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Haiti-earthquake • Jyoti Basu • Maha Kumbh-Haridwar • Profile: Kiran Mazumdar Shaw • Brand icon: ebay • Book review: Stay hungry, Stay foolishVolume 8 Issue 0816 <strong>Feb</strong> –15 March <strong>2010</strong> www.PTeducation.com Rs. 40 The monthly <strong>new</strong>s magazine of the PT education familyEducation:The <strong>new</strong> agencyof changeEducation is increasingly becoming the primary determinant of overalldevelopment in the emerging knowledge economy. What changes doesour present education system demand to attain a winning edge in globalcompetition? This issue of <strong>Preptalk</strong> talks all about this.

ContentsSimplifying knowledge disseminationEditor-in-Chief : Sandeep ManudhaneMarketing and Sales :Manish Saraf - 97555-99509Volume 8. Edition 08.<strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>Editorial Office :4th Floor, Yeshwant Plaza,Opp. Railway Station Indore - 452001Ph : 0731-307 00 00Fax : 0731-3070099E-mail : preptalk@PTeducation.com© 2008 All rights reserved.Reproduction or translation in any language in whole orin parts without permission is prohibited.Articles and contributions – courier or emails – shouldbe addressed toPREP-TALK DEPT., c/o Mr. B. S. Supekar.Unaccepted articles may not be returned.Published by Manish Saraf on behalf ofPTETSL, 4th Floor, Yeshwant Plaza,Opp. Railway Station, Indore 452001.Major <strong>new</strong>s storiesGGGHaiti–earthquake ................................................................... 05Rajapaksa wins elections ...................................................... 07Jyoti Basu: A Visionary Leader ............................................ 14Cover storyGQuality education: needs of modern India ......................... 08Current eventsGGGIndia ........................................................................................ 16World ...................................................................................... 23Business and economy .......................................................... 42PT PanoramaGGMaha Kumbh begins in Haridwar........................................ 30Stem cells: Importance ........................................................ 49ProfilesGGKiran Mazumdar Shaw ......................................................... 32Gautam Singhania ................................................................. 34Disclaimer :The information given in this magazine is true to the bestof our knowledge. However, PT or any of its associateswill not be responsible in any manner for inadvertenterrors that may have crept into this publication. PT doesnot take responsibility for returning unsolicitedpublication material.News in briefGGGIndia ........................................................................................ 66World ...................................................................................... 68Business and economy .......................................................... 70Regulars“ To be a world class training and educationorganisation shaping careers through innovativeproducts and services & the use of humantechnologies. ”GGGGGGGBrand icon: Glaxosmithline.................................................. 36Brand story: Avon .................................................................. 37Opinion................................................................................... 40Brand icon: ebay .................................................................... 41General knowledge ............................................................... 54Business Trivia ...................................................................... 64Book review: Stay hungry, Stay foolish ................................ 72

Dear friends / Ptzens,It’s a rising irreversible tide. There is an emerging consensus within India’sstrong academic community that the nation’s waning, ailing education systemneeds an urgent makeover.Our cover story duly explores a very pertinent topic – Quality education:needs of modern India. It is a daunting task which confronts the growingcommunity of reformers intent upon cleansing the system. We need to understandthat quality education is the best social leveller and passport to gainful employment,affluence and social respect and has to be seriously dealt with.For long, the Indian education system promoted quality at the expense ofexcellence. <strong>Student</strong>s who were brilliant and creative found that they were beingstifled by a rule-bound system that discouraged innovation. Academic freedom wasnon-existent, and attempts at excellence and innovation were slapped down. Butthere is good <strong>new</strong>s. A serious note of this has been taken and now national attentionhas shifted from ritual to real education.Teacher training and upgradation has been the dominant theme for reformingIndian education. A complete revamp of teacher training syllabuses and continuousin-service training is already underway.Right education is the key to our future and it must deploy an array of weapons,from technology to innovations, from virtual teaching to warm – bodied faculty.Technology has entered our classrooms and made them come alive. It should bethe topmost priority of the institutions to ensure that the teachers as well as thestudents are tech savvy. We cannot alienate ourselves from this truth that is for sureand being better armed with the technological skills would definitely mean that weare ready to face a rapidly changing world. The how of learning has to become thewhat of learning.But at the bottom of all this we cannot overlook the crisis in human values.Teaching about character has to become as important as teaching other subject; itwill have to be an integral part of curriculum. Character may not cure all the world’sevils but it will certainly equip students with the skills needed to be responsiblecitizens. By doing so educators would be able to make a difference in the smallenvirons of their part of the world.Manish SarafCOO, PT educationTake Quote“Goals determine what you aregoing to be.”–Julius Erving, Basketball Star“Enjoy the little things, for one dayyou may look back and realize theywere the big things.”–Robert Brault“Almost everything you do willseem insignificant, but it isimportant that you do it.”–Mahatma Gandhi“Start by doing what's necessary;then do what's possible; andsuddenly you are doing theimpossible.”–St. Francis of Assisi, Italian Saint“A well-composed book is a magiccarpet on which we are wafted to aworld that we cannot enter in anyother way.”– Caroline Gordon“It doesn't hurt to be optimistic.You can always cry later.”– Lucimar Santos de Lima“When you betray somebody else,you also betray yourself.”– Isaac Bashevis Singer“Striving for success without hardwork is like trying to harvest whereyou haven't planted.”– David Bly“Don't waste time calculating yourchances of success and failure. Justfix your aim and begin.”– Guan Yin Tzu

Letters to the editorKUDOS PREPTALKThe annual edition of PrepTalk,’Facets’, came as an intellectual treatfor me. The exhaustive list of articlesprovided proved to be of immense helpto me. The fact that this issue came ata time when most of the students werebusy bracing up for the interviewslined up for prestigious B schools wasvery satisfying. The issue had almosteverything one could ask for. It wasvery enriching to go through the mazeof happenings which took place in theyear 2009.Articles like ‘the reverse braindrain, social networking, cloudcomputing were in particular worthreading. The articles by Sandeep Sir,Manas Sir and Varun Sir were veryengrossing. I hope that the PrepTalkteam includes their rich thoughtsevery month. It would do a lot of goodto the students and they would surelybe benefited. I would like to extend mysincere congratulations to theEditorial team of PrepTalk for comingout with a wonderful issue. We all lookforward to savour the intellectualarticles, this magazine always offers.– Rajesh Patidar, IndoreInternet AddictionI solely agree with the viewsexpressed in the article ‘InternetAddiction’. Many parents today areconfronted with this very real andgrowing problem among theirchildren. But little do the childrenrealize that they are neglecting theirfamily and friends, losing track of timewhile online and sacrificing sleep tospend time online. They claim to be apart of a virtual community who sharecommon goals and each day set off ondigital quests in a fantasy worldpeppered with magic, sorcery anddragons galore. There is no doubt thatthe Internet can be an excellentresource for information,communication and entertainment, butthis generation has to learn to draw theline somewhere. Unless they bringsome balance into their lives they wouldbe compromising their future and bothpsychological and physical health withsuch compulsive internet use.– Vivek Jaiswal, AhmedabadSocial Networking: Connecting peopleonlineThe article brought many points onthe fore as far as the benefits of socialnetworking is concerned. It definitelyhelps us to improve our social skills.because socializing via technologyisn't as immediate as face-to-faceinteractions or telephoneconversations, we have a little moretime to think about a situation beforewe can respond. This is an opportunityfor us to experiment with greetings,responses, etc. . Technology is evolvingfaster than ever before. As childrenlearn to adapt to <strong>new</strong> technologies (or<strong>new</strong> applications of existingtechnologies), they will be betterequipped to adapt to futuretechnology. This will help themquickly assess the risks ofcommunicating through these <strong>new</strong>methods and adapt their behavior tomaintain control over their own safety.While online communicationtechnologies increasingly allow forfreeform interaction, socialinteraction can be narrowed (forpurposes of scope and safety).– S. Raman, BangaloreFEEDBACK !Your comments andviews on PrepTalkare needed to helpUs make it better.Which articles did you like?Which columns do youlike to read regularly?Which are the best parts ofthe magazine?Which are not?How to improve?Send feedback to:preptalk@PTeducation.com

Finally, this event once again serves as a reminder tohumanity to step up its mitigation and response plans, formanaging such natural disasters. In India too, the countrydivided into four zones denoting various levels of seismic activityprobability, several major metropolitan centres – Delhi, Kolkata,Chennai, Mumbai, Ahmedabad, to name a few – lie in areas ofmoderate or higher risk.The loss in terms of life and property, due to an earthquake,in densely populated areas is devastating.signs of recovery. An earthquake of this intensity strikes at thevery infrastructure of the country. A jammed airport, a smashedseaport and roads littered with rubble have led to food packetsand life saving assistance being held up at the airport. This hasfurther fuelled anger and despair among survivors as they waitfor relief measures to reach them.No guesses can be made as to how long the country will beable to pull itself out of this humanitarian disaster of staggeringproportions. Haiti's shell-shocked government has given theUnited States control over its main airport to bring order to aidflights from around the world and speed relief to theimpoverished Caribbean nation.The following measures should be taken to upgradethe level of preparednessEarthquake-resistant construction should be mademandatoryThe number of institutions in the country offeringtraining in earthquake engineering or integrating itwith civil engineering should be increased.Existing regulations should be enforced strictly.Disaster management plans should be created andresponse bodies from the local level to the centralshould be created.Better building codes should be developed.The relevant administrative machinery should bestreamlined with funding and jurisdiction clearlydemarcated.Public should be educated and awareness programs forequipping people with the necessary skills to deal withdisasters should be undertaken.Seismograph – An Instrument Used to Measure the Magnitude of EarthQuakeAn instrument or a sensor that senses the motions of the outer crust of the earth is known as seismograph. Seismograph hassensors to record the ground motion, of the earth, caused by seismic waves. The sensor is known as seismometer. The recordeddata is known as seismogram.Seismogram is used to calculate the magnitude of the earthquake. The scientists use severalseismograms of various seismographs that are placed both close to and far from an earthquake source to calculate and determinethe magnitude of the earthquake. For a given earthquake, the result of the calculations from various seismographs should give thesame magnitude. The seismometers are capable of measuring the ground motion as big as 40 billionth of an inch or as small as 1billionth of a meter.Ritcher ScaleAn Italian seismologist, Guiseppe Mercalli, compiled a scale called Mercalli Scale in the year 1902. This scale relied on theintensity of the damage caused by an earthquake. In 1934, Charles F. Richter, an American seismologist, invented a scale calledRichter to calculate the magnitude of an earthquake. The Richter scale is used to calculate the amplitude of largest and strongestseismic waves. This is scale that is used even today to calculate the magnitude of an earthquake.The Richter calculation of magnitude is based on the logarithmic scale of base 10. The scale is measured in steps one upward.The measurement of each unit is ten times more than the previous unit. For instance, if the magnitude of an earthquake is 7.0 on aRichter scale, it indicates the intensity of the disturbance of the ground motion is 10 times bigger than the earthquake that has themagnitude of 4.0 on the Richter scale.Earthquakes cannot be prevented nor predicted. However, the areas those are prone to the risk of earthquakes can be identified.The materials that can withstand the shocks and the tremors of earthquake should be used to construct buildings in earthquakeprone areas.06 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

Rajapaksa wins electionsMajor <strong>new</strong>s storiesFonseka Wants Foreign ProtectionSri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa, who contestedfor a second term two years ahead of the end of his first,was officially declared elected by the ElectionCommissioner, Dayananda Dissanayake on Jan 27.Mr. Rajapaksa trounced the Opposition consensuscandidate and former Army Chief, retired General SarathFonseka, by a huge margin of over 17 per cent. As per the finalresult notified on the official web site of the island-nation’sDepartment of Elections, Mr. Rajapaksa obtained 6,015,934votes (57.88 per cent) and Gen. Fonseka 4,173,185 votes (40.15per cent). The margin of victory proved the predictions of a closecontest wrong. District-wise results showed that Mr. Rajapaksaretained his enormous rural base and the impact of thecommander- turned-politician was confined to urban pockets,barring Colombo district.A beaming Rajapaksa in his first informal interaction withthe media, outside the office of the Election Commission, saidduring his second stint he would strive for development andreconciliation among the majority Sinhalese and the minorityTamil and Muslim communities as promised in his manifesto.In dramatic events on a tension-filled day when scores ofheavily-armed soldiers surrounded a lake-front luxury hotel incentral Colombo, where 59-year-old Fonseka was staying, thedefeated candidate sought protection from "a neighbouringcountry", apparently India, fearing for his safety.Gen. Fonseka complained of ‘large scale electoralmalpractices’ and said he would ask the Election Commission toannul the result.Democratic People’s Front (DPF) leader Mano Ganesan,after a brief meeting with Gen. Fonseka, told reporters at thehotel that the Opposition would issue a joint statement.The enthusiasm evident among the Opposition leaders forGen. Fonseka till polling day was missing after the verdict. Theyappeared to be embarrassed over the discovery he had notdeemed it necessary to enroll himself as a voter.In response to a question on Gen. Fonseka’s apprehensions,Mr. Rajapaksa asked, “What is his problem? He can always get intouch with me on matters related to his security. After all he wasmy former Army Chief.”Later amidst much cheering and bursting of crackers, hetold a group of party supporters that he would make Sri Lankathe number one destination for investment and tourism. He alsoasked them to gear up for the Parliamentary election scheduledfor April.In his comments at the ceremony to declare the winner, theElection Commissioner said he was disappointed as hisdirectives were not adhered to by the State media and somegovernment department heads during electioneering.Several times in the past the Election Commissioner hadasked the government to relieve him of his responsibilities onhealth grounds.In the presidential polls in 2005, the then Prime MinisterMahinda Rajapaksa, who contested on United Party FreedomAlliance ) ticket, obtained 4,887,162 votes (50.29 per cent)and the United National Party candidate and Oppositionleader, Ranil Wickremesinghe, secured 4,706,366 votes(47.43 per cent). Mr. Wickremesinghe lost mainly due toLTTE leader Velupillai Prabakaran’s diktat to Tamils toboycott the election.PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 07

Cover storyQuality education:needs of modern India‘A quality education has the power to transform societies in a single generation, provide children with theprotection they need from the hazards of poverty, labour exploitation and disease, and give them the knowledge,skills, and confidence to reach their full potential. ’ - Audrey HepburnThe history of education in India is very richand interesting. Education is a way togather knowledge and enrich one’sthought. It is the learning of knowledge,information and skills during the course of life.There is an array of educational opportunity at theinformal level as well as formal level. Educationalways evolves out of historical and culturalcontexts. India's current educational system is aproduct of centuries-old dualities that characterizethe genius and decadence of an ancient butwounded civilization. Education is also visualizedas an evolutionary force so that each individual isenabled to evolve from purely materialconsciousness towards superior planes ofintellectual and spiritual consciousness. Educationis also perceived as a bridge between the past,present, and the future and as a means by which thebest of the heritage is transmitted to the <strong>new</strong>generation for its further progression. India has theworld's oldest and largest education system. Itsantiquity and diversity are reflected in the roots ofcultural norms and institutions that go back to adistant and venerable past.Education has been described as a basic human right since1952. The United Nations` International Covenant onEconomic, Social and Cultural Rights of 1966 guarantees thisright under its Article 13. The Indian subcontinent has a longand rich history of organized education. The History ofEducation in India has its roots in the ancient ages. The systemof Indian education has travelled a long way. Besides thescientific mode of teaching, the relation shared by teachers andstudents is also age old. History of Education in India can betraced back to the ancient era. Historical background of Indianeducation includes the involvement of Vedas, Puranas,Ayurveda, Yoga, Kautilya`s Arthasahtra for the development ofEducation in Modern India.EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIAEducation in Ancient India conforms to the third centuryBC. During that early period, sages and scholars impartededucation orally and after that the introduction of alphabetwriting developed on palm leaves and barks of trees. In additionto that, temples and community centers often took the role ofschools. Gradually the concept of Gurukul System originated.The Gurukul system of education is one of the oldest on earth.Gurukuls were traditional Hindu residential schools of learning.At the Gurukuls, the teacher imparted knowledge of religion,scriptures, philosophy, literature, warfare, statecraft, andmathematics, medicine, astrology and history.08 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

EDUCATION IN MEDIEVAL INDIAEducation in medieval India was the result of fundamentalchanges brought about by rise of Buddhism and Jainism.According to the History of Education in India, in the medievalperiod universities imparting higher education at Nalanda,Takshila, Ujjain, and Vikramshila flourished. During themedieval period, the Mughals came to India and introducedMadrasah system to the Indian educational system. In additionto that the Persian influence was quite visible in the Indianeducation system.EDUCATION IN MODERN INDIAAnother noticeable modification took place during theBritish period. Education in Modern India refers to the period of18th century. The concept of school developed during this era.Every temple, mosque or village in country had schools. Theseschools guided students to read and write, arithmetic, theology,law, astronomy, metaphysics, ethics, medical science andreligion. The style and content of Indian society during the 19thcentury witnessed a radicalchange. Women educationwas introduced andeducational rights became aFundamental Right forcitizens of India.History of Education inIndia proves that the existingeducation system has beenroughly modeled upon theBritish system. The socioeconomicand the politicalcondition of the 19th centurymade the learning andeducation necessary in India.The learning of English andWestern education becameindispensable. However the historians have opined thatprimarily the economic factor was responsible for theintroduction of the English language and the western literature.In British India, a system of education was necessary whichcould help to earn livelihood. Due to these circumstances, theaspects of education became wider in India.Education in modern India gained a whole <strong>new</strong> facet with thepromotion of western education in India which almost inevitablystarted with the coming of the British. The British employed thestrategy of emotional and intellectual colonization in India, toconsolidate the political immigration. It was the affinity of theelite section of Indian society to English culture, ideology andeducation, which facilitated the British to psychologicallyharness the nation’s mindset. British wanted the malleableIndians to learn, speak and believe English and become theshadow of Englishmen. In the Charter of 1833, English wasannounced to be the official language. The advent of Englisheducation in British India was thus a reformation movement ofthe 19th century which provided opportunity for the women andpeople belonging to the lower castes for education. Thus, theBritish is credited for bringing a revolution in the Indianeducation system.The colonial period, from 1757 to 1947, was the period forthe uprising of various scholars and reformists. Theintroduction of institutions for Western based learning with theBritish curriculum and English as the medium of instructionwas introduced by the beginning of the early nineteenth century.DEMOGRAPHIC DISASTERMore than half of India’s billion-plus population is below theage of 25. But about 40% of its work force of about 400 millionpeople is illiterate and another 40% comprises school dropouts.Demand for graduates overthe next five years is likely tobe 13.8 million. But with only13.2 million studentsgraduating over the sameperiod, India will face ashortfall of 600,000graduates. About 1.3 millionunskilled and unqualifiedworkers will also weigh on theeconomy over the sameperiod. More than 1 millionpeople lacking the ability toparticipate in the workforcehas the makings of a potentialdemographic disaster.We will have an army ofyoung people left behind and increasingly frustrated with theirlot. They not only have the potential to derail India’s growthprospects, but also challenge the basic fibre of our society.With a literacy rate of 61 percent, India scores poorlycompared to other BRIC nations( Brazil, Russia, India, andChina) in terms of average number of years in secondaryeducation. China already produces more than three times thenumber of PhDs every year. Home to one of the world’s oldestuniversities, now only 10% of the roughly 20 million who enrollin the first grade every year finish high school. With theeducation sector deemed “not for profit”, and limits on privateinvestment in primary and secondary education, there is athriving cottage industry of coaching centers and tutors.PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 09

Hundreds of private tertiary colleges charge high fees. Yet,according to critics, many students graduating from theseexpensive colleges are practically unemployable. The bestcolleges, including Indian Institutes of Technology andManagement were set up more than 50 years ago. Withouthundreds of millions of Indians receiving a better basiceducation, it will be virtually impossible for India to achieve its“dream” potential.Consequently, the number of children going to primaryschool went up dramatically, from about three million in 1996, to7.7 million in 2008. Education is vital for improving livingstandards.FACTS ABOUT PRESENT EDUCATION SCENARIOIn 2009, 96% of children in the age group 6 to 14 in ruralIndia were enrolled in school. 73% of these children wereenrolled in government schools and 21.8 % wereenrolled in private schools.In 2006, there were 8 major states thathad more than 10% girls in the 11-14 agegroup who were out of school. These stateswere Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, WestBengal, Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarhand Gujarat. All these states have shown adecrease in this number. The steepestdrop in the percentage of out of schoolgirls in the age group 11 to 14 is inBihar where the figure fell from 17.6%in 2006 to 6% in 2009.In 2009,on any given day, theaverage attendance rate in ruralIndia was around 75%. In stateslike Kerala, Karnataka, HimachalPradesh, Maharashtra, Goa, Tamil Nadu and Nagaland, 90% ormore children attended school on a given day.Reading and arithmetic abilities in Std 1 are showing slightimprovement. Overall, the percentage of children in Std 1 whocan recognise letters or more has increased from 65.1% in 2008to 68.8% in 2009. The percentage of children who knownumbers from 1 to 9 has risen from 65.3% in 2008 to 69.3 in2009.For higher grades in primary school, there is little evidenceof substantial sustained improvement over the past few years.The percentage of children in Std 5 in government schools whocan read at Std 2 level has been around 50% for the last fouryears. This means that half of the children in rural India are atleast three grade level behind where they need to be. Of coursethere are notable exceptions. From 2006 to 2009, in some statesthere has been a change of more than 10% points in theproportion of children in Std 5 who can read at Std 2 level.These states are Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh,Chhattisgarh, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. In 2009,Madhya Pradesh, Himachal and Maharashtra topped thereading chart with more than 70% children in Std 5 reading Std 2text fluently.In Math, the situation is even more worrying. From 2007 to2009, for children in government schools in Std 5, the ability todo division problems has actually declined from 41% to 36%.Madhya Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh record relatively highlevels topping the chart in 2009 with over 60% children in Std 5able to solve division problems. Chhattisgarh shows that bigimprovements are possible in a short period of time (31% in2007 to 59 % in 2008).But overall, hardly any other State shows any majorimprovement in math.Interestingly, paid privatetuition is on the rise acrossthe country. Between 2007and 2009, the percentage ofchildren taking paid tuitionincreased for every class, inboth government and privateschools. In governmentschools, 17.1% in Std 1 taketuition and this proportionrises to 30.8% in Std 8.Among children attendingprivate schools, almost a quarter takeprivate tuition even in Std 1.People’s aspirations for education are rising.Parliament has passed the Right to Education Act. The questionis whether the right to education will remain merely the “right toschooling” or whether we will keep up with these aspirations andactually provide our children with learning and a real education.CHANGING TIME!Gone are the days when the social and education systemsprovided an environment wherein the individual could imbibevalues through examples set by the teachers and elders. Today,the pressures of materialism have pushed us into a situationwhere the teachers, parents and the students are racing againsttime to match their resources with the constantly changingdemands of the environment. This calls for a paradigm shift inour perception of the goals of education. Value orientation is atotally missing dimension in our educational system.10 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

Swami Vivekanand had said - “The mind is crammed withfacts before it knows how to think. Control of mind should betaught first. If I had my education to get over again and had anyvoice in the matter, I would learn to master my mind first, andthen gather facts if I wanted them. It takes people a long time tolearn things because they can’t concentrate their minds at will.”Education has to be a process which prepares the student tolearn to develop a way of thinking, that is know how to seekinformation, know the sources for obtaining it, how to sort outthe information, analyze it, and make meaning out of it forconceptualization and application.”NEED OF THE HOUR – A QUALITATIVE EXPANSION OFHIGHER EDUCATIONThe current challenge before the nation isto improve the quality of its education. It istime for the Government and theforward-looking folks in this countryto wake up and shake up theeducation system. Todaystudents not only need to attendschools but also need to getquality education to preparethem for facing the world. Thepotential of India as a globalpower, its vision of inclusivegrowth and optimal utilization ofthe human potential of all itscitizens, cannot be realized withoutencouraging greater participation inquality higher education andscientific research. It needs to bedone by harnessing the resources andefforts of all stakeholders namely thegovernment, universities, national laboratories andinstitutes of excellence, public and private sector companies,and even venture capitalists. We do need <strong>new</strong> investments andincentives from the private sector so that our young people willbe encouraged increasingly to pursue and thereafter seek acareer in science.Scientific research and technological innovation is the key toa nation’s prosperity. Equally essential is scientific study of thepast and present of our society, and of its pursuit of materialwellbeing. For this reason, inculcating a scientific temperamong citizens has been a national goal since the time of ourfreedom movement. It was deemed essential for political andeconomic emancipation of our people. Our achievements in theknowledge industries, especially in Information Technology,bio-technology and pharmaceutical industries, have come aboutdue to considerable public investment in tertiary science andtechnology education. Our nuclear energy, space and defence-related industry, and the Science and Technologyestablishment, have created the demand for and incubatedthese science and technology graduates, who thereafter eitherbecome entrepreneurs or move to the private sector.The government needs to start building <strong>new</strong> infrastructurearound the country to meet the growing demands of the bulgingpopulation for quality education. Some kind of quality standardshave to be evolved/defined and implemented strictly in allschools around the country. Mere reservation system inpremiere institutes for the backward classes in the IITs and IIMswill not help – it will only kill the golden goose. Instead, weshould think of creating /developing more schools and collegeslike the IITs and IIMs and spread them across all corners of thecountry. Quality should be at the forefront of the educationsystem, and access to quality education must be available for all.Nation cannot move forward with good educationbeing limited to an elite class of people.Investment in skills and education is vital tomoving the country towards prosperity. In the21st century, one of the best anti-povertyprograms is a world-class education.Increasing the quality andavailability of education is avery important tool for acountry's national securityand domestic well-being. Afree nation can rise no higherthan the standard of excellenceset in its schools and colleges.The lack of quality education is oneof the 10 factors holding India back from rapideconomic growth. While a lot has been done in termsof numbers, a lot still needs to be done to providequality education for the poor.A system of education built on the premises of quality andequity is important to India's rapid progress as a modern anddynamic society. Improving access to education is not enough, ithas to be accompanied by efforts to ensure equity and improvequality. India needs multi-dimensional and broad-based qualityeducation to maintain its leadership in the 21st century. We needexperts in various fields to set systems and to perform tasksefficiently, within the shortest time and in the most effectivemanner by using different techniques.The 11th Five-Year Plan has given greater focus and financialallocation to higher education and its objectives are expansion,inclusion and excellence of education. The education system asa whole and its every constituent unit must focus on how thesethree objectives can be achieved with urgency. We need to ensurethat all sections of the society get a chance to get education.PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 11

A BRIGHTER SIDE: DEVELOPING TALENT POOLThe Indian economyhas been growing eversince the economicreforms process began inthe 1990s. Even now whenthe economies of severaldeveloped countries aregoing through recession, itis growing at more than 7per cent per annum. It istherefore; quite likely thatIndia will need a hugetalent pool to keep itsgrowth engine running infuture. The governmentwill have to ensure that theinfrastructure for highereducation is expanded andthe quality of education continuously upgraded to meet thefuture needs. Secondly, as an emerging economic power, Indiawill have to play an increasingly important role in future.<strong>2010</strong> – A YEAR OF REFORMS IN EDUCATIONIf the last decade of the 20th Century will be remembered inIndia for heralding the economic reforms, the second decade ofthe 21st Century seems poised to witness some far-reachingreforms in the education sector – especially in higher education.These become all the more imperative in view of the drift andmalaise that set in over the past decade.The step is taken by the government to abolish compulsoryCBSE Board exams for Class X from <strong>2010</strong>-11 session andintroduction of grading system from current year. It is to reducethe examination stress of students. The CBSE also initiated a“continuous, comprehensive evaluation” which will assess thestudents’ performance on a continuous basis. Human ResourceDevelopment (HRD) Minister, Kapil Sibal said that they shouldnot be bogged down by text books. The government wantsstudents to look beyond text books and explore their potential.Another major step in the education sector came in thepassage of Right of Children to Free and Compulsory EducationBill, which was hanging free for the last four years. Thelandmark Act provides for free and compulsory education as afundamental right of children in the 6-14 age group. The Actalso provides for earmarking 25 per cent seats for weakersections in schools and seeks to do away with the practice ofschools taking capitation fees before admission and subjectingthe child or parents to any screening procedure.In far-reaching reforms, the ministry decided to create aNational Commission for Higher Education and Research(NCHER) as an overarching body in higher education. Theproposed NCHER will replace UGC, AICTE, DCE and NCTE.The ministry has prepared another bill for entry of foreigneducation providers into the country.For checking malpractices in higher education, the HumanResource Development Ministry prepared a separate bill. Thegovernment wants to have a national accreditation body foraccreditation of educational institutions. Besides, it hasprepared a separate bill for setting up of educational tribunals.The stage appears to be set for the entry of foreign universitiesin India, not very far from now. Many universities are alreadycollaborating with counterparts in the west and east. But the bulkof the local universities need to gear up for competition. Now thatthe government is committed to “expansion, inclusion, andexcellence” as the underlying principles for educational reform, itneeds to expedite the process of monitoring, supervising andregulating all institutions of higher learning.The goals are clear; the road map may be taking shape. But itneeds political will and expert guidance to see this process ofeducation reforms through. Any failure to complete them withinthe next five years may prove fatal for the sector.“We have left the Industrial Age and are into an Age of Ideasand Creativity, an age where individual and shared talent are themost important assets. For too long schools have had to complywith endless bureaucratic top down edicts, confusingcurriculums and associated accountability demands whichhave taken the focus away from learning and teaching. As theseimposed technocratic systems falter it is now time forcreativity”.12 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

Greece: financial collapseThe Greek economy is in far deeper trouble than everbefore in modern times. This euro zone country iscurrently four times over the deficit limit that wasrequired when it adopted the currency in 2001.Its total debt now comfortably exceeds its entire GDP for theyear. Its international credit rating is sliding, so making ittechnically harder and certainly more expensive to seek freshloans. Greece, not its old rival Turkey, is now clearly the Sick Manof Europe and the alarming signs are that it is not going to berecovering any time soon.At the core of Greece's economic troubles is dishonesty, pureand simple. Greeks do not pay their taxes. Taxmen can and oftenare bribed to go away.The unofficial black economy is traditionally reckoned toaccount for 30 percent of GDP but some observers think thisassessment is far too conservative.Greece's public sector accounts for around half of GDP butmeasured against the private sector, its workers are markedlyless productive and often distinctly better paid. All governments,but particularly each socialist PASOK administration (ThePanhellenic Socialist Movement – Panhellinion SocialistikoKinima--PASOK) have used the civil service and nationalizedindustries as a source of patronage. This is in itself dishonest, inthat it means government money is often being invested notwhere it will have the greatest economic benefit, but rather thebiggest political pay back.Dishonesty has becomeingrained in the system. Financeofficials in Brussels along withcolleagues in the EuropeanCentral Bank (ECB) in Bonn,were appalled and angered todiscover that even the officialfinancial data, which underpinGreece's credit rating and itsreports to its fellow euro zonecountries, had been falsified.The irony is that the wheelsfinally started to come off the Greekeconomy just as PASOK won anelection last October bringingGeorge Papandreou back to power.With no further place to hide,the <strong>new</strong> government was forced toaccept radical cuts in its bloated expenditure and vow to raiserevenues. This later could be achieved simply by collecting thetaxes that are actually due.Cutting revenues is the harder part. Political violence israrely far from the surface, notably in the capital Athens.Farmers are already protesting deep cuts and unions have calleda one-day national work stoppage, as a warning of a generalstrike. Few Greeks seem prepared to bite the economic bulletand accept the discomfort of wide-ranging economic and fiscalreforms.FRESH MEASURESMany of the proposals for saving money were contained in apre-Christmas speech by Prime Minister, George Papandreou.In December 2009, the Greek government unveiledmeasures including a 10% cut in public spending. However,according to a spokeswoman for the Greek finance ministry, thedraft document for Brussels will contain some additionalmeasures which will be kept confidential.If the Greek proposals fail to find favour with the financialmarkets it could undermine the country's credibility stillfurther. There are fears that further market attacks on Greececould have a knock-on effect on Portugal, Ireland, Italy andSpain, whose economies are all also in trouble, and whichaccount for 36% of European debt.Despite Greek government assurances that a <strong>new</strong> actionplan to save the economy will soon be in place, ramificationsfrom the nation's shoddy financial situation are alreadyrippling across the continent.PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 13

Major <strong>new</strong>s storiesJyoti Basu:A Visionary LeaderFormer West Bengal Chief Minister Jyoti Basu, who isregarded as a pioneer among Leftist leaders in India,breathed his last on January 17. He was 95. With hisdemise, the Communist Party has for sure lost one of thegreatest torchbearers of its ideology.The veteran Socialist leader was put on ventilator support onJanuary 01 following complaints of respiratory problemresulting due to acute pneumonia.Jyoti Basu strode like a colossus on the Indian political scenefor several decades. He was a great patriot, a great democrat. Acharismatic leader, he served as West Bengal Chief Ministerfrom 21st June 1977 to 6th November 2000, heading fivesuccessive Left Front governments.Jyoti Basu was not only one of the longest serving ChiefMinisters in the country but also an extremely popular massleader. He was a man committed to the service of his people, hisideology and a sense of idealism. He was a politician of highcredibility whose loss will be felt by the entire nation.EARLY LIFEJyoti Basu was born to a middle-class Bengali family inCalcutta on July 8, 1914. The boy, named Jyotirindra Basu, wasrechristened Jyoti Basu when he started schooling at St Xavier'sCollegiate School.After graduating from Presidency College with anhonours degree, Basu went to the United Kingdom to studylaw, where he was introduced to the Communist Party ofGreat Britain. It was in these formative years there that heembraced Marxism.His association with the Communist leaders helped himwitness the twists and turns and understand triumphs/failuresof the Communist movement, and its relevance to India'sgrassroots problems.After his return to India in 1940, Jyoti Basu joined theCommunist Party of India, where he took up a leading role intrade union activities.POLITICAL CAREERThe political career of this Left stalwart officially took offwhen he was elected to the Bengal Legislative Assembly in 1946.During the first five years after his election to BengalLegislative Assembly, Basu earned a reputation of a ‘fearlessleader’ and impressed his seniors and contemporary politicians.His impressive record, rising popularity among the massesand his relentless commitment for his people fetched him thetitle of a ‘gutsy crusader’ by Nikhil Chakraborty, a seniorpolitical columnist, who saw in him, the potential of a greatleader in the making.The year 1964 was a turning point in Basu’s political career.This year the Communist Party of India split in two and Basubecame one of the first key nine members of the Politburo of the<strong>new</strong>ly-formed Communist Party of India (Marxist).With the passage of time, Basu scaled <strong>new</strong>er heights in thepolitics of West Bengal and held the reigns as the Chief Ministerfrom 1977 to 2000. His two-decade long tenure as the ChiefMinister also made Basu the country’s longest-serving ChiefMinister.For his leadership skills, his ability to avert crisis, hisexcellent oratory skills, he was admired even by his staunchpolitical rivals from the Congress and the BJP14 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

So the CPM stalwart opted for a slow exit from active politicsand started grooming his confidant Buddhadeb Bhattacharya,who later became Chief Minister of the state.Although, Basu kept a low profile since retiring from thepolitical scene in 2000, he kept working as the chief patron of theCommunist party and formulating strategies for the future. In arecent incidence of significance, it was Jyoti Basu who took themore pragmatic approach when it came to deciding on DrManmohan Singh’s Indo-US nuclear deal, even while theleaders sitting in Delhi remained hell bent on belligerence. Hissupport to the deal was a classic example of how the veteranleader was not a prisoner of dogma. Unfortunately, he no longerenjoyed a decisive say.However, his health further declined in 2008 and herequested CPI(M) to allow his retirement.Since 2009, Basu was battling with illness. He was firsthospitalised in July 2009 when he complained of breathingproblems. Beginning <strong>2010</strong>, illness came back to plague him andon January 1, <strong>2010</strong>, he was admitted to hospital with pneumonia.His demise has created a void not just in the Communistfraternity, but the country too has lost a visionary leader, a greatadministrator and a good human being.JYOTI BASU’S TENUREDuring his two-decade long stint as the Chief Minister, Basuhad an uninterrupted rule and was literally the uncrowned kingof West Bengal. Basu not only managed to silence his politicalopponents but also succeeded in keeping the opposition at bay.Basu’s pro-people policies played a pivotal role in the rapiddevelopment and industrialisation of the state including -thecivic cleanups, surplus power, a flurry of investments. Basudreamt of classless society and worked throughout his life toconvert West Bengal into a peaceful and progressive state.In his distinguished career, the veteran Marxist leader nearlymissed the opportunity of becoming the Prime Minister in 1996,when CPI (M) Politburo committed a “historic blunder” bydeciding not to participate in the government.POLITICAL RETIREMENTIn 2000 Basu retired from Chief Ministership of West Bengalpurely due to health reasons. However, the announcement ofretirement was not easy for Basu, considering his immensepopularity among the people of West Bengal and his iconicstature.For the people of West Bengal, Basu will be remembered as aman, who sincerely practised democracy and provided a stablegovernment. He was probably the last of an era when peoplefrom affluent backgrounds gave up everything and enteredpolitics with an aim of improving the lives of millions of povertystruckIndians.He was a man of great integrity with a deep commitment tosecular values. Throughout his long career his first priorityremained the welfare of ordinary citizens, the workers and thepeasants.“The passing away of Basu from the scene marks the end ofan era in the annals of Indian politics,”– Manmohan Singh, India's Prime Minister“Jyoti Basu was a 'rarest of the rare leader' who attainednational stature by controlling a state government.”– Pranab Mukherjee, Finance Minister“He was not only a leader of West Bengal. He was a leader ofentire India. He was a leader of the working class, farmers, thetoiling masses, the poor and homeless,”– Prakash Karat (CPI-M) General SecretaryPT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 15

Current eventsIndiaPOLLARD, BOND SELL BIG IN IPL AUCTIONWest India's Kieron Adrian Pollard became the mostexpensive purchase of the Indian Premier League player auctionin Mumbai while former Rajasthan Royals player MohammedKaif was sold to Kings XI Punjab for $250,000 to conclude theevent.Kings XI Punjab got the services of former Rajasthan Royalsplayer Mohammed Kaif for$250,000after being recalled for auction. Kaifwas unsold in the first round of auction.Sri Lankan all-rounder ThissaraPerera sold to Chennai Super Kings atbase price of $50,000.Australia's Damien Martyn sold forbase price of $100,000 to RajasthanRoyals.Royal Challengers Bangalore gotEngland big-hitter Eoin Morgan for$220,000.Chennai Super Kings recall SouthAfrican Justin Kemp for $100,000 whileKings XI Punjab got Yusuf Abdullahback. Rajasthan Royals also recalledAustralian all-rounder Adam Voges inthe squad.Deccan Chargers acquired the services of West Indian fastbowler Kemar Roach for $720,000 at the IPL auction.Kolkata Knight Riders boosted their bowling attack bygetting New Zealand paceman and Indian Cricket Leaguereturnee Shane Bond after a silent tie-breaker for $750,000.Bond had a base price of $100,000.South African sensational left-arm pace bowler, WayneParnell was sold to Delhi Daredevils for $610,000 at the IPLauction. The Proteas bowler had a base price of $200,000.Mumbai Indians bought West Indies' explosive all-rounderKieron Pollard for $750,000 after a silent tie-breaker at theIndian Premier League auction in Mumbai. Trinidad & TobagobornPollard drew attention as an all-rounder during last year'sChampions League Twenty20 tournament.The first player to be put up for the auction was of Pakistan'sShahid Afridi, but he failed to attract a bid leaving him unsold.Afridi had a base price of $250,000. Infact no Pakistani playerswere bought by any franchisees.Indian Under-19 captain Ashok Menaria was sold to RoyalChallengers Bangalore for one year. Left-arm spinner HarmeetSingh went to Deccan Chargers.MURTHY FIRST CINEMATOGRAPHER TO WINPHALKE AWARDMysore-born V.K. Murthy hasbecome the first cinematographer to bechosen for the Dada Saheb PhalkeAward.Murthy is best remembered for hislighting techniques in Pyaasa, Kaagaz KePhool and Sahib Bibi Aur Gulam, as hecrafted some of the finest images inIndian cinema.His "beam shot" in the Waqt ne kiya Kya Hassen Sitamsequence from Pyassa is considered a classic in celluloid history.Inspired by a light boy who was reflecting light with a mirror, hegot that parallel beam using a pair of ordinary mirrors. This wonhim the Filmfare Best Cinematographer Award for 1959.Born in 1923, Mr. Murthy did his Diploma inCinematography in Sri Jayachamarajendra Polytechnic,Bangalore, in the first batch (1943-46). He worked in all of GuruDutt's films. He was the cinematographer for the country's firstcinemascope movie, Kaagaz Ke Phool.16 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

Murthy said, "I met Guru Dutt for the first time whileworking for the Famous Studios as an assistant cameraman. It allbegan when I suggested a difficult shot, which Guru Dutt saidhis cameraman would not be able to execute. I requested him toask his cameraman to allow me to attempt the shot. Guru Duttallowed me to make two or three attempts. But I managed theshot in the first take. After pack-up, he asked me to work for thefilm. I told him that it was not right to desert a cinematographerin the midst of a film and I would work with him on his next film."Murthy worked for Hoovu Hannu, a classic in Kannadacinema, directed by Rajendra Singh Babu. He created some ofthe most significant shots in the black and white era. Whiletraining in London to work on colour films, he worked with thecrew of The Guns of Navarone.AIR-TO-AIR ASTRA MISSILE TEST-FIREDIndigenously developed andbeyond visual range (BVR) air-toairmissile 'Astra' was test-firedfrom the Integrated Test Range(ITR) at Chandipur in Orissa.The missile was fired from alauncher in the launch pad No. 2 ofthe ITR complex at about 9.45 am,defence sources said.After thorough data analysis of the flight test, another test isexpected to be conducted shortly, they said."Before being made fully operational, the complex missilesystem will undergo some more trials, though tests on itsnavigation, control, air frame, propulsion and other sub-systemshave been validated," said a source from the Defence Researchand Development Organisation (DRDO) at ITR.The single-stage, solid fuel 'Astra' missile "is more advancedin its category than the contemporary BVR missiles and it iscapable of engaging and destroying highly manoeuvrablesupersonic aerial targets," the source said.Describing 'Astra' as futuristic missile, DRDO scientistssaid the weapon could intercept a target at supersonic speedsbetween mach 1.2 to 1.4 (mach one is equivalent to 1236 kmph).Though the exact range of trial was not disclosed, scientistsare working to ensure that 'Astra' performs effectively atdifferent altitudes - one cruising at an altitude of 15 km with 90to 110 km range, another at an altitude up to 30,000 ft, having arange of 44 km and the third at sea level with a range of 30 km.CENTRE LIFTS BAN ON PRE-PAID MOBILE PHONES IN J-KThe prepaid mobile phones banin Jammu Kashmir has been liftedby the <strong>Centre</strong> on Jan 21, <strong>2010</strong>.According to officials sources,the decision was taken after the<strong>Centre</strong> finalised a "foolproof" plan toensure proper verification of nearly38 lakh cell phone subscribers inthe state.Recently, Home Minister, P. Chidambaram had said, "If theservice providers come up with a foolproof plan of 100 per centverification and the ministry was satisfied with it, then the issuemay be revisited."The Union home ministry had imposed the ban on pre-paidmobile phone services due to security reasons on Nov 1, 2009.HASINA HONOURED WITH INDIRA GANDHI PRIZE FORPEACEThe coveted Indira GandhiPrize for Peace, Disarmament andDevelopment was on January 12,<strong>2010</strong> bestowed on Prime MinisterSheikh Hasina, who said India andBangladesh should work togetherto achieve peace and progress inSouth Asia."We want to have good andfriendly relations with all ourneighbours. We must work for aSouth Asia where peace, harmonyand progress will prevail. Till weachieve this, our struggle willcontinue," she said after accepting the prestigious award fromPresident Pratibha Patil.Recalling her association with Indira Gandhi, an emotionalHasina referred to the gruesome assassination of her father,Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, and 18 other familymembers and said, "We had nowhere to go at that time. Ourgovernment then did not allow us to return to our homeland.""It was Indira Gandhi who gave us shelter. We took politicalasylum and stayed in Delhi for six years," she said, adding thatIndira Gandhi was "truly like our mother.”PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 17

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said India was honouring"not only a great daughter of Bangladesh but a distinguishedworld leader."UPA Chairperson Sonia Gandhi said a peaceful, secular anddemocratic Bangladesh was India's "wish and hope and we haveno doubt that under your (Hasina) leadership it will be realised."The award carries a cash prize of Rs 25 lakh and a citation."It is really a great honour to get the award instituted in thename of a great leader. I do not know whether I am worthy ofthis," the 62-year-old Hasina said.Hasina was selected for the honour by an international jurychaired by Prime Minister Singh for her "outstandingcontribution to the promotion of democracy and pluralism, herdetermined drive to alleviate poverty and secure social andeconomic justice for her people through inclusive and sustainabledevelopment and her consistent commitment to peace".CENTRE GIVES ENVIRONMENT CLEARANCE FOR N-POWER PLANTThe <strong>Centre</strong> has sanctioned environmental clearance for theproposed nuclear power plant at Haripur in West Bengal's EastMidnapore district, Environment Minister Jairam Ramesh said."Environmental clearance for the Haripur nuclear powerplant has been sanctioned," Ramesh told reporters after meetingChief Minister Buddhadev Bhattacharjee at Writers' Buildings.Asked about the stiff resistance by opposition parties againstthe nuclear power plant, Ramesh said "I don't know anythingabout it. We discussed the project only with the Chief Minister.Discussions are on at different levels".Ramesh said the Chief Minister was strongly in favour ofeco-friendly projects in the state.AL-QAEDA PLANNING TO TARGET INDIA: GATESUnited States Defense Secretary Robert Gates on Jan 20warned India about the possibility of it facing more terror strikesfrom Al-Qaeda and Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT).Gates who visited India, told the media persons “The LeTwhich is operating in league with al-Qaeda is dangerous for thewhole region of Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.”Gates said terror groups wereplanning more attacks on India todestablise the country and onlycooperation among all the countries willlead to the reduction and if possibleelimination of the threat."It is important to recognise that thereis threat in the entire region from the Al-Qaeda and it has been identified that thearea of Afghanistan and Pakistan border is a safe haven for theseterrorist groups,” he said“It is the Qaeda along with the Taliban that is acting inAfghanistan. The Tehreek-e-Taliban is focusing on Pakistan andthe Qaeda along with the LeT is focusing on not only Pakistanbut also on India,” Gates added.“It is important for us to recognise the magnitude of thethreat and try to reduce and eliminate the threat from the region.This requires maximum cooperation amongst us,” he added.SHIVSHANKAR MENON IS NEW NATIONAL SECURITYADVISORHigh profile former Foreign SecretaryShivshankar Menon was named as the <strong>new</strong>National Security Adviser (NSA) tosucceed MK Narayanan.The 60-year-old career diplomat willbe in the rank of Minister of State,according to the decision of theAppointments Committee of Cabinet.Menon, who brings with him vast experience in thediplomatic field, had played a key role in the negotiations on thehistoric Indo-US civil nuclear deal and in ending India'sisolation in the atomic sector.He served as Foreign Secretary for about three years beforeretiring on July 31 last year. Prior to it, he had a crucial three-yearstint as High Commissioner to Pakistan and his tenure saw anupswing in the bilateral ties marked by the progress incomposite dialogue process.The 1972-batch Indian Foreign Service officer had earlierserved in China, Israel, Austria, Japan and Sri Lanka and was anadvisor in the Department of Atomic Energy during the courseof his diplomatic career.18 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

His stint as Foreign Secretary was marked by somecontroversy towards the end over the Indo-Pak Joint Statementissued in Sharm-el Sheikh following talks between PrimeMinister Manmohan Singh and his Pakistani counterpart YusufRaza Gilani in July last year.The government came under severe attack for allowinginclusion of reference to Balochistan and delinking talks fromaction against terrorism by Pakistan and Menon was one of thekey targets for it.2,000 PAPERS PRESENTED AT 97TH INDIAN SCIENCECONGRESSAbout 2,000 scientific and technical papers were presentedduring the 97th Indian Science Congress (ISC <strong>2010</strong>) thatconcluded in the green campus of Kerala University,Thiruvananthapuram."I have not seen such a hugeparticipation of scientists,technologists, research scholars,experts, policy-makers andstudents in the previous sciencecongresses," ISC GeneralPresident G. Madhavan Nair toldreporters on its concluding day.About 7,000 delegates,including 2,000 students from across the country, participatedin the five-day mega event, held for the first time in thispicturesque coastal city and for the second time in the southernstate after two decades at Kochi in 1990.About 40 plenary sessions in various disciplines of science,public lectures, parallel scientific and technical sessions, ascience and technology expo and a Children's Science Congresswere the highlights of the mega event.Organised by the Indian Science Congress Association(ISCA), with the state-run Indian Space Research Organisation(ISRO) and Kerala University as co-hosts, the focal theme of themega event was "Science and Technology Challenges of 21stcentury - National Perspective".Eminent scientists, including M.S. Swaminathan, father ofIndia's first green revolution, former Atomic Energy Secretary,Anil Kakodkar and Space Commission member, RoddamNarasimhan delivered lectures at the plenary sessions.Former Scientist-President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam,distinguished scientists M.G.K Menon and C.N.R. Rao andNobel laureates Roger Tsien and John Cromwell Mather fromthe U.S. made presentations.Vice-Chancellors of universities and educationists fromacross the country and abroad discussed the status and futureperspectives of science education. A panel discussion on"Frontiers of Science and Technology in 21st century" was alsoheld during the congress.JAIPUR HOSTS ASIA'S BIGGEST LITERARY FESTIVALOver 190 writers from 30countries gathered at Jaipurfor a five-day literaryfestival.The festival was held atDiggi Palace, a sprawling 19th century mansion. The festival isconsidered as Asia's biggest literary festival and promises to bepacked with readings, discussions and debate, besides musicalperformances.Many first-time author-attendees have said they areenjoying the experience.Now in its fifth year, the event saw literati rubbing shoulderswith glitterati.Some of the writers participating included AlexanderMcCall Smith, Mahasweta Devi, Wole Soyinka, Devdutt Patnaik,Roberto Calasso, Vikram Chandra, Hanif Kureishi and Louis deBernihres. Bollywood actors Rahul Bose and Om Puri, Britishfilmmaker Stephen Frears were among the others, whoattended.Many authors agreed that the Jaipur Literature Festival is aunique meeting place for writers across countries, cultures andlanguages."One thing is that we get to meet writers who we wouldn'tcome across everyday. We meet writers who write in differentlanguages, which is great. There are a lot of book fairs in India,but nothing of this scale, which is one of a kind," said poet andauthor Gulzar.The event has put Jaipur, a popular tourist destination, onthe literary map.PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 19

LT GEN VK SINGH NAMED AS THE NEXT ARMY CHIEFLt Gen V K Singh, presently theEastern Army Commander, has beenappointed the next Chief of the ArmyStaff.V K Singh will take over his <strong>new</strong> postafter incumbent Gen Deepak Kapoorretires on Mar 31, <strong>2010</strong>.Lt General Singh was commissioned into the RajputRegiment on June 14, 1970.During his long and distinguished career spanning nearly 40years, he has served in a variety of command, staff andinstructional appointments.He participated in the 1971 operations and IPKF operations.He is presently serving as the Eastern Army Commander. Priorto that, he commanded a Corps in the Western sector.Besides being an 'Honours Graduate' of the US ArmyInfantry School, Lt Gen Singh studied at the Defence ServicesStaff College, the Army War College and the US Army WarCollege, Carlisle.SONAM NOMINATED FOR ASIAN FILM AWARDSBollywood actress SonamKapoor is the only Indian to havebeen nominated for the fourthAsian Film Awards.The 24-year-old has beennominated in the best <strong>new</strong>comercategory for her role in Delhi-6,said a statement after thenominations were announced . Shewill be competing with four contenders from China and Korea.The award ceremony will take place on March 22.Daughter of versatile actor Anil Kapoor, who made aninternational mark with his role in Oscar winning film SlumdogMillionaire, Sonam made her Bollywood debut in 2007 oppositeRanbir Kapoor in Saawariya.Thereafter she was seen alongside Abhishek Bachchan inDelhi-6, which didn't do well at the box office. Now the actress isbusy shooting for Aisha and I Hate Luv Stories.NATIONAL FILM AWARDS: PRIYANKA GETS BESTACTRESS, 'ANTAHEEN' AWARDED BEST FILMBengali film 'Antaheen' byDirector Aniruddha RoyChowdhury was chosen as the BestFilm while Tamil filmmaker Balawon the honour of Best Directorfor his film 'Naan Kadavul' at the56th National Film Awardsannounced New Delhi on Jan 23.'Antaheen', starring Sharmila Tagore, Rahul Bose, AparnaSen and Radhika Apte, is a relationship drama.The award for Best Actor went to Upendra Limaye forMarathi film 'Jogwa', which also fetched the trophy for the Bestfilm on social issues. Hindi film 'Oye Lucky Lucky Oye' byDibakar Banerjee was adjudged as the Best Popular Film.Bollywood actress Priyanka Chopra bagged the Best Actressaward for her role of an aspiring model in Madhur Bhandarkar's'Fashion' which also bagged the Best Supporting Actress Awardfor Kangana Ranaut who played the role of a troubled model.Actor Arjun Rampal won the award for Best SupportingActor for his role of a failed rocker in 'Rock On'. Shreya Ghoshalwon the Best Female Playback award for 'Antaheen' and 'Jogwa',which also brought the Best Male Playback Singer award toHariharan.Kannada film 'Gubbachigalu' was adjudged the BestChildren's film. The award for Best Special Effects went to'Mumbai Meri Jaan'.Malayalam film 'Bioscope' won the Best Jury Award while thetrophy for Best Child Actor went to Shams Patel for Hindi film'Thanks Maa'.PADMA VIBHUSHAN FOR PRATHAP REDDY, Y. V. REDDY,'NOBEL' RAMAKRISHNANFormer Reserve Bank of India Governor, Y. V. Reddy, Nobellaureate Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Apollo Hospitals groupfounder, Prathap C. Reddy, Theatre Director Ebrahim Alkazi,theatre actor Zohra Segal and percussionist and mridangamscholar Umayalpuram K. Sivaraman have been honoured withPadma Vibhushan, the country's second highest civilian award,on the occasion of Republic Day.20 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

occasion of Republic Day. She also confered Ashok Chakra onMajor Mohit Sharma (posthumous) and Major D. SreeramKumar.Havildar Rajesh Kumar, who laid down his life battlingterrorists in Jammu and Kashmir, belonged to the Ghatak teamwas on a search mission in the dense forest of Kupwara districtof J&K and during operations killed three terrorists.Music composers A. R. Rahman and Ilaiyaraaja, actor AamirKhan, danseuse Mallika Sarabhai, tabla exponent PanditChhannulal Mishra, Planning Commission member B. K.Chaturvedi, DLF Chairman, Kushal Pal Singh, CardiacSurgeon Ramakant Madanmohan Panda and Newsweekcolumnist Fareed Zakaria are among the 43 persons chosen forPadma Bhushan.For the first time, a Padma Bhushan has crossed theHimalayas to reach out to a scholar (Indologist) Ji Xianlin, whointroduced the Ramayana and other aspects of Indian traditionto China.Other Padma Bhushan awardees include historian BipanChandra, Planning Commission member Abhijit Sen, LeelaHotel Group Chairman, C.P. Krishnan Nair and eye surgeonNoshir M. Shroff. U.S.-based hotelier Sant Singh Chatwal'sname also figures in the list, according to an official release.The Padma Shri award has gone to 81 persons. They includeyesteryears' actor Rekha, vocalist Ustad F. Wasifuddin Dagar,actor Saif Ali Khan, industrialist Venu Srinivasan, who alsoheads the Confederation of Indian Industry, former CBIDirector D. R. Karthikeyan, heart specialist K. K. Aggarwal,social worker Anu Aga, hockey player Ignace Tirkey, boxerVijender Singh, cricketer Virender Sehwag, litterateur SheldonPollock, badminton player Saina Nehwal and Formula One racerNarain Karthikeyan.Other Padma Shri awardees include sound engineer ResulPookutty, Kashmiri litterateur Hamidi Kashmiri, cricket coachRamakant Achrekar and industrialists Kapil Mohan and T. N.Manoharan. The Padma awardees include 17 women.The awards will be presented by President Pratibha Patil inMarch/April. The President approved 130 awards this year,including 13 in the category of foreigners/NRIs/PIOs.Ashok ChakraPresident Pratibha Devisingh Patil confered the AshokChakra posthumously on Havildar Rajesh Kumar on theMajor Mohit Sharma from 1 Para (Special Forces) was killedin a battle with terrorists in Hafruda forests in J&K duringMarch last year while Major Kumar killed 12 terrorists incounter-insurgency operations in the northeast.ARMY CHIEF ORDERS COURT MARTIAL OF LT GENAVADESH PRAKASHChief of the Army Staff, General Deepak Kapoor, on Jan 29accepted the advice of Defence Minister, A.K. Antony byordering court martial proceedings against Military SecretaryLieutenant General, Avadesh Prakash for his allegedinvolvement in a land scam in the Darjeeling area of WestBengal. He would be the first three-star general to face suchaction.General Kapoor was overruled by Mr. Antony who felt thealleged misdemeanours of General Prakash were seriousenough to merit a court martial and not just disciplinaryproceedings preferred by the Army chief.As Military Secretary, General Prakash is one of the closestaides to the Army chief in dealing with daily matters and policyplanning. The general is due to retire in a couple of days.General Prakash was indicted in an internal probe at thecommand level along with the then 33 Corps CommanderLieutenant General P.K. Rath, his Chief of Staff at that time,Lieutenant General, Ramesh Halgali and then BrigadierAdministration Major General P.C. Sen. Following a court ofinquiry, Eastern Army Commander Lieutenant General, V.K.Singh, who will be the next Army Chief, had recommendedtermination of service of General Prakash and administrativeaction against the other officers.The controversy arose after General Kapoor recommendedcourt martial proceedings against Lieutenant General Rath andissued show-cause notice to others for administrative action. Itwas felt by many in the Army that General Kapoor was beingunfair as all four officers should have been meted out the samepunishment. Mr. Antony overruled the Army chief.PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 21

The officers were found culpable by an internal probe foroverruling their predecessors and issuing a no objectioncertificate to a private developer to lease 71 acres of land next tothe Sukna military station near Darjeeling. The developer wasalso found to have falsely represented that he would open aneducational institution affiliated to the prestigious MayoCollege, Ajmer.The probe at the command level had allegedly indictedLieutenant General Rath for inking a pact with the propertydeveloper provided a certain percentage of seats was reservedfor children of armed forces personnel. Lieutenant GeneralPrakash was seen as being too interested in the case andpersuading his juniors to pursue the deal.Lieutenant General Halgali was alleged to have suppressedinformation from his seniors and Major General P.C. Sen wassaid to have played an active role in discussions with thedeveloper during his tenure at the 33 Corps headquarters.AJAY MAKEN LAUNCHES SCHEME TO STRENGTHENCOASTLINE SECURITYA national population registerwould be created in Goa to strengthensecurity along coastlines in thecountry in the wake of the 26/11attacks, Union Minister of state forHome, Ajay Maken said."Under this scheme, each localresident in coastal villages of thecountry will be given a unique identitynumber and an identity card," Makentold a gathering at Siridao village, 10 kms from Panaji."The scheme will initially cover nine maritime states, fourunion territories and 3,331 villages," he said, adding it wouldlater be extended to the entire country.In Goa, 51 coastal villages were covered under this schemeand the project would be completed by March <strong>2010</strong>.The minister termed it as a “mammoth and ambitiousproject of the Government, the like of which has not been seenanywhere in the world.”Maken said apart from security aspect, the scheme wouldenable citizens to receive other services or deliverables in aneasy and simple manner as the same unique identity numberwill be applicable in all cases."The government machinery would no longer need to rely onany other documentary proof such as ration card, consumer billsand others to identify a person," he said.Welcoming the scheme, Goa Chief Minister DigamberKamat said this is the <strong>Centre</strong>'s commitment to secure thecoastal areas of the state from the threat of terrorist attacks.SAMAJWADI PARTY EXPELS AMAR SINGH, JAYA PRADASamajwadi Party (SP)expelled former generalsecretary Amar Singh and LokSabha member Jaya Prada fromthe party for violating partynorms and spoiling thereputation of the party.SP General Secretary Mohan Singh made theannouncement at a press conference in Lucknow. He said bothspoiled the reputation and prestige of the party.Singh said: “Jaya Prada acted like a guided missile.”Lok Sabha MP from Rampur, Jaya Prada had come out insupport of Amar Singh."Amar Singhji has served the party for 14 years, but now theparty is humiliating him. Netaji (Mulayam Singh) mustintervene," the cine actor said on January 31.Four others were also expelled from the party.The trouble between Mulayam Singh Yadav and Amar Singhbegan last year. Amar Singh was upset that the other partyleaders had questioned the candidature of actor Jaya Prada forthe Rampur seat in the last Lok Sabha elections, and that he didnot get the support of Yadav that time.The rift further grew, when Mulayam's daughter-in-law,Dimple, lost the by-election to the Firozabad seat at the hands ofCongress candidate actor Raj Babbar. The seat was earlier wonby Mulayam's son Akhilesh, but he was selected to representKannauj seat.Amar Singh had then blamed the over-confidence ofMulayam Singh's family for the loss.On the other hand, Mulayam's son Akhilesh Yadav had putthe blame on Amar Singh for the loss.After Amar Singh quit from all posts of the party, his loyalistBollywood actor Sanjay Dutt too quit from the party.22 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

Current eventsWorldOBAMA UNVEILS US$ 33 BN JOBS PACKAGEUS President Barack Obamaunveiled a 33-billion-dollar packageof tax cuts to encourage smallbusinesses to hire <strong>new</strong> workers, as hetakes aim at 10 pc unemployment.Obama, who has made jobcreation the top priority of hisadministration, spoke as the WhiteHouse got a rare economic boostwhen GDP data showed growth forthe fourth quarter at a higher thanexpected 5.7 percent."It is time to put America back to work. We have had two verytough years," Obama said, as he toured a small factory inBaltimore, Maryland.The proposal, which must be passed by Congress, wouldallow small businesses to claim a 5,000-dollar tax credit for every<strong>new</strong> employee they hire and to be reimbursed for Social Securityretirement taxes on increased payrolls.The firms will be allowed to claim the credit every quarter, sothey do not have to wait until the end of the tax year to benefitfrom the plan, previewed by Obama in his State of the Unionaddress.The total cost of the proposal is 33 billion dollars, accordingto the White House. Obama said the GDP growth estimate"affirms our progress and the swift and aggressive actions thatmade it possible," arguing that his economic policies have stavedoff the threat of a second Great Depression."Just to give you perspective there, that's the fastesteconomic growth in six years, and it's a stark improvement overthe rapid and terrible decline that we were experiencing one yearago." But Obama noted that although the economy was growing,a swift rise in job creation was lacking, meaning initiatives likethe <strong>new</strong> hiring incentive were needed."Companies are recovering but not yet taking that next stepand taking on somebody full time," Obama said after touringChesapeake Machine Company, a custom manufacturing andmetal factory.JKJKJKA R RAHMAN STRIKES GRAMMYS GOLDIndian composer, A R Rahmanscored a double triumph at theGrammy Awards in Los Angeles,scooping two early honours for hismusic from Oscar-winning film"Slumdog Millionaire".Rahman won the firstGrammy of the pre-show at theStaples Center in the bestcompilation soundtrack for amotion picture category before his"Jai Ho" won in the best motion picture song category momentslater."This is insane, god is great again," Rahman said as heaccepted his second award before a VIP audience.Rahman's rivals in the soundtrack category included SteveJordan for "Cadillac Records," Quentin Tarantino for"Inglourious Basterds", and the producers of "Twilight" and"True Blood."In the best song category Rahman's beaten rivals includedBruce Springsteen for his song "The Wrestler", from the Oscarnominatedmovie of the same name.The Grammy success comes after Rahman earned twoOscars for his music in "Slumdog Millionaire" at last year'sAcademy Awards.The talented music maestro picked up the best originalscore statuette before scooping the best song Oscar.Pt’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 23

ANTI-TOBACCO LAW ISSUED IN UAERestricting the sale and promotion oftobacco products, UAE issued a federal lawbanning import of tobacco and its by-productsinto the country unless specific standardrequirements accredited are met.President H H Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed AlNahyan has issued the federal law no 15 of2009 that include conditions like posting ofclear word and image warnings on the box anda ban on all kinds of advertisements, promotion and sponsorshipof tobacco products, Emirates News Agency (WAM) said.Under the provisions of the law, no licence will be issued tocafes or similar outlets serving any types of tobacco or itsproducts inside residential buildings or quarters or near them.Smoking will also be banned during vehicle driving in thecompany of a child under 12 years.The law sets a series of penalties against offenders reachingin some cases up to Dh 1 million (USD 272) in addition to a jailterm of not less than two years.The law also calls for setting up a national anti-tobaccocommittee as per a cabinet resolution to ensure enforcement ofthe law.Commenting on the law, Health Minister, Dr Hanif Hassansaid "The legislation was issued to protect UAE citizens andresidents, enhance public health and combat diseases anduproot harmful habits in the society including the lethalsmoking menace which leads according to the latest WorldHealth Organisation report to the death of more than 5 millionpersons every year."JKJKJKINDIA, MALAWI STRENGTHEN BILATERALCOOPERATION THROUGH THREE NEW PACTSIndia and Malawi inked three agreements to strengthenbilateral cooperation in key areas of interaction.The agreement signing ceremony, which was witnessed byvisiting Indian Vice-President, Mohammad Hamid Ansari andhis Malawian counterpart Joyce Banda, saw both parties signinga Protocol for Consultations between the Ministry of ForeignAffairs of the Republic of Malawi and the Ministry of ExternalAffairs of the Republic of India in order to further strengthendiplomatic relations between the two countries.The two parties also signed aMemorandum of Understanding (MoU) oncooperation in the field of agriculture andallied sectors. The MoU focuses on variousareas, including agriculture research;agricultural extension management;agricultural marketing, horticulture;animal husbandry and dairy; watersheddevelopment; agricultural implements andmachinery and agro-processing.Both parties also signed an agreement between NationalSmall Industries Corporation of India and One Village OneProduct of Malawi for mutual cooperation for the developmentof small enterprises in Malawi.Both governments also agreed to expedite negotiations tofinalize proposed Memoranda of Understanding on mineralresources; exemption of visas for holders of official anddiplomatic passports; rural development and health andmedicine.The Malawi delegation was led by Vice-President JoyceBanda, while the Indian delegation was led by Vice-President,Mohammad Hamid Ansari.Ansari announced the grant of USD one million asemergency relief for rehabilitation following the series ofearthquakes that caused loss of life and property in KarongaDistrict of Malawi. He also announced USD four million ingrants to support Malawi's development in agriculture, healthand education sectors.Ansari expressed his happiness that the Indian Line ofCredit of USD 30 million extended to Malawi in 2008 forirrigation, grain storage and tobacco thrashing projects has beenutilized. He also announced a <strong>new</strong> Line of Credit of USD 50million to Malawi in support of its development goals.Malawi thanked India for its development assistance madeavailable, mainly through the EXIM BANK, Indian Technicaland Economic Cooperation Programme, and theCommonwealth African Assistance Plan.Malawi also expressed satisfaction with the granting of dutyfree access to India, on various products within the framework ofthe Duty Free Tariff Preference Scheme for Least DevelopedCountries, announced at the India-Africa Forum Summit, heldin New Delhi, in 2008.The <strong>new</strong> agreements are expected enhance and re-energisethe partnership between the two countries, particularly in areasof trade and commerce.24 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

IRAN PLANS TO DIVERSIFY ITS PRESENCE ON GLOBALGAS MARKETIran plans to diversify itspresence on the internationalgas market and expand gasinteraction with neighbourcountries, Director General ofIran's National Gas ExportCompany said.Touching upon the Iranianpolitics in the energy sphere,DG Seyyed Reza Kasaizadeh said that his country is the world'ssecond in terms of its natural gas reserves.In addition, Iran needs gas supplies from Azerbaijan to itsnorthern provinces, he said.At the end of 2009, the National Iranian Gas ExportingCompany signed a memorandum with SOCAR on the suppliesof Azerbaijani natural gas to Iran, Kasaizadeh reaffirmed.The talks are underway. A short-term contract on thedelivery of Azerbaijani natural gas to Iran is expected to besigned soon.It is planned that initially Azerbaijan will sell a fixed volumeof natural gas to Iran - 500 million cubic metres a year.In the future, Azerbaijan and Iran plan to increase gassupplies due to the increase of the throughput capacity ofcompressor stations and Kazi-Magomed-Astara-Bind-Biandgas pipeline.Earlier, Iran declared the readiness to purchase up to fivebillion cubic metres of Azerbaijani natural gas.JKJKJKS KOREA AIMS TO EXPORT 80 NUCLEAR REACTORSBY 2030South Korea said it aimed to export 80 nuclear reactors by2030 to hold a 20 percent share of the global market, shortly afterwinning a landmark $40 billion nuclear power deal in the MiddleEast.The government and private entities will invest a total of 400billion won ($355.7 million) in research and developmentbetween 2011 and 2017 to improve domestic nuclear reactortechnology, the government said in a statement.Asia's fourth-largest economy alsoplans to acquire stakes of overseas minesto raise its self-development rates of rawmaterials for nuclear power, includinguranium, to 25 percent by 2016 and 50percent by 2030 from 6.7 percent thisyear, the statement said.A South Korean consortium won the Middle East's biggestever energy contract to build and operate four nuclear reactorsfor the United Arab Emirates, beating more favoured US andFrench rivals.JKJKJKINDIA, BANGLADESH SIGN FIVE PACTS TO ADD THRUSTTO RELATIONSIndia and Bangladesh signed fivepacts in the presence of Prime MinisterManmohan Singh and his counterpart,Sheikh Hasina, to add impetus to thebilateral ties that had been on theupswing since the last one year.In a series of high-level meetings, Ms. Hasina, who arrived inIndia on a four-day visit assured New Delhi that Dhaka wouldnot allow its soil to be used as a base for operations by groupsinimical to India, her Advisor Abul Kalam Azad said.The five agreements relate to mutual legal assistance incriminal matters, transfer of sentenced persons, fight againstterror, organised crime and illegal drug trafficking, powercooperation and cultural exchange programmes.“We are confident that this visit would serve to underlinethat strong India-Bangladesh relations are vital; not just for bothour countries, but for the entire region and the internationalcommunity,” noted Foreign Secretary, Nirupama Rao said.“The intention is to put in place mechanisms that would beirreversible regardless of the nature of the regimes in bothcountries,” said official sources.For instance, the pact on power sector envisaged atransmission grid between the two countries that would enableDhaka to import electricity and pave the way for the entry ofIndian public sector power companies to Bangladesh.“We are looking at a long-term, stable and durablerelationship as well as to address issues that we have not beenable to take up in the past,” the sources said.PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 25

The two sides also discussed an Indian credit line to buildrail tracks in Bangladesh, an easier trading and investmentenvironment and help in dredging of rivers.JKJKJKINDIAN-AMERICAN TEACHER GETS MENTORING AWARDFROM OBAMAIndian American professor Kenneth S. Sajwan of SavannahState University has received an award for excellence inmentoring from President Barack Obama.Sajwan, coordinator of the environmentalscience programme at SSU, was among 100math and science teachers to get the award fromObama as he announced a $250 million publicprivateinitiative designed to improve nationalmath and science education.Nationally recognised as a leading scholar and researcher inthe field of environmental science, Sajwan's works have beenseen in more than 100 publications.He received a Bachelor of Science degree in agriculture andanimal husbandry in 1972 from Pant University of Agricultureand Technology, and a Master of Science degree in agronomy in1975 from J.N. Agricultural University in India.He earned a doctoral degree in post-harvest technology fromIndian Institute of Technology in 1980 and another doctoraldegree in agronomy and environmental quality from ColoradoState University in 1985.Prior to joining Savannah State University in 1992, he servedas an assistant professor at the University of Georgia's SavannahRiver Ecology Laboratory. His previous work includespostdoctoral associateships at the University of Kentucky andthe University of Wisconsin.The <strong>new</strong> funding announced by Obama builds on his mathand science "Educate to Innovate Campaign", which wasannounced last November. Several large companies, includingIntel, Xerox, Kodak and Time Warner Cable have alreadypledged $260 million to the effort.The money will be used to promote five <strong>new</strong> partnershipsintended to help train over 10,000 <strong>new</strong> math and scienceteachers over the next five years.It will also be used to support the professional developmentof more than 100,000 current math, science, technology andengineering teachers, according to the White House.'AVATAR' WINS TOP HONORS AT GOLDEN GLOBESScience-fictionblockbuster "Avatar"took top honors at the67th Golden Globeswinning best pictureand best Director tocement its status as anOscar’s frontrunner.The groundbreakingepic from "Titanic" Director James Cameron – oncourse to become the highest-grossing film in history – was thebig winner on a night when honors were largely spread acrossseveral films.The movie has been hailed as a cinematic milestone for itsuse of state of the art 3-D cameras and motion capturetechnology which Cameron was instrumental in helping todevelop.The Golden Globes are seen as a key staging post in thesprint towards the ultimate prize of the Oscars, which take placeon March 7 this year, and often help shape the field of likely bestpicture contenders.However Hollywood awards shows rarely honor fantasyfilms, and "Avatar" was expected to face stiff competition fromBigelow's "The Hurt Locker," Quentin Tarantino's "InglouriousBasterds", "Precious" and "Up In the Air."List of selected winners at 67th Golden Globe Awards,Beverly Hills, CaliforniaBest Motion Picture – Drama - "Avatar"Best Director - James Cameron "Avatar"Best Performance by an Actor in a Motion Picture – Drama- Jeff Bridges "Crazy Heart"Best Performance by an Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama- Sandra Bullock "The Blind Side"Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy - "The Hangover"Best Performance by an Actress in a Motion Picture –Musical or Comedy - Meryl Streep "Julie & Julia"Best Performance by an Actor in a Motion Picture -- Musicalor Comedy - Robert Downey Jr "Sherlock Holmes"26 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

Best Supporting Actor in a Motion Picture - Christoph Waltz"Inglourious Basterds"Best Supporting Actress in a Motion Picture - Mo'Nique"Precious"Best Foreign Language film -"The White Ribbon”JKJKJKBILLIONAIRE SEBASTIAN PINERA WINS CHILEPRESIDENCYBillionaire Sebastian Pinera haswon Chile's election, becoming thenation's first democratically electedright-wing President in 52 years.The ruling coalition's candidateEduardo Frei conceded defeat after60 percent of polling stationsreported a 52 percent to 48 percentadvantage for Pinera, ending twodecades of centre-left rule since theend of Augusto Pinochet's dictatorship."We will be guardians of liberty and of all our social victories,"Frei said.Pinera had a wide lead in every poll, and the race onlytightened after Frei and outgoing President Michelle Bacheletrepeatedly invoked the legacy of Pinochet, whose dictatorshipwas supported by parties that make up Pinera's coalition.JKJKJKBROWN HONOURS NOBEL WINNERS AMARTYA SEN,VENKAT RAMAKRISHNANBritish winners of the prestigious Nobel Prize, includingIndian-origin biologist, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan andeconomist Amartya Sen, were honoured at London by PrimeMinister Gordon Brown to celebrate their achievements.Ramakrishnan, a structural biologist at the MRC Laboratoryof Molecular Biology in Cambridge received the 2009 NobelPrize in Chemistry, while Sen won the 1998 Nobel MemorialPrize in Economic Sciences for his work on welfare economics.They and other Nobel Prize winners from Britain werehonoured at a dinner reception hosted by Brown and his wife,Sarah Brown, at 10, Downing Street.The UK ranks top in Europe in terms of the number ofNobel prizes won, and is second globally only to the US.The Prime Minister said, "Britain was where the first novelwas written, the theory of gravity was first formulated andpenicillin was first created to save millions of lives.The UK produces 9 percent of the world's scientific papersand has a citation share of 12 percent, second only to the US.JKJKJKCHINA, INDIA NOT "COMPETITIVE OPPONENTS":CHINESE PREMIERChina and India were not "competitive opponents" but"cooperative partners", Chinese Premier, Wen Jiabao said, as heassured that Beijing will make efforts to narrow the bilateraltrade deficit."Only if China and India achievecommon development and prosperitycould we have a real Asia century," Wen toldCommerce and Industry Minister AnandSharma who called on him in Beijing.Both China and India were large developing nations in Asia,and the total population of the two countries accounted for 40percent of the world, Wen noted.Wen assured India that his government will make efforts tonarrow the bilateral trade deficit which is currently in China'sfavour.India ran a big trade gap with China in 2008-09, with importsexceeding exports by about USD 7 billion. For the year, Chinawas India's largest trade partner.The premier said his country would work with India to boostgood neighbourly friendship, increase coordination in majorinternational issues and expand cooperation in trade,investment and other sectors in line with the principles ofmutual respect, equality and mutual benefit.Earlier, addressing the Joint Economic Group (JEG)meeting, held after a gap of four years, Sharma expressed India'sdesire to expand exports to China.Sharma impressed on China to increase imports of IT andITES to address the trade imbalance. India also asked forremoval of tariff and non-tariff barriers to Indian power plantequipment.PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 27

Sharma also asked China to do away with restrictions onimport of basmati rice, fruits and vegetables. He sought rightsfor Indian TV channels and import of more Indian films by theChinese.Procedural bottlenecks, including time consuming licensingprocedures being faced by Indian drugs and pharmaceuticalsalso came up for discussions at the JEG.An India-China agreement on Expansion of Trade andEconomic Cooperation between the two countries was signed,which provides for the Chinese side to import as much of itsrequirement of value added goods from India.The Chinese Commerce Minister Chen Deming requestedIndia to facilitate the work of Chinese companies in India.FICCI and China Chambers of Commerce for Import andExport of Machinery and Electronics (CCCME) also signed anMoU for cooperation between the two industry bodies.JKJKJKAUSTRALIAN OPEN TITLESerenabeats brave Henin to win AustralianOpenDefending championand top seed SerenaWilliams powered to herfifth Australian Open titleand 12th Grand Slam whenshe beat a brave JustineHenin 6-4, 3-6, 6-2.Williams took a tight firstset then had to hold off acharging Henin to deny theBelgian a fairytale ending to her tennis comeback in a thrillingtwo hours seven minutes final on Rod Laver Arena.The American claimed her 12th Grand Slam with the win,putting her alongside fellow American Billie Jean King on thelist of all time major winners.It was fitting that the final was played in front of King andAustralian great Margaret Smith Court, who won a record 24Grand Slams, along with a host of other former champions.Williams served better throughout, making 64 percent of herfirst serves as opposed to Henin's 55 percent, with many of thoseunplayable.Federer wins fourth AustralianOpen titleFederer's remarkable levelof consistency continued whenhe mastered the Scottish fifthseed in straight sets, 6-3, 6-4, 7-6 (13/11) in two hours 41minutes on Rod Laver Arena.The world number oneclinched victory in a gripping tie-breaker, 13 points to 11, whenMurray frittered five set points and the Swiss claimed it on histhird match point. It is now 279 Grand Slam tournaments sincePerry beat American Donald Budge in the 1936 US Open final.Federer has now won 16 Grand Slams in the span of 27majors and has lost only six finals in that time. He became thefifth man in history to win four Australian Open titles with the lastmantodosoAmericanAndreAgassiin2003.Williamssisters win doublestitleDefending champions, Serena andVenus Williams defeated Cara Black andLiezel Huber 6-4 6-3 to win the AustralianOpen women's doubles title, maintainingthe partnership's perfect record in grandslam finals.The second-seeded Williams sisters continued theirdominance over Zimbabwe's Black and American Huber,overcoming a sluggish start under bright sunshine at Rod LaverArena to win in 86 minutes and seal their 11th grand slamdoubles title.LeanderPaes and Cara Black win mixed doublestitleLeander Paes equalled the record formost Grand Slam title triumphs by anIndian as the veteran and his Zimbabweanpartner Cara Black clinched theAustralian Open mixed doublesChampionship with a straight-set win.Top seeds and favourites, the 36-yearoldPaes and the 30-year-old Black beat10th seeds Ekaterina Makarova of Russia and Jaroslav Levinskyof Czechoslovakia 7-5, 6-3 in just about one and a half hour.The triumph gave the Indian his 11th overall and fifth mixeddoubles title. With this, Paes has equalled one-time doubles'partner Mahesh Bhupathi's tally.28 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

INDIA BEAT BANGLADESH TO WIN TEST SERIESIndia won theIdea Cup by beatingBangladesh by 10wickets to win thesecond cricket Teston the fourth day atthe Sher-e-Banglanational stadium,Mirpur (Dhaka) onJan 27. India wonthe two Test series2-0.Zaheer Khan(10-49) took sevenwickets in the second innings as Bangladesh were all out for 312,minutes after lunch this day, giving India a two-run victorytarget.Earlier, Bangladesh won the toss and made 233 in their firstinnings. India, in reply, riding on the twin hundreds by SachinTendulkar (143) and Rahul Dravid (111, retired hurt), scored544 for eight declared.For Bangladesh, Tamim Iqbal made 155 in the secondinnings after Mahmudullah showed the way with his unbeaten96 in the first.ScorecardBAN: 312/10 in 90.3 over & 233/10 in 73.5 overIND: 544/8 in 133 over & 2/0 in 0.2 over1st Test: India beat Bangladeshby 113 runsIndia beat Bangladesh by 113 runs in the first Test inChittagong Chasing an improbable 415 runs to win, Bangladeshwere bowled out for 301 with wicket keeper Mushfiqur Rahimscoring 101 for his side.Sachin Tendulkar was adjudged the Man of the Match for hiscentury in the first innings.Mishra took the last four wickets as the second session wasextended by 30 minutes.IND: 413/8 in 87 over & 243/10 in 70.5 overBAN: 242/10 in 65.2 over & 301/10 in 75.2 overAUSTRALIA BEAT PAKISTAN TO LIFT ICC U-19WORLD CUPAustralia lifted its thirdUnder-19 Cricket World Cuptitle after putting up a fine allroundperformance to beatPakistan by 25 runs in a lowscoringfinal in Lincoln, NewZealand.Put into bat, Australia first posted a competitive 207 in thestipulated 50 overs and then skittled out Pakistan for 182 in 46.4overs.Pacer, Josh Hazlewood's four-wicket haul and left-armspinner, Luke Doran's three scalps to bring the downfall of theformer champion Pakistan.Chasing 208 to win, Pakistan batsmen could not capitalise ontheir starts and the team kept losing wickets in regular intervals.Skipper Azeem Ghumman top scored with a 90-ball 41,which included just one four and the only partnership that gavePakistan's total some respectability was the 54-run first wicketstand between Ahmad Shahzad (36) and Muhammad Babar(28).Earlier batting first, Australia recovered after being reducedto 23 for three inside five overs.A 57-run stand between Jason Floros (35) and Alex Keath(25) resurrected their innings before a run-out saw the formerback into the hut.Alex also didn't last long and was dismissed after 15 balls asAustralia slipped to 127 for six in 34.5 overs but a fruitful 62-runpartnership between Tim Armstrong (37) and Kane Richardson(44) pulled them out of the crisis.CAN YOU DROWN IN THE DEAD SEA?Contrary to its name “Dead Sea” , noone ever drowns in its saline waters.The Dead Sea is land locked and is thelowest body of water on the Earth'ssurface. It is also the saltiest lake inthe world! It contains large amounts ofminerals like bromine, calcium and of course common salt.The high density of this lake prevents anything from sinking.The shores of this lake are covered with sulphur, lava and rocksalt indicating that the area is prone to volcanic activity.PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 29

PT PanoramaMaha Kumbh begins in HaridwarThe Great Indian Bathing Festival(January 14 to April 28, <strong>2010</strong>)One of the world's largest religious gathering, theKumbh Mela began in Haridwar on the auspiciousoccasion of ''Makar Sakranti'' (Jan 14).Millions of pilgrims have already arrived in the holy city ofHaridwar to herald the Maha Kumbh on the banks of Ganges.As over six million pilgrims were expected to arrive andparticipate in the important ritual bath or the holy dip in the riverGanges, the authorities have delivered an important message ofenvironmental protection.The first 'shahi snan' or royal bath is scheduled for <strong>Feb</strong>ruary12 when the akhara Chiefs also join the devotees. Manyforeigners who were seen in the queue also took bath.On Jan 12, the government of Uttarakhand published fullpageadvertisements in national <strong>new</strong>s papers listing a code ofconduct for pilgrims.The code included rules such as 'do not to use detergents orsoaps when bathing in the river', and 'do not to bring polytheneand plastic'.India's holy river is one of the most polluted river in theworld.Security has been tightened for the event. UttarakhandChief Minister, Ramesh Pokhriyal Nishank has said all stepswould be taken to ensure incident-free fair."The successful conduct of the Mahakumbh fair has beenthe utmost priority of my government, for which heavy securityhas been put in place," Nishank said."All arrangements have been made. Security forces havebeen deployed at 130 sq km area to ensure that no untowardincident occurs," said Anand Vardhan, Kumbh Mela incharge.Dehradun, Pauri, Tehri and Haridwar regions ofUttarakhand have been notified as Mahakumbh Nagar.During the holy festival of Kumbh Mela <strong>2010</strong> at Haridwar,the main event is taking a bath or dip in the Holy River Ganga.This holy bath takes place on particular dates as per the KumbhMela calendar. It is said that a holy dip in sacred rivers duringMaha Kumbh help humans to come out of the circle of life anddeath. Here is the Kumbh Mela <strong>2010</strong> calendar with the bathingdates:14 January <strong>2010</strong> (Thursday) - Makar Sankranti Snan - FirstSnan (bath)15 January <strong>2010</strong> (Friday) - Mauni Amavasya and SuryaGrahan ( Sola Eclipse) - Second Snan20 January <strong>2010</strong> (Wed) - Basant Panchmi Snan - Third snan30 January <strong>2010</strong> (Saturday) - Magh Purnima Snan - FourthSnan12 <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> (Friday) - Maha Shivratri - Pratham ShahiSnan - First Royal Bath15 March <strong>2010</strong> (Monday)- Somvati Amavasya - Dvitya Shahisnan - Second Royal Bath.24 March <strong>2010</strong> (Wednesday)- Ram Navmi - Fifth Snan30 March <strong>2010</strong> (Tuesday) - Chaitra purnima snan14 April <strong>2010</strong> (Wednesday) - Baisakhi - Pramukh ShahiSanan.28 April <strong>2010</strong> (Wednesday) - Shakh Purnima - snan30 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

WHAT IS KUMBH MELA?WHERE IS THE KUMBH MELA HELD?WHEN IS THE NEXT KUMBH MELA?Kumbha is a Sanskrit wordfor Pitcher, sometimes referredto as the Kalasha, It is also azodiac sign in Indian astrologyfor Aquarius, the sign underwhich the festival is celebrated,while Mela means ' a gathering' or' a meet', or simply a fair.According to astrologers, the'Kumbh Fair' takes place whenthe planet Jupiter entersAquarius and the Sun enters Aries.The Kumbh Mela is held on a rotational basis in four of themost holy Hindu places in India – on the banks of the Godavaririver in Nashik (Maharastra), the Shipra river in Ujjain (MadhyaPradesh), the Ganges river in Haridwar (Uttarakhand), andconvergence of the Ganges, Yamuna, and Saraswati rivers inAllahabad/Prayag (Uttar Pradesh).WHEN IS THE KUMBH MELA HELD?The Kumbh Mela is held in eachlocation once every 12 years. Theoretically, itshould happen every three years in adifferent place. However, the exact time andplace of the festival depends on astrologicaland religious considerations. This meansthat the Kumbh Mela sometimes happensonly a year apart at the different sites.There is also a Maha Kumbh Mela,which is held once every 12 years. In between, in the sixth year,the Ardh Kumbh Mela (half mela) takes place as well.The Maha Kumbh Mela is considered to be the mostauspicious mela. It always occurs in Allahabad, as the confluenceof the rivers there is considered to be particularly holy. The ArdhKumb Mela occurs in both Allahabad and Haridwar.2013 Maha Kumbh Mela in Allahabad (January 27 to<strong>Feb</strong>ruary 25, 2013).2015 Kumbh Mela in Nashik (August 15 to September13, 2015)2016 Kumbh Mela in Ujjain (April 22 to May 21, 2016)WHAT IS THE LEGEND BEHIND THE KUMBH MELA?Legend has it that the Gods once lost their strength. In orderto regain it, they agreed with the demons to churn the primordialocean of milk for amrit (the nectar of immortality). This was tobe shared equally between them. However, a fight broke out,which went on for 12 human years. During the battle, thecelestial bird, Garuda, flew away with the Kumbh that held thenectar. Drops of nectar are believed to have fallen in the placesthat the Kumbh Mela is now held – Prayag (Allahabad),Haridwar, Nashik, and Ujjain.THE SADHUS AT THE KUMBH MELAThe sadhus and other holy men are an integral part of theKumbh Mela. Pilgrims who attend the Kumbh Mela come to seeand listen to these men, in order to gain spiritual enlightenment.There are various types of sadhus: Nagas – naked sadhus who smear their bodies with ashand have long matted hair. Constant exposure to theweather makes them resistant to temperatureextremes. Their eyes are bloodshot from constantlysmoking charas (marijuana), which they believe aidsenlightenment. Urdhwavahurs – who have emaciated bodies from rigidspiritual practicesParivajakas – who have taken a vow of silenceShirshasinse – who remain standing, sleep with theirheads resting on a vertical pole, and meditate standingon their heads. Kalpvasis – who remain by the river banks and devotetheir time to meditating, performing rituals, andbathing numerous times a day.WHAT RITUALS ARE PERFORMED AT THE KUMBH MELA?The main ritual performed at that Kumbh Mela is the ritualbath. Hindus believe that submerging themselves in the sacredwaters on the most auspicious day of the <strong>new</strong> moon will absolvethem and their ancestors of sin, thus ending the cycle of rebirth.Pilgrims start lining up to bathe from around 3 a.m. on this day.As the sun comes up, the different groups of sadhus move inprocession towards the river to bathe. The Nagas usually lead,while each group tries to outdo the others with more grandeurand fanfare. The moment is magical, and everyone is absorbedin it.After bathing, the pilgrims wear fresh clothes and proceed toworship by the river bank. They then walk around listening todiscourses from the various sadhus.PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 31

ProfileKiran Mazumdar ShawKiran Mazumdar Shaw is the Chairman & ManagingDirector of Biocon Ltd, India's biggest biotechnologycompany.Kiran Mazumdar Shaw was born on March23, 1953 in Bangalore.She had her schooling at Bishop CottonGirls School and Mount Carmel College at Bangalore.Afterdoing completing her B.Sc. in Zoology from BangaloreUniversity in 1973, she went to Ballarat University inMelbourne,Australiaand qualifiedas a masterbrewer.Kiran Mazumdar Shaw started her professional career asTrainee Brewer in Carlton &United Beverages in 1974.In 1978,she joined as Trainee Managerwith Biocon BiochemicalsLimitedin Ireland.In the same year, KiranMazumdar Shaw founded BioconIndia in collaboration with BioconBiochemicals Limited, with acapital of Rs.10,000. She initiallyfaced many problems regardingfunds for her business.Banks werehesitant to give loan to her asbiotechnology was a totally <strong>new</strong>field at that point of time and she was a woman entrepreneur,whichwas a rare phenomenon.Biocon's initial operation was to extract an enzyme frompapaya.Under Kiran Mazumdar Shaw's stewardship Biocontransformed from an industrial enzymes company to anintegrated biopharmaceutical company with strategic researchinitiatives.Today, Biocon is recognized as India's pioneeringbiotech enterprise.In 2004, Biocon came up with an IPO and theissue was over-subscribed by over 30 times.Post-IPO, KiranMazumdar Shaw held close to 40% of the stock of the companyand was regarded as India's richest woman with an estimatedworthof Rs.2,100 crore.She is a civic activist, especially with respect to municipaladministrationin Bangalore.She is also an art collector.She hasauthored 'Ale and Arty,' a Coffee table book about brewing beerillustrated by paintings of some of India's renowned artists.Famous brewing families and beer firms are the subject of thebook.In 1998, she married John Shaw, an expatriate managerand Indophile from Scotland at Madura Coats.John Shawresigned as the Managing Director of Madura Coats the sameyear and joined Biocon as its Director for InternationalBusinessand the Vice Chairman of the Board.She is also a greatenthusiastictrekker.In an interview with the Deccan Herald dated September 9,2003, Ms.Shaw revealed pride in Bangalore, the city where shewas born and brought up and her disappointment about thechanging beauty of old Bangalore she knows.In her interview,Ms.Shaw lamented at the crumbling beauty of Bangalore thatwas at one time a paradisecity with a soul.She felt that Bangalore has a unique culture of its own andthe infrastructure had not kept pace with development andhence led to decay in the beauty of the city.She felt thatBangalore culture includes its own theatres, food, music,academics, and architecture."There are very few cities in Indiawhere academicians and scientists are glorified the way they arein Bangalore", she said.In her effort to preserve the character of Bangalore, she hasbeen proactively involved in various city improvement plans likethe Bangalore Agenda Task Force (BATF).Being a lover of artand arty things, her office is adorned with artifacts and paintingsby Yusuf Arakkal and various other artistes.She has been atrustee of the Karnataka Chitra Kala Parishad as well.She holdsvery dear the MV Memorial Award she was given (MV popularlystands as a nick name for the great visionary Sir MVishwesharaiah, architect of modern Karnataka).According toMs.Shaw, she personallyk<strong>new</strong> Sir MV and they were good familyfriends.The award reminded her of her childhood days and shefelt honored to receiveit.Her principles to live life are: Do not make judgment onthings, people, and issues with half information.Listen to thelittle drummer in you who keeps saying break free, becomelarge, and build somethingmemorable.Kiran MazumdarShaw is the recipient of several prestigiousawards.These include ET Businesswoman of the Year, BestWoman Entrepreneur, Model Employer, Ernst & Young'sEntrepreneur of the Year Award for Life Sciences & Healthcare,Leading Exporter, Outstanding Citizen, Technology Pioneer,etc.Government of India also felicitated her with Padmashri(1989) and Padma Bhushan (2005).She was termed India'sBiotechQueenby The Economistand Fortune.32 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

ProfileGautam SinghaniaIndia's 'complete man'Gautam Singhania was born in an industrialist family toVijaypat Singhania and Ashabai Singhania on 9September, 1965. He joined the Singhania family’s JKGroup of companies in 1986. He later joined the family'sRaymond Group, becoming a Director in 1990, the ManagingDirector in July 1999, and the Chairman in September 2000. Herestructured the group and sold Raymond's non-corebusinesses (synthetics, steel and cement).Under him; thegroup moved its focus to fabrics, apparel brands, prophylactics,and men's toiletries. He has also focused on internationalpartnerships for Raymond, including joint ventures with UCOof Belgium (denim) and Gruppo Zambaiti of Italy (shirting).Raymond’s CMD says heloves life in the fast lane, butsteering Raymond to greaterheights is what he enjoys themost these days.Gautam Singhania surelywants to personify everythingthat his company stands for.The 41-year old CMD of theRs 2,000 crore (Rs 20 billion)Raymond says he is a"complete man"- a referenceto the group's popular ad line.Elaborating a little more onthe "complete man" there arethree reasons for this, Singhania says: First, he has been able tokeep his emotion in check while taking business decisions;second he makes it a point to give quality time to his family; andthird, he has not allowed his life to become all work and no play,and pursues his three hobbies religiously."It's good to be passionate about your business but only acomplete man can avoid taking emotional decisions about hisbusiness," he believes. Last year, he almost gave in to hisemotions by deciding to invest a substantial amount in IndiGo,the latest kid in the Indian aviation space. But the night beforethe final decision, he decided to separate his emotionaldecisions from his business ones. "It was very tough. But he says“I realized I need to follow my head and not my heart, asRaymond is on an upswing and needs all the time I can spare".He wants Raymond to focus in its core competence areas. That'sthe reason why he decided to sell three non-core businesses -synthetics, steel and cement - soon after taking charge from hisfather Vijaypat Singhania in 2000.He is immensely proud thatthe company straddles the entire spectrum, producing fabricsranging from Rs 150 per meter to Rs 125,000 per meter.The last one is what he calls the world's finest worstedsuiting fabric - the Super 230S made from 11.8 micron wool (onemicron is one millionth of a metre). He hasn't yet worn suitsmade from the fabric as he would prefer his customers to do so.Lakshmi Mittal was the first buyer of the fabric last year. He isequally proud of the fact that a <strong>new</strong>ly opened Raymond store inWest Bengal's Burdwan district sells one and a half times morethan the outlet in Andheri, Mumbai's tony suburb.While Super 230S was essentially to show the world thatRaymond has the technical excellence to produce any fabric, thecompany has also got a very impressive stable of men's RTWlabels - Park Avenue, Parx, Manzoni and Colorplus.The two latest initiatives have been the pret designer retailbusiness with Be: a chain of stores that stock the top Indianfashion labels, and Zapp, the children's apparel segment.Though analysts say the company has been quite slow inentering this highly lucrative segment, Singhania predictablydoesn't agree."The demand is limitless and there is nothing called delay inthe business that we are in. The name of the game is to beunique in your offering," he says.The company has also emerged as the world's largestintegrated producer of worsted suiting fabric with an annualcapacity of 31 million meters, and Singhania has upped thebranded shirts capacity to 6,000 shirts a day. “We are so fullyintegrated that we're literally 'From the sheep's back to the man'sback,” Singhania says.34 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

Brand iconGlaxosmithklineMost people don’t take the time to truly understandwhere the medical drugs that they are taking on aregular basis are coming from, whether they areprescription drugs or over the counter products. Still, anunderstanding of the origin of what you are taking is imperativeto understanding the pharmaceutical industry, an industry thathas more to do with your health and your personal financing thanyou may think. GlaxoSmithKline is one of the major players inthe pharmaceuticals industry.GSK was formed in 2000 by the merger ofGlaxoWellcome plc (formed from the acquisitionof Wellcome plc by Glaxo plc), andSmithKline Beecham plc (from themerger of Beecham plc, andSmithKlineBeckman Corporation).Just like many of the major drugcompanies in the United States, theGlaxoSmithKline company has a richBritish history beginning in the year1715, when Plough Court Pharmacy wasestablished in London. The history ofGlaxoSmithKline is actually two fold, as itwas created by a merger of two majorcompanies: GlaxoWellcome and SmithKlineBeecham. John K. Smith opened his first drugstorein Philadelphia in 1830, while in 1842 Thomas Beechamlaunched his Beecham’s Pills laxative.GlaxoSmithKline is a major pharmaceutical player in alltypes of health related products, including prescriptionmedicines as well as over-the-counter medicine. Prescriptionmedications include Amoxil, brand name for amoxicillin,Augmentin, Flonase, Paxil, Tagamet, Wellbutrin, Zantac andZyban, to name just a few. Then there are the over the counterproducts. These include Abreva, Citrucel, Nicoderm, Nicorette, Polident, Poligrip, Sensodyne, and Tums. In addition to these,Glaxo Smith Kline also creates vaccines including DPT ordiphtheria, pertussis and tetanus, and hepatitis vaccines.GlaxoSmithKline has its operational headquarters inPhiladelphia, USA, and operating companies in some 70countries, with products sold in over 140 countries. Theprincipal research and development (R&D) facilities are in theUK, USA, Japan, Italy and Belgium and products are currentlymanufactured in some 41 countries.Not unlike other pharmaceutical companies, drug researchis an important aspect of the GlaxoSmithKline culture. One ofthe specific focuses of the R&D (Research and development)portion of GSK, are the diseases unique to developing countries.These are specifically malaria, HIV, and tuberculosis. Still, therenineteen ongoing research projects thatGlaxoSmithKline is pursuing with thegoal of providing medications forthese diseases that are threateningmany developing nations. TheMetabolic and Viral DiseasesCenter of Excellence in Discovery,one of GSK’s research projects, isbased in Research Triangle Park inRaleigh, North Carolina. This Centerleads in “discovering <strong>new</strong> HIV/AIDStherapies.”In addition Glaxo has been short-listedfor awards such as the Worldaware BusinessAward for its work to eliminate malaria in Kenya.GlaxoSmithKline recently donated money to theBritish flood appeal, and was ranked first on the 2006 UKCorporate Citizenship Index for donations.In <strong>Feb</strong>ruary 2009, GSK head Andrew Witty announced thatthe company will cut drug prices by 25% in 50 of the poorestnations, release intellectual property rights for substances andprocesses relevant to neglected disease into a patent pool toencourage <strong>new</strong> drug development, and invest 20% of profitsfrom the least developed countries in medical infrastructure forthose countries.. The decision has received mixed reactionsfrom medical charities. Médecins Sans Frontières welcomed thedecision, encouraging other companies to follow suit, butcriticised GSK for failing to include HIV patents in their patentpool, and for not including middle-income countries in theinitiative.36 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

Guestroom‘Idiot’ IdeasLt. Col P. Deogirikar (Retd.)While 2009 left us numb with swine flue and dengue, in the last week of the year we were swept by the Bollywoodsuperhit “3 idiots”. So much so that one would be considered an idiot (in the way we understood it all along not whatis preached in this movie) if he/she has not seen this movie. This movie has appealed to the Indian psyche so much sothat it has become an all-time super-duper hit in a very short time. Management lessons have been drawn from it. Letus now paint this national phenomenon for the ‘consequences’ with our creative brush dipped in humourous colour.We will consider its impact in various fields.Social1. Madhavan and Sharman get the truth from Javed Jeffrey bythreatening to wash off the remains of his father in a flush toilet.Encouraged, a good-for-nothing disgruntled but only son maypressurize his old father to give him all in the father’s will afterthis flick. He could threaten his dad that the last remains of theold man (ashes) when he dies, would be flushed out in toilet andnot in the Ganges. To make it more revolting, he could even addthat it would be done in the dirtiest ones - the public toilets! InIndian psyche even what we get after the death matters and thisyouth may be able to get his way!kabool ho!” with their pants dropped! This activity should begood enough for the staff to check for explosives.Legal1. The descendants of Leonardo Da Vinci (the only manknown to have the ability to write with both handssimultaneously) are seriously consulting whether they can suethe makers of this movie which has used the unparalleled specialfeature of their ancestor by showing Dr. Sahastrabuddhe(Boman Irani) doing so. Or, alternatively, whether they can claimsome profits from this huge hit.2. Nagar Nigams of some cities are planning a system whichwill have all electric poles carry a small electric current flowingthrough them. This could be taken from the pole itself. Thiscurrent would be small enough so as not to damage the humanwho might accidentally touch it. Or even the bigger animals likecows etc. This system would affect only the stray dogs. The dogswould get an electric shock when they peeon these poles. This would make the dogsforget about this dirty habit. And therewould be a major benefit as well. Thesedogs would be castrated automaticallywhen the electric current reaches where itreaches! This would take care of themultiplying number of the stray dogs andwould help a great deal in controlling thepopulation of stray dogs.3. Recently a case was unearthed in USwhere a Nigerian terrorist, Abdulmutallab,was caught with explosives stitched in hisunderwear. After 3 Idiots, airlines areconsidering whether they should make itcompulsory for all passengers to greet thesecurity staff with “Jahanpanah, tohfaI am sorry Mamma, but I will not memorize anymaths tables, please! Amir uncle has clearlysuggested in 3 Idiots that there should be no rotelearning.2. A special show was organized for the Indian cricketers.After this his friends have started teasing by calling him ‘Virus’in dressing room. Now Viru S-ehwag is actively contemplatingwhether he should sue Mr. Hirani for his plight.3. Mr. Hirani used the scenes of ragging by senior studentsand ‘impersonation for a student’ to goodadvantage in both Munnabhai and 3 Idiots.In fact in 3 Idiots the hero not onlycompletes the schooling in different namebut finishes engineering from aprestigious institute and manages to keepa lid on it for at least 10 years! Theeducational authorities feel this has beendone at their cost. They are consideringwhether they should take Hirani to courtor ask for a profit-share.4.Parents are on a legal battle with theschool authorities for allowing ‘necktiehooks’ and ‘velcro shirts’ in schooluniforms. (If you think it is a small matter,ask those harassed mothers fighting tenseeveryday battle with time while dispatching38 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

their kids for school or the grudging fathers who are forced to drop offthe kid to the next bus stop or even to the school!).5. Many private colleges are suing these movie maker as theyare losing their revenue thanks to the drop outs by the students invarious years, including final, for pursuing their hobbies orpassion! Government colleges are also suffering similarly but thebottom line (not to be confused with ‘tohfa’) is not their concern.6. Button manufacturers are suffering as the consumption ofbuttons has gone down considerably, thanks to the velcro. Theyare in a mood to drag the movie makers to the court of law.However, the velcro manufacturers have supported the moviemakers and have even promised to fund for this legal battle.7. A patient recently died while on operation table. His lawyeris fighting his case for the negligence by the doctors. He hascited number of examples to establish a rivalry between themedical students and the engineering students of every town.He states this rivalry extends into their professional lives. Nowhe is trying to prove that the doctors were stung by the forcepsdelivery carried out successfully by engineers in 3 Idiots usingvacuum cleaner. Hence, they kept trying to repair the faulty ECGmachine at that critical time rather than operating the dyingpatient on the operation table.Educational1. Some technical education institutes are considering achange of strategy to have only visiting faculty and no regularones. This is in line with 3 idiots message that practicalapplications are more important than the theoretical learning.2. Some student unions are boycotting the exams where theyare required to write definitions etc. verbatim.Commercial1. The sale of underwears has increased manifold as thisgarment becomes visible with the famous trend of ‘Tohfa kaboolho!”. Survey states that it is because people are now discardingthe underwear the moment the first hole appears and buy a <strong>new</strong>one. ‘Ander ki baat ab ander ki nahin hai!’ A famous underwearcompany has decided to sponsor this movie.2. The Unemployed Doctor’s lobby is pressurizing thegovernment to make it compulsory for air lines to have a‘Resident Doctor’ in every flight after Madhavan diverted theplane in 3 Idiots.3. Remember the Maruti 800 mentioned as dahej (dowry)expectation at Sharman Joshi’s house? Maruti Udyog is in theprocess of winding up this most popular model. They haveinitiated a dialogue with Mr. Hirani that this movie should‘upgrade their dialogue’ regularly as per the latest models of thisfirm. Obviously they expect this movie to run for a long time, onthe lines of ‘Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge’. Currently, they havesuggested ‘Alto’.4. A popular ‘chutni’ brand is considering starting a <strong>new</strong>brand named ‘Price-finder Chutni’.So, summing it up, we can look forward to great daysahead. In this <strong>new</strong> year, readers, this tohfa (article, please!)kabool ho!PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 39

opinion“The border region between Afghanistan andPakistan remains the epicentre of al Qaeda,”– Barack Obama, President of the US, said inan interview to People magazine“We are all Indians first. Mumbai, Chennai andDelhi belong to all Indians. That is the reality,”– Mukesh Ambani, Chairman, RelianceIndustries“I am firmly against doing marginal roles in bigbudgeted movies. I want to do roles which havedignity.”– Naseeruddin Shah, Bollywood actor“Violence and democracy cannot co-exist”– Meira Kumar, Speaker, Lok Sabha, said atthe inauguration of the twelfth North-EastRegion Commonwealth ParliamentaryAssociation conference in Shillong“It is clear that the <strong>Centre</strong> is working under theinfluence and pressure of capitalists and if itfails to take effective measures against pricehike immediately, my party will be forced tolaunch a nationwide agitation,”– Mayawati, Chief Minister Uttar Pradesh,told in a press conference.“The party's treatment towards me had notbeen right...to those who have been demandingmy resignation from the Rajya Sabha I have tosay that if Netaji (Mulayam Singh Yadav)returns my kidneys I would resign”– Amar Singh, addressing a public meetingin Madgava village, after being expelled fromThe Samajwadi Party“For a small country like Haiti, this (quake) is atsunami-like disaster. This is a majorcatastrophe and a huge humanitarian crisis.”– Ban Ki-moon, UN Secretary General“We are strengthening our security set up in allareas including Arunachal Pradesh because it isan integral part of India,”– A. K. Antony, Indian Defence Minister toldreporters in Bangalore“If I have any ideal in politics that is MahatmaGandhiji for me.”– Rahul Gandhi, Congress General Secretary,Addressing students of the Devi AhilyaUniversity in Indore"Mumbai may belong to all Indians, but how canit belong to an Italian mummy,"– Bal Thackeray, Shiv Sena Chief, said in aneditorial in party mouthpiece 'Saamana'.“ When we were playing and developed reverseswing we were accused of being cheats andtampering with the ball, but when the Englishand other bowlers did it became an art,"– Imran Khan, Pakistan's former Captainbacking Afridi's claim, who has been bannedfor two Twenty20 matches for tampering withthe ball in a one-dayer against Australia“Rahman is a good arranger of music.”– Lata Mangeshkar, Legendary singer40 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

Brand iconebay:Online Shopping MallCompared with other dotcom companies launchedalmost at the same time as eBay, none has ever reachedthe level of success and popularity among a very hugeclient base than that of eBay's. Throughout its existence, thecompany remained steadfast in surviving the bubble burst, butalso maintained if not improved its position in the market today.Sometime before September, 1995, 28-year-old softwaredeveloper Pierre Omidyar, who had previously worked withClaris developing software for Apple computers, sat down towrite the code that would eventually evolve into what we know aseBay today.eBay is the largest online auction and shoppingwebsite that lets people from around the world selland/buy their wares. As such, it offers online auctionhosting, electronic commerce, virtual shopping mall,and with its acquisition of Paypal and Skype, anonline payment system VoIP services for its users.Just like other online companies that werelaunched at around the same time, eBay traces itsmodest beginnings in San Jose, California on September 4, 1995when computer programmer Pierre Omidyar put up"AuctionWeb" as part of a website for his online consulting firmEcho Bay Technology Group. For this, Omidyar tried to registerthe domain name EchoBay.com, but failed as gold miningcompany Echo Bay Mines had already taken it. So he settled forthe shortened domain name eBay.com.To test the waters, Omidyar sold the very first item online,his very own broken laser pointer. To his amazement, a biddingmaterialized, and the item was sold for $13.83. In November1996, eBay entered into its first third-party licensing deal, with acompany called Electronic Travel Auction to use SmartMarketTechnology to sell plane tickets and other travel products.Growth was phenomenal; in January 1997 the site hosted2,000,000 auctions, compared with 250,000 during the whole of1996.In 1997, eBay got venture funding and officially changed itscompany name to eBay. Its defining moment came on June 10,1999, when a 22-hour crash turned an otherwise worst momentfor the company into an incident that won millions of usersdeeper trust for the company. During the 22-hour crash that day,upon management directive some 400 employees of eBay wentout of their way to call sellers to apologize for the temporaryglitch. Ebay's unanticipated action won a lot of admiration fromeBay users around the world.eBay's position continues to change as online retail evolves.eBay's 1998 IPO occurred during the fabled "dot com bubble"and was influenced by many of the forces that made othertechnology and Internet IPOs so (in)famous. eBay's initial $18target price gave way to a steady climb, reaching a high of justover $58 per share in 2004 before embarkingon a steady decline. eBay's revenue growthwas initially 30 percent or more year overyear, making eBay one of the breakoutwinners of the dot com race.The Website Half.com was bought byeBay in 2000 and fully integrated into eBay'sweb community in 2001. Half.com allowsusers to buy and sell items at lower ratesmuch like eBay but without the auction feature. In October of2002 eBay acquired Paypal Inc. for 1.5 billion dollars. Paypal isthe preferred way of making payments for eBay auctions and isgrowing in popularity for other Internet uses. Paypal allows aperson to send or receive money via an email address. Money in aPaypal account can be spent on the Internet, sent by cheque tothe account owner, or deposited into a bank account. Paypal alsooffers credit cards, debit cards, and a bill paying function.In early 2008, the company had expanded worldwide,counted hundreds of millions of registered users, 15,000+employees and revenues of almost $7.7 billion After nearly tenyears at eBay, Whitman made the decision to enter politics. OnJanuary 23, 2008, the company announced that Whitman wouldstep down on March 31, 2008 and John Donahoe was selected tobecome President and CEO. Whitman remained on the Board ofDirectors and continued to advise Donahoe through 2008. Inlate 2009, eBay completed the sale of Skype for $2.75 Billion, butwill still own 30% equity in the company. With this kind ofinteraction with customers and attention to detail, eBay shouldbe around for a long time to come.PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 41

Current eventsBusiness and economyWORLD ECONOMY RECOVERING FASTER THANEXPECTED: IMFThe InternationalMonetary Fund's predictionsfor global economic growthwill almost certainly be revisedupward as the world embarkson a quicker-than-expectedrecovery from its worstrecession in generations, theIMF's deputy head said.John Lipsky, the IMF'sfirst Deputy ManagingDirector, said the greater optimism would be reflected in aJanuary update of the IMF's World Economic Outlook (WEO), aseries of global forecasts that were last released in October."The year <strong>2010</strong> has opened amid generalised - but tempered- optimism about the global economic and financial outlook,"Lipsky said in a posting on the IMF website.“The improved prospects are evident in economic data, infinancial market performance and in the marking up ofeconomic forecasts," he said. "In fact, somewhat more upbeatexpectations no doubt will be reflected in the regular January(WEO) update.”The IMF in October forecast that world economic outputwould grow by 3.1 percent in <strong>2010</strong>, after shrinking by 1.1 percentin 2009.Wealthy nations will gain 1.3 percent, while developing andemerging countries will lead the rebound with 5.1 percentgrowth in <strong>2010</strong>.Lipsky said there were still reasons for caution as the worldcomes out of recession, citing high unemployment and fragilefinancial systems in advanced economies. He urged worldgovernments to keep massive public spending measures in placethrough <strong>2010</strong>.BHARTI AIRTEL PROMOTES DEPUTY CEO ASNEW CHIEF EXECBharti Airtel, India's topmobile operator promoted DeputyCEO Sanjay Kapoor as its <strong>new</strong>CEO for India and South Asia andcreated a <strong>new</strong> internationalbusiness group to focus onexpansion beyond these regions.Current CEO Manoj Kohli willhead the <strong>new</strong> international business group as CEO(international) and will remain a Joint Managing Director of thecompany, Bharti Airtel said in a statement. The changes areeffectivefrom April 1, the statementadded.JKJKJKINDIA'S ECONOMY TO GROW 7.75 PERCENT: FMThe government pegged economicgrowth for the current fiscal at 7.75percent, higher than all previousestimates, but said high food inflationremained a cause for concern.In a pre-Budget interaction withstates finance ministers, Union FinanceMinister Pranab Mukherjee pointed outthat there was enough wheat and ricestocks and proposed open market sale for offloading of thesestocks to increase availability in the market, which would in turnease prices."A major area of concern is high food inflation; WPI indexincreased by 19.79 percent, therefore collaborative efforts of thecentral and state governments are required to tackle thisproblem... Off take of surplus stock by the state governments arenot satisfactory. Therefore, all the state governments maycooperate in this regard to lift these surplus stocks allotted tothem," Mukherjee said at the meeting.42 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

Mukherjee said that economic recovery will be acollaborative effort of the centre and the states.Economic growth stood at 7 percent during the first half ofthe current fiscal, Mukherjee said, pegging GDP growth for thewhole fiscal at around 7.75 percent - a number that exceeds theinitial estimates of the government as well as the RBI.The Union Finance Minister asked the state governments toutilise the cash surplus for development activities.JKJKJKMTNL'S SINHA RESIGNS AS CMDIn a surprise development,telecom PSU MTNL's Chairmanand Managing Director, R S P Sinhahas resigned from the post."Yes, I have put in my papers,"Sinha told a <strong>new</strong>s agency but did notspeak about the reasons forstepping down.Sinha was on an ad-hocextension after completing his fiveyeartenure in September last year. However, he is 18 monthsaway from superannuation.The resignation comes amid a debate over the fallingrevenues and financial performance of the corporation which isalso engaged in a legal battle for buying equipments fromMotorola 10 years ago.At the time of the signing of the equipment contract, Sinhawas Director (Finance) with MTNL, which has operations inDelhi and Mumbai.JKJKJKWIPRO, ORACLE LAUNCH PROCESSINTEGRATION PACKTo provide comprehensive solution for the retail industry,Wipro Technologies and Oracle announced the launch of the codevelopedOracle Application Integration Architecture (AIA)Process Integration Pack (PIP). This Oracle AIA ProcessIntegration Pack development is part of the larger co-innovationagenda between Oracle and Wipro and is driven by masterservices agreement signed earlier in 2009.This Oracle AIA PIPaddresses some of these keyfinancial operation controlprocesses for retailmerchandising systemincluding - Inventory Valuation,Revenue Recognition andMerchandising Procure to Pay,according to a Wipro statement.The Oracle AIA PIP integratesOracle Retail MerchandiseOperations Management andthe Oracle E-Business Suite Financials using OracleApplication Integration Architecture (AIA) to offer customers apre-configured, supportable and upgradeable integration of theretail merchandising execution applications with the financialoperation control applications.Wipro is one of the first partners to sign such an agreementwith Oracle wherein end-to-end industry process solutionsacross five industries including communication, retail,consumer products, hi-tech, and industrial manufacturingwould be developed.JKJKJKIT SPENDING TO GROW BY 8%IN<strong>2010</strong>: FORRESTERAfter facing a difficult situation in2009, IT industry is expected to see agrowth of 8.1 percent in spending in<strong>2010</strong> with software and computerhardware leading the charge.According to a report from ForresterResearch, the market growth will touch$1.6 trillion, compares with an 8.9percent decline in global spending in 2009. U.S. is expected tobe the strongest tech growth region with an expected increase of6.6 percent to $568 billion after a decline of 8.2 percent in 2009.Forrester sees global spending on software up 9.7 per cent thisyear and said purchases of computer equipment would rise 8.2percent, while communications equipment will see a spendingincrease of about 7.6 percent.Forrester analyst Andrew Bartels said, "The technologydownturn of 2008 and 2009 is unofficially over. All the pieces are inplace for a <strong>2010</strong> tech spending rebound. The tech recovery isexpected to be "much stronger than the overall economicrecovery" in the U.S. this year, with technology spending growingat more than twice the rate of gross domestic product (GDP).”PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 43

Investors do not seem to believe this prediction. They arehoping that upcoming quarterly earnings reports show somesigns that back up these predictions.Bartels said, “I see <strong>2010</strong> as the start of a longer growth cycleespecially for technologies involving server and storagevirtualisation, cloud computing and unified communications.We are entering a <strong>new</strong> 6 to 7 year cycle of IT growth andinnovation that Forrester calls Smart Computing.”JKJKJKWIPRO BAGS SIXTH CONSECUTIVE ASTD 'BEST'AWARDConsecutively since 2004 to 2009, ITCompany Wipro has been conferred theAmerican Society for Training andDevelopment (ASTD) BEST award for itslearning and development practices. Wiprohas been the only company in the world to winthis award six times.The awards recognize organizations thatdemonstrate enterprise-wide successthrough employee learning and development.According to Tony Bingham, ASTD's President and CEO, "TheBEST award winners set the standard for exceptional learningand performance. They excel at aligning learning with businessneeds, demonstrating business impact and providing a broadrange of learning opportunities for employees." The ASTD isthe world's largest association dedicated to training anddevelopment field in more than 100 countries.Dr. Selvan D, Senior Vice Preisdent, Talent Transformation,Wipro Technologies, said, "Our employee strength of 100,000and presence in over 50 geographies makes the task of trainingeven more challenging."The Talent Transformation Team at Wipro comprises morethan 110 trainers. The training is conducted at 10 learningfacilities across six cities where 5000 people can be trained on agiven day.JKJKJKACTIVE-MOBILE INTERNET USERS REACH 2 MILLIONThere are about two million users accessing the Internetthrough their mobile phones and other mobile devices on anactive basis in the country. The active users of Internet, accessthe Internet through their mobile devices at least once a month,says a study.According to a joint studyconducted by the IAMAI-IMRB, about 27 percent orclose to 127 million mobileusers have Internet-readymobile devices. But out ofthese, only 9.4 percent or 12million users have accessed theInternet from their mobilephones at least once in last one year. The Internet and MobileAssociation of India (IAMAI) is an industry body working for theonline and mobile value-added services sectors.Adding further, the study says that it comes down to twomillion or 17 percent when it comes to active-users. The reportalso highlights that nearly 70 percent of these users fall into theage group of 18-35 years, which incidentally constitutes themajor chunk of active Internet user base in the country.About 60 percent users are estimated to be accessing theInternet through mobile devices for activities like chatting,accessing the social networking sites and mobile blogging,followed by information search. (23 percent of the total activeusers).As India plans toincrease its share of nuclearpower generation fromcurrent level of four percentto nine percent in the next25 years, IT companies arenot leaving any chance tograb key engineeringcontracts.JKJKJKINDIAN IT FIRMS BID FOR $7 BILLION NUKE POWERDEALSCompanies like TCS, Satyam, QuEST Global and CranesSoftware have shown interest in bidding for these contracts.India is emerging as a major player in the global race to buildnuclear power plants and there are plans to create additional15-17 gigawatts(GW) of nuclear power. Experts said that itcould cost anywhere between $2 billion and $4 billion to designand build a nuclear power station, which can generate 1GW ofpower. The cost is likely to vary based on the technology of thenuclear plant, the power of the reactor and the location of theplant. Bejoy George, Chief Marketing Officer, QuEST Globalsaid, "The engineering content would constitute about 9-10percent of the total cost of designing and building a nuclearpower plant."44 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

Indian tech companies have had sufficient exposure to thenuclear power generation segment. Many Indian companieswere shortlisted for a contract worth a few crores floated by theInternational Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tobuild a small nuclear reactor for scientific research. A personclose with this development said, "Cranes Software had reachedthe final stages of discussion and may have bagged the contract,"said a person familiar with the development.QuEST Global is already in talks with players in the U.S,Europe and Japan in the nuclear industry to offer engineeringservices. It foresees that its Indian engineers will work mainlyfor Indian nuclear projects, while engineers, who are based inother countries, can work for nuclear projects of that particularcountry. "We have submitted a few proposals, and are awaitingthe final decision," said George.Experts such as former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)Chairman and nuclear scientist Anil Kakodkar had said thatwith the Indo-U.S. nuclear deal in place and domesticproduction of uranium going up, they will be able to reach fullcapacity from existing and <strong>new</strong>ly planned nuclear powerstations.JKJKJKL&T INFOTECH BAGS TWO INDIAN RAILWAYS'PROJECTSL&T Infotech, a part of Rs.40,000 crore engineering andconstruction major Larsen andToubro (L&T), bagged two majorrailway projects for computerizingthe maintenance of rolling assets ofIndian Railways.As per the project, the companywould deploy its EnterpriseResource Planning (ERP) software and the underlying hardwarefor automating the maintenance of the two major rolling assets -wagon fleet and diesel locomotives. On the occasion, SudipBanerjee, CEO, L&T Infotech said, "These breakthroughSystem Integration projects reaffirm L&T Infotech's position ofpre-eminence when it comes to execution of large complexprojects."The execution of these projects will involve creation of twocentralized ERP-based applications; the freight maintenancemanagement (FMM) for management of freight/wagon depotsand loco-shed management system (LMS) for management ofdiesel locomotive sheds. Wagon maintenance depots are thefront line units for the maintenance of wagons, and diesellocomotive sheds are the front line units for the maintenance ofdiesel locomotives on 24x7 basis. The <strong>new</strong> projects includeinstallation, commissioning and multi-year on-going support ofhardware and systems in the implementation.The end-to-end System Integration (SI) projects wereconceptualized and tendered by <strong>Centre</strong> for Railway InformationSystem (CRIS), the IT arm of Indian Railways.Bangladesh's telecomregulator has approvedIndian firm Bharti Airtel's$300 million initialinvestment proposal to buy a70 percent stake in Warid, thefourth largest mobilecompany in the country.JKJKJKDHAKA TELECOM REGULATOR OKAYS BHARTI AIRTEL'SENTRY"We have approved Bharti Airtel's plan to buy the Waridstake," Bangladesh Telecommunication RegulatoryCommission (BTRC) Chairman Zia Ahmed told The Daily Star<strong>new</strong>spaper.Bharti will take over a 70 percent stake in Warid by creating<strong>new</strong> shares, possibly at a nominal price.Bharti Airtel is one of the Asia's leading providers oftelecommunication services with presence in all the 22 licensedjurisdictions in India and in Sri Lanka. It served an aggregate of113,439,670 customers as of Sep 30, 2009 according to thecompany website.The company also deploys, owns and manages passiveinfrastructure of telecom operations under its subsidiary BhartiInfratel Ltd.With the BTRC approval, Bharti Airtel would be the firstIndian telecom operator to enter Bangladesh's mobile market tocompete with Bangladesh-Norway joint ventureGrameenphone, Egypt-based Banglalink, Malaysia-Japan jointventure AKTEL, Bangladesh-Singapore joint venture Citycelland state-run Teletalk.The BTRC Chairman said the commission welcomed theIndian telecom giant as Airtel has a dynamic background intelecom sector with operations in different countries.PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 45

APPLE SEEKS TO BAN NOKIA PHONES IN U.S.Apple retaliated against Nokia's trade ban request by filingits own complaint with the U.S.International Trade Commission (ITC).Apple wants to block import of Nokia'sphones to the U.S. under theclaim that they infringeApple patents. Nokia insistsit will "defend itselfvigorously" against thecomplaint and reiterated itsopinion that Apple is trying to benefit from Nokia-developedwireless technology, including aspects of 3G.As of now, several companies already have licenses fromNokia, but few have challenged the validity of the patents behindthe techniques. "This does not alter the fact that Apple has failedto agree appropriate terms for using Nokia technology and hasbeen seeking a free ride on Nokia's innovation since it shippedthe first iPhone in 2007," a spokesman said.Nokia's ITC complaint in December 2009 would, if won,entirely ban sales of most if not all iPhones, iPods and Macs inthe U.S. Nokia's call for a trade ban in turn was a response toApple countersuing Nokia; the response accused Nokia of suingonly because it couldn't fairly compete in the smartphone spaceand that it was trying to profiteer from another's success.Critics have noted that purchasing trends have partlysupported Apple's view, as Nokia has been steadily losing marketshare since the iPhone became available internationally,especially in its usual stronghold of Europe.JKJKJKGOVT ALLOWS DUTY FREE SUGAR IMPORTS TILLDEC ENDThe government allowed import of refined sugar at zero dutyup to 31st December this year in the wake of sweetener pricesnearing Rs 50 a kg in the retail market.The Cabinet Committee on Prices (CCP) also decided topermit UP mills to process imported raw sugar outside the statedue to restrictions there.Two-three million tonnes of wheat would be released in theopen market in the next two months to check prices, AgricultureMinister Sharad Pawar told reporters after the meeting.Import of white sugar was allowed till 31st March this yearearlier.Food inflation has reached near 20 percent while sugar isinching near Rs 50 a kg in the retail market.The Prime Minister would also review the implementationof the Essential Commodities Act for reining in the food prices,Pawar said.The Mayawati government does not allow the mills toprocess the imported raw sugar in Uttar Pradesh despiterepeated requests from the <strong>Centre</strong>.JKJKJKDON'T TAKE ACTION AGAINST SATYAM: INDIA TO U.S.Indian authorities asked U.S. officials not to take any actionagainst the scam-hit Satyam, as it wouldamount to punishing shareholders of theIT Company for a second time. SatyamComputer Services, now MahindraSatyam, can face punitive action in theU.S. as the company's shares were listedand traded on American bourses.The scam-hit company is also contesting about a dozen classaction suits in U.S. courts, which could entail a heavy penalty onthe company. Also, the company can face action by the U.S.Securities Exchange Commission (SEC). Commenting onwhether the government has taken up the issue of Satyam withthe U.S. authorities, Corporate Affairs Minister SalmanKhurshid told, "SEBI has marshalled a request (to U.S.Securities Exchange Commission) and we are monitoringthem. On the political level such signals can be sent and we havealready sent them."The American administration would understand the issue,the minister hoped. Khurshid said, "The case has been laid outquite well. And the case being that nothing should actuallypunish the shareholders a second time over, because any fineimposed on the company will inevitably hurt the shareholders.But I am keeping my fingers crossed," he said.Satyam Founder B Ramalinga Raju's disclosure ofaccounting fraud on January 7, 2008, is reported to have resultedin a loss of around Rs. 14,000 crore to the shareholders. The daywhen Raju disclosed the fraud to Indian market regulatorSecurities and Exchange Board of India, the New York StockExchange (NYSE)halted trading in Satyam after the stockplunged by over 90 percent to $0.85 in pre-market trade.In the U.S., the securities laws have empowered defraudedinvestors to get compensation from the errant parties. SEC canalso enforce action and get damages /compensation for investors.46 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

SBI TO INSTALL TALKING ATMS FOR VISUALLYCHALLENGEDThe State Bank of India (SBI) plans to introduce 7,000 voiceenabledautomated teller machines(ATMs) across the country for visuallychallenged customers beginning inthe month of <strong>Feb</strong>ruary. These voiceenabledATMs, customised withheadphones and braille key pads, willoffer services like fund transfer anddownloading of account statements."Out of our 18,500 ATMs, 7,000will be made voice enabled for visuallychallenged people. We expect to launch these talking ATMsstarting next month," SBI's General Manager (AlternateChannels) Amitabh Kumar told in Bangalore. At present, SBI istesting these voice-enabled ATMs with its partners NCR andDiebold and expects to make these operational in a month'stime, he said. SBI plans to install these ATMs in metro, urbanand semi urban towns across the country."The country has 10.6 million visually challenged people andit is the duty of the banks to help these people meet their bankingneeds," ICICI Bank's CEO and Managing Director, ChandaKochhar said. ICICI Bank had installed its first talking ATM in2003.Over the years, the bank has also ensured that the basicbanking facilities can be used by physically handicapped people,Kochhar said.JKJKJKCHINA’S ECONOMY GREW 8.7 PC IN 09China’s economy, the world’s fastest growing one, metdomestic targets to grow 8.7 per cent last year, rounding off theyear with a 10.7 per cent in the last quarter. It is on course totoppling Japan as the second-biggest economy this year.The GDP growth was lower than the 9.6 per cent growth in2008 and a double-digit boom in previous years, but it was stillbetter than Beijing’s own eight per cent target that thecommunist leadership says is necessary to maintain socialstability and create jobs.In 2009, China’s economy steadily recovered from thefinancial crisis and kept rising – 6.2 per cent in the first quarter,7.9 percent in the second, and 9.1 percent in the third. Thefourth quarter saw the fastest quarterly growth in two years.The recovery is largelyattributed to Beijing’s quick andmassive injection of an economicstimulus of $585 billion, about 20times the size of India’s stimulus,in November 2008.“China continues to be thesingle-largest contributor to world growth,’’ said, Vivek Arora,Chief representative of the International Monetary Fund inChina.India, the No. 2 in growth rates, expanded by 7.9 per centyear-on-year in the July-September quarter. That was thestrongest in six quarters.India slowed to a 6.7 per cent growth rate in 2008-09 aftergrowing at close to 9 per cent for four straight years before theglobal financial crisis set in.In China, economists began revising forecasts for <strong>2010</strong> from9.5 to 10 per cent. Officials said controlling inflation, surginghome prices and bank loans while creating domestic demandwere necessary to prevent the economy overheating.Chinese exports, the main engine of growth, have not fullyrecovered though the country recently surpassed Germany asthe world’s top exporter.JKJKJKRBI HIKES CRR BY 75 BPS TO 5.75%The RBI has increased cash reserve ratio by 75 bps to 5.75%,whereas key interest rates were unchanged in its third quarterreview of the Annual Monetary Policy. CRR hike would suck outRs 36,000 crore liquidity from the system. The hike wouldhappen in two stages, the first stage of hike of 50 bps will beeffective from <strong>Feb</strong>ruary 13 and the next 25 bps from <strong>Feb</strong>ruary 27.RBI kept the reverse repo rate unchanged at 3.25% and repo rateat 4.75%.RBI projected the GDP growth for financial year 2009-10 at7.5% from 6% last year. It also said that the inflation would bearound 8.5% in March.This policy is the first major move to mark the reversal of theeasy money policy adopted since October 2008. A CRR hike hasnot come as a shocker for markets as the same has largely beenfactored into expectations.Taking a cue from RBI's monetary policy stance, banks mightnot hike their auto, home and education loans in the near term.PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 47

Increases in CRRcould push bondyields up, and weighon shares of banks aswell as sectors suchas auto and propertyconcerns on loandemand may slow.The central bankabsorbs excessfunds from thebanking system atthe reverse repo rate,which is at 3.25percent, and lends money to banks at the repo rate, which is 4.75percent."With a stronger recovery in India, the risk of food priceinflation causing generalized inflation cannot be ignored," theRBI said in a report.Food inflation had come down to 16.81% in the precedingweek (January 9) after spotting the 20% mark in December, thehighest in a decade.High food prices have led to firming up of overall inflationtoo, which rose to 7.31% in December from 4.78% in November.Overall inflation was at sub-zero levels for 13 weeks tillSeptember last year.Industrial output grew 11.7 per cent in November from ayear earlier, as stimulus measures since October 2008 toovercome the global credit crunch supported domestic demand.As expected this step of the Central Bank could be observed inthe line of an exit from an accommodative monetary policy in itsquarterly credit policy review. Analysts taking cue from last policyreview had been expecting the RBI to start exiting its year-oldaccommodative monetary stance starting in early <strong>2010</strong>, as signsemerge of a pick up in growth and inflationary pressures rise.JKJKJKINDIAN BIOTECH INDUSTRY TO TOP $10 B BY 2015Positive triggers would propel India's biotech sector tobecome a ten billion dollars industry by 2015, CMD of BioconLtd Kiran Mazumdar Shaw said on Jan 19.The BT industry veteran expects the industry to grow to fivebillion dollars by next year."By 2015, we expect it to become a size of ten billion dollars",Mazumdar Shaw told reporters. India's BT industry is at aninflexion point, has attained "critical mass" and created aplatform that allows it to leapfrog and deliver exponentialgrowth, she said."India is today becoming the vaccine capital of the world.Bio-manufacturing offers a huge potential and already there areindications that many global contract manufacturers announcedthey will be shifting their base from Europe to Asia. I think Indiawill be one of the beneficiaries of that particular strategy",Mazumdar Shaw said.Clinical trials, agri-biotech and bio-fuels are becoming bigopportunities for India, she said. "There are a lot of growthdrivers and trigger points which we think will deliver in the nextfive years".JKJKJKGOOGLE LAUNCHES NEW VERSION OF GOOGLE VOICEFOR IPHONEThe Apple vs. Google controversiescontinue as Google has launched thelaterst version of Google voice in an effortto bypass Apple's protest and banning ofthe earlier application. The <strong>new</strong> versionof Google Voice can only be accessedthrough a smartphone's web browser,unlike the so-called native apps that can be downloaded directlyonto an iPhone, according to Reuters.Last year Apple had turned down Google voice applicationwhich resulted into public spat and prompted the U.S. FederalCommunications Commission to request more informationfrom the companies on the matter. Apple responded at the timethat the Google Voice app had not been rejected, but that it wasunder review.Recently, the competition between both these giants hasincreased further as both encroach into each other’s market.Google has entered the mobile market with the launch of NexusOne and has declared that it will soon be launching an operatingsystem which will challenge Apple's Mac Pcs.Google Voice allows users to make cheap long-distance callsand to forward calls from a single phone number to multiplephones. Google already had a version of Google Voice availablethrough mobile Web browsers. Amongst all these controversies,Google CEO, Eric Schmidt had resigned from Apple's Board ofDirectors in August last year.48 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

Stem cells: ImportanceStem cells are individual cells that have a high level ofplasticity. This plasticity means that they can grow ortransform into not only other cells, but also tissue andeven organs that the body requires. While a stem cell is initiallyuseless, they act like a blank cell that can be converted toperform any number of tasks within the body. Stem cells areabundant in embryos and veryyoung infants, and until recently itwas believed that they were onlypresent in bone marrow and skinwithin adults. However, recentresearch has shown that adultstem cells are also present in thebrain randomly surrounded bymillions of other cells that cannotbe disturbed.PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLSAfter fertilization a single cell is produced called the zygote.This cell then divides into two, and each of the remaining cellsalso divide into two. This continues until there areapproximately 150 cells about 5 days after conception. At thisstage there are two types of cell present, the trophoblast and theinner cell mass. The inner cell mass, or embryonic stem cells,mature and form other cells, tissue and even organs. Becausethere are basically no limits to what these stem cells can becomethey are calledpluripotentstem cells.MULTIPOTENT STEM CELLSOnce we reach maturity, the number of stem cells foundwithin our bodies decreases massively and while they are stillpresent they are more difficult to find and have become morerigid than pluripotent stem cells. By this time they have startedtheir transformation to the type of cell they will eventually beeven though they may be currently lying dormant. Stem cells arefound in small numbers within bone marrow and these stemcells can form specialist blood cells but nothing else. Bonemarrow transplants are regularly used to help people who sufferfrom blood related diseases such as leukemia and anemia butthe amount of donors is far less than the number of patients whorequire a transfusion.WHAT DOES THE BODY USE STEM CELLS FOR?At a very young age, and certainly before birth, stem cells areused to create virtually everything the body needs and damagecan usually be rectified effectively by the stem cells that arepresent. However, because adult stem cells show less plasticity,they are usually unable to help in the fight against certaindiseases and afflictions. Skin and the liver can naturally mend ifslight damage is done because the body has stored stem cells forthis purpose. However, this isn't always the case. Cancer,Parkinson's and many other different diseases can not be curedby the body itself, but by implanting stem cells this will becomepossible.OBTAINING STEM CELLSPreviously it has been necessary to undergo a bone marrowtransplant in order to receive <strong>new</strong> stem cells, and this techniqueis limited to only a few diseases. However, researchers havediscovered that stem cells are not only present in adult bonemarrow but also in embryos, umbilical cord blood, baby teethand even the amniotic fluid. Much of the research carried out onstem cells is being met by a great deal of controversy, especiallyconcerning embryos and unborn children but the fact remainsthat the answer to curing many previously incurable diseaseslooks likely to lie withinstem cells.CHEVROLET Louis Chevrolet William C. DurantIn the early 1900s, 2 race car drivers, and , met on a racetrack in Michigan.French driver Chevrolet was also a car designer and American driver Durant was an executive of the Buick car plant in Flint, Mich.The cars designed by Chevrolet were large and costly, but Durant modified them into smaller, less expensive models. He kept thename, "Chevrolet," because it "had a musical sound and the romance of foreign origin." The rectangle-superimposed-upon-aparallelogramtrademark designed for Chevrolet cars was discovered by Durant while he traveled in France. He was attracted bythe patternwhichappeared in the wallpaperof a hotel room and rippedoff a sampleto take back to the U.S.PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 49

English may appear to be asimple language to speak andwrite. However we tend tomake a number of common errorswhen we use the language. Manywords or expressions appear orsound correct due to repeated use.Through these articles we will helpyou to identify and correct commonerrors in your written work andspoken English to enable you toexpress yourself in a clearer andmore acceptable way.Some of the errors are listedbelow. Try to avoid them!!!COMMON ERRORS INENGLISH LANGUAGEERRORS IN WORD CHOICEIrregardlessRegardless of what you may read or hear people say,irregardless is an unnecessary and illogical substitution forregardless. For some strange reason, this word has slipped intothe English language. Think for a second about the logic behindthe construction of the word irregardless: The prefix ir- means“the absence of,” and the suffix -lessmeans “the absence of.” Isit really necessary to indicate the absence of regard twice? Not atall. Remember that regardless is a complete word on its ownwithout the redundant ir- at the beginning.Nauseous/nauseatedNauseous and nauseated have two different definitions,but recently they have become almost interchangeable. To manypeople, the following two sentences have exactly the samemeaning:Example1: I feel nauseatedwhen I am nervous.Example2: I feel nauseouswhen I am nervous.In both sentences, the speaker is referring to a feeling ofqueasiness. It is becoming increasingly common to hear thesecond example above, which uses nauseous in place ofnauseated. Actually, these words have two separate meanings.Nauseous is used when referring to something that actuallycauses a feeling of sickness, while nauseated is used to refer tothe actual sensation of sickness, as illustrated in the followingsentences:Example 3 ( nauseous-correct usage): The smell of rotteneggs is nauseous.Example 4 ( nauseated-correct usage): The smell ofrotten eggs makes me nauseated.Example 3 illustrates the correct usage of the word nauseous,because it refers to the smell of rotten eggs–something whichcauses a feeling of sickness. In Example 4, nauseated is used torefer to the feeling of nausea. Just remember that when you arefeeling sick, use nauseated, but when you are referringto something that actually causesyou to be sick, use nauseous.Please note that the word nauseating is synonymouswith nauseous in that both refer to something that causesnausea. To say, “The smell of rotten eggs is nauseating”would be as correct as saying, “The smell of rotten eggs isnauseous.” The real confusion, however, lies in the differencebetween nauseousand nauseated.50 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

podium/lecternIf you've ever given a speech or lecture, you more than likelyhave used a stand called a lectern as a place to lay your papers ornotes. However, you probably didn't refer to the stand as alectern. Like most people, you probably called it a podium. But apodium is actually a raised platform used to stand upon whenspeaking in front of a group. Remember that you stand behind alectern, while you stand on a podium.If you are wondering why one would differentiate betweenthese two words, consider the origin of the word podium. It is aLatin word derived from the Greek word podion, a form of pousor podos, meaning foot. By looking at the derivative of the word, itbecomes clear why a podium is something that is stood upon–itsroot means foot.HopefullyThis is one word that has become almost completelyacceptable in its incorrect form, hence its “questionable” status.Most people use it to mean "it is hoped that," as in thefollowing sentence:Example1: Hopefully, the rain will stopin time for the outdoor concert.Hopefully can also be used to describeperforming an action "in a hopeful manner,"as the following example demonstrates:Example 2: We hopefully waited for thewinner of the competition to be announced.Example 2 illustrates what is considered by some to be theonly correct usage of hopefully, while Example 1 is considered anoutright error.The argument against using hopefully in the manner ofExample 1 is that the adverb– hopefully–is not modifyinganything. The rain (in Example 1) is not performing an action ina hopeful manner. Other adverbs, such as thankfully, frankly,and honestly, are used similarly.There is much debate over the correctness of using adverbsthis way. To avoid controversy, switch from hopefully to Ihope or we hope.Healthy/healthfulTake a look at the following sentence:Eating healthy foods that are low in fat reduces the risk ofsome cancers.It sounds correct, right? Well, yes and no. It depends onwhom you ask.There is an ongoing debate over the usage of healthyversus healthful. Some say healthy should be used to refer onlyto the wellness of living things (for example, a healthy body),while healthful is the word of choice to refer to anything thatpromotes good health (like food, exercise, etc.). Others believethat both words are acceptable to use in reference to healthpromotingsubstances or practices (for example, healthy orhealthful food). Healthy is used more often than healthful, byfar, and it is stated as correct usage by reputable sources. Sotake your pick.Further/fartherFurther and farther are often used interchangeably, althoughthey actually have slightly different meanings. Both words referto distance, but the distinction is in the type of distance. Furtherrefers to mental distance, while farther refers to physicaldistance. Take a look at the differences as illustrated in thesentences below:Example 1 ( further-correct usage):The student read further in the textbook.(Note that the distance traveled is onlymental.)Example 2 ( farther-correct usage): Ihave to drive farther to work than to school.(In this sentence, we are referring to anactual distance that is measurable in miles,kilometers, etc., so the word farther isused.)Bring/takeBring and take are very easily confused as theirmeanings are similar. To prevent confusing these two words,remember that bring means to carry something towardsyourself, while take means to carry something away fromyourself.Example 1 (bring–correct usage): Bring the supplies to myhouse so we can work on the project.Note that in the sentence above, the direction of the action istowards the speaker.Example 2 (take-correct usage): Take the supplies to yourhouse so we can work on the project.In Example 2, take, rather than bring, is used because thedirection of the action is away from the speaker.PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 51

Microsoft LogosFounded in 1975, Microsoft Inc. is 'the worldwide leader insoftware, services and solutions that help people and businessesrealize their full potential'. The company is famous for inventingand offering innovative products such as Windows, Office, Xbox,etc., that truly symbolize advanced technology. Even its logo, is aphysical manifestation of the company's technological pursuits.In 1987, Microsoft adopted its current logo, the so-called"Pacman Logo" designed by Scott Baker. According to theMarch 1987 Computer Reseller News Magazine, "The <strong>new</strong> logo,in Helvetica italic typeface, has a slash between the o and s toemphasize the "soft" part of the name and convey motion andspeed." Dave Norris, a Microsoft employee, ran an internal jokecampaign to save the old logo, which was green, in all uppercase,and featured a fanciful letter O, nicknamed the blibbet, but itwas discarded.Microsoft First Logo (1975)Microsoft logo is a perfect example of 'innovation meetssimplicity'. The logo intelligently expresses the company'smission of providing quality products to the customers with itsstrong slogan and simple typeface. The Microsoft logo like thecompany has become synonymous with latest computertechnologies, innovative ideas and the comprehensivedevelopment of both.The logo consists of a simple typeface with an equallypowerful slogan symbolizing potential and passion. Though theMicrosoft logo was subjected to major critical transformationsover the decades, its principal message has remained largelyunaffected. At the beginning, Microsoft adopted the so-called“blibbet” logo that was green with a fanciful lettered O in it.Microsoft "Pac-Man" Logo (1987)In 1994, Microsoft adopted the more compact version of thecurrent logo with the tagline: “Where do you want to go today?”WHERE DO YOU WANT TO GO TODAY?Microsoft Logo with Slogan"Where do you want to go today?" (1994)In 2002, inspired by the previous design, Microsoft startedusing the <strong>new</strong> Microsoft logo in the United States and eventuallyworldwide. It now features the slogan: “Your potential. Ourpassion”, which echoes a strong voice of consumer satisfactionand the brand's fidelity.Microsoft "Blibbet" Logo (1975)For e-PrepTalk visit us at:http://src.PTeducation.com/src/epreptalk.aspxMicrosoft Logo with Slogan“Your potential. Our passion." (2008)52 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

Some facts about ChinaIce cream was invented in China around 2000BC when theChinese packed a soft milk and rice mixture in the snow.The Chinese year is based on the cycles of the moon. Thisis called a lunar schedule. A complete cycle of the Chinesecalendar takes 60 years. The Chinese calendar dates back to2600 B.C. It is the oldest known calendar. Each year isrepresented by an animal. There are twelve animals whichrepresent the twelve months.When a Chinese child loses a baby tooth, it doesn't gettucked under the pillow for the tooth fairy. If the child losesan upper tooth, the child's parents plant the tooth in theground, so the <strong>new</strong> tooth will grow in straight and healthy.Parents toss a lost bottom tooth up to the rooftops, so thatthe <strong>new</strong> tooth will grow upwards, too.The Great Wall is themost extraordinary part ofthe Chinese landscape.The Gobi Desert and theTaklimakan Desert arethe two deserts found inChina.A recent fact:Over 3000 dinosaur footprints found in China recently.Archaeologists in China claim to have traced the evidence ofmass migration of dinosaurs from the country's east morethan 100 million years ago.At one time, Chinese patriots hoped to rid themselves ofhated foreign conquerors. To announce the time of anuprising, the patriots hid messages in moon cakes.Red is considered a lucky color in China. At one timewedding dresses were red. New Year's banners, clothing,and lucky money envelopes are still red.Fourth graders are expected to know 2,000 of the over40,000 written Chinese characters. By the time they leavecollege, they will know 4,000 or 5,000 characters. Eachcharacter is learned by looking at it and memorizing it.The large track of over 3,000 dinosaur footprints, which wasfound in Shandong province, was facing the samedirection. This might be a result of migration or panicescape by plant-eating dinosaurs after facing a surprise raidfrom meat-eating counterparts, according to experts.The prints dated back to more than 100 million years ago inthe mid Cretaceous period, said Xing Lida, a dinosaurfootprints researcher, and Wang Haijun, a senior engineerat the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology andPaleoanthropology under the Chinese Academy ofSciences.Bike riding is the most used form of transportation.The Yangtze is China's largest river and the third in theworld.The fossil, found on a 2,600-square-meter slope inHuanghua town of Zhucheng City, are in at least threelayers. The footprints were rare in the world in terms ofboth their number and total size, they said.Hwang Ho is called the Yellow River.Shanghai is the large eastern city on the sea.Among the inventions China has given the world are: paper,the wheelbarrow, the clock, gun powder and the compass.The giant panda is very rare and endangered.Scientists believe that the footprints, which range from 10cm to 80 cm in length, belonged to more than six types ofdinosaurs, including Tyrannosaurus, Coelurosaurs andHadrosaurs.There could be more footprint findings. Archeologists havefound dinosaur fossils in some 30 sites in Zhucheng, knownas a "dinosaur city".PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 53

General Knowledge1. Who among the following has been appointed the NationalSecurity Adviser?(1) Brajesh Mishra(2) J. N. Daxit(3) M. K. Narayanan(4) T. K. A. Nair2. Who among the following is the <strong>new</strong> Chief Minister ofKarnataka?(1) S. M. Krishna(2) B. S. Yeddyurappa(3) Dharam Singh(4) Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy3. Who among the following has won the Miss Universe 2009crown?(1) Jennifer Hawkins(2) Shandi Finnessey(3) Alba Reyes(4) Stefania Fernandez4. The botanical name of bajra is(1) Hordeum(2) Oryza(3) Pennisetum(4) Triticum5. Which of the following cricketer holds the world record ofmaximum number of sixes in ODI?(1) Chris Carins (New Zealand)(2) Sanath Jayasuriya (Sri Lanka)(3) Sachin Tendulkar (India)(4) Shahid Afridi (Pakistan)6. Who is the Chief Justice of India?(1) Y. K. Sabharwal(2) V. N. Khare(3) R. C. Lahoti(4) K. G. Balakrishnan7. Which one of the following is the smallest gland in thebody?(1) Adrenal (2) Thyroid(3) Pancreas (4) Pituitary8. Who is the Chairman of the National Commission forFarmers?(1) Ajit Singh(2) P. Chidambaram(3) Dr. M. S. Swaminathan(4) Sharad Pawar9. Cervical vertebrae lie in the(1) Abdominal region(2) Neck(3) Thorax(4) Sacral region10. Srinagar is situated on the bank of the river(1) Ravi(2) Sutlej(3) Jhelum(4) Chenab11. What is the colour of laterite soil?(1) Yellow(2) Black(3) Red(4) Pink12. Who among the following won the men's singles title ofThe French Open 2009?(1) Guillermo Coria(2) Roger Federer(3) Andy Roddick(4) Robin Soderling13. Who is India's first Woman Grand Master in Chess?(1) Aarthie Ramaswamy(2) Koneru Humpy(3) S. Meenakshi(4) S. Vijayalakshmi14. The age of a tree can be determined by(1) Measuring its height(2) Measuring its diameter(3) Analyzing its sap(4) Counting the annual growth rings of its stem54 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

15. Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched?MountainsContinents(1) The Rocky North America(2) The Andes South America(3) The Alps Europe(4) The Ural Africa16. Which of the following pairs is correctly matched?(1) 'Purna Swaraj' Resolution: 1929(2) Martyrdom of Sardar Bhagat Singh: 1931(3) Formation of the Congress Socialist Party:1939(4) Simla Conference: 194017.The LingarajaTemplebuilt duringthe medievalperiodis at(1) Bhubaneswar(2) Khajuraho(3) Madurai(4) Mount Abu18. Which one of the following is essentially a solo dance?(1) Kuchipudi(2) Kathak(3) Manipuri(4) Mohiniattam19. The deepest oceanic trench “Mariana” is located in(1) Atlantic Ocean(2) Arctic Ocean(3) Pacific Ocean(4) Indian Ocean20. Although fog consists of fine drops of water, we cannot seeclearly through it because(1) The light rays undergo total internal reflection in thedrops(2) Fine drops of water in fog polarize the light(3) The fine drops are opaque to the light(4) The drops scatter most of the light21. During the Mughal period, which one of the following werethe first to come to India as traders ?(1) Portuguese(2) Dutch(3) Danish(4) English22. Who among the following Delhi Sultans is known forintroducing market control mechanism ?(1) Iltutmish(2) Balban(3) Alauddin Khalji(4) Firoze Tughlaq23. Which one of the following mountain peaks of theHimalayas is NOT in India?(1) Annapurna(2) Nanda Devi(3) Mt. Kamet(4) Kanchenjunga24. A rift valley is formed mainly due to(1) The forces of tension in the earth's crust(2) The subsidence of the floor of a river valley(3) The valley formed after the formation of foldmountains(4) The deepening of a valley by ice action25. Who is the author of the book, 'The Man Who DividedIndia' ?(1) Arun Shourie(2) Dominique Lapierre(3) Rafiq Zakaria(4) Salman Rushdie26. Which one of the following regions of Asia is experiencingthe highest annual growth rate of population?(1) South Asia(2) South-East Asia(3) Central Asia(4) West Asia27. Which country is not in Africa?(1) Zanzibar(2) Ghana(3) Trinidad(4) Sudan28The renownedmulti-artscentre BharatBhawanis locatedin(1) Jaipur(2) Bhopal(3) New Delhi(4) Lucknow29. Which one of the following sets of economists stronglyfavoured a market economy?(1) Adam Smith, Keynes, Hicks(2) Adam Smith, Marx, Strumlin(3) Adam Smith, Hayek, Friedman(4) Adam Smith, Ricardo, J.K. Galbraith30. What is the diameter of a golf hole?(1) 5.5 inches(2) 4.25 inches(3) 3.5 inches(4) 7.5 inchesPT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 55

31. In which year Indira Gandhi Peace Prize was instituted?(1) 1985 (2) 1984(3) 1986 (4) 198732. If safe storage is to be ensured, the moisture content offood grains at the time of harvesting should not be higherthan(1) 14% (2) 16%(3) 18% (4) 20%33. The world's largest gold buyer is(1) South Africa(2) Ghana(3) India(4) Israel34. Which of the following cities is famous for trading ofdiamonds in India?(1) Jaipur(2) Surat(3) Mumbai(4) Bangalore35. Which of the following means complete segregation ofnon-whites?(1) Apartheid(2) Diarchy(3) Separate Electorates(4) Imperialism36. India's National Anthem was composed by:(1) Qazi Nazrul Islam(2) Rabindra Nath Tagore(3) Bankim Chandra Chatterjee(4) Dr. Mohd Iqbal37. The earliest Hindus were divided into ………. Varnas.(1) Two (2) Four(3) Six (4) Eight38. Place where India's advanced missile technology center islocated(1) New Delhi(2) Bangalore(3) Hyderabad(4) Bombay39. When an electric bulb breaks, there is a mild bang due to(1) The chemical reaction between the enclosed gases(2) The compressed gases rushing out suddenly(3) The air rushing in to fill the evacuated space(4) Some other reason40. If father and mother are possessing Rh+ve and Rh-verespectively, their children will have the blood group with(1) Rh+ve(2) Rh-ve(3) Rh neutral(4) None of these41. The coating of which one of the following metals on iron istermed as ……….galvanising?(1) Zinc(2) Copper(3) Cadmium(4) Tin42. According to a legend Lord Krishna lifted MountGovardhana to crush the pride of:(1) Duryodhana(2) Kansa(3) Indra(4) None of these43. Old-written material, which cannot be read easily, can beread by(1) Cosmic rays(2) Ultraviolet rays(3) Infra red rays(4) None of these44. Edible part of coconut is(1) Seed coat(2) Endocarp(3) Endosperm(4) Carpel wall45. Which is the official language of Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation:(1) English (2) Urdu(3) German (4) French46. Which one of the following Bills must be passed by eachHouse of the Indian Parliament separately, by specialmajority?(1) Ordinary Bill(2) Money Bill(3) Finance Bill(4) Constitution Amendment Bill47. Panini, the first Grammarian of Sanskrit language in India,lived during the:(1) 2nd Century B. C.(2) 6th -5th Century B. C.(3) 2nd Century A. D.(4) 5th-6th Century A. D.56 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

48. Which is the national game of the USA?(1) Cricket(2) Soccer(3) Baseball(4) Billiards49. What role does chlorophyll perform in the process ofphotosynthesis?(1) It absorbs light and decomposes waterphotochemically(2) It accepts electrons from Oxygen(3) It accepts electrons from CO2(4) It absorbs light only50. Babar defeated Sangram Singh, the Rana of Mewar, in the:(1) Battle of Chausa(2) Bilgram(3) Battle of Khanwa(4) Haldighati51. Which is the top country in cotton production?(1) USA(2) India(3) Pakistan(4) China52. The “All-India Muslim League” was formed in 1906 at(1) Delhi(2) Dacca(3) Mumbai(4) Karachi53. Which one of the following is not a rabi crop?(1) Mustard(2) Rice(3) Wheat(4) Gram54. What is meant by Sardeshmukhi?(1) An officer(2) A tax(3) A type of organization(4) A type of group55. At which of the following places, the Buddhist Council wasnot held?(1) Vaishali(2) Pataliputra(3) Rajagriha(4) Kannauj56. Match List-I (Industry) with List-II (Product/Service) andselect the correct answer using the codes given belowList-I (Industry)List-II (Product/Service)A. Grasim 1. CementB. Ranbaxy 2. AutomobilesC. Reliance 3. Oil and GasD. TELCO 4. PharmaceuticalsA B C D(1) 1 2 3 4(2) 3 4 1 2(3) 1 4 3 2(4) 3 2 1 457. The place in Andhra Pradesh containing fine BadamiChalukyan Temples:(1) Alampur(2) Tadipari(3) Billasurgam(4) Ghantasala58. How many articles and schedules did the IndianConstitution contain when it was originally passed?(1) 395 Articles and 8 Schedules(2) 397 Articles and 9 Schedules(3) 398 Articles and 10 Schedules(4) 396 Articles and 9 Schedules59. Which of the following is not a function of kidneys?(1) Regulation of blood pressure(2) Secretion of antibiotics(3) Removal of urine(4) Regulation of acidity of body fluids60. Cylindrical glasses are advised to a person suffering from(1) Night blindness(2) Myopia(3) Astigmatism(4) Hypermetropia61. The Revolt of 1857 was:(1) a sepoy mutiny(2) a Muslim conspiracy(3) a revolt by rulers and landlords(4) the first war of independence62. An aircraft takes off at the speed of 100km/hr at an angle of30°run-a-way. What is the velocity of the aircraft along therun-a-way?(1) 86.6 km/hr(2) 1.96 km/hr(3) 3.94 km/hr(4) 2.92 km/hrPT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 57

63. Imre Kerterz who won the 'Nobel Prize for Literature 2002'hails from which of the following countries?(1) Russia(2) Hungary(3) Germany(4) Japan64. The architecture of the Ashokan period gained inmagnificence as for the first time:(1) stone was employed instead of wood(2) wood was used instead of stone(3) burnt bricks were used for the first time(4) none of the above65. If it is 6.00 am at Greenwich, then it will be 11.00 am at(1) 900 E (2) 600 E(3) 150 E (4) 750 E66. The royal preceptor of Ganapatideva was:(1) Basava(2) Visvesvara Sambhu(3) Panditaradhya(4) Narahari Tirtha67. The capital of Mysore during Tipu Sultan's rule was(1) Bangalore(2) Devagiri(3) Coimbatoor(4) Srirangapattanam68. International Re<strong>new</strong>able Energy Agency (IRENA) ispresently headed by(1) Helene Pelosse(2) G. Vishwanathan(3) Lars Rasmussen(4) Peter Roebuck69. Which day is the International Human Rights Day?(1) December 10th(2) October 24th(3) November 25th(4) None of these70. The author of Kuvalayamala is(1) Bana (2) Kundakunda(3) Dandi (4) Udyotana71. The branch of Botany which involves isolation and fusion ofprotoplast is(1) Horticulture(2) Agriculture(3) Tissue culture(4) Floriculture72. The words "Socialist", "Secular" were introduced in thePreamble of the Indian Constitution by the(1) 38th amendment(2) 40th amendment(3) 42nd amendment(4) 44th amendment73. Mamallapuram, famous for its rock cuts and stonesculptures, is located in(1) Madhya Pradesh(2) Andhra Pradesh(3) Kerala(4) Tamil Nadu74. 35th National Games in India is to be hosted in the state of(1) Maharashtra(2) Kerala(3) Andhra Pradesh(4) Tamil Nadu75. Which one of the following statements is wrong?(1) A Cabinet is a small body of important Ministersholding charge of important Ministries(2) Generally there are 16 to 20 Council of Ministerswhere as the total number of the Cabinet Ministerssometimes runs into 50 to 60(3) All the important policy matter decisions are taken inthe Cabinet meetings(4) The Cabinet meetings are held quite frequentlywhereas the meetings of the Council of Ministers as awhole are held seldom76. Which of the following countries has adopted a liberalpolicy with regard to rehabilitation and provision ofmedicines through government agencies to drug addicts inorder to control drug trade?(1) China(2) America(3) Canada(4) Iraq77. Tank irrigation is extensively practiced in South India. Inwhich pair of the following states of South India is thisirrigation relatively more common?(1) Karnataka and Maharashtra(2) Tamil Nadu and Karnataka(3) Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh(4) Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra78. 'The Advent of Advani' has been written by(1) Kuldip Nayar(2) Atmaram Kulkarni(3) R.K. Narayan(4) Shobha De58 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

79.The Conceptof 'PopularSovereignty' refersto the powerof the 87. The words 'Satyameva Jayate' inscribed in Devanagari(1) People as a whole(2) Electorates only(3) State(4) Legal Power of the Judiciary80. Who among the following authored the famous work “AContribution to the Critique of Political Economy”(1) Adam Smith(2) John Locke(3) Karl Marx(4) Thomas Paine81. The Cabinet Mission to India was headed by(1) A.V. Alexander(2) Hugh Gaitskell(3) Stafford Cripps(4) Lord Pethick Lawrence82. Since the commencement of the Indian Constitution onJanuary 26, 1950, how many persons have occupied theoffice of the President of India?(1) 9 (2) 10(3) 11 (4) 1283. Which of the following Articles empowers the High Courtto issue writs for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights?(1) Article 225(2) Article 226(3) Article 227(4) Article 22884. The Government of India Act, 1935, envisaged theintroduction of(1) dyarchical form of government(2) federal form of government(3) republican form of government(4) unitary form the government85. The name of the Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Islandswas changed to Lakshadweep by an Act of Parliament in(1) 1970(2) 1971(3) 1972(4) 1973script below the abacus of the state Emblem of India havebeen taken from(1) Mundaka Upanishad(2) Katha Upanishad(3) Samaveda(4) Yajurveda88. The design of the National Flag of India was adopted by theConstituent Assembly on(1) 9th December, 1946 at its first meeting(2) 22nd January, 1947 when it adopted the famousObjectives Resolution(3) 22nd July, 1947(4) 14th August, 194789. The State of Bombay, a Part A State in the originalConstitution, was split into two States, Gujarat andMaharashtra, in(1) 1956(2) 1958(3) 1960(4) 196290. Article 19 of our Constitution forms the core of the chapteron Fundamental Rights. The number of categories offreedom that an Indian citizen shall have is(1) 6 (2) 7(3) 8 (4) 991. Maithili was included in the list of Official Languages inthe Eighth Schedule of our Constitution in(1) 1961 (2) 1967(3) 1988 (4) 200492. The Earth rotates on its axis from(1) West to East(2) East to West(3) South to North(4) North to South93. The Sun shines vertically on the Equator(1) Throughout the year(2) Four times a year(3) Twice a year(4) Once a year86. The full status of 'state' was conferred upon the UnionTerritories of Manipur and Tripura in(1) 1970(2) 1971(3) 1972(4) 197394. The three planets nearest to the Sun in the correct orderare(1) Mercury, Earth, Mars(2) Mercury, Venus, Jupiter(3) Mercury, Venus, Earth(4) Mercury, Venus, MarsPT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 59

95. The maximum possible angle between the direction of Sunand that of a planet (as viewed from the Earth) is called(1) Maximum angular separation(2) Elliptical path(3) Conical movement(4) None of the above96. The planet Jupiter takes about ................. to complete onerevolution in its orbit around the Sun(1) 11.86 years(2) 248 years(3) 84 years(4) 165 years97. What are Sun spots?(1) These are great flames of gases which shoot out ofthe sun(2) These are areas of the Sun where nuclear fissiontakes place(3) These are areas of the Sun where the heat is mostintense which shows up as dark spots(4) These are cooler areas which move about on theSun's surface and show up as dark spots98. Which of the following planets takes very nearly the sametime for a rotation on its own axis as does the Earth ?(1) Jupiter(2) Mars(3) Neptune(4) Uranus99. Which comet appears every 76 years?(1) Halley's(2) Holme's(3) Donati's(4) Alpha Centauri100. The largest number of natural satelites (or moons) thatplanet in the solar system has(1) 5 (2) 16(3) 63 (4) 17101. What is the distance between the Earth and the sun?(1) 100 x 106 km(2) 109 x 106 km(3) 125 x 106 km(4) 150 x 106 km102. How many times is the Sun bigger in size than the Earth?(1) 69 times(2) 89 times(3) 99 times(4) 109 times103. Eritrea, which became the 182nd member of the UN in1993, is in the continent of(1) Asia(2) Africa(3) Europe(4) South America104. Which day is celebrated as United Nations Day every year?(1) 7th April(2) 24th October(3) 14th November(4) 27thDecember105. In which year a resolution 'Uniting for Peace' was adoptedby UN General Assembly?(1) 1950(2) 1960(3) 1965(4) 1980106. The headquartersof the WarsawTreaty Organisationwere at(1) Berlin(2) Prague(3) Moscow(4) Warsaw107. The headquarters of the International Committee of theRed Cross are at(1) Geneva(2) Paris(3) Rome(4) Stockholm108. The International Criminal Police Organisation (known asInterpol) has its headquarters at(1) Bonn(2) London(3) Paris(4) Montreal109. The International Atomic Energy Agency was createdunder the aegis of the UN in(1) 1945(2) 1946(3) 1955(4) 1957110. The headquarters of a few agencies related to the UN arelocated in Vienna, which is in(1) Austria(2) Belgium(3) Denmark(4) Sweden60 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

111. Who among the following is the President of InternationalCourt of Justice?(1) Jose Maria Ruda(2) Michel Hansenne(3) Hisashi Owada(4) Gilbert Guillaume112. The Director-General of UNESCO is(1) Amadau Mahtar M'Bow(2) Michel Hansenne(3) Dr. H.T. Mahler(4) Koichiro Matsuura113. Who is the President of the International Bank forReconstruction and Development?(1) Michel Camdessus(2) Gaston Thorn(3) Barber Conable(4) Robert Zoellick114. The number of principal organs of the United Nations is(1) 3 (2) 4(3) 5 (4) 6115. 'Cannon, cue and pot' are three terms associated with(1) Billiards only(2) Golf only(3) Both Billiards and Golf(4) Billiards, Golf and Shooting116. 'Bunker and Chukker' are the two terms associated with(1) Rowing (2) Polo(3) Skiing (4) Draughts117. 'Stymied' is a term associated with(1) Golf(2) Wrestling(3) Boxing(4) Draughts118. The Olympic Flame symbolises(1) Unity among various nations of the world(2) Speed, perfection and strength(3) Sports as a means for securing harmony amongnations(4) Continuity between the ancient and modern games119. Lakshmibai National College of Physical Education islocated at(1) Bhopal(2) Gwalior(3) Karnal(4) Patiala120. Thomas Cup is associated with(1) Badminton(2) Billiards(3) Lawn Tennis(4) Table Tennis121. Jules Rimet Cup is associated with(1) Basketball(2) Football(3) Hockey(4) Lawn Tennis122. Normallythe CommonwealthGamesare held at intervals of(1) Three years(2) Four years(3) Five years(4) There is no fixed interval123. Durand Cup is associated with the game of(1) Cricket (2) Football(3) Hockey (4) Volleyball124. The scholarwho accompaniedMahmudof Ghazniin Indiawas(1) Ibn Batuta(2) Al-Beruni(3) Al-Firdausi(4) Al-Razi125. Which of the following is wrongly matched?(1) Nanmdeva : Maharashtra(2) Chaitanya : Bengal(3) Narsinha Mehta : Gujarat(4) Vallabhacharya : Gujarat126. Who were the first teachers of the Buddha, after his greatrenunciation?(1) Alar and Udarka(2) Ananda and Ashvaghosh(3) Sariputra and Maudagalyayana(4) Alara and Kalam127. Smallest flowering plant is(1) Rafflesia(2) Polyalthia(3) Wolffia(4) Chlamydomonas128. How long A. O. Hume guided the Congress while living inIndia?(1) Twenty years(2) Fifteen years(3) Ten years(4) Six yearsPT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 61

129. Which one of the following is not manufacturing mobiletelephone handsets?(1) Samsung (2) Nokia(3) Philips (4) Sony130. English is the official language of which one of thefollowing Indian States?(1) Nagaland(2) Tripura(3) Assam(4) Manipur131. Many times we read in the <strong>new</strong>s papers about the talksgoing on about India-SACU Preferential Trade Agreement.SACU is a Southern African Customs Union (SACU) withhow many members of Southern Africa?(1) 6 (2) 5(3) 4 (4) 3132. Who was the first famous astronomer of Ancient India?(1) Banbhatta(2) Aryabhatta(3) Vishakhadatta(4) Katyayan133. Pedology is the study of(1) Soil(2) Locomotion of animals(3) Rocks(4) Crop disease134. The International Date Line passes through(1) Malacca Strait(2) Gibraltar Strait(3) Bering Strait(4) Florida Strait135. According to the recent finding a medical journal said thatthe core reason for the blood pressure increase that finallyleads to coronary heart disease is caused by(1) Bacteria (2) Virus(3) Fungus (4) Nemathelminthes136. Deforestation has an alarming effect on(1) Increase in grazing area(2) Sunlight(3) Weed control(4) Soil erosion137. Who was the inventor of mechanical calculator for addingnumbers?(1) Charles Babbage (2) Peano(3) Newton (4) Pascal138. Ravidas and Kabir were the disciples of which of thefollowing?(1) Namdeva(2) Ramananda(3) Ramanuj(4) Vallabhacharya139. BPO is an abbreviation for(1) Bharat Petroleum Organisation(2) Business Process Outsourcing(3) Business Products Outsourcing(4) Bharat Pesticides Outlet140. In 1919, International Labour Organization became anautonomous partner of which Organization:(1) UN(2) Developed Nations(3) League of Nations(4) None of the above141. Who among the following is the Chairperson of NationalCommission for Women?(1) Saroj Pandey(2) Kumari Selja(3) Girija Vyas(4) Sonia Gandhi142. A term associatedwith the comparisonof processingspeedis(1) FFTS(2) MPG(3) MIPS(4) CPS143. During the Civil Disobedience Movement, who led the 'RedShirts' of North-Western India?(1) Abdul Kalam Azad(2) Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan(3) Mohammad Ali Jinnah(4) Shaukat Ali144. What is International Development Association?(1) A voluntary association of Developing countries(2) A federation of International lending agencies(3) An affiliate of World Bank(4) An organization of donor countries of EuropeanUnion145. The battle of Dharmat was fought between(1) Muhammad Gori and Jai Chand(2) Babar and the Afghans(3) Aurangzeb and Dara Shikoh(4) Ahmad Shah Durrani and the Maratha62 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

146. Errors in computer results could be due to(1) encoding of data(2) transmission of data(3) manipulation of data(4) all of the above147. What would be the expenditure in 30 days at the rate of 50paisa per unit, if a bulb of 100 W is used five hours per day?(1) Rs. 10.50 (2) Rs. 8.50(3) Rs. 7.50 (4) Rs. 9.50148. Which of the following pair is wrongly matched?(1) Sungas - Vidisha(2) Satvahanas - Pratisthana(3) Kanavas - Kausambi(4) Kushanas - Purushpura149. Which of the following Shaka king reconstructed theSudarshana lake?(1) Rudradaman(2) Manes(3) Chastana(4) Bhumaka150. Computers can be classified in which of the followinghierarchical orders?(1) PC, Large, Super Micro, Super Computer(2) Super Micro, PC, Large, Super Computer(3) PC, Super Micro, Large, Super Computer(4) Large, Super Micro, Super Computer, PC151. In which of the following countries Share of export fromIndia is the maximum?(1) USA (2) UK(3) UAE (4) Japan152. Who of the following was not the acting President of India?(1) V. V. Giri(2) B. D. Jatti(3) Hidayatullah(4) Zakir Hussain153. Which is the most accepted date of the composition of theRigveda?(1) 1500 BC(2) 1500 BC to 1000 BC(3) 1000 BC(4) About 4500 BCAnswers to General knowledge1. Ans.(3)2. Ans.(2)3. Ans.(4)4. Ans.(3)5. Ans.(2)6. Ans.(4)7. Ans.(2)8. Ans.(3)9. Ans.(2)10. Ans.(3)11. Ans.(3)12. Ans.(2)13. Ans.(2)14. Ans.(4)15. Ans.(4)16. Ans.(2)17. Ans.(1)18. Ans.(4)19. Ans.(3)20. Ans.(4)21. Ans.(1)22. Ans.(3)23. Ans.(1)24. Ans.(1)25. Ans.(3)26. Ans.(4)27. Ans.(3)28. Ans.(2)29. Ans.(1)30. Ans.(2)31. Ans.(3)32. Ans.(1)33. Ans.(3)34. Ans.(2)35. Ans.(1)36. Ans.(2)37. Ans.(2)38. Ans.(3)39. Ans.(3)40. Ans.(1)41. Ans.(1)42. Ans.(3)43. Ans.(3)44. Ans.(3)45. Ans.(1)46. Ans.(4)47. Ans.(2)48. Ans.(3)49. Ans.(1)50. Ans.(3)51. Ans.(4)52. Ans.(2)53. Ans.(2)54. Ans.(2)55. Ans.(4)56. Ans.(3)57. Ans.(1)58. Ans.(1)59. Ans.(2)60. Ans.(3)61. Ans.(4)62. Ans.(1)63. Ans.(2)64. Ans.(1)65. Ans.(4)66. Ans.(2)67. Ans.(4)68. Ans.(1)69. Ans.(1)70. Ans.(3)71. Ans.(3)72. Ans.(3)73. Ans.(4)74. Ans.(2)75. Ans.(2)76. Ans.(3)77. Ans.(3)78. Ans.(2)79. Ans.(1)80. Ans.(3)81. Ans.(4)82. Ans.(3)83. Ans.(2)84. Ans.(2)85. Ans.(4)86. Ans.(3)87. Ans.(1)88. Ans.(3)89. Ans.(3)90. Ans.(1)91. Ans.(4)92. Ans.(1)93. Ans.(3)94. Ans.(3)95. Ans.(1)96. Ans.(1)97. Ans.(4)98. Ans.(2)99. Ans.(1)100. Ans.(3)101. Ans.(4)102. Ans.(4)103. Ans.(2)104. Ans.(2)105. Ans.(1)106. Ans.(3)107. Ans.(1)108. Ans.(3)109. Ans.(4)110. Ans.(1)111. Ans.(3)112. Ans.(4)113. Ans.(4)114. Ans.(4)115. Ans.(1)116. Ans.(2)117. Ans.(1)118. Ans.(4)119. Ans.(2)120. Ans.(1)121. Ans.(2)122. Ans.(2)123. Ans.(2)124. Ans.(2)125. Ans.(4)126. Ans.(1)127. Ans.(3)128. Ans.(1)129. Ans.(3)130. Ans.(4)131. Ans.(2)132. Ans.(2)133. Ans.(1)134. Ans.(3)135. Ans.(1)136. Ans.(4)137. Ans.(4)138. Ans.(2)139. Ans.(2)140. Ans.(3)141. Ans.(3)142. Ans.(3)143. Ans.(2)144. Ans.(3)145. Ans.(3)146. Ans.(4)147. Ans.(3)148. Ans.(3)149. Ans.(1)150. Ans.(3)151. Ans.(1)152. Ans.(4)153. Ans.(2)PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 63

Business TriviaThe founder of the Swiss watch Swatch diversified into carmaking, got Mercedes Benz to build it but subsequentlypulled out after heavy losses. Nicholas Hayek, founder ofSwatch came up with the idea for M e r c e d e s Benz'sSMART car.US engineering giant Bechtel constructed the HooverDam; was a major shareholder and equipment supplier forthe Dabhol power project. This Fortune 500 company hasalso been under fire for being associated with the BinLaden family.An original Bramah is still in use in Britain's House ofLords. It is one of the first commercially manufacturedflushing toilets introduced by Joseph Bramah in 1778.David Ogilvy's ad for Good Luck Margarine was, in away, unique and historic since it was the only time he used acelebrity– Theodore Roosevelt.The publishing group Condé Nast owns the New Yorker,Wired, Vogue and Glamour. Ananda Spa in theHimalayas has been ranked as best in the world by CondéNast in its highly respected rankings.The full form of RS 232 – the jack at the back of mostcomputers – stands for Recommended Standard.According to the Bureau of Indian Standards,sandfrom Eluru, Andhra Pradesh alone can be used for labtestingcement or concrete.After oil, coffee is the most traded commodity. In fact, itis said that the ownership of this item can change up to 17times (due to trading) between the time ships laden with itleave the origin country and reach their destination.The first sport to be filmed was a boxing match betweenJack Cushing and Mike Leonard in 1894. It was filmedby Thomas Edison.When Master Vithal, the hero of Alam Ara was sued bySharada Studios Bombay for breach of contract, he wasdefended in court by M. A. Jinnah.“Software for the most advanced microprocessor on earth”was the punchline of ' The Economic Times'.Michelin is a tyre company which also publishes theMichelin Food Guide, the last word in rating restaurantsand chefs. The reason why the tyre company got intopublishing of restaurant guide–Michelin was not growingin France, since the market was saturated. It found out thatthe French would travel any distance to try out a nicerestaurant. So it published the Michelin guide, to temptpeople to travel extensively to eat at Michelin-starredrestaurants. This meant more tyre wear and tear and,therefore, more tyre sales.Odhavji Raghavji Patel, the founder of the world'sbiggest wall clock manufacturing company, AjantaTransistor Clock Manufacturing Co, established in 1970 inMorbi Gujarat is dubbed the ' father of wall clocks' .A figure of the Singapore Girl of Singapore Airlines wasthe first marketing icon unveiled at Madame Tussauds inthe early 1990s .The only land speed record set on water was achieved bythe founder of a company who used a 19.5 litre racing carcalled 999 that went all the way up to 91mph on a frozenlake. Aramusk was the person.For some time, Tessa, the Esso Tiger, was one of the bestrecognisedanimals in the US, and even starred in a seriesof award-winning commercials.In 1914, paper company Kimberly-Clark developedabsorbent wadding from processed wood and dubbed itCellucotton. Five times as absorbent as cotton and costingonly half as much, Cellucotton was used to bandagewounds in World War I. (In fact this company, agreed toprovide it to the War Department at cost, refusing thechance to make a healthy profit.) After the war, Cellucottonbecame another product, now a very famous brandnamed– Kotex.64 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

Strass, Rhinestone and Tyrolit are famous products ofSwarovski.British Petroleum has an internal knowledge andexpertise directory called Connect, a sort of corporateYellow Pages for its employees.C K Prahalad and Venkat Ramaswamy came up withthe concept of EQM ( Experience QualityManagement), similar to TQM (Total QualityManagement), in their book ' The Future ofCompetition'.DLF (Delhi Lease and Finance) founder KP Singh iscredited with arousing Jack Welch's interest in bringingGE to India. Welch has mentioned this in hisautobiography.Footwear and sporting goods company Umbro was startedin the 1920s by the Humphrey brothers, Harold &Wallace.In 1978, Shudhabardhak bati was transformed intoHajmola pills, the first instance of a branded ayurvedicproduct.The Coca-Cola Company promised every man inuniform its product for 5 cents, wherever he was duringthe World War II.Benchmarking was a concept introduced by the Xeroxgroup.David Sarnoff was a radio operator with MarconiWireless Telegraph Co when he picked up distresssignals from the RMS Titanic after it hit an iceberg onApril 14, 1912. He went on to become an integral part ofRCA Corporation.Manpower Inc. is associated with the White Glove Girlcampaign. It ran this campaign in 1963 in the US during atime when women were uncommon in the workplace andused this campaign to provide women with a bridge toemployment.Andy Grove managed to survive a childhood in NazioccupiedHungary only to find himself a victim of the ColdWar. He escaped to the US in1957 and, after educatinghimself in New York and California, joined FairchildSemiconductor. In 1968, he teamed up with twocolleagues to form Intel.The word Skyscraper came into existence in 1888 for thefirst time when it was used to describe a Chicago HomeInsurance building having 11 storeys.Be my guest' is the title of the autobiography of ConradHilton.Motorola, Confidis and United Postal Services (UPS)have been the sponsors of Lance Armstrong insuccession for his Tour de France races. Toothbrush was invented by William Addis at theNewgate Prison, UK.An effigy is the name for the head of a monarch incisedon the side of a coin.Airbus is manufactured at Madrid, Amsterdam,StNazaire and Bremen and assembled at Toulouse.Eagleton is the name of the golf course on the outskirts ofBangalore that is designed by Jack Nicklaus Jr.General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna was the militarydictator of Texas before being overthrown by freedomfighters in the mid 19th century. He also invented theChewing gum.In 1987, American Airlines saved $40,000 by eliminatingone olive from each salad served in first class.Hazel Gladys Bishop (1906-1998), became a householdname when her “ kissable lipstick” became a marketingphenomenon in 1950. A professional chemist hired byStandard Oil during World War II, she developed specialfuel for airplanes by day, and experimented at night on aproduct to end lipstick stains on everything from coffeecups to the man in one's life. She successfully produced asmear-proof, longlasting lipstick, formed Hazel Bishop,Inc., and raised the capital to launch her product.Often called the father of value investing, BenjaminGraham'sinvestment philosophy hinges on threewords–“ margin of safety.”BMW Headquarters in Munich is referred to as the“ four-cylinder tower”Superman, the fictional character created by Joe Shusterand Jerry Siegel, first appeared in Action C o m i c s # 1(June 30th 1938) and subsequently appeared in variousradio serials, television programs, films, <strong>new</strong>spaper strips,and video games.PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 65

News in briefIndiaShivraj Vishwanath Patil was sworn-inas the Governor of Punjab in place of S FRodrigues whose term had expired inNovember last year.The Navy has started a $1.5 billion overhaul of its ageingSoviet-era fleet of aircraft, seeking to boost its air powerin an Indian Ocean region where a growing China isthreatening its traditional dominance.Indian-origin researcher of Alzheimer'sdisease, Ralph Martins, has been namedAustralian of the Year <strong>2010</strong> by the government of WesternAustralia.Anti-dam activists in Assam have slammed Union Ministerof State (Independent Charge) for Environment andForests, Jairam Ramesh for dismissing the downstreameffects of the proposed 1500 MW TipaimukhMultipurpose Project.Home Minister, P Chidambaram declared that states hadagreed to coordinate actions against Maoist guerrillas andthat the government's goal was to reassert authority in rebelbastions.The Government said there was "near unanimity" among allstakeholders to raise the ceiling of payment on gratuity forprivate sector employees from Rs 3.5 lakh to Rs 10 lakh andhoped a decision in this regard will be taken before theforthcoming Budget session.Veteran socialist leader and former UnionMinister Janeshwar Mishra died inAllahabad following heart attack. He wasconsidered a pillar of strength to theSamajwadi Party and its President,Mulayam Singh.E Srinivasan Lakshmi Narasimhan was sworn-in as thefull-time Governor of Andhra Pradesh. He wasadministered the oath of office by AP High Court ChiefJustice, A Ramesh Dave.Pakistani gunman Ajmal Kasab claimed police hadfabricated evidence by feeding data in the GlobalPositioning System, which showed that the 26/11 terroristscame from Karachi to Mumbai by the sea route.Tahir Hussain, well-known filmmaker and Bollywood starAamir Khan's father, died of a massive heart attack. Hussainis known for producing hits like "Hum Hain Rahi Pyar Ke"(1993) "Dulha Bikta Hai" (1982), "Zakhmee" (1975),"Anamika" (1973) and "Caravan" (1971).The Supreme Court asked highcourts across the country todistinguish between motivated andgenuine public interestlitigations (PILs) so that precioustime of the court is not wasted.The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs approvedthe National Tobacco Control Programme to facilitate theimplementation of tobacco control laws and to bring aboutgreater awareness of tobacco's harmful effects.Rahul Bhatt, son of film DirectorMahesh Bhatt, is “convinced” thatPakistani-American LeT operative,David Headley was working for theFBI when he was in Mumbai before the26/11 terror attacks.Sixty-two Air Warriors of the IndianAir Forces were decorated with Presidential Awards onRepublic Day. This includes Param Vishisht Seva Medal(PVSM) for six Air Marshals, Ati Vishisht seva Medal(AVSM) for 2 Air Marshals, 6 Air Vice-Marshals and 4 AirCommodores.Lieutenant General R.K. Swamy, Chief of Staff at theHeadquarters of the Southern Command, was conferredwith the Uttam Yudh Seva Medal by the President on theRepublic Day for his distinguished command of a vitalcorps handling the operations on the LoC, as well ascounter-insurgency in Jammu & Kashmir.66 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

President Pratibha Patil'saddress to the nation on the eve ofthe 61st Republic Day, reflectedthe common citizen's worries ontwo counts: the unyieldingprice situation and challengesto internal security. She alsotouched upon climate change,underlining the use of “energyefficient technologies and re<strong>new</strong>able sources ofenergy” to reduce the “carbon footprint.”Eight litterateurs were awarded the first TagoreLiterature Awards 2009 for their contributions toBengali, Bodo, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri,Punjabi and Telugu. Instituted by the Sahitya Akademi andSamsung Electronics, the winners were chosen from acrossdifferent genres of essays, poetry, biography andautobiography for literary works between 2005 and 2008.Chairman of the Inter-governmentalPanel on Climate Change (IPCC)R.K. Pachauri ruled out hisresignation in the wake of thecontroversy over the inclusion ofunsubstantiated data in the FourthAssessment Report, which said theHimalayan glaciers would vanish by2035, an error for which the IPCChad to express regret.Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) launched thecountry's first video telephony service in Gujarat. SamPitroda, Adviser to Prime Minister Manmohan Singh onpublic information, infrastructure and innovation,launched the video telephony service, making Gujarat thefirst State to have the service that could change thedimension of the telecommunication systems in thecountry.Venu Srinivasan, Honorary Consul General of theRepublic of Korea, Chennai and Chairman, TVS MotorCompany, was honoured by South Korean President LeeMyung-bak, with the distinguished civilian honour, 'Orderof Diplomatic Service Merit,' in recognition of hiscontribution in promoting Korea-India bilateral relations.After deliberating for well over seven months, the Uniongovernment has eventually evolved a scheme to extend thescope of the Mahatma Gandhi National RuralEmployment Guarantee Act (MNREGA) on individualland holdings with Rs. 1.5 lakh as the upper limit ofexpenditure.The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)successfully tested on ground at Sriharikota, its biggest andmost powerful rocket motor called S-200, powered by 200tonnes of solid propellants. This is a vital step in thedevelopment of its Geosynchronous Satellite LaunchVehicle Mark-III (GSLV Mk-III), which will put a satelliteweighing four tonnes in orbit.National Commission for Women (NCW) ChairpersonGirija Vyas suggested that there be a comprehensiveseparate legislation for Non-Resident Indian (NRI)affairs. This should address matrimonial issues,maintenance of spouses and children, child custody,adoption, settlement of matrimonial property and transferof property.The former National Security Adviser,M.K. Narayanan, was sworn in as WestBengal Governor. The oath-of-office wasadministered by Chief Justice of CalcuttaHigh Court M.S. Shah.Anami Narayan Roy, Maharashtra's Director-General ofPolice (Anti-Corruption), was appointed State police Chief.He was already holding additional charge as DGP, after S.S.Virk retired on October 31, 2009.The longest annular solar eclipse of the millenniumbegan at 11.06 a.m on Jan 15, in Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu,as thousands of people watched the celestial spectacle.There was total darkness at noon in Thiruvananthapuram,Rameshwaram and that the ring of fire was a big draw.Scientists and students from several parts of the countryhave converged to study the celestial spectacle.Kateekal Sankaranarayanan, outgoing Governor ofJharkhand and former Kerala FinanceMinister, was sworn in as Governor ofMaharashtra. J.N. Patel, acting ChiefJustice of the Bombay High Court,administered the oath of office at a RajBhavan ceremony in Mumbai.The Finance Ministry has initiated aprocess of cross checking the income taxfiles of politicians between the IT department and theaffidavits filed by them with the Election Commissionduring the 2009 parliamentary polls. Verification of theassets declared by the Lok Sabha candidates, many of whomhave now become MPs and even Ministers, will help thedepartment to assess if they had paid appropriate taxes asdeclared in their statements with the two differentauthorities.PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 67

News in briefWorldThe Pentagon has notified USCongress of its plan to sell 145M777 Howitzers to Indiaunder a $647 million deal. Thenotification comes close on theheels of Defence Secretary,Robert Gates visit to India.Russia's fifth generation fighter aircraft (FGFA), which isa joint project with India, made a "successful" maiden flightin the country's Far East, boosting hopes that the stealthfighter may be ready for induction in the next five years.Reclusive US author, J D Salinger, who wrote theAmerican post-war literary classic "The Catcher in theRye," has died of natural causes aged 91.Russia will endeavour to becomethe world's first nation to build anuclear-powered spacecraft forinterplanetary flights. TheRussian Government hasallocated 500 million roubles ($17million) in <strong>2010</strong> for designing a nuclear engine and aspacecraft for long space travel. The draft design of thespacecraft is slated to be ready by 2012, while the actualmodel is expected to be developed by 2018. The total cost ofthe project is estimated at about $600 million.Editor and veteran Tamil journalist, J.S. Tissainayagam,who has been sentenced to 20 years rigorous imprisonmentby the High Court of Colombo, was granted bail pendingappeal by the Appeal Courts.US pledged to cut its green house gas emission by 17% by2020 from the 2005 level, hoping thatcountries like India and China would followsuit as agreed upon during theCopenhagen Summit on ClimateChange in December.United States President Barack Obamapitched his proposed tax on banks to recoverthe cost of bailing them out during the financial crisis, sayingif they can afford billions more in bonuses, they can pay backthe taxpayers, too.Raising the expectations of a “substantive visit” to India,Malaysian Prime Minister, Najib Tun Razak said thatIndia would be a major player in the region and beyond.After months of stalemate, the major political parties of thecountry (Kathmandu) decided to form a high-level“mechanism,” – a three-member panel. It would focus onspeeding up the peace process and writing theConstitution. The panel is headed by Nepali CongressPresident, Girija Prasad Koirala; Maoist Chairman, PushpaKamal Dahal 'Prachanda' and CPN-UML Chairman,Jhalanath Khanal are the current members.Japan terminated its non-combat mission of refuellingships engaged in the U.S. led “anti-terror war” inAfghanistan. Operating in the Indian Ocean area, theJapanese Maritime Self-Defence Force vessels have carriedout refuelling from December 2001, except for a shortsuspension from November 2007 to January 2008. Thetermination follows the expiry of a relevant Japanese law.He Yafei, one of China's topnegotiators at the climate talks inCopenhagen, was removed from hispost as Vice Foreign Minister amid anincreasingly rancorous blame-gamebetween Beijing and the West overChina's role in the negotiations.India and Britain have signed seven Memorandums ofUnderstanding as part of a £20 million UK-IndiaEducation Research Initiative (UKIERI) launched in2006 to strengthen educational links between the twocountries by encouraging long-term research collabor.The <strong>Centre</strong> on Integrated Rural Development forAsia and the Pacific ( CIRDAP) member countriesechoed their voice for a holistic approach to ensuresustainable livelihood for rural poor throughdecentralized governance.68 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

India and China rank 123rd and 121st in pollution controlrespectively, reflecting the strain rapid economic growthimposes on the environment, according to the <strong>2010</strong>Environmental Performance Index (EPI). However, amongthe other <strong>new</strong>ly industrialised nations Brazil and Russiarank 62nd and 69th, suggesting that the level ofdevelopment is just one of many factors affecting pollutioncontrol.Nephew of Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd wasfined for "inciting a riot" while protesting against racialattacks on Indians in the country.Strategic partnership with India is onethe top foreign policy priorities of Russia,President Dmitry Medvedev said,adding that the ties between the twocountries are at a 'qualitatively <strong>new</strong>level'.NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE, hasspotted its first never-before-seen near-Earth object(NEO), the first of hundreds it is expected to find during itsmission to map the whole sky in infrared light. NEOs areasteroids and comets with orbits that pass relatively close toEarth's path around the sun.US will supply Pakistan with 12 unarmed Shadow drones,which would significantly enhance the country'ssurveillance and reconnaissancecapabilities, but are muchsmaller than the armedPredators and Reapers used byits forces with devastating effectagainst Al Qaeda and Taliban.The Obama Administration said it is working to build "thebroadest possible global coalition" comprising countrieslike India, China and Russia to bring stability to Afghanistanand Pakistan by helping them tackle the extremist threatand meet needs of their people. Indian-American Rajiv Shah has become the head of theU.S. Agency for International Development (USAID),charged with disbursing U.S. foreign aid, making him thehighest ranking person of Indian origin in the Obamaadministration.Expelled BJP member and former external affairs minister,Jaswant Singh has been conferred with the title of“Ambassador of Peace” for South Asian region inLondon. Singh was bestowed with the title by PeaceInternational, a London-based organisation for his effortsto establish peace in the South Asia.U.S. President Barack Obama hasproposed $3.2 billion in assistance toPakistan in the fiscal 2011, a substantialjump in American aid.In an unprecedented recognition of theIndian diaspora in United States,a road inNew Jersey is going to be named 'Mehtani Way' after anIndian American restaurateur, who not only popularised theIndian cuisine but is also hailed for enriching the cultureand economy of the township.A group of students from IIT Madras have won 'New YorkCity Next Idea 2009-<strong>2010</strong>' contest for a business plan thatcould help solve energy problems in the city. AashishDattani, Sriram Kalyanaraman and Vinayshankar Kulkarniof the IIT team were declared winners of the competition byCity Mayor, Michael R Bloomberg.Founder and former Chief of Satyam Computers,Ramalinga Raju has been declared 'pauper' by the UScourt.India and China rank 123rd and 121st in pollution controlrespectively, reflecting the strain rapid economic growthimposes on the environment, according to the <strong>2010</strong>Environmental Performance Index (EPI). Icelandleads the world in addressing pollution control and naturalresource management challenges, according to the indexproduced by a team of environmental experts at YaleUniversity and Columbia University.Over 1.6 million people, more than onemillion of them Hindu devotees, packedthe Sri Subramaniar Swamy TempleBatu Caves, for the Thaipusamfestival. According to a Malaysia Starreport, foreign tourists visiting the BatuCaves were awed with the colourful andlively Thaipusam celebration.In the latest update on the whereabouts of the two top al-Qaeda leaders, Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri, a report by the Congressional committee saidthat the two dreaded terrorists are taking refuge innorthwestern Pakistan.Amid strains in Indo-Australia ties due to a spate ofattacks on Indian students, a city in Queensland haslaunched a 'harmony' website aimed at telling a lot of greatstories' about the bilateral relations and facilitating peopleof the two countries to share their experiences.PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 69

News in briefBusiness and economyHindustan Unilever (HUL) haswithdrawn an advertising campaignfor its leading soap brand Luxfollowing allegations that it hadindulged in unfair trade practices.Riding on higher realisations and asmaller subsidy bill, the country'slargest oil and gas producer, Oil andNatural Gas Corporation (ONGC), has reported a 23.4per cent jump in net profit to Rs 3,053.6 crore in theOctober-December quarter, from Rs 2,474.81 crore lastyear.State-owned Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd (BHEL) hasreported a 35.7 per cent growth in net profit for theOctober-December quarter – Rs 1,072.6 crore against Rs790.6 crore last year.Reliance Industries is preparing to submit a bindingfinancial bid directly to the management of bankruptpetrochemical firm LyondellBasell to acquire a controllingstake in the Netherlands-based company.In line with the revival of the real estate sector, HousingDevelopment Finance Corporation Ltd (HDFC) hasreported 23 per cent growth in third quarter net profit at Rs671.3 crore against Rs 546.8 crore in the same period ofprevious year.Gautam Singhania ledpremium textile majorRaymond Ltd has reportednet profit of Rs 42.57 crore forthe third quarter endedDecember 31, 2009 as against net loss of Rs 15.20 crore in2008.Hit by higher bad-loans and weak performance in keysegments, country's largest private lender ICICI Bank hasreported 13.4 per cent fall in net profit at Rs 1,101.6 crore forthe October-December quarter.Construction giant Larsen & Toubro gave bullish stockmarkets a stinging bite as it reported a year-on-year salesdip of six per cent in the latest quarter.The third largest software exporter Wipro said it isplanning to restructure a part of its Finland operations, amove that could impact some 85 employees.Tata Consultancy Service will beimplementing State Wide Area Networkin Meghalaya, a project that is expectedto cost around Rs 25 crore.In a landmark event for the mutual fund industry, US-basedT. Rowe Price Global Investment Services Ltd. (TRP),the subsidiary of US-based T Rowe Price Group hasacquired 26 per cent stake in UTI Mutual Fund for Rs 650crore.Tesco, the third largest retailer in the world, is planning toopen its first wholesale Cash & Carry outlet in India thisyear, its senior official said in London.Kraft Foods sealed a friendly deal to buy British candymaker Cadbury for about $19.6 billion after frantic lastminutetalks broke an impasse over price. The US-basedKraft Foods said its proposed acquisition of the Britishconfectionery major Cadbury would give it a meaningfulentry into the Indian market.Highlighting the country's growing importance formultinational giants, electronics-cum-consumer durablesmajor Sony said it is targeting to double India's share in itsglobal revenues over the next three years.National Textile Corporationis expected to raise Rs 4,000crore more by selling assets ofmills in Mumbai, Kanpur andIndore, textiles Secretary RitaMenon said.70 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

Keen to expand its operations abroad, state-owned telecomoperator MTNL said it is keen on entering Africa either bygetting a <strong>new</strong> licence or buying out an existing operator.Iraq signed a $445mn deal with the telecommunicationscompany Gulf Bridge International to link the country tothe Gulf and India via a high-speed fibre optic cable.Jaiprakash Associates Ltd (JAL), a Jaypee groupcompany, reported a 39-per cent drop inits net profit for the October-December quarter owing to a one-timeexpense of Rs 212 crore incurredtowards compensation benefits for itsemployees.Johnson & Johnson issued a massive recall of over-thecounterdrugs including Tylenol, Motrin and St Joseph'saspirin because of a moldy smell that has made people sick.It included caplet and geltab products sold in the Americas,the United Arab Emirates, and Fiji.Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), the country's largestsoftware exporter, reported a 34 per cent year-on-year risein consolidated net profit for the third quarter-endingDecember 31 on the back of strong rebound in outsourcingorders.Two-wheeler maker BSA Motors said it will invest Rs 50crore in next fiscal, besideslaunching three <strong>new</strong> models, as partof its strategy to capture over 20 percent share in the Indian electricscooter market by <strong>2010</strong>-11.Imaging equipment maker Canon has targeted a 35 percent revenue growth in Indian market this year, which willtake the company's total revenue to Rs 1,100 crore, a topofficial said.Strengthening its foothold in UK's post-productionmarket, Anil Ambani's RelianceMediaworks Ltd has acquiredthe assets of ilab UK Ltd,enabling it to service localfilmmakers, Hollywood and theHindi film industry.Engineering and farm equipmentmaker Escorts Ltd said it will launch7-8 <strong>new</strong> products, including tractorsin the agri machinery segment thisyear and venture into componentsmarket for metro and mono-rails toachieve 15-20 per cent growth.The government is looking to construct about 16,000 km of<strong>new</strong> highways using cement and concrete rather than thebitumen conventionally used.Sony Corp said it will postpone the launch of the latestversion of its blockbuster racing game series "GranTurismo", citing production-related matters, in a potentialblow to its videogame operations.GMR Energy Ltd, a unit of GMR Infrastructure, willbegin construction work on its1,200 MW thermal power projectin Chhattisgarh by March, acompany official said.Dr Reddy's Labs long-standing patent dispute withEurope's AstraZeneca over a drug to treat heartburn may beresolved out of court following a similar settlement betweenthe European drug maker and Israel's Teva, feel marketwatchers.Yahoo India Research and Development, has enteredinto an agreement with Indian Institute of Technology,Bombay, to provide access to a cluster of servers runningYahoo's open source Hadoop software, and web data.Swiss food giant Nestle said it will acquire American KraftFoods' frozen pizza business in the US and Canada paying$3.7 billion in cash.South Korean steel major Posco has got final clearancefrom the ministry of environment andforests for acquiring forest land in Orissafor its $12 billion steel plant project, acompany official said.The country's second largest car maker,Hyundai Motor India Ltd (HMIL),reported a 22.64 per cent growth in sales at 47,217 units forlast year's December.Canon, the Japanese imaging and printing firm, has set asolid momentum for <strong>2010</strong>. Despite the slowdown, thedigital imaging equipment maker saw its revenue growingfrom the Indian operation in 2009.Ranbaxy Laboratories has sold its entire stake inChinese joint venture – Ranbaxy Guangzhou China Ltd(RGCL) – to HNG Chembio Pharmacy Co Ltd for anundisclosed amount.PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong> 71

Book reviewStay hungry, Stay foolishby Rashmi BansalSocio-economic growth and the sustenance of a countrydepend upon the entrepreneurial spirit and cultureexisting amongst its citizens. A <strong>new</strong> enterprise not onlyguarantees livelihood to people, but innovative products andservices enhance the quality of life of the society. In India,traditionally regional topography and caste structure dictate theratio of people taking up a salaried job vis-à-vis starting on theirown. However, recently many IIM and IIT professionals, havesurely set a trend by chucking the beaten path of fat payingcampus jobs and setting off on their own.‘Stay Hungry, Stay Foolish’captures such 25 stories of IIM-A graduates who took theunconventional path ofentrepreneurship. While someworked at prestigiouscompanies like P&G, Citibankbefore deciding to follow theirhearts, some took the plungedirectly. While some rode onVC-wave in the dotcom boom,some borrowed funds fromevery other source possibleincluding their family andfriends. While some unlockedthe value and gave up thecontrol over their own companyfor the good, some still lead itsday to day operations. However,every story either of success orfailure is a lesson in itself. Basicrules such as managing the cash flows right, keeping the focusintact and never giving up the idea are coherent in all thechapters.The book is written in a conversational format with theauthor thinking aloud before having a conversation with anentrepreneur followed by the conversation and a page of advicefrom the entrepreneur. The sheer breadth of advice fromentrepreneurs proves one big point, there is no consistentformula for success.This book can give a kick start for people who are keen onbeing entrepreneurs. It's a good source of inspiration becausethe stories are not just hunky-dory but details the path ofstruggle, multiple failures and losses that people have beenthrough before successfully establishing themselves. Onecommon message in all these stories is "Persistence is the key tosuccess", so never give up!Divided into three sections, namely, The Believers, TheOpportunists and The Alternative Vision, the frank and intricateexploration of the lives and struggles of these individuals alongwith insights into their success mantras make the book arefreshing read. The Believers looks at graduates for whomentrepreneurship was the chosen thing and who took the plungeright after their MBA or a couple of years of work.The section includes an interesting mix of people like theman behind naukri.com, Sanjeev Bikhchandani who never gaveup even when recession killed the dotcom boom, on way toseeing his company Info Edge hit the bull’s eye with marketcapitalization of $1 billion.The Opportunists section includes all the Opportunists whotraversed multifarious job profiles and handled several roadbumps on way to building million dollar companies.The last section looks at those for whom entrepreneurshipbecame an outlet for creative satisfaction or apt platform forsocial change. Their ventures were mere means to satiate theirsouls, right from Vijay Mahajan and his Basix, a ruralmicrofinance company, to Venkat Krishnan and hisGiveIndiawhich, which connects suitable NGOs with donorsand organises events for a cause.And it’s not all inspiration alone as every story is accentuatedwith invaluable tips and advice for young and would-beentrepreneurs from each and every path-breaker. An invisiblemotto pervades this book: There’s more to life than a secure joband good salary. Stay Hungry Stay Foolish is a management bookwith a difference and Bansal provides for a riveting glimpse ofunique and inspirational stories which leave one all charged upand ready to make a difference!72 PT’s PrepTalk – <strong>Feb</strong>ruary <strong>2010</strong>

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