Raytheon Technology Today 2011 Issue 1

raytheon

Raytheon Technology Today 2011 Issue 1

Technology

Today

HigHligHting RaytHeon’s tecHnology

Raytheon’s Integrated Energy Solutions

Applying technologies critical to national security

2011 ISSUE 1


A Message From Mark E. Russell

On the cover: Raytheon, together with United

Innovations and the University of Arizona,

is developing a high efficiency solar energy

system. The heart of the system is a novel

photon-recycling photovoltaic cavity converter

(PVCC). It works in conjunction with a parabolic

dish reflector that concentrates sunlight

through the PVCC onto an internal array of

photovoltaic cells to produce electrical energy.

2 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Vice President of Engineering, Technology and Mission Assurance

Just as minimizing energy use and cost-effectively meeting energy needs are top-of-mind

for all of us at Raytheon, so too are these major concerns for Raytheon’s defense and

national security customers. Collectively we face the growing challenges related to

energy and fossil fuel usage. Raytheon, known for technological innovation, is focused

on helping to better meet these energy needs and create solutions that support our

customers’ missions.

This Energy issue of Technology Today focuses on Raytheon’s innovative approaches to

satisfying the energy needs of its systems and its customers by leveraging and adapting

advanced energy technologies. Assuring reliable energy sources, adjusting to unpredictable

fuel pricing, and responding to mission needs are important variables in designing

defense systems.

Raytheon is at the forefront of providing the domain knowledge, technologies and

solutions to meet energy challenges. We incorporate alternative energy sources such as

solar, fuel cells and advanced batteries in our power management solutions. We are

investigating power cells and storage technologies ranging from a few milliwatts to many

megawatts. We understand what it means to efficiently manage and conserve energy in

domains spanning air, land, sea, space and cyberspace.

In this issue’s Leaders Corner, Tom Kennedy, president of Raytheon Integrated Defense

Systems, discusses his vision for IDS and how he plans to meet the challenges that lie

ahead — from changes in the external business environment to leveraging deep technical

talent to addressing the energy needs of today.

In the Meet a New Raytheon Leader section, we introduce Luis Izquierdo, vice president,

corporate Operations. Luis is responsible for developing and executing Raytheon’s

enterprise operations vision and strategy. He leads strategic initiatives for manufacturing

and manufacturing business systems, and co-leads corporate initiatives related to energy

and environmental sustainability and real estate utilization. Luis discusses how we are

making an impact on energy efficiency by reducing Raytheon’s load demand. Raytheon

has achieved the ENERGY STAR® Sustained Excellence Award from the U.S. Dept. of

Energy for several years.

Best regards,

Mark E. Russell


View Technology Today online at:

www.raytheon.com/technology_today/current INSIDE THIS ISSUE

Technology Today is published

by the Office of Engineering,

Technology and Mission Assurance.

Vice President

Mark E. Russell

Chief Technology Officer

Bill Kiczuk

Managing Editor

Cliff Drubin

Senior Editors

Donna Acott

Tom Georgon

Eve Hofert

Feature Editor

Lindley Specht

Art Director

Debra Graham

Photography

Don Bernstein

Rob Carlson

Website Design

Nick Miller

Publication Distribution

Dolores Priest

Contributors

Sarah Castle

Kate Emerson

Kenneth Kung

Samantha Sullivan

Frances Vandal

Feature: Raytheon's Integrated Energy Solutions

Overview: Applying Technologies Critical to National Security 4

Building Tomorrow’s Energy Surety With Today’s Technologies 7

Advanced Chemical Battery Technologies: The Lithium Revolution 9

Power Sources That Last a Century 12

Creating Compact, Reliable and Clean Power With Fuel Cell Technology 15

The Battlefield Game Changer: Portable and Wearable Soldier Power 17

Solar Power: Applying Raytheon‘s Defense Technologies 18

External Combustion Engines for Military Applications 21

The ReGenerator: Alternative Energy for Expeditionary Missions 23

Intelligent Power and Energy Management 25

The Role of Energy Storage in Intelligent Energy Systems 26

Cyber Risk Management in Electric Utility Smart Grids 30

Cybersecurity for Microgrids 32

Standardizing the Smart Grid 34

Raytheon Leaders

Leaders Corner: Q&A With Tom Kennedy 36

Meet a New Raytheon Leader: Luis Izquierdo 38

EYE on Technology

Advanced Vehicle Airframe Innovations Cut Missile Cost and Schedule 40

Dynamic Ontology Creation Techniques: Weapon Smuggling Example 42

Ka-band Cooperative Target ID for the Current Force 43

Special Interest

RF MEMS Development at Raytheon 45

Carbon-Based Electronic Devices Open a New Window to Electronics 47

People

Profiling Raytheon Certified Architects 48

Resources

IPDS 3.4 for Engineers: The Right Way to Start a Program 49

Events

Fellows Meeting: Disruptive Technologies 50

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

10

Power W/mm

-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 130 nm CMOS

1 10

Editor’s note: Correction: Technology Today,

2010 Issue 2, “Next Generation RF Systems,”

2010 Mission Systems Integration Technology Network Symposium 51

page 44. The reference to the FCC frequency

allocation chart should have been to the United

States National Table of Frequency Allocations.

Figure 1 was taken from the United States Frequency

Allocations: The Radio Spectrum, October 2003,

National Telecommunications and Information

Administration, Department of Commerce, Office

Patents 53

of Spectrum Management. RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 3

Fmax, Ft (GHz)

InP HEMT

Carbon-Based Electronics

10 mW, 80% PAE, 20 dB Gain

InGaAs PHEMT

NextGen GaN

GaN HEMT


Feature

Raytheon Energy

Solutions Overview

Applying Technologies

Critical to

National Security

4 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Energy is becoming increasingly critical to national security. It is a major concern

and cost consideration for current and future defense operations. The 2010

Quadrennial Defense Review calls for crafting a strategic approach to energy and

for operational energy considerations to be incorporated into force planning, requirements

development and acquisition processes.

Known for its technological innovation and total mission solutions, Raytheon is

addressing energy applications from an overall system perspective by employing three

complementary approaches, illustrated in Figure 1:

1. Development and incorporation of advanced energy sources.

2. Management and security of energy grids and infrastructures.

3. Conservation of existing energy supplies, exemplified by Raytheon’s

sustainability initiatives.

Raytheon produces a large number of systems and products with diverse power and

energy demands. Power demands range from less than 1 watt, for low-power,

man-portable systems and unattended sensors, up to many megawatts for large radar

installations and critical infrastructure needs. Operational environment and logistical

constraints are also considered when evaluating alternative sources such as solar and

wind power. For example, operations in a remote desert location may be better supported

by incorporating solar energy and energy storage to minimize dependence on

diesel generators and their corresponding fuel usage. However, incorporating new

technologies should not inadvertently introduce vulnerabilities in the overall system

architecture. This is one of the basic tenets of good systems engineering at Raytheon.

In addition, it is important to properly assess the financial impact of these alternative

energy implementations through a detailed return on investment analysis that examines

total operational costs.

In this issue of Technology Today, you will read about how Raytheon partners with

developers and institutions on leading-edge, energy-related technology to provide the

best system solutions for our customers’ unique applications.

Systems Analysis and Architecture

Beginning with a fundamental understanding of the mission objectives and power requirements,

a comprehensive solution requires expertise in energy generation, storage

and distribution, architecture, modeling and simulation, command and control, information

management, sensing, cyberdefense, critical infrastructure protection, software,

and power electronics integration. The next article, “Building Tomorrow’s Energy Surety

With Today’s Technologies,” discusses Raytheon’s systems engineering approach to addressing

our customers’ energy needs. The article describes how Raytheon, as an energy

surety integrator, utilizes our resources in these areas to develop energy solutions that

address the three primary stages in a system’s energy life cycle: concept, implementation

and maintenance. This sets the stage for a series of articles highlighting Raytheon’s

use of developing source technologies, our energy systems management solutions and

our conservation initiatives.

Applications

Raytheon, as a technology company and as a systems integrator, recognizes that

addressing the energy needs of our customers is key to providing total life-cycle solutions.

In this issue, you will read about technologies such as advanced batteries for

lightweight mobile applications, atomic batteries for persistent sensors, and fuel cells

for man-portable, facility and fixed-base power applications. Renewable solar sources

and energy management systems are being developed to support the energy needs of

domestic communities, fixed bases and mobile tactical units. Another development is


Applications

• Infrastructures

• Bases

• Airborne

• Maritime

• Ground

• Wearable

providing long-duration energy for the autonomous

operation of underwater vehicles.

With growth in domestic power needs and

the complexity of interconnected power

grids, integrated energy surety solutions

have entered the forefront as the means

for identifying and mitigating the risks and

impacts of failure or compromise within

the U.S. energy infrastructure. Raytheon is

applying our considerable systems engineering

resources to address power generation,

distribution and storage strategies, and

cybersecurity measures. Finally, as responsible

citizens, we have a strong culture of

energy awareness in everything we do, as

evidenced by an established track record of

conservation within our facilities.

Source Technologies

There are several existing and emerging

electrical power generation technologies

that play an important role in meeting the

needs of our customers.

The generalized Ragone chart in Figure 2

is used to compare the performance of

various energy sources. On the chart, the

values of energy density (Wh/kg) are plotted

against power density (W/kg). The vertical

axis represents how much energy is available,

while the horizontal axis represents

how quickly that energy can be delivered

to a load. The chart shows various energy

sources — from low-power betavoltaics to

Integrated Energy Solution

System Analysis and Architecture Development

Sources

• Batteries

• Fuel Cells

• Solar

• Wind

• Generators

• Others

Approaches

Management

• Generation

• Storage

• Security

• Distribution

• Reconfigurability

• Reliability

• Recoverability

• Safety

Conservation

• Consumption

• Sustainability

• Renewability

Figure 1. Raytheon employs integrated systems resources to achieve comprehensive energy

solutions for its customers.

higher power lithium batteries, fuel cells

and combustion engines.

Many of Raytheon’s products require the

use of electrical sources with moderate

power and energy density. This need is

typically met with conventional chemical

batteries. In “Advanced Chemical Battery

Technologies: The Lithium Revolution,” we

start with a general discussion of chemical

batteries, and then focus on advancements

in lithium ion battery technology, which

have evolved to dominate other common

battery technologies for many of today’s

applications. Work is ongoing to further increase

lithium battery performance through

improvements in three areas: chemistry,

electrodes and electrolytes.

Other applications benefit from very long

life (high energy density), but require only a

small amount of power. These applications

are typically persistent unattended sensors

for monitoring and tagging. The article

titled “Power Sources That Last a Century,”

about betavoltaics (atomic energy sources),

addresses this class of applications, which

will enable tiny smart sensors that never need

their batteries recharged or replaced.

For those applications requiring a clean and

quiet power source — and where there is

access to fuel for extended operation — the

fuel cell is a viable technology. “Creating

Compact, Reliable and Clean Power With

Feature

Fuel Cell Technology” discusses the various

types of fuel cells with the capability to

cover a very large power range. We highlight

an application where this technology

has the potential to replace conventional

batteries that power equipment for manportable

operations, significantly reducing

the weight and volume of power sources

that must be carried by soldiers on missions

that range from days to weeks.

Development of renewable solar energy

sources is being undertaken at our sun-rich

facility in Tucson, Ariz. We are participating

in this collaborative research effort with

Science Foundation Arizona, the University

of Arizona, United Innovations and the

California Energy Commission. This work is

based on the photovoltaic cavity converter.

The novel “photon-recycling” technology

described in “Solar Power: Applying

Raytheon's Defense Technologies” helps

to increase the efficiency of current solar

cells by capturing more of the incident

solar energy. The goal is to develop a costcompetitive

solar power solution to replace

conventional power sources for many

military and commercial applications. A

photo of the team’s proof of concept demonstration

hardware appears on the cover

of this issue.

The last article on power sources highlights

our involvement with Cyclone Power

10,000

Energy Density (Wh/kg)

1,000

100

10

1

0.1

Fuel Cell

Lead/Acid

Battery

Betavoltiac

Continued on page 6

Combustion

Li-ion Battery

1 10 100 1,000 10,000

Power Density (W/kg)

Figure 2. Ragone chart comparing the

performance of several source technologies

discussed in this issue

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 5


ENGINEERING PROFILE

Lindley Specht

Senior Principal

Engineering

Fellow, IDS

Lindley Specht

has focused

his career on

discovering

opportunities

and innovating

to help solve

interesting

customer problems.

A 30-year

Raytheon

veteran, Specht continues to share his

knowledge and expertise with all Raytheon

businesses.

“I have a relatively broad background

that ranges from electrical engineering to

chemistry, and continues to grow while I

am at Raytheon,” Specht said. In his current

assignment, Specht is responsible for

the development of new technologies and

capabilities for the warfighter. He is also the

electro-optics and lasers technology champion

for the company.

Specht received Raytheon’s award for

Excellence in Technology as well as the

Thomas L. Phillips award for Excellence

in Technology. He was a participant in the

National Academy of Engineering second

annual symposium on Frontiers in Science,

and he was a member of the technical advisory

committee for the University of Illinois

Center for Compound Semiconductors. In

addition, he was on the technical advisory

committee for the Fundamentals of Infrared

Detection Multidisciplinary University

Research Initiative, sponsored by the Army

Research Office.

He holds a bachelor’s degree in chemistry

with very high honors from the University

of Florida, Gainesville, Fla. He also holds a

master’s degree in electrical engineering, a

doctorate in electrical engineering, and has

completed all the requirements for a doctorate

in physical chemistry, all from the

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,

Urbana, Ill.

Specht is a member of the Institute of

Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the

American Chemical Society. He is also a

qualified Raytheon Six Sigma Specialist.

6 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Feature

Continued from page 5

Technologies, a company that has developed

an innovative engine that converts

heat from external combustion to electricity.

Raytheon is integrating this technology as a

replacement for batteries in long-endurance,

long-range underwater vehicle applications.

Energy Management

We begin this series of articles with a system

that illustrates the principles of energy

management on a small scale. Raytheon’s

ReGenerator is a self-contained hybrid power

system that generates, stores and manages

clean renewable energy, such as solar and

wind power, designed for tactical use in remote

locations. In fact, the ReGenerator has

been deployed with the U.S. Marines in the

Southwest United States, North Africa and

Afghanistan. The article shows how the use

of alternative energy along with intelligent

energy command and control (IEC2) may

considerably reduce a combat unit’s dependence

on fossil fuels. This not only represents

a cost savings, but it also reduces risk to

warfighters by reducing the logistics footprint

while providing reliable energy where and

when it’s needed. The accompanying article

discusses Raytheon’s intelligent power and

energy management (IPEM) technology and

explains how we employ it in development of

our energy systems, such as the ReGenerator,

to optimize efficiency and availability.

A discussion of energy management must

include energy storage. “The Role of Energy

Storage in Intelligent Energy Systems” explains

why energy storage is an important

element of any energy system architecture,

outlines general requirements, and identifies

several technologies of interest along with

their applications.

The next two articles focus on the security

risks associated with complex power grids.

They discuss the complexities and challenges

for managing risks in evolving smart

grid concepts. “Cyber Risk Management

in Electric Utility Smart Grids” discusses

Raytheon’s collaboration with the University

of Arizona, Tucson Electric Power, and several

small-business partners to meet recently

mandated regulations and guidelines for

smart grid cybersecurity, architecture and

Energy Overview

infrastructure protection. “Cybersecurity for

Microgrids” discusses our process and suite

of modeling and evaluation tools used to assess

the security of energy networks and to

develop appropriate mitigation strategies.

The last article in this series, “Standardizing

the Smart Grid,” discusses Raytheon’s presence

in the international energy standards

community and our activities related to

developing smart grid requirements and

guidelines. The two key areas of standardization

are interoperability and cybersecurity.

Raytheon is represented on the Smart

Grid Interoperability Panel sponsored by

the National Institutes of Standards and

Technology and the related series of task

forces established by the Institute of Electrical

and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) to address

power systems, information technology and

communications technology standards.

Conservation

In the “Leaders Corner,” Raytheon’s

Integrated Defense Systems President Tom

Kennedy provides examples of how our

technology is being applied to reducing

customers’ energy costs and how we are

reducing our own energy footprint through

our “Energy Citizen” program and “green”

certified facilities.

In “Meet a New Raytheon Leader,”

Raytheon’s energy conservation and

management measures are addressed by

Luis Izquierdo, Raytheon’s vice president

for corporate Operations in Engineering,

Technology and Mission Assurance. In this

Q&A, Izquierdo talks about his role and how

it relates to energy conservation and management,

Raytheon’s energy goals, and the

key elements of Raytheon’s energy program.

Summary

We hope this issue provides you with a

good perspective of the degree of focus

and breadth of development that Raytheon

is bringing to bear on the many energyrelated

challenges. Energy is critical to our

national security and Raytheon, as a systems

and technology company, is using its resources

to provide comprehensive solutions

to meet our customers’ energy needs. •

Lindley Specht


Building Tomorrow’s Energy Surety

With Today’s Technologies

Energy surety is an approach to an

“ideal” energy system that, when fulfilled,

enables the system to function

properly while allowing it to resist stresses

that could result in unacceptable losses. The

attributes of the energy surety model include

safety, security, reliability, recoverability and

sustainability.

Numerous existing and emerging electrical

power generation and energy storage technologies

may be employed to address the needs

and objectives of U.S. Department of

Defense (DoD) and other domestic and international

customers. Maintaining energy surety

throughout a system’s life cycle requires the

identification, analysis and integration of the

right energy technologies, while considering

specific applications and environments.

Raytheon accomplishes this by leveraging its

expertise and resources in system architecture,

design and integration; command and control;

communications; cybersecurity; critical

infrastructure protection; weather prediction;

and modeling and simulation (M&S).

Full Life-cycle Approach

The system solution is developed and matured

throughout the three primary stages

Topology/

weather analysis

Vulnerability

analysis

Concept Stage

• Requirements

derivation

• Tech budgets

• Gov’t mandates

Cost benefit analysis

Technology assessment

Configuration

trades

in the energy solutions life cycle — concept,

implementation and maintenance — as

illustrated in Figure 1.

During the concept stage, understanding

the requirements, performing analysis of

alternatives (AoA), cost benefit trades, and

vulnerability analyses result in cost-effective

solutions that meet user needs and are

resilient to enemy attack. Early planning

addresses the strategic concerns related to

the architecture and deployment of a new

initiative or mission and considers policy

constraints, resource availability, personnel

safety, target environment topology and

weather characteristics, vulnerability and

cost. AoA supports the planning process

through rigorous trade-offs of operational

approaches, technology configurations,

cost-schedule-technology risks, and threats.

Finally, architecture definition, modeling,

simulation and systems analysis provide the

foundation for design and implementation

efforts and provide predictions of how —

and how well — the system will operate

once it is implemented. Some of these early

analyses address the approach, effectiveness

and costs of maintenance to ensure that the

architecture and operational approach can

Figure 1. The comprehensive system solution is matured throughout the energy solutions life cycle.

EPA

Deploy/install Design

Feature

be adequately supported and upgraded.

This early total system analysis and architecture

definition yields dividends during the

implementation and maintenance stages by

reducing the costs of operation, maintenance

and upgrades.

The implementation stage continues with

detailed planning and design trade-offs that

focus on installation performance, testability

and supportability. Specific system and

technology choices are made and a detailed

deployment cost and schedule plan is created.

All stakeholders are involved, and service-level

agreement contracts are created and signed.

System engineering, power systems design,

supply chain and contracts management

are critical during this and the maintenance

stage. Proper analysis and selection in this

phase reduces operational costs and improves

system availability, enhancing energy surety

and reducing the required frequency and cost

of future upgrades.

In the maintenance stage, the choices made

during the concept and implementation

stages are evaluated and evolved to support

normal and peak operations. Power

Implementation Stage Maintenance Stage

Solution

laydown

Tech maturity

and obsolescence

Integrator Concept Integrator Baseline Integrator

Contracts Procurement

Cost and

schedule

Stakeholder coordination

Maintenance

Continued on page 8

Evaluate &

Improve Plan

Growth and upgrades

Technology

road map

M&S/data from estimates and “as likes” Mature models through data gathering Cost benefit for planned upgrades

$

Implement

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 7


Feature

Continued from page 7

generation, power transmission, energy

storage and load balance technologies

are assessed and refreshed as needed.

Optimization of human and system resources

required to maintain the power system also

occurs during this stage. The plan, implement

and improve cycle runs continuously,

drawing on the architecture, design, modeling

and analysis skill sets.

The attributes of energy surety are optimized

through the application of Raytheon’s system

engineering methods and resources addressing

the full life cycle of the energy system.

Enterprise Architecture

The development and analysis of a comprehensive

energy enterprise architecture

is required for complex systems and is

necessary before the total system can be

understood and optimized. Raytheon employs

the industry-standard Unified Profile for

DoD Architecture Framework/U.K. Ministry

of Defence Architecture Framework. This

architecture captures all of the energy surety

attributes and characteristics related to

availability, performance, testability, interoperability,

maintainability and scalability. One

of the essential methods is model-based engineering

(MBE) and the analysis capabilities

it provides.

Model-Based Engineering

Model-based systems engineering is the formalized

application of modeling to support

system requirements, design, analysis, verification

and validation activities beginning

Energy

Solution Gaps

Intelligent Energy

Management

Interoperability

Cyberprotection

Physical Security

Forecasting and

Planning

Comprehensive

Solution Provider

Raytheon

Strengths

Command and

Control

Communications

Cybersecurity

Critical Infrastructure

Protection

Environmental Data and

Modeling & Simulation

Systems of Systems

Integration

Figure 2. Raytheon’s core competencies

address energy surety solution gaps.

8 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

in the conceptual design phase and continuing

throughout development and later

life-cycle phases. Raytheon employs proven

MBE practices to evaluate functional and

non-functional system characteristics and

perform engineering trade-offs of the energy

solutions, considering the entire life

cycle. Modeling and simulation are used to

evaluate the scalability and cost-benefit implications

of alternative architectures, designs

and deployment strategies.

For example, Raytheon’s MBE architecture

analysis of one of the U.S. Army’s training

bases demonstrated significant cost and

time savings by employing a mixed profile of

renewable and legacy energy generation resources,

while deploying more efficient

energy utilization strategies.

For this analysis, several modeling, simulation

and analysis tools were used to assess

the viability of a wide range of energy surety

capabilities and technologies.

• The National Renewable Energy Laboratories’

HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for

Electric Renewables) and ViPOR (Village

Power Optimization Model for Renewables)

tools were used to support the planning

during the concept stage. The HOMER

tool provided a low-fidelity modeling environment

to trade cost, performance, functionality

and risk factors associated with

alternative energy deployment strategies.

The ViPOR tool supported power bus and

distribution line lay-down trade-offs.

• Power transmission modeling tools such as

PowerWorld Simulator were useful during

the implementation stage to conduct

trade studies on various power source and

load balance alternatives.

• General-purpose physics modeling and

discrete event simulation models using

tools such as Simulink ® and eXtend

were useful for end-to-end system and

device-specific performance trade-offs.

A useful outgrowth of this modeling and

simulation effort was the ability to employ

both discrete and continuous modeling

techniques in an integrated, end-to-end

performance assessment, linked to live

energy-generation and storage resources.

Energy Surety

Energy Security

Defensive mechanisms that respond to a

wide range of security threats and reduce

vulnerabilities address an important attribute

of energy surety. These mechanisms draw

on Raytheon’s core competencies in cybersecurity,

critical infrastructure protection,

command and control, situational awareness,

environmental data modeling and

analytics, and secure communications.

We have expanded our command and control

situational awareness functionality to

include energy-related resources (generation,

storage and loads). These monitoring functions

now provide the historical, current and

predictive operational state of mission-critical

energy subsystems. Secure, reliable wired

and wireless communications technologies

are being effectively applied to develop

secure SCADA (supervisory control and data

acquisition) capabilities that address the

high risk of cyberattacks against the energy

infrastructure.

Physical security risks associated with the

energy infrastructure are cost effectively

addressed as part of a comprehensive critical

infrastructure protection (CIP)-based suite of

sensing, defense and deterrence capabilities

demonstrated and matured in Raytheon’s

existing CIP solutions.

Forecasting and Planning

Raytheon addresses the challenges of energy

demand forecasting and planning by

employing weather, social and technology

modeling techniques to analyze trends

and to project probabilities of occurrence

of a wide range of factors that influence a

system’s energy profile. Raytheon’s environmental

weather modeling capabilities, linked

with our partnerships in academia, government

and industry, build a strong foundation

for providing these capabilities.

Closing the Gaps

As shown in Figure 2, Raytheon’s strengths

align with many of our customers’ energy

solution gaps. The application of a total

system and full life-cycle approach, along

with appropriate expertise, enhances energy

surety. The energy system is better managed,

improving efficiency and reducing costs.

Better defenses are provided to counter

physical and cyber threats. •

Ron Williamson and Bob Gerard


Advanced

Chemical

Battery

Technologies:

The Lithium

Revolution

The ability to provide

reliable, long-lasting

power to portable and

compact systems is a

key performance

characteristic for a

variety of government

and defense products,

ranging from radios to

unmanned systems.

Feature

Many of us are aware of a number of technologies that have followed some variant of

“Moore’s Law” for growth in long-term performance, but advances in battery technology

have been more modest. The increased presence of power-hungry portable devices

(e.g., smart phones, personal digital assistants and their military counterparts) as well as the push

to clean hybrid or all-electric vehicles has intensified the focus on — and public and private sector

investment in — battery chemistry and development. This article highlights recent developments in

lithium battery technologies that may advance the current state of the art and meet the increasing

energy needs of our customers.

Battery Fundamentals

A battery is a device that converts stored chemical energy, in the form of metals and electrolytes,

into electric current through internal reactions at the battery’s positive and negative terminals.

Performance of any battery is dependent on three technology areas: the chemistry that generates

the electrons, the electrodes that provide half of the reaction and collect and distribute the electrons,

and the electrolytes that provide the remaining chemistry and the internal pathway for the

electron flow.

Electrical current begins to flow when a load is applied connecting the two battery terminals.

Without the load providing the path from the negative to the positive terminal, the chemical reaction

does not take place and the battery remains charged. A single unit of a battery, commonly

called a cell, will have a characteristic voltage range between charged and discharged states based

on the electrochemical properties of the materials used and the specific reactions that occur in the

electrolytic solution between the two terminals.

There are basically two types of batteries. A primary battery is one where the energy is exhausted

after the active materials are consumed (e.g., carbon-zinc, silver oxide and alkaline). A secondary

battery is one where the active materials can be regenerated by charging (e.g., lead acid, lithium ion,

nickel cadmium or NiCd, nickel metal hydride or NiMH).

The specific materials used within a battery control its voltage; each different reaction has a characteristic

voltage value. Take a car battery as an example. A single cell of a typical automotive

lead-acid battery has a negative plate made of lead (Pb) and a positive plate made of lead dioxide

(PbO2 ), both of which are placed into a strong electrolyte solution of sulfuric acid (H2SO4 ) and

water (H2O). When placed in aqueous solution, the sulfuric acid separates into a hydrogen ion (H + )


and a hydrogen sulfate ion (HSO4 ). During battery discharge, a reaction takes place at the negative

terminal, where the lead combines with the hydrogen sulfate ion to create lead sulfate (PbSO4 ),

a hydrogen ion and two electrons (e – ) that drive the load (starting the engine). At the positive

– + terminal during discharge, lead dioxide (PbO2 ), hydrogen sulfate ions (HSO4 ), hydrogen ions (H )

plus the returning electrons from the negative terminal create lead sulfate on the lead dioxide


plate and water. As the battery discharges, both plates build up lead sulfate, and the HSO4 concentration

decreases in the electrolyte solution. This reaction generates a characteristic voltage of

-0.356 volts at the negative plate and +1.685 volts at the positive plate, or about 2 volts per cell,

so by combining six cells in series, a standard 12-volt battery is formed. To recharge, current is applied

to the battery from the alternator with the

Secondary Battery Example

Automotive Lead-Acid

Negative terminal (Pb):

discharge �

– Pb + HSO4 � PbSO4 + H + + 2e – (-0.356 V)

� charge

Positive terminal (PbO2 ):

discharge �

– + – PbO2 + HSO4 + 3H + 2e � PbSO4 + 2H2O (1.685 V)

� charge

Figure 1. The process within a common

automotive lead-acid battery is a familiar

example that illustrates the basic operation of

all chemical batteries.

additional electrons reacting to regenerate lead,

lead dioxide, and hydrogen sulfate ions. Figure 1

summarizes these chemical processes.

Advances in Battery Technology

Figure 2 identifies several milestones in the

evolution of battery technology. The introduction

of lithium-based batteries in past decades was

revolutionary in that battery performance rapidly

improved after years of attaining only small

incremental gains over the universal lead-acid

technology.

Why lithium? Conventional, commercially available

battery technologies typically have energy

densities on the order of tens of watt-hours per

Continued on page 10

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 9


ENGINEERING PROFILE

Tony Marinilli

Chief Hardware

Engineer, ET&MA

With more than

32 years at

Raytheon, Tony

Marinilli’s considerable

experience

suits his current

position as chief

hardware engineer

for Raytheon

Engineering,

Technology and Mission Assurance.

As a member of the corporate Engineering team,

Marinilli provides technical leadership and

supports the development of innovative solutions

that ensure mission success. He supports

hardware development by driving performance,

processes, innovation and the implementation

of disruptive, leading-edge technologies.

Before his current position, Marinilli was a principal

engineering fellow for Raytheon Integrated

Defense Systems and a senior manager and

engineering fellow within the Northeast region’s

Radar Design and Electronics Laboratory.

He was also responsible for radar technology

and strategic planning and acted as principal

engineer and engineering section manager for

the microwave systems department within the

Missile and Radar Systems Laboratory.

Among his many accomplishments, Marinilli

has published 13 papers in the areas of missile

seekers, photonic technology, satellite communications

and solid-state transmitters. He has

contributed to the design and development of

low-noise, microwave-power amplifiers while

utilizing microwave integrated circuits and

microwave monolithic integrated circuits for

advanced radar systems.

Marinilli attributes his success to his inquisitive

nature, saying, “I have always been curious and

persistent. I’m not discouraged by failure, and

I enjoy making linkages between obscure and

unrelated facts.”

In addition to his career, Marinilli is actively

involved in promoting initiatives among institutions

of higher education that help increase the

number of students preparing for and entering

careers that employ engineering, science,

technology and mathematics.

10 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Feature

Continued from page 9

kilogram. This is dictated by the chemistry

used as well as the ionic transport media —

the electrolytes. Lithium is a highly reactive

element with the additional advantage that

its ionic size (atomic number 3) is relatively

small compared with other elements; this

facilitates ionic transport. In order to utilize

the stored chemical energy in an element

or compound, the reaction with oxygen

or other reactants needs to be controlled,

and paths of electrons and ions need to be

separated. Consequently, reaction rates are

limited by ionic conductivity through the

electrolyte. In lead-acid automotive batteries

the ionic species is lead traveling through a

sulfuric acid electrolyte. Since the liquid

allows fast ionic conduction, these batteries

can produce great power for, as an example,

starting the engine. The downside, however,

is that the chemicals are quickly depleted

and the reaction slows. Therefore, the stored

energy tends to be low, and the battery

needs to be recharged to reverse the reaction

and restore the level of stored energy.

With an atomic number of 3, lithium is the

lightest of all metals. The electrodes of a

lithium-ion battery are made of a lithium

compound, (e.g., lithium phosphate) and

carbon, so they are generally much lighter

than other types of rechargeable batteries

of the same size. Lithium is also a highly reactive

element (located on the far left of the

periodic table of elements), meaning that

a lot of energy can be stored in its atomic

bonds, resulting in a very high energy density.

A typical lithium-ion battery can store

200 watt-hours of energy in 1 kilogram of

Rechargeable

Nickel-Metal Hydride Cell

~80 Wh/kg

Rechargeable

Nickel-Cadmium Cell

~50 Wh/kg

Rechargeable

Lead-Acid Battery

~30 Wh/kg

Advanced Batteries

battery versus the automotive lead-acid

battery, which can store about 30 watthours

per kilogram.

Lithium-based batteries’ higher energy

density brings with it greater challenges

to contain and control the chemical reaction.

The first lithium battery experiments

conducted in Japan and the U.S. were

failures due to the explosive nature of

the compounds used. The end result is a

compromise that sacrifices performance

for safety, an approach that utilizes lithium

not in its elemental form, but in compound

form. In this way, the explosive nature of

pure lithium can be controlled, but at the

expense of reduced energy storage.

Application in Hybrid Power Systems

While they find common application in

portable devices, lithium batteries play an

important role as energy storage devices

in hybrid power systems being developed

at Raytheon. Raytheon designed, and is

now testing, hybrid power systems using

advanced technology lithium-ion battery energy

storage with solar, wind and generator

inputs to provide power for forward-operating

equipment in support of the warfighter.

These systems are designed to provide

power surety as well as significant reduction

in fuel usage, resulting in fewer fuel sorties,

thus lowering the casualty rate, reducing

maintenance, and lowering total cost of

ownership. Environmentally ruggedized

batteries based on lithium with long-life,

deep-discharge capability, high-efficiency,

and high power and energy densities are

instrumental in realizing the advantages inherent

within these hybrid power systems.

1859 1960 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020

Optimized Li-ion Cells

– Nano-Surface Electrodes

– Composite Electrodes

~1,000 Wh/kg

Lithium-Thionyl-CI Battery

~350 Wh/kg

Lithium-S02 Battery

~250 Wh/kg

The Lithium Revolution

1990 and Beyond

Figure 2. Battery Technology Evolution. Lithium-based batteries offer significant

improvement in energy density over other known chemistries.


Courtesy of Polyplus Corporation, Berkeley, Calif., with permission of

Dr.Steven J. Visco, chief technical officer, Polyplus Battery Company.

The Future

Lithium-ion batteries have made tremendous

inroads in the commercial market, and

their use in providing the driving power in

automotive applications has now become

possible. Boston Power’s lithium-ion batteries

are a good example. Their rechargeable

batteries, based on a proprietary lithium

compound, produce energy densities of

about 180 Wh/kg, and power densities of

about 440 W/kg. These batteries are commercially

available and well suited for long

missions. Another promising lithium-ion

variant is offered by A123 for the automotive

market. These batteries are based on

lithium iron phosphate nanotechnology,

which creates an extremely large surface

area on the electrodes for the chemical

reaction to take place, and results in high

power densities up to 2,000 W/kg. The large

surface area provides for quick discharge to

accelerate a vehicle and fast recharging.

Several companies continue development of

a pure lithium-based battery. Success in this

will open up many applications, and it will

be a breakthrough in the automotive world.

Feature

Chemistry

• Complex chemical systems based on lithium

compounds (e.g., lithium thionyl chloride or

lithium manganate).

• Energy density typically 350 Wh/kg.

Future

• Lithium-air and lithium-water cells offer

simpler chemistry.

• 1,200 Wh/kg demonstrated (Polyplus).

Electrodes

• Conventional graphite and lithium compounds used.

• Surface area limits reaction rate and current flow.

Future

• Nano and bio-inspired technologies offer

extremely high surface area materials.

Courtesy of Prof. Daniel E. Morse, Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies, California NanoSystems Institute, and the Materials Research Laboratory, University

of California, Santa Barbara, from “Materials for New Generation High-Performance Lithium Ion Batteries.”

Courtesy of Dr. Mason K. Harrup, “Advanced Membranes Produce Longer

Lasting and Safer Batteries,” Idaho National Laboratory.

Electrolytes

• Liquids and gels used for high ionic conductivity

and reactivity.

• Downside: fast charge or discharge can lead to

excessive heating and explosions.

• Power densities ~100 to 250 W/kg.

Future

• Solid state electrolytes, ceramic or polymers.

Figure 3. Lithium battery development to achieve large energy and power densities seeks to

optimize performance within three technology areas.

One company that has not given up on pure

lithium is California-based Polyplus. It has

developed a method to contain pure lithium

in a solid electrolytic capsule that controls

the violent reaction of lithium and oxygen.

An experimental cell from Polyplus recently

set a new record in energy density of 1,200

Wh/kg. The company’s next challenge is to

increase the power density of their system.

The quest for more powerful and energetic

batteries continues, and the available

energy of lithium is still not fully tapped

(lithium has an energy density potential

of ~12,000 Wh/kg, close to gasoline at

~13,300 Wh/kg). Consequently, another

performance leap is anticipated for the

near future. Figure 3 highlights ongoing

developments in the three technology areas

of chemistry, electrodes and electrolytes.

Successful development and merging of

these technologies could achieve an energy

density of ~3,000 Wh/kg and a power

density of ~2,000 W/kg. •

Tony Marinilli, Peter Morico, Bart VanRees

Contributor: Steve Klepper

ENGINEERING PROFILE

Peter Morico

Engineering Fellow,

IDS

As the Power

Cell Enterprise

Campaign (PCEC)

lead, Peter Morico

is identifying and

promoting powerrelated

technology

to bring about

discriminating

advantages

to Raytheon products and pursuits. The

PCEC enables technologies to grow product

lines, and offers substantial benefits to our

customers.

Morico’s interest in power design developed

early. At 13, he obtained his advanced-class

amateur radio license. By 15, he had erected a

40-foot tower complete with a four-element

Yagi antenna. He also designed and built a

2 kV power supply as well as a 1 kW linear

amplifier using parts scavenged from old

television sets and surplus military electronics.

Morico began his professional career

at Hughes Space and Communications,

designing hybrid microcircuits and power

supplies for military satellites. His passion for

power design moved him from California to

Massachusetts to design the first generation of

kinetic hit-to-kill infrared seeker electronics.

An 11-year Raytheon veteran, Morico has

led power conversion design teams for

several major surface radar programs.

Speaking about the value of experience,

he said, “With more than 30 years in the

defense and aerospace industry, it is clear to

me that the body of knowledge of what does

not work far exceeds that of what worked the

first time. This is where experience is vitally

important, because no one is teaching what

doesn’t work.”

Morico has led a number of internal research

and design projects and serves on the board

of directors of the Massachusetts Hydrogen

Coalition. He is frequently called on to solve

difficult technical problems and conducts

customer, academia and industry briefings.

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 11


Feature

Electronic devices that never

need to have their power source

replaced and can function

unattended for 100 years.

Science fiction? No, science fact.

Raytheon’s customers need compact,

reliable and long-lived, high

energy density power supplies for

applications such as sustainable low-power

electro-mechanical devices. One such application

is unattended embedded stress

monitoring devices using microelectromechanical

systems (MEMS) that are located in

inaccessible areas such as aircraft structures,

bridges and buildings. These applications

all beg for a robust, viable, cost-effective

power supply that can satisfy the long-

duration needs and sustainable power

required for predicting the onset of a

structural failure, and then conveying this

information to allow for pre-emptive action

and avoid catastrophe.

These isolated sensors are only practical if

they are small, long-lived and unaffected

by harsh environmental conditions. Typical

chemical-based batteries may last a couple

of years, whereas autonomous sensors require

miniature power sources with much

longer lifetimes. For sensor networks in

harsh, inaccessible environments, battery

replacement can be a practical impossibility

or prohibitively expensive. There is also a

need for MEMS technology that can overtly

or covertly sense mechanical motion,

temperature changes, chemicals and

biological species. This requires long-term

sources of compact energy. Applications

include radio frequency identification (RFID)

tags, autonomous sensors, and long-lived,

12 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Power Sources

That Last a Century

miniature, wireless transmitters. The discriminator

in all of these technologies is

long-term, reliable, high-energy density that

is addressed using devices that contain embedded

betavoltaic power sources, referred

to, in general terms, as “atomic batteries.”

Atomic Battery Physics

Atomic batteries are power sources utilizing

the emissive properties of a certain class

of radioactive isotopes. These unstable

isotopes are mostly man-made in nuclear

reactors. They are a form of naturally

occurring elements, where the normal distribution

of protons and neutrons in the

nucleus is disturbed, rendering it unstable.

Over time it is destined to return to a stable

state through an internal restructuring

called transmutation. A consequence of

transmutation is the emission of some

nuclear constituents that convert the

material into a different element. These constituents

primarily include highly energetic

particles such as alpha particles (helium

nuclei) and beta particles (electrons).

Upon impact with matter, these constituents

deposit their energy through ionization

in a predictable manner, creating tracks

of secondary charged particles, such as

electrons and ions similar to electron-hole

pairs in semiconductors. Eventually, the

particles are captured by the encountered

material when their kinetic energy dwindles

down to zero. In all cases, the total energy

content of each of these particles, initially

in the form of energetic charged particles,

eventually emerges as deposited energy in

the form of heat. Some atomic battery technologies

are based on capturing the copious

amounts of charged particles created during

ionization, while others utilize the resulting

generated heat.

Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

Several applications have exploited the

heat generation aspects of atomic batteries.

One is the radioisotope thermoelectric

generator (RTG), which has been used in

numerous NASA deep-space missions that

cannot implement photocells as power

sources; e.g., missions to the outer regions

of the solar system, where power generation

by sunlight is ineffectual. The basis for

these types of power generators consists

of hundreds of Curies of the alpha particleemitting

isotope Pu-238 embedded in

ceramics. This produces energy by heating

the ceramic mass through alpha particle

energy absorption, with subsequent thermoelectric

conversion to useful electricity.

These RTGs have no moving parts and have

been the major source of power in at least

41 NASA missions on satellites expected to

operate for more than 20 years. Another

lower power application of this type of

technology is found in pacemakers (see

Figure 1). This application uses about three

Curies of Pu-238. Weighing only about

three ounces, the pacemaker produces

approximately 1 milliwatt of power while

contributing a generally acceptable typical

radiation dose of 100 millirems per year

Figure 1. Pacemaker RTGs – Technologies

based on “atomic batteries” are not new

and have been used in various applications

for many years.


to the patient. Although in use for a number

of years, this application was replaced

several years ago when improvements in

pacemaker technology reduced energy

requirements to the point where lithium

battery technology became viable.

Betavoltaics

Betavoltaics, another form of atomic battery,

are the little brothers to RTGs; the

difference is that this energy source is not

based on the heat generated, but on its

ability to generate sufficient quantities

of material-ionizing beta particles. While

betavoltaics are similar in concept to photovoltaic

cells, there is a notable difference.

Where photovoltaic cells harvest energy

from interacting photons, betavoltaics function

by capturing and converting the kinetic

energy of energetic electrons, emitted from

decaying radioactive isotopes, into large

amounts of secondary electrons.

Betavoltaics-powered devices may be

engineered to be extremely robust. Since

the source of power is electrons emitted

from the isolated atomic nucleus, electron

emission rates are immune from effects of

stressful, harsh environmental conditions.

Since this technology is based on feature

sizes on the scale of an atom, betavoltaics

show potential improvement in both

energy density and total energy content,

compared with conventional power sources

such as AA batteries. This large energy

density is attributed to the huge number

of radioisotope atoms contained in a small

amount of material (recall Avogadro’s number),

and each atom is primed to unload its

Type

Lithium AA

Battery

Betavoltaic

1 cm 2

Power

(mW)

~1

(1.5 V)

~0.3

(2 V)

Total

Energy

(mWh)

energy-generating beta particle emission at

a rate that is only dependent, in a statistical

manner, upon the particular isotope’s

half life. This advantage in energy density is

indicated in Table 1, which shows a relative

comparison of capabilities for a notional

betavoltaic battery design with those of a

typical lithium AA battery.

Two betavoltaic manifestations are

possible: the so-called direct conversion

category, where secondary electron-hole

pairs are generated in P-N semiconductor

diodes, or the vibrating cantilever concept

that converts mechanical energy to electrical

energy using a piezoelectric-driven, energyscavenging

mechanical converter. Miniature,

low-powered technology devices, based

on either of these two general operational

classes, hold the potential for the development

and integration of tiny smart sensors

that will never need their power supplies

replaced. Specific designs based on

atomic batteries are customized for their

intended applications; some of the basics

that help dictate the design are briefly

discussed below.

Direct Conversion Betavoltaics

One unique rendering of betavoltaics is

the direct conversion approach based on

a P-N semiconductor diode such as gallium

nitride (GaN) placed in direct contact

with a source of beta particles. Figure 2

is a notional design for the P-N junction

method. In the figure, the source adjacent

to the semiconductor is a thin plated film

layer of a beta particle-emitting isotope. A

typical useful source for these applications

Volume

(cm 3 )

Weight

(g)

Total

Energy

Density

(mWh/g)

4,350 7.9 14.5 300

10,512 0.025 0.08 131,400

Table 1. Comparison of a lithium AA battery with conceptual betavoltaic power source.

Source: M.V.S Chandrashekhar, et al., “Design and Fabrication of a 4H SiC Betavoltaic Cell,”

Cornell University.

I GEN

+


Feature

Incident beta radiation

p-semiconductor

n-semiconductor

Built-in

electric

field

Figure 2. Schematic betavoltaics P-N junction

power source. One betavoltaic conceptual

design configuration is based on “direct

conversion” that derives small currents from

electron-hole pairs produced by impinging

beta rays in P-N junction depletion zones.

is a 5-micron layer of the pure beta particleemitting

isotope Ni-63, providing an activity

of roughly 0.25 milliCuries, that emit beta

particles over a wide range of energies, with

an average energy of 17 kiloelectronvolts

(keV) and peaking at 67 keV. On average,

half of all emitted beta particles are transported

toward the semiconductor P-layer

where, upon interacting with the material,

some beta particles are backscattered from

the interface and do not penetrate into the

semiconductor.

Those beta particles that make it into the

semiconductor begin losing energy quickly,

primarily through ionization, generating

electron-hole pairs that are captured once

all their energy is dissipated. Beta-particle

path lengths depend on initial beta-particle

energy and the material through which it

is transported; in general, they are in the

range of a few tens of micrometers. For this

energy transfer to be effective as a power

source, beta particles should be able to

reach deep enough into the semiconductor

to deposit most of their energy, through

ionization, in the P-N junction depletion

region. Those electron-hole pairs generated

in the depletion region — where the

number of pairs depends on material band

gap and beta energy — are swept across

the junction by the generated electric field

and are converted into useful electricity to

power an attached load (Figure 2).

Continued on page 14

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 13


Feature

Continued from page 13

These types of betavoltaics generally

develop power levels that can approach

1 milliwatt. Radiation-tolerant, wide band

gap semiconductors are ideal candidates for

direct-conversion betavoltaics. Several semiconductors

have been identified as ideally

suited for these applications. They include

GaN, aluminum gallium nitride, silicon

carbide and diamond. Since electrons are

rapidly absorbed as they emerge from the

radioactive plated surface, the useful isotope

plating thickness is limited to a few

micrometers at best. Therefore, methods

to scale up the output of these devices depend

primarily on increasing direct contact

surface area. Honsberg, et al., described

a conceptualized approach to address this

issue. It consists of mating GaN layers on

each side of thin Ni-63 wafers in order to

maximize output power. Using this GaN-

isotope sandwich design to capture a large

fraction of emitted beta particles, the

ability to develop a 2.3 volt open circuit

voltage with a short circuit current of

1.1 microamperes was reported. 1 Raytheon

currently produces GaN devices for highpower

microwave applications and also has

an established and demonstrated capability

for growing thin-film chemical vapor

deposition diamond. With this established

presence in developing materials that are

highly desirable for betavoltaics-based

power sources, Raytheon is in a good

position to drive this technology forward.

In light of the limited range of low-energy

beta particles considered here, beta sources

for direct conversion devices are considered

to be relatively safe since they are literally

stopped by the outermost dead skin layer.

There are a number of radiologically-safe

pure beta emitting isotopes with half-lives

ranging from 2.6 to 100.3 years and with

energy densities as high as 10 11 kilojoules

per cubic meter (kJ/m 3 ). In comparison,

diesel fuel has an energy density of approximately

4x10 7 kJ/m 3 , illustrating that

betavoltaic sources can have very high energy

densities and, consequently, long lives.

The choice of the appropriate isotope

is dictated primarily by operational

14 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Radioactive

Source

Half-life

(year)

Specific

Activity

(GBq/g)

considerations, where the isotope is selected

based in part by matching its half-life to

the application’s expected operational life.

Use of a pure beta emitter is also preferred,

since generating other decay products can

lead to a significant dose to the operator

and possible damage to the direct conversion

device semiconductor when long

term exposures are required. In general, a

long half-life pure beta isotope provides

prolonged battery life at the expense of

generating low power, while a short halflife

isotope provides higher power at a more

limited sustainable life span. Table 2 shows

some candidate beta-emitting isotopes and

their relevant properties.

Self-Reciprocating Cantilever

Another unique betavoltaic application is

based on a vibrating piezoelectric cantilever

concept, the self-reciprocating cantilever.

This functions initially as a charge-to-motion

Maximum

Decay Energy

Average

Decay Energy

Specific

Power

mWatt/Ci

Tritium, 3H 12.3 357,000 18.6 keV 5.7 keV 33.7

63Ni 100 2,190 67 keV 17 keV 100

147Pm 2.6 36,260 230 keV 73 keV 367

Table 2. Pure beta particle emitters. Source: M. Mohamadian, et al., “Conceptual Design of

GaN Betavoltaic Battery use in Cardiac Pacemaker,” Proceedings ICENES (2007).

63 Ni radioisotope emitter

Vout

conversion process followed by mechanical

energy conversion to electrical energy. In

this rendering, the device contains a beta

particle-emitting isotope-coated surface

designed to continuously deliver a negative

charge to a nearby piezoelectric materialcoated

cantilever. This conceptual design is

shown in Figure 3, where the self-reciprocating

cantilever process begins by charging

the opposing surface with a large fraction

of the charge emitted by the isotope. Once

a sufficient negative charge builds up on the

cantilever surface, the resulting electrostatic

force field begins to draw the cantilever to

the fixed location, positively charged lower

surface. When an adequate charge is

accumulated, the cantilever bends to the

point where it contacts the radioisotopecoated

surface. Upon contact, electrons

flow from the negatively charged surface,

causing surface charge neutralization, collapsing

the electrostatic field to zero and

Piezoelectric plate (PZT)

Atomic Batteries

Silicon beam

Collector, thick enough to

capture all emitted particles

63 Ni radioisotope emitter

Figure 3. Self-reciprocating piezoelectric cantilever. One betavoltaic design configuration is

based on vibrating piezoelectric cantilevers that convert electrostatic energy to kinetic energy

and back into electric energy. Amit Lal, Rajesh Duggirala and Hui Li, “Pervasive Power: A

Radioisotope-Powered Piezoelectric Generator,” PERVASIVEcomputing, Jan-Mar 2005.


forcing the cantilever to spring back and oscillate

around its initial equilibrium position.

This approach allows for the continuous

transfer of energy from mechanical to

electrical, generated by the vibrating piezoelectric-based

cantilever. As the platform

continues to oscillate, the piezoelectric-

attached structure generates useful electricity

that can be harvested for various

applications. Its oscillation frequency can

be fine-tuned by modifying the length

of the cantilever and the strength of the

radiation source. Depending on its intended

application, the output of this device can be

utilized as a source of tunable rapid current

spikes, or filtered to produce a continuous

DC output stream.

An approach to implementing radio frequency

identification (RFID), for example, is

based on a modification of the self-reciprocating

cantilever design described above.

Tin, et al. 2 , report the generation of 264

MHz wireless signals induced directly by

vibration of the cantilever. Another RFID design

employs a surface acoustic wave (SAW)

resonator connected to and excited by the

vibrating cantilever. This concept has been

shown to produce a frequency modulation

found useful as a CMOS-compatible wireless

communications beacon. The authors

report on the design of a SAW transponder

that can transmit an RF signal at 800 microwatts,

with a 10 microsecond pulse

duration, every three minutes at a frequency

locked to a 315 megahertz SAW resonator. 3

In addition to RFID, Raytheon is pursuing

applications such as power sources for

autonomous sensors and long-lived, miniature,

wireless transmitters. The benefit

provided to these applications is long-term

unattended, reliable operation achieved

using devices that contain embedded high

energy density betavoltaic power sources. •

Bernard Harris

1 C. Honsberg, et al., ”GaN Betavoltaic Energy Converters,” IEEE

Photovoltaics Specialist Conference. Orlando, Fla., 2005.

2 S. Tin, et al.,”Self-Powered Discharge-Based Wireless

Transmitter,” IEEE International Conference on

MicroElectroMechanical Systems, 2008.

3 S. Tin and A. Lal, “A radioisotope-powered surface acoustic wave

transponder,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 19 (2009).

Creating Compact, Reliable

and Clean Power With Fuel Cell

Technology

Feature

The demand for compact, reliable and clean power is an important driver and constraint

for large and small systems. Rapid technological advances have been made in

fuel cells, which are of interest to Raytheon and our customers as a more effective

source of power for key products and as a more sustainable source of power for facilities

and large-scale systems.

Raytheon is employing new developments in fuel cell technology that are likely to be part of

the next generation of power solutions.

How Fuel Cells Work: The Basics

Fuel cells produce direct current (DC) electrical power through an electrochemical reaction

in which a fuel (hydrogen or a hydrocarbon) is oxidized, typically with pure oxygen or air.

Some designs use chemicals such as chlorine as the oxidizing agent. A fuel cell consists of

two electrodes, the anode and cathode, separated by an electrolyte. The electrolyte may

be liquid, such as an aqueous alkaline solution, or solid, such as those using polymer membranes

or solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). This distinction defines the two basic classes of fuel

cells — liquid and solid — with numerous variants of each.

Fuel cells are distinct from batteries, the other major class of electrochemical power cells.

A fuel cell is a thermodynamically open system into which fuel is continuously injected to

generate power. In contrast, a battery is a closed system that stores power, though many

battery types can have power added through recharging.

Figure 1 illustrates the electrochemistry that powers fuel cells. Because fuel cells create

electrical power through an electrochemical reaction rather than through combustion,

their efficiency is not limited by the Carnot cycle efficiency of traditional heat engines (e.g.,

internal combustion engines or turbines), but is potentially higher. Advances in fuel cell technologies

during the past decade are helping to realize this theoretical efficiency advantage.

Anode

Current

Carbon +

Hydrogen

C H + zO � nCO + mH O + e x y 2 2 2 − Fuel

positive

ions

(H

Air

+ Heat

+ )

or

negative

ions

(O2- )

Electrolyte Cathode

Oxygen

Figure 1. Schematic of a fuel cell. Hydrocarbon fuel or pure hydrogen combines with oxygen

in the fuel cell to generate electricity. (Source: Bloom Energy)

Reaction byproducts from fuel cells include water, carbon dioxide (in the case of hydrocarbon

fuels), and waste heat as well as useful electrical power. Some fuel cell schemes

harness the waste heat to boost efficiency. Fuel cells can be considered a green technology

Continued on page 16

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 15


ENGINEERING PROFILE

Steven Klepper

Director, Research

and Development,

ET&MA

Steve Klepper joined

the Engineering,

Technology and

Mission Assurance

organization in

2009 as director of

research and development.

In this role,

he is responsible for

the development of the overall ET&MA strategy,

as well as supporting ET&MA-related growth

initiatives, including aligning investments to

required capabilities. Klepper joined Raytheon

10 years ago, focusing on finance and strategy.

Klepper describes his current role as a “homecoming.”

He explained, “My original training

is as a physicist. Being part of the ET&MA staff

allows me to combine my technical background

with my business experience to support growth

and innovation at Raytheon.”

Before Raytheon, Klepper received his Ph.D.

from Yale University, was a post-doctoral

researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of

Technology, and made a career transition

into the business world. “I joined a strategic

consulting firm in the mid-1990s and had the

opportunity to serve a number of technology

and industrial clients on topics ranging from

strategy and finance to operations. It was an

opportunity for me to apply my analytical and

problem-solving skills learned as a scientist to

solve the rather different problems facing

these companies.”

Klepper advises others to take advantage of

their many learning opportunities. “Continuous

learning is key to success. There is no single

course that provides all the knowledge you will

need as you advance in your career. But there

are many excellent resources available, and

Raytheon has made a tremendous investment

in providing some of these resources

to its employees.”

16 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Feature

Continued from page 15

to the extent that they are more efficient,

or have a lower carbon footprint, than traditional

combustion power technologies,

or when renewable (carbon neutral) fuel

sources are used.

Fuel cells offer the potential for a number of

benefits in providing power to systems large

and small versus traditional power sources:

higher efficiencies compared to combustion

sources, lower carbon profiles depending

on the fuel, and possible cost savings depending

on relative efficiencies and fuel

costs. However, like any emerging technology,

fuel cells must overcome a number of

challenges prior to widespread adoption.

Such challenges include life cycle/durability

of SOFC stacks and other components,

logistics and supply chain deployment of

the alternative fuels consumed by fuel cells,

and cost and performance trade-offs

versus power sources with similar energy

and power densities.

Fuel Cell Applications

At the lower-power end of the spectrum,

companies such as MTI MicroFuel Cells

Inc., NEAH Power Systems, Inc., Lilliputian

Systems Inc., and Angstrom Power, Inc.,

are focused on developing battery

replacement technologies to compactly

provide extended power to handheld

devices in environments where ready

access to the electrical grid for recharging

is impossible or impractical.

The key discriminator for such fuel cell

systems is the duration of power between

refills. They promise to provide as much as

two orders of magnitude greater energy

density than conventional chemical battery

technologies for power densities less than

10 W/kg. Target applications include consumer

electronics devices such as mobile

phones and laptops. Compact, high energy

density fuel cell systems equate to longer

effective life between charges. This may be

applicable to the power needs for man-

portable military devices and may also simplify

the logistics of providing such power

versus traditional batteries due to fuel cell

systems’ higher energy density.

Bloom Energy, Fuel Cell Energy, UTC Power

and Ballard are examples of companies

focused on the higher end of the power

spectrum. The power capabilities of these

systems can span the range from 100 kW to

50 MW using scalable architecture.

Figure 2 shows a Bloom Energy system.

Each 100-kilowatt EnergyServer SOFC

power system can be combined with additional

units to meet higher, megawatt-scale

power requirements, such as those at a

large business facility. (As a point of reference,

the average electricity usage of a U.S.

residence is just over 1 kilowatt, as reported

by the U.S. Department of Energy.)

Figure 2. Bloom Energy ES-5000 Energy Server SOFC system. (Source: Bloom Energy)

Fuel Cells


SOFC systems run at high internal temperatures

(500–1,000°C), improving electrical

efficiency and more easily accommodating

the use of alternative fuels. Higher temperature

operation, however, increases start-up

time and drives material costs. For these

reasons SOFCs are currently a less favored

solution for certain applications, such as

automotive, where lower temperature fuel

cell technology is dominant.

Powering automobiles is a much-discussed

application of fuel cells. The first fuel-cell

vehicle offerings utilize proton exchange

membrane (PEM) — also known as polymer

electrolyte membrane — solid fuel cells with

compressed hydrogen fuel.

PEM fuel cells differ from SOFCs in that

they operate at lower temperatures,

typically 50 to 100 degrees Celsius. The

principal fuel choice is pure hydrogen

(although other fuels, including hydrocarbons,

have been used). The electrolyte in

this type of fuel cell is a polymer membrane

that is electrically insulating, but that

allows for the flow of protons, which are

generated by the interaction of hydrogen

fuel with the anode. The anode, typically

consisting of a platinum catalyst, ionizes the

hydrogen to generate hydrogen ions

(i.e., protons) and electrons. Electrons are

free to flow in the external load circuit

and power the vehicle or other device,

and combine with the hydrogen ions and

oxygen at the cathode to form water as a

waste byproduct of the PEM fuel cell. While

the detailed engineering and materials

challenges for constructing a PEM versus

an SOFC fuel cell differ, the basic concept

holds: Hydrogen/hydrocarbon fuel plus

oxygen generates electrical power plus

water/carbon dioxide and heat as byproducts.

According to the U.S. Department of

Energy, the appeal of PEMs for automotive

applications is that they hold the promise of

clean, reliable power; hydrogen production

to power a PEM is typically greener than

The Battlefield Game Changer:

Portable and Wearable Soldier Power

Feature

a gasoline or diesel internal combustion

engine. Hydrogen can also be produced domestically,

reducing dependence on

imported oil. Challenges in producing

economically viable PEMs include on-board

hydrogen storage; total cost of the fuel cell

stack; durability, reliability and life cycle of

the fuel cell, including ability to perform in

sub-freezing temperatures; and the need

for a consumer hydrogen fuel distribution

network.

The fuel cell examples cited here are

representative of the type of research,

development and product creation that is

occurring in this rapidly evolving field to

provide new types of clean, reliable power

solutions. Raytheon’s continued pursuit of

advances in this area ensures that our

customers have access to the best technology

in the marketplace, whether developed

in-house or through partnerships with

industry and academia. •

Steve Klepper and Tony Marinilli

Imagine that you have a 100-pound load on your back for the next 72 hours, and you’re hiking on rough terrain where there are likely to

be many life-threatening dangers in your path. You can’t abandon your load, because it holds life-saving necessities. This is a 72-hour

mission in Afghanistan.

Of the 100 pounds in the load, approximately 25 percent is from batteries, which power all electronic devices a soldier carries. If the

battery load can be decreased, while still allowing the devices to be powered, the soldier could carry more ammunition, water and other

warfighting gear. Or it will simply help the soldier feel less fatigued when on the battlefield.

In order to remove battery weight from our soldiers, Raytheon is developing an efficient, portable/wearable fuel cell that can either supply

power directly or charge batteries anywhere, any time. Comparing this to the standard BA-5290 military lithium ion battery (880cc and

1300g) with the same volume or form factor, the fuel cell can provide four times more run-time with a half of the BA-5290 weight.

Revisiting the 72-hour mission, a soldier needs to carry seven different battery types weighing about 25 pounds. The battery cost per

soldier, per day is approximately $40 to $50. Using this alternative fuel cell technology, a soldier could potentially drop portable power

weight by more than 11 pounds (a weight savings of more than 40 percent). The savings become even more dramatic when considering

next-generation, soldier-borne power management schemes where the fuel cell directly powers all equipment. In this example, no batteries

would be needed, and no recharging would be required. A fuel cell with three cartridges of fuel could last 72 hours and weigh only

about 5 pounds. The cost of this system would be about $5 per soldier, per day.

Howard Choe

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 17


Feature

Solar Power: Applying Raytheon‘s

Defense Technologies

The demand for bringing more renewable

energy power-generation

capability online is enormous, both in

the U.S. and internationally. Replacing the

need for foreign oil imports is a growing national

defense need; the U.S. Department of

Defense has directed base commanders to

reduce, and eventually eliminate, their dependence

on foreign oil imports and to use

renewable energy. At the same time, most

utilities across the U.S. are required to meet

state-mandated, renewable energy, electric

power generation goals. In Arizona, for example,

the renewable energy portfolio must

be 15 percent of all energy supplied by 2025.

Today, the technology is available to allow

solar energy to compete with coal, natural

gas and nuclear power. Research is underway

at Raytheon to develop a highly

efficient, cost-competitive solar power

conversion unit (PCU) for military and

commercial applications — one that utilizes

“photon recycling” within a photovoltaic

cavity converter (PVCC) (Figure 1.)

Focus

area

Reflective

surface

Photovoltaic

Cavity Convertor

(PVCC)

DOE targets:

5-7 cents/kWh LCOE


y the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary

goal of DOE is to achieve a levelized

cost of electricity (LCOE) of 5 to 7 cents

per kilowatt hour in fiscal year 2005 dollars

by developing power systems that can be

manufactured and installed for less than

$3 per watt. Working with the potential

supply base, design to unit production cost

(DTUPC) goals were set, resulting in a unit

PCU cost of less than $2 per watt installed.

The DOE validated Raytheon’s LCOE forecast

of less than 6 cents per kilowatt hour

using its Solar Advisory Model for the

established DTUPC cost targets.

The basic approach Raytheon selected to

convert solar energy into electric power

was HCPV, which utilizes Raytheon’s

patent-pending, kaleidoscope photon

recycling concept, where sunlight is concentrated

using a large parabolic dish

reflector (12.5 meters in diameter) and

guided into a closed photon-to-electricity

cavity converter. The photons trapped in

this converter, initially reflected from the

PV cell array, are provided more than one

opportunity to strike the active portion of

the multi-junction cells as they are reflected

around the inside of the PVCC. Other flat

panel array designs offer collected photons

only one opportunity to be absorbed by

the multi-junction PV cells, since reflected

photons from these other arrays are immediately

lost. Commercially available Emcore

triple-junction cells were used in making

the PVCC. These off-the-shelf cells consist

of indium gallium phosphide (InGaP with a

300-650 nanometers wavelength absorption

band), indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs

with a 650-850 nanometers absorption

band), and germanium (Ge with an 850-

1,800 nanometers absorption band), which

convert the absorbed photons in each layer

to electrons, collectively covering the solar

spectrum from 300 to 1,800 nanometers.

The kaleidoscope design was carefully sized

using ray tracing models to achieve a plusor-minus

5 percent variation in solar flux

density across the PV cell array located on

the back wall of the PVCC. A uniform flux

density across the cells is required since

these PV cells are connected in series and the

power output from the array is limited by the

cell with the smallest output.

12.5 m diameter, 120 m2 , 40 kW+

full size PCU

12.5 m

19 mirrors

21 mirror

segments

2.5 m

2.5 m, 5 m 2 , 1.5 kW

demo PCU

By focusing on DTUPC objectives from the

outset, a PCU design concept was developed

that will result in solar electric power

costs that meet DOE’s solar energy LCOE

goals and state-defined renewable energy

portfolio standards for the next five to 15

years. A related DOE objective is to increase

the capacity of photovoltaic solar power

generating equipment in the U.S. to 5 to

10 gigawatts by 2015 — an aggressive but

achievable goal.

Demonstration

The collaborative project test objectives

were to demonstrate:

1. The workability of photon recycling.

2. A dramatic increase in photon to electricity

conversion via recycling.

3. The ability of University of Arizona mirror

technology to focus the sunlight collected

by a 2.5-meter diameter reflective dish

into a focal area less than 1.5 inches in

diameter.

4. The ability of a closed-loop cooling system

to maintain the array of PV cells at

less than 50 degrees Celsius.

A demonstration unit was built and tested

with support provided by Tucson Embedded

Systems, a Raytheon small-business partner.

The sub-scale PCU consisted of a single

sub-panel containing an array of 64 triple

junction PV cells (an 8 x 8 array) and a parabolic

dish reflector 2.5 meters in diameter

with a focal length to diameter ratio (f/D) of

0.6. (See Figure 2.)

FULL

SIZE

SYSTEM

DEMO

24”x 24”x 38”

full size PVCC cell array

single

full scale

subpanel

Figure 2. Relationship of 2.5-meter diameter demo to full-sized unit

4”x 4”x 6.4”

demo PVCC cell array

Feature

24”

36 subpanels

8x8 array of

1 cm x 1 cm

3 junction PV cells

Figure 3. PVCC containing a PV cell array

The ongoing test program has been highly

successful; the first three objectives have

been fully met. Photon recycling worked

and resulted in a 33 to 54 percent relative

improvement in conversion efficiency

(recycling versus no recycling for the same

flat panel array) for tests conducted, ranging

from 10 to 500 suns. Figure 3 shows

the demonstration PVCC containing the 64

triple junction PV cell array. The 2.5-meter

University of Arizona mirror, which consists

of 21 mirror segments (Figure 4), concentrated

the sunlight into a focal area of less

than 1 inch in diameter. Although objective

No. 4 has not been fully met, temperatures

were controlled to less than 50 degrees

Celsius at 400 suns concentration, and

temperatures less than 60 degrees Celsius

have been demonstrated for steady-state

operation at 500 suns concentration. Work

continues on refining the heat transfer

Continued on page 20

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 19


Feature

Continued from page 19

design to fully meet the objective of maintaining

the PV cell array less than 50 degrees

Celsius during full sun concentration.

Next Steps

The next steps in the team’s development

effort are:

1. Demonstrate that by reducing the resistivity

of the electrical grid fingers on the

surface of the PV cells (by increasing their

number by approximately 40 percent),

system efficiency can be increased by an

additional few percent absolute (even

though photon reflections from the surface

of the PV cells will be increased),

which is achievable with this design,

given the unique ability to recycle reflected

photons.

2. Develop a full-size, 40-kilowatt prototype

design that meets the DTUPC goal of less

than $2 per watt installed with an LCOE

of less than 6 cents per kilowatt hour.

3. Develop a smaller scale, mobile PCU that

could be used for U.S. Dept. of Defense

Forward Operating Base Field applications.

As more advanced multi-junction PV cells are

developed — progressing from today’s 39

percent efficient triple junction cells to a target

of 58 percent efficient six junction cells

— system efficiencies using our photon recycling

concept should increase from 33 to 40

percent, with the successful development of

45 percent efficient four- and five-junction

cells. The ultimate goal is 50 percent system

efficiency using six-junction PV cells, as

they become commercially available. These

Figure 4. Demo PCU with 21 mirror segments

20 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Solar Power

advanced PV cells can easily be integrated

into Raytheon’s PVCC, enabling achievement

of these increased system efficiencies.

But even with these breakthroughs, over

50 percent of the energy will be lost, mainly

through dissipated heat. To convert more

of the available solar energy to electricity,

Raytheon is investigating the use of thermoelectric

devices to complement the PVCC

PCU concept. In addition, the University of

Arizona is developing concepts that can use

the low-energy content, warm water (possibly

in the range of 50 degrees Celsius) from

our closed-loop cooling system to purify

brackish water and even desalinize sea water

into drinking water, which would further

increase the cost effectiveness of this solar

energy concept.

The major benefits of this unique solar energy

power conversion system are that it:

• Results in higher overall system conversion

efficiency, compared with non-photon

recycling HCPV systems.

• Eliminates the use of boilers to generate

steam and large turbines to generate electricity,

resulting in far fewer moving parts

than solar thermal systems, significantly

reducing maintenance costs and increasing

system reliability.

• Dramatically reduces the use of water for

cooling and cleaning of mirrors, which is

critical when operating in the arid desert

Southwest.

• Eliminates emissions of carbon dioxide

from the power generation process.

Solar energy is rapidly becoming costcompetitive

with fossil fuel power plants, in

particular coal-burning plants. In 1990, solar

energy power generation costs were in the

55 to 65 cents per kilowatt hour range, and

today the cost has dropped below 11 to 13

cents per kilowatt hour — the price range

for many of today’s typical utility power

purchase agreement contracts. An HCPV

solar electric power plant of 240 megawatts

(typical power plant size) would consist of

approximately 6,000 solar electric PCUs

of 40 kilowatts each. Today such a power

plant could support a minimum of 60,000

homes. At rate production and a price of $2

per watt installed, a contract to supply and

install the PCUs for a 240-megawatt plant

would be about $500 million. •

John P. Waszczak, Steven L. Allen

ENGINEERING PROFILE

Kevin P.

Bowen

Engineering

Fellow, IDS

Kevin Bowen

has 35 years

of experience

in systems

engineering

development

on manned

and unmanned

maritime surface and undersea vehicles, including

15 years as a field engineer. He is currently

applying that experience to develop a high

energy, high power, low cost, environmentally

friendly undersea power and propulsion system

in order to extend endurance, increase speed

and lower the cost of undersea vehicle systems.

He is also a key contributor to the Power Cell

Enterprise Campaign. For the past two years,

he has been investigating fuel cell, battery and

external combustion technology.

With all of his work, he aims to apply his extensive

knowledge to assuring mission success

— now and in the future. “An affordable longendurance

energy system will enable a host of

new undersea missions,” he said.

Since starting at Raytheon, Bowen has been

program manager for unmanned surface

vehicle (USV) technology development and

diver detection/intervention for port security;

chief engineer for unmanned underwater vehicle

(UUV) Propulsion Systems and riverine craft

combat system architectures; technical lead for

UUVs; and lead systems engineer on the MK 30

ASW training target system.

Bowen enjoys the variety of challenges he

encounters in his job, and thoroughly immerses

himself in all of his projects. Bowen advises others

to be creative and work hard. When others

ask him how he gets the fun jobs, he responds,

“I don’t get jobs; I make them up.”

Bowen is a member of the Association for

Unmanned Vehicle Systems International, the

National Defense Industrial Association, and the

ASTM Maritime Vehicle Standards Committee,

for which he has served as vice chairman, USV

maritime regulations.


External Combustion Engines

for Military Applications

The U.S. Navy has called for increased

stamina in unmanned undersea

vehicles to enable missions that can

last for weeks, not just one or two days; this

exceeds the energy capability of traditional

battery technologies. Raytheon engineers

are addressing the need for an alternative

power source through the use of external

combustion engines and monopropellant

fuels. The team investigated a number

of engine types. Particularly promising

technologies included a modified Rankine

cycle engine developed by Cyclone Power

Technologies, Inc.

External vs. Internal

Combustion Engines

More than 150 years ago, the first practical

steam engine (using external combustion),

built by James Watt, started the industrial

revolution. The use of low pressure and

temperature was the sign of the times; a

new technology and lack of materials set

the pace. At the turn of the 20th century,

power generation brought in turbine high

pressure boilers and steam-powered automobiles,

and in 1906, the Stanley Steamer

set a land speed record of 127 mph.

Throughout the 20th century, steam

remained the dominant means of electric

power generation, increasing its efficiency

through the use of high temperatures, high

pressures and heat regeneration. These

supercritical steam power plants are now

able to deliver efficiencies greater than

45 percent, competing with the best

diesel internal combustion engines, and

with fewer and less toxic by-products.

The Cyclone engine uses external combustion,

which is very insensitive to fuel

formulations or the degree of refining

required to meet its performance specifications.

If it can burn, the Cyclone engine can

harvest the energy content. That characteristic

opens up a new realm of promising

possibilities.

External Combustion for Undersea

Power and Propulsion

The Rankine cycle combustion process

is external to the cylinder containing the

working gas. The Rankine cycle is characterized

by the working gas undergoing a phase

change (from liquid to gas), which can be

utilized to achieve high-power densities. The

most familiar Rankine engine is the steam

engine, where water boiled by an external

Fuel

Heat

Regeneration

Start of

Combustion

Cycle

Blower

Fuel

Air

Combustion Exhaust

Working Fluid

External

Combustion

Radial Piston

Heat

Exchanger

Cylinder

Exhaust

Heat

Exchanger

Condenser

Heat

Exchanger

Combustion

Exhaust

Exhaust Below 350º

Feature

heat source, expands and exerts pressure on

a piston or turbine rotor, and hence, does

useful work. Until now, oil was used to

lubricate the moving components.

Cyclone’s Schoell cycle steam engine with

heat regeneration (Figure 1) is a modified

Rankine cycle engine where deionized water

operates in a closed cycle within the radial

Primary Heat

Exchanger

Work-Output

Shaft

Pump

Figure 1. Schoell (modified Rankine) cycle steam engine with heat regeneration

Continued on page 22

Heat

Regeneration

Start of

Working

Fluid Cycle

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 21


Feature

Continued from page 21

Fuel − Combustor − Condenser flow path

is independent of engine back pressure.

Monopropellant

Fuel

Storage

Muffler

Helmholtz

Resonator

Fuel Pump

Contact

Condenser

Helmholtz

Resonator

piston engine as both the working and

lubricating fluid (blue lines). Using today’s

high-temperature, water-lubricated bearings

and radial pistons, with meticulous attention

to material compatibility, Cyclone has

developed a higher efficiency, smaller, environmentally

friendly external combustion

engine. The combustion is external and the

fuel and exhaust (red lines) are the only

elements exposed to external pressure.

Three heat exchange stages (cylinder, condenser,

combustion) are used to recover

waste heat from the cylinders and combustion

exhaust to improve overall engine

efficiency. The cylinder exhaust is used to

22 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Recuperator

SW Pump

Seawater Boundary

Exhaust

MODEN Fuel

Seawater

Steam & Carbon Dioxide

Water w/ disolved CO 2

Battery

Combustor

Cyclone

Engine

Generator

Power

Figure 2. One possible configuration of a monopropellant-fueled external combustion engine

modified by Raytheon for undersea power and propulsion

pre-heat the input air (green lines) and

the working fluid prior to the main heat

exchanger. The input air is also heated by

the combustion exhaust.

Raytheon is employing a monopropellant

developed by James R. Moden Inc. to fuel

this engine, and is developing the surrounding

system components to change the

air-breathing, external combustion engine

into an undersea vehicle propulsion system

providing electrical energy for electronic

control, vehicle/payload power and battery

charging. Figure 2 illustrates the operation

of this system.

Combustion Engines

Cyclone Power Technology has a family

of external combustion engines as shown

in Figure 3. Cyclone’s Waste Heat Engine

(WHE) recaptures heat from external sources

to create steam, which powers the engine.

The WHE models are designed to provide

5 to 10 kilowatts to run a grid-tied or

primary electric power generator while

producing zero emissions. The Solar One

provides one to three kilowatts of electricity

from solar steam generators. These engines

can also run a grid-tied or primary electric

power generator while producing zero

emissions. The MK 5 produces 100 hp

and is designed for automotive, marine

propulsion, power generation, off-road

equipment, industrial co-generation and

specialty applications. Raytheon customers

often have needs for remote or highdynamic

range power. Environmentally

friendly, high-efficiency external combustion

engines yield an intriguing alternative.

The U.S. Navy employs a number of largediameter,

large-payload undersea vehicles,

and has plans to expand that fleet in the

next decade. The Navy requires that these

next-generation undersea vehicles have

high speed and long endurance (as long as

120 days). Game-changing technologies like

this are needed to address these undersea

vehicle requirements. •

Figure 3. Cyclone Power Technology’s Waste Heat Engine (left), Solar One (center) and MK 5 (right) power and propulsion external

combustion engines

Kevin P. Bowen


The ReGenerator: Alternative Energy for

Expeditionary Missions

Military operations in unconventional

wars conducted in remote

locations have numerous logistics

challenges. One of the most prevalent

among them is fuel supply. For example, in

Afghanistan, because of logistics lines that

must move fuel over more than 150,000

square miles — through some of the most

hazardous regions in the country — the

fully burdened cost of fuel (FBCF) has been

estimated to be in excess of $40 per gallon

at some of the more extreme locations. 1 But

more important, the true FBCF is the high

risk of attacks along resupply routes, which

pose a direct threat to warfighter safety.

To help reduce this risk, and to mitigate

the high cost of operations in countries

such as Afghanistan and other remote

areas, Raytheon and its small business and

strategic partners have developed hybrid,

renewable power solutions that are readily

available for immediate deployment in support

of ever-changing missions.

The ReGenerator, depicted in Figure 1, is

a self-contained, hybrid power system that

generates, stores and manages clean energy

for on-site use, minimizing or even eliminating

the need for fossil-fuel generators or

access to grid power. The on-board solar

panels, batteries, and power conditioning

and control electronics are integrated into

a mobile package. The capability to accept

and manage numerous external power

sources, including generators, fuel cells and

wind turbines, ensures that this expeditionary

power solution is scalable and flexible

enough to meet the evolving missions of

the end user.

Feature

U.S. Marines demonstrate the simplicity of setting up the ReGenerator’s solar array during a

training exercise in Twentynine Palms, Calif. The integrated, all-in-one design of the product

eliminates the need for tools or specialty training, allowing for ease of deployment and sustainment

where resources and personnel may be limited or inaccessible.

This product was initially developed by

ZeroBase Energy, LLC, with primarily commercial

and relief efforts in mind, but its

potential value for military operations was

quickly recognized by the U.S. Department

of Defense and various defense intelligence

agencies. Leveraging Raytheon’s core capabilities

and vast DoD experience — and

Continued on page 24

Figure 1. The Ruggedized (R-Series) ReGenerator — integrating renewable technologies, battery

storage, military standard power electronics, and Intelligent Energy Command and Control

(IEC2) — is being evaluated by the United States Marine Corps for expeditionary applications.

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 23


Feature

Continued from page 23

through consultation with customers and

end users — system ruggedization, enhancements

and customization were rapidly

incorporated into the ReGenerator. The

ReGenerator is capable of operating in two

primary configurations: a stand-alone

renewable configuration and a generatortied

configuration.

Stand-Alone Renewable Configuration

The stand-alone renewable configuration

consists of single or multiple ReGenerators

relying solely on renewable solar and wind

technologies for power generation. This

setup is optimal for year-round, continuous

24/7 low-power applications in remote

locations where refueling operations are restricted.

Mountaintop communication relays

and border surveillance equipment that continuously

require up to 300 watts are prime

candidates for this solution. Field hospital

power, refrigeration and water purification

power requirements are also easily met by a

stand-alone ReGenerator.

To meet varying environmental conditions,

additional external renewable technologies,

such as solar and wind modules, can be

added to supplement the power generation

of a stand-alone unit. For higher, continuous

power requirements, additional

ReGenerators can be combined to scale

up the energy generation and storage

capacity of the system. Command operation

centers, tactical operation centers and

other similar command centers, as well as

disaster relief efforts, can all benefit from

this configuration. In this configuration,

the ReGenerator is able to provide the

operational power required with no fuel

consumption, compared with a stand-alone

generator that must consume carbon-based

fuels.

Generator-Tied Configuration

The generator-tied configuration is most

advantageous for variable, medium-power

requirements where reduced fuel consumption

is needed. The ReGenerator, coupled

24 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

with a standard fossil-fuel generator, can

significantly improve the fuel efficiency of

the generator through the use of intelligent

control and management. It ensures highly

efficient operations by selecting the optimal

power source (renewable source, generator

or battery bank) through autonomic control

and smart algorithms, based on the efficiencies

of the generator, inverters, charge

controllers and renewable power availability.

This power is then directed to meet the

immediate power demand of the load.

The RAID (Rapid Aerostat Initial

Deployment) system and G-BOSS (Ground-

Based Operations Surveillance System)

utilized by the U.S. Army and U.S. Marine

Corps for persistent surveillance are examples

of prime candidates for this type of scenario.

In the generator-tied configuration,

the generator supplements the ReGenerator

only when renewable and battery power

is not available to power the load. This ensures

that operational power requirements

Liters

Average daily fuel consumption,

liters vs. continuous load demand, watts

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

1 kW 2 kW 3 kW

5 kW generator

1.5 kW ReGen + 5 kW generator

3 kW ReGen + 5 kW generator

Figure 2. Projected fuel consumption using

a ReGenerator employing solar renewable

energy sources supplemented with a 5 kW

generator, compared with a stand-alone

5 kW generator at varying continuous

power demands

ReGenerator

are met, while reducing fuel consumption to

a minimum, compared with a stand-alone

5 kW generator. Figure 2 compares the fuel

consumption of a 5 kW generator with a

ReGenerator employing a backup generator

to supplement renewable sources at varying

continuous load demands. Depending

upon fuel cost, payback can be as little as

four months.

Flexibility for End Users

The ReGenerator power system was designed

specifically with the end user in

mind. The key discriminator of this platform

is the modular, scalable design. Internal

power components are consolidated in

rapidly removable modules, ensuring that

system maintenance, repairs and field upgrades

can easily be performed on-site with

minimal impact on the mission. System

setup and stowage can be performed within

minutes by two people, which allows for

rapid deployment. Maintenance and repairs

can also be easily conducted by personnel

with minimal training through a basic

troubleshooting process and removal and

replacement of plug-and-play power module

boards. Transportability requirements of

the unit play a significant role in the design.

To ensure power will be available wherever

needed, the system modules are packaged

to meet transportation weight and size

limitations for most standard DoD ground

and air movement.

Power surety is guaranteed through the

use of redundant, military-standard, ruggedized

power electronics and a robust

communication system selected to meet

the harshest environments faced by end

users. Redundancy of critical power components

and communications ensure that

failures within the system will be instantly

mitigated, and continuous system

operations will be maintained until

maintenance efforts can be performed

based on mission restrictions.


Smart management of the system is performed

by the intelligent energy command

and control (IEC2) system, which leverages

open standards and a proven systems

architecture.

Through its IEC2 system, the ReGenerator

conducts autonomic management of power

generation, storage and distribution based

on smart command and control algorithms.

It enables various operational configurations

for minimizing the use of fossil fuels,

maximizing battery life, and providing clean

power during hours of silent operation,

which are available through both preset

configurations and customized operational

scenarios set by the end user. This provides

end users with the flexibility to adjust the

system’s operation to meet changing mission

requirements. It continuously adapts to

varying conditions by performing load shedding

and making intelligent decisions based

on two factors: demand prediction, and

energy predictions using weather forecasting.

External component and environmental

monitors, coupled with internal sensors,

provide local and remote near real-time mission

performance monitoring, data logging

and analysis for health, maintenance and

prognostics.

Raytheon is committed to reducing the

risks to warfighters’ lives and helping our

customers reduce the logistics fuel footprint,

while assuring the power needed

for successful mission operations. The

company’s intelligent, integrated energy

systems, as demonstrated by the

ReGenerator, meet end-user needs for

successful mission operations by providing

smart, modular and tailorable solutions. •

Arlan Sheets

1 “Energy Security – America’s Best Defense” Deloitte

LLP. Nov.18-19, 2009.

Feature

Intelligent Power and Energy Management

Integrating advanced algorithms with sophisticated control

to provide optimized and intelligent hybrid power systems

Advanced power systems require

intelligent energy command and

control (IEC2) software to intelligently

and dynamically interface with a

diverse set of components. With intelligent

management, energy can be used, stored

or recycled in ways presently not possible

in order to optimize the system for a variety

of dynamic mission needs tailorable in

real time by the user. IEC2 provides uninterruptable

power surety for critical loads

and, via existing communication links,

provides prognostics as well. This allows

preemptive maintenance to achieve maximum

system availability. System security,

health monitoring, hot swap and paralleling

are capabilities enabled by IEC2 that

cannot be satisfied by the generator sets

and power distribution units currently used

by the United States military.

Inputs to IEC2 total resource management

include comprehensive near real-time and

forecast weather data, mission profiles,

and load profiles. By leveraging these external

inputs and by providing continuous

situational awareness monitoring, IEC2

manages the flow of energy between

User Requirements

Customers

Stakeholders

Raytheon SMEs

Analysis and Optimization

• System Performance and Functional Analysis

Technology/Component Trades

• Optimization

prime sources (e.g., fuel cells, solar arrays,

wind turbines, power grids and generator

sets); energy storage devices; and loads.

IEC2 also includes safety, surety, fault,

and catastrophic system anomaly handling

and reporting.

Raytheon’s IPEM Technology

Raytheon’s intelligent power and energy

management technology is a tool suite for

the development of IEC2 for power systems.

Illustrated in the figure below, its

capabilities include system design and optimization,

high-fidelity hardware modeling

and simulation, development of autonomic

command and control algorithms, and verification

and validation for both functional

and performance power system requirements.

It also supports analysis of system

design, technology trade studies, and

evaluation of system configurations and

the resulting impact on operations.

Intelligent Power and

Energy Management (IPEM)

• Architecture Development

• Modeling and Simulation

• Algorithm Library

• Processes

The IPEM tool suite employs a flexible and

modular architecture/framework that

allows for use with both legacy and new

system designs. Leveraging scalable and

Power

System

Design

Continued on page 26

IPEM Automated

Design Approach

Auto-code Generation

IEC2

Verification

&

Validation

IPEM provides a rigorous approach to design, development, verification and validation of

intelligent power systems.

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 25


Feature

Continued from page 25

IPEM

configurable models from a library of proven

algorithm and component models, IPEM enables

rapid, low-cost design and development

of power systems for applications ranging in

size and complexity from small-scale, soldierworn

power systems to complex microgrids.

Algorithm libraries include those required

to support mission-critical control functions,

secondary control and optimization functions,

and prognostics for preventive maintenance.

Optimization of the algorithms and system

includes criteria such as generator efficiency,

fuel usage, costs, load leveling, storage and

distribution efficiency, and overall system

performance to promote successful

mission operations.

IEC2 code is auto-generated from the IPEM

algorithms and models, and ported to the host

system’s single-board computer, microcontroller

or field programmable gate array. IEC2

takes advantage of the hardware sense-points

in legacy, commercial and developmental

systems, providing a level of control commensurate

with the type of signals being sensed.

The IEC2 algorithms allow for autonomous

operation of the power system based on historical

performance as well as prediction of

generation and demand. The user can input

a desired mission profile and the system will

recommend, in real time, configurations to

meet the profile. IEC2 can be ported to small

sensors, handheld devices, mobile platforms,

ships, large fixed installations, and more.

IPEM provides customer benefits that include

expanded concepts of operation; a repeatable,

low-cost and rigorous approach to power

system design, optimization and analysis;

and tactical code generation for IEC2. IPEM

not only optimizes system performance, but

provides our warfighters with increased operational

capability and flexible solutions that

continuously adapt the systems’ operations

to meet ever-changing mission requirements.

Raytheon’s deployable power solutions

are beginning to benefit from IPEM — the

ReGenerator is just one example. •

Arlan Sheets, Ripal Goel,

Pete Morico, Michael K. Nolan

26 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

The Role of Energy Storage in

Intelligent Energy Systems

An essential element of any

power system is the energy storage

component. Requirements

may include providing power for solar

or wind-driven applications during times

of low sunlight or wind, peak-demand

buffering for electrical grids, pulsed load

averaging, peak load shaving for consumers,

and uninterruptable power for

energy surety.

Specific requirements are driven by the

application. For example, requirements

for transportable systems that might

be used at forward operating bases are

driven by the need for small size, low

weight, moderate energy storage

capacities and low deployment costs.

Fixed-site and substation installations, on

the other hand, may have requirements

driven by the need for very large storage

capacities, where size and weight are

less important.

Storage Technologies

Although a number of battery and other

storage technologies have been in use

for decades, storage technologies that

can deliver large amounts of energy

and high power at reasonable cost have

matured to the point where they are

commercially available in small quantities.

The accompanying figure puts some

of these into perspective in terms of

power capacity and available run time.

These technologies are used in applications

such as:

• Power quality: Typically in the range of

milliseconds to seconds of discharge

time and power levels of 50 kilowatts

to 50 megawatts and greater.

Stored energy in these applications is

required for only seconds or less to

assure continuity of quality power and

frequency regulation. Technologies

that meet this need include flywheels,


Discharge Time at Rated Power

milliseconds seconds hours days

Ni-Cd

Flow Batteries

Li-ion

Ni-MH

Traditional Lead Acid

Comparison of various energy storage technologies in terms of power capacity and

discharge time

superconducting magnetic energy

storage (SMES), lead acid batteries,

lithium ion batteries, flow batteries and

ultracapacitors.

• Uninterruptable power supply (UPS)

bridging: Typically in the range of seconds

to minutes of discharge time and

power levels of 5 to 500 kilowatts. Stored

energy, in these applications, is used to

assure continuity of service when switching

from one source of power generation

to another. These demands are traditionally

met by battery technologies such as

lithium ion batteries, lead acid batteries,

nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries and

nickel cadmium (NiCd) batteries.

• Energy management: Typically in the

range of hours to days of discharge

time and power levels of greater than

1 megawatt. Stored energy in these

applications is used to accommodate

Traditional

CAES

Pumped

Hydro

Advanced Lead Acid

Containerized

Compressed Air Energy

Storage (CAES)

Flywheel

Ultracaps

NaS

0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100

Rated Power (MW)

Superconductor Magnetic

Energy Storage (SMES)

1,000 10,000

periodic variation in power-generating

capacity, avoid peak demand charges,

provide backup during outages, and

maintain optimal loading of generators.

Technologies to be considered are

compressed air energy storage (CAES),

pumped-storage hydroelectricity, sodium

sulfur (NaS) batteries, advanced absorbent

glass mat lead acid batteries, and

flow batteries for larger energy systems.

Various battery technologies may be

considered for smaller applications, especially

where mobility is a requirement.

The U.S. Department of Energy has

invested substantially in research and

development of new storage technologies.

This section highlights a few of these and

several commercial off-the-shelf (COTS)

technologies that are potentially of greatest

value to meeting the requirements of

the U.S. Department of Defense.

Feature

Advanced Absorbent Glass Mat

Lead Acid

Lead acid battery storage is one of the

oldest and most developed technologies.

Its low cost, fast response time, and good

round-trip efficiency (75 to 90 percent)

make it a popular choice for power quality

and UPS applications. Until recently, its

utility as an energy storage medium has

been limited due to its low cycle life (500

to 700 cycles). However, recent developments

are increasing cycle life to more than

4,000 cycles, making these “long life” lead

acid batteries good candidates for energy

storage applications. Advanced lead acid

batteries are being used for power quality

in multiple wind farms in Japan, as well as

in utility applications in the United States

and elsewhere.

Flow Batteries

Flow batteries consist of electrolyte storage

reservoirs that are pumped into and out of

cell stacks that consist of two compartments

separated by a membrane. The potential

between the two different electrolytes generates

current. Flow batteries (such as zinc

bromine and vanadium redox) are attractive

for their low cost (the membranes, cells and

electrolytes are composed of plentiful and

cheap materials); excellent energy storage

capacity; and available power. This makes

the flow battery a strong choice for energy

management as well as some power quality

applications. Round-trip efficiencies vary

from 65 to 80 percent.

Lithium Ion

Lithium ion batteries consist of a lithiated

metal oxide (such as LiCoO2 and LiMnO2 )

cathode, a carbon graphite anode, and

a lithium salt plus organic carbonate

Continued on page 28

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 27


ENGINEERING PROFILE

Kenneth Kung

Senior Principal

Engineering Fellow,

NCS

A senior principal

engineering fellow

for Raytheon’s

Network Centric

Systems business,

Kenneth Kung

has more than 30

years of system and

software engineering

experience. He

has served as chief engineer for the Energy

Surety and Environment Enterprise Campaign,

which focused on developing the capability

to manage energy systems for military and

national security customers, and combining

environmental analytics for improved energy

generation and transmission.

Under his leadership, this initiative has

developed the means to:

• Apply situational awareness of the microgrid

to stabilize the fluctuations inherent to any

renewable energy-generation resource.

• Use the environmental forecast to minimize

the impact of weather on both generation

and consumption of energy.

• Leverage energy storage devices to augment

energy needs when required, and to store

surplus energy.

• Screen and protect the microgrid against any

cyber-related vulnerabilities and attacks.

Kung is a technology champion leading the

strategy for systems architecture, modeling

and simulation, and system integration

technologies.

After 25 years of working at Raytheon, Kung is

still excited about his job. “I meet many innovative

people across the company and across

the country. They offer an excellent avenue to

engage in in-depth dialogues.”

Before his Raytheon career, Kung supported

the National Security Agency on information

security product evaluation. He has lectured

in colleges for more than 30 years on topics

such as information security and communication

networks.

28 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Feature Energy Storage

Continued from page 27

electrolyte. During charging, the lithium

atoms in the cathode are ionized and migrate

through the electrolyte toward the

carbon anode. The lithium ions combine

with external electrons and are deposited

between carbon layers as lithium atoms.

This process is reversed during discharge.

Lithium ion batteries are popular for their

high volumetric and gravimetric energy

density, relative to other batteries, and

have high round-trip efficiencies (85 to 90

percent or more). The drawbacks to lithium

ion batteries are their high cost and their

inability to store large amounts of energy

for stressful operational scenarios with

extended durations and many deep cycles.

Research efforts are underway to extend

the cycle life past the approximately 3,000

deep cycles that currently characterize the

technology. These batteries are used to

store energy on the DC bus of a hybrid

energy storage system. The stored energy

can be tapped and converted to either DC

or AC, or can be combined with other storage

systems in an “islanded” mode, where

a portion of the grid-tied load is operating

in isolation from the normal power source.

Superconducting Magnetic

Energy Storage

SMES operates by storing energy in the

magnetic field of a superconducting wire

inductor configured into a torus or a solenoid.

This technology has high efficiency

(greater than 95 percent round trip) and

high reliability, and can repeat the charge–

discharge sequence hundreds of thousands

of times without degrading the inductor.

Unlike most other storage technologies,

SMES is capable of both fast discharging

and charging, which makes it attractive

for applications requiring high repetitionrate

power delivery. SMES is costly and

currently used only for power quality and

frequency regulation applications at

utilities servicing manufacturing plants that

require ultra-clean power. However, the

U.S. Department of Energy is funding

development of this technology to make a

less costly system that is capable of greater

energy storage.

Compressed Air Energy Storage

CAES has historically been used by precompressing

air using low-cost electricity

from the grid, and then utilizing that

energy plus gas fuel in a surpercharging

process that significantly increases the

efficiency of the gas-driven turbine engine,

resulting in lower overall electrical

energy production costs. The compressed

air is stored in abandoned underground

mines or salt caverns (which take one to

two years to create), and the system is

capable of storing gigawatt-hours of energy.

Renewed interest in CAES is a result

of system developments in above-ground

compressed air storage (AGCAES), which

are being funded by the Department of

Energy. These isothermal designs use the

compressed air to drive pistons that are

coupled to an alternator to generate usable

electrical energy. The AGCAES system has

the advantage of being able to perform

hundreds of thousands of deep cycles, thus

making it attractive for long service-life

applications.

Flywheel Energy Storage

Flywheel storage systems are kinetic energy

reservoirs. Depending on the design, the

rotor in a flywheel spins from 5,000 to

50,000 rotations per minute. When power

is needed, the rotors release the requested

energy by translating their rotational

energy via an electric dual function motorgenerator

into usable electrical energy.

Flywheels are similar to SMES due to their:

ability to perform rapid charge as well as

discharge at high-round-trip efficiencies

(85 percent or more); long lifetimes (more

than 150,000 full charge and discharge

cycles); and favorable power quality and

frequency-regulation characteristics.


Other Storage Technologies

Although the majority of applications for

Raytheon utilize the technologies outlined

above, the following storage technologies

are part of the solutions considered when

proposing system designs specific to customer

applications:

Pumped hydroelectric storage: Over 99

percent of the world’s total electrical energy

storage capacity is presently in the form of

pumped hydroelectric power1 ; however, this

requires specific geographical features and

cannot be made portable or installed flexibly,

as many customer applications require.

NiCd and NiMH batteries are COTS technologies,

but newer storage media are more

attractive for the applications considered

here. Both battery chemistries have been

rendered virtually obsolete by lithium

battery technology.

Sodium sulfur (NaS) is a promising near-

COTS technology for bulk energy storage

that Raytheon is presently investigating for

potential applications.

Ultracapacitors have an admirable power

capacity and cycle life, but significant advancements

are needed to reach energy

densities suitable for bulk energy storage.

Raytheon Applications

The following Raytheon applications require

energy storage capabilities that span the

range of these energy storage technologies

for the purposes of maintaining power

quality and providing energy surety and

continuity.

• Mobile tactical systems: In a tactical

environment, power surety is vital to

executing the planned missions, where

power interruptions could potentially

cause catastrophic damage to equipment

and personnel, compromising

mission success. Flexible systems allow

the warfighter to parallel-connect multiple

energy storage modules to meet

evolving unplanned and emergency

demands. Weight, size and portability

of the storage modules are significant

considerations for systems requiring ease

of movement. Storage technologies that

can support this in a stand-alone configuration

or in a hybrid system coupled

to the existing diesel generator include a

wide variety of electrochemical batteries

such as lithium ion and lead acid, as well

as ultracapacitors.

• Small energy grids that employ renewable

energy sources: The storage technologies

that can meet these needs include

lithium ion and lead acid batteries, flow

batteries, NaS batteries and, potentially,

containerized CAES. For mobile nano and

microgrid applications, the power levels

are lower and portability becomes a

more significant factor. Total ownership

cost and utilization of existing inventory

are heavily weighted factors in determining

the technology solution.

• Naval electric ships, including electrically

driven weapons systems, propulsion and

distributed zonal power: In electric ships,

energy storage will be used in the hybrid

electric drive design as backup short-term

propulsion. Weapons systems such as

the rail gun and free electron laser can

benefit from energy storage that effectively

averages peak load demands, which

reduces the size and number of diesel

or turbine generator sets. This results in

a significant savings in topside volume,

maintenance and fuel. Some of the storage

technologies being considered to

meet this demanding load averaging

requirement include flywheels, batteries

and SMES.

• Unmanned vehicles and aircraft that

require extended mission durations using

a variety of sensor suites: Both anaerobic

underwater and in-air unmanned systems

Feature

are the most constrained systems under

consideration, due to gravimetric and

volumetric energy density requirements

that exceed state-of-the-art capabilities.

In order to meet stringent volume and

weight requirements of novel power

systems architectures for these applications,

Raytheon engineers closely monitor

emerging energy-storage technologies.

Underwater anaerobic systems can potentially

use the most advanced batteries,

especially those using seawater as the

electrolyte to improve weight and volume

densities. In-air systems have used fuel

cells to increase their mission durations

and have optimized their weight and volume

densities with the addition of smaller

advanced lithium ion batteries to average

the peak loads. CAES, SMES, flow

batteries, and similar technologies are

not presently being considered for these

unmanned systems.

There is no single technology that applies

universally. The storage selection needs

to be made carefully in order to optimize

the system it is designed to work within.

New energy storage systems are enablers

for realizing reduced fuel consumption by

capturing surplus renewable energy for

synchronized real-time power-combining,

and for providing flexible user-configurable

energy systems to meet the evolving needs

of the military for fixed-base and deployable

systems. •

Peter Morico, Gami Maislin, Ryan Faries

1 Source: Energy Storage Systems for Communities, Dan Rastler,

Electric Power Institute, Communities for Advanced Distributed

Energy Resources (CADER) Conference 2010, April 28–29, 2010,

San Diego, Calif.

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 29


Feature

Cyber Risk Management in Electric Utility Smart Grids

Critical infrastructures are the basic

facilities, services and utilities

needed for the continued functioning

of society. A short list includes electrical

power generation and distribution systems

(the grid), telecommunications, manufacturing,

transportation, water and wastewater,

and government. Electric power is vital

for all other services and utilities to function;

without it, societal order would be

severely disrupted. The aging U.S. electric

infrastructure and the rise in electric power

consumption are factors driving utility industry

and government experts to examine

the reliability and vulnerabilities of the

nation’s electrical grid.

The electric power grid within the U.S. is a

complex network of thousands of tightly

coupled power plants, transmission and

distribution elements. For clarity, Figure 1

shows a simplified representation of the

power grid that delivers electrical power

from a generating station to homes and

businesses. Much of the technology in use

today is more than 30 years old, and there

remains a high reliance on last century’s

Generation

Transmission

Distribution

Generating Station

Generating Step Up

Transformer

Transmission Lines

765, 500, 345, 230 and 138 kv

Transmission Customer

138 kv or 230 kv

30 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

programmable logic controllers and electromechanical

control systems, which were

designed with little concern for protection

from malicious cyberattack. As the electric

power industry moves to modernize the

grid, new cybernetworks for operational

monitoring and control are being installed.

Supervisory control and data acquisition

(SCADA) systems, introduced in the 1980s,

are computerized systems that automate

management of industrial systems and are

found in all sectors of business and industry.

They improve control efficiency through distributed

monitoring and regulation of field

operations. Many SCADA systems utilize the

Internet or non-secure radio links to maintain

control networks between substations

and central offices and are interconnected

to corporate local area networks (LAN).

However, the utilization of non-secure field

communications and corporate LAN interconnectivity

introduces new vulnerabilities

to cyberattack.

The smart grid integrates information technology

with the existing electrical power

Substation Step Down

Transformer

Subtransmission

Customer

26 kv and 69 kv

Primary

Customer

13 kv and 4 kv

Secondary

Customer

120 v and 240 v

Figure 1. This simplified representation shows the major elements of a power system that are

vulnerable to cyberattack. Source: United States Department of Energy.

infrastructure to improve management of

society’s energy needs. One can view a

smart grid as an “energy Internet,” not only

providing energy, but also providing realtime

information and automated control of

energy systems that promise improved

energy reliability. The benefits of a smart

grid are seen by government and industry

as desirable and necessary. However, the

technological improvements of the smart

grid bring additional cyber vulnerabilities

that are proving costly and technologically

challenging to address.

The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

(FERC) and National Institute of Science and

Technology (NIST) have recently mandated

regulations and guidelines for smart grid

cybersecurity strategy, architecture and

high-level critical infrastructure protection.

Compliance with these requirements is

mandatory. However, the high cost and

effort needed for compliance have hampered

adoption.

There are some additional technical challenges

posed by the move to a smart grid.

Legacy control and monitoring systems

were developed using proprietary control

system equipment, software and unsecure

communication systems, some of which

are no longer supported. SCADA engineers

who are developing replacement systems

are adopting open-source operating systems

and communication protocols, resulting in

systems that may be more vulnerable to

cyberattack.


Next-Generation SCADA

The future smart grid requires new and

innovative technology to accomplish the

vision of regulators and industry. The

objective is to develop and demonstrate

autonomic technology that will enhance

utilization of available smart grid assets and

reduce disturbance frequencies and durations.

Raytheon engineers, together with

researchers at the University of Arizona,

Tucson Electric Power (a public utility) and

small business partners, are working toward

providing technology to achieve FERC/NIST

smart grid 2,030 targets of 40 percent improvement

in system efficiency and asset

utilization with a load factor of 70 percent,

and to demonstrate prognostic health

management capability through distributed

sensors located within critical distribution

system assets.

To specifically address the risks of cyber

vulnerabilities, autonomic network defense

and management solutions modeled after

autonomic biological systems are being

developed at the University of Arizona NSF

Center for Autonomic Computing and

Avirtek (a small technology company under

license). This cutting-edge technology is

being integrated with Raytheon-developed

hardware to do the following:

• Develop capabilities critical for identifying

anomalous events triggered by malicious

cyber and/or physical threats or failures.

• Provide the ability to accurately characterize

current state, and perform risk and

impact analysis.

• Develop proactive mechanisms to deploy

autonomic agents to mitigate the impacts

of malicious attacks.

This new autonomic technology will be

able to detect hostile behavior aimed at the

smart grid by monitoring the physical and

cyber infrastructures. Once hostile behavior

is detected and characterized, protective

countermeasures can be implemented to

ensure uninterrupted grid operation. This

effort builds upon previous and current

research funded by Raytheon and the U.S.

Departments of Defense and Energy.

The ICSTB is located at the University of

Arizona in Tucson. Currently one of a

kind, it will soon be joined by an identical

twin at Raytheon’s Missile Systems facility

in Tucson. Because of the uniqueness

of the ICSTB, researchers from many top

universities and national laboratories are

negotiating cooperative research and development

agreements with Raytheon for

future research into a broad range of

industrial control systems and smart gridrelated

projects.

Feature

Smart Grid

Modeling and

Simulation

Test Bed

Few facilities exist

to test newly developed

industrial

control system

cyberdefense and

control automation

technology. To fill

this gap, Raytheon,

together with the

University of Arizona

and Tucson Electric

Figure 2. Smart grid test bed

Power, has developed

an industrial

Electric Utility Vulnerability Assessment

control system test

bed (ICSTB) capable of modeling and simu- The first step to reduce risks and improve

lating the operation of the future smart the cybersecurity of the smart grid is to as-

grid (Figure 2). This test bed will be used to sess existing vulnerabilities. Raytheon offers

develop, test and demonstrate new technol- electric utility and Department of Defense

ogies for detection, isolation and defense of customers extensive security assessments,

cyberattacks as well as the behavior of auto- including physical and cyber vulnerabilities.

nomic control systems specifically designed Differing from other companies’ services,

to defend industrial processes and systems Raytheon security assessments not only

from malicious manipulation. Through identify vulnerabilities, they also include

thoughtful design, the ICSTB can model remediation recommendations. Our cyber

not only the electrical power system, but assessment teams consist of certified cyber-

any part of our societal infrastructure (e.g., security professionals who work with our

water/wastewater treatment, transportation customers, from vulnerability assessment

and financial systems) to simulate behavior through remediation implementation, to

with sufficient fidelity to permit integration, ensure that the most appropriate and cost-

testing and analysis of new cyber defense effective actions are employed to meet all

and control technologies.

security and regulatory requirements.

The vision of the Raytheon team is that the

knowledge gained from detailed analysis

of our critical infrastructures’ vulnerabilities

and operation will support the development

of advanced cyberdefense and autonomic

control systems technologies to reduce risks

from malicious operational disruptions. In

this way, Raytheon is leading the way in

developing innovative products and services

that provide solutions to today’s problems

and tomorrow’s challenges in cyberprotection

and industrial control of the future

smart grid. •

Don Cox and Steven Kramer

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 31


Feature

Power for U.S. national needs is provided

through three major grids

consisting of 10 smaller grids. These

are interconnected through only three gateways.

The electrical grid provides consumers

with electricity from generation systems

through transmission systems (power plants

to distribution stations) and distribution systems

(distribution stations to consumers).

By relying primarily on large power plants to

provide most of the electrical power needs,

a failure in any of the grids can have catastrophic

effects. A more reliable approach

that increases the level of energy surety is to

establish distributed power generation services

based upon microgrids. These may

consist of any combination of supply sources,

such as reciprocating engine generator sets;

micro-turbines; fuel cells; photovoltaic cells;

algae farms; wind farms; and other smallscale

renewable generators, storage devices,

and controllable end-use loads. By creating

a network of small power generation facilities,

entities such as military bases, state and

local government facilities, and local neighborhoods

can be guaranteed energy surety

in the face of a loss of service from a large

power plant or major electrical grid.

While microgrids provide many advantages,

such as making it easier to integrate renewable

energy sources, they also increase

the need for improved security across the

physical, logical and virtual domains. Some

security specialists feel that microgrids increase

the possibility of cyber-based attacks

by offering more access points via communication

and electrical lines. Microgrids

require increasing levels of computing and

IP-based connectivity, and with that there is

a significant increase in vulnerabilities that

32 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

can be exploited by hackers. For this reason,

designers and operators need to improve

the robustness and level of information assurance

within their supervisory control and

data acquisition (SCADA) systems.

Cyber Critical Infrastructure Protection

Command and Control

To support the development of microgrids

and ensure that they are able to meet users’

security needs, Raytheon has leveraged its

cybersecurity expertise and legacy products

to develop a three-tier cyber critical infrastructure

protection command and control

(CIP C2) solution set and accompanying

tools (Figure 1). Raytheon’s CIP C2 capabilities

provide the means to assess, model and

protect microgrids and previously developed

energy systems. These proven capabilities

have been successfully used to provide

security posture evaluations of utility services

providers both within and outside the

United States.

Access Physical

and Network

Model

Protect

C.A.R.V.E.R

Certified Ethical

Hackers

Reports

• Baseline

• Mitigation

• What If

CIPview

Figure1. Raytheon’s cyber CIP 3-tier

solution set and accompanying tools provide

energy surety for microgrids.

Cybersecurity

for Microgrids

Assess: Physical – Relying on previously

developed assessment service offerings,

Raytheon performs customer interviews and

site surveys to establish the site’s exposure

to threats. Based on identified threats and

physical vulnerability assessment data, a

comprehensive threat assessment model is

developed. The assessment is conducted

using a scripted evaluation that is focused

on site personnel and the facility itself to:

• Identify high-risk assets.

• Categorize and prioritize assets.

• Assess vulnerabilities and consequences.

• Recommend risk reduction and countermeasures.

Raytheon uses the selection factors of

criticality, accessibility, recoverability,

vulnerability, effect and recognizability

(C.A.R.V.E.R.) as its preferred vulnerability

assessment methodology, because it quantifies

the probability of attack based on

target attractiveness to an adversary. The

C.A.R.V.E.R. matrix is a decision tool used

by U.S. Special Forces for rating the relative

desirability of potential targets and for

properly allocating attack resources. As the

factors are analyzed and values assigned,

a decision matrix is formed, indicating the

highest value target to be attacked within

the limits of the statement of requirements.

Assess: Network – Certified ethical

hackers perform a comprehensive evaluation

of the customer’s network assets.

These include traditional IP-based network

components and software, as well as legacy

SCADA devices. Client applications undergo

static and dynamic analysis to ascertain their

risk profiles with regard to attacks from external

and internal adversaries.


Model – The assessment serves dual purposes.

First, it drives the development of a

comprehensive approach to improving the

overall security posture of the environment

by applying physical safeguards and process-based

mitigation techniques. Second,

it is used to drive a comprehensive model of

the microgrid or the legacy energy system.

The model generates three products:

• The Baseline Report validates the actual

person-based assessment performed

upon the initial engagement of a customer

and the threats against existing safeguards

to establish a baseline residual risk.

• The Mitigation Report allows customers

to determine where to best apply resources

and capital to achieve the highest

return on investment when attempting to

improve the security posture.

• The What If Report allows the security

analyst to evaluate various scenarios that

are driven by possible new threats identified

through open sources, or based on

how a new safeguard may or may not

help improve the overall residual risk of

the environment.

Protect – Raytheon’s protection capability

relies upon the concepts inherent within

traditional command and control systems.

Every asset is monitored for changes from

its established baseline. Any perturbation

results in execution of predefined courses

Perception

Network Topology

Current State

of Environment

Comprehension of

Current State

Human in the

loop process Event

of action (COA) that have been prioritized

based on the type of threat they are

responding to. The results from the application

of COAs are used to refine the

modeling capability, which in turn is used

to refine the COAs.

Raytheon Cybersecurity Tool Suite for

Monitoring and Protection

This effort has driven the evolution and development

of a suite of cybersecurity tools

to identify security-related vulnerabilities

within existing energy systems and mitigate

them before consumers experience any loss

of service. Two key components of the approach

are CIPview and CIPtrol. Through a

wide range of adapters, they can seamlessly

integrate with a customer’s power, HVAC

and IT systems infrastructure.

CIPview, shown in Figure 2, provides

a cyber-oriented situational awareness

view of the energy system’s current security

posture. It integrates eIQnetworks’

SecureVue ® situational awareness platform

and ComplianceVue , its add-on for North

American Electric Reliability Corporation

compliance monitoring, with Raytheondeveloped

fusion and visualization engines.

This provides analysts with an unprecedented

understanding of the current state

of the energy system. Raytheon’s technologies

allow a cyberanalyst to gain insight

into a system’s current threat vectors, their

Feedback

Projection

of Future

CIPview COA Workflow

Figure 2. CIPview and CIPtrol – Integrated situation awareness and command and

control for CIP

Performance

of Action

Decision

Feature

susceptibility to attack, the impact of

possible ongoing attacks, and potential

mitigation actions that may be taken.

Through the fusion and analytical interpretation

of data collected both manually and

from in-line sensors, a visual representation

of the energy system is overlaid with key

data, allowing analysts to quickly and accurately

assess how best to proceed to protect

the system.

CIPtrol facilitates system protection actions

by bringing together Raytheon’s proven

legacy in command and control (C2) with

newly developed capabilities in dynamically

formulating COAs that may be taken either

through manual execution or automatically

by CIPtrol’s protect and launch features. The

key enabler within CIPtrol is PRAETOR.

PRAETOR is Raytheon’s most recent C2

system and is capable of detecting and defending

against cyberattacks or unplanned

system outages in real time. PRAETOR is

an end-to-end C2 solution that improves

enterprise defense and ensures mission effectiveness

in the face of a cyberattack or

other enterprise disruption. PRAETOR employs

a service-oriented architecture design

to ensure easy deployment and integration

with customers’ existing tool sets.

CIPtrol includes a self-learning feature that

fuses the results of actions implemented by

a COA with modeling results to develop

refinements to existing COAs or to support

the dynamic generation of new COAs.

Through this self-feeding loop, CIPtrol’s

ability to respond to attacks and disruptions

continuously improves to minimize the effects

of false positives and maximize energy surety.

Summary

Cybersecurity in all its aspects is becoming

increasingly important to safeguard the

nation's, and the world’s, energy supply and

infrastructure. Raytheon is providing solutions,

by leveraging capabilities developed

to meet the needs of the DoD and other

agencies, for assessing and mitigating

network vulnerabilities and countering

cyberattacks. •

Dan Teijido and Vincent Fogle

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 33


Feature

Standardizing the Smart Grid

In recent years, Raytheon has been

providing leadership in energy-related

domestic and international standardsdevelopment

organizations, such as the

ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, IEEE

P2030 [1] — Smart Grid Interoperability

Guidelines Standards, and International

Committee for Information Technology

Standards. Additionally, Raytheon actively

participates in the Smart Grid

Interoperability Panel (SGIP) sponsored by

the National Institute of Standards and

Technology (NIST) of the U.S. Department

of Commerce.

The primary objective of standardization is

to have open specifications for portability,

interconnectivity and, most important, interoperability.

For Raytheon, this facilitates

greater openness, understanding and trust

with our customers so that we can better

address their needs.

Raytheon has numerous technologies

directly applicable to energy systems, including

intelligent sensor technologies, sensor

networks and architectures, command and

control, data and information processing

technology, cybersecurity, renewable energy

technologies, and smart power management.

Raytheon can play an important role

34 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

in contributing its knowledge about these

technologies to develop effective and useable

standards for the smart grid.

Creating the Smart Grid

The United States power grid is one of

the most complex networked systems in

the world. While many modern systems

and networks have transitioned in ways

unrecognizable from their original implementations,

the power grid has remained

rooted in its original conception and

implementation. As many have noted, if

Alexander Graham Bell was introduced to

today’s communications network, he would

be overwhelmed at the magnitude of advancement;

if Nikola Tesla was introduced

to the modern power grid, he would recognize

almost every part of the infrastructure.

The American Reinvestment and Recovery

Act of 2009 allocated and funded more

than $4 billion through the U.S. Department

of Energy (DoE) to initiate the modernization

of the legacy power grid toward the

smart grid, applying digital technology

(e.g., IT backbone, digital information and

communications) to the power grid. The

smart grid will integrate stakeholder industries;

such as generation, transmission and

distribution; utility companies and end-users

to make the grid more robust, fault tolerant,

failure resistant, self correcting and self

recoverable. It will achieve dynamic pricing

and power redistribution through effective

power management. The smart grid will

also facilitate the addition of renewable

energy, such as energy generated from solar

photovoltaic sources, wind farms, fuel cells,

tidal and geothermal generators. Utility

companies may purchase the energy from

individual homes or businesses if the homes

or businesses are generating power through

renewable energy systems.

The migration from the legacy power grid to

the smart grid is one of today’s most challenging

tasks, and will take place over the

next couple of decades and beyond. This

transition will involve all aspects of the legacy

power grid’s systems, and will also have

to account for the introduction of new technologies

and new players in the emerging

smart grid. This will all have to be managed

while ensuring that the legacy power grid

maintains a robust energy supply service to

end users without compromising reliability,

safety and integrity in power delivery.

Thus, the interconnectivity and interoperability

of many heterogeneous systems

and subsystems is a major area of concern.


Furthermore, building energy management

systems to manage the complex smart

grid is another challenge posed to the

stakeholders.

Delivering Interconnectivity

and Interoperability

The DoE recognized the need for smart

grid interoperability standards in order to

successfully deliver interconnectivity and

interoperability. DoE requested NIST to lead

and coordinate standards development

for the smart grid. NIST has been granted

primary responsibility to coordinate development

of a framework that includes protocols

and model standards for information management

to achieve interoperability of smart

grid devices and systems.

The two key standardization areas of

the smart grid are interoperability and

cybersecurity. In 2009, NIST announced a

three-phase plan to define the smart grid

road map and frameworks and to achieve

smart grid interoperability and cybersecurity

standardization. This plan includes full collaboration

and involvement of the power

industry stakeholders and the domestic and

international standards developing organizations,

such as IEEE, NEMA, GWAC, ISO,

IEC and ITU-T[1]. NIST also formed the SGIP,

which will leverage existing standards, or

develop standards where there are gaps

for the emerging smart grid.

In response to NIST smart grid standardization

activities, IEEE formed a smart

grid interoperability standards guideline

entity called P2030. P2030 consists of

three task forces: TF 1 – Power Systems;

TF 2 – Information Technology; and TF

3 – Communications Technology. The participants

in P2030 are from an extremely

diverse mix of industrial, academic and

regulatory organizations. The TFs will define

standard development guidelines to be used

by the SGIP and other smart grid-related

standards-developing organizations.

In summary, the smart grid interoperability

standards will:

• Support gradual transition of legacy

power grid equipment and systems to

the smart grid.

• Specify compatibility and coexistence

requirements of legacy and new

technologies.

• Avoid unnecessary and unwarranted

compromise in reliability, safety and

integrity during the lengthy transition

period to the smart grid.

• Provide applications and services that

were not available in the legacy power

Feature

grid; e.g., dynamic pricing, bidirectional

energy distribution/redistribution.

• Bring stakeholders together for common

interconnectivity and interoperability

(physical and data/information) benefiting

all stakeholder business sectors, including

end users.

• Form the basis for developing effective,

efficient, automated energy management

systems that enable more robust, fault

tolerant, failure resistant, and self correcting/recovery

capabilities.

Raytheon is represented on all three P2030

task forces and on the SGIP. Partnering with

industry experts and other organizations,

Raytheon is helping to establish smart grid

interoperability guidelines and standards

early in the development process. •

Howard Choe and Gordon Strachan

[1] IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics

Engineers, NEMA – National Electrical

Manufacturers Association, GWAC – Gridwise

Architectural Council, ISO – International

Organization for Standardization, IEC –

International Electro-Technical Commission,

ITU-T – International Telecommunication Union-

Standardization Sector

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 35


LEADERS CORNER

Technology Today recently

spoke with Kennedy about his

priorities and technology strategy

for Raytheon’s Integrated Defense Systems

business, and the role that energy capabilities

play in its customer deliverables.

TT: What are your top priorities for

Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems?

TK: One of our top priorities is to grow

the business. It’s clear from talking with

customers around the world that we have

many opportunities, and at the same time

the global defense environment is and will

continue to be very competitive. The good

news is we have a very solid reputation for

our products, technical core competencies,

professionalism and our “can-do” attitude.

We have the capability to address our

customers’ most pressing needs for

innovative solutions, affordability and

flawless execution.

36 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

TT: What do you see in the future

for IDS?

Tom Kennedy

President, Integrated Defense Systems

Dr. Thomas A. Kennedy is a Raytheon Company

vice president and president of Raytheon’s Integrated

Defense Systems business. Before joining IDS in June

2010, Kennedy served as vice president for Tactical

Airborne Systems within Raytheon’s Space and

Airborne Systems (SAS) business. In this capacity, he

was responsible for the overall strategic direction and

operation of the organization. Previously, Kennedy

served as vice president for SAS Mission Systems

Integration. Earlier in his Raytheon career, he was a

new business leader and program manager for several

radar and electronic warfare systems development

programs. He holds several patents related to radar

and electronic warfare systems, and received the

Aviation Week Laureate Award in 2003.

TK: A much larger global component to

our business. In order to meet the worldwide

defense threats that are out there,

many countries are looking to enhance their

defense capabilities with newer technology.

They are looking to Raytheon because of

the strength of our global brands, which

at IDS means the Patriot air and missile

defense system, AN/TPY-2 radars, naval

systems, and multidomain, situational

awareness systems that are vital for civil

and homeland security.

As we extend these brands globally, we

will also need the global people to develop,

deliver and support our solutions. IDS is

a great place to be for people who want

to put their career in fast-forward with an

international assignment.

TT: How does technology play into your

long term strategy?

TK: We’re working on the best solutions

for next-generation programs like the Air

Force’s Space Fence and the Navy’s Air and

Missile Defense Radar (AMDR). To do this,

we must have innovative technology that

provides us with both performance discriminators

and cost discriminators. We’re

pursuing several technology areas that are

key growth enablers for our business. These

include sensors, open and secure architectures,

system engineering, manufacturing

technologies, advanced materials, energy

and several other areas.

We are continuing to drive innovation in

these technology areas so that we can deliver

affordability and increased capability —

essentially solutions that do more, and do

it more cost-effectively. These are key factors

in how we invest in our technology


Feature

road map, and how we make front-end

development decisions to create competitive

discriminators for Raytheon. We also

continue to look for the best technology

companies to partner with in order to bring

complementary capabilities to our customer

solutions.

TT: Can you give us some examples of the

unique energy capabilities you are delivering

to your customers?

TK: Energy plays an important role

because it’s another big driver of affordability.

All of our customers are focusing on

reducing their energy costs. For example,

our long-endurance power solution for

unmanned undersea vehicles will meet or

exceed the Navy’s requirement to enable

longer missions without refueling. It also

provides enough power for high-energy

applications such as active sensors and

next-generation torpedoes.

To take another example, gallium nitride

(GaN) technology is a key energy saver

in next-generation radars. GaN delivers

greater performance with lower power

consumption. We are pursuing several

large programs that include GaN, such as

Space Fence and AMDR, and also the Air

Force’s Three Dimensional Expeditionary

Long Range Radar program.

We even have a “hybrid” power version

of our Rapid Aerostat Initial Deployment

system. RAID provides surveillance and situational

awareness for the perimeter of a

base camp, a city or other area. The power

for the system is supplemented with solar

panels so the main generator does not

need to be running 24/7.

TT: How are you addressing energy

consumption in your facilities?

TK: Raytheon is committed to environmental

stewardship and sustainable business

practices. As a company, we’ve reduced

energy consumption by 38 percent per

dollar revenue over the past seven years.

We’ve also set a goal to reduce total

greenhouse gas emissions 10 percent by

2015 across the company. Our people are

making this happen. In 2010, more than

30,000 Raytheon employees participated

in the “Energy Citizen” program, making

a commitment to conserve energy at work

and at home.

Another key initiative is to achieve

Leadership in Environmental and Energy

Design (LEED ® ) certification for new buildings

and major renovation projects. For

example, IDS built a new, energy-efficient

Raytheon facility in Huntsville, Ala., that

was the first LEED-certified “green” facility

in that state.

TT: Your background is in engineering.

What keeps you excited from a technology

perspective?

TK: What keeps me excited is the way

technology keeps moving forward, bringing

new possibilities to how we solve

customer challenges. Our customers are

looking for us to bring them something

new and better. And better can mean

lower cost or higher performance, lower

power consumption or a new technology

solution to a problem. Innovative thinking

— inventing new technology or applying

current technology differently — is how

we deliver value to our customers.

TT: What advice do you have for young

engineers just starting their careers?

TK: The world is changing very fast,

and we all need to keep learning and

keep innovating. It’s important to stretch

yourself. Don’t get too comfortable in

your current role. And if you want to

keep growing your career, Raytheon is

a great place to work. We get to solve

the toughest technology challenges on

the planet, in areas that are critical to

national defense and homeland security.

So you can challenge yourself to continue

learning and to do your best technical

work, while contributing to the safety

and security of our country and our allies

around the world.

TT: Based on your experience, what is

the most important attribute of a leader?

TK: Accountability. Leaders need to take

a “no excuses” approach to achieving

whatever goal they set their sights on.

Customers, partners, teammates — they

all need to know that when you say you

are going to do something, you will not

stop until you’ve done it. This is the mark

of real leaders, regardless of their position

on an org chart. And this behavior

is contagious. You can tell who the best

leaders are because their teams hold

themselves accountable and they accomplish

more. Accountability is extremely

powerful. That’s why it’s part of our

company’s values and behaviors.

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 37


MEET Feature A NEW RAYThEON LEADER

Luis Izquierdo is Raytheon’s vice president of corporate Operations,

responsible for developing and executing the company’s enterprise operations

vision and strategy. As chair of the corporate Operations Council, he leads

key strategic manufacturing and business initiatives and co-leads corporate

initiatives related to energy and environmental sustainability and real estate

utilization. Before assuming his current role in August 2009, Izquierdo

held many engineering and leadership positions throughout a defense and

aerospace career spanning more than 30 years.

Technology Today recently spoke with Izquierdo about his responsibilities

as the vice president for corporate Operations with a focus on his role in

Raytheon’s energy conservation initiatives.

TT: What are your responsibilities as vice

president of corporate Operations?

LI: Corporate Operations integrates the

company’s development, manufacturing,

integration and test operations, facilities

and real estate. This responsibility includes

overseeing 43 factories, along with office

facilities and other space, comprising more

than 30 million square feet worldwide.

As vice president of corporate Operations,

I am responsible for the development and

execution of our enterprise operations

vision and strategy.

Our vision is to deliver maximum customer

value by consistently providing innovative

solutions and advanced capabilities and services

that enable mission assurance, flawless

execution, business growth and best-in-class

return on invested capital. We accomplish

this through the use of integrated engineering

and manufacturing processes and tools

to provide seamless transition and efficient

production. We also incorporate energy

reduction techniques and sustainable

energy sources that reduce costs and greenhouse

emissions.

I also chair the Corporate Incident Support

Team, which is charged with ensuring the

company maintains business continuity in

the face of natural or man-made disasters.

38 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

TT: What is your specific role with respect

to Raytheon’s energy initiatives?

LI: My role is to drive energy conservation,

environmental sustainability and cost-effective

real estate utilization throughout the

enterprise. I am building a culture of energy

efficiency by setting aggressive goals, measuring

energy performance, and establishing

accountability and recognition systems

across the company. Sustainability is our

commitment to future generations to protect

the environment and conserve natural

resources. Our sustainability initiatives drive

lean operations and improve manufacturing

processes by eliminating waste, increasing

recycling, conserving energy and reducing

greenhouse emissions — all while delivering

value to our customers.

In addition to the Raytheon Operations

Council, two other councils have been established

to focus on energy conservation in

order to reduce our impact on the environment

— the Facilities Leadership Council

(FLC) and the Enterprise Energy Team (EET).

We are proud stewards of the environment

while reducing costs; these efforts increase

Raytheon’s competitiveness. The FLC is

composed of business facilities directors,

and the EET includes business professionals

who have energy engineering and management

expertise.

Together with Rob Moore, vice president of

Business Services, including Environmental

Health and Safety (EHS), we drive the

energy strategy for the company. The EET

and FLC work in concert to implement and

manage the company’s energy program.

I am extremely proud of our team effort in

energy management and the great results

we have achieved. We recently received the

2011 ENERGY STAR ® Sustained Excellence

award from the U.S. Environmental

Protection Agency for the fourth year in a

row. This was the seventh time in ten years

that Raytheon has received ENERGY STAR

recognition, demonstrating that our energy

program is truly world class.

TT: What are the key elements of

Raytheon’s energy program?

LI: Our energy program centers on two

areas: reducing energy consumption and

instituting sustainable practices in our designs,

facilities and operations. Our energy

reduction efforts include supply considerations,

demand-side management, cost

control, data management, benchmarking

and education. We also focus on building

infrastructure (equipment, metering,

controls), reducing user plug load and

partnering across functions toward

common goals.


In addition to controlling costs even as energy

prices rise, efficiently managing our

demand ensures that energy resources are

available for our communities and future

generations. Raytheon spends approximately

$100 million each year on energy.

We negotiate favorable rates with suppliers

and utility companies, and we coordinate

thousands of utility bills and energy data for

consolidated payment.

We have also investigated renewable energy

sources. We have initiated five photovoltaic

projects, and we have installed a geothermal

heating and cooling system at our

facility in State College, Pa. By embracing

The U.S. Green Building Council’s LEED ®

(leadership in energy and environmental

design) program, we are defining our goals

and using design principles that support

green building certification.

TT: How do you engage Raytheon

employees in energy conservation?

LI: Engaging employees with enterprise

communications and outreach programs

is critical to our success. The EET has established

two key employee engagement

initiatives: Energy Champions and Energy

Citizens. A network of more than 1,200

volunteer Energy Champions — energy

conservation and sustainability enthusiasts

— encourage fellow employees to act similarly.

Our Energy Citizens campaign to raise

employee awareness has been in effect for

the past three years. Over half of Raytheon

employees qualified as 2010 Energy

Citizens. More than 37,000 employees

learned about the importance of energy.

We continually encourage employees to

pledge for this effort.

TT: What is the link between Raytheon’s

energy use and its production of greenhouse

gases?

LI: Ninety percent of Raytheon’s greenhouse

gases result from our energy use,

80 percent of which are from electricity

consumed in our facilities. We consume

approximately 1 billion kilowatt hours

annually. We continue to make a measurable,

positive impact on the reduction of

greenhouse gases by reducing the plug load

in our workplace and by implementing innovative

ways to reduce demand across the

business. We need to maintain an “everyone,

every day” energy conservation culture.

TT: What are Raytheon’s energy goals,

and what is the progress to date in

reducing the energy load?

LI: By establishing several goals, we have

achieved significant reductions in energy

consumption. Since 2005, we have reduced

absolute energy consumption by 12 percent

and saved $45 million in energy costs. These

reductions were the result of implementing

automated climate control systems; heating,

ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) upgrades;

and employing building utilization

improvements. Our goal through 2015 is to

achieve a 10 percent reduction from 2008

levels.

Since 2005, we have reduced our absolute

greenhouse gas emissions by 20 percent. We

did this by using fewer greenhouse gas

chemicals in our operations and by implementing

energy conservation projects. Our

current goal is to reduce emissions 10 percent

by 2015 from 2008 levels. I expect this trend

to continue as Raytheon employees become

more involved and take responsibility for energy

conservation and sustainable practices.

Furthermore, we have reduced our solid

waste by 45 percent from 2005, normalized

by revenue. In this same period, hazardous

waste has been reduced by 60 percent

normalized by revenue, eliminating 4,600

tons. Key reduction strategies include

chemical substitutions and process efficiency

improvements. We also reduced the

amount of waste sent to landfill or incineration

by 17 percent since 2008.

In 2008, we started to focus on water

conservation, and have already reduced

water consumption 15 percent, saving

110 million gallons cumulatively. Raytheon’s

sustainable information technology strategy

has reduced electricity use by more than

42,000 megawatt hours in the past three

years, and saved $23 million in energy and

operational costs.

TT: What projects has Raytheon

initiated to reduce energy, and what

renewable projects are attractive to

the company?

LI: During the past several years, Raytheon

has completed hundreds of energy saving

and energy efficiency projects across the

company, such as upgrading chillers, boilers

and HVAC systems; installing high-efficiency

and sensor-controlled lighting; converting

to variable-speed drives for motors, pumps

and fans; and upgrading to state-of-the-art

automated energy management and control

systems.

In addition to infrastructure upgrades, our

Information Technology organization has

reduced our energy footprint by employing

computer server virtualization, which

reduces hardware use and corresponding

power needs. Our PrintSmart campaign

consolidates printing operations and encourages

employees to reduce their use of

printers. Process engineering is partnering

with Raytheon’s Double Green Technology

Interest Group in a two-pronged effort for

energy reduction: investigating energy reduction

methods for product manufacturing

and investigating product energy consumption

reduction during product operations.

Regarding renewable projects, we support

the actions that power companies

have taken to “green up” their energy

portfolios by bringing on line renewable

energy sources, such as wind, solar and

geothermal.

As conveyed earlier, Raytheon has made

capital investments in photovoltaic systems

and a geothermal heat pump system. We

continue to evaluate other opportunities

for on-site renewable energy projects,

such as additional photovoltaic systems,

wind turbines, fuel cells, landfill gas power

generation, and hybrid solar cells for a combination

of heat and power generation.

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 39


on Technology

Simplify, Simplify!

Advanced Vehicle Airframe Innovations

Cut Missile Cost and Schedule

As threats increase in number and

sophistication, Raytheon’s missiles must

also evolve to meet increasingly demanding

requirements, and must do so cost effectively.

The missile airframe, a major factor

in performance and production cost, has

benefited from a new Raytheon development

approach.

Identifying Opportunities

To identify weight and cost reduction opportunities,

component requirements are

considered collectively as a system before

component specifications are generated

and flowed down to subject matter designers.

This less regimented approach enables

creativity and innovation to be achieved

via multidiscipline requirements analysis;

technology studies; and research into

state-of-the-art (SOTA) developments from

university, industry, government laboratory,

and foreign sources. Certain industries —

automotive, sports, watercraft, aviation, and

satellites — can also inspire new solutions.

The critical feature of this strategy is to

identify new applications for existing design

and manufacturing solutions.

Control

section

Propulsion section

40 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Applying the Approach

Raytheon has shown that missile interceptor

airframe performance can be improved and

costs reduced by integrating commercially

available, advanced materials and manufacturing

technologies. To do this, Raytheon

produced advanced composite airframes for

several missile programs.

SOTA supersonic missile airframes (Figure 1)

typically involve exotic refractory materials

and processing, and complex manufacturing

and assembly processes, both of which incur

high risk and expense. Although composite

materials can be used to achieve specific

performance requirements on airframe programs,

until recently the precise integration

of the technology or process know-how was

not well understood. A research database

established at Raytheon, after many system

trade evaluations, has led to advanced

airframe concepts; and Raytheon-initiated

feasibility studies have led to innovative,

low-cost airframe designs and a philosophy

for integrating them into advanced missile

systems.

The approach is to simplify manufacturing

and consolidate parts by using composite

Armament section

Guidance section

Figure 1. Composite airframe applications are being evaluated on a number of Raytheon

programs. Composite materials are needed to meet specific performance requirements on

many developmental vehicle programs.

material fabrication techniques. For example,

substantial missile production cost

savings result from integrating fuselage

structures with components traditionally

incorporated onto a vehicle as a secondary

process. Consolidating common features

and integrating fabrication steps simplify

the design and streamline production.

Product reliability and repeatability are

also enhanced.

This approach also improves material efficiency,

providing multifunctional airframe

capabilities. Experience has shown that

part consolidation leads to features of one

component augmenting features of another

component. For example, using a radome/

thermal protection system (TPS) continuous

wrap not only provides a seal, but improves

structural integrity. Features of an

integral composite design are driven to be

multifaceted; hence, redundant details are

eliminated, airframe performance is robust

and fabrication becomes more efficient.

Moreover, as numerous components are

integrated into the composite structures,

fabrication processes and quality inspection

steps previously done in parallel are

integrated into a minimal number of manufacturing

processes.

Here are two developments that benefited

from this approach.

Integral Missile Radome-Seeker

Airframe (IMRSA)

SOTA tactical missile forebodies have typically

incorporated ceramic radomes, metallic

fuselages, and ablative TPS overwraps

with numerous cut-outs and joint area

reinforcements for side-viewing antennas

and radomes. Some design features can be

problematic, however. Joint O-rings and

silicone beads that seal the SOTA forebody


Metal

nose tip

Co-cured

electronics

mounting

ring

Glass or quartz composite ogive radome

Glass or quartz composite conformal radome

from external environments can allow moisture

to leak into the internal electronics,

hastening degradation. Teflon-based sidelooking

radomes have thermal limitations

and are heavy. Metal fuselages with external

ablative TPS laminates are heavy, expensive

and incompatible with radomes. Bonded

side-looking radomes can fail during flight.

To eliminate these issues, the IMRSA forebody

integrates the radomes, fuselage and

TPS with a single high-temperature resin,

but with different fibers for radio frequency

(RF) transmittability, structural integrity and

thermal insulation (see Figure 2). The external

glass or quartz laminate layers perform

multiple functions — as the forward- and

side-looking radomes and the fuselage TPS

— without breaking the external surface

continuity. The internal graphite-reinforced

laminates provide the load-carrying structure

and internal mounting surfaces for the

antenna trays and electronic assemblies.

The IMRSA minimizes the need for fasteners,

bonded joints and antenna cut-outs,

providing greater environmental isolation

to seal sensitive, active RF components

while also providing greater load-carrying

performance. Automated manufacturing

processes, including resin-transfer-molding

(RTM), filament winding or tape placement

techniques, provide greater quality and

repeatability. Because a single high-temperature

resin is used throughout the coupled

laminate structure, the entire IMRSA can

be cured as a single piece, significantly

reducing cost and weight, simplifying manufacturing,

and improving structural integrity

and production reliability.

Active Damped, Piezoelectric Composite

Structures (ADPCS)

ADPCS uses commercially available technologies,

found in the sporting and remote

sensor industries, to preserve accurate

inertial missile guidance by decreasing missile

seeker loads and stabilizing inertial

measurement units (IMUs). Missile vibration

loads from captive-carry aero-buffeting during

aircraft carriage, and shock loads from

stage separation and rocket motor ignition

may harm guidance functionality and

reduce probability-of-kill (Pk) performance.

Raytheon therefore investigated ways to

reduce these vibration loads.

SOTA missile applications involve complicated

mechanical shock absorption systems

that are hard to design and to dynamically

characterize. In most cases, the surrounding

structures must be redesigned to accommodate

the shock absorption systems.

Mechanical, Materials and Structures

Laminate antenna

bonded onto tray

Aluminum antenna tray

(bonded to primary structure)

Metal foil ground plane

Graphite structural laminate

Figure 2. IMRSA nosecone assembly with multiple conformal antenna mounting concepts. All

SOTA leak paths are eliminated for humidity permeability mitigation, protecting internal

electronics from long-term storage degradation.

Continuous

fibers

Seeker

electronics

Guidance system

electronics

modules

Figure 3. Notional pitch and yaw

piezoelectric vibration absorption system

for typical air intercept missile or surfaceto-air

missile.

ADPCS (Figure 3) integrates lightweight,

power-generating piezoelectric fibers into

composite structures for reliable environmental

attenuation. This approach is easily

characterized and can be electronically

modified for any dynamic “tuning”; a

major mechanical redesign is not needed.

The piezoelectric current, generated during

vibration, flows into a self-powered integrated

circuit, is reconverted and supplied to

the fibers to dampen the structure per the

desired, pre-programmed frequencies.

A Final Word

A system emphasis on using common composite

material systems, industry standard

processing and multi-supplier availability

is key to the success of this strategy.

Moreover, because missile airframe applications

are a small market fraction of the

composite manufacturing industry, materials

and processes dominated by other market

applications must be used to ensure lower

costs and reduced risk. •

Andrew Facciano

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 41


on Technology

42 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Mission Systems Integration

Dynamic Ontology Creation Techniques

Distill Actionable Knowledge from Massive Data Streams:

Weapon Smuggling Example

The Need

In today’s digital world, a tsunami of information

exists; information that could be

potentially critical to an analyst or warfighter.

Because the amount of such critical information

can double weekly, evaluating this

data using traditional methods will become

an overwhelming challenge. No single

human — or group — can “manually”

ingest and understand this vast quantity

of ever-increasing information. Moreover,

even if this data could be contained and

comprehended, analysts often find it hard to

identify, in any domain of interest, the critical

information nuggets in this data ocean.

What, then, can be done? Part of an answer

is found in a process that dynamically creates

ontologies. An ontology is a formal

representation of knowledge as concepts

and relationships in a specific domain.

Ontologies are used to analyze data and

derive knowledge that is current, relevant,

actionable and contextually appropriate to a

mission need.

A Solution

The process of dynamic ontology creation

using Bayesian-networks (B-Nets) is intended

for eventual use as an automated information

discovery process by humans and

autonomous systems. The goal of the

process is to help a human user — or a

digital agent representing a human user —

to quickly discover relevant knowledge

that could not be found by human effort

alone from extremely large data sets and

knowledge stores.

The process was developed by Raytheon’s

Computational Analytics. Using this process,

the team created a prototype implementation

based on a weapon smuggling

scenario. By examining existing open source

information, the prototype system successfully

revealed the probable existence of

weapon smuggling in the Iraq theater

of operations.

The Process

The process uses existing domain ontology

models that may seem unrelated, such as

ontology models of different events. The key

to binding these models in a context is the

use of a B-Net computational model; in this

example, a weapon smuggling model. The

B-Net model is used to form conditional relationships

between the militia training and

civilian convoy ontology models (separate

events) to evaluate these models in the

context of weapon smuggling.

Using an implementation of the Raytheon

Visualization Toolkit (VTK) as the visual

interface, an analyst can choose available

models for analysis from a library. The VTK

is also used to display newly created ontologies

based on B-Net evaluations. In the

prototype, the militia training and civilian

convoy ontology models and the weapon

smuggling computational model are selected

by the user. The militia training and

civilian convoy ontology models are used by

the system to quickly sift through data, information

and knowledge in digital formats,

such as knowledge bases, documents, Web

pages and audio, to find and extract current,

relevant and contextually appropriate

content. The extracted content is known as

instance data for the concepts contained

in these two models. Based on the models

selected, the instance data extracted could

include the names of those who conduct

militia training, dates of the training and

convoy occurrence, organizations involved in

training and convoy events, and locations of

training events and convoy routes.

Extracted instance data are used as B-Net

conditional probability table (CPT) inputs

for computing the possible occurrence of a

weapon smuggling event. When B-Net CPT

conditions are met, then the CPT resolves a

“true” state associated with a high percent

confidence that a weapon smuggling event

exists. Based on this high percent confidence,

the B-Net output variable weapon

smuggling is used by the system to create

a node labeled weapon smuggling, and to

specify conditional relationships linking this

node with the appropriate nodes of the militia

training event and civilian convoy event

models. As shown in Figure 1, the inserted

node and conditional relationships linking

the militia training and civilian convoy models

represent a new, dynamically created

ontology model named weapon smuggling.

The newly created weapon smuggling ontology,

along with instance data, are displayed

to the analyst through the VTK interface.

This weapon smuggling ontology model is

a new type of ontology, referred to as an

instance ontology, that contains not only

the concepts of the militia training and

civilian convoy ontology models, but also

specific concept instance data extracted

from data sources. The user can use detailed

instance data to perform further analysis

or to provide newly discovered actionable

knowledge related to weapon smuggling

to a community of interest. For example,

besides detecting a probable weapon smuggling

event, the prototype discovered that

the organization conducting the militia

training event also sponsored the civilian

convoy event. Additionally, when concept

nodes in the models have no instance data,

this might be used as an input to a data

collection plan.

As a future enhancement to the prototype,

any node in the displayed graph model

could be selected to display sub-graphs of

a concept. For example, the location node

Najaf could be clicked on to display additional

graphs containing information on

Najaf. The dynamically created instance

ontology and related instance data could

be saved for later use, such as by a casebased

reasoner to determine other weapon

smuggling events, or by other analysts or

analytical functions.

Conclusion

Using existing technologies such as the

process of dynamic ontology creation and

the Raytheon VTK, a working prototype has


8/10/2004

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Center

Fallujah

Humanity

Center

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Pick ups

Fruit

Madhi

Army

Najaf

Use

Militia

Training In

Conduct

Col

Numair

From

Hudhayfah

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on

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From

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Consisting

of Has

passenger r Ratib

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Carry

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6/24/2004

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Medicine Water

Person

Figure 1. Weapon smuggling ontology

formed by creating conditional relationships

between militia training event and convoy

event ontologies. Note: illustration is

fictional information.

been developed to dynamically create

an instance ontology. In essence, the

Raytheon Advanced Analytics team has

developed a new way to create knowledge

based on an information need in a context.

The prototype can be used for any activity

requiring fusion of seemingly unrelated

data and information found in large

knowledge stores. •

Bruce E. Peoples

Contributor: Robert J. Cole

on Technology

In a crowded, complex and quickly

changing battlespace, allies must be

protected and enemies defeated. To do

this, Raytheon’s Ka-band millimeter wave

(mmW) Cooperative Target Identification

(CTI) technology — an identification friend

or foe (IFF)-like capability — helps the

warfighter to quickly identify allies at

extended range in all battlefield conditions.

This reduces the risk of fratricide.

Raytheon’s mmW CTI technology is an

electronic cooperative “question and

answer” system that operates in the Ka

frequency band. It complements existing

target acquisition systems by reliably

identifying friendly targets in less than one

second at long range, well within the operator’s

normal target engagement cycle.

To ensure covert operation over the full

spectrum of modern warfare, the system

is highly directional, operates at very low

transmit power and employs encryption.

To ensure interoperability with NATO and

Coalition partners, the system is compatible

with networked operations and is

designed to an international standard.

mmW CTI Technology Capabilities

and Functions

The mmW CTI technology provides three

primary capabilities:

• Interrogation

• Transpond

• Data

The interrogation capability is used by

a platform/vehicle to identify a target

before engaging it with deadly force.

The identification range extends beyond

effective weapon ranges and is achieved

by waveforms that sensor systems find difficult

to detect. In addition, interrogation

Multifunction RF Systems

Ka-band Cooperative Target ID

for the Current Force

Figure 1. Ka-band mmW CTI Technology

(circled) integrated with the Long Range

Advanced Scout Surveillance System (LRAS3)

provides improved target identification at

extended range in all battlefield conditions.

can aid in force sorting and surveillance,

especially when operating in its data

modes, as explained below. The interrogation

capability works in conjunction with

the transpond capability on a friendly vehicle

to prevent fratricide by declaring either

“friend” or “unknown” to the shooter.

When the targeted platform replies to an

interrogation, it is declared a “friend”;

otherwise, it is declared “unknown.” The

interrogation results are displayed in the

operator’s primary sight.

The transpond capability is used on

all platforms to declare themselves as

“friends” when interrogated by a shooter

platform. Non-shooter platforms may

only have transponder equipment, while

shooter platforms will be equipped

for both interrogation and transpond

functions.

Continued on page 44

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 43


Continued from page 43

on Technology

In addition to the primary interrogation

capability, the mmW CTI technology can

operate in two different secure data modes:

the digital data link (DDL) mode and the

data exchange mode (DEM). DDL provides a

short-range data network to allow platforms

in close proximity to exchange information,

including text, digital voice and positional

data. This greatly enhances the tactical

communications and situational awareness

(SA) capability of the warfighter. Individual

members of the team can communicate

covertly and determine where their friends

are located on the battlefield. The effective

range of DDL can be greatly extended

when a shooter platform trains its highgain

interrogator antenna in the area of

transponder-equipped platforms, vehicles or

dismounted soldiers. The DDL network operates

autonomously from the interrogation

and transpond capabilities.

The DEM mode is used between vehicles

separated by longer distances beyond what

the local DDL network connectivity provides.

DEM enables an interrogating platform to

request information from a data-capable

friendly transponder and works in a manner

similar to the DDL mode. The DEM is

normally used after identification is performed,

can operate at ranges equal to the

identification mode, and requires no extra

intervention by the operator.

Current Status

A recent demonstration featured Raytheon’s

mmW CTI technology integrated with a

Long Range Advanced Scout Surveillance

System (LRAS3), also developed by

Raytheon, to provide improved target

identification at extended-range battlefield

conditions. (See figures 1 and 2.) This was

part of a U.S. Army-sponsored event that

was held at the Aberdeen Proving Ground,

Md., May 2009.

44 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Raytheon’s mmW CTI technology is designed

for ease of use and complements the

LRAS3 and other tactical standoff surveillance

and targeting systems. CTI can identify

friendly platforms obscured by tree lines and

under adverse conditions such as fog and

smoke at long ranges commensurate with

LRAS3 and other tactical target acquisition

system capabilities.

Raytheon is working parallel efforts to validate

mmW CTI capability for light vehicle,

airborne and joint applications to support

irregular warfare situations such as in

Afghanistan. For example, in the Army’s

Joint Cooperative Target Identification –

Ground (JCTI-G) risk reduction program,

Raytheon analyzed its technology to reduce

size, weight, power and cost for military

tactical system applications. Under the

Army’s Light Vehicle Demonstration (LVD)

program, the system was integrated with

an M2 .50 caliber heavy machine gun on a

high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle

(HMMWV) to validate operation under live

fire conditions. Raytheon’s mmW CTI system

demonstrated full performance capabilities

with heavy machine gun live fire.

Raytheon has also integrated mmW CTI

technology on an F/A-18 Super Hornet for

air-to-ground applications in support of

the U.S. Joint Forces Command (USJFCOM)

sponsored Operation Bold Quest. One of the

exercise objectives was to evaluate the utility

of target identification technologies for use

in air-to-ground operations, and Raytheon’s

technology was rated as one of the best.

Ka-band Cooporative Target ID

Figure 2. Raytheon’s mmW CTI equipment

mounted on the Long Range Advanced

Scout Surveillance System (LRAS3) target

acquisition system

Into the Future

Raytheon is currently advancing the mmW

CTI technology into the dismounted soldier

domain with the development of the

Dismounted Combat Identification Device

(DCID). Numerous methods are being

investigated to reduce size, weight and

power (SWAP); implementation risk and life

cycle costs; resulting in low SWAP transceiver

architectures, waveform processing,

cryptography and electronics packaging approaches.

This development will provide the

needed technology to implement effective

dismounted soldier, vehicular and airborne

target identification solutions for the

U.S. military. •

Grayden L. Obenour,

Dr. Gregory S. White, William J. Mitchell


RF MEMS Development at Raytheon

In a small, yellow-lit clean room, an

engineer patiently etches a sacrificial

photoresist in an oxygen plasma. After

moving the last wafer from the vacuum

chamber to the wafer boat and hooking up

radio frequency (RF) and direct current (DC)

probes in the environmental chamber, the

engineer tries to coax the device into operation.

Ten volts — nothing; 20 volts — a

twitch; 25 volts — definite movement. At

30 volts, the membrane snaps down and

the RF MEMS switch comes to life! RF and

microwave engineers take note: The age

of micro-machines is upon us, and they are

coming to a system near you.

Micromachining processes and the devices

they create, microelectromechanical systems

(MEMS), have been intensively developed

during the past two decades. MEMS do not

operate on electron flow, but are mechanical

structures that use motion to sense or

actuation to control their environments or

their electrical properties.

Micromachining includes a diverse set of

deposition and etching processes that

supplement the traditional semiconductor

manufacturing toolset. These techniques

include many unique processes such as bulk

and surface micromachining; wafer bonding;

deep reactive ion etching; lithography,

electroplating and molding (LIGA) 1 ; and micromolding.

Whatever process is used, the

result is the same: Micromachining creates

three-dimensional structures on the surface

of the integrated circuit (IC) — in essence, a

micro-sized machine.

The emergence of MEMS for RF applications

(RF MEMS) is a recent application of

micromachining, and components built

with MEMS and micromachining are significantly

better than traditional microwave

electronics in several ways. MEMS switches

show ultra-low loss, besting any available

silicon or gallium arsenide (GaAs) transistor

technology for analog switching. This

makes RF signal routing possible with much

lower loss, giving RF systems better noise

figure and sensitivity. Most MEMS devices

are electrostatically operated, consuming

essentially no DC power. This makes them

excellent for battery or hand-held devices,

as well as satellite and space systems. RF

MEMS devices also have extremely high

linearity, meaning that they create no harmonics

or intermodulation products. This

feature makes them an excellent choice for

broadband communications systems, especially

those requiring high dynamic range.

These devices have proven very effective at

frequencies as high as 100+ GHz. The ability

of RF MEMS to be tuned can significantly

reduce the number of passive components

on a circuit board by combining numerous

switched parts into one tunable chip. All of

these performance advantages can be had

with the cost benefits afforded by semiconductor

batch processing. Collectively, these

advantages significantly affect RF systems,

especially in system-on-chip (SOC) applications

where improved functionality can be

used to reduce overall cost.

RF MEMS Switches

Much of the RF MEMS research has been

done in micromechanical switches. For more

than a decade, researchers have worked to

perfect the development of micro-miniature

relays via micromachining techniques. With

the boom in wireless communications,

research has intensified in the quest to

develop low-cost, reliable, ultra-low-loss

switches and tuners.

The goal is to have

these switches replace

traditional transistors

for reduced loss and

improved linearity in key

components.

RF MEMS are not unique

to Raytheon, and the list

of other companies working

on RF MEMS switches

is extensive. Builders

of RF handset applications

(such as WiSpry ®SM ,

RFMD ® , Fujitsu SM , and

Toshiba ®SM ), automated

test equipment (such

as XCOMM, OMRON ® ,

Advantest ®SM , Panasonic ®

and Maxim ® ), and

defense applications

Special Interest

(such as Radant MEMS and MEMTronics)

also have a stake in this technology.

Two basic types of switch-contact mechanisms

exist: ohmic contact and capacitive

contact. In ohmic switches, two metal

electrodes are brought into contact to

create a low-resistance connection. In

capacitive switches, a metal membrane is

pulled down onto a dielectric layer, usually

by electrostatic means, to form a capacitive

sandwich. At high frequencies, the

capacitive susceptance of this sandwich acts

like a shunt capacitor with a 100:1 ratio

(unactuated:actuated). In either case, the

mechanical action of the switch causes the

switch to efficiently change from a high impedance

to a low impedance.

In 1995, Raytheon pioneered RF MEMS

technology for microwave and millimeterwave

applications by developing the first

capacitive RF switch (Figure 1). Since then,

Raytheon has become a world leader in

designing and developing high-performance

RF MEMS for advanced phased-array

applications. Figure 2 highlights our improvements

in switch performance over the

Continued on page 46

Figure 1. Operation of Raytheon’s capacitive membrane

RF MEMS switch

Drumhead

Capacitive

Switch

10 GHz

0.4 dB loss

15 dB Isolation

Improved

Improved Switch

Switch

Electrode

Micromachining

35 GHz

0.25 dB loss

35 dB Isolation

40+ GHz

0.07 dB loss

> 35 dB Isolation

+20°C to +40°C

Figure 2. Progress of RF MEMS development at Raytheon

Improved Switch

Reliability

40+ GHz

0.07 dB loss

> 35 dB Isolation

> 300 billion cycles

-55°C to +125°C

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 45


Special Interest RF MEMs

Continued from page 45

last decade-plus. Raytheon has developed

an RF MEMS switch that is optimized for

low RF insertion loss, high switching speed,

high-power handling, excellent temperature

stability and long-cycle lifetime. With support

from the Army, the Defense Advanced

Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the

Office of Naval Research (ONR), and the

Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), Raytheon

has demonstrated low-loss, multi-bit phase

shifters, routers and digitally tunable filters

across the entire 0.1 to 50 GHz frequency

range. Raytheon has also developed a

wafer-level bonding process for RF MEMS

circuit packaging that provides a 10X cost

reduction in RF MEMS packaging technology.

Raytheon’s latest switch design

achieves over 300 billion operating cycles

without failure, with a switching speed

under 10 microseconds and negligible DC

power consumption. Innovations in switch

membrane materials and device structure

now provide much greater thermal stability,

and designs specifically optimized for highpower

handling have hot-switched more

than 4 watts of RF power at 10 GHz.

RF MEMS switches have broad applications,

from pre-selector filters for broadband

receivers to electronic phase shifters that

control modern radar and satellite antennas.

Raytheon has demonstrated packaged

4-bit phase shifters with average losses

of -1.7 dB at 15 GHz, -1.8 dB at 21 GHz,

-2.1 dB at 30 GHz and -2.6 dB at 35 GHz,

including some very low-loss phase shifters

at 10 GHz. When this phase shifter is used

in, for example, a transmit phased array,

cost can be significantly reduced by moving

the power amplifier (PA) back one or two

power divider levels away from the radiating

element because of the low insertion loss,

thus reducing the PA part count by a factor

of 2-4X.

Raytheon has also demonstrated very high

rejection tunable bandwidth and/or tunable

center frequency filters from 6–18 GHz.

An example of an X-band tunable filter is

shown in Figure 3. These agile filters are

used in a variety of applications such as

digital receiver/exciters or communication

systems. By replacing several fixed filters

46 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

dB

Figure 3. Measured data and photo of

high-rejection X-band tunable filter

and switches with one tunable filter, significant

size and weight can be saved while

consuming negligible DC power and providing

extremely linear operation.

Furthermore, Raytheon has successfully

integrated RF MEMS technology with GaAs

field effect transistor (FET) technology

to create unique circuits. Figure 4 shows

a photograph of an RF MEMS tunable

impedance-matching network hooked up

directly to a one-stage power amplifier. In

this case, RF MEMS switches provide a tunable

input- and output-matching network

to a simple one-stage power amplifier. By

adjusting the impedance presented to the

FET, similar to a load-pull test, world-record

power added efficiency (PAE) was achieved

from 2–18 GHz.

Figure 4. RF MEMS and FET integration

on a high PAE 2–18 GHz amplifier

The two most intensively focused areas of

RF MEMS switch development have been

in reliability and low-cost packaging. An

extremely dry atmosphere is required to

ensure RF MEMS device reliability. Moisture

enhances an effect known as dielectric

charging, wherein a trapped charge in the

switch dielectric causes the membrane to

latch down and not release. Raytheon has

developed a liquid-crystal polymer (LCP)

based packaging technique that features

a glass lid with an etched cavity attached

to the alumina MEMS substrate by a

patterned layer of LCP. While LCP is

not hermetic, it is very hydrophobic

and does an excellent job of keeping

moisture out of the package. Recent

results have shown survivability in an

85-degree, 85 percent relative humidity

environment for more than seven

weeks. Current development is focused

on improving the packaging yield and

optimizing the process for production.

Switch reliability has been very good when

the switch is properly packaged. Raytheon

has demonstrated over 300 billion actuations

on sample devices, and more testing

is underway. Dielectric charging, the main

failure mode, can be reduced by selectively

removing areas of dielectric under the

switch, effectively replacing them with air.

Mechanical simulations of membrane fatigue

or failure have shown that operation

into the trillions of actuations is possible

as long as dielectric charging is mitigated.

Currently, dielectric deposition conditions

are being optimized to reduce the maximum

amount of charge that is stored.

Summary

Like previous MEMS technologies, RF MEMS

will establish a new paradigm for building

components. As with any developing

technology, the emphasis is initially on

performance, then on reliability and packaging,

and eventually on cost. Over the

last few years, Raytheon has demonstrated

technology readiness level (TRL) 4 (laboratory

demonstrations) with the current parts.

The emphasis now is on demonstrating

performance in a relevant system environment

and getting to TRL 8 (tested/qualified

in a system). The challenge is in scaling

up production from tens of wafer lots per

year to tens of wafer lots per month, while

improving yield and reducing costs. MMICs

made this same transition in the 1980s, and

gallium nitride (GaN) is beginning the final

phase of its transition. There will be highs

and lows in the coming years, but the “rise

of the micro-machines” is coming. •

Brandon Pillans

1 Translated from the German Lithographie,

Galvanoformung, Abformung.


The concept of a single atomic layer of

crystalline material is easy enough to

grasp, yet creating such a layer was

not achieved until 2004, when two scientists,

Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoslov,

demonstrated the existence of a single

atomic layer of carbon called graphene.

This discovery was followed by a flurry of

research activities, with the proposal of

several applications for defense and commercial

products. Through its support of

several multidisciplinary research initiatives

and DARPA-funded programs during the

past three years, the U.S. Dept. of Defense

has also indicated the importance of

graphene for its military applications.

The theoretically predicted and experimentally

verified values of graphene properties

have provided the impetus for a vast area

of opportunity, from nano-scale devices to

system-level advances. The implication of a

single crystalline layer of pure carbon has

spun many new startup businesses, which

is likely to continue. Each is based on a

unique finding aimed at anticipated and

emerging markets. Among the technologies

that can benefit from graphene in the near

future are:

Ultracapacitors. While batteries are high

energy density power sources, they cannot

deliver the energy to the load in short

time, due to the natural process of ionic

movement through an electrolyte between

the battery electrodes. On the other hand,

capacitors can release all their energy to

the load in a very short time; however, they

can store only a relatively small amount of

energy. Replacement of the carbon charcoal

with crumpled sheets of graphene

provides several orders of magnitude higher

charge storage capacity as in a battery,

while allowing for faster charge/discharge

time as in a capacitor — thus merging and

improving the two power storage technologies.

Ultracapacitor technology has

the potential to significantly improve many

Raytheon products such as radar front-end

electronics, which we are considering as the

first insertion point.

Thermal management. In power electronics,

heat removal from the active part of

the device is a substantial challenge. The

measured thermal conductivity (TC) of

single layer graphene is reported to be

nearly three times that of bulk diamond at

55 W/cm-K. This is mainly attributed to the

ability of phonons to propagate through the

crystalline layer without suffering from any

scattering processes. Engineering schemes

need to be developed to exploit such high

TC values successfully. Any method that

can harvest the superior TC of graphene for

thermal management in electronics circuitry

can have extensive implications in all areas

of digital, RF and optoelectronics.

Transparent conductors. Due to its high

sheet electronic charge density of 10 13 cm -2 ,

and high electron mobility, graphene is a

near perfect conductor. Furthermore, with

its single atomic layer nature, graphene

absorbs little visible light, making it an excellent

transparent conductor. Commercial

applications of this technology are already

underway for use on touch-screen monitors,

where large square-meter areas are being

processed at one time. Such a low sheet

resistance, low absorption layer is an ideal

material for many Raytheon electro-optics

applications, some of which currently

use indium oxide. The same low sheet

resistivity property of graphene can be

exploited in interconnect technologies

where material and fabrication cost

can be a significant factor.

THz Electronics. The superb material and

electrical properties of this unique material

system provide the potential for improved

performance in the terahertz (THz) frequency

range — performance that has been

difficult to attain in conventional gallium

arsenide (GaAs)- and gallium nitride (GaN)based

material. A single atomic layer of

crystalline carbon has been reported to have

Special Interest

Carbon-Based Electronic Devices Open a New Window

to Electronics

a room temperature electron mobility of

greater than 200,000 cm 2 /(V-s), two and

half times that of the best semiconductor.

Such high electron mobility allows for ballistic

electron transport in today’s transistors

with state of the art geometries, hence

making THz device fabrication highly feasible.

This attribute is shown graphically in

Figure 1. Recently, experimental field effect

transistor (FET) devices have validated this

figure by demonstrating the first such devices

with a cutoff frequency (f t ) of 300 GHz.

Fmax, Ft (GHz)

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

Carbon-Based Electronics

10 mW, 80% PAE, 20 dB Gain

130 nm CMOS

InP HEMT

InGaAs PHEMT

NextGen GaN

GaN HEMT

10

Power W/mm

Figure 1. Power-frequency space showing the

niche for carbon-based RF devices

-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 1 10

A truly two-dimensional (2D) crystal of graphene

has a number of unusual properties,

which can be exploited in new ways. One

such property is its ambipolar conductivity,

which produces a positive current whether

the device is forward or reverse biased. This

property arises from the unusual symmetry

in the band structure of 2D graphene with

zero bandgap energy and nearly symmetrical

behavior of electrons and holes in

the material.

The ambipolar property is illustrated in

Figure 2, which shows the operation of a

graphene-based FET (GFET) as a frequency

doubler, as demonstrated by Professor

Palacios at MIT [1] and more recently by

J.S. Moon at HRL [2]. In this configuration,

the gate bias of the FET is centered at zero,

Continued on page 48

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 47


Special Interest People

Continued from page 47

and its oscillation produces a positive current

in each half cycle, thus producing twice

the gate frequency in the drain current.

Figure 2. With appropriate biasing of the gate

terminal, a GFET may be used as a frequency

doubler. The inset shows the source drain

current as a function of gate bias, which is

positive regardless of gate bias direction.

The simplicity of this circuit and the GFET

for frequency doubling has further advantages.

The reported conversion efficiency

for this device is greater than 94 percent,

which allows multistage frequency multiplication

without a significant loss in

the output power. Furthermore, the low

frequency noise in a bilayer graphene FET

has been measured and reported [3] to be

unusually low compared with other semiconductors,

which translates to low phase

noise at operating frequencies [2].

Raytheon has numerous applications for

frequency multipliers as well as other RF

devices such as amplifiers, mixers, rectifiers

and detectors that operate efficiently across

the entire frequency spectrum. Carbonbased

GFETs have the potential to support

advanced systems concepts, by opening

up the frequency-power window into the

THz region. •

Abbas Torabi

References:

1. H. Wang, D. Nezich, J. Kong and T. Palacios, IEEE

Electron Device Letters, Vol. 30, No. 5, May 2009.

2. J.S. Moon, D. Curtis, D. Zehnder,S. Kim, D.K. Gaskill,

G.G. Jernigan, R.L. Myers-Ward, C.R. Eddy, Jr., P.M.

Campbell, K.-M. Lee, and P. Asbeck, IEEE Electron

Device Letters, Early Access, Jan 2011.

3. Yu-Ming and Phaedon Avouris, Nano Lett., Vol. 8 No.

8, 2008.

48 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Raytheon Certified Architects

The Raytheon Certified Architect Program (RCAP) is a companywide certification program to ensure

a continuing pipeline of outstanding systems and enterprise architects. RCAP was launched in 2004

and includes requirements for architecture standards-based training, external architect certifications,

leadership and communication skills, architecture practitioner experience, system life-cycle

experience, mentoring, and contributions to the architecture discipline. In 2009, Raytheon received

accreditation from The Open Group, a vendor- and technology-neutral consortium focused on open

standards and global interoperability within and between enterprises.

Ron Williamson

Sr. Engineering

Fellow

Network Centric

Systems

An early introduction

to math, science

and technology

in high school led

Ron Williamson

to a lifetime interest in applying new technical

ideas to solving interesting problems. He

recently applied that interest as Raytheon’s

chief architect and common services integrated

product team lead on the Energy Surety and

Environment Enterprise Campaign.

Williamson has worked in several domains

during his 30-year career, including enterprise

architecture, distributed systems integration,

information and knowledge exploitation,

sensor processing, intelligence systems, modeling

and simulation, model-based systems

and software engineering. He has supported

analysis and development efforts for several

Raytheon customers, including NASA, the

U.S. Department of Defense and the Defense

Advanced Research Projects Agency.

He has performed several roles within Raytheon,

including Mission Systems Integration technology

area director and Energy Surety chief

architect. He has also taken leadership roles in

several standards efforts related to enterprise

and systems modeling for infrastructure related

systems, complex distributed C4I systems, and

large-scale systems integration.

Williamson’s advice to others reflects his own

successful approach to his career. “Take on a

proactive leadership role at whatever level you

are at in the organization,” he said. “Continue

learning and stay abreast of the state-of-theart

technologies in your discipline, and find

innovative ways of applying the technologies to

solving your customers’ problems.”

Bob Gerard

Engineering Fellow

Network Centric

Systems

From growing

up on a farm to

working on small

project teams at the

start of his career,

Bob Gerard learned early on the importance

of “owning” a project. His focus on making

his assigned work successful, and proactively

addressing issues that arise in other parts of

a project led to his chosen career working in

system integration, enterprise architecture,

command and control, interoperability and

communications.

As interoperable, internetworked systems

have become the norm — with command and

control systems often serving a key integration

role — he has applied his experience to create

innovative solutions for many cross-company

projects and investments. A 32-year Raytheon

veteran, Gerard recently served as microgrid

team lead for Raytheon’s Energy Surety and

Environment Enterprise Campaign, where he

was responsible for coordinating cross-company

research and development in integrated

energy systems and models.

According to Gerard, the microgrid team’s

work made important contributions not only

to Raytheon, but also to customers’ missions.

Microgrid technology improves assurance of

required power when and where it’s needed;

decreases energy costs; and reduces the logistics

burden in a battlefield environment, where

warfighters risk their lives to make fuel deliveries.

“Contributing my vision and unique talent

to support customers’ missions is exciting to

me,” Gerard said.

Gerard advises new employees to take a proactive

approach to the success of Raytheon and its

customers. “Develop skills and take initiative

in areas that will contribute most, and go the

extra mile when it’s needed.”


The latest revision of Raytheon's

Integrated Product Development

System — version 3.4 — became

available in June 2010. Key changes to

IPDS improve program planning and the

early design process. They provide a better

understanding of the program’s design

technology and its manufacturing processes

prior to a customer making a decision on

the program award. These changes result in

programs that can be completed within the

U.S. government’s budget and schedule.

IPDS integrates best-practice processes and

lessons learned for capturing and managing

programs, as well as for developing

and producing products. IPDS contains

the standard Raytheon integrated product

development process (IPDP) along with supporting

enablers used to provide proven

methodology and process steps to assure

the integrity of Raytheon’s products. IPDS

maintains compliance with ISO (AS9100),

Capability Maturity Model ® Integration

(CMMI ® ), Raytheon Mission Assurance

provisions, Department of Defense

Instruction (DoDI) 5000.02, and other

military standards.

Focus on Business Planning

The early program development and capture

activities of IPDS, known as Stage 1,

is owned by Business Development (BD).

Stage 1 focuses on strategy and technology

development planning, customer-focused

marketing, opportunity validation, capture

planning and win strategy development. It

includes proposal planning and development,

proposal submittal, clarifications, and

contract awards.

Through Stage 1, Raytheon capture teams

develop the following:

• Win strategy package.

• Decision packages for Gates -1 through

Gate 4.

• Key trade-offs.

• Technical approaches.

• Comprehensive proposal volumes.

Stage 1 is key to business planning in both

strategy and execution.

An Increased Emphasis on Engineering

in Stage 1

With the release of the most recent DoDI

5000.02, the DoD requires more government

engineering work prior to Milestone A.

The DoD found that too many of its major

programs have failed to be executable, and

this is being attributed to a mismatch

between the technical solutions necessary

to meet requirements and the funding/

schedule profiles. In the past, virtually all

activities during Stage 1 were performed by

BD with very little engineering participation.

These recent changes have engineering involved

from the very beginning of business

planning and execution.

Raytheon now provides engineering analysis

support very early in the evaluation phase,

even before a program decision is made.

To facilitate this, IPDS Version 3.4, which

was officially released in June, and the newest

revision of BD’s Winning New Business

Guide from October 2010, define the

engineering participation and product

outputs for Stage 1.

Technology assessments are now part of

Stage 1. This is done so the maturity of a

design technology can be assessed and

the maturity of the planned manufacturing

processes can be evaluated before cost and

schedule are fully defined and committed

to. This provides greater assurance that

programs are completed within the government’s

budget and schedule because fewer

unknowns are encountered.

Resources

IPDS 3.4 for Engineers: The Right Way to Start a Program

Integrated Product Development Process

Stage 1: Business Planning

Strategy/Execution

-1 00 01 02 03 04

05 Stage 2: Program Leadership, Management and Control

11

Stage 3: Requirements and

Architecture Development

06

Stage 4: Design and

In IPDS 3.4, there is a greater

emphasis on Engineering

involvement early in program

Development 07 08

Stage 5: Integration

Verification & Validation

09

Stage 6: Production and

Deployment

10

development.

Stage 7: Operations and Support

Principal Changes to IPDS

The principal changes to IPDS with the release

of Version 3.4 include the following:

• New technology and manufacturing

readiness assessments: In response to

changes in DoDI 5000.02, programs must

evaluate the maturity of the technology

used in the product and the maturity of

the manufacturing processes used in production

for developing actions in order to

advance the maturity and improve the life

cycle (from proposal to execution).

• Improved alignment to DoD customers’

mission needs: Creating engineering

work products earlier in the process.

• New requirement to review relevant

lessons learned before gate reviews.

• New connection between IPDS and the

Raytheon Lessons Learned Solution tool.

• Enhanced access to business-specific assets.

• Improved usability for each of the

Engineering disciplines.

• Additional early work products developed

by the customer (now required by DoD

directive) used as inputs to Stage 1.

• Engineering outputs/activities added to

capture/proposal efforts (Stage 1) in order

to improve bidding and to better tie

proposal efforts to start-up efforts.

• A new performance-based logistics thread.

• Reorganized DoD customer reviews.

This new release reflects improvements to

enhance connectivity, alignment, protection

and usability of the IPDS system. •

Corey Daniels

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 49


Events

Raytheon Principal Fellows Called Upon to Identify

Disruptive Technologies

50 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

Raytheon’s Technology Leadership

Council held its annual Fellows

Workshop in September. Principal

engineering fellows were invited to address

three main objectives:

1) Provide an independent assessment of

Raytheon’s technical status and competitive

position in the various technology

focus areas identified as key to

Raytheon’s continued business success.

2) Identify potentially disruptive technologies

that might have a profound impact

on Raytheon’s customers and future

business.

3) Discuss the role of the principal fellow

within Raytheon.

In addition, this forum provided a unique

opportunity for principal fellows from the

various Raytheon businesses to interact and

form cross-business relationships.

This was the second meeting held to tap the

unique knowledge and perspective of the 140

principal fellows (within the top 0.5 percent

of engineers). These engineers have distinguished

themselves as national experts in a

broad set of technical disciplines. The depth

of their knowledge and their external industry

relationships provide special insight.

During the meeting, the fellows nominated

those technologies that they thought

disruptive. Using “mind mapping” they

filled eight walls — covering 250 feet

— with ideas of the most disruptive technologies

that may happen over the next five

to 10 years. The identified technologies will

be used in planning to ensure that Raytheon

remains a thought leader positioned to

provide advanced technology solutions.

The fellows also completed the Innovation

Strengths Preference Indicator (ISPI),

which measures a person’s innovation and

interaction styles.

We found that 31 percent of the engineering

fellows are “pingers.“ Pingers have high

scores on ideation and risk. They also freely

connect ideas in different domains, finding

relationships that may remain invisible to

others. These attributes were exemplified as

the fellows worked to identify the top 10

most disruptive technologies. The groups

with pingers described potential uses of

technologies that were not apparent to

other groups.

The results of this workshop are being used

to shape Raytheon’s technical strategy and

have spawned numerous new research

projects across the company. •

Michael Vahey


Raytheon’s Engineering Technology

Networks symposia have again provided

one of the most successful

sources of technology knowledge exchange

and employee networking available to the

engineering communities at the company.

Mission Systems Integration (MSI) is the

process of creating an integrated solution

that meets a customer need. The Mission

Systems Integration Technology Network

hosted its 2010 symposium, in August

2010 at the Marriott Long Wharf in Boston,

Mass. to collaborate on technologies that

enable and support MSI. More than 350

Raytheon employees attended the event

themed, “Successful MSI Pursuit, Capture

and Execution.” The symposium addressed

Events

Mission Systems Integration

Technology Network Symposium

the questions: “What has been done, what’s

being done, and how can I help the company

become a more successful Mission Systems

Integrator?” Keynote speakers were William

Kiczuk, Raytheon vice president and chief

technology officer, and Brian Wells, Raytheon

vice president, corporate Engineering.

Four days were filled with events consisting

of 150 presentations in five technical tracks

(customer focus, mission assurance, mission

support, innovation and technologies, and

essential practices), several panel sessions,

and numerous workshops, tutorials, engaging

technology displays and exhibits. Being

a truly global technical collaboration, the

symposium included the participation of

Raytheon’s international employees.

Last year’s warfighter panel proved such a

success, the planning committee repeated

it. A six-member panel of Raytheon employees

who had retired from their military

careers answered questions to help the

audience understand the warfighter’s world

and the importance of Raytheon’s products

and support. •

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 51


U.S. Patents

Issued to Raytheon

At Raytheon, we encourage people to work on

technological challenges that keep America

strong and develop innovative commercial

products. Part of that process is identifying and

protecting our intellectual property. Once again,

the U.S. Patent Office has recognized our

engineers and technologists for their contributions

in their fields of interest. We compliment

our inventors who were awarded patents

from July through December 2010.

MIChAEL J hIRSCh

7653513 sensor registration by global optimization procedures

GARY A FRAzIER

7839226 method and apparatus for effecting stable operation of

resonant tunneling diodes

JAY OChTERbECK, bYRON E ShORT JR

7841392 method and apparatus for controlling temperature

gradients within a structure being cooled

YuRI OWEChKO, DAVID Shu

7826870 system and method for separating signals received by an

overloaded antenna array

PREMJEET ChAhAL, FRANCIS J MORRIS

7859658 thin micropolarizing filter, and a method for making it

bORIS S JACObSON, JACquELINE M bOuRGEOIS

7825536 intelligent power system

ShARON A ELSWORTh, MARVIN I FREDbERG,

ThAD FREDERICKSON, WILLIAM h FOSSEY JR,

STuART PRESS

7767296 high strength, long durability strutural fabric/seam

system

JAMES SMALL

7801448 wireless communication system with high efficiency/high

power optical source

ANDY Chu, ELENA ShERMAN, ThOMAS STANFORD,

WELDON WILLIAMSON

7849524 apparatus and method for controlling temperature with

a multimode heat pipe element

RANDY C bARNhART, CRAIG S KLOOSTERMAN,

MELINDA C MILANI, DONALD V SChNAIDT,

STEVEN TALCOTT

7773551 data handling in a distributed communication network

bORIS S JACObSON

7839201 integrated smart power switch

ChuNGTE ChEN, LACY G COOK

7813644 optical device with a steerable light path

MARY ONEILL, GREGORY PIERCE,

WILLIAM h WELLMAN

7807951 imaging sensor system with staggered arrangement of

imaging detector subelements, and method for locating a position

of a feature in a scene

ANThONY O LEE, ChRISTOPhER ROTh,

PhILIP C ThERIAuLT

7760449 adjustable optical mounting

DAVID J CANICh, DAVID D CROuCh,

KENNETh A NICOLES, ALAN RATTRAY

7800538 power combining and energy radiating system

and method

ALFRED SORVINO, hILARIO A TEJEDA,

RANDY J ThOMPSON

7779529 method of coupling a device to a mating part

DAVID LAND

7814833 detonator system having linear actuator

TROY ROCKWOOD

7849185 system and method for attacker attribution in a network

security system

PREMJEET ChAhAL

7825005 multiple substrate electrical circuit device

TERRY ChACON, ALLAN R TOPP

7761317 optimized component selection for project completion

52 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

ROGER W GRAhAM, JOhN CAuLFIELD

7800672 unit cell compression circuit and method

ALExANDER A bETIN, KALIN SPARIOSu

7760789 high energy solid-state laser with offset pump and

extraction geometry

DEEPAK KhOSLA, ThOMAS SCOTT NIChOLS

7757595 method and apparatus for optimal resource allocation

ALbERT EzEKIEL, NADER KhATIb

7787657 SAR ATR tree line extended operating condition

ThEODORE b bAILEY

7777207 methods and apparatus for presenting images

ARThuR SChNEIDER

7795567 guided kinetic penetrator

ERIK A FJERSTAD

7765885 gear drive system and method

ELAINE E SEASLY, zAChARIAh A SEASLY

7784477 system and method for automated non-contacting

cleaning

ALExANDER A bETIN, VLADIMIR V ShKuNOV

7800819 laser amplifier power extraction enhancement system

and method

DAVID D hESTON, JON MOONEY

7755222 method system for high power switching

STANLEY J POREDA, PETER TINKER

7818120 route planning interaction navigation system

RONALD RIChARDSON, KuANG-Yuh Wu

7817099 broadband ballistic resistant radome

RONALDO bAJuYO, bENJAMIN GALANTI,

ARMANDO GuERRERO, DAVID hOWARD,

JuSTIN STuEhRENbERG

7850123 methods and apparatus for a cable retractor

GEORGE WEbER

7765356 data modifying bus buffer

KAIChIANG ChANG, JEFFREY R hOLLEY,

LANDON L ROWLAND, DANIEL F RYPYSC,

MIChAEL G SARCIONE

7808427 method and apparatus for dual band polarization

versatile active electronically scanned lens array

MIChAEL R JOhNSON, bRuCE E PEOPLES

7853555 enhancing multilingual data querying

WILLIAM E hOKE, ThEODORE KENNEDY

7776152 method for continuous, in situ evaluation of entire wafers

for macroscopic features during epitaxial growth

JOSEPh C PERKINSON

7751212 methods and apparatus for three-phase rectifier with

lower voltage switches

MIChAEL C bARR, RObERT C hON,

MIChAEL h KIEFFER, KENNETh PRICE,

MIChAEL J RAMIREz, JuLIAN A ShRAGO

7779640 low vibration cryocooler

ANDREW b FACCIANO, GREGG J hLAVACEK,

RObERT T MOORE

7819048 separable structure material

ALExANDER A bETIN, KALIN SPARIOSu

7860142 laser with spectral converter

ChRIS E GESWENDER

7851733 methods and apparatus for missile air inlet

GEOFF hARRIS, DANIEL MITChELL, bOb SCOTT

7768708 light source having spatially interleaved light beams

ERIC C FEST, REx M KREMER

7777188 sensor system and support structure

WILLIAM D FARWELL

7795927 digital circuits with adaptive resistance to single

event upset

TIMOThY D KEESEY, KENNETh M WEbb

7795927 array antenna with embedded subapertures

CAROLYN b bOETTChER, MARK ChAVIRA,

hAMID KARIMI

7756631 method for realtime scaling of vehicle routing problem

ThOMAS R bLACKbuRN

7872215 methods and apparatus for guiding a projectile

DARIN S WILLIAMS

7762683 optical device with tilt and power microlenses

RObERT S bRINKERhOFF, JAMES M COOK,

RIChARD D LOEhR, MIChAEL J MAhNKEN

7851732 system and method for attitude control of a flight vehicle

using pitch-over thrusters

JONAThAN LYNCh

7773292 variable cross-coupling partial reflector and method

JOhN A COGLIANDRO, hENRY FITzSIMMONS

7780060 methods and apparatus for efficiently generating profiles

for circuit board work/rework

JAMES GuILLOChON, DEEPAK KhOSLA

7792598 a sparse sampling planner for sensor

resource management

TIMOThY G bRAuER, KENNETh COLSON

7755050 explosive device detection system and method

JAMES MASON, JAMES S WILSON

7768453 dynamically correcting the calibration of a phased array

antenna system in real time to compensate for changes of array

temperature

ThOMAS E WOOD

7796082 methods and apparatus for log-FTC radar receivers

having enhanced sea clutter model

JOhN bEDINGER, RObERT b hALLOCK,

ThOMAS E KAzIOR, MIChAEL A MOORE,

KAMAL TAbATAbAIE

7767589 passivation layer for a circuit device and method

of manufacture

PATRIC M MCGuIRE

7782246 methods and apparatus for selecting a target from radar

tracking data

EVGENY N hOLMANSKY, bORIS S JACObSON

7839023 methods and apparatus for high frequency three-phase

inverter with reduced energy storage

RObERT M FRIES, STEPhEN R PECK,

PETER D ShLOSS, ShuWu Wu

7768451 methods and apparatus for geometry extra-redundant

almost fixed solutions

MIChAEL F JANIK, IAN KERFOOT,

ARNOLD W NOVICK

7773458 systems and methods for detection and analysis of

amplitude modulation of underwater sound

MIChAEL J FEMAL

7853850 testing hardware components to detect hardware

failures

RObERT F CROMP, JAMES WREN

7783782 dynamic runtime service oriented architecture

TONY ChAN, MARK GERECKE

7773028 method and system for concatenation of radar pulses

DAVID PAYTON

7809630 method and system for prioritizing a bidder in an auction

DANIEL ChASMAN, STEPhEN D hAIGhT

7856806 propulsion system with canted multinozzle grid

CONRAD STENTON

7768686 light-beam-scanning system utilizing counter-rotating

prism wheels

ANDREW b FACCIANO, RIChARD A MCCLAIN JR,

RObERT T MOORE,CRAIG SEASLY,

RAYMOND J SPALL

7800032 detachable aerodynamic missile stabilizing system

IVAN S AShCRAFT, DONALD P bRuYERE,

JOhN b TREECE

7830300 radar imaging system and method using directional

gradient magnitude second moment spatial variance detection

DANIEL CRAWFORD, bRuCE E MORGAN

7775147 dual redundant electro explosive device latch mechanism

ANDREW b FACCIANO, GREGG J hLAVACEK,

RObERT T MOORE, CRAIG SEASLY

7767944 piezoelectric fiber, active damped, composite electronic

housings

SVELTLANA GOuROVA

7751697 glass window for deep underwater exploration

FREDERICK A AhRENS, KENNETh W bROWN

7791536 high power phased array antenna system and method

with low power switching

DELMAR L bARKER, WILLIAM RIChARD OWENS,

AbRAM YOuNG

7825366 methods and systems for extracting energy from a heat

source using photonic crystals with defect cavities

FREDERICK T DAVIDSON, CARLOS E GARCIA,

JAMES SMALL

7798449 method and apparatus for inflight refueling of unmanned

aerial vehicles

LACY G COOK

7763857 infrared imaging optical system with varying focal length

across the field of view


KENNETH W BROWN, DAVID D CROUCH,

VINCENT GIANCOLA

7812263 combined environmental-electromagnetic rotary seal

CLARENCE C ANDRESSEN

7842908 sensor for eye-safe and body-fixed semi-active

laser guidance

BLAISE ROBITAILLE

7821708 method and apparatus for illuminating a reticle

THOMAS E WOOD, PAUL R WORK

7750840 method and apparatus for assessing contact clusters

GRAHAM C DOOLEY

7755532 methods and apparatus for assignment and maintenance

of unique aircraft address for TIS-B service

DOUGLAS BROWN, GEOFF HARRIS,

DANIEL MITCHELL

7800756 method and apparatus for analyzing coatings on

curved surfaces

CHUL J LEE, AXEL R VILLANUEVA

7750842 parallel processing to generate radar signatures for

multiple objects

ANTHONY GALAITSIS

7767301 heterogeneous lyophobic system for accumulation,

retrieval and dissipation of energy

CRAIG BRADFORD, MARC A BROWN, FRANK HITZKE,

WILLIAM E KOMM, MICHAEL W LITTLE,

DOMENIC F NAPOLITANO, DAVID A SHARP,

DOUGLAS VEILLEUX II

7837525 autonomous data relay buoy

K. BUELL, JIYUN C IMHOLT, MATTHEW A MORTON

7773033 multilayer metamaterial isolator

JOSEPH R ELLSWORTH, JOSEPH LICCIARDELLO,

STEPHEN J PEREIRA, ANGELO M PUZELLA

7859835 method and apparatus for thermal management of a

radio frequency system

STEPHEN JACOBSEN, MICHAEL MORRISON,

SHANE OLSEN

7779863 pressure control valve having an assymetric

valving structure

STEPHEN JACOBSEN

7845440 serpentine robotic crawler

MIRON CATOIU, RICK MCKERRACHER

7791413 linearizing technique for power amplifiers

JOHN P BETTENCOURT

7852136 bias network

CONRAD STENTON

7821695 method and apparatus for positioning a focused beam

DOUGLAS BROWN, GERARD DESROCHES,

GEOFF HARRIS, DANIEL MITCHELL,

CONRAD STENTON

7796338 method and apparatus for optical bandpass filtering, and

varying the filter bandwith

DAVID G JENKINS, BYRON B TAYLOR

7786418 multimode seeker system with rf transparent stray

light baffles

MICHAEL GUBALA, KAPRIEL V KRIKORIAN,

ROBERT A ROSEN

7821619 rapid scan ladar 3-d imaging with compact digital

beam formation

STEPHEN E BENNETT, CHRIS E GESWENDER,

CESAR SANCHEZ, MATTHEW A ZAMORA

7819061 smart fuze guidance system with replaceable

fuze module

DONALD R HOUSER, ROBERT J SCHALLER,

WILLIAM J SCHMITT, MICHAEL SNYDER,

ANTHONY K TYREE

7773027 all-digital line-of-sight (LOS) processor architecture

PATRICK HOGAN, RALPH KORENSTEIN,

JOHN MCCLOY, CHARLES WILLINGHAM JR

7790072 treatment method for optically transmissive bodies

EDWARD H CAMPBELL

7802048 smart translator box for agm-65 aircraft maverick analog

interface to mil-std-1760 store digital interface

DELMAR L BARKER, MEAD MASON JORDAN,

W. HOWARD POISL

7837905 reinforced filament with doubly-embedded nanotubes

and method of manufacture

STEPHEN E BENNETT, CHRIS E GESWENDER, CESAR

SANCHEZ, MATTHEW A ZAMORA

7849797 projectile with telemetry communication and

proximity sensing

DARIN S WILLIAMS

7767945 absolute time encoded semi-active laser designation

KENTON VEEDER, JOHN L VAMPOLA

7812755 signal processor with analog residue

RAYMOND SAMANIEGO

7764220 synthetic aperture radar incorporating height filtering for

use with land

JOHN P BETTENCOURT, MICHAEL S DAVIS,

VALERY S KAPER, JEFFREY R LAROCHE,

KAMAL TABATABAIE

7834456 electrical contacts for CMOS devices and III-V devices

formed on a silicon substrate

ANDREW K BROWN, KENNETH W BROWN

7843273 millimeter wave monolithic integrated circuits and

methods of forming such integrated circuits

DELMAR L BARKER, WILLIAM RICHARD OWENS

7837813 stimulated emission release of chemical energy stored in

stone-wales defect pairs in carbon nanostructures

DAVID A ROCKWELL, VLADIMIR V SHKUNOV

7860360 monolithic signal coupler for high-aspect ratio

solid-state gain media

MICHAEL BRENNAN, EDWARD DEZELICK,

LUIS GIRALDO, BRETT GOLDSTEIN, MICHAEL

MILLSPAUGH, JOHN RYAN, MICHAEL W RYAN,

ROBERT WALLACE

7814822 device and method for controlled breaching of

reinforced concrete

International

Patents Issued to Raytheon

Titles are those on the U.S.-filed patents; actual titles on

foreign counterparts are sometimes modified and not

recorded. While we strive to list current international

patents, many foreign patents issue much later than

corresponding U.S. patents and may not yet be reflected.

AUSTRALIA

RICHARD LAPALME

2003238262 method and apparatus for intelligent information

retrieval

EDWARD I HOLMES, PRISCO TAMMARO

2006323213 radiation limiting opening for a structure

BARBARA E PAUPLIS

2006344710 calibration method for receive only phased array

radar antenna

PHILLIP ROSENGARD

2005322096 system and method for adaptive query identification

and acceleration

ARTHUR SCHNEIDER

2006232995 guided kinetic penetrator

JAMES H ROONEY III, JESSE GRATKE,

RYAN LEWIS, MICHAEL F JANIK, JAMES MILLER,

THOMAS B PEDERSON, WILLIAM C ZURAWSKI

2006306650 sonar system and method providing low probability

of impact on marine mammals

JOHN A COGLIANDRO, JOHN MOSES

2007250001 method and apparatus for capture and sequester

of carbon dioxide and extraction of energy from large land masses

during and after extraction of hydrocarbon fuels or contaminants

using energy and critical fluids

PATRICK M KILGORE

2007345299 system and method for adaptive non-uniformity

compensation for a focal plane array

AUSTRALIA, FRANCE, GERMANY, UK

ANDREW B FACCIANO, GREGG J HLAVACEK,

ROBERT T MOORE, CRAIG SEASLY

2007307309 composite missile nose cone

AUSTRALIA, TAIWAN

THOMAS E WOOD

2007259418 hostile intention assessment system and method

CANADA

JOSEPH M CROWDER, PATRICIA S DUPUIS,

GARY P KINGSTON, KENNETH S KOMISAREK,

ANGELO M PUZELLA

2481438 embedded planar circulator

STANLEY J POREDA

2483013 multiple approach time domain spacing aid display

system and related techniques

KAPRIEL V KRIKORIAN, ROBERT A ROSEN

2605976 technique for compensation of transmit leakage in

radar receiver

REZA TAYRANI, JONATHAN D GORDON

2577791 broadband microwave amplifier

RICHARD O’SHEA

2606892 flexible optical rf receiver

TIMOTHY CLAUSNER, PHILLIP KELLMAN,

EVAN PALMER

2474831 system and method for representation of aircraft altitude

using spatial size and other natural perceptual cues

CANADA, ISREAL

DAVID A CORDER, JEFFREY H KOESSLER,

GEORGE R WEBB

2581212 air-launchable aircraft and method of use

CANADA, JAPAN

RICHARD M LLOYD

4588769 warhead with aligned projectiles

RICHARD M LLOYD

2588779 munition

CHINA

JOHN P BETTENCOURT

ZL200680044799.8 thermoelectric bias voltage generator

CHINA, JAPAN

JAMES BALLEW, GARY R EARLY

ZL200510087806.X high performance computing system

and method

DENMARK, FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY,

NETHERLANDS, SWEDEN

LOUIS LUH, KEH-CHUNG WANG

1941613 comparator with resonant tunneling diodes

DENMARK, FRANCE, GERMANY, JAPAN,

NETHERLANDS, SPAIN, SWEDEN

KAPRIEL V KRIKORIAN, JAR J LEE,

IRWIN NEWBERG, ROBERT A ROSEN,

STEVEN R WILKINSON

1561259 optically frequency generated scanned active array

FRANCE, GERMANY, GREECE, ITALY,

NETHERLANDS, UK

JOSEPH M CROWDER, PATRICIA S DUPUIS,

MICHAEL C FALLICA, JOHN B FRANCIS,

JOSEPH LICCIARDELLO, ANGELO M PUZELLA

2070159 tile sub-array and related circuits and techniques

BORIS S JACOBSON

1782525 method and apparatus for converting power

FRANCE, GERMANY, HONG KONG, UK

SHANNON DAVIDSON, ROBERT J PETERSON

1594057 system and method for computer cluster virtualization

using dynamic boot images and virtual disk

FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY, SPAIN, SWEDEN, UK

HAROLD FENGER, MARK S HAUHE,

CLIFTON QUAN, KEVIN C ROLSTON, TSE E WONG

1704618 circuit board assembly and method of attaching a chip to

a circuit board with a fillet bond not covering RF traces

FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY, SPAIN, TURKEY, UK

STEPHEN JACOBSEN, TOMASZ J PETELENZ

2156197 digital wound detection system

FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY, SPAIN, UK

JON N LEONARD, JAMES SMALL

1673622 mass spectrometer for entrained particles, and method

for measuring masses of the particles

DONALD PRICE, GARY SCHWARTZ,

WILLIAM G WYATT

1610077 a method and system for cooling

FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY, SWEDEN, UK

ALDON L BREGANTE, RAO RAVURI,

WILLIAM H WELLMAN

1618357 sensor system and method for sensing in an

elevated-temperature environment, with protection against

external heating

FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY, UK

JAMES SMALL

1449229 phased array source of electromagnetic radiation

FRANCE, GERMANY, SPAIN, SWEDEN, UK

CLIFTON QUAN, STEPHEN SCHILLER,

YANMIN ZHANG

1920494 power divider having unequal power division and

antenna array feed network using such unequal power dividers

RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY 2011 ISSUE 1 53


frAnce, germAny, sweden

TAMRAT AKALE, ALLEN WANG

1831954 bandpass filter

frAnce, germAny, sweden, uk

SCOTT T JOhNSON, MIChAEL D RuNYAN,

DAVID T WINSLOW

1492397 heat exchanger

ROMuLO J bROAS, WILLIAM hENDERSON,

RObERT T LEWIS, RALSTON S RObERTSON

1831958 transverse device array radiator ESA

CLIFTON quAN, STEPhEN SChILLER,

YANMIN zhANG

1886376 attenuator circuit comprising a plurality of quarter wave

transformers and lump element resistors

frAnce, germAny, turkey, uk

ThEODORE b bAILEY

1877996 methods and apparatus for presenting images

frAnce, germAny, uk

TERESA R RObINSON, GORDON R SCOTT

1476916 device for directing energy, and a method of

making same

DELMAR L bARKER, hARRY SChMITT,

NITESh N ShAh

1652194 high density storage of excited positronium using

photonic bandgap traps

ChRISTOPhER FLETChER, DAVID GuLbRANSEN

1595119 multi-mode high capacity dual integration direct

injection detector input circuit

JOhN S ANDERSON, ChuNGTE ChEN

1618423 compact wide-field-of-view imaging optical system

RObERT E LEONI

1829249 optical link

ERIK A FJERSTAD

1999004 gear drive system and method

JAVIER GARAY, qING JIANG, JON N LEONARD,

CENGIz OzKAN, hAO xIN

1991724 particle encapsulated nanoswitch

JAMES bALLEW, ShANNON DAVIDSON

2100224 computer storage system

STEPhEN JACObSEN

2086821 versatile endless track for lightweight mobile robots

hOWARD S NuSSbAuM, WILLIAM P POSEY

1314049 DDS spur mitigation in a high performance radar exciter

WILLIAM E hOKE, KATERINA huR,

REbECCA A MCTAGGART

1210736 double-recessed transistor

frAnce, itAly, sweden, uk

KWANG ChO

1503223 estimation and correction of phase for focusing search

mode SAR images formed by range migration algorithm

germAny, netherlAnds, uk

JOhN P SChAEFER

1597614 high precision mirror, and a method of making it

isrAel

PhILLIP ROSENGARD

162867 satellite link ATM cell header compression

DELMAR L bARKER, DENNIS bRAuNREITER,

DAVID J KNAPP, ALPhONSO A SAMuEL,

hARRY SChMITT, STEPhEN SChuLTz

161127 far field emulator for antenna calibration

KuRT S KETOLA, ALAN L KOVACS,

JACquES LINDER, MATThEW PETER

166111 dielectric interconnect frame incorporating emi shield and

hydrogen absorber for tile T/R modules

JEFF G CAPARA, LAWRENCE D SObEL

157123 microelectronic system with integral cyrocooler, and its

fabrication and use

MARK KuSbEL, GARY SALVAIL, ChAD WANGSVICK

159987 isolating signal divider/combiner and method of

combining signals of first and second frequencies

LACY G COOK

161179 compact four-mirror anastigmat telescope

quENTEN E DuDEN, JAMES h GOTTLIEb,

WAYNE L SuNNE

166915 form factored compliant metallic transition element for

attaching a ceramic element to a metallic element

54 2011 ISSUE 1 RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGY TODAY

ALExANDER A bETIN, RObERT W bYREN,

WILLIAM GRIFFIN

162782 laser cooling apparatus and method

LARRY G KRAuSE

165419 system and method for detection of image edges using a

polar algorithm process

MILTON bIRNbAuM, KALIN SPARIOSu

172235 gain boost with synchronized multiple wavelength

pumping in a solid-state laser

ANDREW K bROWN, KENNETh W bROWN,

JAMES R GALLIVAN, PhILIP STARbuCK

174727 millimeter-wave area-protection system and method

KEITh MYERS, EDWARD J WARKOMSKI

173570 system and method with adaptive angle-of-attack

autopilot

JOSEPh MIYAMOTO, JOE A ORTIz,

FRANK h WANG

172874 method for input current regulation and active-power

filter with input voltage feedforward and output load feedforward

GARY A FRAzIER

176516 method and apparatus for effecting high-frequency

amplification or oscillation

LARRY DAYhuFF, GEORGE OLLOS III

165658 sigma delta modulator

WILLIAM JENNINGS, ALbERT PAYTON

148488 heat conducting device for providing a thermal path

between a circuit board and an airframe

isrAel, jApAn

GEORGE A bLAhA, RIChARD DRYER,

ChRIS E GESWENDER, ANDREW J hINSDALE

176611 2-D projectile trajectory correction system and method

jApAn

RObERT ALLISON, JAR J LEE, RObERT LOO,

CLIFTON quAN, bRIAN PIERCE, JAMES SChAFFNER

4564000 low cost 2-D electronically scanned array with compact

CTS feed and MEMS phase shifters

RObERT ALLISON, JAR J LEE, CLIFTON quAN,

bRIAN PIERCE

4563996 wideband 2-D electronically scanned array with compact

CTS feed and MEMS phase shifters

KAIChIANG ChANG, ShARON A ELSWORTh,

MARVIN I FREDbERG, PETER h ShEAhAN

4620664 radome with polyester-polyarylate fibers and a method

of making same

JAMES FLORENCE, PAuL KLOCEK

4607595 method and apparatus for switching optical signals with

a photon band gap device

JOSEPh F bORChARD, CRAIG bROOKS,

JOhN P SChAEFER, ChARLES STALLARD,

DEuARD V WORThEN

4563681 precisely aligned lens structure and a method for its

fabrication

STEPhEN KERNER, CLIFTON quAN,

RAquEL z ROKOSKY

4571638 Embedded RF vertical interconnect for flexible conformal

antenna

ShARON A ELSWORTh, MARVIN I FREDbERG, ThAD

FREDERICKSON, WILLIAM h FOSSEY JR,

STuART PRESS

4571638 high strength, long durability strutural fabric/seam

system

DARYL ELAM

4540483 method for locating and tracking communication units in

a synchronous wireless communication system

DOuGLAS ANDERSON, JOSEPh F bORChARD,

WILLIAM h WELLMAN

4589309 monolithic lens/reflector optical component

ALExANDER A bETIN, RObERT W bYREN,

RObIN A REEDER

4620122 phase conjugate laser and method with improved fidelity

FREDERICK DINAPOLI

4629727 method and system for swimmer denial

RIChARD M LLOYD

4585006 kinetic energy rod warhead with projectile spacing

PRASAD AKKAPEDDI, ChARLES MCGLYNN

4536986 method and apparatus for performing cell analysis based

on simultaneous multiple marker emissions from neoplasia

JOhN C COChRAN, JAMES W FLOOR,

JOhN G hANLEY, WILLIAM POzzO

4582915 systems and methods for passive pressure-compensation

for acoustic transducers

JAMES L LANGSTON, JAMES MARTIN

4582908 wireless communication using an airborne

switching node

WILLIAM CROASDALE

4563410 photonic buoy

FRITz STEuDEL

4545320 radar system having spoofer, blanker and canceller

JAMES SMALL

4567292 sparse-frequency waveform radar system and method

JOhN J ANAGNOST, P KIuNKE

4550347 system and method for controlling the attitude of

a spacecraft

jApAn, singApore

JAMES FLORENCE, CLAY E TOWERY

4550817 electronic firearm sight, and method of operating same

netherlAnds

STACY E DAVIS, TIMOThY R hEbERT,

RObERT WELSh

2003074 rotary connector providing electromagnetic interference

shielding features

new zeAlAnd

MIChAEL bRENNAN, bENJAMIN DOLGIN,

LuIS GIRALDO, JOhN hILL III, DAVID KOCh,

MARK LOMbARDO, JORAM ShENhAR

546045 drilling apparatus, method, and system

russiAn federAtion

GEORGE A bLAhA, ChRIS E GESWENDER,

ShAWN b hARLINE

2395783 missile with odd symmetry tail fins

singApore

JuSTIN STuEhRENbERG

152712 methods and apparatus for a cable retractor to prevent

cable damage after connector release

south koreA

MIChAEL J DELChECCOLO, MARK E RuSSELL,

LuIS VIANA, WALTER G WOODINGTON

10-0981267 back-up aid indicator

KWANG ChO, LEO h huI

10-0989005 efficient autofocus method for swath SAR

ELSA K TONG, COLIN S WhELAN

10-0985214 method of forming a self-aligned, selectively etched,

double recess high electron mobility transistor

tAiwAn

ELI bROOKNER, DAVID MANOOGIAN,

FRITz STEuDEL

I331225 multiple radar combining for increased range, radar

sensitivity and angle accuracy

PhILLIP A COx, JAMES FLORENCE

I325951 electronic sight for firearm, and method of

operating same

turkey

bLAKE CROWThER, DEAN MCKENNEY,

JAMES P MILLS, SCOTT SPARROLD,

STACY E DAVIS, TIMOThY R hEbERT,

RObERT WELSh

199901890b optical system with a window having a conicoidal

inner surface, and testing of the optical system

united kingdom

STACY E DAVIS, TIMOThY R hEbERT,

RObERT WELSh

2461161 improvements in antenna pedestals

STACY E DAVIS, TIMOThY R hEbERT,

RObERT WELSh

2461162 a portal structure providing electromagnetic interference

shielding features

Raytheon’s Intellectual Property is valuable. If you become

aware of any entity that may be using any of Raytheon’s

proprietary inventions, patents, trademarks, software, data or

designs, or would like to license any of the foregoing, please

contact your Raytheon IP counsel: David Rikkers (IDS),

John J. Snyder (IIS), John Horn (MS), Robin R. Loporchio (NCS

and Corporate), Charles Thomasian (SAS) and Horace St. Julian

(RTSC and NCS).


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“Customer Success Is Our Mission” is a registered trademark of Raytheon Company.

PRAETOR and Raytheon Six Sigma are trademarks of Raytheon Company.

ENERGY STAR is a registered trademark of the Environmental Protection Agency. PowerWorld

is a trademark of PowerWorld Corp. Simulink is a registered trademark of The Mathworks,

Inc. eXtend is a trademark of Imagine That Inc. Silicon Power Cell is a trademark of Lilliputian

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ComplianceVue is a trademark of eIQnetworks, Inc. Wispry is a registered trademark and

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Advantest is a registered trademark and service mark of Advantest Corporation. Panasonic is

a registered trademark of Panasonic Corporation. Maxim is a registered trademark of Maxim

Integrated Products, Inc. MEMtronics is a registered trademark and service mark of MEMtronics

Corporation. Capability Maturity Model and CMMI are registered in the U.S. Patent and

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