organisation,

Chicago Metropolis 2020, to promote

its ideas.

Chicago Metropolis 2020

Development Plan


Commercial Club

of Chicago


Chicago Metropolis 2020




‘Choices for the Chicago


Courtesy: Chicago Metropolis 2020


Berlin exhibition

(October – December 2010)


Hosted by

Museum of Architecture of the Berlin University of Technology


Harald Bodenschatz (Professor for Sociology of Planning and Architecture

at the Berlin University of Technology) and Hans-Dieter Nägelke

(Head of the Museum of Architecture of the TU Berlin)

in cooperation with

Harald Kegler (Bauhaus University Weimar) and Wolfgang Sonne (Dortmund

University of Technology)

Curated by

Christina Gräwe (Kuratorenwerkstatt)

London Exhibition

Curated by

Cordelia Polinna (TU Berlin/Think Berl!n),

Tobias Goevert and Kalin Coromina (Design for London)

Editorial support

Lee Mallett, Jeremy Melvin (Urbik), David Dunster

Exhibition design

Axel Feldmann, Siaron Hughes, Niki Lampaski (objectif)


Harald Bodenschatz (TU Berlin), Dorothee Brantz (TU Berlin),

Sonja Dümpelmann (University of Maryland), Dieter Frick (TU Berlin), Simone

Goevert, Christina Gräwe (Kuratorenwerkstatt), Aljoscha Hofmann

(TU Berlin), Corinne Jaquand (Ecole nationale supérieure d’architecture

de Clemont-Ferrand), Harald Kegler (Bauhaus University Weimar), Hans-Dieter

Nägelke (TU Berlin), Cordelia Polinna (TU Berlin/Think Berl!n), Barbara

Schönig (TU Darmstadt), Wolfgang Sonne

(TU Dortmund), Design for London team including Mark Brearley,

Paul Clarke, Eleanor Fawcett, Tobias Goevert, Eva Herr, Tim Rettler, Edmund

Bird, Alison Mayor, Charlotte Khatso

in cooperation with

Regula Lüscher (Director of the Senate Department for Urban

Development Berlin), Senate Department for Urban Development Berlin,

Borough of Berlin-Mitte.

City Visions 1910 | 2010 has been organised by

The Museum of Architecture, Berlin University of Technology

Design for London

Funded by

German Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and

Urban Development — Office for Building and Regional Planning

Design for London / London Development Agency

Barratt Homes

John McAslan + Partners

British Council

Supported by

Mayor of London

London Development Agency

Transport for London

London Borough of Hackney

Hackney Access Project

Open Dalston


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